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• Primary Cementing • Repair (Squeeze Cementing)
• Completes the isolation step that was started with casing.
– Pressure isolation – Pipe support and protection
• Exterior corrosion • Pressure control • Load and force application support
– Leakoff control – prevents crossflow? – Water influx control
• Primary cementing cost about 5% of well cost. • About 15% of primary cement jobs require squeezing • Total cost of cementing when squeezing is required is about 17% of well cost. • Typical number of squeezes required to fix a problem in a primary cement job = 3.
• Path: Down the casing and up the annulus • Concerns:
– – – – Cement density vs. pressure “window” from formation Cement bond between pipe and formation Cement pump time Ability to place the cement over the whole column (fluid loss control, correct volumes, pumpability) – Cement strength development – The quality and longevity of the seal.
Equivalent Circulating Density
Cement is a viscous, dense fluid. The problems are ineffective displacement of the mud and attaining a full column of uncontaminated cement. 16 ppg Friction Pressure
18 ppg effective mud weight?
Time 3. cement density is 0. . Cost 4.How far is cement brought up the annulus? Is the cement brought to surface? – Unlikely.85 psi/ft. Fracture gradient is usually 0. Minimum 200 to 500 ft above the shoe 2. Not understanding protection need. Why? 1.7 psi/ft.
The integrity of the shoe is the driller’s first concern in cementing. If the shoe breaks down. the well is drilled ahead for a few feet and a “shoetest” is done to simulate the highest mud weight expected. . After cementing. The height of “good” cement bonding is a primary failure cause in well failures. In the PE world. – The strength at this point must be sufficient to withstand the highest weight mud that will be used in the next section to be drilled. The most important section of the cemented column is near the casing shoe. cement integrity concern includes pressure. it must be squeezed until it passes. water and exterior corrosion isolation.
The slurry properties for the well are made to order by incorporating a range of additives into the mixed slurry that affect pump time at temperature.Neat (no additives) cement is a manufactured product with a specific grain size and properties. . fluid loss control. and gas migration. stability to thermal conditions.
strong. More range w/ additives 230 to 290oF 230 to 320oF 80 to 200oF H J A basic cement for surface to 8.000 to 14.000 ft (1830 to 3050m).000 ft (2440 m) as manufactured. 6. Used for water control. high early strength. Finer Grind. surface and cool operations Temperature (Neat Cement) Surface and shallow apps. 10. 110oF 140oF 170 to 230oF E F G 10. extr HPHT 80 to 200oF . B C D Surface to about 6.000 ft (1830m) when conditions require moderate sulfate resist. To 6.API Cement A General Use Construction Grade. HTHP. HPHT A basic cement for surface to 8. HTHP.000 to 16.000 to 10.000 to 16.000 ft (1830 to 3050m).000 ft (1830 to 4880m) extr.000 ft (1830 to 4880m).000 ft (2440 m) as manufactured. More range w/ additives For use from 10.000 ft (1830m).
4 lb/gal. More water can be added. Fluid Density Balance – used to get fluid density in lb/gal . but the water will separate as it sets. usually between 11 and 18 lb/gal. resulting in channels or weak cement.The final slurry design has a certain slurry density. with typical class G or H being about 16.
High temp accelerates the cement set time. Low temp retards the cement set time. .Every cement design must take into account the temperature and pressure extremes in the well.
Effect of Permafrost on temperature profiles – Alaska Well 0 -500 -1500 -2500 -3500 -4500 20 40 60 Temperature vs TVDss 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 Seal-A-01 MTEMP3 Seal-A-01 MTEMP4 Seal-A-01 MTEMP5 NS29 MTEMP NS27 Top of Slush Zone TVDss -5500 -6500 -7500 -8500 -9500 -10500 -11500 Temperature (degF) Base of Slush Zone Top of Permafrost Base of Permafrost .
cellulose – some drilling muds – sodium chloride . depending on amount of salt and other factors.Modifying the Set Time of the Slurry • Accelerators speed it up. The effect of mud on the set time of cement is unpredictable. sugars. • Retarders slow it down – lignins. – calcium chloride – sodium chloride – gypsum The sodium chloride may be an accelerator or a retarder.
often before the cement has been completely displaced into the annulus.Cement without a retarder in a hot formation will set up too rapidly. Increasing temperature makes the cement set up more quickly. .
Communication control (avoiding channels) 6. Invasion of natural fractures in the pay by cement. The mud cake must be removed to get the cement to form an effective seal with the formation. it must control the pore pressure. Pumpability – slurry pump time must be long enough to completely displace cement. Fluid Loss Control (after mud cake is gone – If the cement dehydrates. 3. Well Control – until the cement sets. it cannot be pumped. 5. .Cementing Problems That Must be Addressed in the Design 1. 2. 4.
4 lb/gal – Typical light weight cement is 11 to 12 lb/gal – Heavier weight cements may be up to 23 lb/gal .Well Control • Working in the slurry density “window” – Pore pressure and wellbore stability establishes the lower limit of slurry density. – Fracturing gradient establishes the upper limit of slurry density. • Cement density normally is 16.
often creates free water channels and pockets – Finer grind cement – allows more water addition and keeps the water in the cement – Light weight fillers • Small (10 to 70 micron). air filled “balloons” such as ceramic or glass • Foamed Cement .Light Weight Cement • Methods – Add more water – poor method.
Heavy Weight Cement • Densities to 23+ lb/gal – Sand – Hematite – Iron carbonate • Hazards? – – – – Frac pressure Equivalent circulating density Cement set times Fluid loss .
– Casing not moved during cementing (sometime impossible in deviated wells) – you need to get mud displacement by cement to get a good job. – Not enough cement in annulus to function as a barrier. – Casing not centralized – leaves mud channel on low size. May leak now or later.Cement Problems and Failures • Problems? – Cement at shoe not strong enough to contain pressure of deeper zones– must repair before drilling ahead. – Cement mixed with too much water causing channel along the top of the hole. . Requires squeeze.
0 10.Well Failure Statistics 35% % Wells Completed Cumulative Leaks Developing Wells 30% Developing Casing Leaks 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 0. 40. 30. 15. 20. '94-2000' '90-'93 '80-'89 '70-'79 '58-'70 Vastar Putnam Well Life Prior to Casing Leak.0 5. . 35. Note the small percentage of failures. 25. Years # Years of Well Life prior to Casing Leak The effectiveness of the cement is a major factor in well life without leaks. even on 30+ year old wells in Putnam field.
. solvent. or frac. Typically. HF – significant local effect – but shallow without channels. acidizing.Common contaminants and ops that degrade cement bond ? • Slurry contamination – primarily mud during displacement. the problem is that an existing mud channel in the cement has been disturbed. • Acids – HCl – no effect. • Sulfate effects on mixing slurry and on set cement – use sulfate resistant cement. • Explosives (perforating) – usually minor effect if there are no mud channels. • Failure to remove the mud cake. if a cement job “breaks down” after perforating.
Dehydration of the slurry causes a plug in the annulus. the increased fluid loss has to be controlled by the cement slurry. . Since the first objective of a cement displacement is to remove the mud filtercake.
Natural fractures can also act as a fluid loss site for leakoff for water from the cement – the result is dehydration of the cement slurry.Low strength formations (low fracture gradient) pose a special problem. Created or natural fractures can be a thief zone for whole cement – causing less height in the annulus. .
.Fluid loss through wide natural fractures is often very hard to control – requiring particulate and/or flake fluid loss control additives.
If a salt water slurry is used.Salt zones can create cavities or washouts. . the salt must be checked with pumpability – the salt can be an accelerator or a retarder.
Cement Displacement • The first part of the cement slurry is contaminated by cement. what can you do to prevent contamination? . • Where does the mud contamination come from? – – – – Mud system in the annulus Interior pipe walls Open hole – filter cake Washouts and cavities • Now. Contaminated cement will not set up.
Basic Mud Cake Removal • Physical – scratchers. rotation. reciprocation • Chemical – dispersants. solvents . sweeps.
. They also introduce easily breakable parts into the wellbore.Mechanical removal devices such as scratchers and scrapers require pipe movement. which is frequently not possible in high torque and drag instances.
Base fluid condition Dispersant Sweep Spacer Cement Base fluid Dispersant Sweep A properly designed flush focuses on time of contact. 2. 3. fluid mixing. lift of solids and Spacer avoidance of cement contamination. 4.Chemical Flush Basics Mud Displacement 1. Cement . 5.
etc. Keys: – – – – – – disperse and thin the drilling fluid lift out debris and junk water wet pipe remove debris (mud cake. scale. Source: Wellcert .) effectively displace the mud allow uncontaminated cement to reach the desired height.Displacement and Pill Design • must be designed to obtain effective mud displacement & water wetting of casing. pipe dope.
A thinning base fluid flush. Fluid loss may be high! .Brines for Mud Displacement 1. 3. 2. A separation spacer must do the final cleaning and separate the residual mud from the brine. An effective brine transition system must further thin and strip the mud and create wellbore displacement. At this point the well should be clean. 4. 5. The brine must sweep the spacer out. A carrier spacer must sweep out the solids and clean any coating from the pipe or rock that could cause damage problems.
Cleaning and Transition Spacers 9-5/8” casing in 12-1/4” hole. cuttings removal Clean pipe Separate WS from brine. surfactant Viscous pill Pill? Completion Fluid Fill Completion Fluid Completion Fluid . solids removal Completion fluid Minimum Coverage 250 to 500 ft 500 to 1000’ WBM Water Viscous pill OBM Base oil Viscous Pill Wash Separation 500 to 1500’ 500 to 1000’ Water+ WBM Oil + OBM disp.3 ft2 Spacer Type Base Fluid Transition Function Thin & mud condition Mud to spacer. surfactant disp. annular area = 0.
Brine Flush Contact Times 9-5/8” casing in 12-1/4” hole. minutes on one foot. ft Contact Time. ft/min Barrels Pumped Column Length.3 ft2 For Pump Rate. annular area = 0. 8 150 200 3743 25 10 187 400 7486 40 12 225 400 7486 33 . bpm Annular Velocity.
• Approximately 80% of the outer layer of the cake can be removed in some muds without affecting fluid loss.Removal of the Mud Cake • Part of the mud cake does not contribute to the fluid loss control. 300 ft/min or 92 m/min . • Removal by velocity is often very effective. Even more effective with a dispersant. Removing these particles from the completion cleans the well.
Centralizing the pipe and rotating the pipe (reciprocating too) help! Major flow area Very low velocity or no movement .Flow profile in a well with decentralized pipe. Note That most of the flow comes along the top of the pipe. The lower section of the wellbore may remain buried in cuttings and never have contact with any of the circulated fluids. This affects cleanup and residence time of the fluid on the wellbore.
grain. etc. hole sweep is near ideal. – Time their travel – compare to calculated sweep. colored beads. Marker arrival at near expected time.How can you tell if the entire hole is being circulated? • Displacement marker sweeps. – Dye. Fast marker arrival at surface. entire hole is not being swept – expect channels in the cement. .
The annulus changes as casing replaces the drill string.Displacement of the annulus to displace fluids and mud cake depends partly on velocity. Circulating down the casing and up the small annulus can produce very high friction pressure and raised BHP. As the annular space decreases – velocity for any rate increases in the smaller area and the back pressure on the bottom hole may also increase – rates may have to decrease to avoid high ECD’s (equivalent circulating densities). .
Cement Displacement in the Pipe • The Two-Plug displacement system – Patented and used since about 1915 .
A single wiper plug dropping tool. . showing “bail” release mechanism.
The top plug is solid and the bottom plug is hollow and has a diaphragm that ruptures when the bottom plug hits the float collar.The Two Plug System – Helps isolate the cement from the mud and the displacement fluid. The plugs are color coded to help prevent switching or help diagnose the problem when a plug is drilled out. the cement will be trapped in the casing. . If the plugs are accidentally reversed.
a small amount of mud and other debris is pushed ahead of the plug. . set a joint above the shoe will keep the contaminated cement at the end of the displacement inside the casing – not at the shoe. a float collar. For this reason. The contaminated cement in this area will not set or will set very slowly.Every time a plug sweeps through the casing.
. but it must close after the cement has been pumped to prevent U-Tubing.A float valve allows fill of the casing from the hole as the casing is run.
This traps contaminated cement inside the pipe – easily drilled out later.Float collars are one to three joints above bottom depending on the length of the string and the diameter of the casing. .
The guide shoe helps guide the casing past ledges and doglegs (sudden hole direction changes) during pipe running. .Examples of equipment used on the BHA (bottom hole assembly) during casing running. The float equipment helps prevent backflow of cement after full displacement.
A float collar. . Element wear during pumping of large volumes of cement may cause failures necessitating holding pressure on the well after cement displacement. The valve prevents backflow of fluids after the cement has been displaced.
Centralizers also assist running casing in deviated sections. displacing the mud and creating a channel-free seal. Area of undisplaced mud – a mud channel remains. . requiring squeezing.Use of centralizers improve the ability of the cement to surround the pipe.
but normally weak centralizer that may lose performance and centralization with increasing string weight and increasing wellbore deviation. This is a deformable. . they are poor performers in truly centralizing the casing string. Although popular. especially in deviated wells.Bow spring centralizer.
. This is a slip-over type that floats between the couplings unless lock rings are added.Straight vane. solid body casing centralizer. The efficiency of holding the casing off the wall depends on whether the formation wall is strong enough to prevent embedment of the vein into the face of the formation.
It may also help channel cement in a short lived swirl pattern just downstream of the centralizer location. These are usually viewed as highly effective in improving cement isolation.Spiral centralizer. assists in decreasing drag and helps centralize casing. .
000 ft deep well.Cementing • Calculate the volume of a spacer.Quiz .675” (ignore couplings). the drilled hole size (gauge) is 10. pump rate is 4 bpm. • What % of the hole volume in problem 1 is being circulated if the neutral density tracer appears at the surface 15 minutes ahead of schedule? . if the needed contact time is 10 minutes over the bottom 3500 ft open hole interval in a 10.75” and the casing is 8.
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