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PYLON DESIGN OF PYLON:  The pylon is modelled as a simple portal frame.

The cross section consists of a steel box. At the basement the pylon is rotational fixed to provide for longitudinal stiffness to structure. The pylon is loaded by an axial compression force and a bending moment due to horizontal force on the pylon caused by the tensile force in the main cables. The pylon is fixed supported in transverse and longitudinal direction of the bridge. One rotation fixed support creates the effect of two supports on the stiffening girder The piers have a rectangular shape for lateral piers and a cross shape for pylon piers. lthough this cross shape is unusual, it has been chosen for structural reason. The main loads come from the pylon, so it is logical to put some material just below the rectangular axial pylon. The other part of the load comes from the deck webs and its diaphragm, so it is logical to put some material on a rectangle located just below the diaphragm. This leads to a cross shape. The pylons are 80m high above top of deck with a constant width of 3m, and a variable length: from 7 m to 4 m. The concrete grade used is m60. The pylons contain a steel frame where are located the passive anchorages of stay cables. This steel frame is composed by 20 steel boxes (one for each pair of stay cable), that take the horizontal component of the stay cables. The vertical component is transmitted to the pylon through shear studs, located on the laterals sides of the steel boxes. A manhole with a minimum dimension of 800x1500 mm is provided inside the pylon. The pylon structural resistance has been verified under dynamic wind loads, and a through detailed buckling analysis (2nd order analysis), taking into account geometrical and material non linearities. The pylon should have an axial stiffness and a bending stiffness because it is loaded with a large axial compression force caused by the vertical tension component of the main cable And also a bending moment, caused by a horizontal deflection of the pylon, can act in the pylon with a maximum at the base.

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