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Nhng vn lin quan tim phng vcxin tr


Theo Vin Hn lm Nhi khoa M (AAP), trong 2 nm u i ca tr, vic tim phng vcxin c vai tr v cng quan trng, gip tr ngn nga c ti 10 loi bnh khc nhau.
Tuy nhin, trong thc t, vic tim phng vn cn b sao nhng, nhn thc khng ng dn n hiu qu cn thp. Di y l 14 cu hi thng gp: 1. Nhng iu cn bit v tim phng vc xin? Tim phng vcxin cho tr khng ch l vic lm cn thit m n c chng minh qua cc nghin cu khoa hc. Tuy nhin, trong thc t, c nhng ngi khng nghe theo chuyn mn m li nghe nhng li n i, khng cho con i tim theo ng lch ch v li n tim vcxin s gy bnh t k hoc nhng li n thiu khoa hc khc. 2. Tim phng vcxin c phi l phng n bo v tt nht? Tim phng vcxin khng phi l gii php tuyt i bo v tr khng mc bnh m n l phng n tt nht gim thiu cc loi bnh vim nhim. Ni cch khc, tim phng vcxin gip tr gim thiu ri ro nhim bnh v t vong so vi nhm khng tim phng.

Tim phng vcxin gip tr gim thiu ri ro nhim bnh v t vong so vi nhm khng tim phng
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3. Tr b sa m th khng cn phi tim phng vcxin? Nhiu ngi c sch bo cho rng, sa m c nhiu thnh phn tt c th tng cng sc khng cho h min dch tr nh. y l iu hon ton ng nhng c th tr ch nhn nhng cht khng th cho nhng loi bnh m n c th min dch c v ch c tc dng trong 3-6 thng tui. V vy vic b sa m khng th thay th vic tim vcxin nn vn phi tim phng bnh thng theo ng lch m chuyn mn quy nh. 4. V sao vic tim phng vcxin li quan trng? Mc d mt s bnh c con ngi thanh ton nhng gn y, do mi trng nhim v nhng tc ng khc nn nhiu loi bnh truyn nhim ang c chiu hng ti pht tr li, v d nh bnh thy u, si v quai b, hoc cng c th ht quc gia ny nhng li tn ti quc gia khc. Bnh lan truyn qua con ng n ung, con ng du lch nn vic tim phng l rt cn thit. V d nh bnh quai b bng pht New York v New Jersey M mi y, nguyn nhn l do nhng ngi i du lch t Anh mang v. 5. iu g s xy ra nu tr khng c tim phng vcxin? Trc tin, vic tim phng vcxin cho tr trong phm vi c cng ng, c nc, ng b khp mi ni ng vai tr quan trng. Ngc li, nu khng lm tt tc dng phng nga bnh s km hiu qu, thm ch gy thit hi c v tin ca ln sc lc. Ngoi ra cn c mt s cn bnh rt nguy him nh bnh u ma, cn bnh ngi ta d bo s bng pht trong tng lai gn. V vy nu tim phng trc s gim thiu ni lo v nguy c gy t vong. 6. Cc loi vcxin c thc s an ton? Cc nh khoa hc cho rng cc loi vcxin l sn phm an ton v n c nghin cu k lng. Trc tin l qua cc khu th nghim lm sng, tip n c c quan qun l Dc Thc phm M (FDA) ph duyt. Hn na, FDA cn tin hnh gim st sn xut. V d, mi l vcxin ra l cc hng sn xut phi trnh kt qu th nghim cht lng v tnh an ton, thun FDA, Trung tm phng chng dch bnh M (CDCP) ng ph duyt ln cui. 7. Vc xin c gy bnh t k? Tt c nhng vn n i c lin quan n vcxin v bnh t k c khoa hc nghin cu v khng h tm thy nhng chng c khoa hc ln lm sng v nh vy vic tim phng vcxin khng gy bnh t k cho tr.

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Cc nh khoa hc bit rng, li n ni trn c cch y mt thp k khi ngi ta mi ch thc hin mt nghin cu 12 a tr tham gia. Nhng t n nay c rt nhiu nghin cu c thc hin v khng h tm thy bt k bng chng no. 8. Cc hp cht nh thy ngn v thimerosol trong vcxin c gy nguy hi? Ngoi t k ngi ta cn nghi ng n cht bo qun c trong cc loi vcxin l cht thimerosol c cha thy ngn nhng n c ngi ta loi b, nu c hm lng cng khng ng k, tr vcxin cm dng tim. Khi s dng nn t vn bc s hoc dng loi khng cha thimerosol. 9. Cho tr nhim bnh t nhin tng cng sc khng c phi l gii php ti u? Nhiu bc ph huynh t cho con mnh tip cn vi nhng a tr mc bnh thy u trc khi tim phng vcxin tng cng sc khng cho c th. y l vic lm gy au hn c tim phng vcxin, bi tim vcxin si hay thy u hoc quai b ch gp nhng phn ng ph rt nh nh st, au cc b ti v tr tim. Gii php cho tr tip xc vi nhng cn bnh trn trc khi tim phng rt nguy him, d gy bin chng nh t lit, chm ln, ic, thm ch nu nng c th gy t vong. 10. Khi tr m c nn tim phng vc xin? Trng hp tr ht hi ngt mi hoc st nhit thp 380C c th tim c. y cng l giai on h min dch ca tr ang kch hot chng bnh cm lnh nn tim phng vcxin s pht huy tc dng nhng nu tr st cao th phi ch n khi tr hi phc hoc khi h min dch tr yu phi iu tr loi thuc no cng khng nn tim vcxin, nn t vn bc s c th. 11. Tr b d ng c th tim phng vc xin c khng? Trng hp tr b d ng protein trng, y cng l thnh phn c trong cc loi vcxin cm th vic tim vc xin khng c vn g. Trng hp tr b d ng mt s loi thuc, thc phm th khi tim vc xin nn t vn bc s c th. 12.Khong cch cn tim vc xin bao nhiu l hp l? Phi ni ngay rng trong thc t c rt nhiu vn c lin quan n lch tim, no l tr hon chm, qun, tim khng liu khng ng chng loi dn n gim tnh nng ca vic nga bnh. Tuy nhin cng c loi vc xin khng nh hng qu nhiu n tin . V d nh 3 mi tim MMR (si, quai b, rubela). Ngoi vic tim ng lch trnh theo quy nh ca chuyn mn, vic tim nhiu mi vc xin trong ngy cng khng nh hng n sc khe, to ra nhng phn ng ph khng mong mun.

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13. Vic tim vcxin theo cc phng n la chn c tc dng? Gii chuyn mn cnh bo vic tim vcxin theo cc phng n la chn khng phi l gii php ti u v n khng c c s khoa hc, thm ch nu tim mun ngi ta cng khng khng nh c l c an ton hay khng Tt nht l nn tim theo lch, nu l qun th nn tim ngay sau cng sm cng tt. 14. Nhng phn ng ph ca vic tim phng vcxin? Nh trn cp, phn ng ph thng gp khi tim phng vcxin l , sng cc b ngay ti v tr ch tim, st nh y l nhng hin tng bnh thng v c th qua nhanh. Trng hp sau cn a tr i cp cu, nht l khi n xy ra trong vng vi pht cho n vi gi sau khi tim: - St trn 103oF (39,4oC) - Ln cn tai bin - Xut hin cc nt en- xanh hoc pht ban nhng ni khng tim.

Nhng iu m nn bit v tim phng vc-xin cho con


Di y l nhng thng tin m cc m cn phi bit v tim phng vc-xin cho con.
Mc ch ca vic tim phng vc-xin l bo v sc khe ca tr, gip tr chng li nhiu loi bnh nguy him khc nhau nh: bnh bi lit, un vn, si, quai b Cc bc s cho rng tim vc-xin l mt phn quan trng nht trong vic bo v sc khe cho tr.

Di y l nhng thng tin m cc m cn phi bit v tim phng vc-xin cho con:

1. Bn cht ca tim phng vc-xin l g?

Vc-xin c th l cc loi virus, vi khun sng nhng b gim c lc hay cng c th l nhng vi sinh vt b bt hot c a vo c th tr.

H thng min dch ca c th s to ra mt cuc tn cng cc loi virus ny nhm kch thch c th sn sinh ra cc loi khng th. Cc khng th s duy tr hot ng trong c th tr, sn sng chng li cc loi virus, vi khun c tim trong vc xin.

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V d, nu dch si bng pht trong mt khu vc, nhng a tr c tim chng trong khu vc s c t kh nng nhim bnh hn nhng tr khng c tim chng.

2. Lch tim phng vc-xin

Mi nm, y ban t vn kim sot dch bnh v thc hnh tim chng ca M u a ra mt lch trnh mi gm cc loi vc-xin nn tim chng v khi no th nn tim loi vc-xin . Lch trnh ny c xc nhn bi Vin Hn lm nhi khoa M v Vin Hn lm bc s gia nh M.

Nu con cha kp tim chng theo ng lch trnh, cc m hy hi bc s v vic lm th no bt kp vi lch trnh chun.

3. Cc loi vc-xin quan trng cn tim:

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- Vc-xin DTaP: bo v tr trnh bnh bch hu, ho g, un vn. Cc m nn a tr i tim vc-xin ny khi tr c 2 thng tui, 4 thng tui, 6 thng tui, 15 - 18 thng tui v 4 - 6 tui. Cc m cng c th a tr i tim nhc li khi tr 11 - 12 tui.

- Vc-xin phng nga vim gan A: n ung khng v sinh l nguyn nhn chnh dn n bnh vim gan A tr nh. Thng thng, cc m nn cho tr i tim mi u khi tr 12 thng tui v nhc li mt ln sau khi tr 23 thng tui.

- Vc-xin phng nga bnh vim gan B: Tr s sinh cn c tim phng vim gan B 24 gi sau khi sinh. Tr nn c tim nhc li sau khong 1 - 2 thng. Khi tr c 6 - 18 thng, tr s tim thm 1/3 liu lng vc-xin lc ban u.

- Vc-xin Haemophilus cm B (Hib): Bo v tr chng li cm Haemophilus loi B, c th dn n vim mng no, vim phi, vim np thanh qun. Cc m nn tim vc-xin Hib cho tr khi tr trong cc giai on: 2 thng tui, 4 thng tui, 6 thng tui v 12 15 thng tui.

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- Vc-xin Human papillomavirus (HPV): Vc xin HPV gip ngn nga bnh ung th c t cung v cc bnh ly qua ng tnh dc. Vc-xin HPV c chia thnh 3 ln, tim cho tr trn 6 thng tui. tui 9 26, vc-xin s c tc dng tt nht.

- Vc-xin phng bnh cm: Bo v tr chng li bnh cm theo ma v bnh cm H1N1. Tr t 6 thng tui tr ln nn c tim vc-xin mi nm mt ln vo u ma thu. Lu vi cc m l nu tr b d ng vi trng th cc m khng nn tim phng vc-xin ny cho tr v nh vy tr cng rt d b d ng vi vc-xin.

Physiolac Sa cng thc cao cp Sa mt dnh cho b.

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- Vc-xin phng nga vim mng no: Vim mng no l bnh chng do vim lp mng mng bao bc no v h thn kinh ct sng. Trc khi c vc-xin chng vim mng no, bnh ny thng thy tr di 5 tui. Vc-xin phng bnh vim mng no s c tc dung tt nht khi tr 11 12 tui.

- Vc-xin MMR: Bo v tr chng li bnh si, quai b v rubella (bnh si c). Cc m nn a tr i tim mi u tin khi tr t 12 15 thng tui v ln th hai khi tr 4 6 tui.

- Vc-xin PCV hay cn gi l vc-xin ph cu khun lin hp: Bo v tr chng li bnh ph cu khun m bin chng c th dn ti vim mng no, vim phi, nhim trng tai. v gy t vong cho tr. Vc-xin ny c 4 mi tim vo cc giai on khi tr 2 thng tui, 4 thng tui, 6 thng tui v 12 - 15 thng tui.

- Vc-xin phng bnh bi lit (IPV): Bnh vim ty xm cn gi l bnh bi lit ca tr em l mt chng bnh nhim trng do siu vi trng poliovirus gy ra. Khi c th tr b nhim vi trng ny, n s lan vo h thn kinh trung ng, lm yu cc c dn n bi lit. y l mt cn bnh v cng nguy him vi tr. Tr nn c tim vc xin khi 2 thng tui, 4 thng tui, 6 18 thng tui v khi tr 4 6 tui.
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- Vc-xin phng virus Rota (RV): Virus Rota c th khin tr b tiu chynng, nn, st v mt nc Vc-xin ny s c tim khi tr 2 thng tui, 4 thng tui v 6 thng tui. - Vc-xin phng bnh thy u: Bnh thy u thng xut hin 10 - 14 ngy sau khi tip xc vi ngun bnh, triu chng ca bnh l ni mn nc, mn nc xut hin rt nhanh trong khong 12 - 24 gi c th ni ton thn. Bn cnh mn nc tr thng st nh, bing n Khi tr c 12 15 thng tui, cc m nn cho tr i tim mi u tin. Sau khi tr 4 6 tui s tim mi th hai.

Physiolac Sa cng thc cao cp Sa mt dnh cho b.