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Steps for Adapting Test

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Checking the constructs : may not be generalizable, operationalization may not be the same Deciding the desirability of a translation / adaptation Choosing translators : for qualifications gi en earlier are important Translating and adapting the language : should often be more than ! translator, se eal design and ariation "e ie#in the adapted bersion of the test : butuh multiple re i#er, smoothing of language is possible Conductig a pilot and field testing of the adapted test Carry out a study for the adapted test $checking for bias and equi alence% : construct, method, item equi alence Documenting the process : steps in test adaptation, details, e idence for alidity

&udgemental designs for assessing suitability of translation/adaptation

'ack#ard adaptations/tranlations ter(emahkan melalui for#ard, lalu dikembalikan Ad antage : some problems can be identified, researchers don)t need to be bilingual Disad antage : no re ie# of target language ersion

*or#ard adaptations/translations ter(emahkan, lalu dire ie# Ad : (udgements made directly about language ersion of a n e+am Disad : bilingual (udges make assess of a