al-Ømb kn\n-a-Ifn-eqsS Hcp bm{X

hnP- b - I p- a m¿ ªmØq¿

tdm_¿´v-˛-sP˛-^vf-tl¿´n F∂
]cyth-j-I≥ Hcp kn\nam kwhn-[mb-I-\m-Ip-∂Xv hfsc bmZr-›n-I-am-bmWv. k¿ hneyw a°≥kn-tbm-sSm∏w
`qan-bpsS hS-t°-b-‰-Øp≈ a™p-aqSnb B¿´nIv {]-tZ-iØv At±lw 1910
apX¬ tPmen- s N- ø p- I - b m- b n- c p- ∂ p.
Im\Ubnse DØc sdbn¬
thbv ° pw teml- I - º - \ n- I ƒ°pw
th≠n Ccpºv Abncv tXSn- b p≈
bm{X, IqsS {]mtZ-inI `q]-S-\n¿ΩmW- h pw. lUv k ¨ Dƒ°- S - e ns‚
Ing°≥ Xoc- ß - f n¬ \o≠ Bdph¿jsØ ]cy-th-j-W-bm-{X-I-fn¬
Xt±- i n- b - c mb Fkv I ntamIfp- a mbn
ASp-Øn-S]-g-Im≥ km[n-®p. Aømbncw NXp-c-{i-ssa¬ hnkvXo¿Æ-ap≈
a™p-aq-Snb Xcn-ip-`q-an-bn¬ Xs‚
D¬J-\\ D]-I-c-W-ß-tfm-sSm∏w aqhnIym- a - d bpw Hcp IuXp- I - Ø n- \ mbn
At±lw ssIbn¬ sIm≠p-\-S-∂n-cp∂p. 1913- ˛ 14 se ssiXy- I m- e Øv

_m^n¬ em‚ n- e pw, s_¬®¿
sFe‚nepw sh®v {]mtZ- i n- I - c mb
Bfp-I-fpsS PohnXw At±lw Iymad-bn¬ ]I¿Øn. GI-tZiw ap∏-Xn-\mbn-cw ASn ^nenw jq´v sNbvXmWv
sSmd- t ‚m- b n¬ Xncns®Øn- b - X v .
]s£, Zu¿`mKyw sIm≠v B apgp-h≥
Hdn- P n- \ ¬ Iymad s\K- ‰ o- h p- I fpw
FUn-‰n-ßn-\n-S-bn¬ ^vftl¿´n hens®-dn™ knK-c‰v Ip‰n-bn¬ \n∂pw
Xo ]S¿∂v IØn \in-®p. IrXy-X-sbm∂p-an-√msX shdpsX Nn{Xo-I-cn® Ahsbms° IØn \in-®Xv \∂m-sb∂v
At±-l-Øn\p tXm∂n. Hcp {]tXyI
Bibw am{Xw Nn{Xo-I-cn-°p-∂-Xn-s\°p-dn-®p am{X-ambn At±-l-Øns‚
Nn¥. "dh-en-b≥ {^d¿kv' F∂ tcma°p- ∏ mb Iº- \ n- b psS kmº- Ø nI
]p¥p- W - t bmsS ho≠pw At±lw
Iyma-d-bp-ambn FkvIn-tam-I-fpsS ASpsØ-Øn. ]pdw temI-Øn\v XnI®pw
A]-cn-Nn-X-amb "FkvIn-tam-I-fpsS

PohnXw' Hcp kn\n-a-bm-°pI F∂
e£y-tØmsS Bh-iy-amb k÷o-Ic- W - ß - f p- a m- b mWv bm{X. Iymad
IqSmsX Fgp- ] - Ø - ø m- b ncw ASn
^nenw, Uh-e∏v sNøm\pw t]mkn‰ohv {]n‚ v sNøm\pw th≠ D]-I-cW-߃ sIan-°-ep-Iƒ s{]mP-Iv‰¿
F∂n-hbpw IqsS Icp-Xn-bn-cp-∂p.
1920 BKÃv amkw apX¬ Hcp
h¿jw \o≠ ZpcnX bm{X-I-fn-eqsS
Aßns\ hniz-{]-kn-≤-amb "\m\q°v
Hm^v Z t\m¿Øv' F∂ BZy apgp-\of
tUm°p- s a‚dn P∑w sIm≠p. 79
an\p´v ssZ¿Lyap≈ Cu \ni_vZ
kn\na 1922 Pq¨ amk- Ø n- e mWv
dneokv sNbvX-Xv.
Cu kn\n-abv°p th≠n BZyambn Nn{Xo-I-cn-®Xv Hcp hm¬dkv th´bm-Wv. Nn{Xo-I-cn® tjm¿´p-Iƒ Uhe∏v sNbv X v Ahn- S pØpIm- c psS
ap∂n¬ {]Z¿in-∏n®p ImWn-®p. Cu
sh≈-°m-c≥ henb D]-I-c-W-߃
P\p-hcn 2008

27

tdm_¿´v-˛-sP˛-^vf-tl¿´n
sIm≠v F¥mWv sNøp- ∂ - s X∂v
Ah¿°v At∏m-gmWv a\-kn-em-Ip-∂Xv. Ah-cm-Zy-am-bmWv Hcp Ne®n{Xw
ImWp- ∂ - X v . A¤pXkv X _v [ - c mb
Ah¿ ^vftl¿´n-bpsS kn\n-abv°v
th≠n F¥n\pw k∂-≤-cm-bn-cp-∂p
]n∂oSv. AXn at\m-l-c-amb hm°p-Ifn¬ apJ-°p-dn-∏p-Iƒ ImWn-®p-sIm≠mWv kn\na Bcw-`n-°p-∂-Xv. "lna°m‰p Nqf- a n- S p∂ B¿´n- ° nse
bYm¿∞ kvt\l-Øn-s‚bpw Pohn-XØn-s‚bpw IY' F∂mWv ^vftl¿´n
apJ-hp-c-bmbn ]d-bp-∂-Xv. kvt\lw
\nd™ F∏gpw kt¥m-j-hm-∑m-cmb
Fkv I n- t am- I ƒ°v \nKqVamb
Xcnip\ne-ß-fn¬ h‘y-amb Icbpw
{Iqc-amb Imem-h-ÿ-bp-ap≈ ChnsS
`£- W - Ø n\pw AXnPoh- \ - Ø n- \ pambn arK-߃ am{X-amWv B{i-bw.
Ah-cnse kwL-Ø-e-h-\mb [octh-´-°m-c≥ \m\q°v˛(-I-cSn F∂mWm
hm°n-\¿∞w) tcma-sØm-∏n-b-Wn™
\m\q-°ns‚ Cdp-Inb IÆp-Iƒ Iymadsb Xs∂ t\m°n \n¬°p∂
kao]ZriytØmsS-bmWv BZy-tjm´v

28 imkv{X-tI-cfw

Bcw-`n-°p-∂-Xv. \m\q-°ns‚ \njvI-f¶-amb ]p©ncn \ΩpsS lrZ-b-Øn¬
]Xn°pw hn[w ssZ¿Lyap≈-XmWv
B Zriyw. \Zn-bn-eqsS IS¬Xo-csØ
sh≈-°m-cpsS I®hS tI{µ-Øn-te°p≈ bm{X-bpsS Hcp-°-Øn-emWv
kwLw. km¬a¨ a¬ky-߃°pw
hm¬d-kn\pam-bp≈ bm{X.
s]mXn™paqSnb Hcp Ip™p
tXmWn- b n- e n- c p∂p Xpg- b p- I - b mWv
\m\q-°v. Hcp sNdnb Ip´n tXmWnbpsS ]c-∏n¬ Iagv∂v InS-°p-∂p-≠v.
Ic-°-Sp-∏n® tXmWn-bnse Zzmc-Øn¬
\n∂pw amPnIv t_mIvkn¬ \ns∂-∂t]mse Hs∂m- ∂ mbn \m\q- ° ns‚
IpSpw_w apgph≥ \qWv ]pd-tØ°v
hcp- ∂ p. `mcy "ss\e', Ip™v
"Ip\mbp', "sImtam°v' XpS-ßn-b-h¿.
B kok-Wn¬ th´-bmSn t\Snb
hI-I-sf√mw hn¬°m-\m-bmWv sh≈°m-cs‚ "henb C•p'hn¬ Ah-scØn-bn-cn-°p-∂-Xv. sh≈-°p-dp-°-∑mcpw
hm¬dkpw IqSmsX shdp-samcp Nm´pfn-am{Xw sIm≠v t\¿°p-t\¿ s]mcpXn
\m\q°v Iog-S-°nb Ggv `oa≥ lna°-c-Sn-tØm-ep-I-fp-ap≠v ssIbn¬. Chbvs°ms° ]I-c-ambn th≠Xv ]n®mØnbpw I√p-am-e-Ifpw h¿Æ anTm-bnIfpw am{Xw. BZy-ambn I≠ {Kmat^m¨ A¤p-X-tØmsS t\m°p-I-

bmWv \m\q-°v. Unkv°p-I-fn-sem∂v
ISn®p t\m°p-∂p-ap≠v CS-bv°v.
CXn- \ nSbn¬ ˛\q- d p- I - W - ° n\v
ssa¬ hnkv X m- c - Ø n¬ Hgp- I n- \ - S °p∂ a™p]mfn-Iƒ Ic-°-Sn™v
\m\q-°ns‚ hgn apS°p-∂p. ]´n-WnbpsS ht°mfsa-Ønb Ah-ÿ-bnemWv kwLw ˛ `-£Ww tXSn A\¥- a mbn InS- ° p∂ a™p Ij- W ߃°n-S-bn-eqsS Ae-bp∂ \m\q-°v˛
h√m-sØmcp Zb-\ob Zriy-am-Wv.
hm¬dkv th´ hni-Z-ambn Nn{XoI-cn-®n-´p≠o kn\n-a-bn¬. hm¬d-kpIsf Is≠∂ hm¿Ø-tI´v sNdp-tXmWn-I-fn¬ ]pcp-j≥amsc√mw ]pd-s∏-Sp∂p. IS-en¬ AXn-i-‡-cmb hm¬d-kpIƒ Ic-bn¬ \n -lm-b-cm-Wv-˛-a-ßnb
ImgvNi‡nbpw. Nm´pfn Fdn™v Hcp
henb hm¬d-kns\ ]nSn-Iq-Sp∂ \mSIo-b-amb Zriy-amWv ]ns∂. c≠v S¨
`mc-ap≈ AXns\ Bbm-k-s∏´v ISen¬ \n∂pw hen®pIb- ‰ p∂p.
Iodnapdn®v ]®-amw-khpw sImgp∏pw
B¿Øn-tbmsS Ign-°p-I-bm-W-h¿.
hnZq-c-amb Xcnip\ne-ß-fn-emWv
am≥th´ \S-Øp-∂Xv. Hcp am\n-s\t∏mepw th´-bm-Sm-\m-bn-s√-¶n¬ B
bm{X acW `qan-bn-te-°m-bn-cn-°pw.
sImSpw - s si- X yhpw hni∏pw
Bscbpw _m°n-sh-t®-°n-√.

ssiXy- I mew XpS- ß p- I - b m- b n.
\o≠ cm{Xn-Iƒ... Xptemw {lkz-amb
]I-ep-Iƒ. a™v aqSnb IS¬. Nodn-bSn-°p∂ lna-°m‰v BIm-iØv aßnb
sht≈m- ´ p- t Kmfw t]mse hnf- d nb
kqcy≥. Ae-™p-Xn-cn-bp∂ a™p-]mfn- I ƒ Iq´n- b n- S n®p XI¿∂p- ≠ mb
a™pIp∂p-Iƒ! \mb-Iƒ hen-°p∂
s…UvPp-I-fn¬ `£Ww tXSn-bp≈
Zp¿L-S-bm-{X-Iƒ-˛-C-S-Øm-h-f-ß-fn¬
]m¿°m≥ a™psIm≠v ]Wn-bp∂
"C•p'!. hm¬d- k ns‚ sImºn¬
Xo¿Ø ]n®m-Øn-sIm≠v sNØn-sbSp-°p∂ a™p-tªm-°p-Iƒ ASp-°nsh®v Iam-\m-Ir-Xn-bn-ep≈ Ip™p
hoSv \m\q°v F{X thK-am-sWt∂m
]Wn-bp-∂-Xv. C•p-hn-\-IØv {]Imiw
e`n- ° m- \ mbn kpXm- c y- a mb a™p
]mfn- s Im- s ≠mcp P\¬Nn√pw
At±lap≠m-°p-∂p-≠v.
"HmKvPp°v' F∂ `oa≥ koens\
\m\q°v X{¥- ] - c - a mbn ]nSn- ° p∂
cwKw hfsc BImw£ hf¿Øpw
hn[w at\m-lc- a- mbn Nn{Xo-Ic- n®n´p≠v.
izmkw Ign-°m-\mbn a™p-]m-fn-Ifn¬ koep-Iƒ Zzmcw D≠m°nsh®n´p- ≠ m- h pw˛ B Zzmc߃°- c n- I n¬
]Xp- ß n- b n- c p∂v Nm´p- f n- s b- d n™v
IpSp°n hen®v Ib-‰p-∂p. A]mbIcamb Cu th´-bn¬ `mKy-Øn\v \m\q°ns‚ kwLw IrXy-k-a-bØv klmb-Øn-s\-Øp-∂p.
bm{X- I ƒ°nS- b n¬ Xß- f psS
Xma-k-ÿ-eØv Xncn-s®-Øm-\m-hmØ
IpSpw_w cm{Xn-bm-b-t∏mƒ Dt]-£n°-s∏´ Hcp C•p-hn¬ A`bw {]m]n°p-∂p. ]pdsØ a™p-Im-‰n¬ hnd-ßen®p \n¬°p∂ \mb-Iƒ, Im‰ns‚
Nqfw hnfn, æm\X Xfw-sI-´nb B
Np‰p- ] m- S n¬ C•p- h n- \ - I Øv F√mw
ad∂v ab- ß p∂ \m\q- ° ns‚ apJØns‚ t¢mk-t∏m-sS-bmWv kn\na
Ah-km-\n-°p-∂-Xv.

kn\n- a bv ° v tij- a p≈ \m\q°ns‚
bYm¿∞
PohnXw
^vftl¿´nsb icn°pw \Sp-°n-°-f™p. kn\na dneokv sNøp-∂-Xn\p
apºp Xs∂˛ `£-W-Øn-\mbn hnZq-c{]-tZ-i-ß-fn-te°v \S-Ønb am≥th-´°m-bp≈ bm{X-bn¬ ]mhw ]´n-Wn-InS∂p acn- ® p- t ]m- b n. (\m- \ q- ° ns‚
bYm¿∞ t]cv "A√ Icn- b √In'
F∂m- b n- c p- ∂ p) temIkn\n- a - b n¬
tUm°p-sa‚dn {]ÿm-\-Øns‚ ]nXmhmbn ^v f tl¿´n sIm≠m- S - s ∏- S ptºmgpw hf-sc-b-[nIw hna¿i-\-ßfpw
Cu kn\n-a-sb-°p-dn-®p-≠mbn.
"tUm°p- s a‚dn' F∂Xv ambw
tN¿°mØ bYm¿∞y- ß - f m- b n- c n°Ww. F∂meo kn\n- a - b n¬
^vftl¿´n {Intb‰v sNbvX cwK-߃
Dƒs∏-SpØn F∂mWv {][m\ ]cm-Xn.
bYm¿∞ PohnXw F∂v ]d™v AhX-cn-∏n-®-Xv kXy-a-√mØ Imcy-ß-fmbn-cp-∂p. Ccp-]Xmw \q‰m-≠nse BZyZ- i - I - Ø nse Fkv I n- t am- I - f psS
bYm¿∞ Pohn-Xm-h-ÿ-I-fn¬ Ipd®v
ambw tN¿Øv, IqSp-X¬ ImTn-\y-ap-≈Xmbn Ah-X-cn-∏n-°p-∂p-≠-t{X.
\m\q-°ns‚ `mcy-bmbn kn\n-abn¬ ImWp∂ ss\e bYm¿∞-Øn¬
At±- l - Ø ns‚ `mcy- b - √ m- b n- c p- ∂ p.

kwLw bYm¿∞-Øn¬ ^vftl¿´n
sXc-s™-Sp-Ø-h-cpsS Iq´-am-bn-cp∂p
bqtdm-]y≥ kzm[o-\ß
- ƒ°pw apºp≈
{]mIrXcoXn-bp≈ th´-I-fm-bn-cp∂p
^vftl¿´n Nn{Xo-I-cn-®-Xv. A°m-eØv
\m\q°v tXm°pw th´-°mbn D]-tbmKn-®n-cp-∂t{X!
D≈-Xn-tesd s]men-∏n®v ]d-bm≥
kwhn- [ m- b - I ≥
{ian- ® n- c p- ∂ p.
{Kmat^m¨ I≠v \m\q°v \S-Øp∂
A¤p-X-{]-ISßfpw ISn-®p-t\m-°epw
Ir{Xn- a - a mbn A`n- \ - b n- ∏ n- ® - X mWv .
\m\q°v AXn-\p-apºv \S-Ønb \nch[n bm{X- I - f n- s ems° sh≈- ° mcs‚ tI{µ-Ønse {Kma-t^m¨ I≠n´p- ≠ v . C•p- h n- \ - I - Ø p≈ cwK- ß ƒ
Nn{Xo-I-cn-°m-\mbn hen∏w IqSnb,
`nØn I\w-Iq-Sn-b, apIƒ `mKw Xpd∂
C•p-hn-\-IØph®mWv henb Iymad
{]h¿Øn-∏n-®-Xv. hna¿i-\-߃ D≠mbmepw Adn-bs∏SmØ Pohn-X-ß-ƒ
Xpd∂p- I m- ´ m- \ p≈ ]n∂o- S p≈
F{Xtbm tUm°p-sa‚-dn-I-fpsS hgnIm´n "\m\q°v' Xs∂.
AXnPoh-\-Øn-\mbn s]mcp-tX≠n-h-cp∂ a\p-jy-cpsS Hs° {]Xo-Iambn \m\q-°v˛ Hcp -\q-‰m-t≠m-f-ambn
kn\n-a-bpsS ImgvN-I-fn¬ \nd™p
\n¬°p-∂p.

P\p-hcn 2008

29