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accurate, consistent
color reproduction


management in

popular graphics apps


Expert advice on

building, evaluating,


editing ICC profiles




Real World

Color Management,

Real World

Color Management,
Second Edition
Industrial-Strength Production Techniques

Bruce Fraser


Fred Bunting

Peachpit Press

To Angela,

my angel, for every reason

in the world.

Mom and Dad.

To Yolanda,

and to Emily,

my mother, who epitomized an intense desire to write, my daughter, who seems to have inherited that desire even
without (or perhaps despite)

my help.

Real World Color Management, Second Edition
Bruce Fraser, Chris Murphy, and Fred Bunting
Copyright ©2005 by Bruce Fraser, Chris Murphy, and Fred Bunting

Peachpit Press
1249 Eighth Street

CA 94710

Fax: 510/524-2221

Find us on the Worldwide Web
Peachpit Press


a division of Pearson Education

To report

errors, please

send a note to

Cover Design: Aren Howell Cover Illustration: Jeff Brice Cover Production: Mimi Heft

Notice of Rights
All rights reserved.


part of this

book may be reproduced or transmitted



form by any means,

electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise,

without the prior written permission of the publisher. For information on getting
permission for reprints and excerpts, contact


The information in this book is distributed on an

"As Is" basis, without warranty.

While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of the book, neither the authors nor Peachpit Press shall have any liability to any person or entity with
respect to any loss or

damage caused or alleged to be caused directly or indirectly

by the instructions contained in this book or by the computer software and hardware products described in it.

ISBN 0-321-26722-2

Printed and


in the

United States of America

The Big Picture
pREFA^^^WvolOT Management Conundrum
PART I Introduction to Color Management




Color? 3


Computers and Color

Management 79



Profiles 111




and Tuning


Measurement, Calibration, and Process Control
Building Display Profiles 125
Building Input Profiles 147 Building Output Profiles 163


and Editing



PART III Applications and Workflow 269


Management Workflow



the Operating System 305


The Adobe


Color Architecture 341


MacTomedla ReeHand 10 and




Management Management

in in


10 393

QuarkXPress 405


Management and PDF 423
Scripting 457


Automatlon and


Bulldlng Color-Managed Workflows 483

PART IV Appendices 509




Workflow Templates 523

What's Inside

Overview: The Big Picture
Contents: What's inside


The Coior management Conundrum Why Did We Do This?
Understanding the Big Picture
Sweating the Details Making It Flow





Why Did We Think We Could Do This?
How the Book Is Organized Thank You! Contacts and Resources





Introduction to Color





Color? Reflections on Life Where Is Color? Light and the Color Event
Photons and Waves



7 9 10

The Spectrum
Spectral Curves

Light Sources Illuminants


Real World Color Management, Second Edition

The Object and the Color Event

12 13 13 15

and Transmission

The Color of White

The Observer and the Color Event
Trichromacy: Red, Green, Blue

16 16

Opponency: Red-Green, Blue-Yellow


Non-Linearity: Intensity and Brightness


Achromatic Component: Brightness What's a Logarithm, and Why Should I Care?


Chromatic Components: Hue and Saturation Measuring Color

34 37 37 38

We Cannot Truly Measure Color, Only Light



Where the Models Fail
Color Constancy
Psychological Factors: Color


Names and Memory Colors

48 50

Lessons for Color Management

Chapter 2

Computers and Color: Color by the Numbers
Color by the Numbers

52 53

Analog Origins
Pixels, Dots, and Dithers

56 57 59
61 61

Digital Evolutions

How the Numbers Work Why 256 Levels?
Millions of Colors

Color Definitions and Colors


Why the Numbers Vary
Colorants (Primaries)


White Point and Black Point

Tone Reproduction Characteristics Device- Specific Color Models
Device-Independent Color Models CIE LAB


69 70

LAB Limitations
Alphabet Soup





—the Limits of the Possible Device Limitations — Gamut and Dynamic Range

72 72

Tone and Gamut Mapping
Color is Complex

74 78 79

Chapter 3

Color Management: How It Works The Genesis of Color Management The WYSIWYG Myth The Components of Color Management The PCS

83 83 84 84

The ICC—Some Historical Perspective The CMM What Does CMM Stand For?

85 86 86
87 88 93

Why Do We Need CMMs At All?
Rendering Intents Color Management in Action
Assigning and Embedding Profiles Converting with Profiles


How Conversions Work
Conversions and Data Loss

96 97 98

The High-Bit Advantage
Color Management


Chapter k



Profiles: Describing Devices What Are Device Profiles?
Profile Classes

99 99
103 104 107

Matrix- Based vs. Table-Based ICC Profiles

Stimulus and Response Profile Limitations

Using Profiles

—Source and Destination

108 108

Generic Profiles
Color Space Profiles

Good Profiles





and Tuning


Chapter 5

Measurement, Calibration, and Process Control: "The Map is Not the Territory"
Keeping Track of Device Drift
Stimulus and Response
Controlling Variables Controlling Variability


114 115 115 119


Real World Color Manasement, Second Edition

The Multiple Roles of Measurement
Evaluating Devices Calibrating Devices



Monitoring Devices Working Outside the System

122 123

Chapter 6

Building Display Profiles: Your
Display Calibration


to Color



What to Adjust Calibration and Profiling Tools
the Waters

129 132 133


Choosing Calibration Settings Target White Point

134 135 136 136 136

Gamma How Often Should I Calibrate?

Before Calibration

Warm-Up Time
Resolution, Refresh,

and Other Monitor Settings


Cleaning the Screen

—Setting the Analog Controls

137 138
138 140 142

Setting White Luminance Setting Black Level Setting the Color Temperature

Calibration and Profiling Saving the Monitor Profile


Visual Calibration

145 146

Piece of Cake

Chapter 7

Building Input Profiles: Starting
Input Profile Basics
Input Profiling Targets Input Device Variables

Out Right


148 152 153

Building Scanner Profiles
Stabilizing the Scanner's


153 154

Optimizing the Scanner's Response

Scanning the Target Building the Scanner



Building Digital Camera Profiles


Contents xi Controlling the Camera's Response 157 Capturing the Target Building the 158 Profile Camera 159 161 Starting Out Right Chapter 8 Biiildins Output Profiles: Final Destinations les 164 The Moving Target and the Rubber Ruler Measuring Instruments 165 165 Measurement Geometry Aperture Size Filters 166 167 Backing 168 168 Handheld Instruments XY Plotters Strip 170 171 171 Readers Profiling Paclcages Instrument Support Profile Creation 172 173 175 Targets Data Averaging Linearization 178 178 179 182 182 Parameter Controls Profile Editing Getting Good Data Opening and Printing the Target Opening the Target Printing the Target Profiling RGB Inkjet Printers Before Profiling RGB Inkjets 182 183 184 184 185 Comparing Colors Creating RGB Profiling True Inkjet Profiles 186 190 191 RGB Printers RGB Printers RGB Printer Profiles Dye-Sub Printers Before Profiling True 191 Creating True 192 192 193 Profiling Three-Color Profiling Composite CMYK Printers Before Profiling CMYK Color Laser Printers Creating CMYK Color Laser Profiles 194 195 .


Real World Color Management, Second Edition

Ink Limiting
Before Profiling


CMYK Inkjets

196 197
198 198 199 199

Black Generation
Creating CMYK Inkjet Profiles

Before Profiling Solid Ink Printers
Creating CMYK Solid Ink Printer Profiles Before Profiling CMYK Dye-Sublimation Printers Creating CMYK Dye -Sublimation Printer Profiles
Profiling Printing Presses

200 200

Before Profiling Presses

Don't Profile the Press?!
Profile the Press

202 203


Optimized or Standardized Press Behavior
Creating Profiles for Presses
Intentionally Non-Linear
Profiling Multichannel Printers


205 207 208

Checking the Map

Chapter 9



Editing Profiles: Color Orienteering

Judging the



Viewing Environment

212 213

Counting Photons
Evaluating Profiles Checking the Display


217 217
222 225

Monitor Calibration Monitor

Input Profiles

Measurements to Pixels and Back
Basic Test for Input Profiles


226 227 238
242 249 255

Objective Test for Input Profiles

Objective Objectives
Subjective Tests for Input Profiles

Editing Input Profiles

Camera Raw



Objective Tests for Output Profiles

262 263 264

Subjective Tests for Output Profiles

Editing Output

Edit, Reprofile, or



266 268


Where Do We Go from Here?



Applications and Workflow


Chapter 10 Color

Management Workflow: Where the Rubber Meets the Road
What Is Color Management Workflow?
Display Conversions



274 275

When to Convert
Early Binding Advantages

Early Binding Disadvantages


Late Binding Advantages Late Binding Disadvantages

277 277

Avoiding Extremes
Intermediate Spaces

The Intermediate Space Advantage
Conveying Color Meaning





Premature Binding
Terminology: Tagging, Assigning, Embedding, and Assuming

282 283



Hybrid Workflows

284 285

Workflow Within a Program
Opening Untagged Documents Opening Tagged Documents Color Management Between Documents Assigning, Converting, and Soft-Proofing
Soft-Proofing Basics
Printing and Proofing Workflow Between Programs

286 287 288

292 295

Workflow Into and Out of Color Management
Bringing Color Into a Color-Managed Environment When Color Management Starts

296 296

The Limits of the Knowable
Preparing Materials for a Non-Color-Managed Print Environment


Fear of Embedding
Preparing Materials for the Non-Color-Managed Internet
Internet Color Workflow

302 303

Understanding Workflow



Real World Color Management, Second Edition


Color Management in the Operating System: Wiio Does What to Whom, When?



in OSs, Applications,

and Drivers

306 307

ColorSync and ICM What Are They? What

Do They Do?

307 308 309

Mac OS 9
ColorSync Control Panel Settings

Monitor Settings

Mac OSXPanther (10.3.x)
Rules of Engagement Displays Panel Settings


315 315

The Generics
Profile Locations

Locations for


316 316
317 322 322



QuickDraw, GDI, and Quartz

Setting the Active Color Profile for the Display

Locations for Profiles

324 324 324 325

Color Management in Applications

Color-Managed Applications

Non-Color-Managed AppHcations Color Management in Printer Drivers
Default Behavior

327 327 328

Source Profile Assumptions
Raster Drivers
PostScript Drivers

334 337

Color Management in Scanner Drivers
Is East, West Is West

Chapter 12

The Adobe


Color Architecture:

Management in Adobe Photoshop, InDesign, and Illustrator Color Settings— Command Central for Color

342 343

Default Profiles

—Working Spaces —Default Conversion Settings

344 344 346 354

Management Policies Warnings Manual Overrides


Advanced Options



Manual Assignments and Conversions
Assign Profile

Convert to Profile

360 360

Color Managing Imported Graphics
Placed Graphics in Photoshop
Placed Graphics in InDesign
Placed Graphics in Illustrator


Simulations and Soft-Proofing
Simulations in Illustrator Simulations in InDesign Simulations in Photoshop
Soft-Proofing Practices

365 366 367




370 375 375 376

Adobe Camera Raw Digital Raw Camera Raw and Color The Same, But Different
Chapter 13 Color



Macromedia FreeHand 10 and

Capable But Quirky
FreeHand's Color Preferences


382 382

Management Types

Kodak Digital Science and Apple ColorSync Manual Assignments
Object Palette

387 387

Exporting TIFF

389 389 390



Be Careful
Chapter 14 Color





Manages Everything But Its Own Files Color Management Preferences Internal RGB




Composite Printer
Import/Export Scanner/ Digital Camera
Separations Printer

397 397 398 398


Real World Color Management, Second Edition


399 400

Manual Controls


402 402

Printing Strengths and Weaknesses


Chapter 15 Color



QuarkXPress: Incremental Improvements.


Turning Turn Off QuarkXPress 3


406 406 407 407 407 408 410

CMS (Mac OS Only) Turn Off QuarkXPress 4, 5 and 6 CMS Built-in Color Management
QuarkXPress 4 QuarkXPress 5 QuarkXPress 6 Color Management Preferences

Manual Controls
Get Picture

414 415


416 416
419 419


Hard Proofing

Compass Pro XT
The 800-Pound Gorilla
Chapter 16 Color

Management and PDF: The Wave
The Flavors of PDF

of the Future

423 424

PDF Versions
PostScript Color



425 427 430 430

Distiller 5


Color Settings

Making PDFs
Acrobat 5

434 438

Management Preferences

438 439

Distiller 6

PDF/X-la, PDF/X-3


Acrobat 6


Management Preferences




Proof Setup and Proof Colors

445 445 448 448 450


InDesign CS Export PDF


Export Presets

Export PDF EPS, PDE and AI Formats


Third-Party Stuff

Enfocus PitStop Pro Other Products


455 457 457

The Wave of the Future
Chapter 17

Automation and Scripting: The Smart Way To Be Lazy Why Automate?
Color Servers
Color Server Pros Color Server Cons

458 459


Color Server Questions DeviceLink Profiles


464 464 465

More about Links

Why use DeviceLinks?
Making DeviceLinks

467 468 468 470

How to Use These Darn Things?
Prepress Solutions Who Should Consider Prepress Solutions?

The Downsides
Important Questions In-RIP Color Management

472 473 474 474

The Good

The Bad (and The Ugly)

What Is Scripting? What Can Scripting Do?
Scripting Advantages Scripting Disadvantages Scripting Examples

475 475

476 476

Hybrid Scripting and Remote The Automation Trade-Off


480 482


Real World Color Management, Second Edition

Chapter 18 Building Color-Managed Workflows: Bringing The Four Stages of Color Management
Defining Color Meaning Normalizing Color





484 485

488 489

Converting for Output
Step-by- Step Color

and Devices

490 490 490

Determining Your Needs
Software, File Formats,

What Outputs Do I Need?
Automation and Quality



494 494

Embedded or Assumed Profiles
Normalization and Editing Spaces

The Cop at the Door Warnings LAB—The Great Normalizer
Black Preservation and Device-Dependent Data

497 497
498 498

Named-Color Systems Simulations and Soft Proofs
Hard Proofs
Output Conversions
Final Analysis


502 502 502 503

One Ptxel's Journey.
Capture a Pixel
Define the Color

Normalize the Color
Simulate the Output

504 504
505 505

Optimize for Output Convert for Output
Proof the Output

506 506

Hand Off the Color
The Devil Is in the Details





Appendix A:




Workflow Templates




The Color Management


If you've

picked up this book because you simply want us to


you which

when you run into this or that application's color management features, put it down again. Although this book starts from the
buttons to push
point of view of a beginner in color and color management, and builds

up from


we don't think a cookbook or color management book for
the topic justice

dummies could do

— this


that book.

However, you don't have to be a rocket scientist (or any other kind) to benefit from this book. What we've learned about color manage-

ment we've learned the hard way by using it, making a lot of mistakes, correcting those mistakes, and using it some more. This is a book for color


users, not for color scientists,

and we guarantee



completely equation-free.

The reasons we won't just


you which buttons

push are

The answers depend on which buttons you've already pushed and what you're trying to achieve.
Application vendors have a distressing propensity for moving or

renaming the buttons.
Sometimes, a button


different things in different situations.


biggest reason of

you wouldn't

if we told you which button to know what it did or why you were pushing it.






Real World Color Management, Second Edition

Instead, we've



something a


more ambitious, but we
attempted to give you

hope a great deal


useful. In this book, we've

the vocabulary, knowledge,


insight to see

beyond the buttons and
to fish instead of

understand what they do, even if you've never seen these particular buttons
before. In terms of the old

saw about teaching a man

giving a

man a fish, we're trying to make you marine biologists!



We Do This?
We wrote this book for a lot of reasons, some better than others. The biggest

that hardly a day goes

by without

at least

one of us receiving an
about color manage-

email asking

there's a

good resource

for learning

ment. Well of course there

but they're almost invariably written by

color scientists for color scientists

— and while they're both fascinating

and indispensable, they tend to be long on equations and theory, and short on practical advice on how to actually use color management tools
in production scenarios.

Then there's the other type of color management resource

—the happy

marketingspeak that promises to make your printer match your monitor.

We wish the people who write these would turn their attention to

— oping an antigravity drive instead
so blithely, they


they can violate the laws of physics


as well use that ability to produce something that

everyone can use!

For those of us

who have

to use color





work, both the aforementioned types of resources are useful in the


way (as Chris would say)
San Francisco

that a bicycle


useful when you have to get from
for this book.

to Portland.

Hence the need

We've tried to

pack in everything we've learned in the close to three decades that we've collectively spent laboring in the vineyards of color management, including, especially, all the things the

manuals don't tell you.

Understanding the Big Picture
you don't understand the Big Picture, the basic underpinnings of color management, it may seem like magic when it works, and like black magIf





It isn't

magic, of course




rather clever

technology based on some very solid, but limited,


Human vision


The Color Management Conundrum



a wondrously complex

phenomenon, and

a great deal remains to be

learned before

we can


you understand the way the technology works, and the scope of the mathematical models on which it's based, you'll have a much easier time

making color management work fails to do so.

for you,

and troubleshooting


when it

Sweating the Details
ot the keys to successful color
als largely ignore


—one that the manuwe use


paying close attention to the myriad factors that

influence both the behavior of the various hunks of machinery

reproduce color, and the way


perceive that color.


scanners, digital

cameras, monitors, printers, and presses are all physical devices, and hence
they're subject to physical influences

—heat, humidity, and friction to name — but a few that change the color they produce, and our perception of that


strongly influenced by the



which we view it.

So sweating the

—keeping track of the way your various devicwhen

es behave, correcting that behavior



which we judge that behavior

and controlling the


an essential but largely

undocumented part of the color management
succeeds or

process. Color management

fails according to the accuracy with which we can describe our colorway reproduction devices behave, but if that behavior isn't



— ing target with a rubber ruler you probably won't get the same answer
twice in a row.

repeatable, attempting to describe

it is


measuring a mov-



doesn't exist in a


vacuum. Useful, real-world color


simply a part, albeit a useful and important part, of an

entire workflow. But the people


publish the software simply docu-

ment how their particular piece
the bigger picture.

of the puzzle works, not

how it



Everyone's workflow is to

some extent unique, so rather than just laying show you how to analyze

out a color management workflow, we've tried to


so that you can integrate

as seamlessly as possible,

and even

refine that

into your own workflow workflow to make it more


Real World Color Management, Second Edition



We Think We Could Do This?

seemed simple when we


conceived the idea.

All three of

us are

premature adopters of color

management, with the scars to match, but
in mission-critical scenarios.



management work

Needless to


grievously underestimated the





book would entail, and the time it would take us to complete that work for those of you who have watched the publication date slip ever-further
into the future, the wait


Writing this

book forced us to learn things we thought we already knew,

and turned up masses of material that fell into the category Fred likes to refer to as "more interesting than relevant." We've tried to limit the contents of the

—we'll — save the rest for the Color Geek Trivia Millennium Edition board game.
book to the material that's both interesting anrf relevant
intimately acquainted with the

We may have been arrogant when we started out, but we all three are now
meaning of the word "hubris."

How the





bottomless pit

a an immensely deep subject — Bruce —with tendrils stretching into many different areas ranging

from the physics and chemistry of our devices, to the behavior of our software and computer systems, to the neurophysics and psychophysics
of our perceptual systems, to psychology,
tried to

and even

to language.

So we've







and present them

a logical order.



Introduction to Color Management. In the


four chapters,


try to lay the

groundwork for the

rest of the


We put this information
it is,


hard to manage color if you don't know what



your various software and hardware tools represent and reproduce

What Is


Computers and Color


About Profiles

Preface: The Color

Management Conundrum





and Tuning

Profiles. Color

management succeeds

on the accuracy of the


we use

to describe the




color-reproduction devices behave, so the next five chapters look at tried-

and-tested real-world techniques for creating, evaluating, tuning and

maintaining device


Measurement, Calibration, and Process Control
Building Display Profiles Building Input Profiles
Building Output Profiles

Evaluating and Editing Profiles

ful if


Applications and Workflow. Color management


only use-

you can integrate

into a working production system, so the final

nine chapters look at color management workflow,

from an analytical

standpoint, then in terms of the actual tools offered by key applications,


finally as a

nuts-and-bolts series of decisions you need to



order to produce a functioning color

management workflow

that suits

your needs.

management Workflow
in the

Operating System

The Adobe
Color Color
Color Color

Common Color Architecture

Management in Macromedia FreeHand Management in CorelDRAW



Management in QuarkXPress

Management and PDF

Automation and Scripting
Building Color

Managed Workflows

Several vendors were generous in providing equipment.xxiv Real World Color Management. Nick Milley and Tom Lianza at Sequel Imaging.. who made sure our digital were all on paper —we'd like to thank them and our other friends Emily Glossbrenner produced the exactly all index in record time. at Steve Upton www. Brian Ashe. and encouragement. editor extraordinaire. We owe a huge vote of thanks to the Dream Team at Peachpit Press — Rebecca Gulick. Dan Caldwell and Bob Burnett Color Solutions. but we'd particularly like to thank Michael Kieran and Don Hutcheson for their constant encouragement and generosity of spirit —both slogged their way through early drafts and provided many helpful suggestions. Liz Quinlisk. Chris Heinz at Eastman Kodak. Special thanks go to Brian Levey at ColorVision. Thomas Knoll and Chris Cox Adobe Systems. support. Profile Anatomy Workflow Templates Glossary Thank You! We couldn't have produced this book without the help of many individuals we'd like to thank here. Inc. .. who knew exactly to refrain when files to bug us about deadlines and when faithfully translated to ink at Peachpit. John Zimmerer at Apple Computer. and Lisa Brazieal. it from doing so. Thomas Kunz. Inc. Inc. Inc. And special thanks to Liz Welch for catching cies at the 11 th hour —any that remain are entirely our and colleagues those typos and inconsistenfault. Second Edition Part IV: Appendices. This section contains supplementary material that we hope you'll find both interesting and relevant. our ace production coordinator. and Parker Plaisted and Eddie Murphy at Epson America. and delivered when she'd promised. John Panozzo at Colorbyte Software... and Roland Campo at at GretagMacbeth. at Integrated Mark Geeves at BESTColor. Bonnie Fladung and Marc Levine at Monaco Systems. Eric Magnusson at Left Dakota. We owe a debt to our peers in the industry. Mark Duhaime at Imacon USA.

for keeping me and in wine." . and to the beginning of this project but not the end. the Pixel Mafia. and most of all to Angela. and Pixar. the good folks I worked with at X-Rite. Paul and Alex. my color mentor. wisdom. encouraged throughout a personal level. for her patience. who saw and scripting insights. Larry Baca. and my students and colleagues at CCSF. I have to thank my father Frederick Bunting for his great strength and v^sdom. to all the good folks on the ColorSync User's List. my first color student. "Thanks to (the Digital Dog). Thad Mcllroy and The Color Fred. all my friends at Gracenote and who have known and my me this and somehow still like me: Alyson effort. my Nobody Famous mates. and Eric Magnusson for their and advice. Mike Rodriguez and Martin Bailey for providing their knowledge of standards. Kevin Depatience Palmer. my supporting siblings and their families. Michael Solomon and everyone at Light Source. Lynn Harrington. prepress workflow. Ty Roberts. on things academic and co-producer with Alyson of the colorful Meghan.Preface: The Color Management Conundrum especially XXV Bruce. and the Orthutangans — ikmar beyvoodnnf Ed Granger. But most of all." Chris. but also for exposing me to the incredible beauty that is good engineering. Resource. Ben Willmore. and PDF. Andrew Rodney of Bruce Lindbloom. Rob Cook. Mickey Mantle. On who makes it so I don't ever have to worry about Emily. and Michael Kieran who actually got me started on this path. Eric Cave. A special thank you to John Zimmerer. their all my fellow color geeks. Mike Ornellas for making me appear relatively sane. gratitude to those Gill. and attempts to teach me 'Oh come on. "For at least entirely. Mike 064 Freeman and Wendy Bauer for playing music with me for the last 20 years without undue complaints. and Ian Lyons. Ann advisor and Charlie Bradford at the Island House. I cushioning the fall to insanity. to Nathan Wade for automation to Andrew Rodney for being so gracious with his knowledge. if not preventing it thank Jay Nelson. just keep it!' And lastly to His Most Imperial Highness. all whom share in line knowledge and expertise selflessly. and love. "My thanks can start nowhere but with Dr. ongoing encouragement. strength.

com/realworldcolor/. at www. . And as we're made aware of the inevitable errata. we'll post updates. and some useful Real World Color Management. Second Edition Contacts and Resources We welcome email saying nice or not-so-nice things about this book.colorremedies. You can reach us at rwcm@colorremedies.

PART Introduction to Color Management .


We don't expect you to become as obsessed with color as we are indeed." You don't have to be a color expert to use color management. Color ment is just an extension of that effort. They'll help you understand the problem that color management addresses. and saturation." sang the velvet voice of Kermit the Frog. While none of us may ever know the experience of "being green. They'll explain some of the terminology you'll encounter when using color management software —terms like colorimetric. — we advise against —but we do recommend that you familiarit ize yourself with the fundamentals we lay out in this chapter. . perceptual. color management may seem like magic.What Is Color? on Life Reflections "It's not easy being green. for example." it's worth reflecting (as we are all reflective objects) on the experience of "seeing green. But if you're totally unfamiliar with the concepts behind the technology. if you want any hope of leading a normal life. The whole business of printing or displaying images that look depictions of the things they portray depends like realistic on exploitmanage- ing specific properties of the way humans see color. perto haps giving us some indication of how the frog felt be a felt frog. A little color theory helps explain these terms and why we need them.

so let's start — you're reading this book. don't insist that not absolutely necessary to understand all of the issues we cover in this chapter to use color manage- ment. we lights. this helps you evaluate your results." speak of "green apples. It's ability to see colors. in reality to realize that." "red and "blue suede . you've — probably done so more than most ^you may have gone through several how much you've thought about it by examining your current definition of color." Where Is Color? If you want to manage color. but they've probably resembled one of the following statements: Color a property of objects. is up to another reason for writing this chapter: color just really darned interesting. And you may well come your life. Depending if on definitions at various times in your life. If you understand this. This chapter explains just what they measure. your expectations be more realistic. This the is is first and most persistent view shoes. Second Edition The strengths and weaknesses of color management are rooted in our ability (or inability) to quantify human will color vision accurately. You need to understand the instruments you may use with color management. we hope it will also your curiosity about something you probably take for granted —your you spark — worry we won't bombard you with obscure equations. although you've probably done it all "it's not easy seeing green. Color theory explains why a color viewed in a complex scene such as a photograph looks Understanding "different" from the same color viewed in isolation." of color. While this chapter sets the stage and lays 'fess But we have to the foundation for other chapters in this book. If you're intimidated by scientific concepts.Real World Color Management. all still No matter how much we may have philosophized about color. it helps to first understand just what it is. or pass a graduate course in rocket science. But a passing familiarity with these concepts and terms can often come in handy.

is If any of these three things changes. a blend of all The true. The color event is a sensation evoked in the observer by the wavelengths of light produced by the light source and modified by the object. we see a different and biology. Hgure 1-1 The color event light source A color event always has three participants. of course. is three. event color. successive contrast. This is the textbook counterclaim to the view of color as a property ot objects.Chapter 1: What Is Color? 5 Color is a property of light. an object. correct answer. is an event that occurs among three participants: a light source. is of the three statements. the color different (see Figure 1-1) — in plain English. and an observer." Color happens in the observer. We find it interesting that the three ingredients of the color event represent three of the hard sciences: physics. All are partially but you don't have to look far to find examples that show that none itself. Color is something that originates in the eye or the brain of the observer. Un- derstanding how light affects color takes us into the physics of color. Authors of color books to stress that "light is and papers love color" or "no light. by a complete description of the experi- ence we Color call color. . chemistry. no color. This concept captures our imagination when we encounter optical illusions such as afterimages. and others that don't seem to originate in the objects we see.

then move on to objects. The two competing views were eventually reconciled by the quantum theorists like Max Planck and Albert Einstein into the "wavicle" concept called a photon. the photons with higher energy travel shorter distances between pulses. The next sections explore this simple model of the color event in more detail. Another way to specific energy level. Light and the Color Event The first participant in the color event is light. they have shorter wavelengths. regardless of energy level. Depending on the experiment you do. Photons and Waves Many a poor physics student has relived the dilemma faced by eighteenthcentury scientists as to whether light is best modeled as a particle (the view held by Sir Isaac Newton) or as a wave (as argued by Christian Huygens). — wavelength the higher the energy Figure 1-2). Instead. We begin with light sources. The photon's energy level ton travels— through any given medium. light behaves sometimes like a particle. Each photon is born and dies with a specific energy level. The party just doesn't get started until this guest arrives. sometimes like a wave. and the threshold of the nether regions of psychology. namely. Second Edition understanding faces how objects change light involves the chemistry of sur- and how their molecules and atoms absorb light energy. So as these photons travel together at the same speed. In other words.Real World Color Management. put it is that every photon has a and thus a specific the shorter the wavelength (see . Higher. In short. But acteristics of the light all light isn't created equal: the char- have a profound effect on our experience of color. us. including the neurophysiology of the eye and brain. and then spend a bit more time with the subject most dear to you and you and us (the observers). So let's look at the nature of light in more detail. You can imagine a photon as a pulsating packet of energy traveling through space. color is a complex phenomenon. and un- derstanding the nature of the observer takes us into all photons pulsate at higher frequencies. level. the speed of light for all photons. the does not change the speed at which the phois constant energy level of the photon determines how fast it pulsates.

The part of this spectrum that tickles our eye is a small sliver from about 380 nm to about 700 nm that we call the visible spectrum. FIsurc 1>8 g)f-V-aIeR -a-clh ( dRbce g)f-V-aIeR Wavelengths wwwvwwwwwwv Vlg-a-cl h(VbaIg)f-V-aIeR n9ur«1-3 The spectrum short wavelengths (high energy) long wavelengths (low energy) 1 nm 10 -9 1000 mn 1 mm 10-^ Im 10° 1km 10^ 10 -12 meters io-« 1 1 longwave radio gamma rays microwaves visible light »l 400 nm 500 nm 600 nm . The Spectrum The spectrum refers to the full range of energy levels (v^avelengths) that photons have as they travel through space and time.Chapter 1: What Is Color? 7 The wavelengths of light are at the order of magnitude of nanometers. or simply. or billionths of a meter (abbreviated nm). RUIR light (see Figure 1-3).

. greens. we lie sometimes have to pay attention to those parts of the spectrum that just outside the visible range. between the blues and violets. yellow. labeled a seventh band. and they have varying responses to different parts of this sliver —the different wavelengths evoke different sensations of at the color. CCD problems for digital cameras.S. Second Edition Our eyes respond only to this tiny sliver of the full electromagnetic spectrum. just above the last visible range of high- energy (short-wavelength) photons known as the ultraviolet (UV) "beyond violet") also raises some concerns. lie between blue and red. because the (charge-coupled-device) arrays used in digital cameras to detect red"). "ROY G. paper and ink manufacturers (like laundry detergent manufacturers) often add UV brighteners to make an extra. The wavelengths that are slightly longer than red "below light occupy the infrared (IR) region (which means. shortest to longest We could reverse the order. so most digital cameras include violets. yellows. and were taught the mnemonic "Richard of York Gained Battles in Vain. literally. Chris BiV") was introduced personage of Mr. we're mainly concerned with visible light. At the other end. Newton. the lower the frequency. from the reds low-energy end (longer wavelengths at about 700 through the oranges. indigo. oranges.Real World Color Management. . (Fred and Bruce spent early years in a British school system. So we've come nm) to associate the different wavelengths with the colors they evoke. and the longer the wavelength). and re-emit photons in the visible spectrum— a phenomenon known as The brighteners absorb non-visible photons with UV wavelengths. (Many historians believe that Newton was looking for symmetry with the seven notes of the musical octave. there's nothing in the electromagnetic spectrum itself that prevents us from naming more or fewer than six bands. for example.) But no matter how many bands you label in the spectrum. and greens to the blues and violets at the high-energy end (shorter wavelengths at about 380 nm). and them from wavelength (and hence from highest to lowest energy and frequency but green would always always lie —the lower the energy. For example. Of course. blues.white paper or extra-bright region (literally. and orange would but between yellow and In the graphic arts." while in to the strange list the U. — and violets — is always the same. yellows. the order reds. IR often creates light are also highly sensitive to infrared. the an IR filter either on the chip or on the lens. ink.

and few long-wavelength (low-energy) photons — but is from a patch of magenta ink contains photons lengths. We address these issues in Chapters 5 and 8. All of these spectral energies can be represented by a diagram called the 1-4). composed of photons of all the same wavelength all (what the scientists call monochromaticW^i). but comprised mostly of medium-wavelength photons. because they see the paper or ink differently from the way our eyes do. This practice creates problems for some measuring ments. Pure white light contains equal amounts of photons at all the visible wavelengths.Chapter 1: What Is Color? 9 instru- fluorescence. Instead. Light coming in the short and long wavefew in the middle of the visible spectrum. almost the light you see consists of a blend of photons of many wavelengths. The actual the color you see is determined by the specific blend of wavelengths — spectral energy —that reaches your eye. spectral curve oiihe light reflected by the object (see Figure ngurel-4 Spectral curves 100% white object green object ^5 magenta object — 400 nm 500 nm wavelength 600 nm 700 nm Spectral curves of three objects . Light from a green object contains few short-wavelength (high-energy) photons. Spectral Curves Other than the incredibly saturated greens and reds emitted by you'll rarely see light lasers.

we can draw the spectral curve of the light energy emitted by the light source at each wavelength (see Figure 1-5).10 Real World Color Management. Figure 1-5 100% Light sources / / V7 ^daylight (6500 K) ^ ^ 1 incandescent tungsten lamp (3000 K) ^^ ^^^^>^ 1 ^^^^'^'^^ redphosphorofmonitor^^^ ' A^ A . Second Edition Light Sources A light source is just something that emits large quamities of photons in the visible spectrum. Just as with objects.

Manufacturers use various techniques. The CIE {Commission Interna- tionale de I'Eclairage. The charge raises the energy level of the gas atoms. Illuminant B represents sunlight at a correlated color temperature of 4874 K. if ever. D illuminants.Chapter 1: What Is Color? 11 visual system evolved. or blue). in Chapter 6. This is the green curve in Figure 1-5. 1-5). producing a "spikey" spectral curve. green. which then re-emit the energy as photons at specific wavelengths. Illuminant C is an early daylight simulator (correlated color temperature 6774 K). or the International Commission on Illumination) —a — body of color scientists and technologists from around the world that has accumulated a huge amount of knowledge about color since the 1920s has specified a number of CIE Standard Illuminants. and the latitude curve in Figure 1-5). and emit photons at specific wavelengths (either in particular is characteristically The red phosphor spikey (see the red curve in Figure detail. We'll describe monitors in more including other types of monitors such as LCDs. CRT on the inside of the front (cathode-ray tube) monitors use phosphors glass to absorb electrons red. Electric discharge (such as lamps consist of an enclosed tube containing a gas mercury vapor or xenon) that's excited by an electric charge. such as pres- surizing the gas or coating the inside of the tube with phosphors. although you occasionally still . the weather. Fluorescent lamps are the most common form of these lamps. Illuminants The word illuminant specified formally in refers to a light source that has been measured or terms of spectral energy. Computer monitors are also light sources —they emit photons. Illuminant A represents the typical spectral curve of a tungsten lamp (a standard lightbulb). to add other wavelengths to the emitted light. The exact wavelength composition of daylight (see the black depends on the time of day. The phosphors coating the inside of the tube absorb photons emitted by the gas and re-emit them at other wavelengths. This is seldom used. It has been replaced by the find it.

5000 K^6000 K^ 7000 K K 9000 400 nm 500 nm wavelength 600 nm 700 nm Illuminants D is a series of illuminants that represent various modes of daylight. spectral curve is with correlated color temperatures of 5000 The D65 is the black curve in Figure 1-5. we examine the various ways that objects and the ways that this interaction affects our experi- ence of color. and so on. Illuminants F is a series of "fluorescent" illuminants that represent the wavelength characteristics of various popular fluorescent lamps. up to F12.12 Real World Color Management. The Object and the Color Event The second participant in the color event is the object. and mostly used for calculations. . Second Edition Figure 1-6 Color temperature ID I 4000 K . so in this section interact with light. The way an object interacts with light plays a large role in determining the nature of the color event. F3. The most commonly used D illuminants are D50 and D65 K and 6504 K.. These are named F2. respectively. Illuminant E a theoretical "equal energy" illuminant that doesn't is represent a real light source.

the correlated color temperature as most emissive light sources — is blackbody radiators. During the object absorbs light's interaction with these surface atoms the some wavelengths and reflects of the reflected light others (see Figure 1-7). or are in kelvins (K). is ually to the higher-energy/ shorter wavelengths. so is dominated by red and monitors —aren't true blackbody and so we're picking and computer low wavelengths. the curve shifts grad- Reflection and Transmission An object's surface must interact with light to affect the light's color. you are a blackbody radiator emitting energy that only an infrared detector. a degree in the physicist's remind you that the correct term is actually bluish. is the chemical reaction of burning K or above. sources of light and are only looking at the radiation from thermal energy. turn on your toaster in a This is the system we use to de- peratures the radiation visible darkened kitchen. Figure 1-6 shows the spectral (Temperatures where a kel- temperature" light this phenomenon. At 2000 K we see the dull red call "red hot. neutral. scribe colors of "white light. Light strikes the /long. A candle is if yellowish At 5000 to 7000 K. At higher temperatures of 9000 (burning off those fries for lunch). the light changes color from dull red to orange to yellow. But at higher is tem- re-emission of energy). Atoms re-emit energy that they've absorbed from almost-perfect blackbody radiator all the light is from a heated — 3100 K. To see a blackbody in action.Chapter 1: What Is Color? 13 The Color of White Many light of the we use —such as lightbulbs or sun— produce in a characlight light sources and the light they emit almost entirely from the heat their atoms have absorbed from source. including daylight filtered by the earth's (which atmosphere)." radiators. perfect blackbodies as they aren't As the temperature illuminated by any other light gets higher. At 3000 to 4000 K. vin is orange. travels some way into the atoms at the surface.) At temperature scale from absolute lower temperatures. At this radiation you had energy released by low temperatures. filament of tungsten. Purists will They call these objects zero. Every dense object radiates what's called thermal energy. can see. we commonly the closest blackbody temperature to the apparent color of the light source. giving its characteristic light. short wave- in the infrared wax rather than absorption and lengths predominate." refer to their "color We is and we call To study it light. or an owl. you can see a small region of blue light that's due to direct the visible spec- trum. blackbody gives off heat in the low. producing a more neutral white. If you're standing in a pitch-black room. curves of a blackbody at various to describe whether the physicists imagine objects where they have eliminated all other temperatures. so the spectral makeup isn't the same as that of the . Stars (such as our sun) are almost and yel- fluorescent lamps. The tung- terminology to describe the color of light: A lightbulb in a dark room is an sten filament of an incandescent lightbulb operates at about 2850 to color temperature. is mostly a blackbody (although the blackbody's emitted light relatively flat in some process such as combustion (burning of fuel) or metabolism you look closely. yellowish.wavelength part of the visible spectrum. and we call it heat. region invisible to humans. producing a bluer light. teristic way that gives us a handy the furnaces in the stars' cores. then re-emerges.

Note that if you change the light source. Second Edition Figure 1-7 Reflection Incoming white light contains all wavelengths. except that the transmissive object must at least partially translucent so that the light it. Color of specular reflection may be unaffected by surface. even though the spectral energy that emerges invariant property of the object. But it's worth pausing to examine one phenomenon in particular that sometimes bedevils color management the phenomenon known as — fluorescence. is an A be transmissive object affects wavelengths in the same way all as the reflective object just described.14 Real World Color Management. Molecules in surface absorb long and short wavelengths. is different. the reflectance of the object doesn't change. it too alters the wavelength makeup of the light by absorbing some wavelengths and allowing others to pass through. The degree to which an object reflects some wavelengths and absorbs others is called its spectral reflectance. Reflectance. Scattered reflection contains only unabsorbed medium (green) wavelengths. The surface of a reflective object or the substance in a transmissive object can affect the wavelengths that strike it in many specific ways. can pass the way through However. then. 4 r^u-c V >v'^^*? Surface of a reflective object "^V*? '^ v¥\/\n/y\/\/\ • incoming light. .

Fluorescence. and yes. scanner. teeth. wavelength). is But fluorescence wavelengths in the non-visible ultraviolet most noticeable when the incoming photons have range of the spectrum. as this phenomenon is called. (because they convert non. often called "bluing agents" fond memories of groovy "black lights" — lamps designed to give off light — energy in the violet and ultraviolet wavelengths and their effects on posters printed with fluorescent inks. To com- pensate for the slow yellowing of fabrics. even on depending on the brighteners in the toothpaste we had used! management it's Fluorescence crops up in unexpected places in color we'll alert you when — they are something to look out for. which includes a sizeable amount of UV. (as unpredictability is the ." Many fabric makers and paper manufacturers add fluorescent brightresult is — eners to whiten the slightly yellow color of most natural fibers. For example. than our eye is (which has no response at Whenever artificial light sources (such as lamps. The an object that seems to emit more visible photons than it receives from the light source it appears "brighter than white. many laundry detergents and bleaches have fluorescent brighteners. enough to know that fluorescence can be an issue in three cases: Whenever a measurement instrument imeter. Whenever a colorant wax. color- more responsive to UV light all). and the emitted photons are in the visible range (usually in the violets or blues). toner.visible UV light to visible blue). digital camera. can sometimes change one type of visible wavelength into another visible wavelength. We all have on white T-shirts.) or paper used for printit ing has fluorescent properties that make behave unpredictably depending on the light source used to view it nemesis of color management). and re-emits photons of other wavelengths in order to produce a more spectrally balanced light. etc. or scanner lamps) emit more or (more likely) less UV than daylight. or film) (a is spectrophotometer. For now.Chapter 1: What Is Color? 15 Fluorescence Some aioiiis and molecules have the peculiar ability to absorb photons of a certain energy (wavelength) and emit photons of a lower energy (longer . (ink. the fluorescent coating inside a sodium lamp absorbs some of the yellow wavelengths emitted by the electrically excited sodium vapor. flashbulbs.

the visual system is most complex. aging high-energy ultraviolet light the —so even UV light.) Contrary to popular belief. but it does two important things for color vision. In this section. but the fact that the human eye has three types of color senand blues) is sors (corresponding roughly to reds. but by the cornea. of which human retina. greens. yellows as and digital cameras. Our we age. Other features of human vision— such as opponency. Blue If there's one lesson you should take from this chapter. you. The nerve ceUs in the retina that respond to light are called photoreceptors. we look at various models of human vision that form the basis of color management. the lens is partly responsible for our inability to see unlike other visual systems. Your eye is one of the most beautiful structures in nature. The eye. Second Edition The Observer and the Color Event Of the three participants observer. the main task of focusing light into an image at the back of the eye is handled not by the eye. It starts with the structures of the eye. it's that the funda- mental basis for allcolor reproduction is the three-channel design of the constancy. the curved front layer of the as the tiny muscles that The lens makes minor focus adjustments hold it in place adjust its shape. lens. Your way more that complex than a blackbody radiator or a hemoglobin molecule. such as honeybees. the lens acts as a UV filter. but continues through the optic nerve and goes deep into the brain. or just three phosphors in a monitor. scanners. First. while our ability to see reds and magentas discrimination in the yellows always fairly weak. Trichromacy: Red. the lens hardly affected. what lets reproduce colors at all using just three pigments on paper. and nonlinearity. (We hope you don't think we're being too forward. Second. The retina is a complex layer of nerve cells fining the back of your eye (see Figure 1-8). color all we cover in this section —are us important. regardless of age. protecting the retina from if dam- the retina could see into it UV range (and some experiments show that birds. reducing our ability to see subtle changes in blues and is is greens. Green. so much so we still have a great deal to learn about it. are by far the in our simple model of the color event. or often just receptors. . The retina: rods and cones. can).16 Real World Color Management.

Chapter 1: What Is Color? 17 Rgurc 1-8 The human eye cornea rod receptor cone receptor optic nerve Cross section of the right eye from above. except in a little indentation in the very center of the retina. We have far more rods million cones). This center region. you're focusing the image of the letters on your fovea). Cones are a more recent development in the evolution of the mammal retina and function in bright light conditions.000 cones. such as night vision. to read these letters. Inset shows the shape of the rod and cone cells. falling off to a completely rod-free region in the a small number center of the fovea called the foveola). Most color vision happens in the fovea. They're sensitive in low levels of light and are largely blinded by daylight conditions. which is where they get their names. where the three types of cones far outnumber the rods. than cones throughout most of the retina (about 120 million rods to about 6 where cones outnumber rods (about 150. called the fovea. It's also where your primary color vision happens. called rods and co/ies because of their shapes. also provides the best acuity (for example. Receptors come in two types. . Rods provide vision in low-light conditions. where you have the highest density of photoreceptors. with of rods.

and the third responds to the short wavelengths (see Figure 1-9). . photoreceptors have peak absorptions at 420 nm. M. refers to the theory. The rod photoreceptor (gray line) has at 499 nm. because of the colors we normally associate with these three regions of the spectrum. respectively. the cones fall all the rods in your retina are essentially into three types. Two related and often confused terms are trichromacy and tristimulus. Trichromacy and tristimulus. but it's less misleading to refer to them as the long-. The three cone 565 nm. respectively. color (the three types of cones) The term tristimulus refers to experiments and measurements of which the test subject human Figure 1-9 color vision involving three color stimuli. medium-. ioo% Peak sensitivities -a 400 nm 500 nm 600 nm 700 nm wavelength The peak wavelengths of the photoreceptor pigments. response in the middle or short One responds primarily to the middle wavelengths.18 Real World Color Management. that we have three receptors for . and blue cones. and short- wavelength cones (or L. little One responds primarily to the long wavelengths of light and has wavelengths. While the same. 530 nm. and a peak absorption respectively. Many people call these the red cones. green cones. Second Edition Three types of cones. The term trichromacy (also known as the three-component theory or the Young-Helmoltz theory of color vision) now well verified. and S).

that the trichromatic structure of the human retina makes possible what we know If as the additive primary colors (see Figure 1-11). . Two colors are not enough — no matter how carefully you choose light them. that divide you choose three light sources with overlapping spectra up the visible spectrum roughly into thirds. and blue lamps until they match the target stimulus on the split screen.10). And four colors is unnecessary —any color you can produce with four colors of three. each one adds ngurc 1-10 IVistlmulus experiment *^ ^ \IZ The observer adjusts the intensities of the red. The most comprehensive tristimulus model has been defined by the CIE and forms the basis management. trichro- macy refers to our three color receptors.Chapter 1: What Is Color? 19 uses to match a target stimulus (see Figure 1. and tristimulus refers to the experiments that use three stimuli to verify and measure trichromacy. The importance of trichromacy for the graphic arts is that we can simualmost any color by using just three well-chosen primary colors of for color late light. you cannot duplicate all colors with two primaries. green. In other words. It's you can reproduce with just a well-chosen Additive primaries.

20 Real World Color Management. Starting from black (no wavelengths). and yellow (see Figure 1-11). magenta ink is a "medium-wavelength-subtractor. white (all wavelengths in even proportions). stimulates our three receptors in just the right proportions to make us feel like our three cone receptors." And yellow is is a "short." But the bottom line that both additive that work by manipulating the wavelengths and subtractive primaries enter our eyes and stimulate when done cleverly. and blue.subtractor." or simply "red-subtractor"—it subtracts long (red) wavelengths from white light (such as that reflected from otherwise blank paper). we are receiving light of a certain color. they act to subtract wavelengths from an otherwise white source of light. This manipulation.wavelength. Trichromacy is also the source of our subtractive pri- maries —cyan. Divide the spectrum roughly into thirds and you get three light sources that we would the three colors add wavelengths—hence "additive color" —until you get call red. There are still a few more points to make about trichromacy. they also allow us to plot the relationships between colors by using the values of the three primaries Figure 1-11 Primary colors additive primary colors subtractive primary colors . Subtractive primaries. Second Edition wavelengths that tickle one or more of your eye's three receptors. Similarly. green." or a "blue-subtractor. Rather than adding wavelengths to black. In other words." or a "green.sub tractor. Color spaces. magenta. the term "cyan ink" is just a name for "long-wavelength-subtractor. The three primary colors not only allow us to define any color in terms of the amount of each primary.

You may find mentary this last convention handy for remembering compleif colors. tlic spectrum: wliy not CRB or YMCK7 Have you have that wondered why we have the convention RGB is always written in is that order (never GRB or BRG)? Similarly CMYK laid never written YMCK (except to specify the order in which inks are down. Thus RGB leads to CMY. cameras. green.Chapter 1: What Is Color? 21 as Cartesian coordinates in a three-dimensional space. where each pri- mary forms one of the three axes. duplicate the exact tristimulus response A colorimeter of human vision. you're working on a CMYK image with a RGB. which use film sensitive to red. green. When the "receptors" in these devices differ from our receptors. The additive primaries match under B because yellow subtracts complements a blue cast. greens. orange. later in this chapter.)> We also use trichromacy devices that simulate color vision. now you know why: order of increasing The colors of the spectrum are usually listed in frequency: red. blue. is blue). or when adding a twist to a certain Village People song). and violet — ROYGBV. cor- responding to the reds. For example. and blues. and can't remember which channel to adjust. This notion of color spaces is one you'll encounter again and again in your color management Relationship with ever travails. and blue incoming light into the three filters that break the primary colors. digital and blue regions of the spectrum. tries to which we'll describe later in this chapter. yellow. called metamerism. green. So ROYGBV leads to RGB. their subtractive blue cast. We discuss phenomenon. which use sensors (CCDs) with red. you increase Y. just write and then under (Y it CMY. Well. to make The most accurate of these are colorimeters. The additive primaries divide this spectrum roughly into thirds. and scanners cameras. the situation arises this where they see matches that we don't and vice versa. More common and examples of artificial trichromats are cameras. So to reduce Artificial trichromats (scanners. them to We write the subtractive primaries in the order that matches their additive counterparts (their opposites). etc. . or reduce both C and M.

it seems coun"yellow" is name for "yellow" than have a in a different. anomalous color vision involves the loss of color differentiation in pairs: a person with anomalous red response also loses discrimination in the greens. but seem to The Strange case of yellow. Stud- — ies have shown that more cultures have a name even for "blue" — and our own color naming reveals a sense that more fundamental category than. they are (Based on a painting by JosefAlbers) . plained by trichromatic theory. and blue not red. "cyan" and "magenta". in brightness and color. The same holds for blue and yellow of simultaneous contrast and afterimages 1 - —we can't imagine a yellowish blue. Figure 1-12 Simultaneous contrast The two Xs look dramatically different identical. terintuitive. green. and a person who has no blue response also has no yellow response. and blue. Other effects unexplained by trichromacy. Blue. yellow. but as shown by where they touch.Yellow Some fundamental features of human color vision not only are unexcontradict it. Many of us grew up with the myth that the primary colors are red. Second Edition Opponency: Red-Green. say.22 Real World Color Management. In fact. Even though Thomas Young first demonstrated that you can make yellow light by combining red and green light. Finally. it's difficult to imagine any color that is both red and green at the same time. The fact that we can't imagine a reddish green or a greenish red is evidence that something more is going on than just three independent sensors (trichromacy). The effects shown in Figures 1-12 and 13 are other examples —the absence of a color produces the perception (color bhndness) usually of its opposite.

and black. Why is blue-greens. Note that the colors are chosen to demonstrate green-red.Chapter 1: What Is Color? 23 Figure 1>13 Successive contrast • ••••• • ••••• • • • • • • ••••• • • • • • • ••••• • • • • • • ••••• • • • • • Instructions: stare at the white cross in the center of the upper image for a full minute. Experiments and yellows (orange). the afterimage should appear. and blue-reds that we can have reddishno reddish- (purples). but greens and no yellovdsh-blues?To say that something is both red and green is as counterintuitive as saying that something is both and dark at the same time.white opponency. and After a few seconds and some blinking. Then quickly look stare at the black cross. The opponent-color theory (also known as light at the same time the Hering theory) held that the retina has fundamental components that generate oonosite signals depending on wavelength. The kev point is that . yellow-blue. Opponency. down at the lower area. observations by Ewald Hering in the late it 1800s focused on these opponent pmrs.

red-green.24 Real World Color Management. the two theories were eventually reconciled into the zone theory of color. effect Reconciling opponency and trichromacy. but rather work as antagonistic or opponent pairs.dark. These opponent pairs are light-dark. red-green. The zone theory has held up of the retina. well as we continue to learn more about the layer structure and use simple neural-net models that explain how opponent signals can emerge from additive signals (see Figure 1-14). and a second layer of the retina translated these cone signals into opponent signals: light. Second Edition the color components in the retina aren't independent receptors that have no on their neighbors. While the advocates of the opponency and trichromacy theories debated for many years which theory best described the fundamental nature of the retina. This holds that one layer (or zone) of the retina contains the three trichromatic cones. and yellow-blue. producing opponent signals red or green flight to dark . Figure 1-14 Trichromacy and opponency in the retina First zone (or stage): layer of retina with three independent types of cones Second zone (or stage): signals from cones either excite or inhibit second layer of neurons. yellow-blue.

Or we say that the two colors under certain lighting or to a certain type of observer. which are used as the basis for color management computations. not as a workhorse for computer calculations for the graphic arts industry. Metamerism If referred to as a problem or as an "error" of human vision. a* (red-green opposition). but the important point here is that many of the CIE models such as CIE LAB used in Photoshop and in most color — management systems (CMSs) incorporate aspects of both trichromacy and opponency. metamerism is the phenomenon whereby two different color samples produce the ples" same color sensation. it's the feature that makes color reproduction possible. the observer viewing the two color samples. If all this opponency us assure about to make your head explode. In simple terms.Chapter 1: What Is Color? 25 Opponcncy and trlchremacy and trichromacy stuff is in the CIE models. the two samples may not match. Not only metamerism grammers love to say— not a bug. But— as proa feature. it's you've encountered the term "metamerism" you've probably heard it it's is inherent in trichromatic vision. if the objects are different but they produce the same "color" (the same color sensation). particularly when you consider that it was designed simply as a test of the reigning theories of color vision. cone So using LAB. or to a different observer. but it's very clever. — but it represents colors in terms of three values that represent three opponent systems: L* (lightnessdarkness). CIE LAB is based on the results of tristimulus experiments such as the one described in Figure 1-10. . In Chapter 2 we'll look at the CIE models of color vision. Achieving this wasn't simple. So. we can convert trichromatic measurements (measure- ments made with instruments that duplicate the responses of our receptors) to values in an opponent-color system. and b* (blue-yellow opposition). and surprisingly successful as a model. and it's far from perfect (as we will discuss in Chapter 2). remembering our light-object-observer definition of color. Under different lighting. By "different color sam- we mean two objects that have different spectral characteristics. are metameric Two spectrally different color samples that produce the same color sensations are called metamers. this match may be dependent on or (2) (1) the light illuminating both color samples. let you that it's very relevant to color management.

but not lighting. You may hear some people refer to "a metameric color. A printer with inks that were truly metamers of each other would be pointless inks would all —the appear to be the same color under some lighting condition. Second Edition You may run into different. What they really mean is that the inks have spectral properties that make their appearance change more radically under different lighting condi- tions than most other inks. The two color samples match under some. is Actually. but if they both get divided up between the three cone types. we can make them match —at least in some lighting conditions. The first statement focuses on the match that can be made using radically different spectra. metamerism when both of these events happen to the same pair of color samples. they appear to be the same color. It's highly unlikely that the two samples will have identical spectral curves. stimulating them in the same way." Relationship between two color samples. Two stimuli Why metamerism divides all may have radically different spectral energies. The second statement focuses on match is tenuous. happens. all.26 Real World Color Management. seemingly contradictory definitions of metamerism. Metamerism is always a metameric any more than it can be identical. or comparing a proof with a press sheet. many books give one of the following two definitions: Metamerism is when two color samples produce the same color sensation under certain lighting. . Metamerism happens because the eye incoming spectra into the three cone responses. Metamerism is when two color samples produce different color sensations under certain lighting. but thanks to metamerism. For example. — relationship between two color samples a single color sample can't be inks. The reason you need to understand metamerism is that virtually all our color-matching activities rely on makthe fact that the ing a metameric match between two colors or sets of colors —comparing a chrome on a light table with a scanned image on a monitor." or talk about a printer having "metameric but we think that this usage is both confusing and wrong.

same color experience.. viewed under light source B .Chapter 1: What Is Color? 27 In the terms of our light-object-observer model (remember Figure 1-1).. the color "event" is a product of three things: the wavelengths present in the light same observer . results in two different color experiences. . . so the samples that appear to match under source A produce a mismatch under source B. but the product of the the light reaching your eye from object get the A and object B produces the same cone response. ... Source B contains fewer red wavelengths than source A.. The same pair of color samples . then you same answer —the same color sensation (see Figure 1-15).to an observer with normal color vision . If the individual components. isn't What matters three. This is a metameric mismatch... .. (the and the way the wavelengths are divided among the three receptors cones in the eye). Figure 1-15 Tit'o different viewed under light source A Metamerism color samples result in the ... the uravelengths reflected from the object or surface.. Objects can only reflect those wavelengths that are present in the light source. This is a metameric match..

fails Many people first encounter metamerism as a problem —a color match different light- achieved at great effort under certain lighting under ing because of odd properties of certain inks or paper. it's just about impossible to know whether prospective customers will look at the catalog in daylight on their lunch hour. Fred has pairs of white jogging socks that match when he puts them on indoors. and hence color information. tailor the color if the match under a lighting conditions In theory. an error of our visual system. using only three types of sensors. But it's not. Ultimately. metamerism is what makes all. That's cises —when we match colors. at home under incandescent lighting. but when outdoors one looks noticeably bluer than the other. as some people describe. she could reproduction to that environment. catalog publisher knew the conditions under which the catalog would be viewed. More importantly for color management. Metamerism is your friend.28 Real World Color Management. or a handbag and shoes only — to find that they look different when viewed in daylight or home lighting. color reproduction possible at skin tones Metamerism lets us display yellows or skin-color on a computer monitor without dedicated yellow or . It's just an inevitable side-product of the clever solution evolution produced for deriving wavelength. If you've ever bought two "matching" tie and a handkerchief. You need make peace with metamerism. we're almost always creating a metameric why we use standard when we evaluate proof-to-press matches. probably (he theorizes) because they were washed separately using laundry detergents with ers. but in practice. different UV brighten- Catalog-makers cite as a common problem the fact that a clothing item shown in a catalog doesn't match the color of the item received by the customer perhaps a result of a metameric match that was achieved — in the pressroom that failed in the customer's home. metamerism problems are something we simply have if to accept as part of the territory. you've experienced metamerism. These examples illustrate the fragile nature of all color-matching exerspecific lighting condition. or curled up by a cozy fire under candlelight. Second Edition Metamerism in items in a store— a everyday life. under office fluorescent lighting. but like you're working in an extreme case — designing a menu under candlelight —you may want to test important matches under a to for a fancy restaurant that will be viewed mostly variety of viewing conditions.

this is what we have of the original do with sound reproduction duplicate the stimulus sound wavelength by wavelength. If a scanner's red.) If you think your ink to if — costs are high today. we'd have to reproduce colors by duplicating the exact spectral content of the original color stimulus. the color of this leaf in print without using a single drop ofgreen Without metamerism. a pair of samples may appear identical . imagine you had to have thousands of colors of ink instead of just four! Camera and scanner metamerism. and blue detectors respond differently than our I cone sensors. we can reproduce ink. but a different color sensation to a second observer. Metamerism lets us reproduce the green characteristic of chlorophyll (the pigment found in plants) without chlorophyll-colored ink —or even an ink we would call green (see Figure 1-16)! Figure M6 Metamerism in action Thanks to metamerism. the scanner can see a metameric match where you and see separate colors. green.Chapter 1: What Is Color? 29 phosphors. A pair is of color samples can produce one color sensation to one observer. but also on the specific dependent not only on the light observer viewing the two samples. (Incidentally. This "observer metamer- ism" is sometimes an issue with color management when the observer is one of our artificial trichromats. or conversely. We mentioned lationship that a metameric re- between two color samples source.

and we shall see in Chapter 8 that reason it's difficult to use a scanner as a measurement device for making profiles.. produces different The same pair of color samples ..30 Real World Color Management. if a film or digital camera has call this different sets of meta- meric matches than while there's little we do. measurements . 134. . because the scanner has a different color response . you need to be aware of it as an issue. Second Edition to us but different to the scanner (see Figure 1-17).. Figure 1-17 . (45. Similarly. by an observer with certain color vision .. . seen under light source A .1 19) The scanner sees two different colors. This is sometimes this is the called scanner metamerism. We see the same color....... and that color management can do about it. How scanner metamerism happens A pair of spectrally different color results in the same samples .40) ^^K .. ^^U (48. . under a scanner lamp the same as light source A . color experience..136. we would camera metamerism.

Linear response — light intensity light intensity b. Our non-linear responses tion across a what allow our sensory systems to funcin intensity huge range of stimuli. The degree of non-linearity varies are for different senses. this would be a straight line as in Figure you feel) to the brain. l-18a. To perceive something about twice as bright. The difference between of paper a piece of paper illuminated by daylight and the . and we would call this linear response. you don't taste it as twice as sweet. . This non-linearity intensity of a sound. same piece illuminated by moonlight is about 1 . If you put two sugar cubes in your coffee instead of your normal one. is common in human perception. we have to multiply the intensity by about nine! Figure 1-18 Linear and non-linear response 20 40 60 80 " 20 40 60 80 light intensity a.000. All this means is that our eyes don't respond in a one-to-one fashion to the intensity (the number light of photons reaching your eye as you might count them with a tion meter) by reporting brightness (the sensa- you don't see the light as twice as bright. When you double the intensity. if you drew a graph of intensity versus brightness. huge number of inputs have to map to a small number of outputs.000: 1 But nerve cells can respond (in the so a number ofnerve firings per second) only at a range of about 100:1. Instead the relationship between intensity and perceived brightness looks like the graph in Figure l-18b. Non-linear response — increased translates directly to brightness. light intensity produces progressively smaller increases in brightness. If you double the you don't hear it as twice as loud.Chapter 1: What Is Color? 31 Non-Linearity: Intensity and Brightness Another important property of the human visual system is that it's nonlinear. but they often shape as Figure l-18b. If things were that simple.

you can spond. while hue and saturation describe the quality of light ("what kind"). and glad to be that way!" Achromatic Component: Brishtness The term brightnessrefers to our perception of intensity (the number of photons reaching our eye). and if we view objects under monochromatic light. but again we still see differences in brightness. and optical density (OD). this simple curve resembles what mathematicians call a power curve. in part because we can detect variations in brightness even when there (or isn't enough light enough different wavelengths in the light) to see color. as tasty icing)." while color deals with "categorizing" these photons into differing types. hue. turning ized by its it into a straight line that can be character- you aren't familiar with logarithms. Of the three color attributes —brightness. which measures to how dark or light an object appears.32 Real World Color Management. our vision is produced by our rods. Brightness describes the quantity of light ("how much"). Detecting variations in brightness is the fundamental task of vision saturation. including decibels. The good news is that just because our response is non-linear doesn't it's complicated. see the sidebar. The non-linear nature of our response to light impinges on color management in several ways. Only Light. To relate these measurements to human perception. and — saturation ^we tend to think of brightness as different from the other two. re- So next time someone accuses you of being non-linear. We could have evolved a totally wacky response curve instead of the nice simple one in Figure l-18b. Instead. and Why Should I Care?") Many of the scales we use slope. "yes I am. . which have no color response." later in this chapter. everything takes on the color of the light. is itself. Second Edition Non-linearity lets our sensory systems operate over a wide range of envi- ronments without getting overloaded. but we can still see differences in brightness. On a dark night. (If measure perception are logarithmic scales. In fact. while color. established by hue and just icing (albeit some Vision is fundamentally about "counting photons. but the most important is that the various devices we use to measure light have linear responses. using mean the trick of graphing the logarithms of intensity and brightness simplifies the curve even more. we have to translate them from the linear realm of light to the non-linear realm of perception (see "We Cannot Truly Measure Color. which measure perceived loudness. "What's a Logarithm.

graph the logarithms of the values Figure 1-19 number scale (compressed) 4 1 A logarithmic scale logarithms Figure 1-20 — 1000 6 I 5 Till 7 8 9. derived that when you from sound gives and which non-linear response function that us a measurement of Logarithms are a nice way to deal with this problem. ' 1.000.000 lined numbers from up on a huge between (what's called a /og-/og graph).0 log of light intensity Logarithms turn the response curve into a straight line.000. but when buying a house you prob- ably don't care as difference much about the at the marks for 1. call values in the 100. Another example call a between $247. The a scale nifty thing is about such take a like logarithmic function intensity. For example. 20. set of values ranges from 1. when we mea- some physical value with the purpose of predicting how sort two numbers as the numbers get higher. which also a upper end are not only unwieldy. you'll probably if imagining all the to 1. etc. You from a measurement of intensity light and gives us is a mea- surement of perceived darkness. The numbers decibel.Chapter 1: What Is Color? 33 What's a Losarithm. example. etc. you might notice ticket between and 10 is the same as of logarithmic For is the distance between 10 and 100. they have an unnecessary amount of precision. and perceived loudness. and Why Should I Care? A logarithm is a handy way to express numbers that vary over huge ranges. 30. to 2. but between 10 and 100 you have tick marks for 10. the distance our nervous system perceives that stimulus. Instead of showm in Figure l-18b. For example."" I I I I I 200 I 300 I 400 I 600 I I I 800 I I _1 etc.637 and end up with a ruler that looks Figure 1-19.000 range.0 2.000 to 1. what we density when the price of a movie So between tick and 10 you have a logarithmic function derived goes up from $7 to $8. you when comparing we use some quantity. In this way. the result is a straight line again (see a to ruler so that the distance Figure 1-20)! any two numbers want much more compare 10 than precision when you values between 1 and will is always the same.000.638. like the unit is we $247. a logarithmic scale compresses the distance between any This sure is why. . 3.000. 2. 30 40 I 50 60 7080 S^.0 A log-log graph of Figure l-18b i 1 a.

but some more than others. contain many wavelengths. For most purposes. vs. The wavelength that appears in a color it "appears" because sample determines its hue. including the ones that lie at the heart of color management. . lightness. We discuss these models in Chapter Computers and Color. We've even seen hue is defined as "a color's color. can measure lightness and assign specific numerical values brightness is a subjective sensation in our heads. In other words. Second Edition So color scientists often speak of the achromatic and chromatic attributes of a source of light or color. but hue and saturation pertain only to color vision. independent of brightness. We stress the word may not be the actual dominant wavelength the — same response in the three cone types in our eyes as the perceived dominant wavelength would. and the chromatic attributes are those that we commonly associate with color. In is other words. Most mathematical models of human color vision. while Chromatic Components: Hue and Saturation Brightness is a property of all vision. from the chromatic attributes. lightness the brightness of an object relative to an absolute white reference." The most precise definition its that hue is the attribute of a color by All colors which we perceive most prevalent dominant wavelength. In color science. color vision. the two words eye's (non-linear) mean the in- perception of But the strict definition is that lightness is relative brightness. as distinct from the achromatic component Hue. There are multiple definitions for hue — some more vague than others. Defining the word hue as an independent component of color is like trying to describe the word "lap" while standing up. So lightness ranges from "dark" to "light" with specific definitions of black "dim" to "bright" and white as the limits. treat brightness separately 2. Together. Brightness brightness we draw a distinction between and same thing— they both refer to the tensity. lightness.34 Real World Color Management. they're known as the chromatic components of of brightness. while brightness ranges from with no real limits. it produces a metameric match to a monochromatic light source color sample simply has to produce the with that dominant wavelength. The distinction matters because we to it. The achromatic attribute is brightness as we perceive it independently from color.

purple. We give these names to a region of the spectrum. saturated. etc. saturation the extent to which that dominant wavelength seems contaminated by other wavelengths. yellow. fairly connection between hue and color names can be important to color reproduction. names by adding is qualifiers like bright. such as red. Saturation. The set tive. 520 For example. then we refine individual color pure. but pink or desaturated red. . is Thus. while those whose spectra consist of a narrow hump appear more saturated. pale. As you'll see later in this chapter when this we talk about psychological aspects of color. If how far it is from is hue is the perceived dominant wavelength. and so on. so they appear to be the same hue. orange. or neutral gray. Color samples with a wide spread of wavelengths pro- duce unsaturated colors. a laser with a sharp spike at (see Figure 1-21). but the narrow spectrum contains fewer contaminating wavelengths and hence appears more saturated.Chapter 1: What Is Color? 35 A more useful and equally valid definition of hue is that it's the attribute of a color that gives it its basic name. can be described as a pale of basic names that people use is quite subjecnot it — and varies from language to language and culture to culture. Saturation refers to the purity of a color. nm would be a totally saturated green ^ Fl9urc1>21 100% Spectra and saturation Two samples with same hue (peak wavelength = 520 nm) 400 nm 500 nm wavelength 600 nm 700 nm Both samples have the same peak wavelength. red a hue.

For example. Most hue diagrams and color pickers represent hue as an angle around some color shape.36 Real World Color Management. primary is None of the colors here is fully saturated. resulting in a color cylinder. saturation. the Apple color picker accessed from most Macintosh graphics applications shows a disk with neutral grays in the center and saturated pure hues at the edge. You choose colors by first picking a brightness value. and brightness. The disk is a cross section of the full space of possible colors. or double cone (see Figure 1 -22) . Figure 1-22 Hue Saturation (tint) Hue. Brightness is repre- sented as a third axis ranging from black to white along which all these cross sections are piled. Second Edition Representations of hue. saturation. sphere. so each disk all represents the colors at a single brightness level. and saturation as the distance from the center. and brightness All the colors here are fully saturated —at least one at level 255. .

We Cannot Truly Measure Color. but for now. The whole purpose of color management is ultimately to us produce a stimulus (photons. whether reflected from a photograph or magazine page) that will evoke a particular color) known response (the sensation of a on the part of those who will view it. an object. and things we can measure thanks to the people who have not only figured out the complexities of human vision but have modeled these complexities numerically. because computers are just glorified adding machines that juggle ones and zeroes on demand. and an — observer —but the color only happens in the mind of the observer. then choosing a point on the disk) disk representing the hue (the angle on the and the saturation (the distance from the center of the disk). We've pointed out that color is an event with three participants a light source. perceived color Fortunately. the best the stimulus measure —the light that enters the observer's eye and produces the sensation of color. . We can only infer the response that that stimulus will draw those inferences with a reasonable degree produce. One day we the may have both the technology and a sufficient understanding of human nervous system to be able to identify which of the zillions of we can do is electrochemical processes taking place in our heads corresponds to the sensation of fire-engine red. Computways we can count human perception. Only Light "Measuring color" is really an oxymoron. because Chapter 2.Chapter 1: What Is Color? 37 which takes you to a certain cross section. thanks to the work of several generations of color scientists. Fortunately. we're able to of certainty. numerical models first We'll look at the ers in more detail in and Color. but we need to look at the various photons and relate those measurements to they form the foundation for the models. we are ab\e to draw correlations between in the real world. We need numerical models to manipulate and predict color using computers. Measuring Color All the preceding knowledge about color would call fall into the category that "more interesting than relevant" if we couldn't draw correlations between what we expect people to see and things we can physiFred likes to cally let measure.

and filters they use. paper. we use densitometers to make sure that the press is laying down the correct amount of ink — if it's too little. how much light at each wavelength a surface reflects or transmits. the press isn't We also use densitometers to calibrate devices —changing their behavmake them perform optimally. The differences it — can't — between the three types of instruments spectrophotometers sensitivity of their detectors. and film absorb light.38 Real World Color Management. on your car. then using detectors to mea- sure the light that surface reflects or transmits. and if it's too much. in other words. Spectrophotometers measure the spectral properties of a surface. our customers. ior to We use densitometers to linearize imagesetters. we use densitometers to assure that prepress film is processed correctly. which is (to grossly oversim- The more plify) the art and science of ensuring that our various devices are behaving the way we want them to. ers. Densitometry De/25itomef7jplays an indirect but key role in color management. Second Edition We use three main types of instruments to measure the stimuli that observers —our clients. colorimeters. Colorimeters measure colorimetric values. or transparent surfaces allow to pass. the higher its density. and ourselves — will eventually interpret as color. —are the number and type of —densitometers. Density is the degree to which materials such as ink. We use densitometry as a tool for process control. In the pressroom. our audience. the print will appear washed out. The detector is just a photon counter determine the wavelength of the photons it is counting so the instrument must filter the light going to the detector. They all work by shining light with a known spectral makeup onto or through a surface. light one of these materials absorbs. platesetters. numbers that model the response of the cones in our eyes. In prepress. . the degree to which it reflective sur- faces absorb light. like doing a tune-up controllable and ink gets wasted. and proof- ensuring that they produce the requested dot percentages accurately. and the Densitometers measure density.

First. so reflected that the detector sees a flat gray. imagine a surface that reflects 100% of all the light that strikes it — a so-called perfect If dijfuser. Densitometers don't measure density directly. and black measure the dominant wavelength. though colorimeters and discuss calibration and spectrophotometers are more often used. or transmissive materials such as film. of their functions can be carried out equally well by a colorimeter or a spectrophotometer —but it's helpful to understand Reflectance (R) and transmittance (T). You may never use a densitometer —they're quite specialized.Chapter 1: What Is Color? 39 Some monitor calibrators are densitometers. and its density is 0. Measurement.0. yellow. magenta. they measure the ratio between the intensity of light shone on or through a surface. and so we consider other surfaces that reflect half the light. the human it eye has a non-linear. on. surement data using a logarithmic function. that you can only use a densitometer filter. Second. as we've seen. R. is 1. instead. logarithmic response to intensity. This ratio called the reflectance (R) or the trans- depending on whether the instrument measures reflective materials such as ink and paper. and second. Calibration. mittance (T). a logarithmic scale avoids long numbers when measuring very dark materials (such as prepress films). filters Pressroom denwavelengths they always sitometers. Density is computed from the meafor several reasons. Densitometers use filters that are matched to the color of the material you are measuring. is and the light that reaches the detec- tor in the instrument. This means first that you have to know and tell the densitometer exactly what it is measuring. have matched to the specific inks. we derive the foUovdng values: . to measure materials for which it has the appropriate Density Is a losarithmic function. and most what they do. for example. one-tenth the light. To see what this means. so a logarithmic density function correlates better to how we see brightness. which is one of the main functions of densitometers. process control in more detail in We Chapter 5. Its reflectance. correlates better with the thickness of materials like printing inks or film emulsions. and Process Control. so that by cyan. Third.

but thanks to the pioneer- ing work of the CIE.001 3.0001 0. a colorimetric model must do both of the following: Where a typical human observer sees a match (in other words. that can predict In other words.D.5 0. not only should they have different numeric representations in the model. its goal is to build a numeric when metamerism does or does not occur. The current models available aren't perfect.g.40 Real World Color Management. but the model should also be able to compute a color differ- ence number that predicts how different they appear to the observer.00001? fact.0 0. To be consid- ered a success.01 2. media (prints high-key) is or even images (low-key. expressed in terms of density units. me- tamerism) between two color samples.00001 Notice how a number like 5. Where a typical human observer sees a difference between two color samples. the colorimetric model has to represent both samples by the same numeric values. If CIE colorimetry is just so is much alpha- bet soup to you. the rest is ..0 0. Second Edition Reflectance (R) Density (D) LO 0.0 is far more convenient than 0.0 5. Colorimetry Colorimetry is the science of predicting color matches as typical humans model would perceived them. scanners and printers). the one key fact you need to know that the various CIE models allow us to represent numerically the color that people with normal color vision actually see.0 0. One of the characteristic requirements for a densitometer is that it has a very wide dynamic range. (optical density) For example.^ density) at dynamic range of a scan(minimum density) and D_^^ (maximum which the scanner can reliably measure brightness values.3 1. D (density) or O. Compared to that one insight. film). the ner is expressed in terms of the D^.0 4. typically abbreviated as . they're robust color enough to form the basis of all current all management systems. In the dynamic range of other devices vs. (e.1 OO 0.

the CIE system of colorimetry. The CIE colorimctrk system. The CIE XYZ Primary System is a clever definition of three imaginary primaries derived from the Standard Observer tristimulus response. So let's look at the body of work that forms the core of color management. but we'd be remiss if we didn't mention it. (The primaries are imaginary in that they don't correspond to any real light source — it's lates only our M or S cones—but the response they model result in the impossible to create a real light source that stimuis very real. can be created by adding the two colors in various proportions (see Figure 1-23). Most colorimeters use the 2 a W (1 93 1 ) Standard Observer. which we introduced at the beginning of this chapter. the two most important are D50 and D65. but there's also latter (1964) Standard Observer. it helps to have a basic understanding of these details.Chapter 1: What Is Color? 41 detail. Most modern colorimetry and all current color management systems are based on the colorimetric system of the CIE. but it if and why you want to really understand how color management works sometimes fails to work as expected. . The arose as a result of later experiments that used larger color samples that illuminated a wider angle of the fovea and found a slightly different tristimulus response. but in the graphic arts world. * all the colors we can see. or in plain English. This system contains several key features. Not only does every metameric pair cones same XYZ but the primary Y doubles as the average luminance function of the — so a color's Y value is also its luminance. It shows additive relationships —a straight line between two points represents the colors that and so the distances are distorted. We introduced you to the Standard Illuminants A through F. It's rare that you'll encounter the 10° observer. The CIE xyY diagram is a mathematical transformation of XYZ that makes a useful map of our color universe. But it's important to note that XYZ and xyY don't factor in the non-linearity of the eye.) values. The Standard Observer represents the full tristimulus response of the typical human observer. ^ Standard Illuminants are spectral definitions of a set of light sources under which we do most of our color matching.

in LAB has it largely replaced (it LUV most practical applications.2 . Second Edition The uniform color spaces (LAB.6 0. pretty darn useful. — a approximately the cube root of the luminance value Y (which is rough approximation Both attempt to create a space that is perceptually uniform distances between points in the space predict colors will appear to a —in other words. LUV) tances.8 ^r^O The xy chromaticity chart 0. the spaces also have and brightness. As a result. saturation. and while isn't perfect exaggerates differences in yellows it's and underestimates them in blues.4 0. of L*a*b*) our three opponent systems. and (in features that resemble hue. Both it's are two color spaces that were defined by the CIE in an attempt to reduce the distortion in color dis- compute the lightness value L*in exactly the same way of our logarithmic response to luminance). for example). the case how different the two human observer. but thus LAB has stood the test of time.42 Real World Color Management. far The quest for a perfectly uniform color space continues. Figure 1-23 y 0.

though some colorimeters let you switch between different illuminants (such as a D50 and a D65 option). Computers and Color. the uniform space. the Greek letter 'D' we commonly use Colorimeters. Fortunately. And in Chapter 3. Color Management — How It Works.Chapter 1: What Is Color? 43 Color difference (AE) calculations offer an easy way to compute the color difference between two samples. you'll see how colorimetry lets color management systems compute the numbers that we send to our various color-reproduction . CIE LUV. and produce numerical results one of the CIE color models. they're limited to a specific Standard Illuminant and Standard Observer. Most colorimeters have user-selectable you obtain the color's values in reporting functions that CIE XYZ. correlate well This value is human observer is will see. Colorimeters measure light through filters that mimic ap- proximately the in human cone let response. illustration. and then compute the disIf tance between them. Specifically. as well as measuring the AE value between two color samples. and page-layout files are fundamentally ambiguous as to the actual color they represent. While colorimeters are very flexible in their reporting functions. the systems we use to represent color numerically in our everyday management image. they have important limitations in the colorimetric assumptions they must make. because it allows us to define color unambiguously as it will be seen by humans. As you'll learn in Chapter 2. Colorimetry is the core of color management. CIE LAB. called Af — (pronounced "delta-E" delta to represent a difference). but they have no way of telling if that match is metameric dependent on the illumi- — nant —or if the samples really do have identical spectral properties that all would make them match under illuminants. or other colorimetric spaces. for most color-management purposes. computing a color match under a single illuminant is enough. Colorimetry and color management. tell Colorimeters can't detect metamerism. Colorimetry allows color systems to remove that ambiguity. plot them as points in you measure the two colors. that distance to the difference a will by definition. They can whether or not two samples match under the specific illuminant they use.

proofing systems. For now. Density is one impor- a single value that represents the total is number of photons reflected or transmitted. sometimes as narrow as 2 nm. just devices accept the fact that color management systems feed on colorimetry. and printing — presses to ensure that they reproduce the desired colors. desktop printers. the between the intensity of each wavelength of light shone onto a surface and the light of that same wavelength reflected back to the detector in the instrument. The spectrophotometers we use spectrum into 10 in the graphic arts typically divide the visible nm or 20 nm bands. with mea- sured by a densitometer and then converted tant difference. Figure 1-24 fj spectrum I A metameric pair . Spectral reflectance is similar to the reflectance (R) to density.44 Real World Color Management. Second Edition —monitors. but they're prohibitively expensive for the types of use we discuss in this book. Spectrophotometry Spectrophotometry ratio is the science of measuring spectral reflectance. Research-grade spectro- photometers divide the spectrum into a larger number of narrower bands. Spectral reflectance that represent the a set of values number of photons being reflected or transmitted at different wavelengths (see Figure 1-24). and produce a value for each band.

is a richer set of mea- surements than those captured by either densitometers or colorimeters. a spectrophotometer versatile Swiss is a Army knife of color measurement. So there's one caveat we'll make repeatedly in this book: while color management uses colorimetry for purposes of gathering data about . With spectral data. humans see color in context. would appear to match. A slew of for often named — the various color scientists phenomena have been documented by and who first documented — them. In general. But in most cases. against a specific background. but not the other way around. and usually more configurable than the densitometer or colorimeter at either task. In color management. but it's impor- tant to realize that our visual system has complex responses well to complex color events that the CIE models we currently use don't even attempt to address. though color management doesn't use this capability directly. Where the Models two Fail are pretty amazing. color management works astonishingly well. using them to match complex color events like photographic images. We can compute density or colorimetric values from spectral data.Chapter 1: Mhat Is Color? A5 Spectrophotometry and color manasement. viewed at a specific distance. a spectrophotometer's real value it is is that it can double as a densitometer or colorimeter or both. under a specific illuminant. we can also determine whether or not a color match is metameric. or characterizing the very spiky response of the red phosphor in a monitor. Spectral data has direct uses in graphic arts for —such as when some press shops check incoming ink differences in spectral properties— but spectrophotometers are more lots often used in color The spectral data spectrophotometers capture management as either densitometers or colorimeters. Color management takes these models well beyond their design parameters. Some- times a dedicated densitometer or colorimeter to a specific task may be better suited such as measuring the very high densities we need to achieve on prepress film. but it's The CIE colorimetric models important to bear in mind that they were designed only to predict the degree to which solid color swatches. but they typically point to one significant fact: unlike colorimeters and spectrophotometers.

much been less higher-lev- thought at all. . color constancy seems to be the result of center-surround fields similar to those responsible for opponency. Here are just a few visual phenomena that color management ignores. Sometimes a colorimetric match is great. Color is constancy. the center. But when it comes time evaluate results. In humans. our visual system picks up cues from surrounding objects and attributes that tion (the spectral energy) of the light change to the lighting. It doesn't involve memory. way to judge suc- A well-trained eye beats a colorimeter every time when it comes to evaluating final results. don't reach for your colorimeter as a cess. And sometimes two colors can fer colorimetrically and yet produce a visual match when we view them in context. Color Constancy Color constancy is one of the most important features of the visual system. but rather to achieve a pleasing image. sometimes referred to as "discounting the illuminant. the ultimate goal of color management is not to get a colorimetric match. even if the lighting conditions change.surround fields responsible for seem to be located in the visual cortex of the brain. but sometimes that match comes at the dif- expense of other colors in an image. Sometimes it's an 1-13) advantage to have an instrument that isn't distracted by these issues — to such as when you are collecting raw data on device behavior to feed to a color management system or profile maker. even if the wavelength composi- coming from the object changes. and it's so ingrained a mechanism that you're rarely aware of it. What may el surprise you is how basic a feature color constancy is to the nervous system. In fact. Features like simultaneous and successive contrast (see Figures 1-12 and and color constancy (see the next section) aren't modeled by colorimetry and can't be measured using a colorimeter. but seems to be rooted in low-level structures in our verified in animals with visual system. and more complex than those responsible for opponency." the tendency to perceive objects as having a constant color. not to the object. but instead of occurring in the second layer of the retina. color constancy has as simple a nervous system as goldfish (see Figure 1-25). Second Edition device behavior. In other words.46 Real World Color Manasement. as color constancy they're far opponency is.

When it's possible to render some it's but not of the colors with complete colorimetric accuracy. but they don't do so in the same way humans do. so they "discount the illuminant" and see the horse as white. Color constancy and color management. will faithfully record the greenish light that's filtered through the leaves and then reflected from the horse. While color management does not have a model of color constancy to work with. If a digital camera captures an image of it a white horse standing in the shade of a leafy tree. Cameras don't have color constancy. Film doesn't change is its response depending on the illumination in the to scene. Digital cameras with automatic white balance do change their response depending on the illumination in the scene.Chapter 1: What Is Color? 47 Figure 1-25 Color constancy Color constancy has been demonstrated in goldfish. This why a photographer has match the film response to the lighting. This is the difference be- tween what we 3. The important thing for color management to do is to preserve the relationships between colors in an image. producing a picture of a green horse. often . But even when a device like a scanner does measure the colors surrounding an isolated sample. call perceptual and colorimetric renderings (see Chapter Color Management all —How It Works) . They duplicate the tristimulus response of the eye to isolated colors while ignoring the surrounding colors. Devices don't have color constancy. Similarly. But humans know there's no such animal as a green horse. colorimeters can't measure color constancy. the exact nature of color con- stancy is so complex that that we don't yet have a usable mathematical model would let color management compensate for it. it can do many things without it.

have the choice between setting your monitor to you usua D50 or D65 white point.48 Real World Color Manasement. of everything ally else. Second Edition perceptually than to more pleasing to render them all with the same inaccuracy render some faithfully and some not. If the neutrals are off. but it's hard to pinpoint why. is one reason why neutrals are important: neutrals the especially highlights in a printed picture that take their color from the paper form the reference point for colors.) Many people choose D50 in order is to match the exact white point color of the viewing environment. Psycholosical fodon: G>lor Names and Memory Colon Now we turn to the psychological attributes of color. (Monitor calibration. or even than. more important —color constancy does a lot to adapt to temperature. which D50 lighting booth. Names and color reproduction. tributes Some of these psychological at- may be learned. If nothing else. It takes training to "ignore" color constancy and say. we defined hue as the attribute of a color by which it gets its basic name. the Color constancy — — entire image appears off. it sets a minimum bar for reproduction quality. even is if the D50 monitor colorimetrically closer to the levels Matching brightness between two viewing environments may be as important as. But we. along with many other practitioners. Earlier in this chapter. matching the color temperature slight differences in color D50 lighting booth. when calibrating your monitor. We're gen- erally fussier about discrepancies in hue than we are about discrepancies in brightness or saturation between a target color and its reproduction. "the neutrals are blue" when your visual color conisn't system is trying to say. but you don't need to understand these details to understand this point. recommend D65 because we think you'll be happier looking at a bright usually a white D65 monitor than a dingy yellow D50 one. and the differences between D50 and D65 white points. But these attributes relate to the way we talk about color in our language. but may be one of the most important things to remember about color reproduction. These involve aspects of judgment that are not well understood." A final point about color constancy and color management: important as some people think. It still is stancy presents an argument that the color temperature of lighting as important. "the neutrals are neutral. are described in Chapter 6. This connection be- tween hue and basic names isn't just a philosophical nuance. . but not at the expense For example. Some may even be cultural.

Figure 1-26 A color and a COLOR! . perhaps because they — now have a way to articulate it. but a sweater went a unless the picture is little too red. And you have be aware of where color management needs your help. Even colorimetrically perfect. or your sky crosses a tad into the purples then people notice the hue shift more. As our friend (and color-management the left critic) Dan Margulis likes to say. but the one on the right is a COLOR. the color on of Figure 1 a color. so color management sim- ply can't address them. Even the best color management for must leave room to human intervention at strategic points. there are psychological aspects of human color percepmodel mathematically. effect that all graphic artists are aware of is that memory colors. some colors are more important if is to get "right" We is put "right" in quotes because our ingrained everything memory of these colors if if often quite inaccurate. Memory of colors. the skin the skin tones aren't what the viewer expects. in a sweater catalog. are very familiar with. tones fit the expectation. These colors matter more than a strong we have such -26 is memory of them. few people will notice. or sky blue that others because we These are the colors such as skin tones. you can begin to look for the source of the problem (too much yellow ink in the reds or too much magenta One in the blues).Chapter 1: What Is Color? A9 enough or between a displayed color and to cross its print. The good news is that this is often the first — step in solving the problem by being able to put a name to the hue shift. the image looks "wrong". The fact evaluation of the quality of a color reproduction that is weighted by the than others. as we'll be pointing out throughout the book. In tion that we can't (yet) summary. If the hue is different some intangible boundary between color names —such as when your reds cross slightly into the oranges. green grass.

Blue-Yellow. (See the section. which has no yellow color. "Colorimetry") Colorimetry isn't perception. "Trichromacy: Red. (See the section. These will be obvious to viewers and signal a significant problem. (See the section "Psychological Factors: Color Names and Memory Colors. Blue. not absolute..") Watch for hue shifts that move a color into a different color name category. . (See the section.. . With practice. and there are COLORS (COLORS have different values to us emotionally). Color manage- ment is based on mathematical models of color closeness provided by colorimetry. blue response. The visual system has a tremendous ability to adapt. . you can recognize all colors as mixtures of red. "Psychological Factors: Color Names and Memory Colors. green. If you want to reduce the yellow in an its RGB image. Second Edition Lessons for Color of the We conclude this long chapter on color science with a summary of some main lessons we should keep . This is an important point to understand when we look at the difference between colorimetric and perceptual renderings. "Color Constancy") . Green. "Metamerism. the channel. Management in mind for color management. (See the section. you can increase opponent blue channel.. and blue. Train yourself to see your red. red-green opponencies. green. (See the section. Relationships between colors are more important than the colors themselves.. (Again. "Color Constancy") but it's Watch out for fluorescence with certain papers or inks.") Colorimetry is the basis for the quantification of colors. "Fluorescence. or when making scanner profiles.") There are colors. (See the section. Lighting is important our eye is best designed to work under certain conditions .") management.50 Real World Color Management.") Metamerism color is the basis for color matching and hence the basis for (See the section.") Train yourself also to think in blue-yellow. see the section. "Opponency: Red-Green.

we'll represent color. what we're but rather the stimulus that evokes the light hitting our retinas. 1. reality is Applying mathematical models to ticularly so color. and show how. but the examine the various number systems we use to numbers mean. They're just glorified adding machines that juggle ones and zeros to order. When we color talk measuring sensation of color— the makeup of the correlate light isn't really itself. but as far as it Newton. In this chapter. always tricky. we need some kind of mathematical model of color. discoveries about color. but it's par- when dealing with something as slippery and subjective as Sir Isaac The great mathematician. 51 . many ways we use numbers on the computer is to represent To do that. Instead he went onto simpler subjects like inventing calculus and discovering the mechanical laws of the universe.Computers and Color Color by the Numbers Computers know nothing about color except what we humans tell them. about measuring color. One of the color. explain what these color management. without set of correlation isn't perfect. made many important we know he never tried to model mathematically. the same numbers will produce very different colors in different situations. pens in our heads— In Chapter we explained that color it's is really something that only hapdifferent the sensation we experience in response to wavelengths of light. We can measurements with the color people experience.

green. you send the same to 20 different differ- RGB file to 20 different monitors. Second Edition Color by the Numbers In the previous chapter. we work with red. but we do so in- — and background cyan absorbs red magenta absorbs green — hence the term "subtractive" primary colors. You can readily see this in any store that You'll see sells television sets. but its rather a recipe for color that each device interprets according to capabilities. yellow absorbs blue light. (See the sidebar "Why CMYK?") Unfortunately. green. M. green. we do so by and digital manipulating In the case of true RGB devices such as monitors. scanners. not color. you'll get 20 slightly (or in some cases. and Y. and B or C. light. They're receiving the ate different visible results. or. and blue light. and blue light directly. When we reproduce color on a physical device. —the "additive" primary it's colors. So CMYK numbers as tuned for a specific device. green. all) digital color is encoded to represent varying amounts of either R. using CMY pigments to subtract these wavelengths from a white light Most G. whether a monitor. cameras. in Y. You can think of an RGB or CMYK file as containing. directly. With film and printing. Likewise. you'll almost certainly if get 20 slightly different dishes as a result. or a printed page. we explained how it's possible to produce all the and blue light colors people can see using only red. commercial printing and some (but not and K (for BlacK).52 Real World Color Management. C. a piece of transparency film. red. and blue light. and makes and models. or the same CMYK file presses. of various all tuned to the same station. all producing somewhat different colors. CMYK models Neither was designed as an accurate mathematical descrip- tion of color: they're really control signals that we send to our various color devices to make them produce something that we eventually experience you should always think of RGB or as color. we still manipulate red. M. This even same recipehut their different characteristics generhappens within the same make and originated in the analog rather than the model of television. desktop printers. The RGB and digital world. . If you give own 20 cooks the same recipe. these mathematical models of color are quite ambiguous. more than slightly) ent images. 20 televisions all lined up.

and why three-color black on a printing press is the key because it's it's usually a muddy You may also wonder why see. such as adhering to the paper and each other. Since black a greenish the cyan. M. Whatever the reason. Photographic dyes CMYK rather than CMYB. A combination besides color. as neutrally as possible. satisfy ring to black as "B" would lead and theory. but inks and toners. and until pre-press went digital in the 1970s. and neutral-density (for the black plate) filters. magenta. There's with we print CMYK. This almost invariably something we personally encourage. as our friend and col- So to get a better black that objects we're aware of in this uni- absorb as much light as pos- league Herb Paynter would say. use black ink. sible. and yellow versions. darkest color. The earliest scanners used analog RGB signals. was the easiest way to make the transition to but not necessarily the best way. But it's an ingrained.Chapter 8: Computcn and Color 53 Why CMYK? Vy^y CMYK rather than CMY? In come for close. general agreement that refer- Analog Origins The numbers in RGB and CMYK files don't really represent color. in our view. Press op- red light just as pure magenta and different physical requirements erators often refer to cyan yellow fully absorb green and blue light respectively. incorrect and not of perfectly pure cyan. magenta. which of course. time- honored change practice. . hill that ain't worth dyin' on. is that it re- some light is reflected instead is fers to "key" — the it's master plate is of being absorbed. and being affordable. but the likeliest. In short. Another good reason for printing with black ink is that black-only objects such as text are a lot easier to print why "K" was chosen. When we started making color we simply used digital RGB and digital CMYK to mimic their anait log predecessors. drying in a reasonable length of time. magenta is. not with CMYB. Instead. they represent the amounts of colorants— the things our devices use to make a color. we to There are various theories as When one 100% more colorants aren't pure. and trying to would see as black see all — the only perfectly black we or (if they could involves purity. This why when to which the other three colors the usually used as the easiest to many toner-based devices have three-color black. The colorants are simply not perfect. which people it being fade-resistant. as blue and red. have to many to confusion with Blue. Y. CMYK. digital color. CMYK separations were made optically by photographing the original art through C. pure cyan absorbs 100% of example. CMYK printing has cess since the early been around as a mass-market commercial pro1920s. which can't see directly). absorb and yellow colorants would all light. brown. Both RGB and CMYK v^ere used in the analog v^orld long before they were translated to the digital world." "a verse are black holes. which was used to expose made. The scanners' RGB signals were typically converted directly to analog film ft-om which printing plates were digitally. will compromising the color it is. you don't have to perfectly align are registered.

and the phosphors can vary substantially even in a single manufacturing batch. and it's highly unlikely that any two monitors will produce the same color from the same signal. phosphors But the precise color that the monitor produces depends on the type of phosphors used. and blue light. Factor in individual preferences for brightness and contrast settings. even if they're two apparently identical monitors bought on the same day. green. and light. green.54 Real World Color Management. When we capture color with a scanner or digital camera. Phosphors are chemical and mineral compounds that emit light when they're struck (the technical term is excited) by a beam of electrons. and blue M m . but there are at least five quite different phosphor sets in common use. hence produce different colors (see Figure 2-1). green. All monitors' recognize as red. we can make the phosphors emit more or less red. Each sensor puts out a voltage proportional to the amount . the specific circuitry and other characteristics of the monitor. Second Edition Monitor RGB. and blue filters. Figure 2-1 Monitor phosphors red light green light blue light red. we do so using monochromatic light-sensitive sensors and red. and blue By varying the strength of the electron beam. Scanner RGB. their age. green. respectively. When we display color on a monitor. green. Color monitors use three different phosphors painted on the inside of the faceplate that emit red. phosphors produce something we and blue. and even the strength of the magnetic field in which is the monitor located. we do so by spraying streams of electrons that strike phosphors.

the dots regular. G. and they also change with age. Printer CMYK. magenta. with it's scanning-back cameras. Figure 2-2 CMYK halftone In a conventional In a CMYK diffusion of is CMYK halftone. as error diffusion or stochastic screens. and B." Dots. variously is known size. The precise scan- ner or camera creates from a given color sample depend on the of the light source and the transmission characteristics of the makeup As filters. So devices will produce the very unlikely that two capture the same RGB values from same color sample. . and the illusion of different tonal and the illusion of different tonal values is values is produced by of the dots.1 by varying the dot placement. and the light source in a digital camera capture can range from carefully controlled studio lighting to daylight that varies from exposure to exposure. but tints. the dots vary in size to produce the various shades or printers and Many desktop some commercial press jobs use different types of screening. with monitor phosphors. yellow. and black ink. When we print images on paper. or even. Scanner lamps also vary both from vendor to vendor and with age. and we encode those analog digital values a voltages as digital values of R. scanner and camera filters vary from vendor to vendor. dot placement is dither. and on the next page). we usually do so by laying is down dots of cyan. Dithers.Oiaptcr 8: Computers and Color 55 of light that reaches it through the filters. where each dot the same and the color is varied by printing a greater or smaller number of dots in a given area (see Figure 2-2. "Pixels. and the sidebar. the size regular. over the course of a single exposure. - produced varying the size . the spacing constant from the center of one dot to the next. In traditional halftone screens.

pro- 600-dpi laser printer can print. and the state of the press operator's diet and marriage." But the precise color that the printer produces depends on the color of the inks. we arrange print- rather than just on or This tion of the dots. ply as a "conventional halftone. present or absent. constant-density dots using put devices are not continuoustone. prevailing wind. but that's another story! So it's very unlikely that two different printing devices will produce the same color from the same set of CMYK values. Second Edition Pixels. Rather. or Pixels represent varying levels not print. We make duce the digital printers pro- halftone A monitor is an example of a digital hard. blue. the color of the paper stock. The holes in the screen acted as pinhole lenses. Wherever possible we try to avoid and Dithers Back folks either on or off. Each dot has the same density the only — of dithering. prepress nitpicking about terminology. simulate the traditional ana- continuous-tone device." or simis way of arranging the dots in a pattern that dots of ink or toner. both chemically way the and physically. humidity. of density.56 Real World Color Management. This type of dither log halftone by turning dots also known as "AM (Amplitude Modulation) screening. Instead of pixels. A single pixel can not make that same decision 2400 Most presses tal still use this kind only be red. able dots into larger groups called where we get the term continuous tone. be- per inch in which the printer can either print a dot. — each location. they print some kind isn't of dithering —a on and off in a cell. Dots.copy out- illusion of continuous We cells or halftone spots. density and equally spaced. green. green. A a screen like the ones you find on a screen door. but have different intensities of red. is thing we can control is the loca- platesetter. which describes the number of locations originals to halftones — a kind of and "ppi" dither where the dots are constant- per inch) interchangeably inevitably leads to confusion. Digital printers' resolution is in the analog days. we can only tell the output device whether or not to print a dot at projecting the original onto plate material through color filters on using the term "spi" (samples per inch) rather than dpi when discussing scanner resolution that's nitpicky. and blue at the same time. but ex- converted continuous-tone the practice of using the terms "dpi" (dots per inch) (pixels pressed in dots per inch. while a 2400-dpi imagesetter has to ducing large dots in the dark areas and small ones in the light areas. which are obvious to the eye. 600 dots per linear inch. But most tone by arranging these equally sized. or dyes. Color laser printers and color copiers are very susceptible to humidity change. or not print a dot. . but to make its a digi- halftone on an imagesetter or and off. Inkjet printers commonly show color shifts over time (most obvious in neutrals) when ink and paper aren't appropriately matched. the color can vary with temperature. varying in size to produce the illusion cause dots and pixels are distinct entities with different properties. pigments. ink. times per linear inch. We can't vary the density of of darker or lighter shades —by and Some digital mavens insist nor can we vary the size of the dot. and the colorants interact with the paper. On a com- mercial press.

devices such as televisions. and phosphors and filters baked in chemical labs." Because of the pattern generated with AM screening. and digital cameras to this day. (See "Tone Reproduction Characteristics. mirrors.Chapter 8: Computers and Color 57 Halftoning converts continuous tone images. can occur with multiple inks when their "screens" conflict Dye sublimation and photographic output methods are con- Digital Evolutions The point of the previous section is that RGB and CMYK are fundamentally analog concepts —they represent some amount of colorants: the dyes. dyes." "sto- fewer dots dispersed farther apart. but since small variations in press behavior are exaggerated no is dots). for hence the term "screen angles. also goes by names gether while the lighter areas have algorithms can affect what we see compared to what was such as "FM screening" and chastic screening. scanners. phosphors. of halftoning sometimes called used on most occasionally Inkjet printers." later in this chapter.) able experience using FM screens. The effect of screening A different kind of halftoning. and pigments on sheets of mashed wood pulp that we call "paper. so dots." toning. undesirable artifacts premium jobs in shops that have gained consider- produce different tonal renderings. RGB have analog components inks. screen to avoid these conflicts. because different screening algorithms will as a carryover from making plates screening than by AM screening. Darker put is more often than not created with dots. lenses. from pixels into dots so the with each other. by ensuring that we print the profiling target using the same screening we common for printing presses much more by FM it's plan to use for production. measured and predicted by the color The more random nature of FM AM screening varies the size of the dots. monitors. The other kind of error diffusion or dithering. and for the forseeable future. CMYK printers still with the idiosyncracies of chemical inks. but not their location. FM not dots. but the final out- screening varies the location of the dots. This type of halftoning ing algorithm into account when we color-manage a device. such as digital files or scans. So we need to take the screen- Darker areas have larger dots and lighter areas have smaller dots (or continuous tone. screening gives high-resolution Inkjet output the appearance of management system (CMS). and management is that ICC-based color management only works on pixels. is The importance of this to color example. Combating this necessitates rotating each ink's sidered continuous tone because the colorants' density can be controlled. FM screening is sometimes used on press. areas have more dots closer to- error diffusion. ordered dither or "conventional halftone dot" in addition to the on presses too." . aren't needed. all —things deal that vy^ork in terms of continuous voltages: magnets. or filters we use to control the w^avelengths of light. but not their size. usually limited to through a "screen. aforementioned "AM screening". and therefore half- image can be reproduced on an Inkjet printer or a printing press. The best-known type is FM screening.

First. The Darwinian force that drives this evolution is. incremen- Companies usually produce products that are small over previous technologies —despite what their marketing brochures of products improvements say. and (most importantly from the point of view of color management) repeatable and predictable.58 Real World Color Management. has on the next page). Over the years we've seen more and more analog components replaced by digital. All of these benefits translate directly into monetary savings. because of this incremental evolution. New products and subcomponents old must coexist with old. . Imagesetters evolved from the analog methods of imaging film using photographic techniques —for example. Second Edition RGB and CMYK numbers are nevertheless numbers. and new technologies must be usable by people who have worked with components for years. Nowadays. but these imagesetters still needed traditional analog darkroom equipment. and because creating an analog proof from the film was the only affordable method in place for creating a contract between the print client and printer (premium jobs sometimes use actual press proofs for proofing only —in effect. money. digital RGB and CMYK are often designed to mimic their analog predecessors." However. aspects of But why did we need film at all? therefore not expendable) printing presses Because extremely expensive (and had almost as expensive platemakers that required film for platemaking. the output device that generates the film used to image plates for offset lithography. has odd little idiosyncracies that might not be there if the things had been designed from the ground up to be digital. devices. and photographically velop the film. this evolution. This analog photographic process was replaced by computers controlling lasers that precisely exposed the film microdot by microdot. This made them ripe for adoption into the digital age where numbers themselves take the form of bits and bytes (see "How the Numbers Work. However. chemistry. The result has been that digital color-reproduction equipment often or mostly digital. projecting a photographic negative through a produce a halftone image (hence the terms "screening" and fine screen to "screen frequency"). it's But keep in mind two things about tal. very simply. however. —but they're brutally expensive). separate press runs . cheaper. An example is the evolution of the imagesetter. bit by bit. Second. skilled technicians to de- even the darkroom processing was all replaced by digitally controlled processor units that control film development. . Digital components are faster. .

The number of tone levels in our encoding usually 256.Chapter S: Computen and Color 59 as platemaking film itself is and digital proofing technologies become more reliable. and blue in various intensities— and then we adapt model for storage. being skipped (with obvious cost benefits). tones. management analog alters the numbers to compensate for the behavior of the various components. to correspond to our basic three- primary way of seeing system is colors. for a moment and examine the systems we use for represent- more accurately. this We start with a simple model of color efficient computation. and the digital process itself. As such. the strengths and weaknesses of color management lie entirely in how well our digital manipulations model the behavior of all. including that most important analog "device" of the viewer's eye. Even if you're extremely familiar with the ba- worth reviewing as we make a few key points about the difference between colors-as-numbers sics of bits. and transportation on computers. behavior of color-reproduction devices. But we should examine the — the numbers—a digital part of digital color bit more closely. which propagates into confusion about color management. encoding —colors as numbers in a computer. The number of channels in our encoding system is usually three. the analog parts. How the Numbers Work Let's — ing pause or. and colors. bytes. this section is and colors as "Real World" experiences. green. few points that often confuse We'll take this the opportunity to clarify a people about the basics of digital color. is being extended from the computer right up to the platesetter digital even including rollers. That's — perception the fact that colors are mixtures of red. In a moment we'll examine the key parameters that describe the analog first. to correspond to the minimum number of tone levels . platemakers that image the plates right on the press What does all It this mean for digital RGB and CMYK numbers and color management? numbers exercised by color management are only as good as their ability to means that all the digital computation and control of the Digital color model the behavior of analog components. The system computers use ally encoding colors as numbers is actuquite simple: colors are comprised of channels. and each channel is for it! subdivided into tone levels.

60 Real World Color Management. Second Edition we need to create the illusion of continuous tone—to avoid the artifacts known as banding or posterization. where a viewer can see noticeable jumps between one tone Figure 2-3 level and the next (see Figure 2-3). some tonal detail is lost. we see banding in the gradients and in the sky. and we of start to see hints posterization. Levels and posterization 256 shades ofgray provides the illusion of continuous tone. With only 64 shades ofgray. With only 128 shades ofgray. .

to This quantity it's perfect for storing a character of type. So why not encode only 200 levels? Why 256? For two reasons. It turns out that the number of tone levels needed to produce the effect of a smooth gradient is about 200 for most people. computation. display. The number of colors encodable with 256 tone levels in each of three channels is 256 x 256 x 256. but crops up so many times in computers and color that it. essential for color management — to have some extra tone levels in our data so that the inevitable losses of tone levels at each stage of production (scanning. The third reason in surefire to get our skies and blotches we go with eight bits is that computer storage is already organized is terms of bytes. is the minimum is number of bits we want to store per channel. or (if you pull out your calculator) about 16. Eight bits lets us encode 256 tone levels (2®). bits would us encode only 128 tone levels in which would be a way banding on the cheeks of our fashion models. storing eight bits for each of the three channels gives us 24 bits total (which why many people use the terms "8-bit color" and "24-bit color" interchangeably to mean the same thing). It's worth making not your peace with not that mysterious. editing. printing) don't reintroduce banding. BHs. conversion.Chapter 8: Computers and Color 61 Why 256 it Levels? some it's This number. Engineers love those cosmic coincidences! Millions of Colors So 8-bit encoding. which gives us just enough. plus a little headroom. which can be any of 256 letters and punctuation marks in a western alphabet —that of it seems a cosmic coincidence encode tone that a byte is also the perfect amount memory levels for the human visual system.8 million for colors! Quite a lot of encodable colors our 24 bits (or three little bytes) of storage! . We want to be able to represent is enough tone levels so that the step from one tone level to the next visible to the viewer. of eight bits already so useful — for example. Seven is just that let we use bits to represent these tone (2^). seems arbitrary and mysterious to people. Headroom. where a byte is a unit of exactly eight bits. with its 256 tone levels per channel. level The second reason numbers. With RGB images. 256. It's useful — in fact.

we need fewer) but because it's natural to dedicate a channel to each of the four inks. not because we need more encodable colors (in fact. All that matters is that each perceivable color has a unique encoding. . either by adding channels or by increasing the number of bits For example. numbers like 256 or 16. with computer color the number of number of reproducible colors. When you look at how those numbers are actually interpreted by a device. . only 8-bit or 16-bit to files). because we store files in whole bytes. so there are always more encodable colors than we need — ^just as the phone com- pany must ensure that every telephone has a unique telephone number. Similarly. 12-bit. the set of numeric color definitions we have available. or 14-bit files. just as in the San Francisco Bay Area there are far more telephone numbers than there are actual telephones." and "14-bit" scanners— although. Second Edition Although this basic 3-channel.") So while it's useful to understand how the numbers work—why we see by a color device as colors. scanners. 8-bit encoding is the most common be- cause it's based on human capabilities." "12-bit. there are no 10-bit. . we can always expand our encoding model to handle it. we often go from 8-bit to 16-bit encoding when saving images captured with a scanner capable of discerning more than 256 levels of RGB (the so-called "10-bit. it far exceeds the number of perceivable colors. —don't forget that precise in- they're just numbers until they're interpreted In the next section we'll look at what gives the numbers a the terpretation as colors. we can easily expand it as needed to encode more colors for devices other than the human eye. We make this point because it's a key step to understanding the dif- ference between colors as abstract numbers and how those numbers are actually rendered as colors by "Real World" devices —printers. things that color management systems need into color to measure to know how to turn number management management. so it had better have more telephone numbers than it really needs. we increase the number of channels from 3-channel to 4-channel encoding. is all A key point remember is that this talking about the number But of encodings.8 million crop up everywhere . the number of actual "Real World" colors. when we're preparing an image for a CMYK printer. In fact. And even if we make devices encodable colors far exceeds the such as high-end scanners that can "perceive" more tone levels than the human eye. drops dramatically! (See the sidebar "Color Definitions and Colors. we store for each channel. etc.62 Real World Color Management. monitors. These are the analog parts of our color devices.

and bit depth as the and K to those four chan- These number to of steps that staircase if nels. but here we'll the basic parameters that vary from device to device. we mentioned that with the colors intended for a printer are naturally additional tonal levels to the CMY 8-bit ones. CMYK is far less than 4. a example. more than the 256 tone encodable in eight bits. so there's a lot of Some scan- ner vendors may actually claim between the two. The tone reproduction characteristics of the colorants. Y. input devices (scanners and digital eras). The three main variables are The color and brightness of the colorants (primaries) . The color and brightness of the white point and black point. For example. Now one could argue K values contribute that these "high-bit" scanners give a larger that the extra number of colors. For range. Obviously. many of the with the scanner's dynamic possible (which we do. assign the interpretations C. but when As another example. but this starts to get way dynamic range is an analog to bit CMYK in more complicated than we need to get here. this contains. SOY. dynamic range into more You can think of we M. In fact. vary in certain basic parameters. or even 14-bit capability. Why the Numbers Vary In the coming chapters we'll look at the specifics of measuring the behavior of display devices (monitors). we mentioned that there are scanners that claim to be able to see far discrete steps. Higher depths simply allow us more editing flexibility by slicing the device's bit 256 X 256 or 4.3 billion able colors?! Theoretically. we realize that the fourth (K) doesn't tout 10-bit. encodings represent the color. we want channel seem to add Many people confuse keep the steps as small as many colors. white to darkest dark in which the scanner can distinguish tonal variation reliably.3 billion encodings. OY. yes.Chapter S: Computen and Color 63 Color Definitions and Colors Lots number of people confuse the of color definitions redundancy. These are the things you'll profiles. Does 8-bit really represent CMYK encod- number of encodable colors do with 256 x 256 x in 8-bit billion. DM. Four arbitrary channels produce 4. Let's just say that the total limitation of the capture device encoded and has nothing whatsoever four channels. OK theoretically en- higher dynamic range needs more steps than a smaller one. levels dynamic range as the height of a staircase. . 50K. but there's no direct relationship codes the same shade of gray as DC.3 depth. to avoid CMYK same 50M. 12-bit. cam- and output devices look briefly at All devices (printers and proofing systems). 50C. This dynamic range than is nonsense the — channels. the range from brightest posterization or banding). measure if you are making your own and which must remain stable for your color management system to work effectively.

64 Real World Color Management. They're aren't new to color management or unique to digital all variables introduced by analog components like inks on paper. The exact color of the colorants determines the range of colors the device can reproduce. but. most obvious factor that affects the color a device can reproduce are the colorants it uses to do so. ability to which simply their absorb light. the primaries are the phosfilters phors. but also how bright they are. the primaries are the through which the sensors see the image. This is called the color gamut of the We care not only about the precise color of the primaries. and filtered sensors in scanners. Figure 2-4 Subtractive primary and secondary colors C M Y M+Y C+Y C+M . Colorants (Primaries) The first. or In a printer. Second Edition These concepts devices. and Cyan+Magenta) as well (see Figure 2-4). In is technical terms we often refer to the density of the primaries. Cyan+Yellow. manufacturing. In a scanner or digital camera. phosphors and analog voltages in monitors. On a monitor. because the subtractive color in in CMYK printers is a bit more complicated than the additive color RGB monitors. While digital components rarely vary much. the primaries are the process dyes laid down on the paper. device. analog compo- nents vary a great deal in design. we usually supplement measurements of the primaries with measurements of the secondaries (the overprints —Magenta+Yellow. toners. and condition. inks.

M. With the white point. we often sacrifice some brightness during monitor calibration to get the color of the white point correct. This is because the density of black determines the limit of the dynamic range. as we'll see in Chapter 6. while with the black point they're more concerned with the density (the darkness) of black. the subtle changes in brightness levels that a rich. we can ly talk about both color and density of either the white point or the black point — the difference is is only a matter of emphasis." On a monitor. satisfying image and a flat. On a printer. involuntary task performed by your eye. and Y inks. the range of brightness levels that the device can reproduce. we can improve both the color and the density of the black point by adding our friend K to the CMY colorants. when looking at a printed of the white point is page. Adding K lets us pro- duce a more neutral black point than we could with our somewhat impure C. they're usual- concerned with the co/or of white. The color of the white point more important than its density because the eye uses the color of this white as a reference for all other colors. so the color of white is This why. it's important to remember that the color determined as itself. the more important than its color. Books (and people) often talk about the white point and black point in very different terms: with the white point. When you view images. Similarly. the color of white on the monitor or the color of the white paper on a printed page affects your perception for all the other colors in the scene. In fact. uninteresting "mistake. and with the black point. and using four inks rather than three gets us much denser (darker) blacks than we could using only C. its the color is density more important than is density. This white point adaptation is an instantaneous and is vital. Getting as much dynamic range as possible is always make the difference between important. M. and Y. much by the light that illuminates the page as by the paper color With black point the emphasis shifts toward density as a more important variable than color. as this determines the capacity of the device to render detail. we try to calibrate so that we get just enough brightness differences near the bottom end to squeeze some extra detail out of our displayed shadows.Chapter 2: Computers and Color 65 White Point and Blacic Point Besides the primaries. the other two points that define the gamut and hence need to be measured and monitored in a device are the white point and black point. .

accordingly. Tone Reproduction black point is Characteristics and Measuring the precise color and density of the primaries. called a tone reproduction curve (TRC) defines . Measuring the color and density of the white and black points is usually one of the steps in preparing to use any device in a color management system. 2-5). which records representative tonal values from to dark. essential. In these cases. have to adjust your color management system . scanners. so that you know when to adjust either the device itself. you're measuring the tone-reproduction and black/white can alter these tonal —such as changing to a different paper stock. You also need to watch out for changes in these values over time. the brightest whites. you'll to reflect the changes. To complete the description of a device. but the two are similar (see Figure Some printers have much more complicated tonal responses that can't be represented adequately by a simple curve. light When you take measurements in the process of calibrating or profiling a device for color characteristics of the device as well as the primaries points. the relationship between input values and resulting brightness values in a device. or adjusting the contrast knob on your monitor—because when a device's tone-reproduction characteristics change. There are several ways to measure and model devices' tone-reproduction characteristics. The simplest. we use a lookup table (LUT). the software lets you change the density of the white and black points from scan to scan either manually or automatically. Printers exhibit a slightly different dot gain curve. You should try to get a feel for the things that characteristics management. Second Edition On a scanner.66 Real World Color Management. and the darkest darks. or your color management system. In monitors. the color management sys- tem (to also needs to know what happens to the "colors between the colors" paraphrase a well-known desktop printer commercial). Most analog devices have similar curves that show gain (increase) off in the this in the darkness levels that affect the midtones most and taper hightlights is and shadows. white point. but these points only represent the extremes of the device: the most saturated colors. so we generally dynamic range the scanner and white points to the widest can capture. and digital cameras called a gamma curve. but for color management we need to use a fixed set the black dynamic range.

.Chapter 2: Computers and Color 67 Figure S-S 0% Tone reproduction curves Both diagrams plot the input iHihie (i^ertical axis) 80% against the output value (horizontal axis).

Second Edition Figure 2-6 L»-e» The images contain identical Same numbers.68 Real World Color Management. Figure 2-7 Same color. numbers . different The images contain different numbers . . . This color management — we change the is how we use numbers so that each of our devices produces the desired appearance. but have identical appearance. This color but have very different is why we need management one image's appearance is much more desirable than the other...... but without color — management you can't tell what color the numbers represent... different color numbers . appearances..

outside of measuring the colors a device produces as part of the profiling process. CIELAB. But to do so. But it /5 important to understand the distinction between device-dependent models like RGB and CMYK. and device-independent models like CIE XYZ and CIELAB. the meanings to our RGB and CMYK numbers. or CIE is engaged in producing standards for all aspects of light. all of which are mathematical variants of CIE XYZ. and also lets us reproduce that actual color on another device by changing the numbers we send to it. including color. the CIE has produced a wild alphabet soup of color models with equally opaque names—CIE LCh. the that it tried to represent mathematically the sensation of color that people with normal color vision would experience when they were fed a precisely defined stimulus under precisely defined viewing conditions. . you needn't deal with any of the CIE models directly. CIE produced a mathematical model of color with the formidable-sounding name CIE XYZ (1931). This model was unique in In 1931. Instead of using the numbers required to drive a particular device to produce color.Chapter 2: Computers and Color 69 Color management systems allow us to solve both problems by attaching absolute color so. CIE xyY. Color management allows us to set of determine the actual color meaning of a RGB or CMYK numbers. we have several numerical models of color that are device- independent. The device-independent color models in current use are based on the groundbreaking work we mentioned in Chapter 1 by a body of color scientists and technicians known as the Commission Internationale de — in English. In fact. CIELUV. Device-Independent Color Models Fortunately. By doing numbers cease to be ambiguous. the name means "International Commission on Illumination" — and the CIE the international standards body I'Eclairage. device-independent color models attempt to use numbers to model human color perception directly. Since that original work was done. You don't need to know the differences between the various models in order to use color management effectively. management has to rely on one that's based on human perception rather than device colorants. color a different kind of numerical model of color. and so on.

represents to the colors we can see. but tor. concluded that LAB not the most intuitive color space around. device-independent and device-specific color models. a*." It allows us to express unambiguously the meaning of the colors we're after. based on the way our minds seem to judge primaries. red-green and blue-yellow are opponent colors —they're mutually exclusive. it's not perfect. If you've ever tried editing a is LAB file in Photoshop.) LAB. as Bruce wont to Rosetta stone for color. or. It's designed be perceptually uniform. To CIE LAB likely to interact The CIE color model you're most You can with is CIE LAB (LAB). scanner. LAB acts as a is form of universal translation language between desay. called L* (pronounced "L-star"). tell we need to do to make manage color in the real we need to use both world. Second Edition RGB and CMYK just tell machines how much colorant to use: The CIE models describe the us nothing about what specific color that they tell us nothing about the actual color the machines will produce in response. fact that Many of the problems we have with LAB stem from the it we use to do things for which it was never intended (see the sidebar. someone with normal a particular moni- color vision would see under very precisely described viewing conditions. L* represents lightness. color. LAB management. a* represents how red or green a color is. "a vices. and more to the point. and and edit them in Adobe Photoshop. but it is pretty darn good. (Remember. nobody has as yet presented an alternative that is both a clear improvement and can be implemented using the computing power available on today's desktop. CIE LAB allows us to control our color as it passes from one device to another by correlating the device -specific RGB or CMYK values with the perceptually based LAB values that they produce on a given device. or printer produce that color. as you'll learn in the next chapter. Despite its flaws. actually save images in the LAB model. There's no such thing as a greenishall red or a bluish-yellow.70 Real World Color Management. Lieidelberg's LinoColor. . also plays a central role in color several other applications. meaning that changing any of the primaries by the same increment will produce the same degree of visual change. In practice. "LAB Limitations"). you've probably It is. It however. by definition. uses three and b*. and b* represents how blue or yellow it is.

without any reference to the surrounding pixels (the context) or the els. consider- ing the limited purpose for which it mal color vision. changing only in saturation. where hue is shown by the angle. and saturation by the distance firom the center. it's If it ing. the dashed lines constant hues. . at a specific viewing dis- surprising that it certainly run into a situation where CIE colorimetry says that two colors should match. As developers come up with fixes and workarounds to LAB's flaws.Chapter 2: Computers and Color 71 LAB At Limitations in some point agement travails. It as the influence of surround col- assumes that colors along a straight hue-angle line will pro- designed to make cross-media comparisons such ors. but actual constant perceived hues produce the solid lines shown in the figure. This assumption has proved false. ry inher- not as perceptually many of the perceptual phenomena we covered in Chapter 1 such . would appear to match to someone with nor- works as well as does. where a hard copy. them as being clearly ent. we do so pixel tems try to much on the computation model. It was never was designed. management sysmake LAB do all these things and more. But it's also helpful to bear in mind the purpose for which LAB was constant designed. The hue shift is most pronounced in the red and blue regions. you'll your color manalmost color. medium in which the The design solid color size. In the meantime.b on a background ' tirely surprising that the model Figure 2-8 LAB imperfections plane of LAB. but you tance and angle. Nor was it even though most color management systems today use LAB as the computation space. Yet color book — the "Real World" part of —does not depend too hue angle actually shifts the hue toward purple as blue becomes less saturated. This figure shows the a. anything. should represent In theory. as well as alternative color mod- by pixel. LAB does have some see ent flaws. they can just swap out LAB like an old trusty car engine that has served us well. particularly in the as comparing color displayed on theory stays the The basame and the a monitor with color on reflective practice this blue region. sic duce constant hues. which represents neutral gray b* — (a and b both equal 0). When we colormanage images. goal for LAB was to pixels are finally expressed (dots LAB continues to be the predict the degree to which two of ink on paper or glowing pixels worthy workhorse of the color- samples of a specific specific on a monitor). uniform as also it's supposed to be. So it's not en- management industry. It's differ- designed to take into account The good news is that the theoand practice of color management are not dependent on LAB. under very specific light- occasionally breaks down.

CIE L*a*b* (1976). While we're at it.72 Real World Color Management. G.0. The gamut naturally limited by the its most saturated colors the device has to work with. abbreviated as CIELAB. or referring to the individual primaries. You can't get a more saturated green on a printer than you can get by combining solid cyan and yellow ink. and CIE L*u*v* (1976).0 to the monitor (which. Mismatchins —the Limits of the on one or another target device it's We use color management to reproduce faithfully the colors in our source file —a monitor. CIE L*a*b* and CIE L*u*v* are incorrect. ab- breviated as CIE XYZ. or a commercial press. control too high. a film recorder. pletely off). abbre- No one seems to have viated as CIELUV. be- cause each of our devices of tone and color it is limited by the lav^s of physics as to the range can reproduce. and B) are glowing at maximum— although you . Second Edition Alphabet Soup According to the citations we've referred to as L* C*uvhuv) or CIE xyY. subscript excessively fiddly (and is also technically incorrect) unless you're using the long name of the space. On a monitor Output devices (printers and monitors) also have a finite dynamic the darkest black you can display is the black that results if you send RGB value 0. haven't LCh and CIE xyY. all if you have turned the brightness a bit be brighter than all the phosphors commay quite The brightest white on a monitor is the white you get when three phosphors (R. We found a canonical abbreviation for any serious objection to using CIE Lab and CIE Luv. which are how many angels can dance on CIE LCh (the primaries are more consistent with CIE XYZ. so CIE LCh. v^^hich is the devices' color gamut. but using the * been able to turn up. Device Limitations All — Gamut and Dynamic Range we call our output devices (both printers and monitors) have a fixed range of color and tone that they can reproduce. and CIE xyY. If you want to be pedantic. — range the range of brightness differences they can reproduce. But often physically impossible to do so. the official we abbreviate them as CIE superscript or the uv is names are CIE XYZ (1931). You can't get a more saturated red on a monitor than the red of the monitor's phosphor. the head of a pin? But color there's another aspect to the device-dependence problem that management addresses. a printer. primaries.

This makes them tricky to profile. and the darkest black is the highest percentages of the four inks you can print on top of each other without resulting in a soggy mess (usually considerably less than inks at 100%). There's no single "correct" solution to this "can't get and dynamic ranges. and blue values that they will produce for each color sample. Input devices typically have a uider dynamic range than we can reproduce in our output. green. and just returns the value 0. above a certain the device can't capture differences in brightness — rarely a problem with level of brightness. exactly we obviously can't reproduce the original problem of variable gamuts on that output device. so you have to go somewhere else instead. which we described in Chapter 1. Below a certain level of darkness —or density—a scanner or digital camera can no longer distinguish between brightness levels." as they say in New England. Instead. but all too common with digital cameras. they do have a fixed dynamic range. This leads to a problem known as scanner metamerism. gamut is usually much wider than any output device you will be using gamut since it to reproduce these scans. . You theah from heah. we say they have a color mixing function. although scanners don't have a specific gamut. scanners. This difference between device gamuts and dynamic ranges leads to a If our problem. Although input devices don't have a fixed gamut. but is not the same as the gamut issue we are describing here. — they're going to see something. On a printer. the range of brightness levels in which the scanner or digital camera can operate and still tell brightness differences. and this effective However. meaning "man. Digital cameras don't have a fixed they capture color directly from the real world and have to cope with all its in multi-hued glory. the unique mixture of red. the brightest white you can render is the whiteness of the paper. that's dark!" Similarly. we can of- ten think of the effective "gamut" of the materials— usually photographic — prints or transparencies that you scan with the scanner. original image has a wider dynamic range or a wider color gamut than our output device. all four Input devices (scanners and digital cameras) don't have a color gamut because there is and colors that no sharp boundary between colors that they can "see" they can't no matter what you put in front of them.Chapter 8: Computen and Color 73 usually have to calibrate your monitor to a less-bright white point in or- der to get a more color-accurate white.

Second Edition Tone and Gamut Mapping The dynamic range of our at the highlight end. and this is true. display. which in turn has a wider dynamic camera. So the mismatches between various device gamuts can be as much due to the saturated cyans and the blues shapes of those gamuts as to their size Color —see Figure 2-9. which again has a all three are gamut than a printing press. management systems use it's various gamut-mapping strategies that let us reconcile the differing gamuts of our capture. is limited by the brightness of the paper and by the darkest black the inks. particularly in the and greens that lie adjacent to cyan. a film recorder has a larger gamut than an Inkjet printer. perception of color uniquely human. and the gamuts of smaller than the gamut of film. So color management doesn't way to handle out-of-gamut colors. Gamut size isn't the only problem. or the need for skilled humans to make the necessary decisions about color reproduction. A film recorder has a wider dynamic range than an close to the Inkjet printer. We typically think of a monitor as having a larger gamut than CMYK print. What color management does do accurately and basis to let us view color communicate it unambiguously. or any automatic method of compressing tone and color. But none of these output processes comes dynamic range of a high-end digital recorder can't quite match the dynamic range of film exposed in a camera. will do equal justice to all images. and its judgment is decidis edly human as well. dyes. or printing presses. but monitor gamuts don't wholly contain the gamut of CMYK print. there are some colors we can produce with CMYK ink on paper that monitors simply can't display. and out- put devices. printers. Even though the monitor has a larger gamut. So some kind of tonal compression is almost always necessary. Similarly. film recorders. Even a film range than a printing press.74 Real World Color Management. be they desktop color printers. but rect" important to recognize that not only is there no "corit's any gamut-mapping strategy. also pretty unlikely that remove the need for color correction. so we need some strategy for larger handling the out-of-gamut colors. so that we have a sound on which to make these judgements. As we've said is before. or pigments can produce on that paper at the shadow end. .

In reality. Yxy xio Lab xio -1 xio xio Two-dimensional xyY plots exaggerate some color regions and downplay xyY isn't perceptually uniform. than you can from any of the two-dimensional gamutplotting techniques. gamuts are complex three-dimensional shapes. You can tell a great deal more from a three-dimensional gamut plot. . are incomplete because they can only show a single lightness level. while perceptually uniform. because Tivo-dimensional LAB plots. and the horizontal b axis runs from yellow to blue. Two-dimensional gamut representations are invariably incomplete or misleading they show either a slice — of the gamut at a single lightness level or they show a projection of maximum saturation at all -1 levels. In this three-dimensional LAB gamut plot. the horizontal a axis runs from red to green. the Lightness axis is vertical. gamut sizes.Chapter 2: Computers and Color 75 Figure 2-9 Gamut plots. others. some of which are more complete than others. such as the one shown at left. and gamut mismatciies There are mrioiis ways to illustrate and compare gamuts.

and the monitor's unprintable reds and light greens. The three-dimensional LAB plots reveal the exact nature of the gamut mismatch. Lab xlO xlO The LAB plot at left provides a more accurate depiction of the relative sizes of both the gamuts themselves and of the regions where they mismatch. critical. but still doesn't tell the xlO whole story. but that the press can also reproduce some colors that the monitor cannot. gamut sizes. and gamut mismatches. containing many unprintable colors. Yxy x10 The xyYplot at right shows us that the press gamut contains a cyan-green region and a smaller yellow-orange region that the monitor can't display. continued show us the differences in plotting techniques become more that the typical monitor has a larger gamut than a When we use plots to compare two devices' gamuts. Second Edition Figure 2-9 Gamut plots. showing the monitor's unprintable blues and the press's undisplayable light yellows. All three plot types illustrated below sheetfed press. and the press's undisplayable dark greens and cyans. but it exaggerates the size of both while minimizing the monitor's unprintable reds. particularly in the reds. .76 Real World Color Management. right. left.

saturated colors of which a rather different story. While the Inkjet has a good overall match to the sheetfed press. -1 Yxy xio Lab xio e - 4 5 2 1 -T - - - 01 23456789 X a xio Both 2-D plots indicate that the Epson Inkjet's gamut completely encompasses that of the press. . for example. two-dimensional plots may simply give the wrong answer. as in this comparison between a sheetfed press and an Epson Stylus Photo 2200 printer (you might want to make this kind of comparison ifyou were considering using the Epson Inkjet as a proofing device. for example). you'll also conclude that a whiter paper stock in the Inkjet will provide a closer highlight match to the press. When you really know your way around gamut plots. the press is capable which would be important — ifyou were printing a shoe catalog. continued In some cases.Chapter 2: Computers and Color 77 Figure 2-9 Gamut plots. gamut sizes.. A 3-D comparison it tells can't reproduce some of the dark. such as the one shown below. and gamut mismatclies.

But it you don't understand the underpinnings of color management. Second Edition A good many tools are available for visualizing gamuts in both two and three dimensions.) If you're the type who able to worth a thousand words. developed by our friend and colleague Steve Upton.chromix. gamut simply represents the limits the blackest black. because newsprint can't hold small dots of ink. may seem like magic. isn't It's www. That conveyed by the gamut. and you'd like to be see representations of device gamuts and color conversions. but also the tonal information that tells you what goes on inside that boundary. but is a property of the device space. So the gamut is one of the important properties of a device's color space.78 Real World Color Management. It isn't magic. The the whitest white. Actually the complexity of the issues color management must isn't using a color management system if that complicated. point about gamuts: a device's color gamut the One final same thing as a device's color space. and the most saturated colors of capable. (We used it to make most of the gamut plots that appear in this book. For example. but the one we always keep coming back to is Chromix ColorThink. pretty cool technology. but fact isn't not the only important property. a newspaper press will likely have a fairly large discontinuity between paper white and the lightest actual color it can lay Color Is Complex If all this sounds dauntingly complicated. color . despite what sometimes seems like a conspiracy on the part of applications vendors to make it appear that way. that's because we're laying out address. it's just some and in the next chapter we'll look in detail at how of changing the management actually performs the complex tasks numbers in our files to make the color consistent. we finds a picture think you'll find that ColorThink's graphing capabilities alone are worth the price of admission (though available at it does many other useful things too). — which the device is A device's color space includes not only the gamut boundary.

demotic already known. In 1799. Instead. In Chapter 2 we broke the sad news that the numerical systems we most often use for representing color on our computers —RGB and CMYK—are devices like monitors color. RGB or CMYK numbers may seem about as comprehensible as Egyptian hieroglyphics: fortunately. and Greek. they're control signals. thanks to the work of the CIE that is we introduced in Chapter 1. 79 .Color Management How It Works For 1400 years. a chance discovery by a soldier all that. in Napoleon's The Rosetta stone. allowed the brilliant hi- French linguist lean Francois Champollion to unlock the secret of eroglyphics because it contained the same text in three different script. or instructions. In this fundamentally ambiguous. letting us translate our color from set of device-specific RGB or CMYK numbers to another. They aren't descriptions of color. the last two of which were Depending on your background and training. color management one able to use the perceptually based CIE LAB and CIE XYZ color spaces as a Rosetta stone for color. as his find conquering army changed was named. reading Egyptian hieroglyphics was a lost art. that make and printers produce something that we can experience as chapter we'll discuss how a color management system (CMS) works to reconcile the RGB and CMYK control signals with the perceptually based CIE numbers. scripts. hieroglyphics.

Atlanta.82 Real World Color Management. This link called a device profile. and n links from the output devices (see Figure 3-2).) for a total of a hundred flights. for a total of only 20 flights. We need just one link each device. . The beauty of the PCS is that it reduces the m X n link problem to links. The role of the PCS is to serve as the hub for all our device-to-device transformations. etc. Rather than have separate Seattle. m+n PCS for to the various We have m links from input devices to the PCS. Second Edition The ingenious solution provided by color management is to introduce an intermediate representation of the desired colors called the profile connection space.) to 10 eastern cities (Boston. Device profiles in all and the PCS are two of the four key components color management systems. the airline can route all flights through a major city in the middle. Figure 3-2 n+m input to output conversions m input devices n output devices Each link effectively describes the color reproduction behavior of a is device. etc. Los Angeles. from 10 western cities (San Francisco. Miami. flights It's like the hub city for an airline. or PCS. say Dallas.

The ICC specification includes four different rendering intents. a pretty accurate predictor of the final WYSIWYG. which are simply different ways of dealing with "outof-gamut" colors —colors that are present in the source space that the output device is physically incapable of reproducing. so there will always be differences management it is a Golor management won't make your monitor and your will because hasn't delivered printer produce identical color. but instead defines the color as Profiles. we actually see it. Our belief to the press is that any who may claim that color man- extreme sense goal. and the detractors who claim that color failure proofing system requires some interpretation on the part of the user. defines the CIE XYZ or CIE LAB values that correspond to a given set of RGB or CMYK numbers. Rendering intents. We point this out to coun- a close visual match to the press (What You See Is What You Get) was a driving force behind the development of color management. which in its sheet. Management Module). Specifically. color management isn't just about achieving WYSIWYG.Chapter 3: Color Management 83 The WYSIWYG Myth While the desire for WYSIWYG monitor and what you get on your printer. The CMM works with the color data contained in the profiles. In fact. is an impossible agement gives you true WYSIWYG. . we question whether its but it consistent visual produce a close and match that. A traditional film- output. with you can use as any system has ever achieved the extreme interpretation of very little learning. but we've never seen one both the overzealous hype of color-management advocates ter that was identical sheet. While color management goes a long way toward making a monitor simulate the limitations of a printer. all CMM. on promise of WYSIWYG. between what you see on your based proof certainly produces The Components of Color Management All ICC-based color management systems use four basic components: PCS. A profile describes the relationship between a device's RGB or it CMYK control signals and the actual color that those signals produce. The engine. monitors and printers have fundamentally different viewing environment issues. is CMM (Color often called the the piece of software that performs the calculations needed to convert the RGB or CMYK values. The profile connection space allows us to give a color an unambiguous numerical value in CIE XYZ or CIE LAB that doesn't depend on the quirks of the various devices we use to reproduce that color.

) to 10 eastern cities (Boston. the airline can route all flights through a major city in the middle. etc. m+n PCS for to the various We have m links from input devices to the PCS.) for a total of a hundred flights. for a total of only 20 flights. This link called a device profile. We need just one link each device. Los Angeles. and n links from the output devices (see Figure 3-2). Second Edition The ingenious solution provided by color management is to introduce an intermediate representation of the desired colors called the profile connection space. . or PCS. etc. say Dallas. Rather than have separate Seattle.82 Real World Color Management. Atlanta. flights It's like the hub city for an airline. Figure 3-2 n+m input to output conversions m input devices n output devices Each link effectively describes the color reproduction behavior of a is device. Miami. Device profiles in all color and the PCS are two of the four key components management systems. The role of the PCS is to serve as the hub for all our device-to-device transformations. from 10 western cities (San Francisco. The beauty of the PCS is that it reduces the m x n link problem to links.

A profile describes the relationship between a device's RGB or it CMYK control signals and the actual color that those signals produce. we actually see it. is an impossible agement gives you true WYSIWYG. In fact. is CMM (Color often called the the piece of software that performs the calculations needed to convert the RGB or CMYK values. color management isn't just about achieving WYSIWYG. so there will always be differences any system has ever achieved the extreme interpretation of very little learning. WYSIWYG. with viewing environment issues. The profile connection space allows us to give a color an unambiguous numerical value in CIE XYZ or CIE LAB that doesn't depend on the quirks of the various devices we use to reproduce that color. We point this out to coun- a close visual match to the press sheet. While color management goes a long way toward making a monitor simulate the limitations of a printer. defines the CIE XYZ or CIE LAB values that correspond to a given set of RGB or CMYK numbers. on promise of WYSIWYG. monitors and printers have fundamentally different management it is a Color management won't make your monitor and your will because hasn't delivered printer produce identical color. which are simply different ways of dealing with "outof-gamut" colors —colors that are present in the source space that the output device is physically incapable of reproducing.Chapter 3: Color Management 83 The WYSIWYG Myth While the desire for WYSIWYG monitor and what you get on your printer. The ICC specification includes four different rendering intents. which in its one both the overzealous hype of color-management advocates ter was identical sheet. you can use as a pretty accurate predictor of the final output. Specifically. we question whether its but it consistent visual produce a close and match that. A traditional film- between what you see on your based proof certainly produces The Components of Color Management All ICC-based color management systems use four basic components: PCS. Our belief that to the press is that any who may claim that color man- extreme sense goal. but we've never seen (What You See Is What You Get) was a driving force behind the development of color management. all CMM. Management Module). and the detractors who claim that color failure proofing system requires some interpretation on the part of the user. The engine. but instead defines the color as Profiles. . Rendering intents. The CMM works with the color data contained in the profiles.

By the same token. a profile is that contains device control signal values —RGB or CMYK numbers — and essentially a lookup table. A profile gives RGB or CMYK values meaning. For now. though. We'll stress this point in Chapter 5 when we dis- cuss the difference between calibration (which alters the behavior of a device) it's and profiling (which only describes the behavior of a device). though their anatomy can be detail in complex. the ICC specification actually uses two as the different spaces. a profile doesn't alter a device's behavior — just describes that behavior. Profiles Profiles are conceptually quite simple. When a color defined by XYZ or LAB values. or your own profile- generation software (in which case you'll need to learn a great deal more than the contents of this book) you needn't concern yourself greatly with the differences between the two. we know how humans with normal color vision will see it. . The key feature of both CIE XYZ and CIE LAB is that they represent perceived color. with one set of entries another set that contains the actual colors. Raw RGB or CMYK values are ambiguous —they produce different colors when we send them to effect. We'll look at different kinds of profiles in much more Chapter 4. see Appendix A. a class of devices. All About Profiles. but it a sufficiently important point that bears repeating. Epson Stylus Photo 1280 printers. (or for a truly geek-level look at the contents we'll Anatomy of a Profile). such as an individual scanner. or an abstract color space. concentrate on their function. that those control signals produce (see Figure 3-3). such as Adobe RGB (1998) or CIE LAB. saying. by itself. in these RGB or it CMYK numbers represent this specific color (defined in XYZ or LAB). expressed in the PCS. doesn't change the RGB or CMYK numbers it — simply gives them a specific meaning. It's this property that makes it possible for color management systems all to use CIE XYZ and CIE LAB as the "hub" through which is color conver- sions travel. But unless you're planning on writing your own CMS. PCS for different profile types. CIE XYZ and CIE LAB. of profiles. or printer. A profile can describe a single device. such as Apple Cinema Displays. or SWOP presses. that differ- ent devices. monitor. Second Edition The PCS The PCS is the yardstick we use to measure and define color. A profile. As we hinted earlier in this chapter. But no matter what it describes.84 Real World Color Management.

Electronics for Imaging. the operating system architecture from the Macintosh to and Xerox —developed color that and in 1993 it introduced ColorSync. Tektronix. and consumers consumers to mix and match profiles created by different vendors. management systems device used Windows and Unix computThe central document of the ICC is the ICC Profile Format Specification. signals is and the destination profile tells the CMS what new set of control required to reproduce those actual colors on the destination de- vice. . the profiles from tium. Converting colors always takes two tion. Kodak.Chapter 3: Color Management 85 The ICC In the late 1980s — Some early 1990s. Apple also started the ColorSync Consor- which describes an color-matching prob- lem. RGB or CMYK device control values. and the corresponding CIEXYZ or CIE LAB values that they produce. Historical Perspective International Color Consortium. and many companies — most notably. a source and a destina- The source profile tells the CMS what actual colors the document contains. Pantone. This consortium of companies later ICC standard- ized the concepts of profile-based agement system. Hewlett-Packard. PCS Input device's space Output device's space Input profile Output profile A profile contains two sets of values. a color-management architecture built into the Macin- ers. which consisted of companies using the ColorSync profile format as well as shaping its de- open profile format that all vendors can use. became known as the color management. profiles to solve the device-to- tosh operating system. the were limited to the profiles created for a specific color man- velopment. Agfa. Linotype.Hell. You can think of the source profile as telling the CMS where the color the destination profile as where the color is came from. Adobe. and Figure 3-3 Profiles going to. or ICC. However. profiles. that Apple Computer recognized this problem of incomat One of the consortium's this profile patibility of profiles had to be goals was extending addressed level. By defining a format that allowed one company's solution weren't usable by others.

What Does — CMM Stand all For? in a The acronym CMM has been known to stand for several different things Color Management Module. But if you Apple. But ter is doesn't really mat- Management Module. RGB would be over a gigabyte in size — so the CMM has to calculate the intermediate values. A profile PCS definition for every possible combination of it The Color Management Module. and interpolation (using the and some profiles contain a "secret sauce" tai- lored for a particular CMM. Color Manipulation Model —but captures the essence of what the —a drop-in component agreement on what . Why should you care? Well. and you get strange results from one. Agfa. The differences in precision tend to be subtle and often profile-specific. and the RGB or CMYK values needed match those colors in the destination.86 Real World Color Management. (See the sidebar. Color Matching Method. or does the job of converting the in the profiles can't contain the or CMYK numbers— if it did. is the software "engine" that RGB or CMYK values using the color data (see the sidebar. "Why Do We Need CMMs At All?") The CMM provides the method that the color uses to convert values from source color spaces to the management system PCS and from the PCS to any destination spaces. "What Does CMM Stand For?"). but the CMM is the workhorse that actually performs the conversions. engine is what it's called as long as there it is. for example — it's often useful to know which one is being used for any given operation. and X-Rite. but they differ in their precision and their calculations of white point adaptation profile points as guides). the thing. Second Edition The CMM CMM. names mean the same Our preference is Color as this modular color management it system. background and does thing. Heidelberg. Kodak. ICC-compliant CMMs are designed to be interoperable and interchangeable. When do you the care about the CMM? You CMM— rarely have its to interact with it just lurks in the have multiple CMMs— Bruce's Mac has CMMs loaded from Adobe. If you it's have multiple CMMs installed. need to to It uses the profiles to define the colors that be matched in the source. always worth trying another.

However. in practice this CMM. of computation.7 million RGB values. Switching to a different CMM will often cure this problem. an RGB space contains about 16. Many CMMs have fixed notorious problems with LAB. So we usually convert the white of the source space to the white of the destination space when we do color conversions. if we use LAB as the PCS itself. in the interpolation . an input the profile) or every possible (in PCS color the CMYK values for CMM an output describes a profile). So different ven- The different math for white point adaptation can be more obvious. ments that contain color from uniform as we need for this type multiple sources. translating white to a "scum dot" with one percent of ink in one or more channels. nor can an output profile list So rather than storing a point for every possible dors have different mechanisms for RGB value (in doing this interpolation. find the nearest conversion spaces to supporting in addition one of the two required conversion spaces (XYZ or LAB). For exainple. Computers and Color. then the CMM would seem to have little to do at all. others create profiles that 256 discrete values (0-255). and if you dedicated only three bytes for each of those PCS definitions. skies that seemed to turn noticeably purple. In fact. Some CMMs have difficulty doing this with some profiles. The differences in math for interpolation dramatic.Chapter 3: Color Management 87 Why Do We Need CMMs At All? A profile for an input device can't contain the PCS definition for every possible combination of RGB values. every possible PC^S color. The continuing battle over which one of these strategies produces the best color management results is RGB profile would oc- cupy more than 48 megabytes! Profiles of this size would quickly PCS value found in the output one of the reasons why profile. support additional. If an RGB device the profile contained PCS definition of each of the 16. and look up the output so many vendors hawk their own claiming that theirs pro- become prohibitively large when value. judging other colors in refer- ence to that white. LAB is simply not as perceptually duces results superior to those produced by competing ones. Some supplement LAB with some clever math to compensate for its way of known inaccuracies. instead of can range from subtle to paper white. such as by implementing clever tricks mathematics. This reduces dramatically the purposes of interpolation. you started embedding profiles in images and in page-layout docu- has not produced stellar results. Just take the LAB values produced by the input profiles. private million possible RGB values. the single The simplest CMM assumes that we do this interpolation in CIE LAB.7 need to be stored in the profiles. as computing points from points each of the three chan- — the process called internumber of points that existing Others avoid LAB altogether and convert to some other space for Still nels of an RGB device contains polation. As we explained in Chapter different flavors. 2. white comes in many and our eye adapts automatically to the flavor of white all vdth which it's currently confronted.

let you override the profiles' preferred CMM and choose a specific that you choose if CMM for all color-management tasks. dictated by the laws of physics. Since we can't repro- duce those colors in the destination space. but in our experience. you may get slightly better results using the preferred slight that CMM. If you use a profiling tool that builds in cus- tomizations for a particular CMM. Kodak the main offender in this case. called rendering intents (see Figure 3-4). Colors present in the source space that aren't reproducible in the destination space are called out-of-gamut colors. interchangeable profile format. desaturating all the colors in the source space so that they fit into the destination . or since. is How the CMM chosen. "you can't get theah from heah. Profiles contain a tag that it's lets them request a preferred CMM when ICC-compliant CMM available. and almost all colormanaged applications.88 Real World Color Management. Second Edition The practice of building "secret sauce" into profiles directly contrais venes the goal of an open. Rendering Intents There's one in more piece to the color-management puzzle. the differences have been so we question the value of the practice. Doing so allows each profile to select ferred pre- CMM. Rendering intents let you specify that somewhere else. each device has a fixed range of color that can reproduce. Perceptual and saturation renderings use gamut compression. we have to replace them with some other colors. you'll have no idea which CMM is in use at any given moment. only you run into a specific problem or if you're trying to get a specific advantage touted by a CMM vendor." you have to go somewhere else. is The range of color a device can reproduce called the color gamut. As we explained it Chapter 2. This becomes an issue on Mac OS if you set the choice of CMM to Automatic in the its ColorSync control panel. though they mustbe able to use any if the preferred one is unavailable. The ICC profile specification includes four different methods for handling out-of-gamut colors. The Macintosh and Windows operating systems. Your printer can't reproduce a cyan more saturated than the printer's cyan ink. as our friends from New England are wont to remark. We recommend one CMM and stick to experimenting with others it. Your monitor can't reproduce a more sat- urated red than the red produced by the monitor's red phosphor. It also means that unless you do a lot of detective work.

Chapter 3: Color Management 89 gamut. Saturation just tries to produce vivid colors. you need to supply the source profile and the destination profile so it knows where the color comes from and where the color is going. you also specify a rendering intent. Perceptual all tries to preserve the overall color appearance by changing fit the colors in the source space so that they inside the destina- tion space while preserving the overall color relationships. It's and clips out-of-gamut colors to the closest reproducible hue. or for elevation maps where saturation differences in greens. . ed colors in the destination. When you is aren't given a choice. often a better choice for images than colors. the white then repro- duces all the in-gamut colors exactly. where all out-of-gamut colors simply get clipped to the closest reproducible hue. without concerning itself with accuracy. perceptual since it preserves more of the original Absolute colorimetric differs from relative colorimetric in that doesn't ric it map source white to destination white. When you use a CMS to convert data from one color space to another. which application and set by the profile-building usually the perceptual rendering intent. by converting saturated colors in the source to saturat- good for pie charts and other business graphics. Absolute colorimetric for proofing. - is designed mainly where the goal is to simulate the output of one printer (including its white point) on a second device. Absolute colorimet- rendering from a source with a bluish white to a destination with yellowish-white paper puts cyan ink in the white areas to simulate the white of the original. so that white on output of the paper rather than the white of the source space. because our eyes are much more sensitive to the relationships between colors It's than they are to absolute color values. Relatiifeand absolute colorimetric renderings use gamut clipping. It's browns. or blues show different altitudes or depths. Relative colorimetric takes account of the fact that our eyes always adapt to the white of the medium we're viewing. a good choice for images that contain significant out-of-gamut colors. the application is chooses the profile's default rendering intent. which is how you want the col- or to get there. but less useful it's typically when the goal is accurate color reproduction. In most cases. It maps white is It in the source to white in the destination.

b plots. (We didn't plot the grays. because they tend to shift only in luminance. Second Edition Figure 3-4 Rendering intents this book.b plane of LAB space showing the original colors in green. This figure shows the MacBeth Color Checker target rendered to the CMYK profile we used to make using each of the four rendering intents.) /^ <d) / ©-. Saturation rendering Saturation rendering maps fully saturated colors in the source to fully saturated colors in the destination without concern for accuracy. and their rendered equivalents in red. . . Each rendering is accompanied by a plot in the a. 1® original rendered ©* Perceptual rendering Perceptual rendering tries to compress the source gamut into the destination -100 -75 -50 -!5 « SO 75 100 a gamut in such a way that overall color relationships are preserved.90 Real World Color Management. which is the third axis of LAB and is not shown on a.

including white. as exactly as possible.Chapter 3: Color Management 91 Figure 3-k Rendering intents. continued original rendered Absolute colorinu'iiic rendering Absolute colorimetric rendering attempts to reproduce all source colors. © These colors are desaturated by perceptual rendering. but not by the colorimetric rendering intents. (aJ Out-of-gamut colors colors are largely within gamut but ©These get different treatment from each rendering intent. original rendered ©' -7S -so -IS Relative colorimetric rendering IS SO 7S IM Relative colorimetric rendering scales the source white to the destination white and adjusts all other colors proportionally. .

and saturation rendering are quite subtle. Perceptual rendering Relative colorimetric rendering Saturation rendering Absolute colorimetric rendering .92 Real World Color Management. it and hence is usually used only for proofing. the differences between perceptual. relative colorimetric. Absolute colorimetric rendering produces very different results from the other three since doesn't perform white point scaling. Second Edition Figure 3-4 Rendering intents. and the hue shift of the reds in the saturation rendering. continued In most cases. Notice the difference in the saturated reds between the perceptual and relative colorimetric treatments of the image below.

you're defining the meaning of the RGB or CMYK values it image by assigning the image a profile that or illustrations in a single describes where layout came from. You'd want to assign the scanner profile to the scans. Assigning and EmbecJding Profiles Most color-managed applications an image. such as a scanner or digital camera. you may have some scanned images and some digital camera captures. what we're doing is telling the CMS that RGB numbers in the document represent the color that the Imacon scanner saw when it recorded these RGB numbers. Photoshop allows you to assign a profile to so. so that the CMS knows what actual colors the scanner RGB and digital camera RGB numbers represent. Note that assigning or embedding a profile in a document doesn't change the RGB or CMYK numbers. so that the actual color remains consistent. and the digital camera profile to the camera captures. Doing so lets you transfer documents between applications or computer systems without losing the meaning of the RGB or CMYK values used in those documents (see Figure 3-5). Most color-management-enabled applications also let you embed profiles inside documents such as images or page-layout files when you save them. We've told you that a CMS does only two things: RGB or CMYK numbers.Chapter 3: Color Management 93 Color in Action Manasement how Let's look at the different color-management components interact. We accomplish the first by assigning or embedding a profile in our document. it simply applies a specific interpreif tation to them. We accomplish the second by asking the CMS to convert from the assigned or embedded source profile to a chosen output profile. A page- document may have multiple images document and will allow you to assign a profile to each one. For example. For example. we embed the profile for Bruce's Imacon the RGB document. to Assign a specific color meaning to Change the RGB or CMYK numbers as our color goes from device device. For example. scanner in an . When you do in the let you assign a profile to images and other colored objects.

but the image's appearance does.TIF —for example. it simply tells the embedding CMS what colors those values represent. The source profile tells the CMS where the numbers document come from so that can figure out what actual colors they represent. Profile in embedded an image PHOTO. which they automatically assign to color elements that don't already have a profile embedded. This may be done output automatically by scanner or camera software. It does so because we've changed the meaning of the actual colors those RGB numbers —the numbers represent. is a necessary first step before you on another device. a source in the —actually changit and a target or destination profile. This assigned or embedded profile as the source profile is used when you ask the CMS to perform a conversion. . or it may be done implicitly by a color-managed application Assigning or embedding for a profile can convert the color — most color-managed applications let you specify default RGB and CMYK profiles.94 Real World Color Management. it may be done explicitly by the user. Converting with Profiies To convert an image from one profile's space to another's ing the profile RGB or CMYK numbers—we have to specify two profiles. the Adobe RGB (1998) working space—the RGB profile numbers in the Some people find it counterintuitive that if we assign a different image don't change. Second Edition Figure 3-5 Profile An embedded profile doesn't change the values in the image. The destination profile tells the CMS where the document is going to so that it can figure out the new set of RGB or CMYK numbers needed to represent those same actual colors on the destination device (see Figure 3-6).

with an excessively yellow gray balance in quarter-tones and too much cyan and yellow in shadows. For instance. When you print out an image on an Inkjet printer and it comes out too green overall. The usefulness of converting colors becomes clearer when you consid- er why you use conventional color-correction techniques. So he needs a profile for the digital camera in order to it tell the CMS how Chris's Nikon D 1 sees color. replace with. he ends up just — describes where the color numbers came from and what perceived colors they represent. Now the CMS has the necessary information to figure out which perceived colors the origi- image RGB numbers represent and which send to the press to reproduce those colors. but converting colors fi-om one profile's space to another's doesn't change the color appearance color appearance —preserving the is the whole point of making the conversion. That is the source profile RGB image —but not shoots an image with a digital camera. what do you do? You color-correct it using curves. you must always supply the CMS with a source (input) profile and a destination (output) profile. rather a "Chris's Nikon Dl RGB" image.Chapter 3: Color Management 95 Figure 2-6 Input device's space PCS Output device's space Converting with profiles Input profile Output profile When you convert using profiles. Chris wants to convert the image to a magazine article —but not just any CMYK image. and any other tools you feel comfortable prints out the way you want. until it color. You're changing the numbers in . hue /saturation. nal It CMYK values it needs to may seem counterintuitive. So he needs a profile for Color Geek Monthly's the CMS how the press reproduces colors. if Chris with an any RGB image. rather a CMYK so it can go into " Color Geek Monthly CMYK" press to tell image.

That's really all that a CMS ever does. the "default" rendering intent in the destination profile is used. or selected by the user at the time of conversion (for example. simply ensures that once you've corrected the im- age so that it looks good. it may be applied by the user. lets you print an Inkjet proof that simulates a press from an image an RGB editing space. . This may be chosen automatically as the destination "preferred" profile's CMM. This may be it already embedded in the document. or selected by the user either at the time of conversion. The CMM. Some CMS implementations let you do multiple conversions as a single operation Photoshop. choosing a printer profile at the time you print). it makes the output faithfijlly reflect all the shortcomings it of the original. A rendering intent. But when you break it down. or as a default setting in the operating system or application. the conversion requires you to select four ingredients: The source profile. in sequence. The destination profile. So color management doesn't eliminate the need for color correction. automatically. for example. The color management system then performs the series of steps shown in Figure 3-7. or as a default setting in the operating system or application. How Conversions Work First. Fail- ing that. Conversions made with profiles find the proper device values for you.96 Real World Color Management. This may be selected by the user at the time of conversion. or may be supplied by a default setting in the operating system or application. This may be selected by a default setting in the operating system or application. Color management doesn't take a bad image and make it look good on output. that's in — with different rendering intents at each step. Instead. Instead. your corrections are translated faithfully to the output device. all that's happening is conversions from one profile's space to another's. Second Edition the image to produce the color appearance you want.

the profile's default rendering intent. 3. using relatiiv colori me trie rendering. that's not files.Chapter 3: Color Management 97 nfure 3-7 A color space conversion profile The CMS looks at the source and builds a table that correlates source (or RGB CMYK). Unfortunately. PCS 2. from device space the case: dealing with typical 8-bit per channel levels. Conversions and Data Loss It may seem from if you're the foregoing that you can simply convert your color to device space as needed. converting the values from source to destination. profile The CMS looks at the destination and builds a table that correlates PCS lvalues with destination i>alues. through the table. The CMS passes each pixel in the source image. PCS 1 -2 Using the interpolation algorithm defined in the CMM. or. the CMS connects the two tables together through the common PCS values and builds a table that goes directly from source to destination. CMYK (or RGB) using the selected rendering in ten t. happen when you convert integers between different both convert to a brisk 13 degrees Centigrade as a product of rounding . or color in the source art- work. if none is selected. with PCS mlues. where each file channel contains 256 possible through will lose each conversion you put the Rounding scales errors —for example. 55 degrees Fahrenheit and 56 degrees Fahrenheit some of these levels due to rounding error.

However.384. get rounding errors. we point out that it takes 16 bits to represent. Second Edition to the nearest integer value. The same kinds of errors occur when you convert 8-bit RGB or CMYK channels to PCS values.managed workflows you generally want to put your color through as few conversions as possible. you have at least 32. Rounding error simply something you need to keep in mind when Color Manasement out a Is Simple left We've deliberately kept things conceptual in this chapter. To put this in context. The High-Bit Advantage If you start with 16 bits of data per channel. Keep in mind the fundamental concepts behind color management —an assigned or embedded profile — describes the actual colors represented by RGB or CMYK numbers. because instead of having only 256 possible input values per channel. and we've lot of details. we should hasten to point out that almost any kind of useful editing you perform on files made up of 8-bit channels will result in some levels getting lost. and a conversion from one profile to another keeps those actual colors consistent by changing the numbers that get sent to the output and the details. and possibly as many as 65. your color suffers much less from rounding error. . which is useful in many operations. from To those who would say that this is 15-bit color. will make a great deal more sense.769. There's no such thing as a free lunch. you'll so much more data to start with that they become insignificant.536! (Photoshop's implementation of 16-bit color uses values to 32. But until you understand the basic things that a CMS does. just converting an existing 8-bit per channel file to 16 bits won't buy you much benefits. but you have 16. the details won't make any sense. —^you have to start out with real high-bit data to get real is — constructing color.768. So it's not something to obsess about.) still In either implementation.98 Real World Color Management. but high-bit conversions come pretty close. But it is something to bear in mind. which we'll continue to feed you throughout this book. and it has an unambiguous center value.

previewing capabilities. nor are they elves during the full moon in Orthutanga. and color unaware of them — unless they are captured in a Color management profile. profiles aren't magic. is blissfully management systems know nothing about the various devices they drive except for the information that's recorded in the profiles for those devices.All About Profiles Describing Devices If color management is as simple as we say it is in Chapter 3. What Are Device Profiles? made by Contrary to prepress legend. while color management is simple. but to make good ones. —render- — is built into the device So it's essential that you obtain or create accurate profiles for your various devices. you need to know a little about what comprises them and how they work. 99 . simulations profiles. The answer is that. All the intelligence in color management systems ing intents. Color Management. The various machines we use to reproduce color are prey to a host of factors that affect their behavior. We tell you how to create device profiles later in the book. color reproduction is not. you may be wondering why you even need this book.

Computers and Color. display profiles describe monitors and LCD displays. (We tell you more about these variables in Chapter 2. Second Edition A profile is just a file that correlates device color values with corre- sponding device-independent color values that represent the actual color people ally see.) (Refer to Chapter 3 for more on the The device profile contains information about the three main variables that describe how a device is behaving: —the color and brightness of the colorants (primaries) Dynamic range—the color and brightness of the white point and black Gamut point Tone-reproduction characteristics of the colorants. so . Input and output profiles refer to distinct types of devices that these profiles represent. Some people confuse the term input profilewith source profile.100 Real World Color Management." — later in this chapter. Profiles Profile Classes come in a few varieties. We describe source and destination profiles in "Using Profiles —Source and Destination. You can't view or output color on a scanner or digital camera. such Some kinds of profiles may as instructions for handling out-of-gamut colors. The device values RGB or CMYK—that we are expressed as the control signals —usu- send to our devices to make them repro- duce color. whereas source and destination profiles refer to temporary roles two profiles take at the moment a color conversion happens. and output profiles describe printers and presses. "Why the Numbers Vary. PCS. in the section.") contain additional information. The corresponding device-independent values that represent the color they reproduce are expressed in the profile connection space (PCS)— either CIEXYZ or CIELAB. and out- put profilevAtb destination profile. or special "secret sauce" information only used with a particular CMM. more detailed tonethat's reproduction information. Input profiles are only have to define the conversion from the input device's color space to the PCS. One factor that differentiates the three types of profiles is whether they one-way or two-way that is. or classes: input profiles describe scanners and digital cameras. whether they allow the CMS to convert from device space to PCS and from PCS to device space.

for example. Profiles let the CMS translate between different devices' RGB using the and CMYK lvalues PCS as a MonHor Profile common language. and can translate between different output RGB or CMYK so that it can. reproduce press CMYK on an RGB Inkjet. and can interpret monitor RGB values to reproduce them on output devices. If you create or edit appearance on your monitor. scanner or camera captures (see Figure Figure 4-1 Communication between the CMS and display profiles the is two-way. Input profiles simply the CMS how people would see the color the 4-1). or another .> Profile profiles one-way.Chapter k: All About Profiles 101 there's really no need to convert color to scanner or digital tell camera space. Communication between the CMS and input is ^S^ Scinncf t^ V. display profiles must be two-way because your display acts as both an input a color based on tor as its and an output device. On the other hand. you're using the moni- an input device: the CMS needs to know what color you're seeing on the monitor so that it can reproduce it on a printer. because the CMS simply know what needs to colors the input RGB numbers represent. so One-way and two-way profiles CMS can send the right RGB values to the monitor to reproduce a requested color. press. Camera Profile Press Profile Communication between the CMS and output devices must also be two-way so the CMS can translate output CMYK or RGB to monitor RGB for soft-proofing.

ultimately. The device-to-PCS transform is known and the tables that specify is it as the backwards transform. and between LAB and device color for each rendering intent (BtoA). to monitor RGB. too. When you display a CMYK image on your RGB monitor. . onset: Tig Size: CIEXYZ values of the (cMntMn primaries. to Output profiles are always two-way profiles. which form the matrix. plus tags Cocyngtn Common that describe the Profile RWCM MaxK-0' 85-280. and the tables that (see Figure 4-2). are known as the BtoA tables Figure 4-2 Proflll: CRS Hxito 0«5 2 21612}2< |» Profile Inspector V ^ CwvM Bnn/WtoMiv Tig Name: Matrix and table-based profiles -(51 Tagi: 11 Matrix profiles contain tags that describe the TKD*t*TVpt.95: lookup tables to define the conversion between device color and LAB for each rendering intent (AtoB). the monitor is the output device: the CMS evaluates the image's embedded profile to determine what actual colors are represented by the numbers in the file. but also to display files already converted to output space vert a press on the monitor. RGB values represent. are known as the AtoB tables. when you display an image on your screen. Table-based profiles use T. Second Edition display. or to con- CMYK image to some other output device's space for proofing. and then uses the monitor profile to calculate the monitor RGB values needed to display those colors accurately. The CMS looks at the monitor RGB values being displayed and uses the profile to calculate what actual color those Conversely. while the PCS- to-device transform specify it known as the forward transform. the CMS relies on the CMYK output profile to tell it how to convert the numbers back to the PCS and..102 Real World Color Management. We use them not only convert from the PCS to the output color space for printing. tone reproduction characteristics of t» Profile Inspector ^ OS ^ ^ each colorant.

profile also contains like printers. Table-Based ICC Profiles Profiles can be either matrix- value and find its corresponding require additional tables because it's based or table-based.Chapter k: All About Profiles 103 Matrix-Based Vs. Matrix of the application calling the tables (one for each conversion direction) for each of the three profiles always use profile CIE XYZ as the conversion lets you choose connection space. the tables are unidirectional. which is such as triplet. six conversion in a lookup table. Some input profiles are also bidirectional. But lookup The simplest way to a conversion from one store three- whereas the the size of tables get very large when you and since for a channel space to another such as from RGB to XYZ is to use a — LUT depends on it number of which add more data points. Matrices are reversible contains. ative colorimetric. much larger than those In ICC profiles.67). — the same matrix lets Input and display profiles can convert any triplet you convert numbers in either direction. matrices just don't always bidirectional. so you choose while others produce very different results with each rendering intent. The device which Output numbers are passed through the assumed to be if relative colori- tone curves before conversion using the metric. or even printers with higher numbers of inks. 40). they must be table-based and must store two est profiles 3X3 matrix. though it seems a little pointless one or more Matrix-based profiles only is to convert color to a digital scanner or numbers defining the tone curve contain information for a single rendering intent. camera space. compete on the trade-off between the quality afforded by more sample points and the increased reproduction attributes. or So a typical output profile has LUT. which that lets a table of numbers lookup tables! you look up any input absolute colorimetric doesn't . This is why some profiles are tiny while others can weigh in at over a Lookup tables can represent extremely complex devices just by adding more points in the table. — sample points can number into the hundreds or thousands. 30. profiles are the larg- of each colorant. 2. they can describe four-channel devices such as CMYK printers. perceptual. The other way to store the is is perceptual or saturation. (20. and vendors often colorimetric intent using the white point value. Matrices are much smaller than lookup tables because you always store only nine numbers for the matrix. even the user interface by far. another.83. each mathematical model known as a 3X3 matrix. the 3 X 3 matrix consists of the XYZ values for ners and basic CRT-based monitors. LUT-based profiles always use CIE LAB as the profile size three-channel devices. Both types include the device's white point. each of the three colorants (primaries) of the device. you need a separate table direction. to another profiles why you may find that made by one vendor are from Display profiles are such as (1. 3. and saturation. connection space. array of nine A 3 X 3 matrix is an numbers that can of numbers. They also have an advantage in that they aren't limited to megabyte. For more complex devices. and why some profiles seem to produce identical results no matter which rendering intent and decreased speed of the profile. like scansimple for be matrix-based or table-based. The profiling package decides the number of points in the computed from the relative LUT. The contain enough information. rel- Matrix profiles do support absolute colorimetric rendering in addition to relative colorimetric. but they differ in the way they represent the device's tone- output value. rendering intents. But matrices are only devices with fairly good tone curves.0.

known RGB or CMYK and then measure what the device produces. Profilers poking to work by sending a stimulus the device. adjusting its behavior. For a display device. and then comparing and correlating the two. .104 Real World Color Management. Empirical science often boils things and seeing what happens. that captures correlates the tell The measurements or LAB) values. They use the first set of measurements to calibrate the monitor. Second Edition Stimulus and Response down to One easy way to visualize the process of making profiles is to think in terms of stimulus and response. Hence the profile can tell the CMS what actual color will result from a given set of RGB values. and a second set to create the monitor profile. Figure 4-3 Monitor calibrators monitor and measure the color that results with an instrument like the ones shown here. are made with an instrument constructs a profile that PCS (XYZ Then it RGB values and their PCS equivalents. In other words. they poke the device with values. the profile maker sends a stimulus in the form of known RGB values and then measures the colors those RGB values cause the monitor to display. obtaining a response. the The profile can also CMM what RGB values are needed to display Monitor profiling and calibration packages send known RGB values to the a specific color (see Figure 4-3).

it builds a profile that correlates the stimulus CMS can tell from the profile specific RGB or CMYK values. so what actual color will result from Figure k-k The IT8. and what RGB or CMYK values are needed that the to print a specific color (see Figure 4-4).7/3 1 target 1 s • « a t s « < m fj BffiS ggg m in ipi IT8. Again.Chapter k: All About Profiles 105 For an output device such as a printer. the profile maker sends known RGB or CMYK values to the printer and then measures the printed output.7/S w A C D 'nUUHHl 1 2 S 4 -* —> « 7 t » 10 11 12 IS . and the response.

75.281 0-031 24 415 29. You scan the target. IxWjF [ accompanying reference data file. The stimulus in this case is a scanning target that's either supplied with the profiling pack- age or obtained from a third-party vendor. Second Edition For an input device such as a scanner. above.131 66 264 47 395 H i N\4i . The profiler compares the RGB values and the LAB or XYZ values tells in the scan in the target data file and builds a profile that the CMS how the scanner sees color (see Figure 4-5). Scanner targets are always accompanied by a data file that records the LAB or XYZ values of the color patches.281 76. the process differs only in that the measurements are usually already done for you.554 56 01 75. and then feed the scanner profiler the scan and the target data file. then hand22 BEGW-DATA_FORMAT i» SAMPLE-ID XYZ_X 24 1end_oata_format measured produce the right.134 43. is manufactured to in small B€Gn_LAYOUT quantities.106 Real World Color Management. Figure 4-5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29l The HCT scanner target and reference data file Sa IPS Don Hutcheson's excellent M£DIA_TYPE TRANSMI88IOi„ MEDIA-SIZE 4x5 1eno_cod€ HCT scanner target.

so you need to take steps to ensure that is the device behaving the way you want it to before you profile. and you need to take steps to keep it behaving that way after you profile. which cannot do. For example. a profile won't somehow make it magically produce that color. Measurement. or results with the at the least all CMMs should theory this produce the same in practice. respectively. but it can't enlarge the gamut. doing so would require a target with 100. many sample points in a lookup table would produce output is So interpolation unavoidable. The second limitation is that profiles can't make devices do things they is unavoidable. input. otherwise the profile will no longer provide an accurate description of the device's and you won't get the color you want. the profile maker can't cover the entire set of possible device sig- nals. The profile describes the gamut of the device. a printer profiler can't send every possible combination of CMYK values to the printer to see what results — at one percent increif ments. terpolation interpolation systems with different why some vendors try to find better CMMs. in- same profiles. If a printer can't produce a certain shade of red. A profile is a snapshot of the way device was behaving when the measurements were captured. both at the time the profile is created and when it is used by the color management system.Chapter k: All About Profiles 107 Profile Limitations There are three limitations in this process of creating profiles that you need to keep in mind. We mention this because it helps explain what the sions are slower than others. and why some color converCMM because there would Many people assume that with a big enough lookup table there would be no need for a be no interpolation.000 patches! Even you had the equipment (and the patience) storing that profiles in the gigabytes. We discuss this topic in more detail in Chapter 5. While is in is true. First. to measure all these patches. Calibration. and output profiles. . and Process Control. behavior. CMM does. The third limitation is that the profile is only as accurate surements on which it's as the meathe based. The majority of color devices drift over time.000. and in the following three chapters that deal v^th the specifics of building display.

— Source and —Destination a profile does nothing at all even when a profile is embedded to an- file. Input profiles are almost invariably used only as source profiles — it makes much more it sense to convert color /rom a scanner or camera space than to convert to a scanner or camera space as source —but output and display profiles are equally profiles. —have caused more than their fair share of color- management headaches. Source and destination profiles aren't types or classes of profile just temporary roles that —they're two profiles play when a color management system uses them to convert colors from one device to another. While it's probably true that the inappropriate or over-optimistic use of generic profiles —profiles that were made from something other than the measured behavior of far your particular unit than others. It's only when you're converting colors from one device other that a profile becomes active. Second Edition Using Profiles By in a itself. — and thus requires two profiles to do the color is In a color conversion. the color system doing the conversion needs to know where the colors management came from and where they are going conversion. At that time. you then wanted to proof the converted CMYK image on an RGB Inkjet printer. the profile you're converting /rom profile. the source and the profile you're converting to is the destination profile. if you have an vert image from an RGB scanner that you want to print on a press. Generic Profiles lust about every color device sold nowadays comes with one or more generic ICC profiles made by the device manufacturer and describing the typical behavior of the device model rather than the specific behavior of the individual unit. some generic profiles are a great deal more useful . you'd perform another conversion using the CMYK press profile as the source and the RGB Inkjet profile as the destination.108 Real World Color Management. you'd conit using the scanner RGB profile as the source and the press CMYK But if profile as the destination. at home and destination For example. asts will tell Some of the more rabid color-management enthusiall you that such profiles are useless.

Color Space Profiles Thus far in this chapter. But there are also profiles that describe device-independent color spaces such as CIE LAB or CIE XYZ known. CRTs not only have a lot of unit-to-unit variation fresh let from the factory. They don't represent devices. 10. for example. making generic monitor profiles a cruel joke at best. We'll discuss these profiles and they're always accurate. or or no variation from batch to batch in consumables. Generic profiles are also useful in representing standard conditions. so they aren't subject to variability. another type of profile has become commonplace like — device-independent RGB profiles as defined in the —they're built display profiles and — appear to the CMS as display profiles but in practice they behave a ICC spec lot profiles. Technically. such as Publications). Generic profiles are useless (Bruce would say worse than useless. The profiles that ac- company many Inkjet printers. or Web Offset for common mainstream proofing systems. In recent years. Chris would say somewhere between as lethal and catastrophic) for unstable devices. fall into this class: you may get slightly better results from a custom profile. that define SWOP (Specifications for how a press should behave.Chapter 4: All About Profiles 109 Generic profiles are useful display little when they're for very stable devices that little or no variation from unit to unit in manufacturing. as color space profiles. . more fully in Chapter Color Management Workflow. these aren't color space more like color space profiles than device profiles. such CRT displays. they drift over time and they offer controls that you change their behavior radically. enough. we've confined our discussion of profiles to device profiles — profiles that describe the behavior of an actual physical device —these are logically or a class of physical devices. but the generic ones are nevertheless quite useful. or for ones that display significant unit-to-unit variation.

.110 Real World Color Management. and making sure that your profiles give you the best from your devices and that your devices keep behaving the way your profiles think they do. reveal our techniques for results we look at building profiles. chances are with what color management is currently if doing for you. But that you're less than satisfied you bought this book. Second Edition Good Profiles One entirely reasonable way to decide whether your profiles are accurate enough is simply to look at the results you're getting and decide whether or not you're happy with them. In the next four chapters.

PART Building and Tuning Profiies ^ .


Calibration. or to Alfred Korzybski. the father of general semantics. In Chapter 4. the profiles In this are no longer accurate and you won't get the color you expected. your map doesn't reflect the territory accurately. Profiles are essentially snapshots of a device's behavior. them. an accurate description of your be unpredictable. 113 . we explained that color management lives or dies by the accuracy of the profiles used. get lost. rocess Control '7h€ Map Is Not the Territory" Whether you attribute the above quotation to British artist Ralph Rumney and the movement. so if the profiled device's behavior changes. you probably didn't picture either of them Situationist International slaving over a hot spectrophotometer or wrestling with rendering intents. But the quotation contains an important lesson for would-be color managers: just as the map if is If not the territory. As far as we know. the part of color it's chapter. you'll and your profiles don't provide your color output will device's behavior. the profile is not the device. we'll talk about keeping our devices' behavior in sync with the It's profiles that describe management to that most often gets overlooked because something you need do outside of the color management system. both were blissfully unaware of color management. in color management.Measurement.

114 Real World Color Management. just records how this device makes color and what colors it can (and cannot) reproduce. Just as you can get an emissions report with or without a tune-up with color management it first. cases. car's is out of the mechanic's report— the like getting a print- current levels of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide emissions. we simply have to accept a certain amount of instability. just much an harder than measuring a stationary target with a rigid ruler. and first. is It it which is often called characterization. so forth —that describe the RPM measurements of idle speed. device's behavior into a profile. on the other hand. is trying to measure a moving it's target with a rubber ruler. Profiling. you can profile (characterize) a device with or without calibrating Calibration actually changes the way a device behaves. though. it means keeping track of the art are behaving it the way our devices and either calibrating them (adjusting . the most important reason is to that the profile that describes Profiling. (building new profiles that reflect their current behavior) Calibration is the act of changing a device's behavior to achieve some desired state. We calibrate for many reasons. car's current behavior. it the process by doesn't change which we record a the device's behavior. control is accomplished through calibration alone. . You're actually changing the behavior of the device (in this case. The point not that it's impossible. their behavior to keep in sync with our profiles) or characterizing them . In those cases. If how the device was behaving at the time the profile was stable a device it. like Calibration is performing a tune-up on your car. Second Edition Keeping Track of Device Process control variability. isn't — if its behavior changes over time— then simply is like profiling as Bruce likes to point out. but for color management. make the device behave consistently so remains accurate. your car's engine) by adjusting something. whereas profiling simply describes created. is Drift and science of tracking and compensating for In the realm of color management. process control will require either more frequent unstable device to In profiling or basing the profile on a device's average behavior. process easier to calibrate make sure that it's behaving the way the profile says it some is. It's Ideally.

foUov^ng chapters that deal with building but here's a quick rundown. Inkjet printers.Chapter 5: Measurement. actually monitor's white point. Some devices simply can't be calibrated because they don't have anything you can adjust. In these cases. 255. you use the stimulus and response to change the device's response. With profiling are —the response—and then feeding the results into some of devices. Calibration. The same holds just you have to keep track of the device's is behavior and reprofile In all if it drifts too far (which relatively rare). examines the response that's when you set a the measuring instrument. For example. such as monitors. in a When you profile. and we have to account for those either vdth calibration or by reprofiling. Controlling Variables Some sources of variability are inherent in the devices themselves. Desktop scanners. but others are controllable with nothing more than a little common sense. the calibration software sends a stimulus— RGB detected by 255. calibration and at the — the stimulus— to a device. 255— to the monitor. you simply record the response and encode it profile. When you calibrate. cases. and keeps adjusting either the monitor guns or the lookup table in the video card until the response matches the white point that you requested. . you need to control all the variables that can make the device produce a different response to stimuli than the one the profile predicts. known color signals color that results software. though. for example. But calibration and profiling are separate processes with different goals. generally have no usertrue for non-PostScript accessible calibration features. and Process Control 115 Stimulus Calibration and Response and profiling are often confused because the steps involved tar- seem get of very similar on the surface. We'll look in detail at the kinds of things that introduce variability for different device types in the profiles. Here are a few sources of variability that that nonetheless may or may not be obvious but need to be kept under control. measuring the same time by the Both processes involve sending a some kinds performed same pieces of software or hardware.

The color management breaks because it expects the device to always produce the same response Figure 5-1 to a given stimulus. for example. So be vigilant. dyes. Input. ensure that you keep all software settings consistent. you switch to a different brand of ink (or almost certainly need to reprofile the device. Probably the biggest variables that the paper or other substrate on which they're laid down.000-word section on this topic alone. media settings in the printer driver that appear to be sticky. for example. so you need to turn these features the kinds of things that off. For example. So you need to keep your resolution settings consistent or build profiles for each setting. etc. because if they're wrong they have a dramatic impact on the appearance of the print. display. something as seemingly innocuous as a software update change the device's behavior. and more often than we'd like. and output devices are all subject to having their behavior controlled by software. or unannounced even if manufacturing changes. or waxes that form the color. Often.116 Real World Color Management. you buy paper or inks consistently from the watch out for manufacturing variations. A related issue is trol that many Inkjet printers use media settings to con- ink limits and black generation. We always make a point of double- checking these settings before pressing the Print button. but reality: wouldn't change the same supplier. shows happen when you fail to do so. and some printers have automatic colorcorrection routines that do different things depending on image content. if it We could write a 2. affect out- Media and consumables. you'll So. the new consumables are probably the culprit. and update them only when necessary. aren't.) or paper. put devices are the inks. Slightly less obviously. and The same inks can produce radically different colors when you change paper stocks. different resolution settings color rendition —more so on display and output devices than on scanmay your may change the ners and digital cameras. scanners often have autoexposure routines. Second Edition Software settings. Figure 5-2 shows how the wrong media settings can ruin a print. because they These features defeat color management before it starts make the device respond inconsistently — they'll typically try to increase the contrast on a flat image. toners. If your device behavior suddenly seems to change immediately after you've loaded new consumables. . toner.

.Chapter 5: Measurement. In this case it produced a heavy blue- purple color cast. a scan also made with autoexposure turned off. but almost certainly just as bad because autoexposure randomizes the scanner's response. Calibration. It produces an image with clean neutrals and good saturation. Hie image at left results from neglecting to turn off autoexposure while scanning the profiling target. the would be different. results On another image. created with autoexposure to ^^^wm^\^ turned off while scanning the profiling target. Autoexposure on while profiling. off while scanning The image at right is the result offailing to while autoexposure defeat scanning both the profiling target and the image. producing a rather useless profile that imposes poor gray balance and noticeably reduced saturation. and Process Controi 117 FIsurc 5-1 The effect of autoexposure routines The image at right shows the results of applying a profile.

118 Real World Color Management. Second Edition Figure 5-2 The importance of correct media settings Matte media settings on matte paper Glossy settings media on matte paper Matte media settings on glossy paper .

You could reliable method is to you see that something's wrong. and build a profile you deem acceptfrom the average. The Multiple Roles of Measurement Measurement plays a key role in both calibration and profiling. but a much more use measurements to track the variation. chemical.Chapter 5: Measurement. average that data. If you're serious about building your ovm profiles. color laser printers react to changes in temperature and humidity. at least some of your devices still exhibit some kind of variability. on the tone and color the monitor produces. the brightness and contrast controls on CRT monitors have a radical effect correctly. you need to account for the inherent variability in your devices. Controllins Variability Even if you control will all the aforementioned variables. But to control variability. Collect data that describes the range of variability able. Once they're set that make sure that they stay set way by taping them down or using the monitor's setup features. settinss. There are three ways to do this: Calibrate the device. In particular. Calibration. and physical variables that a slew of books have been written on controlling them. Inkjet printers almost invariably need some drying time ink to reach its final color. Building Display Profiles. sliders. you need some kind of measuring instnmient. or switch- they need to be set correctly. Building Output Profiles. We'll discuss the different types of instruments in Chapter 6. you need to use a combination of to three methods. It the device in question has knobs. and Chapter 8. all Typically. and Process Control 119 Hardware es. For color management to work. changing it its behavior back to the state in which was profiled. and printing presses are subject to so many mechanical. we'll point out the many useful things measuring capability brings outside of the profiling process. just wait until you need know that it's happening. but for now. Make a new profile that describes its new state. CRT monitors drift for the over time. .

You can use measurements to arrive at better driver settings. or at can be calibrated. can reach a high enough brightness level while maintaining a decent black? it If it's an produce clean neutrals and reasonably even tonal it's gradations while achieving the best color gamut of which capable? Measurement can help you answer all these questions. but investing a modest amount of time making loss. to decide that the device in question sim- You can use measurements ply isn't a candidate for color management. We'll go into ent types give much more detail on the kinds of issues that affect differof devices in the next three chapters. We don't mean to suggest that you go hog. How about those devices that can't be calibrated? Keeping a log of measure- ments lets you decide when the device has changed sufficiently to require reprofiling. We use measuring instruments least those that to calibrate our various devices. (The only reason you don't need to make measurements to build input profiles is that the target do so has already been measured for you. When the answers aren't to your liking. equally important roles. measurement can play other roles: You can use measurements to calibrate the device to a better-behaved state. we just want to you the Big Picture. and premature hair Evaluating Devices The first role of measurement is to evaluate the device If it's —to find out just it still what kind of a beast we're dealing with. frustration. but how do we know how often we need to calibrate a particular device? Measurement provides the answer. output device.120 Real World Color Management. . For now. Second Edition You need to make measurements to you use to build display and output profiles.) But measurement plays other.wild and measure everything in sight every 10 minutes. does a monitor. some carefully planned measurements both before and after profiling will save you time.

and Process Control 121 Calibrating Devices As we said it earlier. which for color we list here in order of importance management. it's time to reprofile (see "Monitoring Optimization (linearization).Chapter 5: Measurement. so that the voke the same response always — the same set of RGB or CMYK numbers same color. But we don't just calibrate our devices to any old state. Calibration. so that we're using as sible." later in this chapter). 21 -Step ramps after linearization . In fact. To keep the color right. you must calibrate the device often enough to bring its response back to the desired aim and the colors get further point. — possible goals for calibration. a second objective is to make the device perform optimally. If the device has no user-accessible calibration features.aE7---. there are three produces a specific. gressively less accurate becomes pro- and further away from the desired ones. Figure 5-3 Before and after linearization 21 -step ramps before linearization tL-a&. you need to track the changes so that you know when Devices. Stability. much of the device's dynamic range and color gamut as posstill while delivering smooth and predictable tonal gradations (see Figure 5-3). the profile same stimulus will always prowill make the device produce the When the device's response drifts over time. Profiling is much more likely to be successful when the de- vice we're profiling is stable.'--st. it always produces the same color in response to a given set of numbers. Once we've made the device stable. calibration means adjusting a device's behavior so that known response to stimuli in plain English.

on the other hand. or how often you need to recalibrate your color laser printer. expensive way. As long as we can do this without compromising the device's behavior. the color it management system. we may adjust the white luminance of a monitor to match the brightness of white paper in a light box. . —^you don't know which of the possible suspects and when it's that you know is that something is really Afew well-planned measurements. It's also inefficient: most color outdrift is to it's also the comes involve at least two. optimal. or adjust the ink can make less work for curves of a proofer to simulate a certain press. and can alert you to unannounced manufacturing changes in consumables. and if you don't account for that variation your profile will become progressively less accurate. wait until something has gone wrong. all If you has gone wrong the culprit. it's time doesn't end which again uses measurement. can tell you when a device is drifting too far time to recalibrate or reprofile. and sometimes more than two profiles. Most devices are subject to some kind of variation over time. But the role of measurement when you build the profile. These three goals sometimes compete. Monitoring Devices The simplest way to check for device wait until you notice that most the color is wrong.122 Real World Color Management. Unfortunately. paron a if that the color is notice press run costing tens wrong ticularly you or hundreds of thousands of dollars. Measurement can help you determine the drying time your inks need on your Inkjet paper. For example. saving you a ton of time and frustration. Second Edition Simulation. In this case we'd almost certainly choose stability over dynamic range. but doing so may make it less stable. it to. press to We might be able to tweak a produce denser blacks by increasing ink densities. If we've managed to make the device both stable and we may want to take the extra step of simulating another device. Once you've got the device behaving the way you want to profile it. This process control is all is what good about. So the last role of meathat surement it's still is to track your device's behavior over time it and make sure behaving the way the profile says does.

you'll create the ditions for the color management system no to do its — job namely.Chapter 5: Measurement. and after profiling to make sure that keeps behaving that way. helping necessary con- you produce great color with surprises. Calibration. and Process Control 123 Working Outside the System The big lesson you need to take away from this chapter is that color management is the map. not the territory. they only reflect what when you captured the input target. and output devices. Unless you take positive steps to make sure that your various devices keep behaving the way the profiles say they do. and all too often the territory is shifting sand. If. In the next three chapters. you spend a modest amount of time before profiling sure that the device it to make is behaving properly. No matter how good your profiles are. input. on the other hand. or measured the color swatches on your display. . we'll look in detail at all the things you need to do before. and after building profiles for your display. your best efforts will be doomed to failure and frustration. during. printed the your devices were doing output target.


Guillaume de Salluste Du Bartas. 'The eyes are the windows of "I the soul'?" and Katie Johnson's Mrs. "And didn't someone say." where Alec Guinness' Professor Marcus asks. Wilberforce replies. We can't stress profiling to enough the importance of good monitor calibration and a well-oiled color management system." seems to stem from the 1955 movie. did pen the line. one thing is certain: your monitor is the window to —or more accurately. "These and Shakespeare's Richard III did say. since then many people have. these I windows of the soul. display profiles— are key to the big payoff of color management: the instantaneous preview of all your color-managed materials. But." But the line everyone remembers lovely lamps. Monitor profiles Whether or not you happen to be one of them. the world of digital color.Building Display Profiles Your Window to Color Who said "the eyes are the windows to the soul"? Well." such a charming thought. I do hope someone expressed Of course. it's don't really know. "The Ladykillers. oh. You maybe able to get by with vendor-supplied profiles for input and output devices. "Ere let fall the windows of mine eyes. but effective color management really demands a custom profile for each display. 125 . it. the le**" century French poet and diplomat.

You're really calibrating and profiling the combination of the video driver. in Kelvins. Display Calibration When you calibrate a display. not monitors. the whole display system. easier and profile displays than it is to calibrate and profile just about any other type of device. Profiling the calibrated result is really the trivial part of the exercise. usually expressed The tone response curve of the display system. This occasionally gives rise to because they com- some confusion —see the sidebar. The color of monitor white. and compares them with measurements from a colorimeter or spectrophotometer. luminance of monitor black. So it's very helpful to understand just how monitor calibration is achieved." later in this chapter to calibrate —but generally speaking. you get the device behaving well before you profile bine the functions of calibration and profiling. Note that we say calibrating and profiling displays. expressed either in foot-lamberts or in candelas per meter squared (cd/m^). the video card. And as with any other type of profiling. and the actual monitor — in short. the profil- ing software displays a series of color patches with known RGB values.126 Real World Color Management. . the foot- Where you make these adjustments depends on the capabilities of your monitor. expressed either in lamberts or in candelas per meter squared (cd/m^). building display profiles of comparing known values with measured ones is — in a process this case. depending on the display technology: The luminance of monitor white. you want to get the device behaving properly before you profiling profile it. expressed as a gamma value. you (or your calibration software) adjust up to four things. The difference between monitor and other types is that monitor profiling packages actually help it. "Mudit's dying the Waters. Second Edition As with any other type of profiling. Optionally.

either as a series of presets. The electrons originate from electron guns that spray a beam of electrons onto the inside face of the tube. . to controls offered some using. or videoLUT.Chapter 6: Building Dispiay Proflics 127 What to Adjust There are two ways to change the behavior of a display. A cathode ray is a stream of electrons that are fired from one end of an enclosed glass tube to the other. or you can adjust the signals that get sent in the video card's monitor by tweaking the values It's lookup table. You can adjust the controls to the on the monitor itself. Color inside of the CRT— the red phosphor. a fluorescent light behind a diffuser that produces the light the display emits. block. always preferable to make the adjustments to the monitor it's — editing an 8-bit channel you start out with 256 with a smaller number. which is coated with phosphors chemical compounds that kick off — photons (light) of specific wavelengths when they're struck by elec- trons. they act as filters that the backlight. The new kid on the displays. Every CRT we've ever seen has controls for con- and brightness (which really control white luminance and black lu- minance. The degree to is to keep the which you can do so is dictated by the controls your monitor offers. The liquid crystals that give this type of monitor its name have the peculiar property of changing shape in response to electrical currents. and hence the guessed it) the blue phosphor. and. itself. CRT monitor trast controls. same as but you end up so you'll always be doing some tweaking there — the goal However. the depend on the type of monitor you're The workhorse of computer displays is still the CRT (cathode ray tube). Most offer some degree of control over the color of white. respectively). amount of light emitted by the phosphors. as a continuously variable control. the green phosphor and (you monitors use three phosphors in the mixture coating the The voltages sent from the video card control the bursts of electrons from the electron gun. When sandwiched between modulate all layers of polarized glass or plexiglass. extent. because when you tweak the videoLUT. essentially the levels. is and gaining fast in the world of computer the LCD (liquid crystal display). the only way to adjust the display gamma is in the videoLUT. videoLUT tweaks to a minimum.

itself. black luminance. the only real control possible on most current LCD monitors is the brightness control. which set the black level for each channel." later in this chapter. green. that LCD displays have a fixed contrast —unlike CRT displays. Calibration and packages. so as you increase the white luminance. not itself. and blue channels. which particularly those controls the brightness of the backlight. we know of at least two LCDs—the EIZO ColorEdge CGI 8 and CG21— that have their own 10-bit lookup tables built into the display. Some LCDs. and blue However. LEDs to produce the backlight. A few high-end monitors also offer red. Second Edition or as separate gain controls for the red. but they're just tweaking the videoLUT. and color temperature while with an LCD aim monitor. adjusting the behavior of the monitor this is that with a CRT monitor. green. the only thing you can really adjust in the monitor is the white luminance. and blue bias controls. however. we expect to see LCD displays that use red. green. Also. ratio so the calibrated display is still capable of producing the full 256 shades per channel. with analog rather than digital interfaces. supply software controls that mimic those found The upshot of all the monitor in CRTs. Note.128 Real World Color Management. they offer no way to adjust black luminance is separately from white luminance. EIZO's cali- bration software uses these 10-bit tables to adjust color temperature and gamma. Because of the way they work. This has some implicapoints. In theory. and during this book's lifespan. See tions for your choice of calibration Settings. the black luminance increased too. you may be able to in adjust the white luminance. such displays would allow you to adjust the color temperature of monitor white in addition to luminance. Profiling Tools There are essentially four different types of calibration and profiling Packages that are bundled with a monitor Standalone instrument-and-software bundles . "Choosing Calibration LCD display technology continues to evolve. LCD monitor controls.

Chapter 6: Building Display Profiles 129 Muddying the Waters We've mentioned several times in this boolt the rule that profiles profile in a beta version of what is that it's a done deal — monitor do. We confess that we have feelings about this. there's an exception. and the exception to this particular rule files. predictable state. we recommend visual monitor calibration. Instead. load a display profile written by one of these packages after startup. There are tor profiling still a few moni- This shredded the simple rule that a profile merely described device behavior but didn't change packages that don't write a vcgt tag into the profile. with the unhappy result that the display won't be- downloads the contents of tag to the videoLUT. see the sidebar. The major downside to this The instrument and software profiles. When you display it Many monitor profiles contain calibration information that actually changes the behavior profile that has a vcgt tag. If your viewdng environment is a wdndowless cave —^you may he able to get by vdth a visual completely stable — essentially. is the "vcgt" tag which downloads the calibration data to the video- found in many monitor calibra- LUT. We suspect that this approach's days are numbered for that very reason. this and hence have the way the does. white point corrections. which stores the approach is that if you choose a packages we use to calibrate and profile monitors usually tion data that gets downloaded to the videoLUT — the gamma and. profile thinks it of the display. ." later in this chapter. If you're at all serious about color manage- ment. but in our opinion. and we could hash out all the arguments. possibly. if you wish to call it that. distinction between calibration two ways: and profiling in device behavior. The very same adaptability that makes our eyes incredibly useful organs for living on Planet Earth makes them pretty useless as calibration devices is —the goal of cali- bration to return the device to a known. But for every rule. The culprit. merely describe doesn't —a single profile was then his called the Monitors & profiles can. Fred remembers his jaw dropping in shocked dismay the first mixed time he selected a new monitor pro and con. they're lousy at determining absolutes. and while our eyeballs are very good at making comparisons. you'd be penny-wise and pound-foolish to do But if you must. changes the behavior of the display. change anything. they use a startup application. but the bottom line Standalone software packages that support different instruments Visual calibrators Let's deal vdth the last don't first. matching calibration data probably won't get downloaded to the videoLUT. and often Sound Control Panel and saw monitor flash to a change the behavior of the display system. so. "Visual Calibration. is most display proDisplay profiling blurs the new white point. calibrator. But if you do use such a package. be careful. the perform both tasks as a single operation.

With the advent of the is DDC2 (Display Data Channel) standard. any DDC2-compliant monitor. A second less-obvious advantage of these systems is that they can often make sible than are available through the display's frontpanel controls. though they approach actually results in very convenience. and the Barco Calibrator V line. allowing the calibration software to adjust the monitor's internal controls in response to feedback from the measuring instrument. (This means occupy two USB ports. and bias controls to reach the specified luminance and color temperature. Thus far. has the potential to become a "smart" monitor. and walk away. gain. Calibration and profiling with these packages is typically a one-button operation — you attach the measuring instrument to the screen. the Mitsubishi SpectraView line. Second Edition Monitor/Calibrator bundles. so this accurate calibration and profiling. contrast. the only standalone pro filing package to exploit the DDC2 standard is Integrated Color Solutions' BasICColor Display —we're still waiting for others to follow suit. when equipped with a suitable cable. the LaCie Electron /BlueEye line. the other for the measuring instrument. . They lose their ability to emit photons. Early models used a to serial cable communicate with the host CPU. come with a bundled calibra- invariably CRTs. one for communication between monitor and host. which incorporated in just about every CRT monitor currently being sold. Monitors that tor are. so they can create a more accurate calibration than is posfiner adjustments with a human operator making adjustments through the display's controls (see Figure 6-1). each The phosphors don't change color over time. and tweak the videoLUT only to achieve the requested gamma. but the current ones that they all use USB. thus far. designed won't work as well The Sony Artisan uses a colorimeter with for the filters specifically with other monitors —while the Barco Reference CalibratorV actually uses a monochrome luminance meter— a simple photon counter— and gets measurements of the phosphors in phosphor set used in the Artisan monitor —so it its color information from factory specific unit. One huge advantage of these bundled systems is automatically adjust the monitor's brightness. press the button.130 Real World Color Manasement. These are "smart" packages in the sense that the communication between monitor and host is two-way. It's almost impossible to make mistakes with these systems.) Examples include the Sony Artisan Color Reference System. The less-expensive packages typically use off-the-shelf general-purpose colorimeters that will work with any CRT monitor.

aka the X-Rite DTP 94. The packages differ mainly in instrument support. and ColorVision's Monitor Spyder with either PhotoCAL or the fuller-featured OptiCAL. the prominent contenders in this category are GretagMacbeth's EyeOne Display. the EyeOne Display and the Monaco OPTIX. While all the aforementioned instruments are colorimeters. ColorVision's Photo- CAL and OptiCAL support several third-party instruments. EyeOne Monitor also supports the EyeOne spectrophotometer. In practice.) invariably superior to the other. respectively. while the GretagMacbeth and Monaco solutions only work with their own instruments. is we can't say that we've found that one instrument type and have had great success with both. Standalone software and Instruments. (Arguments about whether a colorimeter or a spectrophotometer is the better instrument for measuring monitors tend quickly to head into angels-dancing-on-pinheads territory. . both for the initial purchase and for after-sales support. The only real advantage we've seen from standalone bundles over separately purchased instruments and software is one-stop shopping. Most monitor calibration packages try to support the widest range of instruments possible. Monaco Systems' MonacoOPTIX XR.Chapter 6: Building Dispiay Profiies 131 Figure 6-1 Sony Artisan and LaCie BlueEye Standalone instrument-and-software bundles. At the time of writing.

make sure that you use an will rip the coating right off the front of instrument expressly designed for LCDs. A monitor hood can help shield the face of the monitor from ambient light.) Some instruments are more influenced by ambient light than others. ambient light is you find that making your instrument produce incon- sistent results. the instruments that you now come in so many shapes and forms that the epithet rarely applies.132 Real World Color Management. . The puck stops here. the varying license policies in cost. rendering useless. mainly. Figure 6-2 Monitor calibrators Warning: If you're calibrating an LCD monitor. See "Viewing Environment" in Chapter 9. can add up to significant differences Instruments Once known affectionately as attach to the center of your monitor hockey pucks. The suction cups used to attach calibration instruments to CRTs it an LCD monitor. (We couldn't resist. With CRT monitors. you may want to consider paying some attention to your viewing environment. we so if generally recommend working in a fairly low ambient light anyway. (Dead LCD monitors aren't heavy enough to make good doorstops. the licensing terms. The latter isn't an that the main differences you're only worried about calibrating a single monitor.) See Figure 6-2. Second Edition Monitor calibration and profiling is a pretty straightforward process. but if you need to calibrate all the monitors in a shop. Evaluating and Editing Profiles. so to speak. and. so that less of it is reflected into the instrument. We find issue if between packages are the list of supported instruments.

are there's no loss so a major consideration in choosing calibration — — settings is the means available to achieve them. matter what calibration settings you choose— So from the narrow color-management point of view. the only thing you can typically adjust on the monitor the brightness of the backlight. the fewer "free" your display can levels. and has been supplanted by the current approach of color-managing the data that gets sent to the video card. so we recommend using the native white If point for point LCDs whenever the software allows us to do so. using the profile that represents the behavior of the specific display in question. Adjustments you make to the monitor itself. The one thing to avoid making major corrections in the videoLUT. all it doesn't really is that matters that your display profile represents the behavior of your display as accurately as possible. never worked.Chapter 6: Building Display Profiles 133 Choosing Calibration Settings To a great extent. of most . Changes to the color temperature are carried out in the videoLUT. if some to of your work lies outside the color-management realm. have come to the same recommended white point of 6500 it. Of course. you to a recognized standard. native white isn't an option. For example. your display is behave better some settings than others. You can just take our word for why we like white point-6500 K. we use D65 because the color temperature LCD backlights is closer to D65 than to anything else. For LCD displays. calibration settings: calibrate your monitor to a K and a gamma of 2. and represented an attempt to make all monitors behave identically this by calibrating them to the same white point and gamma. All calibrators ask you for two target values: white point gamma For CRT displays the three of us. will may want calibrate your is monitor And even at if all your work color. by separate paths.2.2. so we'll discuss itself is that in the next section. levels because doing so reduces the number of discrete — reproduce the bigger the correction. the whole notion of monitor calibration standards stems from the days before the display was talcen out of the color management chain. But other considerations come into play. on the other hand.managed. but we think it's useful to understand and gamma-2.

Second Edition Target White Point The white point of the monitor plays an important described in Chapter baseline that that it 1. This is why many people (including us) often find a 5000 K monitor to be a bit too dim.) you have a D50 viewing booth. . especially older models. So the discussion quickly reduces to D65 (6500 through millions of which of the two most commonly used daylight standards. . to move the white point to 5000 K. In either case. but it has little trouble looking at a color image in a 6500 K monitor and mounted then moving to view the same image printed out and page that you're evaluating. we have to limit the output of the display's blue channel. The eye has a tremendous ability to adapt to different whiteSo instead. you should have no problems. . The three of us unanimously recommend calibrate your monitor to 6500 K even though many people think K of 5000 as the standard viewing white point in graphic arts. As your eye judges all colors relative to some neutral considers white. brightness. D50 (5000 K correlated color temperature) or ture). —see "Monitor. The eye takes a little bit of time to adjust to a change in brightness.134 Real World Color Management. . then It's the relationships within the image or As long as you give the eye a good adaptation environment. your monitor to 5000 this might seem to tip the scales toward setting K so that your monitor and print-viewing environseem to predict ment have identical white points. If your software has more than just two choices for white point. are pretty darned blue. you have another option —you can perform iterative calibrations to find the white point setting that best approximates a sheet of paper in your viewing booth. role for your eye. you The eye has a tremendous ability to adapt vironments." in Chapter 9. the eye works best point closest to that years of evolution to different white-point enit's when operating in a white environment most familiar to it —namely daylight. is best. . it's point environments. and well too darned yellow. . (See K correlated color temperaIf Chapter 1 if you're unfamiliar with these terms. But long experience has told us that this doesn't work the way the theory would print comparisons. dingy. though the better current CRTs have a native white point closer to 6500 K. and both environments are of approximately equivalent in a viewing booth. with a color temperature closer to 9300 K. lowering the overall brightness and dynamic range. However. worth remembering the sentence that started off this Evaluating and Editing Profiles. Here's why. A second factor is that many uncalibrated CRTs. .

like us. then it would look reasonable when as this printed without much adjustment. Target Gamma The recommended setting for gamma depends somewhat on how much work you do outside the color-managed environment.8." in Chapter 9. If an image looked good on a monitor calibrated to gamma 1. for the simple reason that.8? when calibrating your monitor.8 roughly approximated the dot-gain curve of the Apple LaserWriter. to if gamma for your particular display. and concentrate on matching the brightness of the monitor be and the viewing booth.8 as the "standard Macintosh gamma" set to .2 produces the smoothest display of gradients. and specifically. since the displays being used at the time were monochrome). or to both. have found this to's color management (actually a grayscale management. was well before the days of color management.8 assumed cards is to have a gamma —the default table 1 displays have traditionally been in Macintosh video produce an approximate display gamma of 1 . between the various calibration aim points are pretty darned . you want your monitor to have similar tone repro- duction characteristics to your printer. however. So instead. we recommend around little that you calibrate your all monitor to a gamma of 2. Why A monitor gamma of 1 . is why Macintosh of 1. with control over of their equipment. in our testing.Chapter 6: Building Display Profiles 135 Some people all in extremely color critical environments. This served as a poor. We. the general practice has been to choose a gamma that best simulated the mid-tone characteristics of the target if you're medium —in English. is But with color management. to find the ideal the other hand.2.8. don't feel you have to change it just because we profile. you've been happily calibrating your monitor to D50. On — say so as long as you have an accurate monitor gamma 1. If you may want to go further. Without color management. and calibration instructions have long touted 1 . of the printer profile. simulation now the job of the color management system. the differences subtle. going to print. This. we've found that calibrating to gamma 2. you're picky. including the paper being used. with or no visible banding or posterization. and use the tech- niques described in "Checking the Display. prefer to deal with the color of paper white in the printer profile.8. supposedly. Evaluating and Editing Profiles.

you I How Often Should should calibrate monthly Calibrator V after —some of the high-end systems like the Barco and the Sony Artisan are pretty insistent that you recalibrate 30 days. much smaller. as long as they don't actually turn the monitor Since we wrote the first edition of this book. will decay slowly over time. make sure it's been on and in use it's for at least 30 minutes. is to make all sure that worth On a CRT. so as bright as you'd like. we've realized that LCD displays also need at least 30 minutes warm-up time. make sure this doesn't kick in during the warm-up period. running wide after calibration. a black screen.136 Real World Color Management. hair brighter than you'd like. turn the brightness control all the way up. get With LCD monitors. and preferably for an hour so that ing temperature. (If you use this as your excuse for a little Web surfing every morning. which seems excessive. At minimum. isn't be even worse Warm-Up Time Before calibrating a CRT. maybe more. If the result is something other than a display that's at least 3. the jury is The dyes in LCD cells wear at a We calibrate our LCDs weekly to be on the safe side.) Regular screensavers (those floatie fishies or flying toasters) are fine. it'll if the display. Various from a low of 30 objective evaluations of LCD display warm-up time range minutes to a high of 90 minutes for the fluorescent backlight to reach stable output. The backlight. as are the simpler ones that just display off. however. We know people who still calibrate their monitors every day. . turn the contrast control the way up. but harmless. much slower rate than the phosphors in CRTs — it's unlikely to be an issue in a human lifespan. the monitor is probably a candidate for replacement rather than calibration calibrators — work by turning things down. open. Second Edition Calibrate? With CRT monitors. we recommend calibrating weekly. If reached its stable operat- you have any energy-saving software that turns the monitor off when not being used. We've also seen some work that suggests the LCD filters themselves but the effects are may be influenced by temperature. we won't tell anyone. on an LCD. Before Calibration The it's first thing to do before calibrating your monitor calibrating. but you can probably by with less-frequent calibration than with CRTs. out.

Just Settings Make sure that all the other monitor settings are finalized before you calichanging the resolution from say 1 280 x 1024 to 1152x864. they can also cause the sensor to fall off halfway through the calibration process. Refresh. to try and squeeze some extra brightness back into the monitor. brate. you can: use the geometry controls on the front panel of the monitor to reduce the horizontal and vertical size of the displayed image reduce the refresh frequency from. Use a weak solution of mild detergent or a cleaning product specifically formulated for monitors. say. it and if you change any of these parameters. Also. or changing the refresh rate from 85 to 75 Hz. should go without saying —but we will anyway —that you should set your monitor to display true 24-bit color (millions of colors). hold glass cleaners wreck: the coatings on LCDs are even more . because they can introduce inaccuracies into the readings. If you followed the instructions it on evaluating your monitor and didn't achieve satisfactory brightness. So can changing the geometry settings on the display and Other Monitor — reducing the size of the displayed image on the monitor targets the electron guns on a smaller area of phosphors. can affect the overall brightness output of the monitor. OK to change these settings. which slightly increases the brightness of the image. However. say.Chapter 6: Building Display Profiles 137 Resolution. may be time for a new monitor. but be careful that you select a It's combination that supports true 24-bit color (millions of colors). Cleaning the Screen It's important to make sure your screen is free of dust and fingerprints before calibration. but you must do so beforeyou calibrate. 1280x1024 to 1152x864 or even 800x600 The refresh frequency and resolution settings can be found in the Dis- play Settings or Control Panel on your system. Don't use glass cleaners containing ammonia or other harsh solvents—most high-end CRTs use antiglare coatings that housefragile. 85 Hz to 75 Hz reduce the resolution from. you need to recalibrate for each change. which can be a major frustration and a hazard for your keyboard and measuring instrument. Tip: Extend the Life of Old Monitors. In the case of CRT monitors.

. Smart monitors with bundled calibrators. handle this task automatically. Setting White Luminance Some packages allow you to specify a value internal (and for white luminance —how bright you want the monitor to be. Pre- CAL. A decent CRT should be able to achieve our recommended luminance for at least three years. Dropping the brightness from the get go will give you will headroom to increase white luminance as the backlight ages. Others simply adjust the monitor to an sometimes undocumented) preset value. use a separate application. Figure shows some typical examples. This is important because we find that the half-life of the backlight is about 18 it months — if you drive the display at full bright- be half as bright in 18 months and there won't be anything ness. Others. You then adjust the contrast control (on CRTs) or the brightness control (on LCDs) to 6-3 so. you can do about it. In addition to specifying the color temperature calibrators ask you to set the luminance. It's always tempting to crank up the white luminance to get the maximum possible contrast ratio. Most of today's CRTs can reach a higher luminance higher —sometimes much so. —for a while. such as the LaCie Electron /BlueEye and the Sony Artisan Color Reference System. Good calibration packages guide you setting brightness. anyway.138 Real World Color Management. and color temperature settings. and usually more accurately. In the monitor — dynamic range by choosing white and black some packages. when given a choice. Unless we're using a calibrator that adjusts the monitor automatically. such as ColorVision's OptiCAL and PhotoCAL. but when you do you shorten the monitor's useful life. this step setting the analog controls on — is handled as part of the calibration process. brightness. in sometimes by as much as half. we start the way down— most calibrators out by turning the contrast all the way up and the do brightness all tell you explicitly to non-automatic varieties generally display the target current measured luminance. With CRT moni- tors. often for longer. we opt for a value somewhere between 85 and 95 cd/m^ or 24 and 28 foot-lamberts. The luminance and the make the two match. Second Edition Precalibration —Setting the Analog Controls and gamma of the display. to step you through optimizing the monitor's contrast. The default brightness of LCD displays is usually so high it needs reducing.

measures continuously.089 tin 93. You adjust the contrast control until the white indicator lines up with the black one.Chapter 6: Building Display Profiles 139 Figure 6-3 Setting white luminance PrtCAL" O. O Not raiUbte on this monitor. C5W> i Sdect Profile Parameters m^^m^ fmiii^imm IjMitaMmMB MonacoOPTIX simply lets you define a target luminance. C EE . left. cUi -TM OSD*. Contrast QM«Uly Indkator :i GretagMacbeth's EyeOne Match.0.S24Ky 3l3. You adjust the contrast control and repeat the process until you achieve the desired luminance.O.SI4. Tm Oa ScfMa Oisp^rJ eaiomiavMsKltel not Um OSO cfcl«9at tfH t oftlH dU»ta*.49 od/m'2 Done 3 ColorVision's PreCAL lets you take a measurement and reports the measured luminance.52Sxy 0.

140 Real World Color Management. Instead. the key is patience. making quite hard to determine when you've arrived at an optimal situation. The goal is to set the black level a hair visually. On most LCDs. With this approach. some techniques that can help you refine the black-point setting. . If you too low. instead ally —they usuit's show a dark gray patch against a black one. the black level isn't controllable separately from white luminance the only real control is the brightness of the backlight to accept — —so you simply have it what the calibrator gives you. your blacks be washed To further complicate matters. just keep making small adjustments to level. On CRTs (and on a very few LCDs). Calibrators that step you through these same adjustments manually also take many measurements of black. and the light output of CRT monitors gets progets to black. In this indicator of the current measured black level jumps around. and working with them most consistent results possible. They take hundreds of measurements and average This is them. most of the instruments as the we use to calibrate monitors have diminishing accuracy it sample gets darker. Don't expect the indicator to magically stop moving around the black — it won't. all. is Setting the black level bration. Gradually. working signal at more technical definitions don't apply) higher than no Figure 6-4 shows some different approaches to setting the of monitor cali- black level. useful which results in clipping potentially (since you're shadow values. We've seen many cases where the setting. Some calibrators let you set the black level visually. Second Edition Setting Black Level Setting the black level set it is quite a bit trickier than setting the white. See for "Black-point check" in Chapter Evaluating and Editing Profiles. very easy to set the black level too low. but the problem then becomes how to present these measurements to the user in a useful form. the results will converge on the target point. levels. you adjust the black level using the brightness control (which is really what the techies call an offset). you'll clip will some shadow out. It's by far the most difficult part worth learning the quirks of your chosen calibration system to get the 9. and if you set it too high. gressively less stable the closer where systems that adjust the monitor's controls automatically have a huge advantage.

. above left. and Monaco Optix Pro. you've set the black level correctly. GretagMacbeth's EyeOne Match. above right.Chapter 6: Building Display Profiles 141 Flsurcd-^ Setting biacl( level ColorVision's OptiCAL. iises a visual target to help you set the black level. both measure black continuously and provide feedback via a slider When it lines up with the target. left. BrtfMiwu QMllty Indkator -^! Q Not waitabte on this monitor.

but the presets are often off by a considerable amount. Typically. it can only at be accomplished by filtering the backlight. the software takes care of the necessary adjustments automatically. we may try going to the next-higher preset. For example. We always start out with the preset closest to our de- sired color temperature. so we generally leave LCDs their native vv^hite point. though some offer additional presets) Continuously variable color temperature Gain controls Gain controls for two of the three guns guns for all three So how you get to the desired color temperature depends on the monitor controls. Again. But the level of control that CRTs offer varies from model to model.142 Real World Color Management. In that case. 6500 K. but we find it useful on all CRTs (see Figure 6-5). almost invariably giving a lower color temperature than the preset value. With LCDs. and 9300 K. v^hich is usually close to 6500 K anyv^ay. the colortemperature labels on the color-temperature control are often signifi- cantly off from the real. measured color temperature. green. with automatic systems. Many of the manual calibrators tell R. CRTs with gain controls. we'll skip this step in future calibrations. We adjust the color temperature to get as close as possible to the desired result. We find that it doesn't make a whole lot of dif- ference whether the monitor offers control over two or three of the channels —we rarely adjust more than two. you to skip this adjustment if your monitor doesn't have individual and B gains. we'll use that instead. the color temperature is adjusted by changing the dividual gains in- on the red. anyway. a 7500 if the 6500 K preset measures as 6100 K. G. Again. and blue guns. CRTs offer one (or more) of the follov\^ng: Several preset color temperature settings (typically 5. CRTs with presets.000 K. and the monitor offers Once we've determined the best K preset. Most calibrators show you . CRTs with continuously variable color temperature. Second Edition Setting the Color Temperature In CRT monitors. preset to use.

Chapter 6: Building Display Profiles 143 Figure 6-5 Setting white point .

check that the calibrator monitor when you come back. or disable altogether. the last thing it does seems like such a tiny afterthought. when this happens. a few things Make bration. but it's still fall off before Savins tlie Monitor Profile Regardless of what type of calibrator you are using. or at the least can detect when this happens and beep angrily at you. but there are still exceptions. Most calibrator programs nowadays are able to hide the pointer if it enters the measurement area. your floatie appear during calibration. Some people the filename. It's possible to throw off a calibration by allowing your mouse pointer to move across the measurement area during a measurement. makes the neces- some more patches. most have code Nevertheless. you'll have to restart the calibration process. create a new profile each time by including the is silly We think this —the condition that the old monitor . you've done trols is really the the difficult stuff^setting the analog con- only part of calibrating and profiling the monitor that requires user intervention. but is the key to getting this labori- ously calibrated monitor into your color management system —saving date in and naming the monitor profile. There however. looks at are. you need to start over. that can go wrong. by no means unheard-of for the instrument to the calibration is done. In that case. And of course. and sary tweaks to the videoLUT. attached to the in- you use the calibration process as an opportunity to take whatever is still kind of break you need. Then it displays the measurements. and builds a profile. The software displays patches on the screen. you may have to adjust the screensaver's it settings.144 Real World Color Management. in fishies fact. sure that some screensaver software that prevents doesn't kick in during cali- Any good calibration software should detect it. looks at the measurements from the instruments. It's just good advice to keep the pointer safely off to the side If and don't touch anything during calibration. The industrial design of instruments tended to attach to the monitor has greatly improved since the early days. if and. Second Edition Calibration and Profilins all At this point.

but just about resemblance to the monitor you're calibrating. is the directions about Failing that. its preferred location. LCD monitors. We recommend that you just overwrite the previous profile— the old ones are useless profile described no longer clutter exists since you've recalibrated the monitor. We don't recommend visual calibe able bration. Visual calibrators are designed The viewing environment is much more critical for visual calibration than for shadow-mask monitor. which varies on different operating On Mac OS 9. your monitor up time and resolution settings an aperture-grille type (a Trini- apply to visual calibration just as they do to instrumented calibration. get don't look at the tar- you must.mask profile. and the adaptive nature of our eyes makes bration to the next. Unless you really know what you're doing. Sony and Mitsubishi are the main providers of the former type. at sure that you the calibrator offers a choice least try to make between a single gamma and individual about guarantee that you'll be disappointed with the results! always calibrate under the same lighting conditions — gammas for red. if the and blue. It's helpful. the software save the profile in systems. you impossible to do with blue. the results almost back to a certainly will be. green. save the profile in the ColorSync Profiles folder in the System Folder (some calibrators save the profile in the Displays folder inside the ColorSync folder —either way is fine). Ideally. If you try to instrumented calibration. Most profilers automatically save the profile in the correct location and load it as the profile that describes the monitor. your desktop pattern is a neutral gray rather than pink marble or your favorite picture of your cat). choose the latter. Hitachi is with CRTs in mind. but we can just that's impractical. ^ All visual calibrators start out easy to do this with it's it just about certain that you won't to hit the same aim point twice by visual methods alone. and if it's a blue setting that gives you a neutral gray. use a shadow. So when you adjust the blue gamma. but if with an existing profile. It's means bringing a device known state.Chapter 6: Building Display Profiles 145 Visual Calibration We're tempted to say that visual calibration is an oxymoron — ambient different light is dramatically Gamma adjustments are cali- from one calibration almost always carried out by having you move a slider until a solid color matches a dither pattern. but if use them with all the If main provider of the latter. . and just your system. here are some should start pointers that you may find warm- out with a profile — look at your neutral gray describing a monitor that uses the desktop instead (of course. too. choose very easy to see what's ing to the neutrals —aim for the happen- a profile that describes that type of monitor. even in dual-monitor let systems. tron or Diamondtron). TYy to choose one that bears a general red and green. The ideal is a darkened room. All same phosphors if as yours. bets are off.

146 Real World Color Management. Second Edition On Mac OS X. On Windows 2000. and ME. Often." in Chapter 9. save the monitor profile in Windows\ System \ Color. the situation is a little trickier. but meanwhile it we advise saving all in /Library/ColorSync/Profiles it. and calibration and ing is the first step in attaining that goal. whenever possible. because it's is really very straightforward. Eventually. See "Checking the Display. though. Some calibrators save the profile in the / Library/ ColorSync/ Profiles /Displays folder if you're logged user. and Windows XP. it's an iterative process. calibration and . which is the lynchpin of a color-managed workflow. which is unavailable to other users. Most profil- people say they want to trust their monitor. save the monitor profile in WinNT\ System \ Spool \ Drivers \ Color. On Windows NT. Piece of Cake Monitor calibration and profiling just as well. for techniques to help you evaluate and improve your display profiling. Evaluating and Editing Profiles. so users have access to On Windows 98. save the profile in WinNT\System32\ Color. thereby in as an Admin making the profile available to all users. Others save it in the -/Library/ ColorSync /Profiles /Displays folder — that's your "Home" Library. we hope vendors will make up their minds whether monitor profiles should go with the user or with the monitor. 98SE.

Unless you what's like orange. So a good input profile will faithfully render the dark and murky appearance of an underexposed image or the washed-out appearance of an overexposed one. Color negative scans are basically impossible to profile for a raft of reasons. inverted images.negative scanning targets are hard to find —Fuji is the only source of which we're aware. you don't want to reproduce on the film. Moreover.Building input Profiles Starting Out Right To get the color you want. 147 . in the field rather cameras shot because the than the studio are difficult to light source is all over the place. The fundamental role that input profiles play is to tell the CMS what that color We must stress upft^ont that input profiles don't automatically give you — great color or remove the need for color correction they just tell the CMS is. The orange mask on negatives varies so much with exposure that the profile would only work reliably if your negatives were exposed very close to the same way the target was. the being: main ones Color. Digital profile some types of input are difficult-to-impossible to profile. you first have to know what that color is. what colors your capture device sees.

This is easy do with reflective targets. some targets' TDFs in the batch are more accurate than others. however. or you're However. Expensive targets are manufactured in smaller batches. Inexpensive targets are manufactured in fairly large batches. and extremely difficult . and measured are generally a lot if individually. the The difference that with input measurements have. for First. Second Edition (positive) film. look at the similarities between profiling scanners and profiling digital cameras. already been done for you. —almost always RGB in the is or space such as CIE profiles. and the mea- surements are carried out on a small sample of the total batch. you have an instrument capable of doing so. into the target description to file that accompanied the target. good input profiles can be significant time-savers. quite difficult with large-format transparency the affordable targets (you need a transmissive spectrophotometer. let's reasons that we'll examine a little later.148 Real World Color Management. Scanner profiles are so easy to build that there's relatively little reason not to do so. Digital camera profiles. are quite a bit harder. if you're scanning prints or reversal shooting digital captures under controlled lighting. you can always measure the profiling target yourself and plug the measurements Of course. As a result. Input Profile Basics The process of building input profiles of profiles in that is the same as building other types we compare XYZ device values case of input devices —with measurements in a device-independent color CIE LAB. in the vast majority of cases. and ones force you to position each patch manually). Input Profiling Targets Input profiling targets always have two components: The physical target that you scan or shoot (TDF) that contains measurements of the A target description file color patches on the target The main difference between inexpensive and expensive input profiling targets is the accuracy of the measurements in the target description file. so the TDFs more accurate.

Kodak's version. Scanner Targets.7/2 targets . which are available from several different vendors on several different film stocks.Chapter 7: Building input Profiies 149 with 35mm transparencies (you need a very specialized transmissive spectrophotometer with a very small aperture. By 118.7/ land IT8.7/2 targets. follows the ITS standard (see Figure 7-1).7/ 1 far the most common scanner targets (reflective) in use are the (transmissive) and 1T8. and they're both rare and expensive). n9ur«7-1 The IT8. the Q-60.

We've built profiles using Don Hutcheson's excellent hand-measured HCT targets (you can find out all about them at www. We prefer the HCT target to the IT8 not only for the accuracy of the TDF. Figure 7-2 The HCT target . particularly dark. and we find that it simply produces a better profile than the IT8 (see Figure 7-2). The image-forming dyes used in film stocks as different as tical Kodak Ektachrome and —the differences come from the image-capture dyes. simply records how the capture device sees different rate. You're definitely almost identical profiles that are capable of characterizing scans from either film stock very well. using both the Kodak and Fuji versions.150 Real World Color Manasement. but also because it contains a better sampling of colors. Of this much we're better off buying one individually measured target than buying batch- measured targets on different film stocks. and we've found that they produce certain. Second Edition One frequently asked question is. saturated colors. we don't think so. but as long as the TDF accu- we've found that they produce extremely similar profiles. The colors may be quite is on a Kodak and a Fuji ITS but based Fuji Velvia are almost iden- on our experience. and a profile color. do I need for different film stocks? to make different profiles We hesitate to give a definitive verdict.hutchcolor.

gray with the 24 patches from the original Color Checker (see Figure 7-3). There are only two digital camera targets that have gained any significant degree of support in profiling packages: the 24-patch Macbeth ColorChecker. Figure 7-3 Macbeth ColorChecker and GretagMacbeth ColorChecker SG . which replaces the now-deprecated ColorChecker DC. and includes a designed to let and black patches around the perimeter the profiling software comp)ensate for uneven lighting. The target is specifically designed for profiling digital cameras. along series of white. and the brand-new (at time of writing) 140-patch GretagMacbeth ColorChecker SG.Chapter 7: Building Input Profiles 151 Digital camera targets.

With scanners. however. but in rather different ways. they appear rather differently to digital cameras. and the high patch count tended to make profiles that were notable In for their lack of smoothness. One situwhere we prefer the ColorChecker SO (for Semi Gloss) is for profiling field cameras in the under available (that is. scanners. Software settings are also important with digital cameras. . The device. color on scanners and cameras change over the life of the but so slowly that it'll probably take five years or more before you filters need to reprofile. and cameras separately We'll start with the easier option. There are really only three factors that affect capture devices such as scanners and digital cameras: source The light The color filters The software settings In scanners. ca- How you account for differences in the light source depends on the pabilities of the camera. the biggest variable by far is the software settings. do suggest that you measure the 24-patch ColorChecker yourself. ation many cases. the light source is a huge why scanners are easier to profile than digital cameras. Second Edition The ColorChecker awry. and while the patches from each formulation appear similar to the human eye. white. DC was a great example of good intentions gone The glossy patches had a tendency to turn black in cross-polarized lighting setups. and is almost always compensated for by an internal calibration is variable —this before each scan. and gray patches around the perimeter of the target help We you determine whether or not the target was evenly lit. we still prefer the old 24-patch ColorChecker. for the simple reason that the black. uncontrollable) light. The formulation has changed at least three times over the years.158 Real World Color Management. Input Device Variables As with any other type of device. so from here on it makes more sense to deal with scanners first. the light source is stable in all but the least expensive models. In digital cameras. it's vital that you control all the variables that can affect your input device's performance before you profile it.

and you active. use the techniques described in "Bringing Color into a Color-Managed Environ- ment" in Chapter 10. but some members of the family have auto-exposure hardwired into the scanner firmware. remove color casts. the second goal optimally. (A third management. management (and are extremely useful in their own don't. up the scanner software goal is then keeping it set that way. or do anything else automatically in response to the to turn off image content. you need the scanner— sharpening is any sharpening in also a feature that produces different results depending on image content. interfere with color equipped with them. is inimical to color managework on faded or color-casted originals — where you rfon'f want to reproduce what's on the film it's unlikely that you'd want to use color management and Digital ROC at the same time. instead. There are. to get the scanner behaving Stabilizing the Scanner's To make a good scanner profile. You can't really profile these scanners. or if you're scanning color negatives. models are affected. Once is you've achieved that. . it's ment. two automatic features that we've found are benign with regards to color right). The first to get the scanner behaving consistently. but since designed to Digital ROC. by all means leave them ASF technology. so if your scanner is what they do. however. scanner uses features that tailor its response to the image at hand. Color-Management Workflow. Less obviously. If you're using a scanner whose auto features are undefeatable.) — A very few scanner drivers make tings it —the ones we run into over and over again are those for the PolaNot all impossible to defeat the auto set- roid Sprintscan series. Applied Science Fiction's Digital ICE surface-defect removal and GEM (Grain Enhancement Module) noise-reduction technologies like in our experience.Chapter 7: Building Input Profiles 153 Building Scanner Profiles Building scanner profiles fully lies in setting is relatively easy —the key to doing so successcorrectly. the Response first thing you need to do is to make If the sure that the scanner responds the same way to every image you scan. you're back to chasing the proverbial moving target with the rubber ruler! So you need to turn off any features that set black or white points.

com. all 10-24 MB for 48- bit scans. We then do any necessary corrections.hutchcolor.6-3. whether a lowly desktop drum scanner. Our usual approach the to color-managed scanning is to "wide open" with no black-point or white-point correction. See for Input Profiles" in 'Objective Test for a tech- Chapter 9. you can downsample the target scan . the procedure for building the profile is the same. you're profiling a a good idea to mask the rest of the bed reflections." which available for download in PDF format from run the scanner www. your scanner allows be based on whatever size prescan the scanner software provides. If your profiling software doesn't accept high-bit TIFFs. Second Edition Optimizing task is tlie Scanner's Response it's Once the scanner is to stable —you've turned off auto -everything—the next behaving optimally. including optimizations for different output processes. If and try to mount flatbed scanner. The default tone curves flatbed or a Heidelberg make sure that on most scanners. in an image editor such as if Adobe Photoshop. produce images that are pleasantly contrasty and saturated.154 Real World Color Management. Scanning the Target The ally target scan doesn't have to be particularly high-resolution —we usu- aim for a file in the 5-12 MB range for 24-bit scans. you can achieve significant productivity gains by performing color correction and conversion to output space in the scanner software. and capture maximum bit depth the scanner allows. Evaluating and Editing Profiles. that isn't —the area — covered by the target to minimize distortions from unwanted it's the target as straight as possible. Make sure that you've set the scanner parameters correctly. but tend to compress shadow detail and distort darker colors. to nique that allows further reading. If your scanner software allows you to set the output gamma. we rec- ommend setting it somewhere in the range of 2. The downside is that your corrections will However. We usually scan the target as a high-bit TIFF file. But whether you bring raw scans onto an image editor or do conversions and corrections on the scanner.0. you determine the scanner's optimum gamma. it. For we recommend Don Hutcheson's excellent paper entitled is "Scanning Guide.

We use the measure tool to measure the angle of one of the lines that should be horizontal. and spot out any defects with Photoshop's clone tool (see Figure 7-4). or just scan in 24-bit RGB. When you're important that you don't change the don't have building input prohles. set to Nearest Neighbor to preserve the integrity . We always open the target scan in Photoshop before feeding to the profiler. so clicking OK is a straightened scan. We also check each patch for dust and scratches. ever. We also recommend make a point of never. Tip: Check Your Policies Before Opening the Target Scan. embedding a profile in any color-management target. its vitally RGB you values in the target scan.Chapter 7: Building input Profiies 155 to eight bits per channel in Photoshop. so make sure that you any automated that conversions specified in your image editor. Figure 7-k Massaging the target scan Q-6lli:3 Tar^vlfnr Prdfessional I'ihiis KODAK f-KTACIIROME Straightening the target scan is easy in Photoshop. Make sure that the interpolation method of the color patches. including scans or captures of input profile targets. and perform any necessary rotation and cropping (you in the profiling set the final package —cropping crop in Photoshop just minimizes the amount of data you're slinging around). then choose Arbitrary Rotate. The opposite angle results in is automatically entered.

open the target reference file. HCT Flex 848 i gamma 3. but they all work in fundamentally the same way. The user interface may vary from profiler to profiler.0 1 Cropping the target scan Cnip your target by dragging tin white cmpping marquee to the four comers of the target.156 Real World Color Management. Second Edition Building the Scanner Profile Once you've got the target scan in the best shape possible. all that remains is to build the profile. you're asked to scan (see Figure Figure 7-5 7-5). m \ . mmammf^mmmmmmB^. which contains the measured color data for the target. Then you're asked to open the target First.

There are plenty of good books on the subject. Scanning backs and some three-shot cameras you gray-balance the camera itself you expose a gray card. the strategy that works for scanners device's response — —locking the is totally useless. "One-shot" color camer- as use an area array sensor with color filters applied over the sensor. Control over color temperature. capture originals that have already digital been reduced to three or four colors of dye or ink. In-camera gray-balancing. Controlling the Camera's Response With digital cameras.Chapter 7: Building input Profiles 157 Building Digital Camera Profiles The actual profile-building process for digital cameras is pretty much identical to that for scanners —you provide the profiling package with a target it reference file and a capture of the target. and then crunches the numbers to profile and builds a profile. that when you're profiling a camera. is What makes digital cameras much harder than scanners the inherent differences in the ways they're used. Moreover. lights and shadows. digital Where scanners have a fixed and reasonably stable light source. so they're often known as color filter array (CFA) cameras. on the other hand. while all cameras have So metamerism the way we do — —where the capture device sees colors differently from is to capture real-world objects in their diversity. is critical. lighting the target evenly and capturing both the highso we'll say no more except to stress. much more commonly a problem with digital cameras than it is with scanners. for the most part. Controlling the camera's response to once more. Each element in the sensor captures a single color. it You need the camera to react differ- ently to different scenes so that that vary in both can accommodate lighting conditions dynamic range and color temperature. scanners. depends largely on the capabilities of the camera. cameras do not. or . and on the file format you're shooting. dynamic range is basic photogra- phy— lighting and exposure. then use the camera software to adjust the analog gains of the individual channels let — to obtain a neutral gray. green. Wlilte-balancing color filter array cameras. usually but not always red.

In the early days we had a notable lack of success with this approach. Instead. we find that it works . When you set white balance in the camera. Most if perspective distortions. but profile. which generallythe best choice for profiling since it uses minimum processing required to produce a color image. you're prorelying the camera and a specific path through a specific raw converter. and use your calibrated monitor as your guide for any necessary edits. raw conversion. The impact of white balance differs between the two. rather than and use that white balance on either the camera's auto white balance or the raw converter's best guess on white balance. profiling tools allow and try to capture as squarely as possible. most raw converters offer a "linear" (gamma 1. in the It's a good idea to set a custom white balance when you shoot the target. they're you more extreme you may to correct small get a bad or the software may simply reject the capture. you can't profile the raw capture directly filing still —rather. but it works quite from the gray balance it in scanning backs. When you shoot JPEG. it's critical you set a custom white balance when you shoot the profiling target. probably isn't a candidate for profiling. Second Edition blue. matrix. sharpness. affects the processing of the raw image. that etc. However. If your camera is unable to set either a custom white balance or a it custom gray balance. since the — raw data is a grayscale image that requires processing to become a color one. the white balance setting has no effect on the captured raw data it's simply recorded in the image's metadata as a tag that raw converters can use for a default interpretation. but with only the current raw converters and camera profiling tools. Instead.158 Real World Color Management. —which is Almost all CFA cameras offer a white balance feature. — grayscale to interpolate the missing colors for each differently The color image is made by processing the raw capture pixel. it doesn't adjust the camera's response to the light.). the raw data is converted in the camera. using the on-camera settings for white balance (and contrast. When you shoot raw.0) If you're profiling raw. simply open the images in a well-chosen editing space. however. is capture mode. color so when you profile a camera for JPEG capture. Capturing the Target Mcike sure that the target it is lit as evenly as possible. Most professional and prosumer CFA cameras offer the choice of shooting JPEG or shooting Raw format.

so we recommend making separate profiles for daylight and tungsten shooting. . Most camera profilers allow you to set contrast. Well. Figure 7-6 shows a linear-gamma capture of the ColorChecker SG target opened in GretagMacbeth's ProfileMaker Pro rections applied. we've found that most cameras respond quite differentiy to daylight and to tungsten. It's also the simplest path to profiling high-bit captures. gray balance. You provide the profiling tool with a target description file and a captured TIFF image of the target. with perspective cor- Cropping the target Building the Camera Profiie The process for building camera profiles is basically identical to that for profiles.Chapter 7: Building Input Profiles 159 reasonably well. The profiling tool then calculates the profile. The huge number of variables that management come with the territory in camera profiling just make it an inherently more than complex undertaking. crop the target. that. Figure 7-6 5. The trickier aspects concern the exposure and contrast. tion. Getting the hues is right probably the easiest part of camera profiling.0. For example. and you're done. it makes more sense to build a family of profiles with different tonal handling than to try to get everything right in one single profile. and building scanner press a button. blur the line between color and color correction. Figure 7-7 shows the options offered by GretagMacbeth's ProfileMaker Pro 5 for camera profiles. not quite. In our experience. Most camera profiling tools offer a wealth of options in any other kind of profile. satura- and even exposure compensation in the profile itself.

lets you choose between using the camera's gray balance. . and saturation tweaks into the profile. Second Edition Figure 7-7 GretagMacbeth Profilemaker Pro 5 Photo Tajk ProfileMaker Pro 5 offers a wealth of options for camera Cen«ra|Purpo5« camera options ^ '^ profiling. Cray taUt>c« Comp^nsaWwi Fine Tune Shadows Comp«ni«Mn ^ More Details in High Key images "- 9- . or making the profile force near-neutrals to gray. The Gray Balance 9 IJm camera gray balance Neutralize grayt automattcalty tab. Neutralize t< =9— " CjIKti ) f~ Photo Task Optio Photo Task Option! Pttolo Task [ General Purpose ^^ —mi—>t<iw otufc Photo Task ' Cenerat Purpose _3 C»|>oture ^^ i Craytolaott . useful C for product shots.160 Real World Color Management. left.or The Saturation and Contrast tab lets you build highlight^ shadow^ contrast. UMd Special C«lwt . Photo Task OpUons The Spot Colors tab specific lets you bias the profile to reproduce Photo Task Gengrai Purpose 0^ ipomr* Contp»BMiW> Samr«m>f> utd measured colors which is accurately. overexposes the image. Saturation Adjustment S Contrast Adjustment ( C«ntel J p ( Cancel j ( OK ) The Exposure Compensation tab lets you bias the exposure for cameras whose built-in metering consistently under.

we'll still have its make significant edits to tone. which contains not one but two built-in profiles for each supported camera. one interest- ing ahernative the approach taken by Adobe's raw converter. profile will at least .Chapter 7: Buildlns Input Profiles 161 If the sheer number is of variables makes your head hurt. Good scanner profiles produce scans that reproduce exactly what's on the film. We discuss Camera Raw in some detail in Chapter 12. Camera profiles are a bit more slippery. and suggest a strategy for using Camera Raw's built-in Calibrate controls to tweak the in built-in profiles to match the behavior of your specific camera Editing Profiles. which is usually the best starting point for an image. after all. to We've found that even with the best camera profiles. The Adobe Common Color Architecture. a good camera nudge the image in the right direction. and when camera metamerism rears head. what color management is about. saving you time and effort. too. to color. Adobe Camera Raw. Which is really. Evaluating and Startins Out Right A good input profile can be a valuable time-saver. Chapter 9. But even in the worst-case scenarios.


so you can take any necessary corrective action beforehand. but they also help the CMS show you. so we have to decide how we want to handle these out-of-gamut colors: the output profile If is the map that shows you the possible destinations. printer. 163 . how the output device will render the Most of our captured images contain colors that our output devices can't reproduce. you're liable to get lost. calibrated color use your output device. This capability to preview the results before they happen is one of the most valuable things color management brings to the table it lets you use relatively inexpensive devices like monitors and Inkjet printers to pre- — dict what wdll happen when you send your color to much more expensive devices like printing presses or digital film recorders. They're also the map you Output when you're decid- ing where you want to drive that color. profiles not only help the management system (CMS) produce the right numbers to represent your color on the output device. that map doesn't describe the terif ritory accurately. on color your display or on another color beforeyou print it. your color won't end up where you expected it to.Building Output Profiies Final Destinations Output to profiles do more than just deliver your known. and an output profile doesn't describe the behavior of your output device accurately.

you need to make sure that the profiling target gets printed properly.164 Real World Color Management. measure you just print and let the profiling software do its thing. and Process Control. the profiling target. In this chapter. and you need to be aware of the things that can and hence the accuracy of its profile. —but just as profile accuracy makes or breaks color management. But most output devices change over time. for collecting and suggest strategies both these things good data and for tracking the device's behavior so that you all know the is data remains good. the color management system needs profile is it The process of building a software — quite simple you feed the profiling munches them and spits accurate profiles. Calibration. affect your device's behavior. it. Calibration. after the profile The Moving Target and The Rubber Ruler As we pointed out in Chapter that they can it 5. Second Edition But to do so. If some measurements. Do Not Pass Go. Do Not Collect $200. will you may get a decent profile. and Process all Control. and out a you skipped straight to this chapter without reading Chapter 5. we talk in detail about the things you have to do before profiling to make sure that the data you collect represents the behavior of the device you're profiling as accurately as possible. profiles are snapshots in time. we'll point out the kinds of variability that plague different types of output devices. But the chances be a lot higher is if you spend some time making sure that the device you're profiling work- ing properly before you print the profiling target — that's why we spent a whole chapter harping about calibration and linearization. In this chapter. relying instead on any of the many reputable profile-building services available online or through consultants. is built. profile the accuracy of the data you collect makes or breaks the profile. The primary tool for doing the measuring instrument. do is to describe how the output device was behaving when printed the profiling target. So unless you like trying to measure moving targets with rubber rulers. though different kinds do so in different ways. . because you figured If it didn't apply to you. you need to develop strategies for making sure that you collect good data to build the profile and for keeping the device's behavior in sync with the profile. Even if you don't plan to build your own profiles. In the case of output profiles. Mea- surement. and after profiling to it make sure that your device keeps behaving the way the profile expects to. Stop. Measurement.

and other colored we favor instru- ments with a 0°/45° or 45°/0° geometry (the two are functionally equivalent). 10. and the direction from which that etries are often light is collected. so if it's if you do use a sphere instrument.) It's just so much simpler to use a device that your profiling software can talk to directly. —the patch order. There are profiling packages that use a flatbed scanner to measure the printed targets. because they make measurements that correspond more closely to the way the sample appears to the human eye.Chapter 8: Building Output Profiles 165 Measuring Instruments If you're serious about building output profiles. scanner-based profilers are like the talking horse: what's amazing isn't how well they do it. taking into account surface texture on the apparent color (see Figure 8-1). and the actual formatting of the figure out the data format your profiling software expects file you're a tinkerer by nature. Measurement Geometry Spectrophotometers have two different flavors of measurement geometry — the direction from which the light strikes the sample. In practice." producing a measurement more this like the 45°/0° geometry. inks. but in the final analysis. a dedicated measuring is instrument essential. we recommend reflective spectrophotometers because they offer the most bang for the buck. but that they do it at all. In theory. and blames it for a considerable amount of hair loss. In the graphic arts world. you can probably port the measurements to a text file that your profiling software can read. Most sphere instruments offer an option to "exclude the specular comand its effect ponent. use option available. Do yourself a favor and choose an instrument If supported by your profiling software. They measure the color of the sample without regard to surface texture and are most often used in the formulation of paints. materials. you can use either a reflective colorimeter or a reflective spectrophotometer to build output profiles. plastics. Instruments with d/0° or 0°/d geom- known as "integrating sphere" or simply "sphere" instru- ments. —and then exthe measurement type.1. to take readings with a Gretag SPM50. We don't recommend them. . but it's a lot of work! (Bruce remembers using Red Ryder a venerable Macintosh terminal emulator. They don't cost a whole lot more than colorimeters. but they're more that's directly accurate and versatile.

Smaller aperture sizes . the sample is illuminated that's by a light beam perpendicular to the surface. the sample is illuminated by a diffuse light source that lights the sample evenly from all angles. The detector reads the light that's reflected perpendicular to the surface. Aperture Size All spectrophotometers measure light through an opening. Second Edition Figure 8-1 Measurement geometries detector In a 0°/45° instrument. 3 sample 0°145° geometry detector "2 sample d/0° geometry In a d/0° instrument. Most of the spectrophotometers used in color management have a measurement aperture of around 4-8 mm in diameter. or aperture.166 Real World Color Management. The detector reads the light that's reflected at a 45-degree angle.

However. there are two situations where a larger aperture can help. The only spectrophotometer we know of that has user-switchable UV filters is the Spectrolino. come in two versions. spectrophotometers don't have white point adapta- and aren't fooled by paper brighteners. where each patch contains substantial varia- The larger aperture effectively averages out the "noise. Profiling tools yellow.) why they're often tion Unlike our eyes. fooling our eyes into thinking the paper is whiter and brighter. so they see the paper as being compensate by adding the complementary color. which is blueish in color. such as the X-Rite DTP-41. so the resulting output midtones. (Many laundry detergents use a similar technique. such as billboard printers. One way to deal with a fingers in your ears this problem is to use a spectrophotometer with UV filter. . one with a (permanent) UV than no filter and one without. or sometimes even green quartertones. The disadvantage of larger apertures to — sive art papers or specialty photo-inkjet papers. which uses more paper a concern if you're profiling expen- mm range. as the yellow ink and bluish paper combine. One is when you're profiling output with very low line screens. is when you're such as uncoated watercolor paper or canvas on an inkjet tion. UV brighteners rather than pretending that they weren't there —GretagMacbeth's intelligent- ProfileMaker 5. We'd prefer to see profiling tools handle ly. The other profiling a "noisy" print process. for example. where a small aperture may not capture a large enough area to correctly determine the ratio of coverage between the halftone dots and the paper on which they're printed. printer. but some instruments have larger apertures in the 12-15 is that you have to print be read individually by the targets so that the patches are large enough instrument. may have a yellow cast from highlights to blueish.0. Other instruments.Chapter 8: Building Output Profiies 167 are pretty rare." niters Some papers contain fluorescent brighteners that convert ultraviolet light into visible blueish light. Bruce sees this as the colorimetric equivalent of sticking your and yelling lalalalala — it pretending that results it isn't there —but he admits that deals with the problem by it can produce better UV filtering. has an option to detect and compensate for optical brighteners —but thus far it's the exception rather than the rule.

While we hesitate to disagree with such an august body. or. that is. With a handheld instrument.) Our recommendation for translucent papers is to measure over a stack of blank stock where possible. (Unless. your final to point out that output will be viewed on a black backing. but much less so than a black one will. press the measure button. you position the measurement aperture on the first patch. particularly when the gloss has a directional component. where you need to are great for Handheld instruments — take relatively few measurements. move the aperture to the sec- ond patch.168 Real World Color Management. you must let the ink dry before you measure Backing The ISO standard recommendation is to measure targets on a black backing. several hundred times. which is typically not the case with thin papers. automated Handheld instruments varieties are usually less expensive than the a tight and can produce very good results. They're also used in instruments designed to measure wet ink on press. They're great if you're on budget. you'll find if you're like about halfway through mea- suring your first target that you'd really like an instrument that offers more automatic data collection. Second Edition Polarizing filters are sometimes useful for measuring very glossy pa- pers. We've found them more useful with dye -sublimation printers than with glossy Inkjet papers. but most profiling tools require you to measure hundreds or even thousands of color patches. (For process control it!) when you're profiling. press the measure button. Handheld Instruments making spot color measurements you position the measurement aperture on the sample and press the measure button. if you're using a strip reader (which makes stacking paper impractical). because the black backing results in artificially low luminance readings. and so on. we feel bound measuring over black can create problems when the stock you're measuring is thin or translucent. and only need to remember—but make profiles occasionally —^we've used them more often than we care to us. They're handy for process control. have plenty of time and strong wrists. to measure over white instead strip readers such as the DTP-41 generally give you the choice. . A white backing will still — skew the measurements slightly.

X-Rite DTP-22 Digital Swatchbook. ColorMouseToo! CM2S and Handheld reflective/emissive spectrophotometers. Fl9urc 8-2 Handheld spectrophotometers Part ofBruce's collection of handheld spectrophotometers. you can also use them in a "scanning" mode by dragging them over a row of patches on an appropriately designed target (the instruments need targets where each patch is significantly different from starts). Spectrostar s Spectrocam. Clockwise from left: ColorMouseToo! CM2S. not the content of the patches. part of the ProfileMaker Pro 5.0 package. include the various incarnations of the venerable Colortron series.0. (GretagMacbeth's MeasureTool 5. but it only lets you control the number of patches. which can measure monitors as well as hard copy. Colortron II.Chapter 8: Building Output Profiies 169 Handheld reflective spectrophotometers include the Color Savvy the X-Rite Digital Swatchbook (DTP-22). its neighbors to figure out where one patch ends and offer a very quick is another These instruments way that of collecting it's data at relatively low cost. The Spectrocam and EyeOne Pro offer a unique measuring capability that other handheld spectrophotometers lack.) . old and new. and GretagMacbeth EyeOne Pro. which is a fairly esoteric concern. The only real downside difficult to relatively design your own targets. and GretagMacbeth's Spectrolino and EyeOne Pro (see Figure 8-2). In addition to taking spot readings like other handhelds. which still receives some degree of support from X-Rite. can produce custom targets formatted for the EyeOne Pro as well as for various common strip-reading instruments.

They use a mechanism that moves the reading head in both dimensions across the face of the target. But the two are very different and are suited to different tasks. either control bars for process control or specially formatted targets for Figure 8-3 GretagMacbeth's Spectroscan Brace's Spectroscan at work .170 Real World Color Management. X-Rite's Spectrofiler is more specialized it's designed to make paper. so you can program them to read an entire target automatically.5 it to by in thickness. which makes (12.25 mm 1. The two most commonly used XY instruments are GretagMacbeth's Spectroscan (see Figure 8-3) and X. where there — fast measurements of targets printed in the trim area of a press sheet. Second Edition XY Plotters XY plotters are the most automated reflective spectrophotometers. The Spectroscan is actually made up of two parts —the handheld Spectrolino previously mentioned and a mechanized table with a robot arm that moves the Spectrolino from patch to 31 to patch. Measurement is automatic. once you've started the measurement process. It lets you specify measurement positions to within and to average multiple measurements per patch.2 by 24 cm 9. you can simply walk away and come back when it's done. On the plus side.4 inches) very useful for measuring "noisy" print processes such as Inkjet on rag may be substantial variation within each color patch. The Spectroscan on material up measures targets up mm 0. but many of them don't make it easy to measure a single color or a custom set of colors. but quite slow.Rite's Spectrofiler. XY plotters demand the least human interaction for reading patches.

with target widths up to 80 inches (less-expensive versions of the instrument handle 20-inch and 40-inch sheets. The patches can be as small as 3. But they're quick and efficient for reading profiling targets.Chapter 8: Building Output Profiies 171 profiling. but it's less suited to dealing with smaller. you may find that you don't always use everything you pay for! For example. Of late. if your profiling activities are focused on RGB inkjet printers. the DTP-41 has been given a serious run for its money by GretagMacbeth's ICColor strip reader.8 x 1. efficient workhorse making ICC profiles and is also directly supported by some Electron- ics for Imaging Fiery RIPs and the BestColor proofing RIP as a calibra- tion instrument. In the case of output profiles. which is fully supported in GretagMacbeth's software and is fast garnering third-party support. respectively). Printing the target in the trim area lets you piggyback target printing onto a money. they measurement compare known RGB or CMYK values (the ones in the profiling target) with the LAB values we obtain by measuring the printed target. you don't need sophisticated control over black . Profiling Paclcages All profiling packages work by comparing known reference data with data. to industrial. we find that you get what you pay for. Strip readers are generally the fastest although a handheld scanning spectrophotometer like the EyeOne Pro or Spectrocam can come close. It measures an appropriately formatted extended 1T8 target in under four minutes. They need more human involvement than XY plotters you need to load the strips into the instrument and keep them properly aligned and they're ill suited to making spot measure- — — ments for comparison or process control. Profiling packages run the gamut (pun intended) from relatively inexpensive (<$100) scanner- based packages ($2500-$5000) . though depending on your needs.strength solutions with price tags to match Generally speaking. The strip reader that's most widely supported by It's profiling tools is the X-Rite Autoscan Spectrophotometer DTP-41. so the Spectrofiler is great for profiling presses. Strip Readers measurement instruments available.format output devices.making press run. for a fast.6 mm.

172 Real World Color Manasement. who make instruments in addition to profiling can support any instrument by importing but it's a lot more convenient if the package Most profiling packages text files. direct support usually means that the target is displayed on the monitor with a cursor shoving you which patch to measure very helpful when you stop — to answer the phone halfway through a it's target. See the following one patch at a time. but in —for example. feed the measurements to the profiler. you'll find plenty of differences. you measure chews on the target. the ability to define custom targets with thousands of patches probably isn't of great interest. We can't some situations say we've ever found this to be a real problem. measurements as actually drives the instrument directly. All output profilers work in basically the same way —they provide a it profiling target that you print on the device you're profiling. perhaps less important but still a real convenience. but they all seem to have made a conscious decision to instruments in common use as they possibly can —this support as is many of the true even of ven- dors like GretagMacbeth. With handheld instruments. and then the measurement data and spits out a profile. or the handheld scanning EyeOne from GretagMacbeth and Spectrocam from Spectrostar.) . if you're working with a handheld measuring instrument. (You can always measure tedious. but that's quite two tips. the profiler may limit you to a subset of all the available targets. With automated instru- ments. 7/3 formatted for the EyeOne or Specit trocam. different packages Instrument Support We don't think there's been any collusion between the vendors. Second Edition generation and other CMYK separation parameters. With instruments that require specially formatted targets. see the sidebar.standard IT8. we'll give you a quick rundown of the kinds of features on which compete. Likewise. "Profile Creation. if — compare your press's behavior with published standards you may have to you want to measure the industry. software.7/3 target to do some searching to find an ITS. (For details on the chew- ing. We package in this book — can't possibly review every profiling if it would get out of date very quickly we did —so instead.") But within those broad confines. such as XRite's DTP-41 and GretagMacbeth's ICColor strip readers.

Y. and K. But whatever the were made from a profiling target containing 875 patches. these tables takes quite a bit interpolate the measurement data down to a manageable size. The files and target reference your profiling tool is that weren't created by. addition. Then it sauce" to work around some "secret some of it raw measurement data calculates the limitations of LAB. Tip: Download Targets from Different Vendors. or may the profile. Tip: Use a Spreadsheet to one speed files bump in using both measurement for. Your profiling tool may not offer a target formatted for your instrument. M. or designed getting them into the format your profiling tool expects. In each rendering of work. which may build in Profiles generally don't contains the relative colorimetric rendering intent. producing 875 measurements. (A LAB colors result from the it CMYK in to do when we rather sim- three values for L*.) So it has twice the interpolate the AtoB tables to we pointed out All in Chapter 4. each number LAB of grid points. every output of which had four values for C. As each measurement would get very large. very quickly. About Profiles. Building the profiling package does to That's the simplified view. would contain 875 points. see a progress bar during the profile creation process. profile contains six tables. that we've yet to we used to print this book (saturation) rendering intents. because it have any actual data going the other direction. and b*!) thing is produce the BtoA RGB all or CMYK and PCS values for intent. Most in demo mode—you need to buy a dongle or license key to actually save profiles. a* profile that for values in the target. is We find that the best approach to use a spreadsheet program like Microsoft Excel to refor- . but chances are that some other vendor does. The is only tricky part formatting the target reference file for your particular profiling tool (see the next tip). profiling tools are available as downloads but you can download the package and use the targets and target files reference contained in the package without buying anything. and three values So the first for each direction between device L*. one in M.Chapter 8: Building Output Profiies 173 lie Just Creation profilers what do output they. the profiling tool may apply some smoothing to the data. a*. For example. the profiles the AtoBO (perceptual) and AtoB2 do other things figure story. each one of which has this case — points 33 in — to improve accuracy. But each To go the in the opposite direction. and K and and b*. then reverse the tables so that they go from to to device values tables. Format Target and Measurement Files. as four values for C. Y. "chew on the contained grid points measurements"? In practice. it and build the AtoBl use the to build table. they have to do quite a lot. out. but doesn't plistically put it. the profiling package uses double number of grid AtoB table contains only 17 grid points. rest assured that the profiling tool is when you doing some pretty (The profiling tool knows what hefty calculations.

Second Edition mat measurement and delimited text. They're almost always tab- so you can easily switch things around by simply moving the columns in the spreadsheet. Profilers almost always include sample measurement files. You need to take the target reference file for the "foreign" target and for reformat it your profiling tool. Use one of these as a template to figure out the data format the profiling tool wants (see Figure 8-4).174 Real World Color Management. Likewise. profiling tools almost always include target reference files that record the RGB or CMYK values for each patch in the target. target reference files. Figure 8-4 Target data reference files .

the ECI 2002 target. simply too new to have gained support from — profiling each profiling package uses to profiling tools as we write this. the number of patches obviously less of an issue. Besides any special requirements imposed by your instrument. .4 is mentioned targets.0 makes custom target generation relatively painless may be another story!) Figure 8-5 shows targets used by a variety of profiling packages. In addi- tion. Most packages support the 1T8. very general guideline is: the closer your device is to being linear rience. In Some profiling tools also let you generate your own custom targets. Don't assume that more measurements always means a better profile in the end in our expe- — depends very much on the profiling software and the device being A profiled.482-patch target tagMacbeth's ProfileMaker Pro 5. There are no standard targets for RGB output its own proprietary RGB target(s). but the 1T8.7/3 target for as a standard for publishing reference data for print standards also offer —so Ini- most packages one or more proprietary CMYK targets. and some give measure. the fewer patches you need. you probably want to measure the number of patches possible the difference between three hun- — dred and eight hundred patches translates to a lot of time and a lot of stress on your vmsts! When you have to measure a large number of patches with a handheld instrument. If smallest you use a handheld instrument.7/3 has some shortcomings—its main usefulness is profiling targets they use.ratified but it's it includes all the patches from the IT8. the big difference between different packages' targets is the number of patches they require you hundred measurements. we felt that this was strictly for the hardcore color geek. With an automated instrument. In some cases you can end up introducing noise when profiling very linear devices if you measure too many patches. developed by the folks at the European Color tiative (ECI) is — starting to gain traction The almost. the more patches you need.7/3 but adds additional patches to provide a more uniform sampling a superset of the afore- of device behavior. which vdll produce a bad is profile. the past. IT8/7. your mileage will vary. and the more non-linear and/or color casted the device.Chapter 8: Building Output Profiies 175 Targets One of the biggest areas of difference between profiling packages is in the CMYK profiling. it and gray balanced. but Gre(though measuring a 10. But no matter what. and it's common for packages to proif vide feedback in the form of an error message mismeasurement occurs. Most packages need at minimum two to three you the option of measuring several thousand patches. some require closer to a thousand. you also run a greater risk of mismeasurement.

but they all attempt to do the same thing tool with — provide the profiling a sufficiently representative sample ! I 11*41 4 « u Q n *.^^*: ^ BBBBBBBHBBBB BBBBBBBBBB: ' M . IBB BBBBB BBBBBBBBi BBBBB-^MPBB BBBBB :^BB BBBBBBBBBB IBB _ ^BB BBBII > cBBH 2«4l«r«*UllllU 11 BBBBB BBBBBB' B'BuBB BB.176 Real World Color Management. ! ^H IT».7/3 mmm mm khbibi " ' iHHHI of the device's behavior to build iiiniai ^PBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB BB BBB BB IBBB B : an accurate profile. Second Edition Figure 8-5 Profiling targets > c Profiling targets all come in shapes and sizes. wmKmmmrnmmmMmmammmmmmm -.

Chapter 8: Building Output Proffiies 177 ngurc 8-5 . continued Both pages of MonacoPROFILER's 1 728-patch RGB target -BBB 'ir 'B -BBB SB . '^ Profiling targets.

In update an existing some cases. ProfilerPro 4.5 is Tip: still Download GretagMacbeth's MeasureTool available as a demo download from GretagMacbeth's Web site. 4. —^you re- and measure the linearization target (which has many fewer patchand use these measurements you need to profile. but the MeasureTool application offers two very useful capabilities even when the package is running as a demo files. in the control signals produce proportional changes in the printed The profiler then uses the measurements to generate a profiling target that's optimized for the specific device. but having the profiling tool do it for you is much more convenient. (MeasureTool part of the ProfileMaker 5. Second Edition Data Averaging If you're planning on profiling an inherently variable printing process such as a press or color copier. Do these packages work any better than those that don't offer linear- ization? In extreme cases — producing the same color at any value higher than 70% they can. when a device starts to plug up. Other packages use linearization as a profile updating feature print es than the full-blown profiling target).1. to build the original profile using the linearization step to be able to re-linearize and update the profile. you'll almost certainly need to targets measure multiple and average the results. your profiler.) — it was good of GretagMacbeth to keep the older Linearization Some profiling packages make profiling a two-step process.5. You can always open the measurement files in a spreadsheet program such as Microsoft Excel and average them there.0 package.0. — it lets you compare measurement to average and it lets you average measurement files. . Some profiling tools will do this for you. your measurements before feeding them 5.1. whereby you first print and measure a linearization target. requires a dongle to allow com- parisons and averaging version available. like the one shown in Figure 8-6. to determine the linearity of the printer —the degree to which changes color. So if your profiling package you can always use MeasureTool to doesn't offer data averaging. They work by changing the values in the profiling target (and its accompanying —for example.178 Real World Color Management. You need to buy a license to unlock the ProfileMaker and ProfileEditor applications.

Chapter 8: Building Output Profiles 179 Figure 8-6 D CMYK 50-step linearization target ""PH .

black length. Maximum Maximum Ink: black ink available lor printing: Too" % Maximum total ink available for printing: ijotj \ % MM MonacoPROFILER offers control over black and total ink limits. I Generation ICC profile I I Basic table: — Profile size Sample IT873CMYK928 Black Start 25 I Urge -Gamut mapping Define Black Point -Color composition C 73 M 64 Y K 58 85 9 Optimized O Customer-specific Prefer in colors Q No Black a GCR Amount Length 5uiet„„ I — General settings Darker '. in addition to automatic settings. black width. black width. component replacement from package to package. black shape. Cancel ") ( OK ) control over black GretagMacbeth's ProfileMaker Pro provides and total ink limits. Second Edition Figure 8-7 ' o^ Profile MonacoPROFILER: CMYK session Separation parameters Options MonacoPROFILER The controls provided by the three packages M( Control ScMngt: Cuatom F shown here are roughly equivalent. Each level ollylack generation is represented as a response cun/e on a graph that can (w edited. Separation Black Max CMYK 400 Mm Heidelberg PrintOpen lets you control black and total ink limits. and GCR strength. §j Intelligent Black 771/s maximize the fearure adjusts black generation settings to total gamut ot your device. black start.180 Real World Color Management. black start. even though the terminology differs Black Gcmratlon: Use automatic Type: TTie settings C UCR @ GCR witt) %GCR slider controls the extent of ttie grayblack. . and several presets for black shape. and GCR strength.

SflkMBon wfl alMI Vw mouni of conpfaMon ^ipPod lo Vm 'ib' or chromo of Vw pfofHo SMurMon AiMtfiD tfw |Kv iMMf RMWtf MMMf nuffitefi ntf nofVMV tfw Mnounf of flowrfflwipffntftifl WMf 0wiuf tf9iw#4 mMv Ivpsr /lunbcn Ml/vducv tfw wnounf of ooA^pfMSton uMtf to buMlfM 3 MonacoPROFlLER lets you choose how much to sacrifice for perceptual rendering.Chapter 8: Building Output Profiles Mi tMn 181 Hgurc 8-8 Rendering controls Profile MenacontOf lUR. *)• gray adi iHMva K) Do popor odor At M ililtr vokio nori oolofintotilcoiy noutral ThMooMcCi MVftv moif oPMbut donp n$utnl MxtM tmti •raM aMk fi* (Mpar tiMti •• nmMn uncftan0*(( T><««ol»«luwiito»»culDeuMDW«»fi«imoiwlo»tiHM CofHraM ww)pi«o*wtwli»aoceur«»honbuiangl vM iflod Vw OTOirt of ooffipramon i^P'lod to Vw \" or iphbioM ctkonnol of ttw proMo. ®a lightness or saturation GvMcritfPfi fCCpiofllv • — Profile iiir Saiii*itira73CUVK«i J} I — GMnat mapplna 1 - — Prefer O OpUmlicd # Customcr-ipecmc In colorj — General letUngi 1 . CMYK Options MonacoPROPlUR ooler amt «iMeh can MM Iw evarai color bMno* or M proN*.

free to skip and suggest remedies. after you've built the you want to make sure that the device keeps working the way it did when you printed the target. with the important caveat that before you start editing a profile to address a problem. If you just measure it. Profile Editing Some packages not only Profile editing generate profiles. can be extremely valuable. In our experience. device types present different challenges. it's a lot more likely that you'll get a bad one. So feel from here to the device types that interest you. Evaluating and Editing Profiles. while the paper. to your profiling software. Lastly. but also let you edit them. Openins and Printing tlie Target Profiling targets are possibly the only case where we don't care color appearance— that matters the numbers in the target all is at all files. Second Edition Some profilers let you decide whether to aim for a neutral gray axis that's dead-on neutral or one that's neutral relative to the paper stock.182 Real World Color Management. point out the issues you're likely to run into with each type. See Chapter 9. Different profile. about There- fore. you need to be very sure that the problem does in fact lie in the profile. it's absolutely vital that you do nothing to change the numbers in the . — You want to make sure that the output device is working properly when you print the profiling target.relative neutrals appear much more neutral even if they don't measure that way. so we'll break the discussion down by types of device. Getting Good Data print a profiling target. Then you want to capture measurements that represent the good working state accurately. very blue-white papers can cause profiling packages to over- compensate and make true neutrals appear yellow. for an in-depth discussion of profile editing. rather than in the measurement data or the device behavior. each of which requires a different remedy. and feed the measurements you may be lucky enough to get a good profile but unless you take special care when printing the target and taking the measurements. and hence that the profile stays valid.

and that the numbers in the target 11. you may want to use of the auto-correction features in the printer driver.7-3 CMYK TargeUiT does not have an embedded color profile. assigning or because profile profile. You can make life simpler by also making sure that nothing happens to the values in the target when you it. file simply get sent directly to the printing device. and we put some clear indication in both the internal and external name of the profile that it's a non-standard profile that applies to a particular set of printer settings. See Chapter Color Management in the Operating System. When we make profiles in situations like this. for more information on printer driver color management. you must make sure that the target doesn't get converted when you open print it. Sometimes you may want to deviate from this strict rule — for one example. when profiling an RGB Inkjet printer. But whatever application you use. you do anything be aware that the profile is only valid for that printing condition. set to If when profiling a you may want to profile on top of linearization curves. we always document exactly what settings we used. Opening the Target When we open the profiling target. ever. because Photoshop has very explicit color management controls throughout the process. or proofer.Chapter 8: Building Output Profiles 183 target embedding a profile in a profiling target. . we always make sure that Photoshop's missing profile warning is is turned on. and as we always choose the Leave as (don't color manage) option. and files. is too easy to trigger an automatic conversion (It's when a source present. both because they're simply unapplicable. like this. it's all We make a practice of never. Figure 8-9 Opening the target The CMYK document '178. or curves make the proofer simulate another printing process. Missing Profile shown in Figure 8-9. — How do you is want to proceed? (don't color Choose Leave as (don't color is O Leave as manage) O Assign working CMYK. RWPs7 CCR1-25-85-320LC RWPs7 MaxK-0-85-280 O Assign ' profile: leave the manage) numbers in the to and then convert document to working CMYK ( Cancel ) target unchanged. possible to trigger one even is when there's no source but no workflow absolutely buUetproofl) We almost always print our profiling targets from Photoshop.

numbers 2 Use Blacit Point Compensation Profiling RGB Inlcjet Printers As we've previously pointed out. we don't run the it's all risk of inadvertently too easy to close the file. embedding a profile get the prompt asking if you want to save.184 Real World Color Management. . Second Edition That way. Figure 8-10 tffiiritftWifWiii Printing the target I flnchM ( [ Cancel ) I inches Center Image Scaled Print Size Scale: c Fit 3 ( Page Setup. most also use black. forcing us to profile them as RGB devices. Document: Set the Source Space to Proof.. and yellow inks. That way. Document and the Print Space to Same As Source to I — Print Space: Profile: Same As Source Relative Colorimetric pass the unchanged to the printer driver. it — then click the save button.278 inches | MM Box 0Show Bounding _J Print Selected Area S Show More Options Color Management IBj - Source Space. if we opened the target correctly. profile. "light" versions of the primaries to and some also add call help improve high- light detail. the numbers in the target are always passed along unchanged to the printer driver. we always set the Source Space to Document (which. @ Document: Untagged CMYK O Proof Setup: 2200 X EM MK DSO L . Printing the Target When we print. If you assigned a gets embedded when you save. We them "RGB inkjets" because the vast majority require RGB signals as their input. is always Untagged RGB or Untagged CMYK) and set the Print Space to Same As Source. there's really no such thing as an RGB Inkjet printer —they all use cyan. ) [Took ] a Scale to ( Media Height: |7.. magenta. as shown in Figure 8-10.

not CMYK. Sometimes the only way to find out which CMYK profiles you the better results is to make both RGB and for such devices. algorithm. will give Before Profiling offer RGB Inlcjets Inkjet printers are typically very repeatable and stable. Most inkjets offer settings for different media types. it's simply that the data pipeline from the application to the printer driver offered by QuickDraw on the Macintosh or GDI (Graphics Device only pass cations will Interface) on Windows can RGB (or grayscale) data.Chapter 8: Building Output Profiles 185 The reason all non-PostScript inkjets function as RGB devices doesn't have anything to do with the devices themselves. though they do usually have a plethora of software settings. the screening on the print. ^ Software settings in the driver have a huge impact on the printer's behavior —see Figure 5-2 on page 118 for some dramatic examples. inkjets driven CMYK devices. stable color. Even "fast-drying" which appear be dry when the page comes out of the stability. The last one is simply something you need to watch out for when you change consumables. Media erally settings. (The Mac OS X display architecture doesn't have this limitation — it can pass CMYK as well as RGB or grayscale— but we've yet to see an OS X driver by PostScript RlPs should function as that exploits this capability. they perform a hidden conversion back to RGB before handing off the data to the printer driver. If you're using vendor- . to Inkjet prints take inks. continue to change color until they reach Unannounced manufacturing changes the color that the printer produces. the black generation. so they have a huge effect and in some cases. gen- those sold by the printer vendor. in inks or paper can change The first two are things you need to take into consideration before you profile.) In theory. and use the one that performs better. time to reach their final. printer. These settings control the amount of ink laid dovm. RGB inkjets don't any calibration features. but in practice we've found that a good many PostScript RlPs also perform a hidden CMYK-to-RGB conversion. there are three variables you need to worry about. So even though some applilet you send a CMYX file to the printer. To get a good RGB Inkjet profile.

be visible.5. fully functional vdth- of comparing measurements and you need to be a little out a license.differencing ing device drift on uncalibratable devices such as print target RGB inkjets is to delta-e values schemes exist. but subtle differences can be exaggerated by the profiling process. If he Perhaps the biggest omission from the first edition was our failure to mention ColorThink. Deita-e. supplied paper. means LAB delta-e. Visual comparisons can identify gross problems. from delta-e values without qualification. ColorThink ofi'ers that she In theory.0 in ProfileMaker it extremely useful. which is one of the modules in their ProfileMaker Pro 6. Second Edition Comparing Colors The ability to is compare mea- difference.1. See Figure 8-11. we used it to make come with perceivable by humans vdth nor- software that lets you two LAB values and compare 3D gamut plots in this book.) than LAB. and measure the profiling which patches have the highest delta-e values and some are a bit more accurate is still and then compare the meaprofile —see Figure 8-13. a delta-e in tagMacbeth's MeasureTool 4. simply choose that paper type. Other color. you of track- By most common Bruce's usual method compare two sets of measurements of the same target and shows you the average and peak (it even shows you way of expressing color differences is in CIE LAB delta-e units. you'll best If you're using third-party need to experiment to find out which settings produce the to gamut and the most linear tone scale (often. but LAB widely used. and we find it indispensible. but the MeasureTool application is But when you're evaluating some means device drift or comparing profiling targets. or determining drying time. you'll need compro- mise one for the sake of the other). . You can still download ferent batches of consumables. an entire It's less common measurement files that your tool of choice can't read.1. for to find tools that let — it doesn't let you many tion. in both 2D and 3D. far the in the profiling target can often For this situation. stricter. even viewers vdth very discriminating color vision may be hard-pressed to see a 3 delta-e you compare measurements and calculate the average and set of Open them and in a spreadsheet application. papers.5 soft- comparing dif- the range of 3-6 is usually consid- ware.186 Real World Color Management. the Occasionally. In between them. variables in print produc- save profiles unless you purchase a license. copy the measurements into a file that you know the tool can read. it's any further an average delta-e of more 2. then.chromix. 5. while in trals midtone neu- One well-kept secret is Gre- sured colors invaluable in color a difference of 0.0. If the most reports surements with the ones from someone safe to which the finds was built.5 from GretagMacbeth's Web site (www. So ered a good commercial match. In production work. to allows amplified in the profile. Most spectrophotometers than any other tool we've seen. whether you're tracking press variation from sheet-to-sheet. but in practice determine the delta-e difference a little short of that goal. the saturated yellow region.5 delta-e may management. assume than or a peak delta-e of more www. peak delta-e differences. unlike the newer determining are is how different they because small differences be MeasureTool 5.1. LAB is perceptually the smallest difference than he builds a new profile.gretag- macbeth. more ways to visualize color uniform. you'll run into mal color it falls vision. and a delta-e of less than 2 is considered unattainable due to the ProfileMaker 4. and in theory one deltae unit is Tools.

in favor of a larger gamut— a profile can compensate for non-linearity to can't often preferable to sacrifice some linearity some do anything about the gamut size. switch to a media setting that lays down less ink. cyan. FIsurc 8-1S RGB process control target This target contains 21 steps of red. blue. all of which are signs that the printer is laying down too much ink for the paper to handle.lUdUm WhH* generation. or ink bleeding. the Our experience has been that if you achieve maximum gamut. including this one: the ramps solid colors let let you judge the tonal behavior. 144<Mpr MmOmMt Mt(ioW(4V( s HlQn $pc#o mp HOfflMflttI FtMMOMaM f^»«tw^ f e«wci»^ A target like the one shown in Figure 8-12 is useful for all sorts of tasks. green. while the you evaluate the gamut.Chapter 8: Building Output Profiles 187 FlsurcS'll r/ie pflpfr settings in most Media settings inkjet printer drivers control the ink limits Vtlvtt Fint Art Papar and black WiM fcolor Fapar . you'll have a fairly non-linear tone scale with some It's blocking of the shadows. Watch out for puddling. yellow. If you encounter any extent. . but it of these problems. bronzing. Finding the correct settings for your paper is ^ OClMlom #AtfvanM4S«nin9* key fntow - to getting good profiles. and RGB gray (R^G=B). magenta. Don't expect perfection.

you'll almost cerwant to build tainly separate profiles for the different resolutions. Fortunately. and the ink takes time to react with the paper coat- Every Inkjet we've ever used takes some time for the color to stabilize. look for a "raw" numbers unchanged ment." earlier in this chapter. We find that a single profile if works for all supported resolutions on a given paper stock. This also means you use the profile inside the printer driver.) you . and then measuring each one and comparing the results. If (The actual curing time depends on the specific inkset and paper. — color appearance because the solvents take time to evaporate ing. This a problem you're dealing with color-managed applications. con- but there's no guarantee that your Inkjet will work that way. In some cases. for example. See the sidebar. because the place you choose the driver-level color settings the same place you'd choose the profile isn't —you when can only have one or the other. they also offer an option labeled. Most of the inkjets we've tried seem to be sistent between different resolution settings. along with some slider controls and a gamma setting. greater than or if Curing time. but it to print maybe if you need from a non-color-managed application such as PowerPoint. Most Inkjet drivers offer a variety of color-handling options. that It's to the printer driver. is 1. but that doesn't seem to be working for you. fairly Resolution settings. though. If the average delta-e in LAB between different resolutions the peak delta-e is greater than 6. you'll always have to have the software settings set the same can't way you did when you made is the profile." setting that just sends the Wherever possible. with the can important caveat that when you that use the profile. but not both.188 Real World Color Management. you may find you get better linearity using some other setting. Epson inkjets. "No Color Adjustment. like the aforementioned No Color Adjust- the simplest way to profile. One of the biggest gotchas that people overlook when when the paper leaves the printer— certainly hasn't reached its final profiling is that Inkjet prints need time The ink may appear dry but it almost it won't smear or rub off to cure. offer options with names like Vivid and Photorealistic. "Comparing Colors. Second Edition Color settings. you can do a quick reality check by printing the RGB process control target shown in Figure 8-9 at the different resolutions. Once you determine the settings that yield the best compromise. you profile this condition.

Figure 8-13 id Comparing measurements 7iaon4ia*iixt 2200 PI Uabt.63 remain undetected simply measured the primaries. C23 Hef* 33jO-4ZI 22J$ample> t2J-4lA 2tja Oettai 1. but you only need to do it once for each paper and ink combination. you can use the RGB Process Control shown in Figure 8-12.42 »mt (OX t. though. Note that in this case. Then print the target again. It's time-consuming.3 Sample* 3Z2-4I. brands (and sometimes models) of printer that use different and the same inkset may have on different papers (see Figure 8-13). way to determine the length of time your prints need to color is to keep measuring the profiling target with an auto- mated measuring instrument until you see little or no difference between measurement passes.0 Delta* 1.Chapter 8: Buildrns Output Profiles 189 start measuring the profiling target as soon it leaves the printer. note the time it was printitself —and set it aside for a couple of hours. Instead. and make a visual comparison of the two prints. flgma HtMS HKontias for comparing sets Maximum Onnll BvttOX Wont ItX 141 measuring the lawlltpit- entire target reveals drift in the greens that would ifyou C23 Ret! 33i>-4ZI 22. is It's the combination of paper and ink that the issue. . noting the time the new one was printed. you probably don't want to torture yourself measuring hundreds or thousands of patches over target ed —preferably on the target and over again.63 If you're working with a handheld instrument.t* GretagMacbeth 's MeasureTool is invaluable of measurements.4 21. you'll go resulting profile crazy trying to figure out what's wrong with the because you really are The easiest attain final measuring a moving target. The same paper will have different curing times with radically different curing times different inksets.txt |d«iue Avrr«4c Orantl 1. Print the target.

We've noticed that with some very blue. In the case of ProfileMaker. while others.white paper stocks. such as Integrated Color Solutions' BasICColor PrintSc. including MonacoPROOF. no parameters to set for RGB output profiles. This gives you a rough estimate of the drying time. A few packages offer some control over gamut mapping for the perceptual rendering intent. These options apply only to the perceptual rendering intent. B. C. Some packages. you shouldn't see any differences greater than 0. recommend using the linearization step for Inkjet printers. G. Y. Subtle differences between targets that aren't obvious to the naked eye can be amplified during the profile calculation process. so measure at least the solid and midtone patches for R. Other intents are always built using Paper Gray Axis. such as Monaco Systems' MonacoPROOF and MonacoPROFILER. See the sidebar. Profiling tools usually offer sometimes. carefully: Read the accompanying documentation some packages. recommend against doing so. Second Edition you can see visual differences. Re-examine them periodically until they appear identical.190 Real World Color Management. A good rule of thumb is to start by building a profile at the default settings offered by the profiling tool and depart from them process in which you profiler only when you've found a reason to do so.5 delta-e LAB between targets. Preserve Gray Axis will produce neutrals that measure neutral yet look yellow. rendering gray relative to the paper seems to work better. whereas the Paper Gray Axis will produce neutrals that visually appear neutral. to generate a The then uses the lin- earization measurements custom profiling target tailored to the specific printer at hand. If and note how long it takes for the second print to look identical to the first one. "Comparing Colors. offer a choice of gray rendering as either absolute or relative to the paper." earlier in this chapter. Creating RGB Inkjet Profiles few or. neutrals that measure dead-on neutral appear yellow to the eye because our eyes always adapt to the paper white. When the prints have cured. In those situations. you know tlie print takes at least two hours to cure. M. You need to refine this rough estimate with a few well-chosen measurements. and RGB. There's no right way to do perceptual rendering: if . MonacoPROFILER and GretagMacbeth's ProfileMaker. Some profiling packages offer a two-step print first and measure a linearization chart.

Color geeks refer to this problem as anisotropy— din obfuscatory way of saying that the printer produces slightly different color when printing the same image in portrait is of anisotropy and landscape orientations. Before Profiling True RGB Printers If you do notice anisotropy in the printing of the profiling target. in effect. stable with The photographic media they use tends be very no curing time. Durst Lambda series. the effect usually quite subtle. Profilins True We that RGB Printers RGB printers to refer to devices such as the Fuji use the term true Pictrography. Cymbolics Lightjet. even if you're using some other instrument to measure them. and unless you're picky. When you that's as informative as possible—one that contains the printer model always a good idea to give it a name and the paper stock. Since the EyeOne's scanning mode requires big differences between each patch. and — averaging the results. the EyeOne targets are. we offer two ways to work around the problem scrambling the patches on the target. Tip: Use GretasMacbetli don't offer EyeOne Targets. use the target. rotated 90 degrees each time. you may not it even notice the effect has on your images printed through the profile. but we suggest starting build the profile.Chapter 8: Building Output Profiies 191 you're of a mind to experiment. the patches for you If your profiling package either offers to scramble (MonacoPROFILER vdll do this). by all means do so. randomized. real The only source of variability we find in these devices its is that the profiling target may print slightly differently depending on orientation. it's out with the default. These types of de- vices usually have robust built-in calibration features that make them to highly repeatable. and anything else images directly onto photosensitive paper or film. which makes them ideal for dealing with anisotropy. or printing the target four times. Many profiling packages that random patch arrangements have targets formatted for the EyeOne. In our experience. or uses a target with randomized a randomized set of patches (such as the ones offered by Integrated Color Solutions' BasICColor PrintSc). .

so the color can vary depending on what color paper. Of those packages that offer linearization. we recommend trying it as your first choice. the ones mend it for RGB inkjets do recommend it for true RGB versa. We've and then averaging the re- generally had better results from printing multiple targets than it we've had fi:om patch. color appearance (and the measurement) changes Some dye-sub printers also exhibit directional metamerism. you may want to use scrambled patches on a single target to avoid excessive wear and tear on your wrists. Profiling Tliree-Color Dye-Sub Printers RGB devices even Non-PostScript dye-subhmation printers function as though they use CMY dyes. but means more measurement —so if you're working with a handheld instrument. file you also have to rearrange the numbers in the target description that the profiler uses to relate the measured values to the control signals that produced them. The main variables that plague dye-sublimation printers are anisotropy (though for quite different reasons than true printers) RGB and manufacturing variation in consumables.192 Real World Color Management. and the chances are extremely high that you'll screw something up in the process. Trust us it's not! You not only have — to move the patches in the target file itself. was printed immediately before the current one. As with true RGB printers.scrambling. performance due to thermal latency: they make color by heating the dyes in the donor ribbon until they sublimate turn into a gas and get absorbed by the coating on the Dye-sublimation printers vary in their color — — The laws of physics limit the speed with which the print head can heat up and cool down. Second Edition Randomizing the patches yourself might seem like less work than printing and measuring four targets. Creating True RGB that don't recomprinters. where the when you rotate the . the remedies are either scrambling the patches or printing the target at multiple orientations sults. and vice Rendering gray relative to the paper tends to have a more pro- nounced effect on these types of printers than on inkjets — if it's available. Just bite the bullet and print the target four times at different rotations! Printer Profiles The options offered by profiling packages for true RGB printers are the same as for RGB inkjets. but they may not always produce the same results.

solid ink/ wax printers. we suggest a medium black generation. These all are guidelines. Profilins Composite CMYK Printers and digital presses.) In addition. In this section. lower the total ink limit! Likewise. we'll as- sume the device is driven by a PostScript RIP As with RGB output devices. we'll talk about color laser printers. (Printing presses have their own section later in this chapter. difference gets averaged out. and gray-balanced. inkjets. including black start." for a discussion of these terms. it's likely that your dye-sub printer will benefit from it. "Ink Limiting" and "Black Generation. See the sidebars. Most profiling packages offer default settings for the different types of devices. The different printing technolowe'll deal gies are prone to different sources of variability. Some dye-sub printers offer software settings that perform some kind of auto-enhancement on incoming images. color copiers. linearized. Make sure that any such options are turned off before If you print the profiling target. so with each class's typical rately. the shape of the black curve. and inksets. and these are usually the best place to start. we've provided starting points for CMYK common printer types. More sophisticated packages allow finer control over black generation. you're measuring a single target. CMYK printers differ enormously in dynamic range. gamut. but a lighter or heavier amount gives you better results. however. The most common options are total ink limit and UCR/GCR settings.Chapter 8: Building Output Profiles 193 sample 90 degrees. In case your package doesn't provide presets for categories of printers. not rules. . your profiling package offers a linearization step. you first need to make sure that the printer is stable. you're ready to build the profile. If you average four targets at different orientations. printed the target or targets. go with the settings that give you better results. and collected the measurements. the If. If you have ink bleeding over the page and if you're using 400% ink. problems and the strategies for dealing with them. and the amount of OCR. Other than that. available paper stocks. sepa- Once you've stabilized the printing process (we provide guidelines for doing so below under each printer type). a polarization filter can help (if your spectrophotometer has one). the default settings for your profiler should work well.

you If consume the colorants at different rates. so the relationship in density is among the four colorants constantly changing. there are lots of eager toner particles that are itching to ticles are jump on charged paper. paper passes by a toner cartridge containing the first colorant in the form of very small which attach themselves to the op- positely charged areas of the paper. and once to an hour is not unheard of. transferring this invisible im- age made of patterns of positive and negative charge onto the paper. you'd notice a steady decrease in saturation. color copiers. The newer generations of machines tend be more stable than the older ones. Finally. More likely. Over time. typical. Second Edition Before Profiling CMYK Color Laser Printers some digital presses Color laser printers. In these devices. So first to calibrate to keep the device reasonably stable —periodically printing how often you need and measuring a is CMYK process control target like the one in Figure 8-14 so. We explain this technology because it helps you understand its inherently variable nature. In older color lasers the process latest is done separately for each colorant. charge — it can't be com- humidity translate directly to color varia^ When a toner cartridge is new. the easiest way to do We offer two strategies for printing the profiling target: Calibrate the printer and immediately print the profiling target. The variability comes from two static sources: Paper needs some humidity to hold a pletely dry. leaving behind the less eager toner particles. . the eager toner parthere's gone. and form a class of devices generically called electrophotostatic devices. Variations in tion. so a steady decrease in the density you can achieve with each colorant. a laser writes the image onto a light-sensitive into a static charge. drum that converts light The drum then rotates. the paper passes through a heated fusion roller that melts and fuses the toner onto the paper.194 Real World Color Management. and in the generation all four colorants are applied in a single pass. you used up the exact same amount of each colorant (extremely unlikely). Electrophotostatic printers are a prime example of the The only solution is frequent calibration —twice a day determine is moving target. The and charged particles.

C. The second will give you a profile that's accurate for the device's average behavior. Here are our suggested separation parameters for color laser printers. Totalink Limit: 400% Black Ink Limit: 100% Black Generation or GCR: Maximum setting Black Start/Onset: 5%-10% . CMYK Color Laser Profiles it Color laser printers and copiers almost always have fixed built-in ink limso you don't want to limit any further. print a series of targets (decide how many you're prepared to measure) throughout the previously determined calibra- tion interval. Creating iting.M. Calibrate the printer.Chapter 8: Building Output Profiies 195 Figure 8-U CMYK process control target This target contains 21 -step ramps ofC-^M+Y. use the second. C+M.Y. use approach.andK. and average the results. The first approach will produce a profile that's accurate for the device's optimal behavior. These devices are usually designed to print business graphics. so the colorants aren't particularly well gray balanced. C+Y. the first If you can enforce regular calibration. You'll usually get the best gray balance by forcing as much gray component as possible to print with black ink by selecting a maximum GCR separation. If you can't guarantee that the device will always be calibrated when necessary. M+Y.

in ink limiting (the it's possible that the printer doesn't have builtis Xerox DocuColor series one example). So is maximum solid ink). but not both. But even when the colorants aren't wet. doesn't matter where less ink. it density (color laser. place or the other. each paper type in the RIP. Second Edition Ink Limiting We don't know of any CMYK printing processes that can use ers. and then set the profile ink limits to 400%. to sacrifice ink printers." earlier in this chapter). If prints made through the resulting profile seem oversaturated or plugged in the shadows. whether the ink is being applied by an Inkjet printer or a printing press. apart from the is software settings in the RIP. . is density achieved long before you reach maximum the printer either limited You may wish some to a single paper (dye-sub). some kind always needed CMYK printing. The main variable.196 Real World Color Management. 100% coverage of each of the four If you apply 400% ink of limiting the inks in the profile or in the RIP. such as an Inkjet. and in some may even decrease of ink limiting in paper has almost no point on the reach an even more compelling reason is at which the colorants simply to save money by using you add more colorants. the printer is a to paper. There's never a reason to lay down more colorant than is needed to achieve is. If maximum density. type that can take different paper stocks with different ink requirements. we suggest the following as a starting point: Total Ink Limit: 260% Black Ink Limit: 100% Black Generation or GCR: Black Start/Onset: Maximum setting 5%-10% Before Profiling Most of the things profiling CMYK inlcjets that apply to profiling RGB Inkjet printers apply to CMYK Inkjet printers as well. it's usually easier to set the limits for For presses. but 400% as cases density coverage. it makes a great deal more sense to set the ink limits in the profile. or solid- reason to lay is down less. as in the case of color laser. though. There however. you set the ink limits. In that case. often a good dye-sublimation. it's critical that you set them in one colorants. the paper is likely to disintegrate. the time the ink needs to stabilize on the paper (see "Curing time. With composite CMYK printyou often have the choice If In either case. or the effect density in favor of stability.

saturated colors such as shoe and leather catalogs. Each has its own strengths and ofis So one key point to make that the choice of is weaknesses. Pick one . Most of the work a press is in profiling The two basic black genera- in collecting the data. put Profiles" in Chapters. you're doing multiplying the or the other. GCR separations save money by using more black ink relative to the colors. Computer screen grabs. But UCR separations are also used on high- GCR separation to example. See "Out- of CMY that would produce a images whose impor- neutral with K. UCR or GCR UCR ten used separations are on newsprint presses less printing process. tant details are neutral or close to neutral. separations also the colors that would wreck You can ent black generation schemes. . for black than we could CMY primaries on their own. but on presses. the way you introduce black ink to the cyan. variations in registration and they can mask slight between Once you've done trivial to generate profiles with differ- UCR separations use black only in the neutral and near-neutral areas. generally benefit from a much heavier GCR than we would consider using on scanned photographic images. it's usually easier and more convenient it is to set ink limits limits sults and and linearization in the RIP before profiling than to apply ink reis linearization in the profile. magenta. that. presses. so don't think while OCR is a more aggressive strategy that replaces the amount most of the neutrals and are often used for that experimenting necessarily involves huge print bills. Evaluating and Editing Profiles. since the black plate carries behavior without ever committing ink to paper. to experiment. so don't lems on press caused by misregistration or fluctuations in density.Chapter 8: Building Output Profiles 197 Black Generation Composite CMYK printers usually need a fairly specific black generation scheme. answer when eration it comes to black genbe afraid on press. and a little more black than you'd bargained for can turn a erators tend to run black generation so that we can con- tailor the separations to the tent. and yellow primaries involves a series of trade-offs that represent one of the most critical aspects of printing. tell a lot about a profile's make it easier to maintain gray balance. and Gray Component Replacement (OCR). but also dependent not only on the on the because they're generally density image content. it's tion strategies are Under Color Removal (UCR). UCR GCR separations. If your RIP allov^s it. number of variables you have to contend vdth. limits You won't get the best possible all by applying ink and linearization in both. even in colors that are quite a long way from neutral. When we profile vulnerable to changes in black we — newsprint generally create a press op- family of profiles that differ only in The main reason we use is black ink to produce a denser obtain with up the black until the type looks nice and dense. There's no right end sheet-fed presses to print generally cheaper than the colored inks — and avoiding prob- content that has important dark. but important secondary reasons include saving ink is money — black mud.

and RIP capabilithe recommendations we give here are guidelines for a reasonable to the starting point. may mean printing and reading two targets. with a strip (such as when — reader. Their main draw- back is that the prints are quite delicate an eraser removes the ink from the paper. more ink than uncoated you can control it If your RIP applies ink limiting (whether or not) we suggest the following as a starting point: Total Ink Limit: 400% Black Ink Limit: 100% Black Generation: Black Start/ Onset: If your Medium to Heavy (not quite Maximum) 30% RIP doesn't apply ink limits. but you should begin selecting different paper types. is though the Inkjet printer very low resolution (such as a billboard printer) or very noisy using uncoated watercolor paper). we suggest as a starting point: Total Ink Limit: 260% Black Ink Limit: 100% Black Generation: Heavy (not quite Black Start/Onset: Maximum) 30% Before Profiling Solid Ink Printers Solid ink printers (aka crayola-jet or crayon. not hard and fast rules. Second Edition Some RIPs apply ink limiting but don't let you control it other than by you want to use a paper that isn't supported directly by the RIR you'll need to experiment. and sunlight can drastically alter its color. if is We rarely find a reason to print multiple targets. Coated papers can generally handle ones. CMYK Inkjet Profiles wide array of Inkjet printers. paper stocks. — . Creatins Due ties. heat melts the ink. you may benefit from taking multiple measurements and averaging them which.198 Real World Color Management. If by building a profile that assumes the ink limits have been set in the RIP. .spitters) aren't popular (per- haps because people don't realize how inconsistent color laser printers can be and aren't aware of solid ink as a viable option).

because Newer printers don't the liquified ink cooked over time and changed color. we usually profile them either as CMY. don't make the mistake of thinking 400% coverage —you'll typically get less density .Chapter 8: Building Output Profiles 199 Solid ink printers ink. Before Profiling CMYK Dye-Sublimation Printers CMYK dye-sub printers operate identically to CMY dye-sub printers except that they have PostScript RIPs. The liquid ink is squirted onto a work by maintaining a heated reservoir of melted rotating drum and is then cold-fused with pressure onto the paper. Most dye-sub RIPs have that dye-sub can handle fixed. Even though these printers have four inks. We've never found a reason to average multiple targets. they're still considered CMYK devices. fall back to the suggested settings for the color laser or copier. You may need experiment for the best But in the case of the Xerox Phaser 8200. Creating CMYK to Solid Ink Printer Profiles results. built-in ink limiting. Whether they have three or four colorants. have this problem. including printing and averaging of multiple targets in multiple orientations. This effectively builds a CNfVK profile that generates separations with no black channel ently the black channel Total Ink Limit: is —appar- best computed by the printer itself: 300% Black Ink Limit: 0% None Black Generation: Black Start/Onset: Not applicable If you end up with disgusting results. here are the recommended settings. or as CMYK with no black generation. Older models of these printers had to be shut down each day. the same considerations before profiling apply. They're very versatile when it comes — per types we've even seen one print on a tortilla —and the color to pais very consistent between different substrates as long as they're white. If you should en- counter the very rare one that doesn't. But since they operate identically to non-PostScript dye-sub printers.

you typically calibrate them to optimal behavior and then profile them. You may decide on standardized press behavior rather than optimized press behavior. Second Edition at 400% than at 320% or so. you worry about five thousand sheets at a special considerations prior to going time. The . the printing press to printers. With presses. is The Beast when it comes On a desktop CMYK printer. and whether or not should be your proofing methodology. how you want your press to behave.200 Real World Color Management. With other devices. flexography. try: Total Ink Limit: 320% Black Ink Limit: 100% Black Generation: Black Start /Onset: UCR 60% Profiling Printing Presses Be it lithography. one sheet at a time. "Don't Profile the Press?!"). The key factor in deciding to profile it. Because mistakes are extremely costly in terms of time you need to take into account some down the road of profiling a press. On a press. that's just one option. because the extra heat required to lay down 400% coverage sublimates some of the dye out of the paper and back into the donor ribbon! Creating If CMYK Dye-Sublimation Printer Profiles your dye-sub has built-in ink limiting. Or you may decide not to profile the press at all (see the sidebar. you worry about and money. or gravure. use the following settings: Totalink Limit: 400% Black Ink Limit: 100% Black Generation: Black Start/Onset: UCR 60% In the rare case that the dye-sub doesn't have built-in limiting.

you'll need to profile the to press. worthwhile to profile your proofing system (see the sidebar. or it's one that uses convert fi-om press to proofer space. You may. we simply point out the necessity of doing so. If paper stock is simply too big a headache. hosed. profiling the press eminently practical. or a family of profiles. . Color. Treat the press as a $4000/ hr. you may as well forget about profiling the press unless you're willing to spend a good deal of time finding a stable and reasonably In the latter case. is In the former situation. but even then you for every may decide that building a profile. This isn't you how to do that. There are essentially two approaches to running presses. however. "Don't Profile the Press?!. it a color conversion between press space and proofer space it's —and you're easier and cheaper you aren't profiles to happy with your proofing system. optimal set of press conditions.Chapter 8: Buiidins Output Profiles 201 press must be able to match the proof.Management Workflow). Before The first Proffilins Presses is consideration as possible—which means very different things for a brand-new sheet- to get the press behaving in as stable a manner a book about press process tell fed press control —there are many good ones—so we won't and a 50-year-old web. If it doesn't. but you may only need make one press profile (see the sidebar. If your — system takes the same CMYK data as your press that confident that you can match your proofs on press. "Profile the Press Once. color correction station by adjusting the press to produce a sellable result from questionable separations. and a somewhat larger amount of time retraining the press operators to hit that condition consistently instead of making artistic decisions based find it on the current job. to profile the proofer instead. you're in the situation we color geeks technically term system so that "Printing it and you must either do whatever's necessary to force the press to match your proofs or change your proofing does a better job of predicting actual press behavior (see in and Proofing" Chapter 10. current proofing doesn't rely on is." on the next page)." later in this chapter). Do whatever's necessary in prepress to massage the data so that result it produces the desired on press.

That's right. contract proofsuch as those that produce capabilities. so it's relatively quick and easy. simply use the ink limits and black genera- rather than the press.7/3. At the time of writing.7/3. offer similar not profiling the press. ISO 12647-3 for newsprint. Printing a profiling target on press demands a significant commitment of time and money. Moreover." later in this chapter. because building the best possible press profile is almost always an iterative process. Traditional ers. The great is that you can send exactly the same separations to the proofer and to the you create the tion profile. Second Edition Don't Profile the Press?! Given the variation inherent in printing press run that hits your in-house press. it makes sense to make the proofer. proof than it is to get a perfect A second to take full consideration is advantage of its whether you want to optimize your press capabilities. If you can successfully match your proof on film-based laminate proofs." and "Intentionally Non-Linear. largely due to the latter's shortcomings. or whether you want to make your press conform to some kind of standard or reference behavior such as SWOP/TROOl for magazine publication. A few digital proofers. or a contract proofing device. press. See the sidebars "Optimized or Standardized Press Behavior. Choosing profiling targets. you read correctly. a couple of new standard targets are worth considering: The 1. your aimpoint. That way a lot easier to get a per- the separations resulting from this profile are press-ready. However.4. the nascent sheetfed TR004 standard from GRACol. the measurement data you collect from the target run will likely be reused. Inkjet series. When and with reasonable ease. You can create a profile for Consider profiling your contract proofer instead.7/3 and the ECI 2002. fect It's workflow benefit you want on press. the IT8/7. . use colorants that are similar to press a contract proofing device by inks on substrates that make measuring a single target. as well as process control target aimpoints such the Kodak Approval and the Iris the cost. is effectively a superset of the IT8. you should treat the target run as a critical job. So no matter whether you opt for an optimized or standardized press condition.485-patch ECI 2002 target from the European Color Initiative performs better than the IT8. Most profiling packages offer proprietary targets as well as IT8. on a press. The brand-new which contains 1617 patches.202 Real World Color Management. the colorants produce similar dot gains to the press. you sider may want to con- dead center.

the intent is to ensure the profile represents the overall average sellable product from the press. gang copies of the orientations and expect to do extra measuring. There are two equally valid schools of thought on which sheets you want to measure: Measure targets representing the full range of the press output. Sample only those press sheets that represent the ideal press behavior you wish it always had from the beginning to the end of a press run. with some really good press sheets. IT8/7. Don't in the measure 10 press sheets middle of the stack —get a sample of and some sheets representing the natural oscillation of press behavior. Both targets offers the EC! come randomized versions. GretagMacbeth already (such as the version 2002 as their preferred target for profiling presses. and most of them are average.Chapter 8: Building Output Profiles 203 Profile the Press What If if Once varying dot gains on different you aren't happy with a hand- your current proofing situation? press/ ink/ paper combination as an aimpoint for proofing. profile The single press impractical to create and manage then for press profiles for each paper. below-average press sheets that nevertheless wouldn't be rejected.4 was simply too new to be supported by any profiling tools. . viable strategy is One aimpoint becomes the RGB-to-CMYK to take a paper make the necessary conversions conversions and also serves as the stock with middle-of-the-road behavior on press and profile that from your press profile to your proofer profile. but that to we expect change during this book's in shelf-life. Otherwise. and account for source profile for proofing clientsupplied CMYK. We rec- ommend using a randomized target if at all possible GretagMacbeth offers for the target in four different EyeOne Pro). of press sheets from which to choose. In the first case. some average press sheets. Use this technique when press process control and consistency are acceptable. use a color server to curves in the platesetter or imagesetter. but not outstanding — you don't have a whole lot of near-perfect sheets or below-average sheets. you'll have hundreds if not thousands We recommend selecting between and 20 sheets to measure and average. - Measure targets representing the sweet spot of press output. probably Once you've profiled the press and established your aimpoint. 10 When you print a run of targets. paper stocks by applying transfer you print to more than it's ful of paper stocks. you can profile your proofing device.

and there's no to any external specifications or standards. But you behavior. and paper has its The ink limits for a particular press are usually aren't.204 Real World Color Management. without regard custom trans- your press because the press behavior is curves in your RIP. or ISO or proofs. such as that provided which there's no standard profile the means press. your applications can do the necessary conversions to could be a house-standard proofing system that In the second case. Entry-level packages may simply offer preset UCR and three or four strengths of GCR . Use this technique when press process control and consistency are excellent. let it you this may be more involved. and dozens of other variables. blanket pressure. as one of the understand if you consider them as separate goals. and you can use either standardized characterization data. press is all — may involve something relatively easy such With a you'll fully optimized press. or profile your in-house contract proofing device instead of profiling the press. Most press sheets will hit the intended aimpoints. you better than a specification. If your press can do to ter or platesetter (see the sidebar other way make separations "Intentionally Non-Linear"). highest ink densities. to essentially force the press into the desired desired behavior. or FOGRA in Europe. therefore. A fully optimized Another approach is to make the press conform to some kind of reference. consider them starting points each com- — bination of press. ink tack. is as changing water/ink make the press conform to the The problem for that creates a unique press condition temperature. as changing ink densities press. or creating fer on need to make a profile for and best contrast the individual press can achieve. it Or or proofs. ink viscosity. imageset- unique. ink. the intent is to make sure that average or below- average press sheets don't add noise to the profile. In the second case. FOGRA. This common targets for color separations in the U. you want the profile to expect those aimpoints.. but black generation more of an open question. own requirements. about maximizing its capability the lowest possible dot gain. known (and if they they should be determined as part of the exercise of stabilizing is the press). of creating separations if by SWOP TROOl. Creating Profiles for Presses While most packages supply default ink limit and black generation settings for different press types. SWOP/TR most 001 to take advantage it is standardized. can use good process control to do so.S. such ratio. ior The desired behavyou want all 12647-3. but it's easier to of file portability. It could be dition that's both optimized and your unique and optimized press behavior. Second Edition Optimized or Standardized Press Behavior It's possible to have a press con- create separations tailored to your presses to match.

same dot size as plates made with need it. the higher the line screen. though it seems compensate for large to and standard separation methods (see the sidebar "Optimized or Standardized Press Behavior"). these devices so that a 50% 50% and an organization with 10 it's film for those jobs that dot in an image file ends up creating something other than a presses. the imagesetter or platesetter RIP than it is to build one into an be a relatively recent idea in lithography. and end points. these workflows have the image. you can compensate for the more subtle variations in the behavior That way. especially if they're saved into common in the flexography and For these environments image files. Unless you know exactly what you're doing. the higher the dot gain. Common- 10 profiles: quite apart from anything else. linearizing your imagesetter or platesetter in order to force one CTP (Computer-To-Plate) But be warned: transfer functions are an expert feature that or more presses to conform to it's workflows. we'll go back measurement data and generate new profiles with slightly refined . black curves. other things are equal. you can't delay the compensate for the difference from different line If all we linearize imagesetters platesetters and then compensate know which prepress department until they press will run a job. and also let you decide how extend black away from the neutrals and into saturated colors —see Figure 8-15. More sophisticated packages offer complete control over the black curve shape. Then use a single profile for all substrate. while still being event in be a regular a print shop. curves to compensate. Using transfer curves. they need to use the transfer curve function to effectively "add-in" dot gain. When making press we profiles. not realistic to make to You can even use in dot gain this method dot on film or on plate. But there's a legitimate case to for intentionally tone response curve. and have communicated it clearly to your prepress and printing providers. and use just be made nonin This is especially important one profile for both. build a family of profiles that differ only in their black generation to (see the sidebar. Instead. Often. don't mess with transfer curves. "Black Generation. use transfer curves to screen settings.Chapter 8: Building Output Profiles 205 Intentionally Non-Linear Linearizing the imagesetter or platesetter should among to presses without having profiles for benefits of CTP. where a linear platesetter produces a sharper dot a specific behavior. because drift make custom In each able to produce plates with the one of them. giving all presses the you regularly Ipi print at 150 and 175 same proofing system. ly. In fact. If for dot gain produced on press in our separations. That's one purpose for profiling a press or contract compensate for differences in dot gain. far to start. with a particular inkset and you can use transfer presses.and platesetters. we rarely make a single profile. It's a great deal safer print-packaging industries to to take bility advantage of porta- to dov^mload a transfer curve to amounts of dot gain in the image. on press than a film. after we've used the profiles." accommodate different image types to the earlier in this chapter). Instead. plate made from file can cause a great deal of trouble.

206 Real World Color Manasement. Second Edition Figure 8-15 rfMlftm Predefined C Offset Separation Black generation controls Tj .

printers that have profiled as either six. it's profiles. sometimes 18 inks are treated and RGB or CMYK. In an overwhelming majority of cases. for example. and Editing Profiles. In the case of print- really the only separations to generate the film way to go because you need multichannel and plates for use on press. measurement data No one has massive amounts of experience building multichannel so the best advice we can offer is profiles you're on the bleeding edge — — to remember the guiding principles of profiling: Do what's necessary to make the device behave the way you want it to. it's pretty much impossible to start tell if your profile would be improved by setting the black value to 38% rather than 40%. In most cases. Until you've used the profiles on live jobs. cost. Evaluating for profile evaluation techniques. Printing are the tricky the target optimally and collecting the parts. seven. The challenge is in knowing which one. seven. eight. Make sure that the measurements you collect truly represent the device's behavior. Print the profiling target while the device is behaving that way. The RIP or printer driver separates the RGB or CMYK data you send it into the control signals for the specific inks in the printer. you'll need to make both an RGB and a CMYK profile to see which is better.and/or eight-color ICC ing such a multichannel profile ing presses. and those that do often do so only at extra is Building multichannel profiles the trivial part of the task. . Be warned. mak- may be worthwhile. In this case. however. that few profiling packages provide support for multichannel profiling. Nothing could be further from the truth. 10.Chapter 8: Building Output Profiles 207 black curves. See Chapter 9. Profiling Multichannel Printers You might think any printer that uses more than four inks qualifies as a multichannel (sometimes referred to as deviceN Color) printer. A few Inkjet RlPs actually let you control each ink individually and offer support for six-.

Our experience tells us that although a newly built profile — In the next chapter.208 Real World Color Management. it can almost always be improved. may be very good indeed. Second Edition Checking the ter. we look at techniques for evaluating and editing . Map careful about following the principles we've laid out in this chap- If you're you may get perfect profiles on the first try maps that show exactly where your color will go. profiles.

One view of evaluating profiles is that it's an exercise in determining how lost you are. you can decide to to allow for the inaccuracies make them more accurate by editing them to better match the territory. The the map. but now you're looking map from the middle of the territory. editing profiles profile at the is a lot like orienteering. and figuring out just how closely the two correspond. optionally. Almost all color matches are the product of at least We two profiles. awry. and the device is the territory. or you can decide and learn to head in the right general direction while keeping an eye on the nuances of the terrain. have one more reason for putting profiles through some kind of systematic evaluation. many otherwise-normal people happily spend rainy Saturday afternoons tramping across heath and bog. find out We think it makes sense to how inaccurate your maps are. If you don't take the it's necessary steps to evaluate each profile's accuracy in isolation.Evaluating and Editing Profiles Color Orienteering In Bruce's native land. peering through wet glasses at the map in hand. Scotland. They're indulging grand British pastime of orienteering — negotiating terrain using a is map as their guide. Evaluating and. possibly in ankle-deep water. hard to pinpoint the culprit when things go 209 . Once you know. Another is that it's fundamentally futile to try and put a metric on people's subjective preferences. pondering how to relate its contents to the ankle-deep water in in the which they're standing.

Second Edition Judging the Map Compasses. it's certainty that any problems you see do. so (though chapter also an throughout this we'll point out which problems can be fixed more easily through other means. in fact. But these only apply to colorimetric renderings —per- ceptual renderings always involve subjective judgments. you view hard-copy samples under a controlled light source such as a D50 light box. and which ones are amenable to profile edits. don't the whole story. but at some point. is problems that really lie in We can tell you from bitter akin to buying a one-way express ticket to the funny farm. sextants. but when it comes to evaluating profiles. . lie with the profile.210 Real World Color Management. But beware of mirages: back in Chapter tricks — if it doesn't look right. do that. you have to simply look at where you are. measurements play an essential role in color management. So when you come to evaluate profiles. you have to make subjective judgments. So objective tests. they're dependent on the light — source under which we view them. Viewing Environment Back in Chapter 3. we pointed out some of the can on So when you evaluate a profile. but it doesn't have to be the only judge. your eye has to be the final arbiter 1. We'll show you some objective tests that can help determine a profile's colo- rimetric accuracy. but it may not get you where you — wanted to go. a stable viewing environment You may be tempted experience that doing so to edit profiles to fix the device calibration or the data collection. fix It's often quicker and easier to recalibrate and/or reprofile to its the problem at it's source. We tend to use profile editing as a last resort integral part of our workflows). and other such devices are indispensable tools for navigation. you need to set up your viewing environment so that you can say with wrong. and is critical. we pointed out that virtually all the color matches we create are metameric in nature that is. tell while they're useful. because there's no single correct way to reconcile two different gamuts. At to some point. By the same token. many your eyes play you. Your eye must be the final judge. But simply plonking an expensive light box into it's vital that an otherwise-imperfect viewing situation is like sticking a Ferrari engine into an AMC Pacer it'll cost you plenty.

you must work in a winand ceiling. desktop — should be as neutral as humanly possible. You most certainly don't want strong colors intruding into the field of view because they'll throw off your color judgment. and that color room doesn't affect the light you use to view the hard copy. while wearing black or neutral gray clothing. ideal either.) we offer a series of recommendations for reasonable ones. as can cause distracting . the main consideration is to ensure that is the field of view you use to evaluate hard copy in the neutral. he introduced cyan casts into If all his images! you decide that neutral gray is the way to go. Chris has compiled some paint recommendations from a variety of sources: flat Sherwin-Williams paint code: 2129 ZIRCOM. but a distinctly less-than-ideal situation for most other like this human (We know shops where rooms just dramatically increased employee improved color matching but sick days.Chapter 9: Evaluating and Editing Profiies 211 Some level of color management purists insist that floor. We agree activities. Arlington. Louis Companies. to go towards the ideal. dowless cave with neutral gray walls. and he found that until he painted them white. Glossy reflections. Surfaces Surfaces within your field of view —walls. We'll let you decide just how far you want So rather than insisting on ideal conditions. Texas) California photographer Jack Kelly Clark recommends mixing one gallon of Pittsburgh Paint's pastel-tint white base #80-110 with Black (B-12/48 PPG). But pastels can be just as insidious: Bruce moved into a workspace with very pale pink walls. flat latex similar to Munsell 8 gray: Lamp Black (4/48 PPG). and Permanent Red (0-3/48 PPG). Lamp Raw Umber (L-36/48 PPG). and Violet (2/48 PPG). A similar Kelly-Moore Paint Co. Bear in that white walls tend to reflect the color of the as long as you're it mind black ambient light — it's manageable isn't aware of it and take steps to control it. Write those numbers down and take them with you to if the paint store you want to try the mix yourself. You'll want paint rather than glossy. formula from photographer John Palmer uses a pastel-tint white as a base with three colors to create an interior. ceiling. floor. that this represents it's an ideal situation for evaluating color matches. Raw Umber If all this (27/48 PPG). (Matt Louis. and a low ambient D50 light. seems a bit extreme.

Second Edition Lighting The ISO (International Standards Organization) has set standards for arts. While it might be mostly a concern for the upcoming board game Color Geek Trivia-Millennium Edition.000 lux for "Critical Comparison. all these values are way too high —the ISO has acknowledged this. Ambient light." See the sidebar. The term used for most light sources is correlated color temperature for which there are invariably multiple K is an example of correlated color temperature. il- lumination in the graphic For example. The standard takes into account the fact that both apparent and apparent contrast increase under stronger light (these effects are named for the scientists who first demonstrated them the Hunt saturation — effect and the Stevens effect. lumens. you need low ambiimportant: what ent light levels because CRTs just aren't very bright. you can use much higher ambient plays are so coloration are as applicable to light levels simply because these dis- much brighter than CRTs. "Counting Photons. such those from Apple and EIZO. pirically (that is. we offer some practical advice that we've gleaned em- by trial and error) over the years. Filtered daylight and the viewing area for hard copy is OK. If you're working with a CRT monitor. and candelas. respectively). ISO 3664 specifies arts." for a definition of lux. Full sun from a west-facing window is not.212 Real World Color Management. With some of the latest LCD displays. both because it's too bright and because it imparts a lot of color to your surroundings. For monitor-to-print matching. 5000 slightly different appearances. . but the same rules about excessive LCDs as to CRTs. Different 5000 K light sources have different spectra and produce spectra. It also specifies D50 as the standard illuminant for the graphic luminosity of 500 lux for "Practical Appraisal" and 2. and is still working on standards for this kind of match. But the standard wasn't created with monitor-to-print matching in mind — it mandates that the ambient illumination for color monitors should be less than or equal to 32 lux and mustbe less than or equal to 64 lux. we should be clear that D50 is an illuminant with a very specific spectral power distribution that no artificial light source on the planet can replicate. The color temperature of the ambient light isn't terribly is important is that you shield both the face of the monitor from the ambient light. not an illuminant. So until these standards are published and ratified (which may take several years).

In the definitions for the building block for measuring col- lumen more than one way to count photons. It's The luminance light given off refers to the by a more is typi- one direction computed in by measuring the cal light source (which a light - from a specified standard candle power watts the light source emits. alent to lumens per steradian is measured is in lumens per square (Im/sr). and is radiant energy (1/623 watts per steradian). which times also is ence light source emits. the source was redefined in 1978 as a light source with a specific light illuminance refers of light arriving It's energy over time from a point source in a given direction. which is one lumen per square foot. Because blackbody radiators are a pain to construct. to shine). nance is the luminous intensity which is the luminous flux a refer- per unit area of the light-emitting surface. the freezing point platinum— about 2042 K). which is an illuminated scene. the candle. . — an equivalent definition is a basic based on the luminous intensity of a reference light source. and different methods use different units. A typical 100. The luminous the amount of light intensity visible is surement of the photons emitted from a display. The candela is one of the fundamental units of measurement (along with moon produces an illuminance ofabout0.) The candela of around 300 lux. just The luminous intensity is the candela (cd). Finally. nous power) visible light is the amount of Much of photometry stems from an early unit called ing history. weighted by the spectral sensitivity of the eye. emitting surface. (A non-metric unit In all cases. We use lu- some- replaced by specific types of oil lamps. Lumi- nance by Y is the quantity represented tance from the lamp to what it's illuminating. which is equivunit for the luminous flux per unit area of ity hits its where our brightness sensitivpeak) and a specific the illuminated surface.76 lux. This reference candle was later luminous flux is The unit for the lumen (Im). and in color management we most often in the of be precise. or about 10. or lux. while the full whalewax candle. and in 1 948 by a blackbody radiator at a specific temperature (to mens to describe the overall light known as the nit (from output of lamps without regard to the lamp's reflectors or the dis- the Latin nitere.watt lightbulb has a luminous flux of CIE equations.) Typical supermarket lighting has bitrary definition just the stan- dards people's way of coming up with a definition that produces an illuminance of about the same unit quantity that people are already using in this case tracing all the way back to that represents the cone of light travelling out about 1000 lux. then by carbon filament lamps. (A steradian a standard meter. It's measured in candelas per square meter. The lumi- (1/6-pound spermwhale wax burning at the rate of 120 grains an hour). to the at amount frequency (equivalent to a wavelength of about 555 nm. Just as an angle cuts out a subsection of a circle. we mentioned a reference light source. the reference light encounter luminance as a mea- about 1700 lumens. not a point) or an illuminated surface.4lux. a solid angle forms a cone that cuts out a subsection of a sphere and the footcandle. The luminous flux (or lumiBut there's and candela units above. Public areas like — from the point source in hotel lobbies have an illuminance the given direction. this seemingly aris unit of solid angle. This reference has an interest- such things as grams and meters) defined by the SI (Systdm Internationale d'Unit^s). This was the perceived intensity of light in energy a light source emits over time in all directions.Chapter 9: Evaluating and Editing Profiics 213 Counting Photons Photometry — the science of also has counting photons or.

High-end CRTs often include a hood. you can easily fashion one for a few dollars from black matte board and adhesive tape is — it's one of those investments whose bang for the buck simply massive. not the be-all and end-all. it's a worthwhile investment. the color science on which ICC profiles are based is designed but as we've already pointed out. but if yours didn't. A few packages (such as Greyou build profiles tailored tagMacbeth's ProfileMaker Pro 4. But tioned." The minimum requirement a 5000 a light box with a 5000 higher. because light clothing causes reflections on the screen that reduce the apparent contrast. there's no such thing artificial light D50 spectrum. such as the pigmented inks used in some Inkjet printers. As previously men- more pronounced spikes than the relatively smooth spectrum our sun produces. You can increase the apparent contrast of CRT monitors significantly by using a hood to shield the face of the monitor from the ambient light. either. Hard-copy viewing ligilt. many artificial light sources have spectra with which also have fairly spiky spectra. So instead of D50 LAB. the trade-off being that those judgments If may not translate perfectly to other viewing conditions. So-called is D50 light boxes are really "D50 simulators. It's also a good idea to wear dark clothing when you're evaluating color on a monitor. K lamp and a Color Rendering Index (CRI) of 90 or is The best available solution K light box that lets you vary the brightness of the light.214 Real World Color Management. but if you're serious about color it's management. light source as a reality check —^we really you use this feature." This lets you make very critical color judgments under your viewing light. use some other like filtered daylight! A variable-intensity 5000 K light box is a fairly expensive piece of equipment. Second Edition Tip: Use a Monitor Hood. source with a to create color matches under D50 lighting. Unless your profile building application has additional options. so for your critical viewing light D50 illumination as would be an ideal. you may see significant differences . Tip: Taiior the Profile to tlie Liglit Source. so that you can turn it up when you're compartwo ing hard-copy samples and turn it down to match the brightness of the monitor when you're comparing hard copy with the monitor image.1 and to the spectral later) let power include spectral measurements for some distribution of specific physical light sources —they common light boxes and also let you define your own. you can end up with "GTI Lightbox LAB. and with some inksets.

your lighting If you can't see but the most critical If color matches. preferably filtered. One such the GATF/RHEM Place the checker on top of the sample you're evaluating. may be good enough for all light sources. This may help to explain why so many people have difficulty matching an image on a monitor calibrated to a 5000 K white point with a hard. Bruce always uses daylight.solux. they may be right difference between hard-copy and monitor images is —one important that with the former. they produce a very smooth spectrum with an extremely high CRl of 98. whereas — with the latter. Whenever he's measured daylight anywhere close to sea level. — prove your lighting situation these you can see obvious stripes. they're a tad We also like the 4700K Solux lamps—while warm. though you're unlikely to see differences with press inks. See www. they simply identify bad ones. our eyes can invoke color constancy (also known as "discounting the illuminant" see "Color Constancy" in Chapter 1. we can't since the illuminant is the image. the phenomenon is too well reported to be imaginary. In a very narrow sense. because the experience of vievdng light reflected from paper is simply too different from that of vievdng light emitted from glowing phosphors. There may be other factors. stripes. Monltor-to-print comparisons. HTzaf/sCo/or?).Chapter 9: Evaluating and Editing Profiles 215 between two 5000 K light sources. as a reality check. CIE colorimetry wasn't designed to handle monitor-to-print comparisons —color monitors didn't exist when the models on which color management is based were being developed. Some pundits will tell you that it's impossible to match a monitor image and a printed one. indirect daylight. it's been — significantly cooler than D50 typically between 6100 K and 6400 K— but the smoother spectrum eliminates some of the strange behavior that results from the combination of a light source with a spiky spectrum and an inkset with a spiky spectral resp)onse curve. Viewing light checkers are ingenious color targets printed with two colors that match under D50 but show is different colors under other Light Checker —we've included one on the inside-back cover of the book. too a lot of work remains to be done on cross-media color matching but whatever the — — reason. you definitely need to im- test strips don't validate good lighting conditions. Nevertheless. . Tip: Use a little Viewing Ligiit Clieclcer.copy image in a 5000 K light for more information. it's capable of doing a surprisingly good job.

If happy working with a 5000 K monitor. (Short-term it memory has been shown be very accurate when comes to making color comparisons. we calibrate our monitors to 6500 K because it's closer to their native white point.matching exercises we go through need at least two profiles. Laminated proofs. and we find them very reliable. it's critical that you throttle back the light box to match the brightness of the monitor. short of a press proof. and perhaps a shade pinker. we can obtain a better contrast ratio than we can at 5000 K. When given a choice between 5000 K and 6500 K. for example. monitor— a sheet of blank white paper in the We dim the light box to match the contrast ratio of the light box should have the same apparent brightness you're so. The second trick is to place the light box at right angles to the monitor so that it you have to look from one to the other. not the color temperature. than the press sheet not to mention their but we've learned to filter inability to predict wet trap or print sequence — — out these differences. Don't put the monitor and the light box in the same field of view. tend to be a little more contrasty. One is of the trickier aspects of profile evaluation is being sure which profile responsible for any problems you might see.216 Real World Color Management. Evaluating Profiles Once you've ironed all the kinks out of your viewing environment. which requires turning down the blue channel.) We've been using these techniques to do monitor-to-print matching for several matching: Match the brightness. But frankly. we're not sure that we've ever seen a proof that matched the final print per- fectly. and the monitor is no exception. as a solid white displayed on the monitor. you can safely start evaluating your profiles. sometimes more. Does the monitor image perfectly match the print? Probably not. You have to learn to interpret any proofing system. by all means continue to do but no matter what the white point. because most of the color. . Second Edition We offer two pieces of advice in achieving monitor. This accomplishes two lets you use your foveal vision where color vision is retina at its —the cone-rich area in the center of your most acute — and allows your eye to it goals: adapt to to the different white points.

and hence sent directly to the screen with no conversions. you'll create a huge amount of unnecessary work for yourself. Since it's much more common to find problems with the calibration than with the profile." effectively taking your monitor profile out of the loop. it's also the one type of device where calibration and profiling are usually performed as a single task. too. When RGB values in the file directly you choose Monitor RGB. it's you need to check the calibration first — if bad. and flawed. Photoshop automatically loads the Monitor RGB profile in Proof Setup and checks "Preserve Color Numbers. If you blindly. native gamma for the 8-bit tables in the video card to handle. Checking the Display Your display is not only the first device you need to nail down. set your moniTo check the tor profile as the default RGB space in the application of your choice so that RGB is interpreted as monitor RGB. We generally use Photoshop for this kind of testing. . Tip: Use Proof Setup in Photoshop. you need to take the profile out of the display loop and send RGB values directly to the display. it's much easier to use it as an aid in evaluating your input and output profiles. you can use it's it as a basis for comparison. choose Vievc^Proof Setup>Monitor RGB to send the to the monitor. so the monitor is the first device to nail down once you know you can — rely on your monitor just trust it profile.Chapter 9: Evaluating and Editing Profiles 217 Anything that you view on-screen goes through your monitor profile. the resulting profile will be. To do so. In Photoshop 6 or later. Monitor Calibration The two most common problems with monitor calibration are incorrect black-point setting and posterization caused by trying to apply a gamma that's too far away from the monitor's calibration. though almost any pixel-based editing application should serve. Once you've qualified your display profile.

Second Edition Black-point check.) Figure 9-1 ©0© Black-point test solid black image. create a and make a selection in the center of the document with the marquee tool. relatively Most of the instruments used for monitor calibration are inaccurate at black or near-black— they attempt to compensate by averaging a lot of measurements. Setting the correct black point lenge for is the biggest chal- monitor calibrators for two reasons: The monitor output is relatively unstable at black and near-black.218 Real World Color Management. Be warned that the following test is brutal at showing the flaws in most monitor calibration and can lead to significant disappointment! (See Figure 9-1. . In Photoshop (or the pixel editor ofyour choice).

Drag the dialog box off the screen.0 point in Curves. which is what this test is about). Open Curves or Levels. . then hide the "marching ants. switch " to full-screen mode with no menu bar. leaving only its title bar showing (the flare from the dialog's large expanse of white can prevent you from seeing small differences. continued Hide all palettes. and target the 0.Chapter Figure 9-1 9: Evaluating and Editing Profiles 219 Black-point test.

your black point low and you should recalibrate. and then look at the gradient gradient. More typically. you'll have a perfectly smooth. a test image like the one If in Figure 9-2. you may have levels are red. your application allows display the gradient in full-screen mode. your monitor has them). We usually flip the top half of the gradient horizontally to produce shown it. first If you don't see is any change when definitely set too cycling through the 12 levels. To refine the gamma setting. Second Edition Figure 9-1 Black-point test. If the first few levels that are visible (if have a color cast. Gamma check. and black will fade smoothly into the nonpicture area of the monitor. Try making a if the first few slightly. or sometimes even higher. —each press raises it by one With excellent calibration systems. Then recalibrate. display a black. requesting a sfightly higher black point. dead-on-neutral gradient. In an ideal situation. . hide all other user interface elements. continued Use the up arrow to raise the level of the selected area level. you won't see a change until some- where around levels 5 to 7. you may see a difference between level and level 1. set the bias controls incorrectly small adjustment to the bias try lowering the red bias —for example.220 Real World Color Management.

you need to toss this isn't something that you can with any amount of recalibration or profile editing. some slight amount of posterization in the shadows and three-quarter tones. Until the video card manufactur- videoLUTs are more important than the number of shaded polygons the card can draw per nanosecond. You'll almost certainly see some slight banding or posterization in the shadow areas. and B bias controls on if your monitor. and by . but you can ers decide that higher. More commonly. Color crossovers in a raw RGB gradient almost always indicate a fatally flawed calibration tool. thing to try to reset the bias controls to the factory defaults.precision often improve the smoothness of the calibration by recalibrating. If you that see color where you should see grays. the first still it's possible to introduce color crossovers. and you may see some color where you should see neutral gray. Make sure that you're looking at raw RGB sent straight to the monitor — at this point.Chapter Figure 9-S 9: Evaluating and Editing Profiles 221 Gradient test image Display the gradient test image in full-screen mode. we'll all have to live with some slight irregularities in tonal response. and you're absolutely sure aren't looking at the gradient you fix through a your calibration tool and get one that works you'll see — profile. this rarely happens. for best results. you're checking the calibration. G. If you've adjusted the R. so is you see them. not the profile. with all user interface elements hidden. In practice.

Try gamma by generate If the posterization gets worse. 1 . you may find one type works much better than another. but it's it known —so doesn't really matter feel free to what the absolute value only that 1.4 or so. There are so can't give 0. you any magic numbers. Second Edition changing the requested gamma to something closer to the native gamma management needs to of the display system. Reference images.222 Real World Color Management. then display the file from which the was made. so that you're displaying the gradient through the monitor profile.8 experiment with different that gives gammas between and ~ 2. don't forget to a new profile! Monitor Profile Monitor profile problems are or. When you've done so. some monitor profiles may work better than others. and choose the one you the smoothest gradient. display in cases of gross and printed output. Color know your monitor is.2 profile such as sRGB or Adobe RGB. 1 Eventually. set your working space to a gamma 2. Of course. in the printer profile that serves as the source in the conversion from print RGB or CMYK to monitor RGB. try lowering it by 0. you'd probably rather look at images than at gray ramps. or even more by. Nevertheless. so is assume always better. test Repeat the gradient shown in Figure 9-2. and compare them. the printer profile used to make the print as into trying to fix profile —which by the monitor profile. gamma. If you see color crosspossible that your overs that weren't visible in the raw display profile contains too test. But the classic mistake many people make when evaluating is a monitor profile print to make a print. many combinations of monitor and video card that we raising the requested . but this time. relatively rare —flaws are usually either in mismatches between screen the monitor calibration. . The problem is that the display of the print file is controlled as much by. so you can be fooled problems in the printer profile by editing the monitor it is is like trying to fix the "empty" reading on your car's gas gauge by tweaking the gauge instead of putting gas in the tank. that If your profiling tool offers the ability to build different types or sizes of profiles. it's much data —we often see LUT-based monitor profiles producing don't poorer results that bigger than simpler matrix or gamma-value profiles. you'll find the best compromise. or simply assign one of these profiles to the gradient image.

but we don't know of any other vendor who does this. you'll need to use a little ingenuity. The Macbeth ColorChecker. There are physical sample from which the very few sources for a physical sample and a matching colorimetrically accurate digital file — Kodak's now-discontinued ColorFlow ICC Profile Tools supplies a stringently manufactured photographic print with an accom- panying digital file. So unless you own ColorFlow. GretagMacbeth has never pub- LAB values for the 24 patches. made by GretagMacbeth. Here are some of the techniques we use. Figure 9-3 The Macbeth ColorChecker c . Or you can simply measure the 24 patches yourself.Chapter 9: Evaluating and Editing Proflies 223 When it comes to comparing a monitor image with a physical reference. but the lAB values shown in Figure 9-3 are ones that Bruce has collected and averaged over the years from various Macbeth targets in various stages of wear (with considerable help from Bruce Lindbloom and Robin Myers). has long been used by photographers to check colors. The Macbeth ColorChecker. the only reliable affecting the image way to make sure that the monitor profile is the only one is to compare an image in LAB space with the actual LAB measurements were made. and is available from lished any decent camera store.

Printer targets. and it's free —see the sidebar. create a LAB image in Photoshop lets (or any other application that you define LAB colors). "Measurements to Pixels and Back" on the facing page—and compare the onmeasured it. though. With CRT monitors. then you have a physical and the LAB values of the colors it contains. so it can give you a good idea of your monitor profile's color performance. ments and Back." on the facing page. But in and the tonal values of the gray either case. and compare the physical color checker. target If you have a scanner target. We don't advocate editing monitor profiles. You'll likely have more out-of-gamut colors than you would with the Macbeth target. there's a solution. please let us know—we'll gladly eat profile rather . and fewer of them will lie outside the monitor's gamut. column 6. Leverage your printer target! You've printed a target and —see the sidebar. so you'll likely see a slightly column 4) is outside the monitor's gamut. It's not a philosophical objection that —^we simply haven't found if it effective. All you need to do is create an image of the target containing those is LAB values. Creating huntoo dreds of LAB patches in Photoshop. LCD monitors can hit 3. the yellow. Second Edition Then. Use the procedure outlined above for the Macbeth Color Checker to Pixels compare the physical target to the LAB image on screen. ap- propriately illuminated. "Measureto much pain even for us. but fortunately. but the relationships between all but the most-saturated colors should be preserved. not our hats! reprofiling.224 Real World Color Management. but may miss the sky-blue patch in row more orangey-yellow. Turn the measurements into pixels screen image with the printed target under appropriate illumination. Your printer target will likely contain more patches than a scanner target. both the color relationships patches should be preserved reasonably well. with the image on screen. Scanner tarsets. If you find a display problem you can more effectively solve by editing the monitor than by recalibrating and our words. the saturated yellow patch (row 3.

(LAB). We all have borders. reasonably stable light source. If the tar- DATA. Scanners have a fixed. 24 CMYK. there are a few tests you can apply to either one. as we noted in Chapter 7. separated by tabs. and images is them into LGOROWLENGTH BEGIN_DATA_FORMAT LAB_L LAB_A LAB_B in which each color patch We keep the header in an otherwise blank Excel doc. turning pixels into target files many ber is patches per column (even it though says row).com/ realworldcolor/downloads.html. you need to do some work getting rid of them first. each take measurement turn files in files in LAB. Be warned that ColorLab is un- separated from the rest of (RGB or CMYK) or measurement files the line by a single space. you make sure the software settings remain consistent. the only catch being LAB_A.DATA The first line tells from measurement files into it. and L\B_B on the third line are separated by tabs. you only need one pixel per color you just print and display ColorLab can tolerate other ColorLab in- — how formation in the file.coloremedies. the patches you can download from GretagMacbeth's the things Web it site. colors. and simply paste the measurement values represented by a single pixel. record the three LAB values each color. you can usually just downsample to one pixel per color each color is on a new line). . CoIorLab's requirements for measurement or target files are pretty straightforward. Since the color patches are solid END_DATA_FORMAT BEGIN. and because they have to capture photons reflected ft-om a much vdder variety of objects than do scanners. occasionally buggy. You get consists of solid patches vdth can find out its current location by going to www. relatively easy to build. so try simply them at very low resolutions. and separate each color by a Return for (so supported. and the num- opening your measurement files in ColorLab first. That that said. It come us ColorLab needs file —when you save column into the shape lets be in tab-delimited text format as Text. with a header that looks following: like the separated by a tab and each row or target definition RGB or TIFF by a return. Digital camera profiles are much. ColorLab can also go the other way. behave they usually quite predictably. both because cameras ftinction under a huge variety of light sources. but has one measurement an Excel is very useful capability we've to find indispensable. But if you get a "format error" message. and sometimes hard to find.Chapter 9: Evaluating and Editing Profiles 225 Measurements to Logo ColorLab is an undocumented and unsupported free tool that Pixels If and Back At the end of the data. you need a final line that says using Nearest Neighbor interpolation in Photoshop. and as long as much harder. LAB_L. Input Profiles Scanner profiles are. After BEGIN_ that the 1 image files need to be in -pixel-per-color format. Building Input Profiles. no borders. the foregoing header always works. They need to END_DATA We like don't pretend to understand it usually use a spreadsheet Microsoft Excel to massage files does.

. you may want to use a more objective test. the free method: You can employ the ever-useful Logo ColorLab (see the sidebar. The reasons we do objective tests on input profiles are to never happens. You can use tools no cost but that require considerable work on your this one." on the facing page. store the captured RGB values right inside the profile as a "private" tag —private in name only. double-checking your methodology.226 Real World Color Management. If help us understand and optimize our capture device's behavior. because profile with a text editor. Second Edition Basic Test for Input Profiles The open the scan or digital-camera capture of the profiling target in Photoshop. but in our experience." earlier in this chapter) make the comparison. both approaches. you can downsample the target scan or digital camera capture to one pixel per patch using Nearest tion in Photoshop. Some profiling tools RGB values they capture from the target scan as a text file. match is improved (as we'd hope). which does a and has many other invaluable capabilities. You need two TIFF images of the target with one LAB image save the of the target values. they'd be identical. and to help us understand what we see when we do subjective tests with images. which is a little trickier. Building the target by hand is time-consuming but more accurate than resampling. If assigning the profile probably just start over. you should If the physical target. Others. which you can then open in ColorLab. you can extract the data by opening the then open the text file in ColorLab. see the sidebar. you can spend money on Chromix ColorThink Pro. including those from GretagMacbeth and Heidelberg. to "Measurements to Pixels and Back. and an image con- pixel per color patch: a taining the LAB values predicted by the profile. Then compare first simple test is to the image on your calibrated monitor with the appropriately illuminated doesn't improve the match. In an ideal world. For those that do neither. tify To perform tests such as that are available at part. or you have a choice. and assign the input profile to it. or build a l-pixel-per patch Neighbor interpolaimage manually in Photo- shop. "Objective Objectives. Objective Test for Input Profiles This test uses a simple principle: we check the profile by comparing the known LAB values in the profiling target with the LAB values predicted by the profile. to iden- problem areas in the profile that may respond to editing. this you care why. great deal of the work for you We'll cover First.


9: Evaluating


Editing Profiles


Objective Objectives
You can lead yourself down

accurate profile can very easily


as an objective comparative

sorts of fascinating rabbit holes

produce posterization and color-

benchmark for two
They give an


looking at numerical evaluations
of profiles we know because we've been there. So let's make

banding where a less-accurate



produce smoother

unfair advantage



often sacrifice

to profiles that

were actually

something very clear. We don't do
objective tests to


come up


absolute accuracy for smoothness, because our eyes are a

this target.


you nothing about

some unambiguous benchmark
of profile quality, for two reasons:



on small

the reproduction of colors that
aren't in the target.

impossible to determine

discrepancies in hue, saturation, or lightness than they

a profile's absolute accuracy




You can use these types of

unless you're willing to sample

sudden obvious discontinuities.
So what's the point of objective tests? Simply, they help us under-

gauge the


and measure every possible color combination in the profile's
space, which

tive accuracy of profiles built from the same target, and as a

very rough comparison


you'd need 16 million-some measurements

to put



how the profile behaves, and why we see the results we do

from different


— but

you'll get different

RGB, and 4 billion-some measurements in CMYK. The

our subjective tests. They help us understand the limitations of

numbers, though generally heading in the





our devices, and they point us
to areas in the profile that

objective tests

we do really only


use different targets. So you can't use these tests to
say that profile foo has an overdelta-e of 1.28 while profile

measure the

profile's ability to

respond to

profile editing.

predict or reproduce the colors
in the test target

You may be tempted
testing to
profiling packages.

to use


we use.


ent targets


return different

compare The single

bar has one of


except in

the context of the specific set of
colors in the target. (Again, if you were willing and able to measure
16.7 million

average and



word of advice we can




the only factor in determining a profile's quality.


the tests we've described


patches, or 4.3

here study

the profile's abil-

CMYK ones, you might be
make such
a statement.


operate at


ity to predict

making from limited data, and a highly


colors in the target from

and reproduce the which

able to

you get around


the profile was built. These tests

us know!)

A third alternative is to create a text file by hand, sampling the RGB values and entering them into the text
you're building either a text
file file

—v^e generally use Excel to do

so. If

or an image by hand,



you start

out with a template. For text, open the target description file in Excel, and
replace the


values v^th your captured
If you


(don't forget to


the Data Format definition).

w^ant to build an image,

open the target



in ColorLab,

then save it as an image. Figure 9-4 shows the

steps required to

make the comparison.


Real World Color

Management, Second Edition

Figure 9-k

Capture the RGB values from the scanned or photographed


Comparing actual and

LAB values

yDhlAPPLDyyyscncRGB Lab D'y^
yDyyDacspAPPLyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyy'-yDyyyy"LCGCvyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyOcprtyyDDy^ yy yy.DPmtryyN
yyy£rX YZyyN/yyyOgX YZyyNyyyyObX YZyyNlyyyOwtp tyyOyyyynb kptyy OOyyyD rTRCyyO yyODg TRC yys <yynDbTRCyyWPyyDDA2B0yy [dyDUeA2B2yy [dyDUeA2BlyD UyDUedescyDhN yyyftextyyyycopyright by LOGO GmbH, SteinfurtyyytextyyyyLGOROWLENGTH 19i CREATED "11/11/2GG2" # Time: 16: 13qi " KEYWORD Sample ID "Ti KEYWORD "SampleName'J

Ifyour profiling tool includes the RGB data in

the profile,

you can open

the profile with a text

BEGIN_DATA_F0F(MAT5 SamplelD SampieName



then copy and
paste the RGB

3 4

values into a

new text

A2 A3



document. Start at the

"BEGIN DATA FORMAT" line, and finish at the

7 a 9

^ •

A4 A5 A6 A7 AB Ag



125.12 14D.25 146.75 164.97 182.81 2D0.23 205.38 210.61

67. 14^75. 57qi 65. 05-71. 22qi 61. 23-68. 4gqi 59. 75-68. 56qi

122.16 115.75 108.83



126.43q[ 121.97qt



9a.l2-.112.64-qi 190.38 193.Q3qf




Ifyour profiling tool doesn't capture the

RGB numbers in a way you can

access easily, you'll need to use one of the following methods. You need to wind up with either a text file formatted like the one above, or an image

with one pixel per color patch. To create an image,
to create


easiest to use


a template from the target description file.

In ColorLab, choose

IQM Transparency 1996/06
Lab/ 264 Patches
17.9 -4.3


Open from the File menu, and open the
target description file.
You'll get something that


looks like the

image at the right. You'll
this file anyway to make the comparison.


aOView 963 Show Gamut Show Histogram SSH Remove Redundance
Zero Redundance tair Nciqboiir Oistdiue
Calculate Scope Calculate 2D Scope Save Trjangulation...
ICC-profile Statistics... Test_.

Since the ITS target is nonrectangular, you need to choose ITS to Rect Format from ColorLab's Tools menu
to fill the rest

of the target with neutral gray.

Figure 9-k

9: Evaluating


Editing Profiles







To convert the file to a

Comparing actual and

TIFF that you can open
in Photoshop, choose

LAB values,

Export from ColorLab's File menu, and choose
Tiff Format from the Format menu. (You may have to change the

extension to

.tif manually.)

Open the newly sai>ed file in Photoshop, zoom in to 1600% so that you can see what you're doing, convert the image to RGB (any old RGB it doesn't matter because you'll be replacing all the RGB values with ones from your target capture), and save it with a name like "Scannername RGB."


% m» mn I—ft Uyr


ntar \ntw tiw^tw


To transfer the RGB values from the target capture to the Scannername RGB file, open the target scan, and arrange the files side by side. Set the marquee tool to Fixed Size, 1 pixel by 1 pixel, and select the first patch

Scannername RGB.
select the

5x5 average, and Option-click on the first swatch in the target capture image Background color Press Delete to fill the selected pixel in Scannername RGB with that color, press the right arrow key to advance the selection to the next pixel, Optionclick the next swatch in the capture target, and repeat until you've filled all the patches in Scannername
tool, set it to

to set that color as the

RGB with the values from

the capture target.


Real World Color Management, Second Edition
Figure 9-4

Step 2: Convert the captured RGB values to

LAB (Photoshop), or


Comparing actual and predicted LAB values,
Ifyou built the







160(W (RGB/S*)

RGB file

by hand in Photoshop, do the conversion to LAB
there as well.

Assign the capture
profile by choosing Assign Profile fi-om the



O Don't Color Manage This Document C Working RGB: ProPhoto RGB




Mode submenu of the
Image menu.


848 gamma 3


r\ r\

^ SampleTargetDataRCB.tif :W

160(« (RCB/S'/Pr..

Convert the image

LAB by choosing Convert to Profile from


Mode submenu of
menu. Use

the Image

Absolute Colorimetric


848 gamma 3 (


Destination Space


Lab Color


Conversion Options Engine:

Adobe (ACE)
Absolute Colorimetric


Use Black Point Compensation

H Use Dither
flatten In age

Hex 848 RGBs2.tif $> 1600^ (Lab)

After conversion, fill the background

with neutral gray,

LAB 50,


Figure 9-4

9: Evaluating

and Editing



Step 2: Convert the captu red

RGB mtues to LAB (ColorLab).

Comparing actual and predicted LAB values,

have an RGB text do the conwrsion to

LAB in




RGB text file
in ColorLab.

n^B T—





Choose LogoSyncfirom
the ICC submenu of ColorLab's Filter menu.

In the ensuing dialog
box, set the capture
profile as the Source

LAB as the

Destination profile, and Absolute
Colorimetric as the

rendering intent.


Real World Color Management, Second Edition

Figure 9-4

Step 3: Make the comparison.

Comparing actual and predicted LAB values,



060 RCBs.txt

wEMnSmBttM Format
ITS to



Open both

description file

the target and the

X3 Show Gamut Show Histogram XH Remove Redundance
3D View
Zero Redundance Calc Nelgbour Distance
Calculate Scope Calculate 2D Scope

containing the LAB values you obtained by
converting the capture

Save Thanguiatlon...
ICC-pronie Statistics^.

RGB numbers through the profile. Make sure
that both files are
Q60 Transparency 1996/06

converted to rectangular format using ColorLab's



ITS to Rect Format

command. Then choose
Compare Withfi-om
ColorLab's Tools menu,

Q60 Transparency 1996/06 Flex gamma 3 Q60 RGBs.txt

and choose the file you want to compare with
the current onefi-om

the ensuing Select Document dialog box.

ColorLab generates a




3 Q60 RGBs.txt-Q60 Transparency 1996/06


comparison that shows



Delta E



0.42 0.33
1. 21



you the difference
between the actual LAB
values in the target and the LAB values that the
profile predicts. It shows

Best 9(r.

0.26 0.73

;„.:^«.-, 0.4 -0.6
58.8 14.6




49.9 0.8


Deltas 4.28

Vt3 Refs


58.6 14.4 14.9 Delta: 1.00

you the average overall
delta-e, the


delta-efor the best

90% and worst 10% of patches, and the

maximum delta-efor
the best 90%

and worst 10% of patches. The worst 10% patches are
outlined in yellow,

and the worst patch


outlined in red. You

can check any patch's
delta-e by clicking


9: Evaluating

and Editing



This test provides a decent metric for comparing input profiles built from the same target. For example, your profiling tool may provide several options for profile size. This test lets you determine which option gives
Figure 9-S

most accurate

profile (see Figure 9-5).
4C8»-nt« >i# MCT


<» I— U^.ttt

Comparing large und
small profiles

A comparison of small (above) and large (below) profiles built
prom the same scan shows that the large profile offers a clear improvement in accuracy over the small one.

f Urn Hmfim...
"> [

D«ta E


HCT Urge







T.i 39.8 -S8.1


4.0 34.6 -SS.S

Delta '



Ref. 38.2-65.2 32

Sample- 38.2-62.1 32.3


= 3.12


Real World Color Management, Second Edition

Figure 9-5

DCS 460

small Labs.txt-ColorChecker

DC with

gray bars

^ foelta



5.90 4.55


Comparing large and
small profiles, continued




Worst 10%




Ref= 83.8

= ^J.J -29.0 -36.9 Sample = 21.3 -3.4-49.9 Delta = 28.73 2.7 82.3 Sample = 89.3 1.6 105.4 Delta = 23.68




pair of small (above) and large (below) digital camera we find that the reverse is true the smaller profile is

slightly more accurate than the large one.

Sive Report...

DCS 460
foeita E

large Labs.txt-ColorChecker

DC with

gray bars

t^ Ave rage





2.43 7.71

Worst 10%
4 -40.8




R12 Ref=


40.0 -79.4 31.0 Delta = 40.55 Sample Delta = 6.47 Sample = 20.5 0.0 -1.1

Colorimetric accuracy


important, but


not the only concern.

Sometimes we have

to sacrifice accuracy for smoothness, for example.


profile that renders


colors very accurately at the cost of heav-


posterized images

usually less useful than one that distorts colors


but produces smooth transitions between tones and colors.


9: Evaluatins


Editing Profiles


Figure 9-6 shows a typical scanner profile evaluation. Note that


decided to improve shadow detail by raising the scanner
reprofiling, rather

gamma and

than editing the


ngurc 9-6
Scanner profile

Here we see a

comparison of profiles

by scanning the
scanner output

target at different

gamma settings.
*0S* IKi t*t

I.M 11'


Gamma 2.95
this scanner,

Gamma 3.1


gamma of 3.0 produces the most accurate

but there are





such as the S6
this case,

patch in

Gamma 3.0

may reproduce more
accurately at different settings, but the gamma
3.0 setting produced the best overall results with

the smallest errors.


Real World Color Management, Second Edition


you can perform the preceding tests using ColorThink which does most of the work for you. If your profiling tool saves the

capture data in the profile, setting up the comparison

very easy indeed,

shown in Figure 9-7. ColorThink Pro automatically extracts the requisite

data from the chosen
Figure 9-7

then goes ahead and makes the comparison.


9: Evaluating


Editing Profiles


Figure 9-8

ColorThink input profile evaluation



2.1^P.«HI X










Thu 11:08 PM



Ik ts

« «l<


Color Worksheet

aocuncyflf ch>

Figure 9-9

Comparing multiple profiles in ColorThinIc
Color Worksheet

• oe
Color Worksheet





Real World Color

Management, Second Edition

Subjective Tests for Input Profiles
Any test that looks at the rendering of images is necessarily subjective. The
key in evaluating an input profile

to select a representative

sample of

images, with low-key and high-key elements, pastels as well as saturated


neutrals. Profiling involves a series of trade-offs,
likely to regret



judge the trade-offs on a single image, you're


you Of

you need to use some

common sense as well. If you are scanning
more concerned with

or photographing only people, then you'll be

tones and you'll want a suitable set of test images to reflect a variety of
skin tones.

also helpful to include a few synthetic targets as a reality check: they

can often show you problems that natural images may mask or miss. Two such images that we use regularly are the Granger Rainbow, developed by
Dr. Ed Granger, and the RGBEXPL0RER8, developed by Don Hutcheson, both of which are shown in Figure 9-10. Note that we're constrained by the limits of our printing process in how faithfully we can reproduce these


—the RGB versions


look quite different on your monitor!

The point of looking at synthetic targets like these isn't to try to get them to reproduce perfectly that ain't gonna happen but rather to pro-

vide clues as to

why your images behave
in tone or color


misbehave) the way they do.

Sudden jumps

on the synthetic

may happen


color regions that are well outside anything you're likely to capture, or they

may lie in a critical area. It's up to you to decide what to do about them, but we believe that you're better off knov^ng they're there. In the case of RGB input profiles, we use the synthetic targets by simply
assigning the profile in question to the target
Often, the synthetic targets

and seeing what happens.

make problem areas very obvious. We always
why the

make our final
can be

decisions by evaluating real images, but synthetic targets

real time-savers in

showing, at a glance,


ducing images the way it does. Figure 9-11 shows a good example of this.

One digital camera profile, applied to images, seemed a little weak in the reds and muddy in some yellows, but simply looking at a collection of images



hard to pin

down the

specific flaw that



had and

another did not. A single glance

at the

Granger Rainbow, with each profile



very clear where the deficiencies


9: Evaluating


Editing Profiles


Figure 9-10

Synthetic targets

The Granger Rainbow. You can easily make this target in Photoshop. Make a horizontal rainbow gradient, add a layer, make a black-to-white vertical gradient, and set the layer blending to luminosity.

Don Hutcheson's RGBXPLORER8. You can download this target from

—click the Free



Real World Color

Management, Second Edition

Figure 9-11

Synthetic target evaluation

When we simply look
at images, the digital

camera profile whose effects are shown on this page seems to behave quite similarly to the one whose effects are shown on
the facing page.

A close examination
of the images points to the profile on the facing

page having a problem
with saturated orangereds,

but it's quite hard

to spot in these images,

even though they contain a lot of reds.


9: Evaluating

and Editing





Synthetic target evaluation,


When we assign


respectiiv profiles to

the Granger Rainbow, we can see at a glance
that the profile

on the

previous page has a

reasonably smooth response throughout the reds, while the profile



page has a huge

"hole" in the reds.

This area of the image
hints at the problem, but


Rainbow makes it

clear at a single glance.


Real World Color

Management, Second Edition

Editing Input Profiles

With good scanners, we find we rarely need to

—the key pa— finding the "ideal" gamma or tone curve for the scanner but
edit the profile

with low- end scanners that don't provide sufficient control, or sufficiently
consistent control,

we may resort to

profile editing.

The simplest way to
tents simultaneously

edit input profiles globally


is, all

rendering in-

to edit the capture of the profiling target.

The only

you have to make edits in the opposite direction from the behavior you want in the profile. If the profile's results are too dark, you need to


darken the target;

if there's

a red


you need to add red, and so on.
it has the advantage that it an image editor. Small changes with practice you can be surpris-

This is very much a seat-of-the-pants procedure that absolutely requires
a well-calibrated


profiled monitor, but

doesn't require profile editing software, just

can make big differences to the


ingly precise in edits to tone, saturation,

and even to hue in selective color and




a fairly blunt instrument,
this route,

affects all the rendering



you go

proceed with caution (see Figure


you need some kind of profile-editing software. Most of the high-end profiling
packages offer editing in addition to profile creation. They all have
ent user interfaces, but they work in generally the

For more precise

edits, or for edits to a specific rendering intent,

same way: they let you open an image that's in the profile's space, and use it as a reference to make

should go without saying (but




anyway) that

for this to

work, your monitor calibration and profile need



Edit order. There's a classic order in which to

make profile edits



same order that traditional scanner operators use for image
and we generally advocate
that suddenly
sticking with



with one exception, which

fix the biggest problem first! Because


often covers

up other


become visible

after you've

done a lot of work.


classic order for profile edits is

global lightness

and contrast adjustments

tone curve adjustments
gray balance adjustments
global saturation adjustments
selective color adjustments


9: Evaluatins


Editing Profiies


Rgurc 9-1S


The capture of the


shown aboi>e.


with the camera profile quite good, but a little


To increase the saturation in the profile,

we desaturate

the capture of the target, then build a new profile from the desaturated target.

The capture of the
profile assigned,


with the

new camera




saturated than the original.

You also have the problem of able control. Digital camera profiles are more difficult to handle than scanner profiles. be aware that you're profiling the entire raw conversion. you can and should control the lighting. gray-balancing (or whitebalancing) is the key to keeping the variations in lighting under reasonIf you shoot raw. With field cameras. where the camera sees two samples that appear differently to us as identical. your work is all shot in the studio. with a reference scene set up.) images in which it occurs. and you gray-balance the camera. you shouldn't have many more problems than with a scanner profile. If you shoot TIFF or IPEG. There's often If target reference against which to edit them. which is typical. So if a This isn't something you can fix with profile editing to edit those — ^you'll simply have color is rendered incorrectly in a single image. If you have controlled lighting. you can make any sensible decisions about other issues. stick to Figure 9-13 shows typical editing sessions for a good midrange scanner. but if you're scanning photographic prints or film. immune to this CMYdyes — digital cameras have to handle the spectral responses of real objects. what to use as a reference when editing the profile. including white balance setting. compare the digital capture to a physical object. for three reasons: They don't use a fixed They're light source. is One problem you're unlikely to ism. (Scanners aren't either. . The scanner profile requires only minor tweaks. you have no way of knowing the light source for a given exposure. Second Edition The order undoing the need isn't arbitrary: it's designed so that the likelihood of an edit is edits that went before reduced. more prone to metamerism no issues than scanners. where the as different.244 Real World Color Management. check other images that contain similar colors captured from different objects to determine whether it's a profile problem that you can fix by profile editing or a metamerism issue that you'll have to fix by image editing. if not completely elimi- nated. you're scanning which are a lot more complex. so that you can Ide- ally. or find in a scanner camera metamer- camera either sees two samples that appear identical to us more problematically. you should edit the profile in the studio. so unless there's a huge problem staring you in the face that you to correct before it.

m color i«an of Mm praMa Tin •4* (Oprnt kmfZ^ tM* t*» gi KoOtk avol. so uv edit the RGB to LAB side. Than cIKh on ttw prolHt dMctMn ( almost always one-way. We usually colori me trie intent. want to lt<t Input profiles are ICC iMii Wil mtt Ml » Mm >«nd*nng mioms. M niaf* l« itM r to anotiMti your adits.Chapter 9: Evaluatins and Editins Profiles 245 Figure 9-13 Scanner profile editing in editing is The first step profile a aluHiys to figure out which part of the profile you edit.iil Aoeo . Of OtMmtlow ftaWt: start with the relatii'e then apply the edits to the other intents CRS FtowAitOCS i«Ml914}27$ when saving.

PwiMMl> i l l II Mipi } profile editing EOS DIGITAL REBEL ~N^ 5! Linear False color filter Q Always Preview Using 16% Reduced Image - Size Transferring images to application G8 @ 16 Our first task is to configure the raw converter to deliver the bits per color channel bits per color channel images correctly. You can include a few images that contain a known target such as the Macbeth ColorCheck- er. In this example. and it involves several steps. we used Kodak's newly revamped Custom Color ICC. using the reference image as a We save the edited profile. we set Canon's File Viewer utility to deliver linear- gamma images to ( Cancel ~) Photoshop. the edits to the profile. and aim for a profile that helps them all more or less equally. which alis lows us to use Photoshop as a profiling editing tool.246 Real World Color Management. We set the raw converter to deliver linear gamma images. . Second Edition We find that the best approach is to create a reference image by combining a wide variety of image types shot under varying conditions. but the process the same for any profile editor. Here. but resist the temptation to edit the profile so that it it reproduces the color checker perfectly without checking what does to other images. We make guide. Figure 9-14 Digital camera Model Name General Settings M<*IW1rBa9». We open the reference image and the profile in the profile editor. Figure 9-14 shows a typical field camera profile editing session. We make a reference image by ganging several different captures into a single document that we'll use to judge the edits.

. we want reference and a image. The images are linear gamma with no profile assigned. It lets us choose the profile. ready for editing. u>e create a reference image different in Photoshop by assembling a selection of image types. we open the reference image and the profile we want to edit in the profile editor Here we see Kodak's Custom Color Import Plug-in dialog box. continued Next.Chapter 9: Ewaluating and Editins Profiles 247 Figure 9-U Digital camera profile editing. the part of the profile to edit. the image opens in Photoshop with the profile applied. All the images we used here were shot with the camera whose profile we're editing. so we expect them to look dark and ugly at this stage. Custem Colof Import Hug-in Pronl* SflKton Next. When we click OK.

248 Real World Color Management. continued . Second Edition Figure 9-14 Digital camera profile editing.

continued -^ iJMMBi' .Chapter 9: Evaluating and Editing Profiles 249 Figure 9'^k Digital camera profile editing.

In this exercise theory. you need a physical target old 24-patch —we use the Macbeth ColorChecker. If you're a true fanatic. simply lazy. Second Edition To carry out the calibration. file you can measure the Color- Checker yourself. ColorMatch RGB. from www. but the newer ColorChecker SG it includes the original 24 patches so you can use instead if you wish —and an accurate RGB version of the ColorChecker. we find that it's highly desirable if not essential to build the calibration in ProPhoto RGB.250 Real World Color Management. ProPhoto RGB K»«^*sJ Color Checker . create a Lab convert it of the color patches in Photoshop. with the RGB values entered on each you're less fanatical or patch to simplify matching. or ProPhoto RGB — that Camera Raw supports.coloremedies. you can download a ProPhoto RGB version of the ColorChecker. Adobe RGB (1998). then to RGB in Photoshop using Absolute Colorimetric rendering. perhaps because Camera Raw uses a linear-gamma space with ProPhoto maries to do If RGB pri- much of its processing. you should be able to carry out using any of the four RGB spaces— sRGB. In practice. RGB Color Checker. Figure 9-15 It's shown in Figure downloads.html.

point when you adjust —see Figure 9-16.'^^*hm'^<.tf**oeo o^<i *. Arrange the windows on screen so that you can see both the FroFhoto era Raw window.Chapter 9: Evaluating and Editing Profiles 251 Setup for calibrate. n9ure9-16 Setup for Calibrate "'^'^ X>« .* 8166. You'll RGB CoIorChecker and the target capture in the Camuse the FroFhoto RGB CoIorChecker as the aim the Calibrate controls i.52 . '.

* MiciKth. and Shadows sets the black point. 241 . ooo '.|»d @ lOOX (241. as follows: to define a 5-point Exposure sets the white point.ColDrChcclcerl>rol>hota.145. like the gray slider in Photoshop's Levels command.14 .241. again without affecting black or white Figure 9-17 —see Figure 9-17.241.252 Real World Color Management. Brightness adjusts the midtone without affecting black or white. 190 145. Second Edition The four aforementioned controls work together curve. RCB/S) Tonal adjustments ?41. Contrast applies an S-curve around the midpoint set by Brightness. 190.24 ipso.

other two colors unequally to affect the hue. blue hue and saturation. green hue and saturation. put your mind The Calibrate controls let you adjust the relative hue and saturation of the camera RGB tonal settings primaries. arrow keys to change the values in each you can continue on to setting the Calibrate controls. and use the Up and Down field. you should be able to make the edits in any order. and the blue value in the blue patch will be lower than in the reference. but in practice we find that things go more smoothly when we adhere to the following In theory. or that the choice of ProPhoto that the calibration is RGB means at rest. but before you do so. The white patch will always end up to get the darker than in the reference file. The Calibrate adjustments let you tweak the hue and saturation of the primaries for the camera's built-in If you're Camera Raw profiles. and the blue value in the blue patch to those in the reference image before proceeding to the Calibrate tab. For each color's controls. five gray patches to match the reference within three or four so. green. tention). Use the Saturation slider to get the best compromise in terms of matching the red value in the red patch. red saturation. Use Tab to move to the next field and Shift-Tab to move to the previous one. check the blue. and the saturation slider adjusts the other . however. you may need to go back and tweak the Brightness and Contrast sliders slightly. Tip: Um the Arrow Keys to Adhnt Values.Chapter 9: Evaluatins and Editins Profiles 253 Don't try to aim for perfection. and these adjustments remain valid for any and any output space. only valid for ProPhoto RGB. You should. the green value in the green patch. Calibrate adjustments. The adjustments you've made so far simply massage the target capture to make it easier to use the ProPhoto RGB reference image as a guide. the red value in the red patch will be higher than the one in the reference. and red patches on the third row (these are the patches where you'll focus your at- Once you've set the tonal behavior. the hue slider adjusts the two colors equally to affect the saturation. far lock concerned that the adjustments you've made so you into always using these tonal moves. In most cases. order: hue and shadow tint. Once you've done white-balance the image by clicking on the second-to-lightest gray patch. This exercise becomes a great deal if easier you keep the cursor on the patch you're evaluating so that you can see the RGB values in Camera Raw's readout. be able remaining levels. After white-balancing.

So. There should be no by sampling the black patch on the target to check the neutrality more than one level of difference between the three channels on the black patch. It's much more important to get the right relationship between red. take the target values for green and blue. to if the red patch has a red value of 132. or 1.254 Real World Color Management. Remember than it is that you're adjusting color relationships here. and multiply them by 132/122. If the difference is greater than that. However. Continue with the green patch. Adjust the green saturation slider to get approximately the right amount of red and blue relative to green in the green patch. . Figure 9-18 shows typical calibrate adjustments applied to the target capture. you'd aim for 51. the very spiky nature of the typical fluorescent spectrum may require you to special-case it too. so you may have to make a separate calibration for tungsten. for example. and the red hue slider to adjust blue and green relative to each other. in this case from a Canon EOS ID Mk II. move to the blue patch —^you may find that the blue value for the blue. you'd aim for 64. And if you have the misfortune of hav- ing to shoot under fluorescent lighting. You'll also notice that each adjustment in the Calibrate tab affects all the others adjust- ments in the Calibrate tab. and adjust the green hue to fine-tune the proportions of red and blue relative to each other. Use the red saturation slider to adjust blue and green relative to red. ally The calibration you build using the Calibrate tab is good for any light source. usu- Special cases. green. So instead of aiming for a green value of 58. adjust the shadow tint slider to get the black patch as neutral as possible. balance red and green relative to each other. sample the red patch. though with skill and patience it's possible to get very close to the nominal values. slider to Use the blue saturation slider to balance red and green relative to and the blue hue Finally. A second iteration of adjustments will often help you get much closer. some cameras have an extremely weak blue response under tungsten lighting. and instead of a blue value of 46. Second Edition Start of the shadows. and blue produce a close numerical match. blue patch has moved closer to the target value due to the green tweaks.1. as compared to the reference red value of 122. Next.

and their profiles must be bidirectional so that we can use them for proofing as well as for final conversion —so they're by far the most complex type of profile. you can save the Calibrate settings as a Settings Subset. then sai>e only the Calibrate adjustments. and apply them to images. but we almost always wind up editing output profiles. or incorporate them into the Camera Default.Chapter 9: Evaluatins and Editing Profiics 255 Flsurc 9*18 Calibrate adjustments The completed Calibrate adjustments produce a close visual match between the captured target and the reference. . and we try to edit input profiles as little as possible. Output Profiles We never edit monitor profiles. we choose Sai>e Settings Subset. they often use more colorants. Once we're done. Once you're done. so that we can apply them to images independen tlyfrom other adjustments . Output devices tend to be less linear than capture devices or displays.

and equally common to see some color regions grow while others shrink. So go back and recheck all the steps that went into building the profile. Figure 9-19 shows typical appearances for the Granger Rainoutput profiles. the techniques we use for evaluating output profiles are very similar to those we use for input profiles. or converted Before doing anything to the profile in the case of You'll —bear in mind that these targets— so images rarely contain the kinds of transitions found probably see posterization somewhere in CMYK profiles. but even he thinks that's weird. or the wrong color entirely. areas of missing color. real that shouldn't be a major concern. but to help us understand the profile's behavior. The problem could lie in the printer calibration or media settings.256 Real World Color Management. (Bruce also does —see the them for fun. and to identify problem areas that may respond to profile editing sidebar. If an output profile looks significantly worse than the examples shown something has almost certainly gone wrong! here. we tend to be cautious about editing the LAB-to-device (BtoA) side of the profile. or in the parameters you set while building the profile.) . Unless our evaluations reveal gross flaws. "Objective Objectives. Figure 9-19 Granger Rainbow through profiles It's common to see slight color-banding in some regions of the rainbow when you convert to an output profile. make some edits to the device-to-LAB side to improve our soft proofs. Second Edition That said. with the profile assigned to it in the case of RGB profiles. stop. But we find we often have to else. because you won't get good results bow converted to from this one. But if you see huge discontinuities." earlier in this chapter. If what you see looks much worse than any of these. we always recommend looking at a synthetic target such as the Granger Rainbow or the RGB Explorer (see Figure 9-7). in your measurements. you need to back up and figure out where you went wrong. Objective Tests for Output Profiles We do objective tests on output profiles not to provide an objective benchmark of profile accuracy. except possibly to ing intent or to make slight changes to the perceptual render- make a very specialized profile.

Figure 9-20 shows the steps needed to evaluate the AtoB colorimetric table. you have the choice of using free tools and doing a lot of work. whereas the AtoB table Lastly. . you may want to edit both sides of the this is quite a rare situation. using Logo ColorLab to convert text to pixels and vice versa. the moving may be a sign of bad measurements. predicted LAB values. though As with input profiles. If tween either measurement file and the values predicted by the comparison than you get higher delta-e values errors are in the in this in the others. table. to convert the You can use ColorLab RGB or CMYK device values to CMMs easily. is based on actual measurements. and if so. we'll cover both methods here. you can use this same test to determine whether the preferred CMM actually produces better results. how much better. or spending some to make the comparisons money and using Chromix ColorThink Pro much more easily. with those from the predicted LAB image printed through Usually the errors in the AtoB and BtoA tables are in opposite directions. we go further. so check them. This lets us see what's happening in the colorimetric BtoAl (PCS-to-device) table. We usually see higher delta-e values on this side of the profile because it's computed.Chapter 9: Evaluating and Editing is Profiies 257 compare the device's known behavior with the behavior the profile predicts. And as with input profiles. But since output profiles are bidirectional. The CMM can make a big difference to the results— if your profiling package is lABi but we prefer to do that in Photoshop. assigning the device profile to it. We do that to The fundamental principle for objective evaluations by comparing the actual measurements of the target — the color we know the device produces in response to a set of numbers — with the LAB values the profile predicts. and compare the measurements to the predicted LAB values. measure the print. since it lets us choose different designed to prefer a particular CMM. producing a lower delta-e between the two measurement files than beprofile. We take the print them through the profile. and then converting lets to LAB with absolute colorimelric rendering. original we "close the loop" by comparing the measurements the profile. We obtain the predicted LAB values by taking the target file. they're OK. This us see what's happening inthecolorimetricAtoBl (device-to-PCS) table. the BtoA colorimetric and the roundtrip result. same direction on both sides of the profile If —this you're quite sure profile identically.

1E Spot Colors. (The .Conversion Options Engine: ( — Adobe (ACE) illustration shows an is Intent: .. Choose Export from the File menu and save the file as a TIFF Assign ~- PnMt Assign ProfMe: Open the TIFF in Photo- O Don't Color Manage This Document O Working RGB: Adobe RGB (1998) 9 fEpson 2200 PL Profile: 3 PrQflle B Preview shop... then click Enable in the dialog that appears. Special Window Filter 244. Spectral s. flatten image CMYK. File Figure 9-20 Step 1: Output profile objective testing In ColorLab. Image.0 d Open from the File menu.0 25S. looks like the Testchart Standard Testchart Strips Testchart Define image at the right. Choose Spot Colors fi-om the Conversion submenu of the Filter menu. Second Edition Obtain predicted LAB values...258 Real World Color Manasement. assign the profile being evaluated.' [Absolute Colorlmetric~i RGB output profile but the procedure identical for Use Black Point Compensation Q Use Dither [J.. and open the target description file.. Colors. You'll get something that k 1.0 244. choose fe e ^ RGB 2FI6 / ^ ColorLab 918 Patches Edit^ RGB.) . then convert the TIFF to Convtit b> LAB with absolute ~ Profile: Epson 2200 PL colorimetric rendering to obtain the predicted Destination Space Profile: Lab Color LAB values..

Step 3: Set up the comparison. and the TIFF image containing the predicted LAB values. print it. convert it back to the profile using Absolute fnm 'tpMOMtn. E#MN 2100 n. the roundtrip In ColorLab. continued Make a duplicate of the "predicted LAB" file. Ktmimntttm objective testing. measu remen ts you just made. HMMurtd Ubs i»e i^H open the measurements original prom which the profile was built. then measure the print to obtain the U UM liMh Pwrn Comp«nt«<ien BUNOMMt ("^ FUnMI HMOt roundtrip LAB iKilues.Chapter 9: Evaluating and Editing Profiles 259 Rgure 9-20 Output profile Step 2: Obtain roundtrip LAB values. colorimetric rendering. .

then select the predicted Labs file from the Select Document dialog box. Overall Mcuurtd Ubs-2200I>1.17 0. You'll almost always get higher errors on this side of the %Q C Measured Ubs-2200n. This provides a gauge of the accuracy of the AtoB (device-to-PCS) side of the profile.21 0.49 2C27 Ref • ColorLab generates a comparison of the measured LAB values with the ones predicted by the target.l Sigma 0.260 Real World Color Management.13 Prtdicted Ubs. profile. «e j ^ Sav» Htpoft.•0 f Uvt Htpon. ^ fbelnE »i^ Av»fjg« 0. .. measurement Output profile objective testing. continued choose Compare with from ColorLab's Tools menu.36 1. Select the original file..21 B«st90X Worst lOK 009 014 0. Close the loop by comparing the original and roundtrip LAB measurements. This gives you an idea of the accuracy of the BtoA (PCS-to-device) side of the profile. Second Edition Figure 9-20 Step 4: Make the comparisons.14 Maximum 1. Repeat the process to compare the predicted LAB values with the roundtrip LAB measurements. usually lower than those in the previous comparison. . This gives you an idea of the The errors are overall accuracy of the profile.

In the current Mac OS X version as of this it writing. Figure 9-21 shows the comparison between the three Figure 9-21 sets of measurements. you can make the comparison a good deal more easily using ColorThink Pro. so show you the predicted Lab you don't need to wrestle with extracting the Lab data from Photoshop. do the same comparisons in demo mode. We is have no when or this will get fixed. 4. then convert it to Lab.Ur.1. unlike MeasureTool Alternatively. ColorLab idea 2.Chapter 9: Evaluating and Editing Profiies 261 Tip: N ColerLab Dotsn^ Work. and as such. Imigt e Utumttikl. to obtain a printable target containing the predicted Lab values and to print that target through the printer profile. ColorLab is unsupported software. If you're already a ColorThink user. the if Compare with feature seems to be broken. which requires a dongle to do so. The MeasureTool component of GretagMabeth's ProfileMaker still which available for download. usually has some bugs.0. so we offer an alternative.. you'll find that ColorThink Pro is a very worthwhile upgrade with a wealth of options that simplify both nu- meric and visual color comparisons. can 5.8.5. You'll need to open the profiling target in Photoshop and assign the printer profile. But ColorThink Pro can values..MlUX Wt M> jytum froWt Coloc Cf^p^ Wrt> VWiwIow 4 i Mon 3:29 PM up<on2 ColorThink Pro profile evaluation .

1. of which from the simple — we can show only two here. you often have the need you like to Another new feature in ColorThink Pro is analyze color problems. Figure 9-22 shows Colorthink Pro's metamerism test.262 Real World Color Management. for example. way it lets you model and analyze color issues visually. what sets ColorThink apart is the you how spectrally measured colors will appear under different lighting. Second Edition ColorThink Pro We've long relied on Chromix ColorThink as an indispensable tool for visualizing color ly useful new capabilities. specific profiles. which shows to the very com9-23 shows a Color plex.2P. and adds extreme- sorts of workflows Pro too strongly. Figure 9-22 ColorThink 2. can help you decide whether or not your printer needs illuminantIt destination to an lets RGB to a CMYK RGB proof.alllX File Edit System Imagt Proflit Colof Graph Wtb Window *) :«> Thu 11:43 P ColorThink Pro Color Worksheet '«^j„ Is ^« «l ^ ^ Color Worksheet . think visually. and what hapeach stage of to you track exactly pens If to the color at the process. which allows you to simulate and analyze all we can't recommend ColorThink by the original.1. Figure all the Worksheet that tracks the conversions from an 3D gamut plots in this book were produced using ColorThink.«UI X Fit* Edit Systtm Imaflt Proftt« Color Graph Web Wndow 4b (if} < TTMi 10-.4< ColorThink Pro metamerism test Figure 9-23 ^ ColofThlnk2.2P. While it's no slouch at providing numerical feedback. and especially if The new ColorThink Pro builds on the solid foundation provided the Color Worksheet.

Don't make any hard-and-fast decisions yet — to fully evaluate the profile. you need to use a variety of image types with shadow and highlight detail. The two key questions you need Does the screen display of the image converted the print? match . double-check by looking at the —accuracy often comes at the expense of smoothness. They're useful in determining the profile's ability to repro- duce spot colors accurately. The images must be in either LAB or a well-defined device-independent ColorMatch RGB shortcomings — RGB space —such as Adobe RGB (1998) or to make sure that your evaluation isn't compromised by (You can't use an original print or trans- in the input profile. under suitable lighting. To do that. and pastels. Subjective Tests for Output Profiles much slop there is Objective tests give you a good idea of a profile's overall accuracy in the — how it system — and the specific color areas where has trouble. because the profiled print would then be the result of the input profile plus the printer profile. This comparison looks at the colorimetric and perceptual BtoA (PCS-todevice) tables. and compare its appearance on your calibrated and profiled monitor this looks at the — colorimetric AtoB (device-to-PCS tables). in this order: to the profile other. saturated colors. image) on your calibrated and profiled monitor. It's more likely. parency to make the comparison. neutrals. and you can skip the rest of chapter. you're done.Chapter 9: Evaluating and Editing Profiles 263 If one profile or CMM seems to produce more accurate results than anGranger Rainbow other. you still have some work to do. If this happy with both.) Print your test images using both relative colorimetric and perceptual renderings. though. skin tones. Compare the printed image. about the profile's ability you very you need you guessed it to print images! — — to print When you evaluate a profile's image-handling capabilities. and a proofer. You need to carry out two comparisons for each rendering intent. which control the soft proof of the printed image on your monitor. with the original image you were trying to reproduce look at the original (if you're evaluating a CMYK output profile. But they tell to simulate other devices' behavior as little images. RGB Then convert the images to the profile you're evaluating. that you'll find flaws v^th one or the you're to ask are. which control the way the output device renders color.

We typi- 5ma// changes to white point. you may want to generate a new profile with different perceptual renderIf you it's ing parameters rather than editing.264 Real World Color Management. but recognition. you've decided that the is to fix it with skill. Does the If print provide a reasonable rendition of the original image? is the answer is. here are the types of edits that we the AtoB tables to improve soft. you only see problems with perceptual render- and your profiling package allows you to change the trade-offs between hue. It's a great deal easier to achieve preit is dictable results editing images than If the editing profiles. we recommend that you don't try to edit the profile. relative colorimetric rendering too. With care. . answer is no. If do you see problems with both rendering intents. saturation. but instead soft-proof images and make any necessary optimizations as edits to individual images (see "Soft-Proofing Basics" in Chapter 10. we suggest that you edit the AtoB tables to improve the soft-proof before you even think about editing the BtoA tables. or just with one? ing. Making small changes improve soft-proofing to selective colors in all the AtoB tables to (see Figure 9-25). overall contrast. Most profile editors work by displaying your edits on an image that's is displayed through the profile. and lightness in the perceptual intent. it's map needs fixing. fix the AtoB tables if necessary or just use the profile as If it's no. and make profiles possible to more useful by editing them. see real problems vdth the a candidate for editing. Second Edition If the answer is yes. You're standing ankle- in a bog. and saturation (see Figure 9-24). Color Management Workflow).proofing. so fixing the display side of the profile pretty much essential before you can turn your attention to the output side. it's a great deal easier to screw them up beyond in With that cautionary note think are rational to attempt: Globally editing cally make all mind. yes. Editing Output deep Output Profiles profile editing isn't for the faint of heart. and all you have and a your eyeballs laundry marker. practice.

Figure 9-25 Selective color in m ~^^ii the AtoB tables Here. . We address this by slightly reducing the color cast and increasing the lightness. we made small to the soft- changes proofing of a small range ofyellow. Note that this adjustment also affects absolute colorimetric rendering to hard-copy proofers.greens to make the soft proof match the printed piece more closely.Chapter 9: Evaluating and Editing Proffiies 265 Figure 9-U Editing the AtoB white point The paper-white simulation of images rendered to tlie screen unth absolute cobrimetric rendering is often too drastic to be visually useful. Test both.

ally changes the printed output. consider where in the color range it's happening. You may be better off generating a if new your profiling package make a new profile rather than editing this one.266 Real World Color Management. this one actu- — profile with different perceptual mapping offers these controls. compromising the color in other areas Edit. for example. or improve the reproduction of specific colors that concern you. or reprofiling with different profile parameters. Control. or When you're new to to fix profile editing. Within may be a perfectly sensible thing to do. you'll be tempted to edit the profile problems that are really better addressed by either adjusting the device's behavior (perhaps by linearizing) and reprofiling. but be like trying to adjust a cat's cradle. to improve the printed output of out-of-gamut colors. warned — or to improve the reproduction of specific colors. possible to reduce the maximum limits. You pull It's it's on one part of the color range. Small changes in the variables early in the process and Process tend to get amplified in the profile creation process. Second Edition Making small changes to the BtoAO editing the AtoB tables: unlike the (perceptual) table only. If your profile has problems that are big enough to make you contem- plate editing them. but only after you've finished first three types of edit. take a fore. but only at the cost of increasing the overall average error. let moment to reflect on all the steps that went be- Are both the device and the instrument correctly calibrated? Did you the printer target stabilize? Are all your measurements correct? Did you set the separation factors parameters for your CMYK profile optimally? All these can have a surprisingly large impact on the resulting profile. this error. If your goal is to reduce maximum error. A LAB delta-e of 10 is a great deal more obvious in a light blue than errors are to justify it is in a light yellow. So look at where the showing up. . and another part moves. and decide if they're visually objectionable enough (see Figure 9-26). Measurement. to all Remember that a profile is the result of a lengthy process that's subject the variables we discussed in Chapter 5. it's but in the long run usually the easiest course. Calibration. BtoA table to try to You can also edit the colorimetric reduce the maxi- mum errors. Reprofile. Going all the way back to the beginning and starting over may seem like a lot more work than editing the profile.

I Samples n. We did indeed improve the cyans.I icr.4 -M.3-l6. we compared the new roundtrip values.7 -21. we consider the effort successful because the increase in errors small.3-lkO-»V'« Delta • 6JI9 Sample! l«.4 -M. Nevertheless. . is very and the worst it's delta-e has shifted to a color region where visually much less noticeable. an aOI IMi 41.4 Delia* 6 09 i 77ii5 roundtrip to comparison led us edit the cyans to try to improi>e the visually obvious delta-e on the cyan patches. After editing. but only at the expense of slightly higher average and maximum delta-e values.0-6b.Chapter 9: Evaluating and Editing Profiles 267 Flsurc 9-26 IB I 1^ 4<v« tp^rtI mill 11 * I III I OclUC (Vrrall Average Mgma Reducing maximum aw 2J3 delta-e errors Wortt -21.

we'll talk about how to use the maps to get to where you need to go. you'll reach the point of diminishing returns no matter are. evaluating again. evaluating. is quicker and easier than either editing the profile or making a Profiling Is Iterative and a reasonably good takes a good deal more work. and then repeating the whole process. Second Edition profile updating. We going back and adjusting Getting good profiles requires rigorous attention to detail.268 Real World Color Management. a reasonably accurate instrument. and how to improve at least some aspects of its accuracy. profiling package. we've shown you how to deterstill has a little life left in mine the accuracy of the map. editing. but it In this chapter. In the next part. map into the ground. a reasonably stable device. profiling. Where Do We Go from We've just about run the analogy of profile as it. the device. measuring. how picky and obsessive you but just where that point occurs is a subjective call that only you can make. Eventually. Getting greflf profiles often go through multiple iterations of calibrating the device. . The way to find out is to give it a try —updating a profile new one.

PART Applications nd Worlcflow .


Instead. you probably know slightly more than normal people need to know about profiles. and describe the major principles that govern how you let configure your applications to color flow smoothly and predictably —from capture. one more good hefty yank. they're simply tools. or in their maps. as works own right. You may be tempted to just skip ahead and delve into the chapters that describe your applications. We give you the holistic overview of how your color management components interact. you'll know what kinds of buttons to look for. material will tell vendors have a tendency to move and rename those buttons each time they revise the applications. if but for most of us. we look at where the rubber meets the road how you use profiles with your various devices and aparen't all that useful — plications to drive your color where you want it to go. why. through editing. because while the application-specific you which buttons to push. and maps we never go anywhere. At this point. A few of us appreciate profiles. In this chapter.Color Manasement Workflow Where the Rubber Meets the Road We've been straining the analogy of profile as so let's give it map throughout this book. to docuto final management make your color ment assembly. 271 . and when to press them to make your applications handle color the way you want them to. If you understand the bigger picture we paint here. to proofing. and you'll understand how. and output (or outputs). gest the material we beg you to take the time to di- we present here.

or InDesign. and objectsin documents. a One program's document may be another's object. then preserving or controlling those colors as the work flows from capture. how do we configure it for color management. import objects in the into the program. but in Illustrator. The flow of materials How do we bring in documents and objects from non-color-managed devices or applications. We won't try to provide a compreyou what we mean hensive definition of workflow. or even from person to person. In a nutshell." "art. and what procedures should we use to open and save documents. we'll just when we talk about color management workflow. through editing. For each application. QuarkXPress. As we move color documents from program to program. and integrate them with our color manage- ment documents? How can we get maximum benefit out of our color management efforts before sending our jobs off to environments where other non-color-managed steps may happen? We color-manage two types of things: documents. tell but no two can agree on definition." or "post- know what he's talking about. and when and how do we convert to different forms for output? into or out of a color-managed environment. Instead. document in Photoshop consists of a raster image." where every expert claims "Workflow" is Management Workflow? words to its like "quality. . and copy and paste colors between windows program? The flow of documents between programs. how do we keep colors looking right. to output. In this chapter we'll look at how color manage- ment workflow applies to three different areas: The flow of documents or objects within a program. this very same raster image object may be just one among many in an assembled document. color defining what colors management workflow is the art and science of the numbers in your documents represent. Second Edition What Is Color one of those slippery modernism. And each one of these objects may have a different profile assigned to it (see Figure 10-1). For example.272 Real World Color Management.

Chapter 10: Color Management Workflow 273 Flsurc 10-1 Documents and objects |Hxel Genius. In useful capabilities this figure. all these elements will wind up being converted to the same output space. There are really only two variables that differentiate the very large number of possible color management workflows: When the conversions occur How the color meaning is conveyed . PhotoKit" oriRiiul inuitc before sharpeninR while the imaite on the ri)iht shows the I eflecu. Both images are at lOOS ortheir original size. we is to provide a more controlled method of color to grayscale included a color swatch lo help viaualize the effects of various Color to BAWefTiects profilefirom designer's monitor rar4 Ultimately. Llc. assumed profile used in Illustrator The imaiie on the left showi the image after running a Luminance Shaipen digital camera profile One of PhotoKJt's coovcri iom.

. touches the document data correctly on This conversion happens outside the main color reproduction loop and never itself. Display Conversions It may not be immediately obvious. of your applications. the display conversion is out of the loop. there's a conversion going on from the document's space to your monitor's space —the only exception is if the document is already in monitor RGB. all your color would be displayed inaccurately. Hgure 10-2 display conversion Monitor compensation source profile display profile Color-managed applications perform a conversion on the data sent to the monitor. without affecting any of the actual data being pushed through the workflow (see Figure 10-2). strategic question But before doing so. these are the only two things that management up in fancier clothing. so the same document can be displayed many different monitors without converting the source data. however. So we'll look at the bigger. If this conversion didn't happen. Applications may dress color But timing conversions and conveying color meaning types of issues. we need to address one other issue. management to ac- count for the quirks of each individual's transparently and auto- matically. When to convert is raise different is a 5frafeg/c decision that in consider- able part dictated by the type of work you do. fi-om the document's source profile (or profiles) to the display profile. Color-managed applications apply the display conversion on the fly to the data that gets sent to the video card — it never touches the documents themselves. but all color management features ultimately break down into some combination of these two basics. Second Edition As we told you way back in Chapter 3. but almost every time you display an image in a color-managed application.274 Real World Color Management. From a workflow standpoint. while the way color meaning is conveyed is largely a tactical decision that's dictated by the capabilities first. The beauty of this approach is that it allows color display. color management systems do.

there's the color meaning of the device values in no ambiguity about each document and object. However. Most color management workflows somewhere between the two extreme examples cited above. A second es that color advantage is that it's easy to introduce color management gradually into existing early-binding prepress workflows. But one useful distinction that dates from those the distinction between a late-bindingand an early-binding as soon as possible— traditional prepress workflows that took output Early-binding workflow converts all the color into final output space CMYK right from the scanner are a classic example. workflow was a hot topic that allowed consultants to telling their clients earn large sums of money. and it becomes possible to pull intermediate comps and preproofs from all. In-RIP separations in the platesetter's or imagesetter's RIP represent an extreme late-binding workflow. As long as they stay in this closed-loop environment. late binding and early binding define fall two ends of a con- tinuum. everything gets converted to a single output space. either/or choice. inexpensive Inkjet printers. The basic workflow doesn't change at A third early-binding advantage is that it prevents designers from using non-reproducible colors in their designs. Early Binding Advantages The biggest advantage of early-binding workflows is simplicity. space.Chapter 10: Color Management Workflow 275 When to Convert Back in the 1990s. Early in the workflow. Late-binding workflow delays the conversion to final output as long as possible. late binding versus early binding isn't a binary. . The only chang- management brings are that operators see accurate color on their monitors instead of being forced to rely strictly on the numbers. Rather. it's If everyone works in final output impossible by definition to create out-of-gamut colors. mostly by what they already knew and wanted halcyon days workflow: is to hear.

So early binding is practical in situations where the output squeezed into the output always the same process is example but it's pretty useless for a freelance designer who may have to work on jobs where the output process isn't even known yet. on the Internet. color a luxury. for A ative effects. not difficult. while most capture devices produce smaller RGB files (they only have three channels. saving. Late Binding Disadvantages The major disadvantage of late binding in the sense that it's is its inherent complexity. . and slower performance in opening. — — a daily newspaper or monthly magazine. resulting in poorer quality effects. And even those available in CMYK often make terrible CMYK behavior. While workstation storage is reasonably cheap. but in the sense that there are many more places for things to go wrong. targeted to a single output process — all the gamut and optimized for the output's tonal response. an extra 33 percent is on a network. so early binding means larger files. Second Edition Early Binding Disadvantages The huge disadvantage of early-binding workflows Everything in the workflow color is is is their inflexibility. Late Binding Advantages The great advantage of late-binding workflows is flexibility. A single incorrect application setting can wreck one or more elements in the job. not insignificant. albeit a very useful one. A second disadvantage with extremely late-binding workflows such as in-RIP separations is that you don't have a chance to evaluate the final output data until very late in the game. particularly those based on an established traditional prepress workflow. Late binding also allows you to do a great deal of useful the final output conditions have been determined. are only RGB. Maintaining the color gamut of the originals means that the work is easily repurposed work before for conditions as different as sheetfed printing. or copying files across a netas work. it's a mission-critical necessity. or in asset storage. In early-binding workflows. newsprint. available in assumptions about A third disadvantage is that output files are usually CMYK. management can be reasonably called But in a late-binding workflow. opposed to four-channel CMYK).276 Real World Color Management. and situations it's well suited to where the color is assembled from many different sources. second disadvantage when the output is CMYK is that many cresuch as a large number of Adobe Photoshop filters. or the Web.

Most capture spaces and most output spaces aren't that well suited to editing color. There's one more important issue to factor into this equation. as shown in Figure 10-3. not outputs are CMYK. and in a great many be right. you'd and late binding as an all-RGB one. imagery in the RGB space in might make sense to keep all our color which it was captured until it was time to it convert to final Flsurc 10-3 output space. in the color-managed workflows fall somewhere that stretches between the two extremes. and to simplify the workflow.Chapter 10: Color Manasement Workflow 277 Avoiding Extremes The late binding/early binding distinction is a useful one to keep in mind. intermediate Spaces If color reproduction were simply about reproducing original imagery or artwork as exactly as possible. Scan to print The CMS converts the source color to monitor color for display only. The CMS converts the color fi-om the scanner profile to the print profile. ^HU^Q The CMS uses the scanner profile to define the source colors. so many color management workflows use an intermediate space between capture and output spaces to avoid the worst extremes of early or late binding. . Most real continuum It's also tempting to think of early binding as an all-CMYK workflow cases. so the distinction really does revolve around when you commit all your color to output space. which may or may not be CMYK. But bear in mind that while all capture devices capture RGB (even the big prepress drum scanners that produce CMYK output scan in RGB. all then convert the data). but it's important to remember that the terms represent two extremes.

In a gray-balanced space. The trade-off is between finding an editand ing space that won't clip colors in either your capture or your output. the same incremental change in the numbers produces the same degree of change in the appearance. to cite a couple of extreme examples. finding an editing space that doesn't waste huge numbers of bits describing colors that you can't capture. Capture spaces property. Our originals almost always have a wider gamut than our output. So we almost always need to edit our images. it's pretty much impossible to find a space that contains . in the real world. we'll simply say that the main criterion in choosing an editing space Bigger isn't gamut.278 Real World Color Management. a neutral gray. print. of a black cat in a coal cellar even if Input device spaces describe the behavior of capture devices. and as a result they usually have two properties that make them less than ideal as image-editing spaces: Input spaces are rarely gray-balanced. equal values of R. things are rarely that simple. this a lot more difficult to accomplish. and even the best profile with the best perceptual rendering is unlikely to do equal justice to all images —we typically need to make different compromises to a picture they were captured perfectly. embodied applications but usable by others. gray- balanced. In a perceptually uniform space. even see. This RGB approach has proven editing spaces its —often named for their developers— necessarily better. no matter where in the color generally lack this gamut and tonal range it takes place. perceptually uniform space such as Adobe ing. is in Adobe Systems' (1998) for edit- to use a device-independent. Instead. Second Edition But. which correcting color: pull and B always produce one of the most simplifies powerful techniques for the neutrals into place and the rest of the color folis lows. In practice. display. or in some cases. Device-independent RGB. In a non-gray-balanced capture space. One solution. sufficiently popular to spawn a plethora of and debating the meris its of each is decidedly outside the scope of this book. Input spaces are hardly ever perceptually uniform. and one of a polar bear in the snow. which again makes them more difficult to use for editing. G.

LAB is a very large space indeed. caveats. As a result. Figure 10-4 camera profile Capture to edit to print intermediate space profile press profile GF Q^g conversion scanner profile Scanner RGB and camera RGB both get converted to intermediate space RGB when the application opens them. where captures from multiple sources are converted early on into an intermediate editing space. First. after gray-balanced and reasonably perceptually uniform. and the color is converted to press CMYK at print time. that put an LCh interface between the user and LAB. Why not simply use LAB as the intermediate space? It is. LAB-based workflows can be very predictable and productive. all. with two LAB is not a particularly intuitive space in which to edit: most LAB-based workflows use editing applications. since by definition it contains every color we can see. but less so in the workflows are quite popular United States. CIELAB. Editing is done in intermediate space RGB. So a more typical color management workflow might look like that shown in Figure 10-4.Chapter 10: Color Management Workflow 279 all your colors yet doesn't waste bits. LAB-based in Europe. Second. colors. . so bit all it wastes an awful lot of bits on non-reproducible data —an 8-bit-per-channel LAB in major editing should be done file is at the capture stage on high- a fairly fragile thing that doesn't respond well to big moves tone or color. such as Heidelberg's NewColor. so you simply have to pick the best trade-off for your particular purposes.

In an embedded-profile workflow. the profile always travels with the object to which it applies. imported color gets converted to the intermediate space. all RGB content is in ProfileX space. Assigning. or at least the colors likely to be output. Second Edition The Intermediate Space Advantage Intermediate-space workflows combine most of the simplicity of early- binding workflows with Early in the process. all all of the flexibility of late-binding workflows." We can tell the CMS implicitly by configuring applications to assume that.280 Real World Color Management. Conveying Color Even though we're discussing ally it second. make use of profiles. it's easy to repurpose the work for different outputs. or to do most of the work before the output process has been decided. and Assuming. room And as long as the intermediate space encom- passes the gamuts of all likely output processes. Adobe's applications use the term "Working Space" to define — space see Chapter an intermediate editing 12. . and all CMYK content is in ProfileY space. The two options aren't mutually exclusive —many color management workflows. The Adobe Common Color Architecture. tell can't ask the CMS CMS what that color is by supplying a source And there are only two ways to supply the source profile: We can tell the CMS explicitly by embedding a profile in the document or object (or assigning a profile ging. including the one we used to produce this book. —see the sidebar "Terminology: Taglater in this chapter). little and all new colors get defined in the intermediate space. Embedding. both embedded and assumed Embedded Profiles The least ambiguous and most robust way to tell the CMS what colors the numbers in the document represent is to embed the profile that describes them. and is always available to serve as the source profile for any conversion (see Figure 10-5). You the to match a color if you profile. conveying color meaning is re- the first part of the color can't management puzzle. absent any indication to the contrary (such as an embedded profile). so there's for ambiguity.

this the output process. you should have and dot an idea of the ink work on jobs with no idea whether they're going to gain. The receiving application coni>erts firom 2) scanner RGB to intermediate.Chapter 10: Color Manasement Workflow 281 Figure 10- Embedded-pro fil workflow scanner profile 1) The scanner embeds the scanner profile in the image. road" CMYK. but every day we see people proving us wrong. and practically less than rational." and points out that the middle of the road is generally where you find roadkill. anyway and convert their color to some "middle-of-the-road" CMYK long before they need to. if to convert your color to output Bruce v^ryly terms your job look like roadkill. and embeds the press CMYK profile. . But even editing RGB. 3) The application embeds the intermediate-space editing RGB profile. you should try to find out as much as you can about the At likely you want to avoid having space before the output process is known. limits minimum. People "premature-binding workflow. and thus you'll be forced to use "middle-of-the- chapter. and hope for the best. The next application converts is 4) to press CMYK. for example. See 'Preparing to be printed on Sometimes convert to you'll be forced Materials for a Non-Color-Managed a direct-to-plate sheetfed press or on newsprint with plates im- CMYK for an unknown Print Environment. Premature Binding We think it should be self-evident that it's technically impossible." later in this aged from film. 5) Final editing done in press CMYK The edited image is saved with the press CMYK profile embedded. but they go ahead output process.

ding a profile profile at Embedding. if still all open untagged images change appearance. uses the assumed ings overlap. Assuming a ing a profile profile results in a machine crashes before you different behavior permanently associated with it. Embedded-profile workflows are by far the safest choice when your production chain takes inputs from multiple sources and converts them to outputs for multiple destinations. you set a what you do settings. and Assuming One of the less-delightful aspects —you can assign a source profile. you embed and the machine crashes. as an embedded profile or an assigned that has a source profile when you reopen ed vdth it. and variety of terminology that dif- only embed a profile as part of the another for CMYK. it won't — from assign- if you change the have the assigned profile associata profile. A good example default profiles for pixel-based the set of terms mentioned relate to associating a Embedding ument with Here's an a source profile data and vector-based data. If profile with ment. . you literally write a copy of the profile into the document.) above: describes the act of saving a doc- When ters the application encoun- source profile with a document or object. However. but you can a default profile.282 Real World Color Management. for RGB. profile. image you assign a is no longer document. the Assigning a source profile is a term that Adobe applications use to describe the act of tagging a reopen it. the file. But profile. example that makes the distinction between assigning and profile as the source for any Tagging is simply a generic term for the act of associating a source mere hair-splitting. Hair-splitters should is Assuming a source profile is a way to configure applications' untagged as far as the application is concerned.managed applications know how to interpret em- bedded profiles in TIFF. JPEG. the source profile file an untagged document it and often their mean- included as part of the data. (Some applications let ferent vendors use to describe Save process. Second Edition : Tagging. or object. A an object or docutagged document is one a profile embedding more than you assign to a document. but it's sufficiently variable that we'll discuss fully in the individual application-specific chapters that follow this one. to the default profile When you embed a profile. default profile. including the one that converts the color to monitor RGB for display. All color. An untagged document is one that lacks a source profile. requested conversions. PICT documents. Typically. and. Assigning. since they're the profile will be associated with the now being interpreted new default profile as if with the document when you the source. on the Macintosh platform. sometimes called of color management is the great any time. and keeps its assigned profile no matter note that assigning a profile a distinct process from embed- behavior toward untagged objects. Some in it applications also offer some degree of support for profile embedding EPS and PDF documents. you set different the is same all thing. and your save. such as a service bureau operation.

Many production your choice is one without any profiles that deals in with color problems through an iterative proof-then-color-correct process. It's only safe because it's familiar. Profiles aren't embedded. and we configure all our applications to assume that untagged profile to use for documents have Figure 10-6 this profile as their source (see Figure 10-6). output profiles can be quite large the ones we used to make page. Matrix-based you're uploading 30 images to a profile CMYK this and embedding the same in each one. . we agree on a single untagged documents that we push through the production chain. is that they RGB editing space profiles are relatively tiny— less than a kilobyte— but if sometimes by a sometimes by a lot. AssumecJ Profiles The key feature of the assumed-profile workflow is that. of embedded-profile workflows little. Assumed-profile workflow assumed RGB In assumed CMYK an assumed-profile workflow.Chapter 10: Color Management Workflow 283 When you color always embed profiles.managed workflow. respectively. we'd be shoving an extra one or two gigabytes through the production chain. and it's extremely inefficient to use human skill to solve the problem of various devices having their own and craft is often peculiar behavior. necessary even in a in a nowhere near the same degree as One major disadvantage increase file size. there's meaning will of the numbers people argue the safest never any ambiguity as to the documents. instead of relying on embedding profiles in all our documents. Such use of skill color. and conversions are always between the assumed profiles' spaces.4 megabytes apiece— and if we chose to embed a profile in every single graphic in the book. you're uploading 30 kilobytes of redundant data. in at Web book weigh — 2. but to traditional one. RGB and CMYK values are always interpreted as assumed RGB and assumed CMYK.

or where a group with good communications is working towards a single output. So when you transfer Illustrator EPS files to another application. . As a result. Hybrid Workflows In practice. but it embed them. if you spot what happened quickly. In this scenario. (The first person to make a bulletproof workflow person opens an image in a non-col- very quickly!) If one or-managed apphcation (such as Adobe Photoshop 4). most real color management workflows are hybrids. and all conversions from RGB to CMYK use the same source and destinadeal with any tion profiles. or consider the EPS "print-ready. using embedded profiles and assumed profiles either for convenience. does some minor editing. you make an ass out of u and me" —you don't have the safety net offered by embedded profiles. will get very rich. All programs that deal with any RGB color values use the programs that CMYK color values use the same assumed CMYK profile. many people find an assumed-profile workflow same assumed RGB profile. they're the right conversions. while ro- bust. Second Edition to disprove the old Of course. you can save the situation by simply re-embedding the profile with a suitable application. and resaves the file. All makes it simpler to keep things straight. so you have to make sure that the untagged objects were brought correctly into the assumed profile space to start with.284 Real World Color Management. or be- cause applications or devices force one or the other. manually assign a profile in the receiving application. such as a book or a periodical. In situations such as these. and you also have to make sure that the if assumed profiles are set correctly in each application so that. ordination between programs and people than do embedded-profile workflows. an assumed-profile workflow puts all the onus on the user saw that "when you assume. you have three options: use an assumed profile in the receiv- ing application. the embedded profile is gone. so they're best suited either to situations where a single individual is in control of all the work. and the values in the file will be sent to the output device. Adobe Illustrator can assign profiles to EPS can't files." The last case means that all color manage- ment must occur prior to saving the EPS file. For example. aren't bulletproof. assumed-profile workflows require a great deal more co- conversions do occur. It's also important to note that embedded-profile workflows.

and do a conversion to some other profile . or Get Picture. working space Photoshop 5 was trieve the correct color set to use.Chapter 10: Color Management Workflow 285 But here's a worse scenario. 5. though the implications are slightly different in each. So there are really only three possible things the application can — do in either case. The lesson here that profile it embedding a useful tool for commu- nicating color meaning. it can only do one of three things: Assume a profile Assign a profile Assign a profile. So when the program encounters an untagged document. but the drastically and no profile will image will have changed be embedded upon resaving the image. Place. Opening UntaggecJ Documents Any color-managed that it application has to make some assumption about It the source profile for untagged documents. needs a source profile so it can display the document on your monitor and convert to other profiles' spaces on request. whether by the Open command or by commands like Import. If someone opens the image in Photoshop and the application is configured to convert images to her working space and to save without embedding profiles. Workflow Within a Program Workflow within a single program can be broken down into two aspects: How the program handles untagged documents How the program handles tagged documents Remember. color management only does two things convey color meaning and convert numbers to preserve that color meaning. So in the numbers simply re-embedding the profile won't work —you'd have to find out what embed that profile to rein the image. but isn't a substitute for clear communication between the people in the production chain. not only will the embedded profile get stripped out. then meaning for the new set of numbers those of you which may be difficult for is who aren't is mind-readers.

it. "Terminology: Tagging." that but these are the only three possibilities —see the sidebar. and Assuming. keep their source profile until you explicitly change whereas tagged documents it by doing an assignthe only one which leaves ment or conversion. shown in Note that in all cases. tle distinction between assuming and assigning a source The other factor to consider some applications only allow you to set a default behavior that applies to all matically. whereas others untagged documents autochoosing the behavior on a offer the option of case-by-case basis by presenting a warning dialog like the one Figure 10-7. for the subprofile.286 Real World Color Management.tir does not have an embedded color Photoshop's Missing Profile profile. always assign the default profile rather than assuming However. Second Edition Some applications allow you to do only one of these things. the question is fundamentally one of supplying a source profile for the untagged document. l-low warning do you want to proceed? is ^^ Leave as (don't color manage) ©Assign worlcing profile CMYK: RWPs7 GCR1-25-8S-320LC ' O Assign RWf>s7 MaxK-0-85-280 and then convert document to working CMYK ( Cancel ^ . applications can only do one of three things when they encounter a document whether by the Open command or by — commands ded Figure 10-7 The like Import. Embedding. the assumed-profile workflow. for example. the only difference between tagged and untagged documents is that if you change the default profiles in the application. Opening Tagged Documents As with untagged documents. Once the application has done so. while others may allow you to choose between two or three alternatives. where documents/ objects remain untagged. Note that the "assume profile" possibility is the document/ object untagged. earlier in this chapter. or Get Picture —that contains an embed- profile: Missing Profile CMYK document "Fig 12-2 Missprof. Place. is the most common workflow. In all other cases the document effectively becomes tagged —Macromedia FreeHand and CorelDRAW. untagged documents take the new default profile as their source. is Assigning.

while others may again let you choose on a case-by-case basis by presenting a warning dialog like the one shown in Figure 10-8. such as QuarkXPress 4 and 5.Chapter 10: Color Management Workflow 287 Use the embedded Use the embedded profile as the source profile. where a document may comprise multiple each with its own source profile.C — How do you want to proceed? (instead of the working space) 6 Use the embedded O Convert document's colors to the working space (don't color manage) O Discard the embedded profile profile ( Cancel ) f»—ett-—) . embedded profile and assume or assign a different Some applications only offer one of these alternatives. does Mismatch (Open) warning Embedded: RWPs7 MaxK-0-85-280 Working: RWPs? CCR1-2S-8S-32(H. allow you to set these options on a per-document basis as well as setting an application default. some Color Manasement Between Documents When you move objects between documents in color-managed objects. while others may offer two or three.tir has an embedded color not match the current CMYK working space. but also potentially confusing. Some applications. you have exactly the same three options you have when you open. profile as the source profile. Use the embedded profile as the source profile for the object. import. So you need Figure 10-8 Embedded Profile Mismatch profile that Photoshop's Profile The document 'foo. then convert from that source profile to another Ignore the profile. but these are the only three possibilities. page- layout or illustration applications. profile. or place tagged documents: Use the embedded profile as the source profile for the object. Ignore the embedded profile and assume or assign a different profile to the object. And applications only let you choose a single behavior to apply to all documents automatically. which is potentially powerful. then convert from that source profile to another profile.

transfer an object between documents. Assigning. or don't convert (as A less-wordy description of the choice is: the dialog box shown in Figure 10-9 indicates). When you move pixels (whether via copy and paste. you have only two choices: Move the numerical values of the pixels (which will means that their ap- pearance change because it will be governed by the source profile of the receiving document). and the two documents have different source profiles. But most color-managed applications also let you do profile assignments. So far. make that sure that you was created know what you're doing when you open a document by someone else. Converting. Figure 10-9 Paste Profile Mismatch and Photoshop's Profile The source data's color profile does not match the destination document's color profile. because she may have set the color such as Adobe Photoshop. profile conversions. Some applications will always do one or the other without giving you a choice.288 Real World Color Management. or drag and drop) from one document to another in Photoshop. But these are the only two possibilities. Source: Mismatch (Paste) warning Adobe RGB (1998) Destination: Working RGB - ProPhoto RGB — How do you want to treat the data? 9 Convert (preserve color appearance) O Don't convert (preserve color numbers) ( Cancel ) ^ . Move the color appearance of the pixels (which means that the nu- merical values will change to re-create the original appearance in the different profile space of the receiving document). and Soft-Proofing let we've looked at what applications you do when you open or import a document or object. A different choice arises in applications where each document has a single profile governing elements. (in or decide to standardize your settings for all documents which case. in which case you need to figure out which one the application in question is doing. convert. or combine different objects into a single document. all management preferences differently). Second Edition to pay attention to the color management settings for each document.

and so on. you change the source profile for all native For linked objects. shapes. document profile. and place it in a different part of the page-layout doc. where a document can only have one profile. use either the embedded We think that it assigning profiles other than is the true source profile to linked objects in a page-layout application a dangerous practice. Essentially. We'd rather go back to the application that originated the object and assign a new profile there. would With applications whose documents may contain multiple objects in different color spaces. however. these options are relatively straightforward. the assigned profile acts like an assumed profile inside that to the specific instance of the specific page-layout object to which it's — applied document. that were created inside the application. ily to let which are really sets of conversions that are applied temporarto simulate final you use your monitor output —see the sidebar.) Native objects inherit the assumed or assigned profile that applies to the document in which they are placed —the key point If assign profiles to native objects directly. and you can set the monitor to provide a live preview of how the document would appear sign a source profile to a after a conversion to some other space —so you can. for example. a newly assigned profile only applies to the specific instance of the object in that page-layout fect the original file document. "Soft-Proofing Basics. (By native objects. and only if you import the image it'll again. profile assign- ment becomes trickier. you can convert a document to another profile's space with a choice of rendering intents. backgrounds." later in this chapter. then update the link in the page-layout application. the page-layout application would need to file. You can as- document. and avoid in all but the direst emergency.Chapter 10: Color Management Workflow 289 soft-proofs. be able to go out and rewrite the linked which the major page-layout applications can't do. lines. the is that you don't document has ProfileX as- signed to it. It doesn't af- —to do so. profile or the default profile. all native objects assume that profile as their source. In the case of applications like Photoshop. such as page-layout applications. If you change the objects. we mean text. . The main factor is that objects native to the layout application are handled differently from linked objects such as imported graphics. work edits on an RGB document while previewing the effects your RGB have on the file if it were converted to output CMYK.

Second Edition Conversions in page-layout applications generally apply only to native objects. the final CMYK isn't known when we all start creating the document). but when example.290 Real World Color Management. In some applications. for CMYK from scratch. whether it's a single image in Photoshop or a whole book in a page-layout application. We almost always try to create ev- erything in our layout applications in final this is impossible (because. Figure 10-10 Color Management Preference* i Color Monogement Active Monitor simulation . Simulations always apply to the entire document. do any conversion features to convert the native objects. such as QuarkXPress or Adobe PageMaker. and if conversions in the applications that originated them. not to linked or imported ones. Then we make sure that the linked objects are in the correct space. we use the page-layout applications' necessary. the simulation controls are presented as part of the color management preferences (see Figure 10-10).

all cases. but in practice. 255.Chapter 10: Color Management Workflow 291 Soft. rendering. some apply per- ceptual rendering to raster images and relative colorlmetric rendering to vector graphics. however. color. then renders those colors back to the display. theory. and each one has its strengths To make view work. . so some To show the color of paper white. This is the way most applications and the color seems cast. In match the strictest sense. you know you've read this far. is to show you on your monitor how your color will appear when it's reproduced in print. It's fly. which shows the to do basically a preview of the final actual color of the paper white. we be- imme- Your display has a fixed color gamut. and we think it's one of the most valuable things color render color.Proofing Basics The naive view of color management. and some simply use the profile default rendering in Most applications do relative colorlmetric rendering from the simulation space to monitor RGB. which are prohibitively expensive for document's colors to the final most real-world Absolute colorlmetric rendering. the same with is should offer a more accurate soft you've learned to Once interpret what output. without actually changing the values in the document. so lose deal cheaper. White in the simulation have a color — paper white — gets You may be tempted to conclude from the above that accurate soft-proofing is translated to monitor white. except management brings to the table. We'll look at these details in the application-specific chapters that follow this one. In ric output. you diately encounter your display telling you. will is der a simulated print back to the display. though is 255. to make it impossible to do so. otherwise make your prints match your If your eye adapts to that white Relative colorlmetric rendering. the monitor has to display white as saturated cyans and orangeyellows that are readily achieved in print can't configured soft proof is every bit as reliable as any other proofing system short of an actual press proof. mak- and more there are different ways to ren- ing the color appear Some from the applications offer per-object control over the rendering intent object's space to the simulated output space. and it can't show you colors that lie lieve you'll find that a correctly two problems: outside it. proof than relative colormetric rendering. This type of impossible. something less than RGB 255. This technique is known as soft-proofing. all and the other colors are shifted to that white. show the effect of the paper white on the overall soft -proof doesn't but the truth is that we've never seen any proof that matched the final product exactly. as presented in all too many vendors' marketing spiels. you'd be right. including simulations. though a few offer control over the rendering from simulation to monitor space. be displayed. but also a great deal faster you immediately flat. Soft-proofing has limitations. terface elements. absolute colorlmet- whether film-based or and we simply have soft proofs. We learn to interpret hard-copy proofs. to the display. the clipping very slight. that the laws of physics instead of the simulated paper white. What color management can do. and it's not only a great flexible. on the jobs. a very perhaps for press proofs. you must hide any white user inthis that it and weaknesses. useful view. But some dynamic range. but since our eyes adapt to it's still Soft -proofing first converts the the monitor white. monitor. digital.

.292 Real World Color Management.. let you Zoom In Zoom Out Flt Working Magenta Working Yellow Working Plate on Screen XO XS80 Working Black Plate CMY Plates Actual Pixels Print Size Macintosh RGB Windows RGB soft-proof settings without changing the color- Screen Mode > V Extras XH * management preferences.. Proof Colors Applications such as Adobe PhotoGamut Warning Pixel Proof Setup OXr X+ X- Working CMYK Plate Plate shop. whose display change the Aspect Ratio Correction Working Cyan simulation controls are shown here. Second Edition Figure 10-11 Custom. Simulate Paper White Siinuiaie Ink BLjck Show VSntf) 1270 HWM canned 2200 EM MK Snap To Lock Guides / 2200 Epson Epson Relcol+BPC absview HWM HWM perceptual relcol PM41 2200 PL OB New Guide. PM41ProtoPL RWPs7 relcol relcol lock Slices a«ar Slices Proof Setup ..

Applications such as documents contain only one source rendering intent (see Figure 10-12). Photoshop performs a com>ersion on the data that gets sent to the printer driver. may Printing controls Show Mort Optiont nfColofl Photoshop's printing controls let you select a printer profile and rendering intent. whose allow you to choose a offered for soft-proofing.Chapter 10: Color Management Workflow 293 In applications dividual profiles. . Figure 10-1S profile. whose documents contain multiple objects with inthe rendering intent controls are the same as the ones Adobe Photoshop. When you do so.

Second Edition Figure 10-13 ' InDesign and Photoshop cross-rendering Position Source Space set to Proof Source Space set to Proof .294 Real World Color Management.

Workflow between applications is perhaps the one aspect of color man- agement where color have to common sense applies. Workflow Between Programs You can convey color meaning between programs by two methods: either. in may force you to actually convert every element to is output space as the only way to cross-render to a composite print- which case the conversion simply one from document space to printer space. and are often treated applications. while CMYK profiles are often larger than the actual files themselves. when we don't embed profiles in CMYK. your color will flow reliably and predictably from one to another. a default profile or an embedded profile.Chapter 10: Color Management Workflow 295 Other applications final er. both by people However. If you make sure that your default profiles are synchronized across to deal with all your applications. and assume profiles in CMYK. or in the file we may include the profile name in the document name. of Embedding profiles in any objects that travel between programs Ensuring that both the originating and receiving application use the same assumed profiles Our tendency. or in whatever form of metadata the format permits. At least two important CMYK formats— CMYK and EPS and CMYK DCS EPS—don't reliably support profile embedding. may archive the files in a specific folder that also contains kind of audit the profile. . as "output-ready" formats. which is by no means a hard and fast rule. All applications that deal with RGB and the make some assumption about the colors represented by colors represented by CMYK. for two reasons: RGB profiles are typically small and add little to the file size. is to embed profiles in RGB. file information. and you set your applications embedded profiles the way you want them to. we always leave some trail that tells us what flavor of CMYK the numbers in the file We represent. or both. Color-managed applications can only get those assumptions from one of two places.

If the source profile is known. A less-trivial example would be an untagged image sent by a peer who is reachable by that most-overlooked color management tool. Second Edition Workflow Into and Out of Color Management we can't deny the fact that large chunks of the world aren't color managed. as soon as someone converts color to CMYK. or. and from then on. At the other end. all your inputs and your outputs. and you use them If do color management. the offending document is color-managed. with some workflows. and output tech- niques that don't involve profile-based color management. we prepare documents for further non-color-managed stages. Known sources. intermediate editing space for further work). management workflow" may be just a small piece of the overall workflow. and totally incorrect assumption that color man- agement is an all-or-nothing proposition all —unless you have profiles for religiously. you can't color management would be a great deal less useful than We routinely bring color from non-color-managed sources into a colormanaged workflow. software. targeting. knowable. that it is. Usually. Bringing Color into a Color-Managed Environment The first question we always ask when we're confronted with bringing non-color-managed documents into the color-managed workflow "Can we deduce the source profile?" is. and people who don't use profile-based color management. for which a We'd simply open the scan in Photoshop and assign profile the scanner profile (and then we'd very likely convert it immediately to an available. we'd assign the correct profile. and we equally routinely export color from a color- managed workflow into The Great Non-Color-Managed Unknown. were true. We constantly bring materials in from devices. For example. What we call the Even though "color this is a book about color management. we can simply assign it. a few questions could determine which space the image was saved in. .296 Real World Color Management. A trivial example would be an im- age from a scanner whose software doesn't is embed profiles. the tele- phone. and again. he employs more-traditional There's a widespread CMYK correction. with a little deductive reasoning.

for the project to which the document is related. to see there's if we usually try a few different editing-space profiles one produces a more reasonable appearance than another an element of guesswork or mind-reading in this.2 space. If the on-screen result truly we may try assigning some a suitable match. we lean to the view that guessing games are pointless because there are simply too many possibilities to address. but what's really im- why they work. In unknowable. And the simple reason why they work is that. file. you have what Bruce fondly calls "mystery meat. we try a gamma in either a monitor-like 1. In the case of CMYK. different output spaces to see we can find and then convert to owr CMYK. and use it as the basis for any editing and subsequent conversions (see Figure 10-14). this is a very subjective criterion). however. so those are the ones we generally try. the source profile is sufficiently clueless about color management that asking questions is an exercise in futility. or we may simply edit the trusting our calibrated and profiled display as an additional aid to the process. If it appears washed out in a relatively large-gamut space such as Adobe RGB.Chapter 10: Color Management Workflow 297 simply Unknown sources. We take the not-entirely-unreasonable position that if someone sends us a CMYK file. CMYK mystery meat: In the case of RGB. either unprofiled digital man ones— the person who created the material is either unreachable or is — the image was shot on an camera. ." We recommend different strategies for RGB mystery meat and In that case. and use that profile is as the basis for disgusting. We then assign the profile that produces the most reasonable appearance (yes. or scanned from a color negative— or for hufor technological reasons many cases. or an editing space such as Adobe RGB. he expects us to print so we assign the CMYK profile it. When The Color Management we palatable are ones Starts details of the recipes gave above for turning mystery meat into something more portant is we find useful. so we don't It's — hope for miracles.8 space. overwhelmingly likely that the color was created space such as ColorMatch RGB or sRGB. if any necessary editing. If the image appears dark in a gamma 2. we try a smaller one such as sRGB.

Assign Profile — Assign Profile: O Don't Color Manage This Document C Working RGB: Adobe RGB (1998) ColorMatch RGB @ ' ( Cancel ) Profile: T^ S! Preview . the RGB image appears less dark. ing space. Second Edition Figure 10-lA JL^£ **^'"^ ""' Mystery meat This mystery meat image appears both dark and oversaturated in when we open it our Photoshop work- (1998). Assign Profile — Assign Profile: C Don't Color Manage This Document @ Working RGB: Adobe RGB (1998) "CoiorMatch RGB C Profile: itee Mysury Mt« » 66.298 Real World Color Management. Adobe RGB A lower gamma value will lighten the image.2— and it also has a smaller gamut than Adobe RGB (1998).looking saturation. with more natural.8 as opposed to gamma 2. and a smaller gamut will make the same numbers produce less -saturated colors.7X (Rc Colormatch RGB has a lower gamma than Adobe RGB (1998)— gamma 1. When we assign the Colormatch profile.

Purists see color management as a it's neither as precise nor scalpel. there's always an element of mind-reading because the person who sent you the mystery — meat hasn't (yet) learned to use color management to convey his color meaning clearly. which is bad. it's it's a lot more useful. Adobe RGB. you it/iou^ which profile the application is using as the document's source profile. which they use to interpret the numbers in untagged documents. impossible to not use color management in any application that does color conversions. but you've gone from knowing nothing about the color to knowing how it looks in. so when you open an untagged document. All application makes when it you can do is hide the assumptions the does so. you're using a known source profile to look at the color. and you know what color that profile makes the document display on your calibrated monitor. application that can convert color from one color mode to another —from Any RGB to CMYK. which is the real problem. you can easily see and control those assumptions. We liken it more to a Swiss Army Knife — as specialized as they claim. for example —has to make assumptions about the color in appearance represented by both the RGB and CMYK numbers. Color management purists might blow a gasket color at the notion. The purist (Bruce says "fascist") view of color management is that its goal and purpose is to take an original image. One of the things that makes color management a cool tool is that. color in a management soon as you open a file color-managed application. So as far starts as as we're concerned. Color of RGB or also hasn't learned any other way a set management lets you attach a specific color appearance to CMYK numbers. which we think is pointless. It may not be a source profile that represents the intent of the person who sent it to you. when you're dealing with mystery meat. But In fact. Getting from that appearance to the appearance the originator intended is not something that color management can . color-managed applications. All color-managed applications let you set default profiles.Chapter 10: Color Management Workflow in a 299 as soon as you open a mystery meat document color-managed ap- plication. say. but we'd say you've already started to manage the document. The Limits of the Knowable Of course. but he to do so. and represent it as faithfully as possible on various outputs.

and you have profiling capabilities. and you're going through multiple edit rounds. Color manage- ment can help by letting you try out various plausible and implausible alternatives. Basically. So do whatever you can to eliminate mystery meat. and in those cases where mystery meat is just a fact of life. the job large or critical. Preparing Materials for a Non-Color-Managed Print There's Environment no particular magic trick here. use the guidelines we provided above to render it somewhat less mysterious.300 Real World Color Management. but remember that gentle persistence almost always works better than wildeyed evangelism. cross-rendered to the output space. You simply have to find out as much as possible about the printing conditions. then convert to a that bears If CMYK profile you some reasonable resemblance to those is conditions. Embedding one simple way to remove ambiguity. . you can always try asking why you're being given untagged files —see the sidebar. may want to consider profiling the proofing system print the profiling target the it — ^just have the printer same way they'd print your job. always send a hard-copy reference such as an Inkjet print. Second Edition address — it's a people problem. and create your CMYK document using a profile that matches those conditions. not a technology problem. Of course. Lack of clear color communication creates extra never a good idea profiles is — it simply work for all concerned. you simply have to use your best judgment. If you're dealing with someone whose workflow is obviously non-color-managed. you're aiming at the side of a barn to hit it —you want to try somewhere close to the middle. try to find out the ink limits press. Tip: Always Send Hard-Copy References. that clearly indicates your color meaning. but it's not the only way. but if people give you untagged files with no other information." on the facing page. If we have an agenda in writing this book. "Fear of Embedding. it may not be the best way. and if you're dealing with someone who is seriously terrified of color management. Failing that. then measure and anticipated dot gain on and build a profile. so the hard copy provides a less ambiguous reference. it's to make mystery meat go is away. It's unlikely that the other person will see the same appearance you do when she opens your edited file.

decide if it's worth providing that help ably don't when they sent color Very often. Some non-color-managed shops will files claim that they can accept RGB and convert them to CMYK themselves. CMYK or RGB working it space. expected workflow —but your first submis- sion will likely be in the ballpark. your color to final CMYK. my color. (If you're at the amount diet wall meat in your make you a healthier and make sure that no one else bottom of a long food chain. and try to embedding might be a good idea in this workflow. but it. they have an fear of embedding of the you're receiving mystery meat. In some makes absolute not embed profiles. and submit the job. or profiles will which profiles to hard to argue with ment originator obviously needs change embed. but some most common ones are: Embedding this make I things any worse. . do with color manMost applications ing endless hours of unpaid tech support unless to a very make it difficult to v^ong profile. Profiles only aren't the way to convey coland or meaning. So you're tired of find out what profile the originator much will less likely that the color change. you'll find that people simply told a job to someone who had want to be want to you probwind up givit's — management configured incorrectly. embed the and easy to embed if important client. this one. or who misunderstood its purpose. But any small steps guy/drinking buddy told me ing. embedding a profile makes it what to agement. Many people have had experience help figuring out how to embed profiles. "Why would embedding profiles make things worse than they are now?" If incoming work. sense to if Very often. gently suggest that profile you can take of mystery to reduce the not to. But if the response makes it clear that multiple flavors of RGB is a concept they've yet to en- tertain. You may have to go through some rounds of proofing and Convert all correction — that's the normal. People generally fear what they don't understand. the reason people send mystery meat is because they're afraid to else — do anything either. just the simplest My IT service provider/color guru/ no good answer is forthcom- most automatic.Chapter 10: Color Management Morkflow 301 Fear of Embedding understands workflows. Of course. this one any guarantee other than that profile embedding won't If many sources. and simply apply self to your- profile simply describes. to say the least. it's always worth asking the question. doesn't do anything to the file. We usually treat such claims with suspicion. when color management is set to work right. it's Sometimes uses for his easier to simply the right one. may go ahead and try a test. the docu- profiles. irrational profiles. may take persistence to make it the question percolate to a place where it can do some good. isn't Don't fer make promises. Just be don't know how It's to embed gently persistent. don't embed any profiles. or of- This fear can stem from workflow obviously of them. though. it happier color management user. we'll walk away. Remember— a single It cooking with mystery meat.) specifically. If the shop can tell us what flavor of RGB we at least they expect.

Fortunately. on a CD or other non-rewriteable medium. you've at least covered your bases. and then save without embedding a profile. if submitted —and by accepting RGB files. Second Edition you submit RGB. using profile as the destination profile. And on Mac OS X only. alter the information that gets sent to that particular Web browser. So Macintosh users who use a display gamma of 1. will assume sRGB for untagged images your monitor and use the embedded profile in all other images. up to a point. there can be no argument about what you've However.2 images will seem dark and muddy on . that lowest common denominator is exactly what the sRGB space was designed to is to represent — it purports to represent the "average" uncalibrated Windows is monitor. all monitors will be self.302 Real World Color Management. which currently always assumes images are sRGB and uses display compensation. sRGB. One day.8 will at least have users. If you enable Colit orSync in Explorer's Preferences. a chance of seeing correctly. Various vendors have touted schemes for managing color on the Inter- They all work. it's Microsoft Internet Explorer. no one making huge amounts of money doing so. and by all accounts. Most of these solutions are sufficiently complex and expensive that they can only be implemented at the enterprise is level. So if things go badly. Preparing Materials for the Non-Color-Managed Internet The vast majority of Web browsers simply take the RGB values in files and send them unmodified to the screen. 9 and X. before uploading For The only color-managed browsers we know of exist on the Macintosh. we suggest that the only practical solu- tion aim for the lowest common denominator. Mac OS 8. you have no way of knowing exactly what they're going to see. which they then use to net. it's OmniGroup's OmniWeb. So unless you go and calibrate the monitor of every user who is likely to look at your site.calibrating and self-characterizing. Until that lucky day arrives. And while gamma 2. but they all do so by forcing the viewer to do some kind of visual monitor characterization. with embedded profiles. For most Windows sRGB is at least in the ballpark. and all operating systems will use display compensation as a system-wide feature. the printer has taken the respon- sibility for the RGB-to-CMYK conversions. So our simple recommendation to convert all your color to it.

Your calibrated color applications will closely color. the same way non-color-managed is applications do.managed ones. only two solutions to the problem that make sense If your work is sRGB — most monitor calibrators offer sRGB as a preset. you don't need to do anything. convert it to sRGB. the Mac users should be Internet Color Workflow When you prepare materials for the Internet. Then. and K as the white point and 2. do everything sRGB. but until such time as the Internet becomes something other than a very large collection of random output devices.managed and non-color-managed applications. Neither solution is ideal. use 6500 gamma.Chapter 10: Color Management Workflow 303 an unmanaged Macintosh used to that. you'll probably have to use a mixture of color. aren't you color-managed and non-color-managed applications. while relating them to the fundamental concept that color management does only two things —convey color meaning. Color-managed applications will see that your RGB is already monitor RGB. If you expect your target audience to be primarily Macintosh users. Understandins Workflow In this chapter. and convert device values to preserve that color meaning. calibrate your monitor to for those that don't. no matter how they're presented. but if bothered by the color appearing different in all like If you're at us. so they'll just send the values in the file to the screen. you may consider targeting Apple RGB instead of sRGB. There are to us: really you may find that disconcerting.2 for in the in exclusively for the Internet. they're the best we have to offer. . gamma 1. Then. match your uncalibrated color color-managed in the non- Use monitor RGB as the source profile for all your Internet work. we've tried to present the essential workflow concepts and features that all color-managed applications share. when the work complete.8 display.

and it's often all too easy to get bogged cepts it down in the details. you'll find that you can look at about any application and figure out what each color management feature does. . In the following chapters. we'll look at the specific ways color management is presented in some of the most common colormanaged applications. but we can't cover them all. Second Edition Once you grasp these just basic concepts. So use this chapter. to keep the bigger picture in with the minutiae of this or that application simpler than it —the answer mind when you're grappling is almost always might first appear. and the con- presents. because they always boil down to some combination of the two fundamentals.304 Real World Color Manasement.

or has a passing knowledge of the laws of physics. B255 blue out of your printer (or. GO. it on any other reflective hard-copy medium). for that matter. but there's simply no way you'll get that RO. but also does much more than keting hype. When? an overly rosy picture of color manageof your desktop to paint ment as a panacea that will make whatever comes out printer match your monitor. automatically. The truth is that OS-level color it management does the mar- less than the marketing hype. Anyone who has ever printed from a desktop computer.Color anagement in the Operating System Who Apple and Microsoft tend Does What to Whom. knows otherwise. OS-level color management provides a whole slew of services that applications can call to do all sorts of useful things. it's But does more in that not just a color management system — it's a whole architecture for color management systems to live in. It does less in that OS-level color management can't change the gamut of your printer to match that of your monitor — it can come reasonably close. 305 . but in some cases makes us do more work than should be necessary.

OSs and device drivers that could effectively talk to each other and prevent obviously conflicting settings from being used. we've thought of OS-level color management as something that gets invited to the party on request. Mac OS and Mac OS X up to version 10. offer user-configurable color settings in the applications themselves. understanding the various interactions yourself is critical. But those ducks color conversions happen correctly. drivers. OS-level color management is the generic term for ColorSync on Mac and OS. Quark. this it's indeed invited either by applicabe to tions or drivers specifically written to ask the OS for a color conversion.x. such as those from Adobe. it often requires an explicit setting in the application or driver for to used. you want to ensure that at the right time. The main graphic Macromedia. Corel.3.306 Real World Color Management. when. aren't yet in the row. 9. Second Edition Color One Management in OSs. management Mac OS X Panther (10. and comes to the whether invited or not. and only at the right if time. ." The distinction tions tial is between color-managed and non-color-managed applicabetween settings in important because the operating systems don't negotiate poten- conflicts color-managed applications and device drivers. Color-managed applications allow far greater control within the application than do the comparatively rudimentary settings in printer drivers. The operating system follows an "always party on" philosophy to color management. and Drivers of color management lies in figuring One might think that in the year 2004 of the more confusing aspects out who does what to whom. We call these "color.3. and the OS itself. Professional users will likely want to rely on application settings and commands for color management. This approach has some potential it pitfalls that we discuss in detail in "Mac OS X Panther (10. and arts applications. In the past." later in this chapter. is how OS-level color management behaves — It on Windows. we'd have applications. unless specific settings are used But to prevent from being involved.x) changes the rules.managed applications. So the possible actors in Panther are: applications.2. and ensure no additional OS-level color management occurs. and drivers. and ICM on Windows. So you have to do so yourself. Therefore.x). for example. Applications. There are only two actors to cause OS-level color occur — applications.

As previously noted. For example. relatively is comprised of APIs. With color-managed applications. but we recommend on to avoid using using the application controls to manage color rather than relying limited printer driver options. to control color management. They provide a way for developers to include color-management capability into their applications without having to write their own color management system from scratch. and they also provide an architectural framework in which third-party CMMs can live. There are APIs for almost anything you can think of: support for all of the profile classes. because that's all there One of the keys to successful color management lies in making sure that OS-level color management in the various device drivers cooperates unexpected extra conversions into the with the application-level color management done by color-managed applications. rather than injecting color production chain. These are chunks of code that developers can exploit using simple calls to the operating sys- tem. so much of this chapter devoted to understanding how OS-level it color management functions so that you can make sure that doesn't do any- thing you didn't expect. respectively. you can use either application-level color management or driver-level color management. and a (made by either the OS is. a programmer might use CMConvertXYZToLab to ask ColorSync to convert CIE XYZ-based data into CIE LAB.Chapter 11: Color Management in the Operating System 307 series Non-color-managed applications of assumptions rely on driver settings. ColorSync and ICM Apple's ColorSync technologies that and Microsoft's ICM (Image Color Management) are the provide color management services as part of the Mac- intosh and Windows operating systems. . You almost invariably application-level want and driver-level color is management at the same time. What Are They? What Do They Do? The overwhelming bulk of both ColorSync and ICM or Application Programming Interfaces. or the driver). they're both less than and more than color management systems.

. Users need relatively little interaction with ColorSync and ICM. and we don't know of any that use "Profiles for Standard Devices." Nothing applications must be written to request this information specifically from ColorSync. applications offer the option to profiles. it didn't work out in practice. but since all the major applications aim for cross-platform parity. and conversions. ColorSync and ICM are priwhose lives are made easier by using APIs instead of having to write the code themselves. A few of the major use the "Default Profiles for Documents" but we can't think of any that do so by default. on the other hand. reporting of profile locations and profile information." The only part of the ColorSync Extension that might concern users is the AppleScript 17. and ICM lacks any comparable features. Second Edition conversions. (See Chapter Au- tomation and Scripting." The ColorSync control panel represents a laudable attempt to create a single point of access and consistent user interface for configuring color management for all applications. panel is misleading because implies that it will universally use the profiles specified under "Profiles Profiles for for Standard Devices" and "Default could be further from the truth. status of conversions. ColorSync 3 has two pieces — a system extension called "ColorSync Extension" and a control panel called "ColorSync. So you can safely ignore the Profiles tab of the ColorSync control panel entirely. Documents. ICM user inter- Mac OS 9 On Mac OS 9.308 Real World Color Management. The one user setting everyone needs to make is the display profile —most color- managed applications ask the OS (using ColorSync or ICM) for that single piece of user-supplied information. accessed by the Scrip tEditor. Other ColorSync and face elements have less obvious effects. and ways for applications to request user settings related to color management —pretty much all the basic housekeeping services re- lated to dealing with profiles marily useful for programmers.) The control panel. However. In fact. It was great in theory. two settings are important. ulate (see Figures 11-1 it and is exclusively for users to manipThe control 11-2). dictionary it contains.

Chapter 11: Color Management in the Operating System 309 Figure TI-1 M H '- j niI'VifffMh'riiifchiiiiii ColorSync control panel: Profiles for Standard Devices .

ColorSync Profile Generic Gray Profile Generic RGB Profile Mac Color Display Standard NEC LCD 1530V NTSC(1953) Optioal9-tS-02 PAL/SECAM Calibrate. you can standardize on the Kodak CMM. you'll have to rethink your workflow for OS X.310 Real World Color Management. be aware that these so if CMMs don't exist for OS X. click on the Color button and you'll be presented with a list of ColorSync profiles (ICC profiles) to select (see Figure 11-4). (Adobe Photoshop 6 and 7 are the only applications we know of that can perform display compensation to multiple displays on Mac OS 9. but the Heidel- berg CMM exists on both. Since the Apple to standardize on a single CMM for all CMM doesn't exist on Windows. Monitor Settings In the Monitors control panel. you can standardize on the Heidelberg CMM. a matter of when rather an upgrade is in your future (and frankly.) Figure 11-4 The Color panel of the Monitors Cfc Cokr Pr*ferefio#* Monitors control panel control panel lets you specify the profile for each display. the Display Man- ager updates the video card LUTs with the correction needed to place the monitor in the calibrated condition defined in the profile. but don't count on applications performing dis- play compensation on anything other than the primary display. you have an important application or profile that uses the Kodak Digital Science Color Management System. you're working in a cross-platform environment without the exclu- sive use of the Adobe applications (which can use ColorSync. where the only available OS-level CMM is the one from Apple. Second Edition compensation.. . or their own ACE engine). Each display connected to your Macintosh can have a separate display profile selected. if Likewise. ICM. which most do. you may want systems. it's than whether). This setting does two things: If the profile contains the vcgt tag. However. it provides similar results to the Adobe Color Engine (ACE) found If in Adobe applications.

that appears in this doesn't always work. Location for CMMs CMMs are system extensions. so if you have a profile some applications but not others. Hard Drive:System Folder:Preferences:Col- orSync Profiles. Color is handled in a very different way on Panther than on any other operating system. The major applications still work as expected. (10. manu- Hard Drive:System Folder:ColorSync Profiles. Mac OS X Panther ColorSync 4.3. debuted in a previous version of Mac OS X and persists in OS Fortunately. Changing the display profile effect. try placing a copy in the root level of the ColorSync Profiles folder. may have no visible but applications that query the system for the display profile use the one you specify here for display compensation. but most other ap- —watch out for this potentially major ally Profile Locations Profiles are usually stored in plications require you to specify the display profile in their settings pitfall.x) 10. However. but this operating system blurs the . Other applications may store profiles in subfolders in the Hard Drive:System Folder:Application Support folder.firamework bundle. is a work in progress.3 (Panther) the latest version of ColorSync. and others don't look deeper than the root level of the ColorSync Profiles folder. it's intended for programmers.Chapter 11: Color Management in the Operating System 311 The selected profile becomes the display profile for the current display. Adobe applications are well behaved in asking the system for the display profile. a problem since. again. and. You can find them in Hard Drive:System Folder:Extensions. The effect of updating the video card LUTs happens immediately and is usually visually obvious. like much of Mac OS X. ColorSync 4 is a frame- work buried quite deeply within the ApplicationServices. though the ones of which we're aware always place an alias in the ColorSync Profiles folder to let other applications use the profiles. this isn't and later. some older applications and printer drivers insist on finding profiles in the old location. Since some applications don't resolve aliases.

while others rest with device drivers that don't at the work as expected. Since they are the same. a null transform occurs when the OS assumes the current display profile as the source profile for an untagged image or object. What does this mean? It literally means that the OS will perform a con- version no matter what. embarked on a course of making assumptions on how to deal with them even if the untagged file is a prematched print file on its way — Making matters somewhat worse. But here are some guidelines to the printer driver! to help put it into perspective. Color-managed applications query ColorSync for the current display profile. so the operating system assumes the display profile as both source and destination.managed.managed application. Mac OS X's color management rests on the premise that every window is color. Apple seems obsessed with the problems created by untagged so they've files. the application of the assumptions in Panther is inconsistent. Panther's color-management behavior in flux and less stable than in previous versions. Likewise raster drivers. and use it as a destination profile for display using either embed- .312 Real World Color Management. It doesn't blur them to but over time color it will become increasingly easy for developers in their applications implement management and increasingly hard for them to avoid doing so. a null conversion occurs when printing with when Generic RGB is assumed as source as well as destination. as applies to Mac OS X 10. Rules of Engasement Mac OS X Panther has always-on color management. This is currently achieved through assumptions. Second Edition lines between what is and is not a color. For display purposes.4. as previously stated. no conversion occurs. some cases seems more in Some of these problems are is due to bad assumptions on the part of Apple. and these assumptions are not always consistent. Non-color-managed applications have no say. Display. and printer drivers.3. All we can do it report what we know time we're writing this chapter. heavily. and also uses the display profile as the destination. which means no display compensation occurs. whether the application that requests the window to be drawn knows anything about ColorSync or not. and even Apple's own applications don't always behave as expected. but the conversion could be what's called a null transform.

bewill use. it remains untagged. and when you print from applications that do not generate their own PostPrint. no matter what.. When the application sends untagged RGB. management. Image Capture allows you to override the default within the application itself. The key point color that the application determines the sophistication of this point. again. which both an application and an API provided by Apple. for the moment. settings determine the destination profile ColorSync PostScript drivers are fairly straightforward. window are used only by applications is that look for these Image Capture.e. are discussed later in Raster drivers are the main concern because ColorSync affects them (i. Your manufacturer's scanner driver invariably ignores this. Input. This is is display compensation. The application sends drawing commands to the OS. a PDF spool file is generated.Chapter 11: Color Manasemcnt in the Operating System 313 ded files profiles for tagged files. or a selected assumed profile for untagged as source. and for capture purposes ColorSync is uninvolved. When you print Script stream using a PostScript driver. print driver The behavior of the cause its becomes important and at this time. unless requested by the application or driver. the OS embeds the Generic RGB profile. When the application sends untagged CMYK. looks to these settings as default. . which in turn produces the PDF spool file. the profiles selected in ColorSync Utility>Devices settings. For scanners and digital cameras. When the application sends untagged gray. from any application using a raster driver. If you select a proprietary color management option anything but ColorSync). this chapter. then ColorSync assumes Generic destination profile. At ColorSync will bow out if it isn't other- wise asked to be involved by an application. RGB for the The result is a null transform when applications sub- mit untagged RGB data. the OS embeds the Generic Gray profile.

"The Generics. you'll need to determine whether or not your specific application supports color management for two Figure 11-5 1* separate displays. The end result is ColorSync a non-factor in the conversion. RGB to be the source profile and the destination proclearly not Generic either.l . But clearly Apple needs a strategy for explicitly handling prematched print data. More about this can be If found in the section on Raster Drivers is later in this chapter. if neither The key point that ColorSync invites itself at print time even explicitly the application nor the print driver has asked for it.314 Real World Color Manasement. As on Mac OS multiple dis- plays are supported by the operating system.) :Ji.TlMKiav.July 6. set to convert your image to SP2200 Premium Luster. yet that and hence a null transform. and is functionally equivalent Monitors control panel on Mac OS 9. since all professional graphic arts applications can produce it. only works because of a sequence of events that causes Generic file. and the phi- the print behavior clearly not Generic RGB is losophy of null transforms on Mac OS X Panther. Second Edition you select ColorSync. Click on the Color 9." Displays Panel Settings This panel to the is found in System Preferences. The scary part is that the handling of prematched data from a color- managed application such as Photoshop. see the sidebar. And so long as you files. 2004 S Show prodljs l<x Ihis dliplay only ( Cliillrin ) . then theoretically the profile set for the printer in the ColorSync Utility will be used as destination. but also as with OS 9. prematch data don't tag will it with which means the OS Generic RGB. tag Fortunately. color-managed applications that don't select ColorSync in the print driver.A — I # DHptir Mac OS X Displays panel: Color tab Amim«in«w "HWBi'l «>MCnX. and select the profile for your displays here. Generic RGB will be used as the is destination profile also. If you're wondering about those generic profiles. The data is is RGB. tab. (See Figure 11-5.icc.

a bit of background is still designed for more than one. because they are different! based on the Apple Color Laser- look washed out. and in order for it to on Mac OS X is necessary. so it's essentially SWOR RGB is based exactly on www. but only Admin users and authenticated installers can add profiles to or remove profiles from this location. only this user can add profiles to or remove profiles fi-om this location.Chapter 11: Color Management in the Operating System 315 The Generics Mac OS 9 and X come with two P22 phosphors. and network. On Mac OS X. but they can't — ^All users can use profiles stored be removed or supplemented unless you have a special set of keys. For press for more profiles based on TR 001 . but the system in a variety of locations. nothing except the should remove profiles from or add profiles to this /Library/ ColorSync /Profiles — ^All users can use these profiles. /Users/<username>/Library/ColorSync/Profiles cation are only available —Profiles in this in. Generic RGB is such disgusting it as gamma— the venerable Apple 13inch RGB display. Don't expect it to do a great job on generic profiles: and Generic CMYK. Profile Locations Mac OS X stores profiles make any sense. but we On Mac OS 9. Thus. all users. lo- when this user is logged and aren't avail- able to other users. writer. a 6500 K whitepoint. a 9300 K whitepoint and a 1. and Illustrator. as the output will likely note wherever it will stick.S. Generic based loosely on the P22 phosphor set. Generic RGB. Generic CMYK is based on sub-sampled TR 001 measurement data. For practical purposes we list just the first three: /System/ Library/ ColorSync/ Profiles here. Or visit Mac OS X. a specific application. a specific user. Web Coated (SWOP) v2 profile that recommend Now you know! On comes with Adobe Photoshop. although they'll in the Displays folder work if placed in the other legitimate locations. and a 1.8 source or destination for a press or Inkjet printer? using the U. Generic a CMYK Inkjet or color laser print- Make a special On Mac OS 9. Ever CMYK is er though.8 gamma. You may only have one user. it's wonder why you'd results using get marginally acceptable. the locations for profiles follow the general rule that there are five possible "domains": Apple only. Since this is Apple's Mac OS location installer domain. Mac OS X is designed as a multiuser operating system.profilecentral. The preferred location for display profiles is contained within this location. InDesign. .

they're stored as resources within the printer module bundle as such aren't directly accessible all and applications just as if they by users. Library/ ColorSync/ Profiles folder. and grayscale documents that don't contain embedded profiles. If you're working in an administered environment where you don't have permis- them in your user ColorSync Profiles folder Another major difference with Mac OS X is that manufacturer-supplied "canned" printer profiles don't normally go in any of the above locations. The preference settings for ColorSync are no longer found System Preferences. but they don't clutter the various Profiles folders with profiles for which professional users may have no use. profiles. ColorSync The ColorSync Utility Utility has evolved from its lowly beginnings as a slightly It beefed-up system preference to a fairly handy toolkit. will and documents without embedded have the default profiles assumed as source on both counts. Second Edition More than likely you'll want / profiles available to everyone. and the profiles.316 Real World Color Management. The ColorSync Utility. among other things. old Profile First Aid utility. they are available to were stored in /Library/ ColorSync /Profiles. You'd be wrong . Locations for CMMs CMMs live in /Library/ColorSync/CMMs. so we rec- ommend placing them in the sions for this location. incorporates the and adds some nifty features such as 3D gamut ability to comparisons of profiles. Everything is now rolled into the ColorSync Utility found in the /Applications /Utilities folder (see Figures 11-6 and 11-7). place instead. However. discussed later in this section. view the individual tags inside Preferences. shows loca- tions of currently available profiles. Instead. in Here. profiles for CMYK. You may be conclude two things from these settings: tempted to embedded profiles profiles are recognized system-wide. has a Profiles feature that. you can (supposedly) specify default RGB.

hale now. It's RGB or CMYK 10. it PDF- based. It's RIP does support CMYK. has its own display and print engine. On Mac OS 9. this is QuickDraw. on Mac OS X it's Quartz is different. we you're holding suggest you ex- Figure 11-4 Mac OS X ColorSync panel: Default Profiles tab . and as such knows about printer commands still for generatal- CMYK that and LAB as well as RGB. GDI.3 (Pan- the future. some speculation Mac OS X printer drivers gorithms) expect to receive RGB data. manufacturer printer drivers that convert raster data into Windows. about. so non-PostScript printer drivers for these operating ther).Chapter 11: Color Manascmcnt in the Operating System 317 QuickDraw. They have no idea what CMYK is all could accept either data. and GDI is for There's been Windows. and Quartz Each of the three operating systems discussed in this chapter. because its PDF to raster Mac OS 9. ing droplets of ink (screening called Quartz. That may change in QuickDraw and GDI have something in common. However. but if theoretically possible starting in Mac OS X your breath. Mac OS X and systems must receive RGB data.

means you use Running a repair session in Profile First Aid. (See Figure on a profile. Most deviations are benign. Here you can view basic profile information to the right. it Profiles settings would be used system wide. Apple has claimed it was never their intention to imply that the Default profile is. yet the default is set to Automatic. (at The advice we give under Mac OS 9 for the setting of the Preferred CMM applies here as well. If Otherwise. of course. Second Edition Mac OSX. use the Automatic option. like OS 9 and Windows. looks for aspects of the profile that don't conform to the ICC specification version under which they were written (i. pick something else else that's available is the time of writing. and even click on the black arrow on the upper-left corner of the Lab Plot. Why they chose language that pretty clearly indicates this would happen. Profiles. and can repair most problems it finds.4 profiles). which. side effects of a non-conforming profile is that doesn't appear can't in application pop-up menus.2 profiles.e. it's we don't know.) .318 Real World Color Management. then relaunching the ap- plication frequently solves such problems.) If you double-click profiles. and we hope the wording will finally change in the next version of Mac OS X. as well as to recognize embedded profiles. you like random results. One it of the most common it.. The Profiles window shows currently installed ICC profiles. the Apple CMM) Interestingly enough. We recommend number running a of profiles is Repair session regularly because a surprisingly large don't conform full to the ICC spec. as well as perform gamut comparison between 11-8. still requires developers to specifically write code into their applications to make them recognize these settings. and V. Profile First Aid.4 rules to v. it opens in a separate window show- ing information about each tag in the profile. Apple also recommends the Apple CMM in their "Color Management with Mac OS X Panther" documentation. to find more options. You can view the color space in 3D in a number of color spaces other than LAB.2 rules only to v. it applies v. (See Figure 11-9. but so running Profile First Aid. This is a utility for verifying the integrity of ICC profiles It stored on your system. An application that isn't written this way ignores these preferences. and if it doesn't know what an embedded opens the image as though it were untagged. but it seems like not a very good idea. the only something .

S. . sub-category can have a profile associated with it. See Figure 11-10. ColorSync Utility allows you to compare the gamuts of two profiles as a graphic. or color model. Developers can specify default profiles to use for their devices. Here.1.Chapter 11: Color Management In the Operating System 319 Figure 11-8 ColorSync Utility: iA ^«>ii«i V PtoM* rvM Aid mi titttm 1 Omkm e Fiktri Profile view iMUHtd CetorSync profltM: Profll* Information N«iiw ^Systtfn t«C(KC61»M-2 i Puh /Ubrtrv/AppHuMonhipport/Adoba/ Color /frofll«/R«ca«imwi4*d/<IICI Color Diiplair ^Cemputtf CUM MtrUOH Oltwr /Ubmv/ApplKailen Support/M SpKt MCI ra xn 2. Wtb CoMtd (SWOT) «0r)v2 US.0 Crund l/«/M*49 00AM AppitMCt CeierMMChRCt ECl-KCtKc EuratcaM CoMtd v2 Eyrotcai* Sin J. Wtb UncoMtd »2 SliMiftd M M j »/Ubr»rY/Appllc<noo Su *ipport/Ad'» pport. 3D Web sRGB (in color) plotted against Japan Figure TI-9 Double-clicking a profile in the window shown in Figure 11-8 opens the window ColorSync Utility: Profile Info shown at left. for row pop-up menu to change the Current custom example. You can click on each tag to view information about it. with possible sub-categories such as media type. Devices. the red channel of a display profile's 'vcgt' tag (which loads calibration settings into the video card) is shown.144bvitt UncoMcd v2 |ip«t Color 2001 Japon Color 2001 CoMtd Unce<Md (Adl )ipm Wtb Coitod U. ShMfftd UTKOMtd Ktdv2 v2 U. and end users can Profile to a select the arprofile. Coaud v2 as. The above example shows Coated (Ad) in white. Each as ColorSync devices. Developers can write their device drivers to register themselves Doing so allows them to appear in this window.S.

320 Real World Color Management. Second Edition Figure 11-10 %ee Preferences Profile First Utility. MacOSXColorSync Devices window Aid Profiles Devices Filters .

Prcftnactt P«««triniAM tuMu OmK» e« FHHn. Filters Mac OS X ColorSync window and print driver. ColorSync panel • Uck4WhM< • Mw* Tont • Cray Tont • U^hi ncu OKrcaw • LifhliMft IncrcsM • RMiiKC FM« Sin Tont tmmmm immiih r IMMt OypMoM .Chapter 11: Color Manascmcnt in the Operating System 321 ngure n-n Utility.

ICM is a set of APIs intended for use by programmers. Known bugs at the time of writing include: The default tab specifies profiles for untagged objects. click window. on the Settings tab. Setting the Active Color Profile for tlie Display Each device on Windows can have multiple device and profiles associated with is it. click the then click on the Color Management Advanced button under tab. Only the default profile is the active profile for that the one that gets used. no matter what you select only the Generic At least two and possibly three destination profile pop-up possible. then click the Advanced button. Second Edition drawbacks include the lack of black point compensation and rendering intent control to the would-be proofing device. Like ColorSync. In that Settings. and Figure 11-13). To set it the profile as the default. to set the display click profile. window. menus are The claimed PDF/X-3 support stop Pro. go to the Display control panel. you can associate profiles with the device and also profile. specify one of them as the default For example. then choose the profile and click Add. as well as a default profile. go the device's Properties panel. doesn't pass preflight in Acrobat 6.0 (Image Color Management) is built into Windows 98 and higher. including Windows XP. . Outside of printer drivers. and to set the default profile.322 Real World Color Management. and the OS ignores the PDF/X-3 documents so you can neither soft proof nor hard proof them. or PDF/X Checkup. Windows ICM 2. Pit- PDF/X Inspektor. click on the Color Management Add to open the Add and click Profile Association dialog box. select Set As Default (see Figure 11-12 in the Color Management tab. and applications specifically written to use ICM 2. We aren't sure where or how PDF/X-3 is Outputlntent in existing supported in OS X Panther. there's only one user setting. In the resulting tab. but it's an important one to which you should pay special attention. but profiles are used. To associate profiles with a device.

. TIFF and JPEG are left untagged. in file types that you wanted to change formats. When printing the document.^ Figure 1M3 Cuiil AdwMi HiaBiiiUB Horioi InuUmtat Color Mansgeran Display Properties.e. and JPEG 2000 is tagged sRGB. but to save if To make matters worse. Preview assumes Monitor care about quality. and no transform occurs.Chapter 11: Color Management in the Operating System 323 Preview Apple's Preview application ful for is use- Previewing TIFF. but verts files it PDF is current to Monitor RGB — the — dsiplay profile upon files tagged with Generic RGB. also Monitor support them. JPEG. For untagged documents. The idea of converting the data automatically on opening is RGB. as far as Preview concerned. All these behaviors Preview can preview. the full opening them. obviously incorrect profiles is even worse. is the same as the source. this have been confirmed as bugs. care about! Figure 11-K Display Properties: Settings tab I » iFc^. and you save the document from Preview. this means the destination profile. while the document. but to then embed more than one) depends on your print settings. working on data that has already been converted. Advanced: Color 3 C>aiMnior*T Management tab HPD2e42A Data^mnhipnflK NEC ConvalUe 33aCK G22 £aloi prcAes ajwrt^ associated with lt« device EBB tji. While the aren't sequence of transforms (it can be saved to disk is at this point.. such as you might do when the current display profile) as the source profile. When displaying PDF It honors embedded profiles actually con- as source profiles. don't rely you on it any documents that you problem is compounded when RGB (i. 1 1 flawye I 01^ I I Caned I I to* . it's bad enough.

Win98. Windows doesn't get calibration information from the profile to update the video card LUTs. You don't need to get a contextual will place it menu containing an option to "Install Profile. you need to be extra careful in setting the active display profile. XP— C:\WinNT\System32\Spool\Drivers\Color Windows NT—C:\WinNT\System32\Color doesn't support NOTE: Windows NT ICM is 2. Unlike the Mac OS. This section looks at color management strictly from an application point of view.324 Real World Color Management. can be requested by either applications or printer drivers. but so. Most of these applications use either ColorSync or ICM to do color. Win98SE. and use them to at least some degree." which in the appropriate directory. WinMe—C:\Windows\System\Color Windows 2000. so it's all too easy for the monitor to behave differently than the way the active profile describes. covering both color-managed and non-color-managed applications. and location for profiles under Windows NT is merely for reference. So the NT is done entirely by applications. Display calibration /profiling packages should set the display profile automatically when that it it's created. and has no built-in color management at tasks such as color space conversions. double-check to make sure has in fact done Locations for Profiles Where your profiles ing. Any color management happening under Windows hardwired into them. Second Edition On Windows. Color-Managed Applications Color-managed applications know what ICC profiles are. depends on what version of Windows you're usand whether or not you chose the most typical installation (on a C: live to worry about these locations except for doing because housecleaning. if in doubt. Color Management in Applications we mentioned that color management In the introduction to this chapter. you can right-click on a profile in any location drive). .

A PostScript RIP filter to any raster-based printer connected to the host computer. It's on the system. handing off print jobs from applications to appropriate filters. they still make minimal use of ColorSync and ICM to request the current display profile and to find profiles sions are performed. Interesting though we've yet news? Starting with drivers automati- CUPS for drivers are responsible Panther. More detail on this can be found most Adobe apChapter 12. and do driver-level color management. An Epson Stylus Color 3000 printer driver would convert raster bitmap data into CUPS printers' "Current Profile" settings in the ColorSync Utility Apple created a bridge so that are honored by ColorSync. as embodied in Mac OS 10. However. let's just say. all Note that color-managed applications don't While they'll support color conversions in one way or another. So it got gutted in favor of CUPS. filter-based architecture lets us insert different kinds of RIPs from vari- The printing architecture designed for Mac OS X. and use these RIPs for of problems.1. Color Architecture. But now there are also CUPS printer drivers Filters and PDF-based printer. The plug. care. lots and filters. a PostScript ous vendors. CUPS communicating with a par- cally register with ColorSync. accounting for media. The Adobe have identical capabili- Common ties. All conver- possible to select ColorSync or ICM (and thus any available CMMs) in lieu of ACE in in plications. by default. by ACE. even when using ACE. all of which use ACE (the Adobe Color Engine). so drivers. Stay tuned for more developments on this front as would convert PostScript bitmap see one. CUPS is primarily a scheduling and queuing system. and therefore defines it. It's the center of the print architecture. and will be used as a destination profile. but hasn't done a very good job of telling us why we should Modules can be ColorSync aware. Now we have two kinds of printer We have the original archi- ticular printer in a tecture's Printer Modules. too.0 and 10. do conversions between formats.Chapter 11: Color Management in the Operating System 325 Some color-managed applications implement their own color engine. into a to CUPS matures and printer vendors decide to build CUPS drivers instead of Printer Modules. and printer modules. . for which language it can understand. Within each application. CUPS CUPS stands for the Common CUPS could use them without re- Unix Printing System. had. These Printer and other settings. The good news? CUPS effectively turns any printer into a PostScript- community as a good thing. not all of them support color drivers) or fully support management to the display (such as many scanner embedded profiles. resolution CUPS to the graphic from scratch. For example. such as the Adobe applications. ACE produces the exact same results between its Macintosh and Windows counterparts. Apple has touted arts quiring developers to rewrite their drivers the language the printer needs. PDF filter converts PostScript into PDF and a PDF to Raster filter converts PDF into a TIFF or other bitmap.

Microsoft Office apphcations honor em- bedded the profiles for preview. a color-managed application.) . Non-Color-Managed Applications Previous examples of non-color-managed applications are Microsoft Word. and let the printer driver and operating system do any sub- sequent color management. assign the current display profile. files are (Mac OS X Pan- ther screen shots are embedded with the current display profile. Color managed applications can hand off the source profile for your document to the operating system at print time along with the data to be printed. but with the exception of the Adobe applications. did like this: if you drive a friend to the do the work? Well. export them as TIFF. and possibly display profiles (if they don't request the display from the operating system). so most of them don't include source profiles in the print stream. Non-color-managed applications send the RGB values rectly to the monitor. then submit the in the file di- print job tagged with the current display profile. too. Second Edition The sure way to distinguish a color-managed application from a noncolor-managed application is to snoop around in the program itself. So where is the color management actually happening? From a programming point of view. This technique works for screen shots.326 Real World Color Management. not standalone programs. this has become a little more blurred on both operating systems' latest versions of these applications. JPEG. since defines the color the monitor produces in response to the RGB values. airport. you or the car Source profiles. destination. or as a PostScript file produced by printing to disk. However. and PowerPoint. While ColorSync or ICM profile may actually be Think of it doing the work. others convert to Monitor RGB first. the color managed. Excel. However. so the sensible files assumption for a source profile for it generated by these applications is the display profile. From that point onward. Some applications pass source profiles onto OS at print time. this seems to be fairly rare. then import them into To color manage files fi-om these applications. Color-managed applications have preferences for configuring source. both. and resave with the display profile embedded. The point of doing so is to provide the source profile(s). it's in the application. they're APIs. as well as most Web browsers. color-managed applications can already do the conversion to print space while producing the print stream.

so they have to handle both tagged and untagged However. Meanwhile. do any more color management!" That means you. buddy." But the printer drivers still expect to do color management at their end. don't user. to decide a different default behavior for their and sometimes they decide on different defaults for differdefault to proprietary color ent models or change the default behavior between versions of the driver. print space. With non-color-managed applications. Most raster drivers to ColorSync or management rather than ICM. but we directly. the either the printer driver color have to ensure that when you print from applications that do their color own management. The printer driver option that controls this usually called something like color correction. know of none They almost all use PostScript color management when receiving RGB data. sending the data. then the printer driver would specify the destination and the operating system would do the necessary conversion. the assumptions that different printer drivers make as to the source profile vary widely. sending "pre-matched data. you can use printer driver color management to perform the conversion to volves some pitfalls that we discuss below. Applications would manage color within the application ments profile at print time. and to date there isn't a mechanism for the application to tell the printer driver. they're usually incorrect. or simulation. it may seem that the printer driver is where all color manageand pass on a source profile for their docu- ment destined for print was intended to occur. color management. management is turned off or the application doesn't convert to printer space before handing off the data to the printer driver. The truth is that printer drivers have no knowledge of the application that's files.Chapter 11: Color Management in the Operating System 327 Color Management At first in Printer Drivers glance. and in our experience. . "Hey. but doing so in- Default Behavior Each manufacturer seems printer driver. color-managed applications generally want to color manage the content of their documents completely before passing it off onto the operating system for printing. that default to ColorSync or ICM — at least not PostScript printers also vary their default settings. to convert it into when is CMYK in the printer itself. Some also use PostScript color management receiving CMYK data.

although an increasing Sync to use sRGB as the source instead. Second Edition When you use driver-level color management. Two things can make the assumption: the printer driver or the operating system. itself. which has no idea what CMYK is. a default So the application must convert CMYK content into RGB for either display or for print. number of printer drivers tell Colorwhich assumption On Mac OS 9. then select a substantially different display profile (or perhaps even a nondisplay profile such as Wide Gamut RGB if you have Photoshop installed) prints look the same. whether the printer driver or Windows itself is doing the assuming. For example. the driver If the test something is being assumed over which you have no control. ent. so they still convert their content . you print the profiling target using the "Photo-realistic" setting to take advantage of its better linearization and gray balance (putting up with the smaller gamut) the resulting profile won't work well with ColorSync or ICM . the assumed source profile is always sRGB. CMYK behavior is similar to Windows. A few applications use GDI+. what actually the driver uses the "No Color Adjustment" in and asks ColorSync or ICM to do the conversion to the print space. print an image with a display profile selected. the operating system assumes the currently selected display profile. and you use ColorSync or ICM to in the printer driver. probably sRGB. As we discussed earlier in the chapter if the application does not specify a profile. Applications that don't generate their own PostScript must use GDI. In Windows.328 Real World Color Management. For CMYK. If is or ICM that Epson printer drivers. which will assume CMYK SWOP profile. the waters are still muddy because legacy applications use QuickDraw. selected because the printer driver won't use the "Photo-realistic" setting when you choose ColorSync or ICM. Source Profile Assumptions When the application doesn't include the source profile in the print stream. the settings you use when you print the target to profile the device are very important. On Mac OS X Panther. and reprint the image. when you use ColorSync goes on under the hood setting. Generic RGB is assumed system-wide for untagged RGB at print time. If they're differis assuming the display profile. Mac OS X embeds the PDF print spool file with Generic RGB. To find out your printer driver makes. a source profile has be assumed.

then it almost certainly doesn't support ICC- based color management. option in don't find a ColorSync or ICM your printer driver. and this conversion is up to the developer. Where you choose the deslargely out of your control as tination profile depends on the operating system. you must select Custom in Mode portion of the driver. Raster Drivers Using printer driver color management with raster printers and non-color- managed applications boils is down to choosing a destination profile it's —the source profile application. usually No Color Adjustment). or operating system. so select ColorSync here (when you're printing from an application that does you'd select the setting own color you used when making the See Figure 11-15. Epson drivers select a printer profile based on the media and resolution settings you've selected. When you open the printer driver. Media Type: Paper Color OMack Custom Settings I r ' O PhotoEnhance 9 Custom LD Advanced-. You should be able If you terminology in other printer drivers. However. Cur- CMYK is the assumed source. and click the resulting Advanced button (see Figure 11-14). a typito find similar non-color-managed application. look in the Color fault setting is for the Management section. applications using Quartz can send rently Generic CMYK data for display or print. ngure 11-M B>SON LBtter Copies: [l - 8P2200 7J8A a iiiiaii m I Mac OS 9 Epson Stylus Photo 2200 main dialog Cancel j I Nonnal 3iOdpl Color Controls Pages: 9 All O Range Plain | | | | | A management. so let's use the example of an Epson Stylus Photo 2200 from Microsoft PowerPoint. | In the resulting dialog. assumed by either the printer driver. profile for this printer. The deits Color Controls radio button.Chapter 11: Color Management in the Operating System 329 to RGB at print time. We can't printing to cal possibly cover all printer drivers. Mac OS the 9. Some printer drivers allow you to select a specific . the default behavior is set to Automatic. To access the ColorSync option.

X. | Cancel | ] | OK °| profile here manually.. even by replacing appear the profile with an identically named profile. If management does not you are printing from a non-color. . use either ColorSync or the driver's proprietary color management. but in nearly all cases it must be the canned profile We haven't had much success in getting Mac OS 9 printer drivers. When printing from applications that let your aged application. and the one you want is Color Management. custom profiles to in Mac OS views. liiiP'.330 Real World Color Management. The third pop-up menu item lists different Select ColorSync. Things are quite a bit different in print dialog (see Figure Mac OS X.r. supplied by the manufacturer. 1 and you'll see something like Figure 1-17.. Second Edition Figure 11-15 Media Type: Plain Color Management Paper Mac OS 9 Epson Stylus Photo 2200 Advanced dialog Print Quality: §> Color O Black Normal - O Color Controls O PhotoEnhance4 % ColorSync O No Color Adjustment Profile: 360dpi EPSON Standard Perceptual Rendering Intent: Q Micro Weave Q Flip Horizontal . whichever gets you results you prefer.! L'i'S.i S Edge Smoothing [?] I Ink Conflg. starting with the 1 1-16).- ] | Save Settings. you select a destination profile for choose No Color Adjust- ment (Epson) or equivalent in your print driver to ensure double-color occur. Figure 11-16 Mac OS X Epson Stylus Photo 2200 Print dialog Printer: ' Stylus Photo 2200 MK Ji Presets: f Standard -[Copies i Pages ii Collated ^'''•*" 11 Pages: l ^aII Qfnm: 1 t< CjEZ) ( Cancel ) Tip: Use No Color Adjustment.

Chapter 11: Color Manasement in the Operating System 331 Figure 11-17 Mac OS X Epson Color Prmitr Stylus Photo 2200 Print dialog: Management options .

such as when using application level color management. there are no list of associated profiles. We like that the driver displays the profile that will be used by the tion profile.332 Real World Color Management. Figure 11-18 Windows XP Epson Stylus Photo 2200 Print dialog r Q 1 1 Dttf <» Te»t r Te«lllm«ge . As in Mac OS X. tion where The resulting window contains a Color 1 1- Management sec- options —they're determined from a to select you select ICM (see Figure 19) . note that OS as the destinaselect on Windows XP you need to first ICM if you wish No Color Adjustment. Also. Second Edition Figure 11-18).

Chapter 11: Color Management in the Operating System 333 figure n-SO Windows XP Printers and Faxes dialog box .

then produce the PostScript stream already color managed. The operating system can color manage QuickDraw. PostScript Color Matching). generate PostScript themselves —they send drawing commands to the Non. The latest Mac OS and Draw. Note that applications that generalso own PostScript (which virtually every color-managed applica- tion does) aren't affected by ColorSync /ICM settings. See Figure 11-23 Mac OS 9 LaserWriter 8: ColorSync Color Matching .334 Real World Color Management. so PostScript printer driver color management simply doesn't work with these applications. or Quartz Windows operating systems can which are PostScript source ate their produce CSAs (Color Space Arrays. Quartz. Mac OS 9. and the PostScript printer driver turns those Quick- commands into PostScript. some printers. Second Edition PostScript Drivers ColorSync and ICM can affect PostScript output. The Mac OS 9 PostScript driver is a frequent and fruitful source of confusion due to the Color Matching section. even though neither actually knows what PostScript is. for Figure 11-23. GDI. and GDI/GDI+ routines.color-managed apphcations don't operating system. which contains ColorSync Color Matching (and. profiles).

feel free to us know. If the apis. both it because we know of very few people who have made there are precious few tools to help anyone do so. and both are sent with the OS-generated PostScript print stream to the printer. With applications that generate device-dependent color. You simply choose the a destination profile. Tip: Iff Only Tagged isn't Iff the Application Knows It's Tagged. Untagged /CalRGB or /CalCMYK. For all other applications.Chapter 11: Color Management in the Operating System 335 same as for raster printer drivers. The PostScript driver on Mac OS X has absolutely no any additional influence user options for color management. anyway. respectively. it and makes the conversion. with the exception that the current display profile is always the assumed source profile.2). Applications that generate their own PostScript simply bypass by the operating system. PostScript Color Management is an option we don't recommend. or Generic Gray profiles. The embedded it used as the source profile. Applications that produce calibrated color get a CSA generated from the calibrated color tables submitted by the application. /DeviceCMYK. Mac OS X (10. The selected destination profile gets converted into a PostScript CRD (Color Rendering Dictionary). Generic CMYK. /DeviceGray. . Untagged /DeviceRGB. to work. and because it's The way supposed work is that the assumed source profile (the current display profile) gets converted by ColorSync into a PostScript CSA (Color Space Array). The PostScript RIP uses the CSA and CRD as source and destination If profiles. a PostScript CSA (a PostScript source profile) is placed in the print stream by the op- erating system based on the following conditions: profile is Tagged images. a CSA is generated from the Generic RGB. plication being used to print doesn't know what an embedded profile the image considered tagged by the operating system. you get let it to work and doesn't cause you confusion or misery. apparently by design. which normally should be the profile for your in- tended destination PostScript device. so becomes the CSA sent to the PostScript printer.

technically the "In-Printer" option should not apply either unless PostScript color management is selected in the application. For PostScript printers the option In-Printer is either "Standard" or "In-Printer. but rest assured that the OS will not modify PostScript print is streams from applications that generate them.168. Second.44 Standard Presets: -( CoterSync Standard Color Conversion! / In Printer Quartz Filter: . However. which relatively rare). the destination profile is almost always the printer's built-in CRD. See Figure 11-24.336 Real World Color Management.2. so there's no way to avoid PostScript color is management (unless your test files RIP simply ignores CSAs. JM^ Printer: < M'MiWt'mM-f*^^'^"^-'^^^"^'"'^''^'''^ Mac OS X PostScript ColorSync menu's Color Conversion options driver: OOAPvS on 192. there is munication between applications.3)." the behavior we were stuck with in 10.2 and earlier from applications that don't generate their own PostScript to a PostScript printer. There's still room for improved communication between the parties. Second Edition Mac OS X 10. Mac OS X Panther has added a ColorSync menu option It to all printer drivers.44. First. with one exception. OS. For raster drivers. contains the aforementioned Quartz filters menu. the "In-Printer" option is grayed out because it can't occur in the printer itself. This because the OS application-level generated PostScript. there's no way to avoid sending a CSA to the printThere are two gotchas inherent in printing under er. and also a Color Conversion menu. which is usually a generic placeholder rather than an actual description of the printer's behavior. the pig and the pony would have to square- dance under a full moon and shake hands afterward to start seeing such examples of cooperation. Mac OS X (10. The "Standard" option is grayed out with PostScript drivers when you access the driver-level ColorSync generates its menu is item from an application that can't color manage some sensible com- own PostScript. So don't print from such applications. . None r (^ @ QaZTl Cancel Chris wondered if the dog. and Figure 11-24 drivers. Finally.

tem. and then sends essentially untagged / DeviceCMYK data to the printer. if you want good output to control the source profile. and some also tie into the operating syscapabilities. Eventually we expect Apple to provide a mechanism for sending CRDs based on ICC profiles. convert the data from the source to the destination during the scan. from a PostScript device. also known as /DeviceCMYK. and embed the destination profile in the scanned image on save. print from an application that allows you and rendering intent. scanner drivers that do offer color fairly vdde range of behaviors and Figure 11-25 CoiiW9ur«tioii -( Pr«vi«w Epson Perfection 3200 Color Configuration %Otmtimi^ BBWI Other (=)@ Smvc* <ScjnMr): EPSON Suntan) CotortMch aSB Dapla> Ew«v«« ^""a montur companutian O*' 3C The best drivers let you specify a source and a destination profile. But for the time being. the OS will allow that to pass through without PostScript color management. this method of col- or managing output from otherwise non-color-managed applications will be faster. which should provide reasonable results from PostScript Level 2 or later RIPs. all Standard causes ColorSync to do conversions prior to PostScript being generated.Chapter 11: Color Manasement in the Operating System 337 If you have untagged CMYK content. and superior in quality than relying on PostScript color management used with the "In-Printer" option. If your registers itself with ColorSync. See Figure 11-25. The destination printer profile is set in ColorSync Utility> Devices window. Color Manasement color in Scanner Drivers management exhibit a Most scanner drivers implement their own proprietary and rudimentary management by default. Moreover. while also . destination profile.

Be aware many of these Photoshop plug-in drivers do not inform Photoshop of the proper source profile. . and target profiles to convert the Remember. That means that all your scans get clipped the gamut of your display. working space RGB. you decide to use scanner driver color management. it's what is the destination? If there's no explicit setting for the destination. profile there.338 Real World Color Management. treat it as dumb and raw. you need to confirm whether the driver embeds the scanner profile. Second Edition using the display profile to display the image correctly on the monitor. note that by default proprietary color management is used. If the latter.ins need special attention. Either way this is incorrect. See Chapter 12. which the scanner driver grabs automatically from the operating system. after conversion what profile was selected for the as target (destination profile) becomes the source scanned data. bring the scans into Photoshop. but the most common problem is is the inability to let the user specify a cases. The Adobe Common Color Architecture. or uses it as a source profile for a conversion to some destination profile. They may open in Photoshop "Untagged" or tagged with the RGB Working Space profile. The worst ones have a single button marked ColorSync or ICM that converts from a hidden generic scanner profile to the display profile. which is far from ideal. In most we find that the easiest course of action to find out how to turn off both color manin the agement and any autocorrection features scanner driver. Most fall somewhere between the two extremes. custom scanner profile as the source profile. If you select ColorSync the driver will ask ColorSync to use the specified source file. because the API that lets the driver pass a source profile to Photoshop along with the pixels hasn't been implemented in any scanner software we've encountered. and produces untagged RGB as output. Some scanner it's drivers make this and assign the scanner procedure more difficult than others. you will need to manually assign the proper profile if you scanner software behaves this way. If it didn't. probably the display profile. so the images always come in as either untagged or working space RGB. to Scanner drivers that operate as Photoshop plug. profile manually. but If rarely impossible. you need to assign the scanner Using the Epson Perfection 3200 Photoshop plug-in driver as an example. If the scanner driver actually converted the pixels to that's fine. for more information on assigning profiles.

and never the twain shall generally a between OS-level and application-level color management as much as is feasible. "East is east.Chapter 11: Color Manasement in the Operating System 339 East Is East. is so you need to keep track of who doing what to whom. but distressingly easy to have both the ap- plication and the printer driver managing color behind each other's backs. When you work is with color-managed applications." It's Is West good idea to enforce a similar separation The old saw has it that. . and to ensure that It's when they do meet. the easiest course turn off color almost always to management in the various device drivers and simply let the applications handle the color management. not only possible. West meet. they do so gracefully rather than colliding. west is west.


management options to the user. We think that Adobe has done more than any other vendor in finding ways to present color. Adobe Illustrator. Illustrator On our bleaker days. so we'll likewise flag these when we get to them. between its three Adobe Photoshop.The Adobe ommon Color InDesign. sometimes. applications. and the integration between the three applications generally makes life easier. some of the apparent similarities are misleading arise. We'll start all by looking at the settings that really do work identically in three applications. So we derive a certain amount of comfort from the fact that Adobe Systems has at least attempted to standardize much of the user interface and most of the terminology main color-managed and Adobe InDesign. 341 . since the three applications do rather different things. we wonder feel why it all vendors that implement color management they have to do their way. the more obscure consequences of some of the settings may not be particularly intuitive. with their own unique user interface and their own unique terminology. Color Architecture Management and in Adobe Photoshop. rational However. — we'll point these out as they And.

00 Q nntd «C< Canma: d Color Management settings for Color Settings Enable Color . Illustrator. Management Settings: Real World Color Management H Advanced Mode vYorKini.1) . . Second Edition Color Settings —Command Central Color Settings Real World Color for Color (see Figure 12. Adobe Photoshop.342 Real World Color Management. and InDesign all share a very similar and somewhat formidable-looking dialog box called Color Settings Figure 12-1 Settings: Management Color Settings ^ AdvarKed Mode — WwUng Spaces - «Cl:[Mi«i«m«C« CMYK: Cray: nun? CCII1-IS-«S-2M fnack Ink - MWi? Catl-2S->$-2M - Golar Managcnwnt PdUcics ~ CMVK: { mttm Eni<ipld«d rmUts Proftle* m H| Aik When Paiting Cray: ryreswyeCmbedded Pramt MIsmaldKs: Photoshop's Color Settings MasliK|rroflle>: - g g - Afk Wlxn Opening Aik VKhen Opening g) Com«rslon Optiom Engmc:Q gj Um Mack Potnt CompeuMtlon ~ ^ Use DtttMr <t-Mt/chafin*l ImigM} Advanced Controls ~- [^ Desjturale Monitor Colort ty: Colars Using W| |1.

Settings The Settings menu simply contains saved presets for the Color Settings dialog box. InDesign CS. which fairly easy. and concentrate on the similarities. for you really (Mac OS X)." later in this chapter. check the location is .csf files saved in the main /Li- brary/Application Support/Adobe/Color/Settings folder. on both operating systems the application uses further ramifications. . labeled ColorSync Workflow. The somewhat anarchic the applications under situation that applied to previous versions of in the Mac OS X has been addressed CS release: Photoshop CS. save the settings from Photoshop.Chapter 12: The Adobe Common Color Architecture 343 For now. Unless know what both you and the OS are doing. the application uses the RGB. Also. file If you find they don't. though you can manually load . on Windows they're stored in the Program Files\Common Files\ Adobe\Color\Settings folder. When you choose this setting. CMYK. and if you want to synchronize InDesign and Illustrator. Macintosh users get one extra preset. save the settings from InDesign. and in the case of Photoshop. Let's first look at what they have in common. or under the Default Profiles tab of the Preferences panel in ColorSync Utility the CMM chosen in ColorSync—see "Engine. Settings files created in one of the three applications can be used by the other two. three applications' Color Settings have areas labeled Working Spaces Policies. which in turn has more options than Illustrator —so if you want to synchronize Photoshop's setting with either or both of the other applications. Grayscale profiles specified in the Default Profiles for Documents panel of the ColorSync control panel (Mac OS 9). we recommend that you avoid this option. and of the settings in the files — the they do. If you want to is make the color settings available to other users. the simplest solution create aliases of your settings in the main Library folder. and Color Management in though the options are slightly different each one. extension On Mac OS 9. they're stored Hard Drive:System Folder:Application Support:Adobe:Color: Settings folder. and Illustrator CS all default to saving them in the /Users/<usemame>/ Library/Application Support/Adobe/Color/Settings folder. makes synchronizing the behavior of the three However. Saved settings s/iomW appear automatically in the majority of cases. Photoshop has more options than InDesign. in the Settings menu. too. All let's ignore the differences. which may well disappear in the future.csf.

they're stored in the System Folder:Application Support: Adobe:Color:Profiles:Recommended the Program folder. They selected elements and when move ments. Second Edition Default Profiles —Working Spaces (called The Working Spaces section lets you specify default profiles ing Spaces" in Adobe's terminology) for that these profiles play "Work- RGB and CMYK.) If you lists all level deep for profiles in both the main Library and the turn on the "Advanced" checkbox. But you can conwhich profiles appear in the lists when "Advanced" simply show the install there will is trol lists unchecked. but they always represent the default profile— either assumed or assigned —for untagged RGB and untagged CMYK. to When the "Advanced" checkbox is unchecked. just . and for new depends on the you enter elsewhere documents.) Color Management The most critical choices you make in the Color Settings dialog box are the Color Management Policies. you probably don't want to profiles." in Chapter Policies 10. On Mac OS 9. folder. list. which control the applications' behavior when when you create new docubetween documents. don't affect the handling of imported objects in InDesign documents. on Windows they're stored in Files\Common Files\Adobe\Color\Profiles\Recommended they're stored in the /Library /Application Sup(In all cases. (In the case of use a device space at all —see "Intermediate Spaces. is aliased to the main Profiles folder. you they open tagged and untagged documents.344 Real World Color Management. the folder and on Mac OS X port/Adobe/Color/Profiles/Recommended folder. so any profiles you install in the Recommended folder are available to those other applications that search more than one user Library. the RGB Working Space menu and the the installed bidirectional RGB Space menu lists all the installed bidirectional CMYK profiles—you can't RGB. The settings exact role in the dialog box. you show up in the This mechanism provides an administrator a convenient way to limit the choice of profiles in the three applications to "safe" ones. CMYK Working use unidirectional input profiles that only convert from device values to PCS as working spaces. Color- Management Workflow. The so any profile profiles in the Recommended folder. your choices are limited a recommended set of profiles for RGB and CMYK.

treated with a "Preserve Embedded Profiles" policy (discussed We think this is counterintuitive. which can muddy the between tagged and untagged documents. converting from that profile to another. and treat the documents as untagged you change the working spaces. when the application opens a all document tagged with It the current working space profile.Chapter 12: The Adobe Common Color Architecture 345 native elements. and treat the documents as untagged. You can't turn color management off in these applications —they always convert from a source profile (either embedded /assigned or assumed) to the monitor profile for display. A complicating factor is that InDesign documents have two default profiles. We'll leave you to make distinction the call as to whether such a document is half-tagged or half-untagged! The three Warning options provide manual overrides to the policies by displaying dialog boxes that let you take an action different from the one here's dictated by the current policy. working space have no profile. . and the appearance changes. The policies control the applications' default behavior for assuming or assigning profiles to untagged documents and for handling tagged documents by either honoring the embedded profile. the applications discard the embedded profile. or vice versa. or ignoring the embedded you profile and assum- ing a different one. to say the least. so any subsequent on that document. that's However. assume the working space profile. the documents take on the new profiles. how the policies behave when the warnings are turned Off. For new documents. This is the probably the most misleadingly labeled option of the three. All three applications let set separate policies for RGB and for CMYK (Photoshop lets you set a third policy for Grayscale). It's possible to have an InDesign document whose native RGB elements are tagged and whose native CMYK elements are untagged. treats document to the as tagged with the embedded effect changes ly. Before we look at the warnings. off. the Off policy makes the applications assume the working space profiles for all native RGB and CMYK elements. and they always use profiles to convert from RGB to CMYK. Effective- a document v^th an is embedded profile that matches the working space profile next). one for RGB and one for CMYK elements. the sense goes out the window. if — For documents that are tagged with a profile other than the working space profile.

New documents use the cur- rent working space(s) — — untagged ^you can think of this as "preserving" their untagged status and use the working space profiles as assumed profiles. the application transfers the numerical values in the object. Untagged documents stay When you move native RGB objects from a document in one space to another in a different space by copy and paste or drag and drop. the application simply moves the numerical values in the object. This policy is best thought of as an automation feature.346 Real World Color Management. preserving color appearance and changing the numbers. Tagged documents get opened in the embedded (in the case of InDesign documents. deciding what to do Warnings —Manual Overrides color-management policy currently in determine which radio button is checked by default The Missing Profile warnings in Photoshop and InDesign and the Profile Mismatch warnings in all three applications let you manually override the default behavior dictated by the effect. When it When you move native RGB or CMYK objects from a document in one space to another in a different space. — we at least get to evaluate the image in its profiled space before next. Convert to Working Space. this one does profile's what space it says. the application always performs a conversion from source to destination. a conversion from the space. The policies . which can have both RGB and CMYK elements. and are treated as tagged. the application performs a conversion from the source to the destination and moves a docu- the color appearance. As a general rule. it performs embedded profile's space to the current working an opens untagged document. When the application opens a tagged document. it uses the working space as an assumed profile and keeps the document untagged. we set all our policies to Preserve Embedded Profiles that way. in a different space Preserve Embedded Profiles. When you move native CMYK objects from ment in one space to another in a different space by copy and paste or drag and drop. each keeps its definitions). Unlike the previous option. Second Edition When you move native objects from a document in one space to another by copy and paste or drag and drop.

then convert to "working RGB /CMYK" lets you tell the application to assign any profile that's applicable to the document's color mode. and offer the options listed below.Chapter 12: The Adobe Common Color Architecture 347 in the warning dialogs. and treat the profile to the Working Space for that color document as tagged. when enabled. 2004 a:0a:a6PM 1 ^' and then convert document to tvorking RCB ( Ciictt ) The warning offers four options: Leave as is (don't color manage) tells the application to assume the current working space profile and treat the document as untagged. The Missing Profile warnings appear when you open an untagged document. appears whenever you open an untagged document Figure 12-2). Missing Profile warning in Photoshop. but the same options are available no matter in effect. ProPhoto RCB - MueEytX. documtM 'unugg«d ItCl. which policy is designed to do ferently in However. then convert from that mode. Assign profile lets you tell the application to assign any profile that's applicable to the document's color profiles to mode (you can only assign RGB RGB documents and CMYK profiles to CMYK documents) document as tagged. and treat the Assign profile.tir docs noi have an embedded color Mow do you »»*n« to proceed? 9 Leave as is (don't color tnar>a9C) O Asstgn working RCR OAstisnproflIc: . since each of the three applications is different things. the warnings are presented slightly dif- each one. The Missing Profile warning.l Saturdty. . June 26. Fisure 1S-2 (see Photoshop Missing Profile warning The RCI profile. the application to assign Assign working RGB /CMYK/ Grayscale and treat the tells the working space profile document as tagged.

CMYK elements governed by different profiles. also important to realize that untagged placed images will use the Document profiles (for RGB and CMYK) as assumed source profiles. not to placed objects. Second Edition Missing Profile warning in InDesign. but placed images do not. the document has this dialog. one for RGB.348 Real World Color Management. one for InDesign documents can contain RGB and CMYK (see Figure 12-3). Note that this dialog If only pertains to native profiles InDesign content. warnings How do you want is to proceed? 9 Leave as (use current working space) O Assign current working space: ProPhoto RGB OAssign profile: Adobe RGB (1998) ( Cancti ~) Missing Profile | . emit's bedded. Figure 12-3 Missing Profile The document does not have an embedded RGB InDesign Missing Profile profile. you won't see However. but two Missing Profile warnings. called Document profiles—so InDesign has not one. While Photoshop documents only exist in a single color space.

but can't embed profiles in EPSs on Figure 1S-4 Illustrator's Mtsslrtfl Proflic Missing A The r- CMYK document docs not have How tfo you want to proceed? an embedded profile. one warning: manage) tells the application to assume the current Working Space profile and treat the document as untagged. . lets Missing Profile warning in Illustrator. or any CMYK profile to a CMYK document. Untagged placed objects assume these profiles as source and remain untagged. Profile warning O ttave as OAtttgn is (don't color manage) current working space: [ mVPs7 CCI(1-2S-SS-2S0 0>te«lg"praMe: mitH? CCIH-25-iS-2tO Cancel ( ) Illustrator's — InDesign's the only difference defined as either Missing Profile warning provides the same options as is that Illustrator documents are always so you only get RGB documents or CMYK documents. lets The Profile Mismatch: Ask When Opening warning appears when you open a document with an embedded profile that's different from the current working space. Leave as is (don't color Assign current working space ing space profile tells the application to assign the workas tagged. (This can be annoying. and treat the document Assign profile you tell the application to assign any RGB profile to an RGB document.Chapter 12: The Adobe Common Color Architecture 349 Assign profile the first you tell the application to assign any RGB profile in and warning. any CMYK profile in the second one. Unlike the other two applications.) Illustrator doesn't let you turn off the Missing Profile — EPS documents. since Illustrator always looks for profiles in save. warning it always the when a without an embedded document displays warning you open profile (see Figure 12-4).

tif has an embedded color that does not match the current RGB working space. warning displays the dialog box shown in Figure Figure 12-5 Embedded Profile Mismatch profile Photoshop's Profile Embedded The document "Tagged ARCB. this warning displays the dialog boxes profile for that shown in Figure 12-6. profile to the working space space and treats the document as tagged with the working Discard the embedded treat the profile (don't color profile. this 12-5. Management Policies are set to anything other than Off. When enabled. . When enabled. InDesign will embed both Document profiles (RGB and CMYK). since InDesign documents can contain both RGB and CMYK elements. Mismatch warnings.350 Real World Color Management. Second Edition Photoshop's Embedded Profile Mismatch warning. it's possible to InDesign's Profile Embedded have a profile mismatch in either or both. cation to discard the profile. embedded manage) tells the appliassume the working space and document as untagged. Mismatch warning ^ Embedded: Adobe RGB (1998) Working: ProPhoto RGB — How do you want to proceed? profile (instead of the working space) 9 Use the embedded O Convert document's colors to the working space color manage) O Discard the embedded profile (don't ( CtnctI ) The warning offers the following three options: Use the embedded profile (instead of the working space) preserves the embedded profile and treats the document as tagged. profile. Convert document's colors to the working space to tells the application perform a conversion from the embedded profile. The embedded profile is used as the source for all conversions. If neither mode is set to Off. InDesign will embed the Document If the Color mode. regardless of the contents of the document. Again.

which means they are used as the source conversions of native objects. invPs7 MaxK-O-tS-280 WMUng RWfi7CCRl-2S-«S-280 How do you want ttie to proceed? profile (instead of the working space) 9 Use the embedded Q Convert document's colors to the current working space tlw embedded (and use current working space) Q OHcard profile f C«^ ^ ( Both warnings offer the following three options: Use the embedded the profiles (instead of the working space) preserves or embedded profiles and treats the RGB CMYK elements become the in the document as tagged. profile. but untagged objects use the as new Document profiles assumed source profiles. . It doesn't convert placed objects. Profile Embedded Wofking ProPhoto RCt Adobe RC8 (1998) to proceed? profile How do you w«n« (instead of the »M>rking space) % (He the embedded Q Convert the document's colors to the current working space (and use current working space) O Otfcard the embedded profile iMbtdded ProlU* Mismuch match the current A TIm document's embedded color profile docs not CMYK working space. Discard the embedded profile (and use current working space) tells the application to discard the space profile. and as the assumed source profiles for untagged placed objects. Untagged objects use the working space profiles as assumed source profiles. and treats the document as tagged. Convert the document's colors to the current working space application to convert the color firom the tells the embedded profiles to the working space profiles (which become the Document profiles for this document). assume the working and treat the RGB or CMYK elements in the document as embedded untagged. The embedded profiles Document profiles for this profiles for all document.Chapter 12: The Adobe Common Color Architecture 351 HsureK-A InDeslgn's Einbc<kl«d Profll* Mtsmuch Embedded Mismatch warnings TIm tfecumtni'i embedded cokx ptoftk docs not mMch tht cumm RCt iMOrfcing space.

by copy and paste or drag and drop. both InDesign and Illustrator take the warning a step further by displaying an AssignedFiofile Mismatch Warning should you have the temerity to assign a profile other than the working space in the Missing Profile dialog box. RWPs7 CCRl-25-85-280 -How do you want to proceed? profile (instead of the 9 U^e the embedded working space) O Convert the document's colors the current working space (don't color manage) O Discard the embedded to profile ( Ctticet ) ^^^^^ It offers the following three options: Use the embedded profile (instead of the working space) preserves the embedded profile and treats the document as tagged. The embedded profile is used as the source for all conversions. This is the kind of behavior that gives color manage- ment a bad name. Second Edition Illustrator's is Embedded functionally identical warning and cosmetically very similar to Photoshop's (see Profile Mismatch warning. Convert document's colors to the current working space plication to perform a conversion tells the ap- from the embedded profile to the working space working space Discard the profile. Annoyingly. and we hope the other applications will follow suit in a future release! Profile Mismatch: lets you override the default behavior Ask When Pasting warning.352 Real World Color Management. assume the working space and treat the document as untagged. only . Illustrator's Figure 12-7). The last set of warnings when you move elements (or in document in the case of Photoshop. profile. Photoshop sensibly refrains fron doing so. to discard the embedded profile. and treats the document as tagged with the embedded profile (don't color manage) tells the application profile. selected pixels) from a one space It to another in a different space. Figure 12-7 Illustrator's Embedded Profile Mismatch does not match the current Embedded Profile Mismatch warning A The document's embedded color CMYK working space. profile Embedded: RWPs7 MaxK-0-8S-280 Working.

values into a CMYK document or vice versa. all If mode to another.Chapter 12: The Adobe Common Color Architecture 353 applies when both source and destination document are in the same color you move elements from one mode color — RGB to RGB or CMYK to CMYK. The warning offers the same pair of options in Figure 12-8 Paste Profile Mismatch warnings It TlM tourct d«u'i color preAU do«t net match th« dMtifMiten 4ecum«flt't cokK profile. match tha Source Oattlnalion RCI Adobe RCI (1998) ProPtioto lo treat the data? How do you want Don't Q Convert (preserve color appearance) CoRMit (prtsama color numbers) C^^3 InDesign's Paste Profile Mismatch warning Paste Proflic Mismatch . Sourct AdotX RCI (199t) - OtiimMion Working RCI ProPhoto RCI tttt — How do you «Mnl lo trtM OOen'l d«l«7 O Cenvart (pr«Mrv« color apptannct) convert (preitrv* color numb«ril ( c*^ ) Photoshops Paste Profile Mismatch warning ruM ProAto IMtmMch A The tourct data'i color profile does net destination documeni't color proftle. a conversion always occurs—you can't paste RGB three applications (see Figure 12-8).

This includes choos- mode from Photoshop's ImagoMode menu. Illustrator's FiloDocument Color Mode and Filter>Colors> Convert to RGB /CMYK. Advanced Options —Default Conversion all Settings When you enable the "Advanced" checkbox. where they will likely generate a different color appearance. or InDesign's Color palette pop-out menu (see Figure 12-9). including not only the ones discussed above. in a space other than our current change the working space rather than turn off the warning. preserving the color appearance.354 Real World Color Management. We ments usually leave all the warnings turned on —they provide a useful we'll reality check. but other conversions that don't present a user interface with a choice of conversion options. ing a different Figure 12-9 Conversion Options Engine: ! - Adob« (ACB KelaBve Cotorlmetrlc Conversion Options Bl Use llacfc Intent: [ ^^ Ml Punt Cofiipensatlon ^ Use Dither (8-bit/channel images) Photoshop's Conversion Options Conversion Options Engine: Intent: { Adobe (ACE) Relative Colorimetric S5 Use Black Point Compensation InDesign's Conversion Options Conversion Options Engine: Intent: ^ Adobe (ACE) Relative Colorimetric ' M ^ Use Black Point Compensation Illustrator's Conversion Options . If we know that we'll be dealing with a large number of docuworking space. Second Edition Convert (preserve color appearance) makes the application convert the object from the source document's assigned or to the destination object's assigned or assumed profile assumed profile. new controls appear that let you control how the applications perform conversions. Don't convert (preserve color numbers) moves the numerical values in the object to the destination document.

This option lets is you choose the default rendering also affects the intent. it's because this setting isn't set relative colorimetric with to absolute colorimetric. it you may want to change to the one you use most often. It ensures that black in the source is always mapped to the input is 12-10). rhis option allows you to choose a specific CMM from the ICCIts compliant CMMs installed on your computer. so you need to make sure that you're getting exactly the same conversions inside and outside Adobe applications. For those into Info palette. If you choose Automatic. We're big fans of the Adobe (ACE) engine — it seems is to be remarkably bug. Apple ColorSync. black in the destination. you'll need to settle on a CMM that's installable as a standalone. so that the entire dynamic range of mapped to the entire dynamic range of the output (see Figure . Most of the items on the menu are self-explanatory it's simply a list of different CMMs but Mac users get one extra item. the ap- plication uses the 9) or the CMM specified in the ColorSync control panel (Mac OS ColorSync panel found in System Preferences (Mac OS X). This proprietary Adobe feature plugs a hole in the ICC profile spec. it you specify a rendering intent at conversion time. Note that the default rendering intent black point compensation. each profile looks for its preferred CMM. Use Black Point Compensation. which then gets used for the conversion tive aspect of this is that between that that profile and the PCS. so if LAB values in the don't match up to actual you are wondering why the LAB values in the Info palette measurements. only available inside only if major downside that it's Adobe applications. The posi- you ensure any profiles containing "secret sauce" that's reliant on a particular tential. which used for all conversions that don't let trivia. — — that's a bit more mysterious. CMM will get used to their fullest po- The negative is that it's very unlikely that you'll know at any given moment which CMM is doing what to whom! and accurate. We leave this setting at the default.Chapter 12: The Adobe Common Color Architecture 355 Engine. which is is all not at the colorimetric without black point compensation — see "Use Black Point same thing as relative Compensation. but if you find that you want to use some other rendering intent more than half the time. When you choose Apple ColorSync." below.

preventing the loss of shadow detail that's evident in the above right image. you may want to consider changing Manual Assignments and Conversions The Color Settings dialog box is mostly concerned with the behavior of newly opened or newly created documents. but the three applications you perform profile assignments and conversions while you're working on a document. other than to see what it does. it's possible to get either of two undesirable outcomes: If the source has a lower black point than the destination.356 Real World Color Management. When "Use Black Point Compensation" is turned off. also let . we — find it so valuable that it. the source has a higher black point than the destination. is if your workflow depends on having exactly the same conversions available inside and outside the Adobe applications and quite honestly. "Use Black Point Compensation" avoids both these problems. Second Edition Figure 12-10 Black point compensation black point compensation on black poin t compensation off is Black point compensation ensures that black in the source always translated to black in the destination. the con- verted color contains no true blacks. so the result appears washed out. all values in the source that are darker than destination black get clipped to black. The only reason we can see for turning it off. destroying If shadow detail. if you do have such a workflow.

If Assign the Working Space profile to a document. Assign any profile to a tagged document. Profile dialog In InDesign and Illustrator. the controls described in this section operate at the document level. Assign Profile All three applications offer an Assign Profile command. In Photoshop.Chapter IS: The Adobe Common Color Architecture 357 Like the Color Settings. the InDesign Assign Profiles dialog box lets you make separate box is virtually identical in assignments for Figure 1S-11 RGB and CMYK (see Figure 12-11). or to an untagged document. The Assign Photoshop and Illustrator. It lets you do three things: Untag any document (don't color manage). Since InDesign documents can contain both an RGB and a CMYK document profile. on the Edit menu. assigning the profile turns it into a tagged one. overriding the one that was previously in force. Assign Profile is it found on the Mode submenu under the it's Image menu. the document was untagged. although they do affect the assumed profile for linked untagged graphics. thereby turning into a tagged one. Assign Profile(s) dialog boxes . They don't affect the behavior of linked graphics with embedded profiles in InDesign. Working spaces are as- sumed as source.

Photoshop documents are always governed by a single profile. and a "Use Black Point Compensation" checkbox (see Figure Figure 12-12 Convert to Profile | Photoshop's Convert to Profile dialog box . At the time of writing. however. One Illustrator 10 made its way into Illustrator CS is that the profile information Document Info palette usually doesn't update until you close and and the bug has persisted in all reopen the palette. Photoshop's Convert to Profile command is found a render- on the Mode submenu of the Image menu. The little assignments apply not only to native objects. To make matters a more con- fusing. Photoshop's Convert to Profile. to specify a different rendering intent. The dialog box lets you choose a destination profile. in Adobe terminology) . by default. but due to the different nature of the two applications. the rendering intent choices apply to both native and imported Image objects. 12-12). InDesign's Assign Profiles profile command is different in other ways. discussed later in this chapter. too. Second Edition Tip: Don't Trust Illustrator's bug that has in the Document Info Palette. CMM (or Engine. so assignments and conversions are both relatively straightforward. whether tagged or not. versions of Illustrator 10. they do very different things. The Document Profile display from the pop-up menu at the lower left of the document window. a ing intent. the current version of Illustrator is 11. so we can only conclude that fixing it isn't a high priority.0. Convert to Profile Photoshop and InDesign both offer a command labeled Convert to Profile.358 Real World Color Management. operates as expected.0. imported objects that are untagged. but also to linked. You need to use the Color Settings option.

because layers may blend differently space. applies to the entire document. since InDesign documents have for RGB. particularly when the conversion also includes in the destination lets a mode change. The Preview checkbox you preview the result of the conversion. In the case of layered the dialog also offers the option to flatten the document — it's usu- ally a good idea to do so.Chapter 12: The Adobe Common Color Architecture 359 The conversion files. InDesign's Convert to Profile. InDesign's Convert to Profile dialog box looks fairly different two Figure 19-13 InDesign's Convert to Profile dialog profiles —one from Photoshop's. SourttSpact RCa ProlUt Worfcing KCB - ProftMMo RGB box CMYKfroMt . one for CMYK (see Figure 12-13). changing the document's appearance.

Photoshop always places its the numerical values contained in the placed document. the as part of the print stream. once an object is placed in Photoshop. Placed Graphics in InDesign When you place a graphic in InDesign. Conversion to the display rendering intent Placing tagged graphics. But we have because the color-management pol- to leave in the weasel word. discussed in Chapter InDesign also allows you to specify rendering intents for placed objects. not on imported graphics such as placed images. It numerical values in the file are always preserved — InDesign never changes these numbers except lacks the ability to go out source file.360 Real World Color Management. "primarily. InDesign always tracks embedded profiles in placed graphics. Basically. both as defaults and on an object-by-object basis controlled by Color Settings. and are governed by the document's assigned or assumed profile. but any placed elements end up as part of the document. . you can do any of the following: Set the Color Management Policy in Color Settings for the graphic's color mode to Off. To make InDesign ignore an embedded profile when you place a graphic. The and for conversion to output space at print 16). even if you choose the Color Management Off preset in Color Settings. and these interactions can be subtle and quite often counterintuitive. All it can do is take the numbers in placed graphics and change the and put different interpretations profiles are used for display on them by assigning or assuming profiles. time (and for exporting to PDF. Placed Graphics Photoshop is in Photosliop It pretty straightforward. all three applications have quite different controls. so embedit ded profile is ignored. Moreover." icies do have an impact on how imported graphics are handled. has a Place command. Second Edition Color Managing Imported Graphics All the controls we've discussed so far operate primarily on native objects in a document. but it doesn't necessarily use them. —the rendering intents are used only for is the conversion to output. ceases to be a placed graphic.

then turn off the "Enable Color Management" checkbox in the Image Hfuren-M Image Import Options . in the Place dialog box. Check the "Show Import Options" checkbox Import Color Options (see Figure 12-14).Chapter 12: The Adobe Common Color Architecture 361 Uncheck "Enable Color Management" or in the Color Settings dialog box.

Untagged host documents have Document profiles that aren't assigned to them. which you change Settings. you change the (by using Assign Profiles is or Convert to Profile). Changes to the working spaces don't affect the doc- ument or the If Document profiles.362 Real World Color Management. Second Edition Tagged host documents have two Document profiles assigned. and therefore Document profiles don't affect the placed graphic. but all too . and rendering it becomes the as- signed profile for that instance of the placed object. Placed Graphics in Illustrator We often finding ourselves wishing that Illustrator would decide what it wants to be when that's it grows up. you you're in effect asking InDesign to treat the image as untagged. and hence the source profiles for untagged placed graphics. but are assumed from the working space profiles. one for RGB. The above rules apply to that situation too. Image Color Settings intent to a placed object. lets you assign a specific profile If you assign a specific profile. Image Color Settings. you also change the fore the behavior of untagged graphics. Document profiles. and there- The source profiles for untagged placed graphics are the Document profiles: Assign Profile and Convert to Profile change the Document profiles. one for CMYK. It's true that it's an amazingly flexible tool used for everything from page layout to Web page design. The Image Color Settings command lets you as- sign a different profile to placed graphics on an object-by-object basis (see Figure 12-15). Figure 12-15 Image Color Settings Image Color Settings ^ Enable Color Management Profile: Use Document Default Use Document Image Intent Wj ^ Cancel ) Rendering Intent. If means the Document profiles will apply. until and remains in effect it by assigning a different profile through Image Color choose Use Document Default in Image Color Settings. InDesign documents can also be half-tagged (or half-untagged) if a profile is designated for one color mode but not the other. then the placed untagged graphic affected. If you change the working spaces.

the copy that goes in the Illustrator file will be converted to RGB. it. you place an RGB image in a CMYK Illustrator document. the copy that goes in the Illustrator file will be converted to CMYK. if you want these to be self-contained. either link. Illustrator by explicitly embedding or by refresh- ing the never converts the linked image. will display files and But this doesn't happen with native Illustrator — print correctly. or uncheck the "Link" checkbox in the Place dialog when you place images. The second key point either the to understand is that Illustrator color-manages copy that's always embedded in EPSs. The first key point to understand that Illustrator always includes a copy of the placed image in EPS files. or the copy that's embed- ded in native Illustrator files. it in Illustrator. You may get error or warning messages that would lead you to tor believe otherwise. This is particularly true in the case of images is Illustrator. but we've that they're bogus. Illustrator itself doesn't seem to be aware of this if you don't specifically include the linked files when you — save an EPS from the linked file. So the only real questions Does a conversion occur? If so. All done enough testing to be pretty confident conversions of placed graphics use the CMM and rendering intent profile is al- specified in Illustrator's color settings. and the destination are ways the document profile. file the numerical values in the placed are transferred to the Illustrator document with no conversion. and if you place a CMYK image in an RGB Illustra- document. it looks for and can't find asks you to replace it But if you place the EPS in a page-layout application.Chapter 18: The Adobe Common Color Architecture 363 often the process winds up being a bit like doing brain surgery with a Swiss Army knife. you need to save using the "Include Linked Files" option. if it and reopen the EPS it. things happens: files in Illustrator. . The third key point to understand is that Illustrator always converts If placed images to the document color mode. and we've seen Illustrator's approach to color management reduce grown placed in men to tears. Illustrator. files in If the placed file is in the same color mode as the Illustrator document. what is the source profile? Placing untagged an Illustrator When you place untagged one of two document.

If you find this collection of paste behaviors counterintuitive. Of course. you won't get a Paste Mismatch warning. in a For example. If you've checked "Ask When Pasting" the Link checkbox file for Profile Mismatches in Color Settings. . no conversion occurs. Illustrator works the same way as Photoshop's past- ing behavior. you'll only get a Paste above default behaviors dialog. The numerical values Preserve Embedded Profiles: Placing (pasting) RGB in an RGB docu- ment preserves the color appearance (Illustrator converts using the embedded profile as the source and the Document profile as the destination). If you documents as a pasting activity. tor file. If the placed Illustrator file is in a different color mode from the Illustrator document. in the file get placed (pasted). the copy in the Space Illustrator file converted using the Working profile for that color if mode as the assumed source profile. If the placed file is in the same color mode as the Illustrator file. always performs a conversion using the placed file's embedded profile as the source. if the source and destination profiles are the same. Placing CMYK in a CMYK document preserves the color numbers and doesn't do a conversion. including the occasional Paste Profile Mismatch dialog box you get when placing images. you're not alone! The only silver lining is that they're consistent in all three Adobe apphcations. Convert to Working RGB/CMYK: the color appearance Illustrator — always preserves (pastes) it converts from the embedded profile to the Document profile. things make more sense. which depends Off: on the Color Management Policy selected. Second Edition If the placed file is in a different color mode from the Illustrator docuis ment. consider placing images in Illus- Placing tagged trator files in Illustrator.364 Real World Color Management. If you if Mismatch dialog to override the is unchecked in the Place choose to Link the to be placed. you place an untagged RGB image use the CMYK Illustra- Illustrator will profile for the conversion to RGB Working Space profile as the assumed document CMYK.

the result file of sending the unconverted All to different outputs. At they this point. or. offer. the applications diverge in the controls that with Illustrator. the result of conversions to other profile spaces. so you can view the same document with different simulations by opening multiple windows and assigning different soft proofs to each one. We'll start since it's the simplest. the case of Illustrator and Photoshop. soft three applications let you invoke a proof by choosing Proof Colors from the View menu. Fl9urc 18-16 Illustrator's Proof Setup . in on the monitor. Simulations in illustrator Illustrator's Proof Setup dialog box is relatively simple (see Figure 12-16).Chapter IS: The Adobe Common Color Architecture 365 Simulations and Soft-Proofing One of the most valuable capabilities of the Big Three Adobe applications is their ability to simulate. however. Soft proofs are window-specific. The default simulation is for the CMYK working space. but you can change and control the simulation by choosing Proof Setup from the View menu.

InDesign offers control over the rendering from the simulation space to the display (see Figure 12-17). the Color Settings "Use Black Point Compensation" setting applies globally to the conversions from all the source spaces to the simulation space. Second Edition The Intent menu lets you choose a rendering intent for the conversion from document space to simulation space. so the Proof Setup dialog box has no rendering intent control for the conversion from the various source spaces used by the document elements to the simulation space. each ele- ment is rendered according to its specified intent. Note also that the Color Settings "Use Black Point Compensation" setting also affects the conversion from document to simulation space. allowing you to preview the effects of different renderings. Simulations in InDesign InDesign's Proof Setup dialog box is rather different from Illustrator's. As with Illustrator. In InDesign. and without it if not. Unlike Illustrator. rendering intents are applied to individual document elements rather than to the document as a whole. with black checked in Color Settings. Figure 12-17 InDesign's Proof Setup dialog box . Illustrator doesn't let you control the rendering from the simulation space to the monitor space point compensation if it's — it's always relative colorimetric.366 Real World Color Management. Instead.

tem FolderiApplication Support:Adobe:Color:Proofing folder. which means that the simulation white black is is displayed as monitor white. the rendering from simulation to display is relative colorimetric with black point compensation. ngure 12-18 rntfSttm Photoshop's Proof Setup dialog box rreflte: Hnvfi? ccRi-2s-8s-2ao ( 1^ Preserve Color Numbers ( ( Cancel ) ) ) bNcnt: '^Relative Cotontnctric ^^ Save- fl Use Uack Point Compensation SimuUle: fl Paper White >/lnk Black Photoshop offers the recall. the "Ink Black" checkbox "Ink Black. Photoshop's Proof Setup is shown in Figure 12-18.) it's the Program Files\Common Files\Adobe\ Color\Proofing You can save proof setups anywhere on your hard disk by clicking . — When both "Ink Black" and "Paper White" are unchecked. and in Windows. folder. When is it's checked. so if the simulation space black is lighter than the monitor black. see "Soft-Proofing Practices and in this chapter. For a more in-depth discussion on the pros and cons of the different renderings to the monitor. and the simulation displayed as monitor black." automatically turned on and dimmed. Pitfalls. which they are by default. (On Mac OS 9. and its influence on the rest of the color." later Simulations in Photoshop Of the three applications. On Mac OS Xit's the /Library /Application Support/Adobe/Color/Proofing folder. unique ability to name and you save different proof setups for fast The Setup menu lets recall proof setups that this is the Sys- you've saved in the special Proofing folder.Chapter 12: The Adobe Common Color Architecture 367 paper. "Ink Black" will show you the washed-out blacks you'd get on output it's most noticeable when you're simulating low dynamic range processes like newsprint. turns off black point compensation for the rendering from simulation to the monitor. Photoshop offers the most complete set of softproofing controls. when checked.

produces an absolute colorimetric renfrom the simulation to the monitor. turns off black point compensation for the if rendering from simulation to the monitor. The Simulate checkboxes control the rendering from the simulation space to the monitor. so black is the simulation space will washed-out blacks on output— lating lighter than the monitor black. The "Preserve Color Numbers" checkbox tells the application to simulate you sent the numerical values in the file. Second Edition Save. letting you preview the effects of different renderings.368 Real World Color Management." "Ink Black" checkbox "Ink Black. "Ink Black" it's show you the most noticeable when you're simulike low dynamic range processes newsprint. (Even better. when checked." is automatically turned on and dimmed. it much easier to compare the effects of The remaining controls operate like those in the other applications. showing the color of the dering paper and its influence on the rest of the color. when checked. the "Paper White. where you can choose them directly. in and load them by clicking the Load button.) is unique in offering a live preview the window updates while the dialog box is open when the "Preview" checkbox is Photoshop also — — checked. The Intent menu allows you to choose a rendering intent for the conversion from document space to simulation space. . The "Use Black Point Compensation" checkbox lets you choose whether or not to apply black point compensation in the rendering from the document space to the simulation space. We find that this makes different rendering intents. When it's checked. but the setups you save the Proofing folder appear on the list automatically. The Profile menu allows you to choose the destination profile for the simulation. so it's only available when the simulation and document profile are in if what would happen to the same mode— RGB RGB or CMYK to CMYK. they appear at the also bottom of the Proof Setup submenu.

or any menus or palettes—displayed on the screen. Choosing the Windows in conjunction with Web RGB and Macintosh RGB settings lets us see approximately how Web graphics vdll appear on uncalibrated Mac and Windows systems. there are a few things you need to know about InDesign's and Photoshop's "Paper White" and "Ink Black" simulation settings.Chapter IS: The Adobe Common Color Architecture 369 When both "Ink Black" and "Paper White" are unchecked. useful to distinguish between "Preserve Color Num- bers" simulations. In InDesign. we may or use Preserve Color Numbers to decide whether we can get away with using the if same file for several slightly different printing conditions. But no matter whether you're previevdng straight output or conversions. we use Preserve Color Numbers graphics. Soft-Prooffins Practices Using soft and Pitfalls little proofing successfully requires a First. relatively easy to hide everything except the im- though. which they are by defauh. We use Preserve Color Numbers in two different scenarios: With RGB. Hence in InDesign. and simulations of actual conversions. and use full-screen mode with the menu age we hide — bar hidden and get an honest absolute colorimetric soft proof. the rendering from the simulation space to the display is relative colorimetric with black point compensation. we need to create a separate file for each one. For example. it's just about impossible to do so. though. You might expect the absolute colorimetric rendering of the simulation to the display that you get from checking "Paper White" to be the most ac- curate of the three possibilities. which is means that the simulation white lation black is displayed as monitor white. any white user-interface elements—InDesign's Pasteboard. Most of the time. all The problem. we only use paper white simulation when we're dealing with papers that are . and the simu- displayed as monitor black. In Photoshop. we use Proof Setup to preview conversions to final output space. so the simulated paper white looks wrong. your eye adapts to that white. With CMYK. is that if you have it's — the palettes. though. it's forethought and a little knowledge. we use Preserve Color Numbers to see how existing CMYK files will work on different printing processes.

the rendering to the screen is relative colorimetric is with black point compensation. Printins Photoshop. . (See "Viewing Environment" in Chapter Evaluating and Editing Profiles. Although Proof Setup is primarily for on-screen simulations. for a thorough discussion of the pitfalls of screen-toprint comparisons. Its only flaw that it provides a somewhat rendering of low dynamic range processes such as newsprint or Inkjet on uncoated papers. which are the penulti- mate stop on our journey through Adobe's color-management features. and click OK. See Chapter 11. In those cases. but we still rely primarily on the other two make critical judgments. If you use these features pitfall to — and we encourage you to do so—the one management performed by the up so that the driver does cor- major avoid is also having color printer driver. enter the settings you want as the defaults. We find that for this is generally the most useful view is making overall judgments on optimistic tone and color. it also plays into the applications' printing architectures. Color Management in the Operating System. The de- fault setting when you choose Proof Colors (in is for Working CMYK. It's quite easy to set things rections to the already corrected data. The application will use the new settings whenever you choose Proof Colors.) With both Simulate checkboxes unchecked (and always since it in Illustrator lacks them). we'll use the ink black simulation to make quick reality set- checks on shadow tings to detail. and InDesign can all perform a conversion on the data that gets handed off to the printer driver. Illustrator.370 Real World Color Manasement. with InDesign and Photoshop) simulate Paper White and Ink Black turned off. and the results usually aren't pretty. Tip: Change the Default Proof Colors from Working CMYK. using the rendering intent and black point compensation settings specified in Color Settings. Second Edition a long way from white or when we're comparing the screen display with 9. If you want to change the default. which means that paper white to monitor white and ink black is mapped mapped to monitor black. simply choose Proof Setup with no documents open. actual hard copy.

and send the converted numbers to the printer driver. so is that the resulting print — space Let's a hard-copy simulation of the Proof Setup is this is sometimes called cross-rendering. assumption that the interpret the profile and do something Convert the numbers in the document to the printer space. to the printer driver (with the printer driver will be able to useful with it). in the case of In- Design) as the source profile for any conversion specified in the Print Proof Setup (Proof in InDesign) makes the application perform a conversion from the document it profile (s) to the profile specified in Proof Setup. they're in the Color Management panel of InDesign's Print dialog box. Each dialog has a section labeled Source Space and a section labeled Print Space. (This option not available in Illustrator.Chapter IS: The Adobe Common Color Architecture 371 The features in these applications' printing controls allow you to do essentially four things: Send the numbers in the document directly to the printer driver. they're in the Color Management section of Photoshop's Print with raster printer dialogs. In InDesign. The dialog Preview dialog box. along with a profile that describes their meaning. In Photo- shop. uses the rendering intent specified in Proof Setup. In InDesign. The layout of the dialog boxes is different in each of the three applications. then convert those numbers to the printer space. but the controls have the same labels. the Document profile (or profiles. each object in the intent.) look at how the controls operate to let you accomplish these vari- ous ends. document has its own rendering passed to the Print Space The results of this conversion are section of the dialog. PostScript drivers And in Illustrator. In Photoshop. . they're in Illustrator 10 options for and as an extension to boxes are shown in Figure 12-19. Send the numbers in the document. Source Space has only two options (except in Illustrator): Document uses Space section. Convert the numbers in the document to the space you specified in Proof Setup.

Illustrator. Second Edition Fljurc 12-19 Positior Print Color Management and InDesign Top:[ Left:f in Photoshop.372 Real World Color Management. Photoshop's Print with Preview dialog box 3 Show More Options [ Color Managtment IH^ - Source Space: .

and InDesign. continued The Color Management panel oflnDesign's Print dialog box . Illustrator.Chapter 12: The Adob« Common Color Architecture 373 Hsurc 18-19 Print Color M« Management in Pliotostiop.

An easy workaround is to place a blank frame on the background of the master page. If the paper white of the final output. If you box choose Composite RGB. you can set Proof Setup to the final output space. This instructs the application to first convert the color from the source spaces to the final output space specified in Proof Setup. One caveat: InDesign only applies the contents of frames. choosing the profile for the output device in Print Space makes the application convert the color to the final output space —you'd use this when you're actually printing to the final output device. where the document is in a space other final than the final output space. then to convert that color to the space you've specified in Print Space. Second Edition Second. setting the Source Space to Document and the Print Space to Same as Source lets you print the document values unchanged to the final output device.374 Real World Color Management. while relative colorimetric will scale the final paper white to the paper white of the proofer. It absolute colorimetric rendering to leaves the paper white areas paper white. Again. In a late-binding workflow. which defeats the point of the excercise since our eyes promptly adapt to the blank paper white. While the number of possibilities that exist is extremely large. To generate proofs in a late-binding workflow. The result is that the printer simulates the final output. while if you choose Composite CMYK or Separations. only CMYK profiles are available. and the profile for your proofing device in Print Space. the will proofing printer lay down ink in the paper white areas to match in Print Space. the printing controls offer easy support for three fairly obvious workflow options: In an early-binding workflow. the choice of profiles in InDesign's Print Space the choices you Print dialog is governed by make in the Color menu of the Output panel of InDesign's (see Figure 12-20). then select Proof in the Source Space. while relative colorimetric scales the color to the paper white of the proofer. . where all the color is already in final out- put space. You can also print proofs to some other device by selecting its profile you choose absolute colorimetric rendering. only RGB profiles are available. absolute colorimetric rendering makes the proofer simulate the final paper white.

Chapter 12: The Adobe Common Color Architecture 375 Flsurc 12*20 ' InDesign's Print Output frtm PrvMt: (Custom) options The choice you make in the Output pop. .up profiles menu determines which become i aiwlable in the Color Management panel shown in Figure 12-19.

Most raw converters use a camera encode this assumption. a single color of light: or blue. while others may add a fourth color. Camera Raw Input. controls —color temperature and tint — let you interpolate between. Adobe Camera Raw takes a different approach. green. the raw image must be "demosaiced" to interpolate the missing channels for each pixel. Twice as filters many green are used as red or blue because our eyes are most sensitive to green light. Camera Raw and Color The demosaicing process profile to necessitates some assumptions about the colo- rimetric values of red. green. because they transmit Figure 12-21 more light. Second Edition sensitive to the wavelengths we are possible —some cameras use CMY still interpret as green. . color good any of the raw converters that rely on a single static profile most cameras respond very differently under tungsten and daylight. or even extrapolate beyond these two profiles — On the dozen or so cameras we've tried. one for D65. particularly in the approach allows us to get we find that the Camera Raw much more easily than we can with — blue channel. Camera Raw's White Balance see Figure 12-22. each element in the sensor simply records a brightness value in the raw file.376 Real World Color Management. To produce color. Other arrangements filters instead of RGB. But no matter how the color filters are arranged. In a Bayer Pattern color filter array. each photosensor is it Bayer pattern Color Filter Array filtered so that captures only red. Camera Raw contains not one but two built-in profiles. For each supported camera. the other for lUuminant A. and the dual-profile approach addresses this issue capably. and blue.

Chapter IS: The Adobe Common Color Architecture 377 Figure 12-22 ] Adjust^ Detail Camera Raw white balance controls .

from blue to yellow. The image above plotted (as squares) against the color gamut ofsRGB (shaded solid) If you really need camera raw output in a space that isn't supported by the Camera Raw plug-in. you as odd to ment as we admit anyone as fanatical about color managebeing would advocate a solution that relies on gethat neric profiles. runs almost straight toward runs from left to right. produced using Chromix ColorThink. The image above plotted (as squares) against the color gamut ofAdobe RGB These dark yellows and (1 998) (1998) (shaded solid) oranges lie outside the gamut ofAdobe RGB orsRGB. and any loss in the conversion from 16-bit/channel ProPhoto RGB to another space will be visually (and probably numerically) insignificant If it strikes —see Figure 12-24. bear in mind the following. Second Edition Figure 12-23 Color spaces and clipping The gamut plots below. from red to green. set it to produce a 16-bit /channel Pro Photo RGB image. you out of the page. the b* axis. plot color in Lab space. . Even an innocuous image like the one at right can contain colors that lie well outside the range thai either Adobe RGB (1998) or sRGB can represent. You're looking at a side elevation of the color space. with the Lightness axis running vertically. The a* axis. then convert that image to your working space of choice.378 Real World Color Management. unlikely that Pro Photo It's highly RGB will clip any visible colors.

Chapter 12: The Adobe Common Color Architecture 379 Figure 12-24 SpKf ^l#HuU> RGB Camera Raw workflow controls .


but if you want FreeHand to perform conversions at output time. a lot of testing.02 both exhibit bizarre behavior that defies detailed explanation (10. but we can't count color management as being among them.Color Management in Macromedia FreeHand 10 and 11 lip Capable but Quirky Macromedia must have a whole bunch of customers with an interesting variety of legacy needs. 3S1 . why they're even there. FreeHand has many strengths. intermittently unreliable RGB to CMYK convernot. FreeHand honors them without embedded TIFF images. but we'll concentrate on the ones that use ICC profiles. are and more often unreliable than We can report that an early binding workflow— placing CMYK images and using an assumed profile set in the Separations printer pop-up menu— don't trust provides decent soft proofing of placed and native content. If your workflow is to design in RGB and convert to CMYK at output time.3. FreeHand 10. and the onscreen previews of such conversions. as we do. and all CMYK elements are invariably assumed to be output CMYK. when running under Mac OS X Panther sions at output time. because Macromedia FreeHand doesn't have just one color management system. But at the time of publication. With most OSs.0 and 11. and lets you assign profiles to imported RGB RGB TIFF and JPEG imported profiles only in images. FreeHand works (or fails to work) as described in this chapter.x). Exactly how many it has depends on your point of view. with a brief overview of the others — if only so that you can wonder.

Freehand's Color Preferences The Preferences dialog box has a series of categories on the left-hand side. Likewise. we'll try to steer you clear of the shoals of confusion — so in and guide you to the safe harbor of smoothly functioning color management.382 Real World Color Management. bets are off. provide you good on-screen if and will pass the CMYK values unchanged to output. your work in previews. FreeHand offers plenty of opportunities for mistakes this chapter. final you do all FreeHand can with CMYK. all For any other workflow. the dialog box shown in Figure Figure 13-1 Preferences 13-1 appears. n^maii FreeHand Color Preferences dialog box Category Guide color: General Objea Text Swatches shows: Document hnpon Export Soelling O Container color ® Text color fl Auto-rename colors split color S Color Mixer/Tints panel uses Color managenrient box Colors Panels Redraw Sounds . Second Edition FreeHand's color management can serve you well. And even in these two simple workflows. When you select Colors.

Chapter 13: Color Management in Macromedia FrecHand 10 and 11 383 Figure 13-2 Color management types .

see no advantage to this method. and builds Color Tables based on existing ICC profiles. We and would be glad to see it removed from FreeHand. move on The Color Management Setup dialog box offers seven options (see Figure 13-3). The options offered are None. Separations printer. This type of color management is pointless. You don't lets manage their CMYK values for output. It depends on Kodak Digital Science or Apple ColorSync. Composite printer. it only looks in the /Library/ ColorSync /Profiles On other platforms. getting to the Setup dialog.) See "Named-Color Systems" in Chapter 18. you might as well just learn to use ICC color management. it ignores both subdirectories and aliases in the usual directories for profiles —so it doesn't. their on-screen meat and potatoes of this you color manage just Color manage spot colors preview.384 Real World Color Management. —on Mac OS X. and do no display compensation. This is where you select your current display profile doesn't get this information automatically from —FreeHand ICM or ColorSync. while FreeHand uses the newer post-May 2000 ones. to the contents of the Setup button. for example. the we need two checkboxes before course. find display profiles stored in the Displays subfolder in the Mac OS 9 all ColorSync Profiles folder. Building Color-Managed Workflows. Rebuild Color Tables uses the settings in Setup to build color tables for use with the Color Tables type of color management previously let's mentioned. Monitor simulates. Since you have to base the tables on ICC profiles anyway. Monitor. because they're hardwired based on FreeHand's built-in Pantone tables. these are the older pre-May 2000 tables. Kodak Digital Science and Apple ColorSync to cover Referring back to Figure 13-1. "None" literally means . neither embedded profiles nor assumed profiles get used for on-screen display. FreeHand 10 isn't particularly assiduous in looking for profiles folder. (In FreeHand 1 1 10. FreeHand 11 successfully finds profiles in legitimate locations. but since we told you not to use this feature. If you use this option. though they may be used for output. Second Edition Color Tables.

" is set to "Composite uses its printer. including improfile if they have an profiles in embedded — FreeHand sim- embedded imported CMYK. are always converted for display using the if Separations printer profile as source. The only CMYK-to-CMYK conversion FreeHand performs is to a composite CMYK select here used as the source profile for printer when "Composite simulates separations" is turned on — again." If you set Monitor simulates FreeHand built-in unmodifiable table as the source for display conversion of CMYK instead. it for all CMYK profile.Chapter 13: Color Manascmcnt in Macromedia FreeHand 10 and 11 385 Figure 13-3 Color Management Satup lasK Color Management Setup dialog box Motwtor MonitOf DSS60c<lnattvtI6l?i?90 J ]f simuUtn Sap^aBom prttHf SaparaUoni pnnur rmcm CCItl-2S-IS-2aO Mam. the all you CMYK content. then to the CMYK images. which CMYK content. however.xtt t^ Oafauk RC( irnaga $ouic» CoiofM«tch RCt ^^ ( Cawcal) ^HP you use either of the other options. RGB images are displayed by converting from their embedded profile or the "Default RGB image If source" profile to the Composite or Separations printer profile (depending on which one you choose display profile. This setting lets you choose a becomes the assumed source profile ported images. Separations printer. at print time. . in the Monitor simulates pop-up). Intent. and also affects RGB- to-RGB and CMYK-to-RGB conversions when the Composite printer is an RGB printer (and the output device is non-PostScript). If you print from FreeHand is an RGB device. This It affects RGB-to-CMYK conversions pop-up lets you specify a rendering intent for all conversions. This is the only rendering intent control FreeHand offers. TiMaitwa Ceteiimatrtc Advanced QCompotlW Compotita flmtilatei taparaltont printtr • 'r. the Separations printer profile is used as the source. As the CMYK source profile affects on-screen preview of CMYK native elements and placed to objects. even Monitor simulates to "None. even ply ignores profile.

to Relative Colorimetric. This checkbox only affects the output. But selecting an to printing— see "Printing. The enced profiles automatically assigned to imported RGB images If are refer- in the saved FreeHand document. profile selected here Default RGB image source. conversions use the rendering intent you specify under Intent. Second Edition Composite simulates separations. that's just the way it is. then absolute colorimetric rendering to go from Separation printer CMYK to the Composite printer space. assigned as the source. then converting the resulting Separations printer CMYK to the composite printer space. the "Convert RGB to process" checkbox in the FreeHand print dialog is ignored. All the so it's impossible to use perceptual or relative colorimetric rendering to go from the source profiles to Separation printer CMYK." Only subsequently If is placed images will use profile "B. you open the file on another workstation that doesn't have the profiles installed. for more information. Here grayed out. though it isn't printer. Even though the selected it's still grayed out when this box is unchecked.386 Real World Color Management. assigning the Separations printer CMYK profile to all CMYK content. If you select an RGB profile. You can temporarily check the box to change the it profile." RGB profile here is quite dicey when it comes later in this chapter." the display profile. If you want the composite printer to produce a reasonable simulation of the final separations." set in the you choose "None. we recommend that you set the Intent Composite you may select an RGB or CMYK profile for a composite printer. Monitor pop-up menu. set as the Composite printer profile. The is automatically as- signed to untagged imported RGB images rather than simply acting as the assumed profile. and then uncheck to ensure separation simulation does not profile is occur. There's no logical reason for this. you'll get a cryptic warning dialog listing the missing profiles when you open the . It makes the composite device simulate the separation printer by converting printer all non-CMYK content to Separations CMYK. you must check the "Composite simulates separations" checkbox previously described. but not embedded. not the on-screen preview. To select a profile here. We make this distinction because images imported while profile "A" is selected will retain profile "A" as their source if you subsequent- ly change the default RGB image source to profile "B.

and when printing native elements. Object Palette The Object palette space. of a currently selected imported RGB graphic (see Figure 13-5). Imported images will display and print the same from multiple workstations. the warning will no longer appear. . Once you relaunch FreeHand and reopen the Cawfl ) ( document. The default Image Source will be used for display and printing.tcc the prudent thing to do is make a note of the missing profiles. there's typically enough variation from display to display that you'll still get minor differences. Manual Assignments FreeHand offers only it one manual control. source will be used instead profile is — The dialog says that the default RGB image that means whichever default RGB image source document is selected in Preferences at the time the opened. Missing Image Sources The following RGB Image Sources »re not installed. Native in is RGB dis- elements are always treated as untagged play profile as their source profile. Note that this setting applies only to imported graphics. you need to calibrate monitors to the same standard. ColorMaichKCB. but native elements probably won't. as well as a —which you open by choosing Object from the Inspectors submenu of the Windows menu —shows you the type and color file pop-up menu showing the source profile. click the Cancel button. assuming the on two different workstations will print differently. then go find the missing profiles and install them. for assigning profiles to im- ported images. It's a major gotcha and oversight by Macromedia. Even then. annoying because the same have different RGB source To avoid major differences all assumed. nflur«13-4 Missing image sources Ifyou get this warning dialog. This native elements profiles FreeHand.Clupler 13: Color Managcmcnl in Macromedia FrccHand 10 and 11 387 document (see Figure 13-4). and applies exclusively to imported RGB images.

Second Edition ''O'C Figure 13-5 o Propcfties Y Object palette for RGB TIFF and for CMYK TIFF .388 Real World Color Management.

but it definitely isn't the Separations printer profile. RGB behavior is controlled by the Monitor simulates setting. RGB native elements use the Monitor profile as the as- sumed and RGB imported images use their assigned profile." If it's set to "Separations" or to "Compos- RGB objects get converted to the Separations or Composite printer profile. whether native or imported. The similarities end there. to monitor RGB. If it's set to "None. The three options produce EPS on Export as follows: CMYK. We haven't source. and both offer a "Convert colors to" pop-up menu containing three choicBoth EPS and es: CMYK. EPS and PDF PDF exporting have a Setup button to access their options. "RGB objects aren't color managed on export— the raw RGB values are simply written to the TIFF ite. files EPS. . RGB. simply have their raw values written into the EPS file. To create a CMYK print- ready PDF file.Chapter 13: Color Management in Macromedia FreeHand 10 and 11 389 Tip: Create Output-Ready CMYK PDF file Files. or CMYK and RGB. output-ready PDF you can place in your page-layout application. print a PostScript from FreeHand to disk —which that will make FreeHand color manage the output Acrobat Distiller (see "Printing. All CMYK objects. CMYK elements and images get converted pop-up in from the Separations printer profile to the display profile. But for the brave or foolish. respectively. to figure out been able what it is." later in this chapter) — then process the PostScript following the rules for printing file in and make a PDF Voil^. features more TIFF TIFF export is always to untagged RGB. far in the we'll document what we've learned thus hopes of shaming Macromedia into making FreeHand's Export rational in a future version of the application. or get an answer from Macromedia. This option produces an all-CMYK EPS. then to something we've been unable to determine — perhaps a hardwired internal space —and finally. and don't include it CMYK— will options for All CMYK export or profile embedding. The the Export dialog box for TIFF are limited. using the rendering intent set in the Intent FreeHand's Color Management Setup. is It doesn't matter if the entire content of your document controls in end up as an RGB TIFF. Both are then converted to an unknown CMYK destination.

Nothing is converted ues are exported for all images and elements. print dialog is a Separations checkbox. Imported RGB images use their assigned profile as source. RGB native elements are left unconverted. You get a mixed-mode PDE Imported CMYK images and CMYK native elements are unmodified. If anyone can provide a rational explanation for this set of Export be- haviors. and the raw RGB values are exported to the file. and are converted to an unknown RGB destination. Second Edition RGB. and are converted to CMYK. You also get a —raw val- CMYK and RGB. as well as RGB and CMYK native elements. and an unknown CMYK destination profile. Im- ported RGB images are exported unmodified with raw RGB values intact. check the Separations printer profile you selected in Color Man- . The three options produce PDF files on Export as follows: CMYK. RGB. we'd love to hear it! Printing FreeHand using color management is relatively straightforward. Imported RGB images are converted to CMYK using their embedded or assigned profile as source. Native and imported CMYK elements use the Separations profile as the assumed source. mixed-mode PDF. RGB native elements use an unknown source and unknown destination. In the If you to the Composite printer or to the Separations FreeHand portion of the it. CMYK and RGB. so their raw values are exported. This option produces a mixed-mode EPS. are left unmodified. and are also converted to an unknown RGB destination. Same as for RGB. PDF. Imported CMYK images. This option produces an all-RGB EPS. The main thing you need to do at print time is to tell FreeHand Printing from whether you're printing printer (see Figure 13-6).390 Real World Color Management.

Chapter 13: Color Management in Macromedia FreeHand 10 and 11 391 Figure 13-6 FreeHand Print dialog box .

FreeHand assumes that you're printing to an so you'll RGB raster device and produces exclusively RGB PostScript. Include invisible layers B Split complex paths OPI comments g Q Convert RGB Include to process DefMK [>*fwlt l/jki Maximum color steps Cancel ) f^-OK-^-j On Mac OS X. Second Edition Figure 13-7 Output Options Include invisible layers Print Prim setting: g] -t-Hormal ^ Setup [Separations Paper Setup Labels j4m 1 Output Options and Print lnii||«: I Split complex paths S Use PPO JB UserPrep file DOAPv None ™_ A Marks ™— Setup: Imaging tab [ Binary Include OPI comments g l_2 Separation names File IP Convert RGB to process color steps fi| Maximum ^ name and C Crop marks marks Q date Registration B Flatness Imaging Options ( Cancel ) up © O Emulsion down Emulsion @ 3 Positive image Negative image Output Options Objects: _.392 Real World Color Management. Be Careful you can produce good results using FreeHand's color management. and separate to final CMYK on output. most likely end up with a mess. set in the Print Center utility. Otherwise. If you need to export CMYK from FreeHand. make sure that any imported CMYK is already in the final print space. If you work in mixed RGB and CMYK. the default printer. the only way that works is to use the rather laborious process we describe in the Tip. or work in RGB If you're careful." features are currently unsafe at earlier in this chapter. FreeHand's Export any speed! . You can either work entirely in final CMYK. must be a PostScript printer. "Create Output-Ready CMYK PDF Files.

and . CorelDRAW settings are application-wide. so they apply to all open documents. but it doesn't support profile embedding in its own document format.Color in Management CorelDRAW 10 It Manages Everything But Its Own Files CorelDRAW has a rather clever user interface for color relatively obvious. it so doesn't do any CMYK-to-CMYK conversions except when you make a composite CMYK printer simulate the Separations printer. embed but the gaping hole in CorelDRAW's color these profiles in its own native files. one for RGB and one for it management to a specific files is to is that doesn't CMYK. CorelDRAW documents are always governed by only two profiles. JPEG. Like Macromedia FreeHand. CorelDRAW only performs conversions on output (with one exception —see "Manual Controls.PSD (Photoshop) formats. CorelDRAW sees CMYK as press-ready. Mac OS Finder Info) with the document —a kludge at best. 393 . management that makes the way it functions but its use of icons instead of menu options makes it a little hard to describe in writing. Also like Freelater in this chapter) or on export. and doesn't offer any other mechanism for recording the settings that apply document. It Hand. and associate them somehow (text file." supports embedded profiles in RGB images for import and export of TIFF. So the only way to color manage native CorelDRAW note the settings manually.

the cursor periodically changes into a hand. Second Edition Color Preferences Management You access the Color Management Preferences by going to Color Man- agement on the Edit menu in Mac OS 9 and X.394 Real World Color Management. Cick the icon to set Advanced options Generic - RGB Profile 7n . rollover help boxes appear. pause. a description of what the 14-2) . as does each of the arrows that serve to enable or disable color Figure 14-2 management in the direction of the arrow Mouse over in Color When you mouse over the icons and arrows. and on the Tools menu in Windows. Intemal RGB - Management dialog box This is the central color space that images are converted to and from.Prtni. This dialog box works a little differently than most. Figure 14-1 Color Management CorelDRAW Color Management dialog box SP2200 . you briefly hand is pointing to appears (see Figure Each icon has a description. As you move your If mouse around.Lust«r 1 440 @*^ c Custom (Currant MttinQS not uw*d) isr+R ( *=—' ) i CorelDRAW's Color Management dialog box uses icons and arrows to represent the color management workflow. The resulting dialog box shows a series of icons and arrows representing workflow (see Figure 14-1).

This isn't a conversion. so no display compensation in effect. These are presets —once you've configured to CorelDRAW to your liking. followed by the monitor. CMYK default. such as the settings RGB default. still although import. and hence their appearance. The ColorSync Workflow preset grabs from ColorSync. If you change the Internal RGB profile while working on a document. we've found the behavior to ColorSync panel be inconsistent. At least on Mac OS X. By it's effectively disabled since profile is the same as the Monitor profile. you'll them what you used for Internal RGB. In addition. It's and scanner conversions can happen. and the in the current display profile. profile. once on the icon. doesn't embedded into CorelDRAW documents when you save. so don't rely on making changes without also going into Corel's Color Management dialog to the profiles you want are selected. click once on the black arrow below the icon the device/ feature you want to change. important to understand that Internal all RGB is the assumed RGB It source profile for get RGB it content. Internal default RGB its is The center icon represents the RGB editing space used in CorelDRAW. then clockwise from there. both native and imported. the color behavior of all RGB content is profile updated immediately to reflect the new but a change to the assumed profile— so the numeric values for RGB content don't change —but their color meaning. We'll describe make sure each settings icon — including any advanced features— starting with the center icon. does. export. If bottom is a Style pop-up menu. you can click the "+" button save your settings as a preset. and a pop-up menu of available —CorelDRAW finds ICC profiles profiles appears on each platform. itself. that At the very you click on an icon and icon doesn't have advanced options. If you share pick a profile and use documents with others need to tell who also want to use color management. printer. so you need to consistently. When you click once on the Internal RGB icon vanced Settings dialog box (see Figure 14-3). three of the icons in their usual locations have advanced options that are accessed by clicking nothing happens.Chapter U: Color Management in CorelDRAW 10 395 for To select a profile. you get an Ad- .

2 or older) or 10. then the "Highlight display colors out of printer gamut" option becomes available. if you choose ColorSync. On Windows. CorelDRAW uses that CMM for all conversions. is If you have activated either of the arrows coming from the Composite or Separations printers. ngure 14-4 The Advanced Display Settings dialog lets you set the gamut warning and control the display of spot colors. When you chck on Monitor. RGB lets you set the renderCMMfor all conver- @ C*nat (^ ^ ia< )i K<*!i Rendering Intent. Rendering Intent Colorimetric control. affects all conversions except those going to the display profile for on-screen preview purposes is —Relative probably the best choice considering the lack of per-object Color Engine. It does exactly what the name imif the color can't be printed on the output device the display is plies — simulating. box . CMM you've selected in the Coland if you choose Kodak Digital orSync control panel (OS 9) or System Preferences (OS 10. On Mac OS.396 Real World Color Management. CorelDRAW superimposes a chosen warning color instead. the Advanced Display Settings dialog box appears (see Figure 14-4). the options are Microsoft ICM 2.3). Second Edition Figure 14-3 ecopttoM The Advanced Settings dialog box for Rendefing htent: Internal RGB: Advanced Settings dialog box Apple CohirSync 3 j 3 i^ Internal ing intent and sions. CorelDRAW uses the ColorSync Utility>Preferences (OS X Science CMM. Monitor This where you select the profile for your display. Color Engine lets you choose a CMM.0 CMM or Kodak Digital Science CMM.

ignores On CMYK import. show how those CMYK builds would output on custom the simulated printer. Composite Printer This can be either an RGB or CMYK profile. note that this dialog pertains only to RGB. CorelDRAW supports ftill RGBto-RGB and CMYK-to-RGB workflows. which then deactivates the row between Internal RGB and Composite printer. embedded profiles and uses the Separations Figure U-5 [Import/Export Senmgs The Advanced Import/ExportSettings dialog box lets you control profile on import and export. handling Advanced Import/ Export Settings dialog box IColorM*** - RCe lA<Kta -RCe(I*aSj o* O' C^D . colors It doesn't create CMYK builds for Pantone — it's an on-screen simulation only. CorelDRAW profile instead. To make the Composite printer simulate the Separations printer. Above all. If it comes from the Internal RGB icon.Chapter U: Color Management in CorelDRAW 10 397 What determines whether the on-screen simulation is based on the Composite or Separations printer profile is whether the arrow to the Monitor icon comes from the Composite or Separations printer icon. click on it once and you'll get the Advanced Import/Export Settings dialog box (see Figure 14-5). no profile is selected for this icon. the software just performs display profile to the display profile. This option displays spot colors us- ing their Pantone-specified process equivalents (which are pre-May 2000 CorelDRAW 10) piped through the Composite or Separations printer profile (used as the source profile). and then to the display profile (used as the destination profile) to . click on the large curved arrow at the bottom of the Color Management dialog. ar- Import/Export By default. compensation from the Internal RGB Map spot colors in into CMYK gamut.

and converts the im- age to the Internal idea. Needless to say. The profile It's here is used as the source profile for all CMYK content. This option embeds the Internal RGB profile in exported RGB files. we don't think this is a good profile in problem with the embedded an image. Import: Ignore embedded ICC profile. If untagged you choose "None" then it assumes the Internal RGB images. Separations Printer This setting accommodates only CMYK profiles. tings profile" Import: Use the embedded ICC profile. This option ignores embedded ICC profiles. This option ignores the embedded profile. This option makes CorelDRAW use embedded profile as the source profile for tagged RGB images. If there's a it RGB space. doesn't convert the image. correct in the originating application. RGB profile. at print —this profile which we discuss in "Printing. are converted to Internal through Acquire Image images that come in RGB when Internal RGB and Scanner/ Digital Camera are set to different profiles. and no conversion occurs." later in this chapter.) . substitutes the selected profile as the source profile. used also you choose used as the destination profile for the conversion that takes place when you print to time the Separations printer. profile for Import: Always convert using. CorelDRAW converts images to the Internal RGB images. Export: Internal Embed Scanner/Digital Select a profile here to Camera be used as the source profile for acquiring All images from the File menu's Acquire Image command. The others are potentially dangerous. Second Edition The ICC first options in the import and export sections ("Use embedded are the set- and "Embed Internal RGB profile. RGB profile. and assumes the Internal RGB profile. (Which profile or the Composite printer is —depends on settings in the printer driver. and the profile that you choose here as the source for untagged From there." respectively) we recommend.398 Real World Color Management.

Chapter U: Color Management in CorelDRAW 10 399 Tip: Check Your Output Conversions. Make absolutely certain that the arrow between Internal RGB and Separations Printer is turned on. Instead. For the Composite printer. When importing a file with an embedded the "Extract profile. or Corel- DRAW won't use ICC color management for its RGB to CMYK conversions. it will use a built-in table whose separations are uncontrollable and usually pretty hideous. for the same reason. embedded ICC profile" checkbox is enabled. you're you save the profile embedded image. File files into CorelDRAW is fairly straightforward once you know The Import dialog box appears when you choose Import from the menu (see Figure 14-6). If you check this box. Figure U-6 EmMi: [ AM FHt Fonnatf Import dialog box 53 © Ntwwfk ^SmackUp [U>C« Tt«t lm>9«i ^ ColorMacMnc . then immediately after clicking the Import button for presented with a Save dialog box that in the lets this dialog. Importing Importing the rules. make sure that either the arrow from Internal printer is RGB or the large curved arrow from the Separations activated.

you do mode changes on already-imported bitmap images. JPG. and even does let from RGB or CMYK to LAB.400 Real World Color Management. Untagged RGB images use Internal RGB as their assumed profile. The profile you choose pop -up menu is used as the source profile for the conversion is — the destination profile always the Internal RGB profile. PSD. Tagged RGB images then get converted on import to Internal RGB. CMYK to RGB. then choose RGB Col- Mode submenu on the Bitmap menu. select an RGB image. Export Settings to use TIFF. CorelDRAW honors embedded (if you've configured the and uses them as the source profiles Advanced Import/ tested TIFF. embedded (Corel profiles) in the following file formats: and CPT PHOTO-PAINT). profiles RGB importing. always assumes the Separations printer profile as the source for any im- ported For CMYK. and we're confident that those formats are reliable. However. but doesn't retain them upon import. RGB profile to the Separations To convert CMYK to RGB. as the exInstead. JPEG. The imto age gets converted from the Internal printer profile. We've and PSD. which opens the Profile dialog Apply ICC in the box (see Figure 14-7). RGB to RGB. Second Edition CorelDRAW does ample see embedded it profiles in CMYK images. then choose Apply ICC from the Mode submenu on the Bitmap menu. Manual Controls CorelDRAW has no manual it controls for per-object profile assignment. ignoring the embedded profile. it figure shows. then choose CMYK from the Mode submenu on the Bitmap menu. such as from RGB to CMYK. To convert Profile RGB to RGB. The image gets converted from the Separations printer profile to the Internal RGB or (24-bit) from the profile. select a CMYK image. select an RGB image. To convert RGB Color (32-bit) CMYK. .

" you get a hardwired separation instead of one that's ICC based. . effects it Figure U-8 iUMpExport ^AwlylCCproM. You can choose the Composite or Separations printer profile as the destination using the radio buttons — CorelDRAW also displays the name of the specific profile. When exporting RGB. and this is true.: Bitmap Export and EPS Export dialog boxes: Color Q^ ||A|pttCCpraMi ~f (J) CofnpaM* pnntar proM« Q Sapvaum* pmUr (IMCH Odll'ZS'aS'ZSO) profit* Management options H »iii»«M. This control has varying depending on just what you're exporting. At export time. which contains an "Apply ICC profile" checkbox (see Figure 14-8). the Bitmap Export dialog box appears. {^D r 300 ffl ® C^DC Color management in Bitmap and EPS Export The EPS Export dialog box contains a Color Management section (see Figure 14-8). If you don't check "Apply ICC profile." CorelDRAW will embed the Internal RGB profile in the supported formats. Exporting The previously described Color Management Advanced Import/Export Settings dialog box implies that if you select "Embed Internal RGB profile.Chapter U: Color Manascment in CorelDRAW 10 401 Flsurc ^k•7 ApH» ICC >fO<ll« The Apply ICC Profile dialog box lets you choose a source profile for conver- Apply ICC Profile »if|«>i»l OlplMI— lw»nt«i>«C*^r^O«<w dialog box sions to Internal RGB. seems to have no effect.

and is when checked. the separations." first option on the upper-left corner is "Print is When this is unchecked.402 Real World Color Management. However. JPEG. PDF. un- to-RGB conversions at print time der the Separations tab. The PDF format isn't an export format option. Piece of cake. on your composite uncheck "Print separations. Otherwise you'll get a remarkably ugly hardwired conversion to CMYK. at least as far as Photoshop and Enfocus PitStop Pro are concerned. PSD (Photoshop). but CorelDRAW offers a Publish To PDF command on the File menu." and select the large curved arrow that goes from the Separations printer to the Composite printer in the Color Management dialog box. CPT (Corel PHOTO-PAINT). CorelDRAW doesn't embed ICC profiles in PDF. Since we get no profile mismatch warning when opening an exported CDR file. To produce simulations of the Separations printer printer. JPEG. and CDR (CorelDRAW). not the profile itself. . The CDR format doesn't even appear as an export format option. even with an Internal bedded in the RGB profile that doesn't match what should be emdocument. fairly The first option selects the Separations printer profile Composite printer profile or as the destination for RGB-to-CMYK or RGB(see Figure 14-9). It RGB TIFF. Second Edition When you select CMYK Color from the Color pop-up menu. the options in the Print dialog are straightforward. Printing For color-management purposes. EPS. EPS files only seem to contain a reference to the profile. Profile Embedding states that the The documentation supported export formats for em- bedding profiles are TIFF. we can't tell whether or not a profile is really embedded. the Composite printer profile it's the destination. and PSD never embeds profiles in CMYK exports. the Separations printer profile the destination. We can confirm that CorelDRAW does embed profiles in files. In the Print dialog. the document is converted to CMYK using Internal RGB as the source and the Separations Printer profile as the destination is —but only if "Apply ICC profile" checked.

^1 Separations tab 51 .Chapter ^k: Color Manascmcnt in CorelDRAW 10 403 Figure 14-9 Print dialog box: T-T .

" if you don't select RGB from the "Output color bitmaps as" pop-up. your images get converted to CMYK or grayscale instead. So relatively easy to export color is to keep track. cording to the Color It successfully color manages exports acsettings Management and a simple set of rules for a limited set of file formats. The CorelDRAW is its Color Management dialog box user interface. but native elements biggest plus for CMYK may not turn out the way you want. The glaring weakness that it doesn't embed the profiles that define RGB and CMYK into managed content from CorelDRAW.kOk Real World Color Management. You can print to built in RGB printers. of the RGB and CMYK profiles you used to create the document. but the only way to manage CorelDRAW files themselves its it's own documents. using color management for on-screen previews and proofing. Strengths and Weaknesses CorelDRAW lets you work entirely in CMYK. manually. Second Edition Second. Even if you select an RGB profile for the Composite printer and it appears under "Apply ICC profile. . you must pay attention to the "Output color bitmaps as" pop- up menu if you want RGB output.

QuarkXPress 3 effectively lacks built-in color management. In this chapter we'll look at solutions for the most common QuarkXPress output workflows: destinations. we cover QuarkXPress 3. spot colors. proofing. simulating spot colors with RGB or CMYK builds. we have effec- tive solutions for all three versions. those capabilities have improved surprisingly little in the intervening decade. and the third-party solutions we discuss work with all three versions. though some capabilities way back in the early 1990s. In this chapter. So fear not. unchanged.1 are essentially QuarkXPress particularly annoying bugs have been fixed. the Web. so we can't ignore it. QuarkXPress is still very much the 800-pound gorilla. QuarkXPress 5 offers color-management capabilities that are generally useful. and spot-to-process. RGB output and miscellaneous —grayscale and duo- tone images. The color management 6. but we find a certain irony in the fact that despite be- ing one of the first applications to offer color. and the QuarkXPress 4 CMS lies somewhere between almost-usable and totally maddening. with capabilities in some annoying limitations.Color Management n QuarkXPress Incremental Improvements In print production.32r5 through QuarkXPress 6 because many sites still use older versions of it. CMYK output destinations. 405 .

because their actual color appearance depends on the output —a CMYK build won't look the same on newsprint as builds in it will in a magazine. es. Note that with color management turned off in QuarkXPress. same numbers in QuarkX- and not worrying about display discrepancies —they'll print the OK same even if they look different. Consider creating your CMYK an application such as Photoshop or Illustrator. Turn Off QuarkXPress 3 profile format. triand tone. unless you resort to a third-party XTension such as Compass Pro XT (which we three discuss later in this chapter). elements you import into your QuarkXPress documents art. You need to do this anyway with grayscale. the safe and simple way to handle color management in QuarkXPress All the is to turn it off. never worked well. vector —imag—must be "print-ready" and already converted to final CMYK. entirely on the black CMYK images. so it CMS (Mac OS Only) in- QuarkXPress 3. . if enjoy exercises in Turning color management off is the only practical solution in QuarkXPress 3. the EFIColor folder. they'll either separate poorly or plate. the most recent and last version of QuarkXPress 3.3. output Any CMYK device colors specified in the Color palette must also be output- ready. etc." It predated the ICC used its and you is best avoided— try finding software for making EFIColor profiles futility.2r5. duotone. you can't use RGB images and native elements —because while wind up they'll often look onscreen. quadtone images. Second Edition Turning It Off The simplest way of doing something is usually the safest. you need to delete components on the Macintosh: the EFIColor system extension. own proprietary profiles. If you use early-binding workflows. print according to the numbers in the but often look like neon onscreen. To do so. on the other hand. all of which must be targeted specifically for the output method in question before you place them into QuarkXPress. and the EFIColor XTension. file. cluded a color management system called "EFIColor. then simply using the Press.406 Real World Color Management. and often the most efficient.

folder. It works in conjunction with ColorSync on Mac OS. and let you convert them to a CMYK or Hexachrome destination (with no control over or rendering intents). this isn't a bad thing because you can be certain or QuarkXPress 3. Essenei- there's no built-in color management QuarkXPress 3. It's ifery importantthat you do this while documents are closed.11 has qualify as a lifetime employment program for the Orkin enough bugs to man. but they still have enough be considered dangerous. . 1 don't have as many problems. version has no built-in color management in whatsoever.32 will send the is. In a way. QuarkX- Press 4. will color manage any CMYK TIFF and native colors from the Color palette.04 to and 4. CMYK values in the document as without massaging the data QuarkXPress 4 QuarkXPress 4 includes the Quark CMS XTension. The Windows tially.Chapter 15: Color Management in QuarkXPress 407 Turn Off QuarkXPress 4. then go to the Edit: Preferences: window and uncheck "Color Manageall ment Active. but the limitations aren't The real problem that QuarkXPress 4. and it is. It sounds is limited.32 on ther platform. the built-in in QuarkXPress 3 for Macintosh — get before it hurts you. found inside the QuarkXPress application Built-in Color Management CMS rid of it We've already told you the bad news about EFIColor. the issue. and ICM 2 on Mndows 98 and higher. 5 and 6 Color Management Preferences CMS The first method is to close a// documents. which brings a certain ICC support. otherwise you only turn off color management for the foreground The absolute. In theory. RGB first." document. level of You need to be either brave or nuts before deciding to use the Quark it CMS RGB in this version of QuarkXPress. sure-fire 4 method of disabling color management in QuarkXPress and 5 is to physically remove the Quark CMS XTension from the XTensions folder.

QuarkXPress 5 The Quark CMS in QuarkXPress 5 is. and claims to it embedded profiles in RGB and it CMYK images. Untagged images. Profile. frequently use EPS or grayscale images. and the coverage of InDesign CS ter 12. however like InDesign CS it also doesn't color manage grayscale files. the "Composite Simulates Separation" option implies that QuarkXPress can cross-render final CMYK to a composite printer for proofing. Chap- The Adobe Common Color Architecture. you can't really use the "Composite Simulates Separation" feature because some content proofs correctly while other content is left untouched by QuarkXPress. however. when embed- you change the Default Source Profile. CMS problems: QuarkXPress 4 sees. in the Profiles tab. but we're so. all A cautious and bugs person might be able to incorporate of the limitations into an effective workflow using the Quark CMS. hard-pressed to think of any real benefits to doing potential for disasters. unlike InDesign CS. Second Edition Here's a short laundry list of QuarkXPress 4.408 Real World Color Management. according to Chris." It doesn't support color management of EPS. If you considering the need built-in color management for specific features such as soft proofing. we recommend reading the next sections in on QuarkXPress 5 and 6's CMS. but doesn't actually use them.1 1 use. will use the new Default Source Separations from RGB to CMYK produce different results depending is on whether the source profile embedded. then upgrading to either of those packages. or manually selected in the Profile Information palette. In the Print dialog box. for proofing. imported images with ded profiles (which QuarkXPress ignores) continue to use the Default Source Profile that was in effect at the time they were placed as their source profile. it makes no difference in output. To make matters a little more complex. uses the Default Source Profiles. And while QuarkXPress 5 supports RGB output device profiles in . Whether the option is checked or not. Instead. "nearly usable. It can't. These are limitations of which If you you need to be aware.

but The option isn't only using relative colorimetric rendering. . Certain combinations of profiles produce The discrepancies of 5%-10% compared in to using the same profiles. QuarkXPress disables "Composite Simulates Separation" is when one is selected. The following features all appear to work Soft proofing: reliably: The Quark CMS properly displays RGB and CMYK im- ages. built-in proofing only available for CMYK Composite devices. RGB image uses a wide gamut —as the source Because of the uncertainty that surrounds this particular issue. includes proofing. Therefore. Automation & Scripting. is For such workflows. Unless you change this setting prior to image place- ment in preferences. a so- lution that effectively handles all content needed —such as Compass we discuss in Pro XT. or when importing the CMYK images are is not color managed. and some scanner profile. In is our experiments. the most the likely sus- pect to trigger this problem when RGB profile profiles —such as Wide Gamut RGB. This very tedious and probably impractical for many workflows unless the job was originally created with color management for CMYK content in mind. we can't recommend using the Quark CMS for RGB-based workflows. That image. Hard proofing: The Quark CMS "Composite Simulates Separations" feature lets you produce proofs on a composite PostScript printer. CMMs. a major practical problem is that to by default placed CMYK images are set to no color management CMYK destinations. and other settings Photoshop. or some of the solutions Chapter 17. to biggest question mark with the version 5 Quark CMS is in regards RGB-to-CMYK conversions. available for non-PostScript printers. including the ability to simulate the output from the composite or separation printer onscreen.Chapter 15: Color Management in QuarkXPress 409 the Composite Output pop-up menu. ProPhoto RGB. But at the same time. However. discussed in this chapter. we can't not recommend using it at all. After image placement the only option "Color to check Manage to CMYK Destinations" in the Profile Information palis ette for each image.

QuarkXPress 6. RGB-to-RGB conversions: for RGB workflows with RGB source images outputting to RGB destinations. even seemingly small things like automat- ically OS are still not implemented. if also easy to configure for soft proof- you have a CMYK workflow and that's all you care nor PDF/X-3 you'll need a utility that can bring the appropriate PDF/X compliance level to your grabbing the display profile from the PDFs. lost its ability to But QuarkXPress hasn't annoy the color management aficionado either. Embedded profiles in other formats are ignored. with the profiles we've tested. ing only. QuarkXPress 6 The QuarkCMS in QuarkXPress 6 has essentially the same limitations and bugs as QuarkXPress files 5. which is obviously potentially dangerous. No third-party product is capable of bringing customizable soft proofing to QuarkXPress. and it are profiles. . The most useful feature by far is soft proofing.1 fixes at least now found in all of the locations in on Mac OS X. however Enhance Preview XT does produce a close SWOP simulation. including subfolders. it can be helpful to many workflows. PDF has the same color QuarkXPress export management capabilities as — printing.410 Real World Color Management. QuarkCMS continues to be relatively simple to use if your requirements are simple because by default it treats It's untagged and tagged CMYK the same. With the caveat that only TIFF. but it can produce neither PDF /X. Once ignored the Default profiles apply instead. Prowhich profiles can be stored correctly resolves aliases of is One other problem that seems to be fixed that RGB-to-CMYK conversions now match those of Adobe applications. CMYK-to-RGB is also supported. Second Edition CMYK-to-CMYK conversions: used for repurposing images for output processes other than the ones for which they were originally separated. minus the effect of all Black Point Compensation. and native colors used in the Color palette are color managed. Embedded Profiles: QuarkXPress 5 both recognizes and uses embedded profiles in TIFF only. PICT. Besides glaring problems like ignoring files in embedded pro- formats other than TIFF. Neither are color managed. IPEG. one problem.

bar reads. title you have one or more documents and the Management Preferences for <documentname>.level color- Measurements Rendering Intent: ' management preferences. CMS Layers Default WIeb Layo lyout General —I U Display Simulation: I Separation Output Color Space you set the preferences for the foreground ( CarHiel ) document instead. To set the application-level color. "Color If preferences. The bar then reads. Ifyou Paragraph Character Tools choose Color ^ Color Manage RGB Sources to RGB Destirtations Trapping k Management Preferences when one or more documents are open.Chapter 15: Color Management in QuarkXPress 411 Color Manasement Preferences Pay particular attention to the behavior of the Color Management Prefer- ences window. title find the QuarkCMS option in the QuarkXPress>Preferences. Fraction /Price Rendering Intent: ^ JH Projea XML Import Images: Profile: f Default Print Layout General CbtorMatch Rffl Rriitive Colorinnetric you set the global application. the preferences apply only to the foreground document." This application-level setting serves as the default settings for any newly created documents." The Color Management Preferences window is where you configure the Quark CMS (see Figure 15-1). We'll now decode it for you: Flsurc 15-1 Preferences is the same in QuarkXPress 5 QuarkXPress Color Application U Color Management Active Management Preferences Display Interactive ^^-Destination Proftlet Save Monkor Composite Output Separation Output f OSS 60bd nativel 61 23296: Undo XTensions Manager Font Mapping avenue. On QuarkXPress 6 on Mac OS X. The interface and 6.quark File Ust Default F^th Full Res Preview ' Cmcy aCSOO/EFI Prlntef US. "Color Management Preferences. . Whb Coated (SWOP) v2 ^—Otfauk Source Profiles- CMYK -Solid CokM-s: Profile: ' ' Browsers Index Hexachrome \~ >bberwocky PDF Placeholders CblorMatch RGB Rdetive Colorirnetrlc When you choose Color Management Preferences with no documents open. you must choose Edit:Preferences:Color Management with no documents open.

This may not sound like a it problem. CMYK. . is Destination Profiles. Monitor: This play profile. spective tabs. is where you set your current dis- The Quark CMS doesn't grab your display profile from the operating system automatically. Second Edition Color Management Active checkbox: This turns color management on and off. The Rendering you use "Get Intent pop-ups serve as default rendering intents when We usually set all of the tabs to Relative Colorimetric for RGB and CMYK images. the Quark CMS uses the Composite Output profile. Picture" to place images.412 Real World Color Management. In workflows with a contract proofing device that simulates the press. such as a printing press. For images. Separation Output: This ration device. but in nonit press workflows may be your final output device. Default Source Profiles. QuarkXPress doesn't let you select RGB output device profiles as Default Source Profiles. Composite Output: This the profile for In your composite workflows. and Absolute Colorimetric for CMYK Solid Colors. most the local color printer used for proofing. it's printer. Relative Colorimetric for RGB Solid Colors. It can be an RGB or CMYK printer. you'll want to specify the press profile here as well as in the Separa- tion Output pop-up —proofing systems and presses are effectively the is same device in these workflows. The way it's actually triggered for making conversions in the at print time is by check- ing the "Separations" checkbox QuarkXPress Print dialog —see Figure 15-6. RGB. you can use either the Get Picture dialog box or Profile default. Destination Profiles. When unchecked. will but if you open a legacy document three months from now. they affect Information palette to specify a profile other than the Default Source Profile. including a display profile that probably bears no relationship to the current one. Destination Profiles. in this the profile for a sepaprofiles that The only appear pop-up menu are CMYK and six-channel profiles. its have own color management preferences associated with it. and Hexachrome: Within the reimages and you can select default source profiles for solid colors. By untagged images and all solid colors.

passes CMYK values directly to CMYK output with no conversion. Therefore." when unchecked. and the setting also prevents placed CMYK images from proofing to CMYK destinations. rather than to any RGB destination. At the same time. you can disallow RGB-to-RGB all conversions. assuming RGB content is output-ready. repurposes the images for newsprint. For example. RGB-toCMYK conversions for output and onscreen simulations are still al- lowed to happen." completely disables Display Simulation for those images as well. if you uncheck "Color Manage RGB Sources to RGB Destinations. Trumatch. The models affected are RGB. in RGB output workflows. Conversely. In another example.Chapter 15: Color Management in QuarkXPress 413 These are colors specified in the Color palette used for text. it conversions. shapes. color Solid Colors: management doesn't apply — instead. But they preview as if they would be converted. The monitor is an RGB destination. Toyo. . or backgrounds. but this checkbox effects would be a lot more useful if its were confined solely to RGB including the monitor. Color Manage RGB Sources to RGB Destinations/Color Manage CMYK let Sources to CMYK Destinations: These options you allow or disallow RGB-to-RGB or CMYK-to-CMYK conversions. LAB. And there's an annoying bug. they don't preview as they'll print to either RGB or CMYK output devices. or DIC colors. placing all images separated for SWOP. If you add Pantone. as one would expect. while still al- lowing CMYK-to-RGB But. Checking the box lets for you place images targeted one kind of color space or device and selecting a repurpose them for a different output device. you get the hardwired RGB or CMYK values specified in those palettes. printers. so the onscreen simulation is incorrect. then newspaper profile." Unchecking the box in the CMYK tab prevents CMYK images from being converted by the Quark CMS. and CMYK only. you could assume all CMYK images are "press ready. "Color Manage CMYK Sources to CMYK Destinations.

Adobe profiles such as ColorMatch RGB. you need to put copies of the main ColorSync Profiles folder aliases of ICC profiles don't U. Second Edition Hexachrome actually use is tab: A couple of aspects of the Hexachrome tab are a it bit misleading. Note that Display Simulation isn't wired to the "Separation" checkbox in the Print dialog that controls whether the Quark CMS converts it's to the Separation Output or the Composite Output profile.S. while the Profile Information palette applies to images that have already been imported. . among others. which a proprietary six-color ink set developed by Pantone. So sible for the display to simulate pos- one device when you actually intend to print to the other. Space makes the display simulate the Composite printer. Web Coated (SWOP) — work. Adobe If RGB and cess to those profiles them in v2. you want acfrom inside QuarkXPress. either.0 files. so profiles stored in subfolders er aren't visible. Separation Output Color Space makes the display simulate the Separations printer. which are the get only way we know of to save six-channel images first and them into QuarkXPress in the place! Display Simulation: This option tells QuarkXPress how the display simulation should function. we're confused by the presence of a Default Source Profiles tab to begin with since QuarkXPress doesn't color manage DCS 2. The Quark CMS only looks at the root level of the ColorSync profiles within the ColorSync Profiles fold- folder. This includes the Profiles and Recommended aliases to folders containing (1998). The controls in Get Picture apply when you're opening images for import. None means exactly that: don't simulate anything Composite Output Color on the display. Monitor Color Space means convert from the source profile to the display profile for display only. Second. Manual Controls QuarkXPress offers only two manual controls. First. should be named "Six-Color" because it will any six- color ICC profile— not just Hexachrome.414 Real World Color Management.

lSOiif RClpnninttI Itf Apptcadom AmhOSX % teytoMiho l. but the Color Man- agement tab contents remain grayed out unless you check the "Preview" checkbox in the upper-left corner of the dialog.lUMtt (If TrooKjUrcMMCOf TVP«: NCI tiff PttStU 147M* 6/27/04 1 St SI na Cater MMUft le *C> Ontkuttons ( Cancel Perhaps it's a small bug or user interface oversight. . if you wish.unkhottjrc Hibttcut tif you set the ij high/kfvtRCI) tif it mark ruitwriiKd mtd/graytRCailif >- assumed source profile and the rendering intent for the image. li PhoioOtM RCI urg*l frifKn Tett fM««l tif > OOCHNICINS % RCtpnmntsi. You can override these settings by selecting another profile from the pop-up list. The Profile pop-up menu snaps profile. and CMYK when you click on CMYK images. which then becomes the assumed source profile for the image. an extra tab called Color Management the bottom of the Get Picture dialog box. The "Color Manage to RGB /CMYK Destinations" checkbox reads RGB when you click on RGB images. or to to Embedded if if the image you select is has an embedded Default the image untagged. CttPKM* Get Picture dialog box EiuWt AN MadaM* DocuhmMS The Color Management tab lets t I darli. When color management active for the current document. You can override this here.Chapter 15: Color Management in QuarkXPress 415 Get Picture The Get Picture dialog box appears when you use the Get Picture comis mand from appears Figure 15-2 at the File menu (see Figure 15-2). The Rendering fault Intent pop-up snaps to the intent specified under De- Source Profiles in Color Management Preferences.

Profile Information You open the Profile Information palette by choosing Profile Information from theView menu with QuarkXPress 5 and earlier. As previously mentioned. Second Edition It has the same function as the checkbox found in Color Management Prefer- ences in the Default Source Profiles section. It applies only to the currently selected image. We recommend you review them.416 Real World Color Management. You'll find Show Profile Information in the Window menu Its controls offer identhe Get Picture dialog's Color tical functionality to Management tab (see Figure 15-3). and be careful. if you wish. You can override this here. In QuarkXPress 6. and it uses the settings specified there as defaults. the "Color Manage to RGB /CMYK Destinations" checkbox has some bugs. Figure 15-3 Profile Information O Profile Information palette .

the Print Colors pop.Chapter 15: Color Management in QuarkXPress 417 Flsurc 15-4 Print dialog box: Output tab WntUyputl mm Stytt: focfauH PKgts: All Coptts: / { t«»«« s*» ^^M With color manage- ment actii>e.up menu only shows the mode that matches the profile specified for the Composite printer .

Last. straight through to the composite printer. When unchecked. It always uses relative colorimetric rendering. you print composite you need to select your it's your imagesetter or platesetter RIP. When this is turned off. Print Figure 15-6 Print dialog box: Layout tab Print Style: ( Layout 1 Default All ~^Q Pages: Copies: l^^l limpHllpi^ CS ^ Setup Output . The potential gotcha is the "Color Man- CMYK Sources to CMYK Destinations" checkbox associated with each image. or Separations Output. so simulating the source white on your proof isn't possible. the composite profile is used. Second Edition You invoke XPress's built-in hard proofing by checking the "Composite Simulates Separation" checkbox in the Profiles tab of the Print dialog box.418 Real World Color Management. If and when checked the separations profile is used PostScript to final (see Figure 15-6). output profile as Composite Output when time to print. Which used as the destination? In the Layout tab of the Print dialog box a "Separations" checkbox. you may have noticed there are two pos- sible output one is is profiles: Composite Output. The CMYK values in the age image pass takes place. the CMYK image isn't color managed at all. so no simulation and certainly not least. including to the Composite Output device.

See the next section on Compass Pro XT more information. and 6 that sufficiently large gamut into It's you turn any profiled printer with a a proofing device. 4. so hard proofing using built-in color isn't in QuarkX- management applicable. FocolTone.Chapter 15: Color Management in QuarkXPress A19 Hard QuarkXPress 3 has no press simulation features. Focoltone. CMYK. and v6 for QuarkXPress 6. the built-in relies method works quite proofing solutions come in several forms. Without Vector Pro. v5 QuarkXPress 5. Compass Pro XT does a decent job of simulating solid colors. QuarkXPress 5 and 6's built-in method of producing hard if proofs on composite devices has some limitations: only. Vector Pro then outputs these customized. can simulate Pantone or Focoltone colors using hand-tuned RGB. discussed in 5 more detail below. to you see a demo of any products you're inthey'll meet your needs. and deploy- ment We recommend be sure that for terested in. you'll need to look for a third-party solution. support.praxisoft. color servers. Vector Pro. and the ones Press 4 don't work. Vector Pro. you'll want Vector Pro. can always use the "Color Manage you use TIFF images to CMYK Sources CMYK Desti- nations" option. and don't need to proof Pantone. Compass Pro XT's companion outputdevice-specific colors as Vector Pro palettes. including issues. which you can import into Compass Pro XT. Praxisoft's Com- pass Pro all XT XTension. have strengths and weaknesses. or Pantone. Compass Pro XT Compass Pro QuarkXPress XT. published by Praxisoft (www.2 for QuarkXPress 3 and 4. But if your workflow on EPS files. is an XTension for 3. or other named color systems. . but if you're looking for an extra level of accuracy. and offers an assortment lets of other useful features. Third. or other named color systems. for and the currently available versions are: v2. or multichannel builds. and self-contained proofing systems cost.

and despite decent documentation it and a fairly straightforward user interface. but also Pantone and Focoltone colors. and also PICT suspects. has a learning curve — it's not a point-and-print kind of system. QuarkXPress Color palette colors It also manages and CMYK (in RGB. This product is feature-rich. . even with the price breaks Praxisoft offers for purchasing multiple quantities. which it leaves untouched) properly to the desired des- tination. It's flexible enough workflow calling for this kind of functionality it to be used in virtually any from within QuarkXPress. JPEG. In larger organizations. proofers. The file types supports include not only the usual TIFF. modes) as well Illustrator EPS). and Compass Pro XT converts a// images (except for grayscale. features: Compass Pro XT It's offers three unique happy allowing multiple source profiles in a document: you can place images directly into your documents whether they're from totally Photoshop. Compass Pro XT can convert documents nation. each with own source profile. It's the only way to color it manage EPS files inside a page-layout proin- gram. you'll quickly find yourself in a price range comparable to that of the other solutions. LAB. EPS files. RGB output devices in including both RGB final output devices to and RGB . its digital cameras. a large-format Inkjet. value Cons. but as Pantone EPS (including colors. scanners. and CMYK colors It file. Second Edition Proi. You can mix and match RGB and CMYK images into the same layout. and Focoltone It doesn't. be it for any RGB or CMYK destiIt the Internet. however. so in an RGB-destination workflow. or a printing press. For individuals and relatively small organizations. can also convert documents for proofing purposes. LAB. even color manages EPSs or TIFFs embedded within an imported EPS It supports it RGB output lets device profiles. support PDF. this is probably If the least-expensive way to produce proofs with existing equipment. Not only does side color manage RGB. increases exponentially. so your lower-cost printer can simulate final output.420 Real World Color Management. all you color manage content versions of QuarkXPress. its you can also exploit other features offered by Compass Pro XT. or stock photography.

For those workflows that need a is more capable solution. converted to a specific output so you can rework those files instead of the originals. images and all.Chapter 15: Color Management in QuarkXPress A21 Another useful feature is the ability to make a duplicate of an entire QuarkXPress document. but color management capabili- though greatly improved in version 5 and 6. still have rather more than their fair share of quirks. . which use builds calculated for your specific press condition instead of the generic ones published in the Pantone Solid to Process Guide. you can make the Quark CMS work Compass well in many workflows. as long as you're aware of the limitations and occasional oddities. but enable RGB-to-CMYK You conversions to catch the occasional RGB image that slips through. XPress well supported both by XTensions such as Pro XT and by external color servers. The 800-Pound ties. or send profile — the press-ready duplicate back to the originator. and rebuild solid-to-process colors correctly as a standard operating procedure. you can disable all CMYK-to-CMYK conversions. can also take advantage of Compass Pro's solid-to-process conversions. to the service bureau. Even hard-core CMYK-only output workflows going to known specific presses can take advantage of this XTension. or to the printer. One last note is that the features in Compass Pro XT are extremely customizable. Gorilla still QuarkXPress dominates the page-layout market despite some its stiff competition from Adobe's InDesign. Get a copy for each workstation that does preflighting to weed out RGB images that haven't been separated yet. Nevertheless. For example.


Over the years.Color Management and PDF The Wave of the Future "Once upon a time. or even have any knowledge of. so you're doubly on the bleeding edge when you deal with management in PDF. but anything of work. management. no wait. So much promise. sometimes). PDF is much bigger than just Acrobat real story is —many PDF workflows don't even use Acrobat—so the is about PDF. "it's it's likes figure out just what it is good for. We won't attempt to compete v^th the variety of excellent books and primers on PDF. PDF workflows can most of which bring numerous benefits and numerous pitfalls. there was a great Chris's initial thought . so many problems (just like color management. the various 423 .. The Portable Document Format (which for) is what types PDF stands designed as a platform-neutral container for all of digital content.. wrong story" is often when the subject of PDF arises. worthwhile usually involves a fair bit PDF has been touted as the solution to so many different problems— as Bruce to a dessert topping and a floorwax" — that often been hard to say. We color can tell you a but there are still a huge number of unknowns. allowing that content to be distributed without requiring the recipients to possess. we'll ignore in this chapter. instead we'll simply give you a status report on the interaction between PDF and color lot. Why a chapter on PDF and not on Acrobat? First.

and in some ways it is. but we mention the others for the sake of completeness. The Flavors of PDF Unlike PostScript.4. It 5.424 Real World Color Management. lacking any mechanism for supporting ICC profiles. PDF 1. but to do to talk so. the Portable an open one Adobe publishes current versions of the specification so vendors can decide which aspects of each version they want to implement. This flexibility is a mixed blessing for print publishers. This is the version of PDF produced by Acrobat 3. and it's completely ICC-unaware. and the equally important but often-overlooked usage half. PDF 1.2. the version of PDF produced by Acrobat 5. supports the embedding of ICC profiles on a per-object basis. lie along with transparency and a host of other features that the scope of this book.3. We intend to focus primarily on the usage of PDF in a color management context. This is the highest version of PDF produced by Acrobat 4. PDF Versions There are four basic versions of the PDF specification: we're primarily interested in only one of them. and It the default for Distiller 5. we first need about the various flavors of PDF that interest us. outside . and the highest version produced by Distiller too supports ICC profiles. This is PDF 1. so much of the on- going effort in developing standards for PDF workflows involves defining is subsets of PDF features that define what and is not allowable in PDFs designed for print workflows. It's important to keep in mind that there are two halves to PDF: the file format half of PDF that gets most of the attention. This the color is the version of PDF that's most interesting to management world. but there's also a method to the madness. Second Edition applications that generated the various components in the document. Sounds is Document Format — like a recipe for chaos.

for example. Any is device-dependent." which means object that doesn't reference an ICC profile as: they're considered device-independent. and thus history is in order. CRD for short. The other is used as so there's a destination profile (PCS to device) called a Color Rendering Dictionary. etc. tion. a separate CRD for each rendering intent. each object references in its of having the profile embedded the object— so source profile instead with Adobe six objects RGB (1998) as their source profile don't cause six copies of Adobe RGB six (1998) to be embedded in the PDF. PDF supports multiple objects (images both vector text. enhancements to encryp- and again all sorts of things outside the scope of this book. PDF can contain — and each object can have an ICC profile associated with it as long as that mode supports ICC profiles. and is built-into RIPs with PostScript version 2017. PostScript Color PostScript's Management its color-management philosophy has affected PDF's color-manbehavior. Post- Script profiles are always unidirectional. or . better compression including IPEG2000. Acrobat 6 Standard and Professional this specification.Chapter 16: Color Management and PDF will 425 PDF 1. PostScript color management predates ICC-based color management. denoted / and greater. /DeviceCMYK. Rendering intent is set at the time the profile is embedded and at least is not related to the default rendering intent in the ICC not profile. destination profiles are embedded in PDF documents. Other noteworthy items.). each with objects in different color modes. shapes. a different source profile. backgrounds. have multiple RGB. or CSA for short. CRDs only contain a single rendering intent. CMYK. To minimize file size. so a little agement philosophy. Embedded and bitmap— as well as profiles. and /DeviceGray. You could. not yet. two One profile is used as a source profile (device to PCS) called a Color Space Array. as the case may be. These objects have a color space called "ICC-Based. so there are always at least profiles for an output device. transparency. but rather just one copy referred to times. It produce PDF con- forming to supports ICC profiles. Also. and grayscale objects.

3 and higher. CSAs but not CRDs. using a specified or default rendering intent. Enter PDF which uses ICC profiles. its In theory. 1. the exception rather than the rule. Adobe created a mechanism whereby with PDF 1 . and all all the ICC source profiles Script into PDF. Where do CSAs and CRDs it's live? The usual location CSAs and CRDs is in the RIP itself. you usually end up with a mess (the fact that the most common page-layout program. and real- all-too-common for built-in to have no basis in ity either as assumed source profiles or as descriptions of the behavior of the output device in question.426 Real World Color Management. When you print a PDF to a PostScript printer. Recent products —in particular. establish a relationship between device values and PCS values. though. But that's more reasonable RGB CSAs and so the printers can receive still RGB graphics and convert them properly to printer CMYK. QuarkXPress. PostScript color management operates in the same way ICC-based color color management does: CSAs and CRDs. can't produce either CSAs or CRDs doesn't help). each object gets own CSA (source profile) and is also tagged with the CRD that should be used (because the CRD controls the rendering intent). The RIP then CRDs in the PostScript file instead of the built-in ones. the you create a PostScript stream that contains built-in CRDs are used. and the management system uses the information they contain to convert the device values. Then the RIP uses each CSA and included CRD to perform color space conversions in the RIP. not PostScript color management. Second Edition Fundamentally. . and as well. In practice. profiles and CSAs can be interchanged when the document is converted from PostScript to PDF and vice versa. it's turned back into PostScript. PostScript to PDF.3. PDF to PostScript. The other location is uses the CSAs and If in the PostScript print stream itself. When you convert PostCSAs are converted into ICC profiles. and any CRDs are simply tossed into the bit-bucket. still CRDs When it comes to implementing such a system. like profiles. out that some RIPs ignore CMYK CSAs altogether. newer color laser printers—have CMYK CRDs. become PostScript CSAs. you quickly find others ignore CSAs in others ignore the print stream and use only built-in CSAs. so the resulting conversions are frequently hideous.

4. This version. defined in ISO 1 5930. that fall under the umbrella of International Standard ISO 15930 as follows: PDF/X. If — maybe you should write a book! PDF/X PDF many different types of digital content. you're sys- we recommend avoiding PostScript color management it unless reli- one of the handful of people who've already gotten you have. life is rarely that simple. defined in ISO 15930-3:2002.1 a:200 1 This version. . PDF/X isn't just Instead. it one standard. It is spec. Distiller 5 either converts the CSA into an ICC profile or ignores it entirely. allows device- independent color. so 1. . It's and hence all and fonts must be embedded. is for "blind transfer" of print data in press-ready form — the PDF designed itself contains all the elements needed to print. Did the we say "standard"? Of course. As with images PDF/X-la:2001. has several different conformance 1 levels.1 :200 1 . With the possible exception of thoroughly troubleshot proofing tems. ally similar to isn't functionit PDF/X-3 but allows for externally referenced data. congratulations to work ably. but explicitly prohibits the use of transpar- also a pure subset of PDF/X-3:2002. This version. It's 1. depending on the Distiller color settings. defined in ISO 15930-2:2003. and uses portions of PDF PDF/X-3:2002. and while PDF/X bandwagon continues to gather momentum. Untagged device dependent data it's is also allowed. Color must be all CMYK (plus optional spot) only.3 specification.4 images and fonts must be embedded. but it doesn't really help your PDF print workflow at all when the PDF contains the sixth supports Brandenburg Concerto or the latest Star Wars movie.Chapter 16: Color Manasement and PDF 427 You may have experienced Acrobat Distiller 3 and 4 converting CMYK images into LAB. predi- cated primarily on the PDF . is PDF/X-2:2003. a subset of PDF/X-2. This generally happens when those versions of Distiller encounter a PostScript CSA embedded in a CMYK EPS (probably from Photoshop with the "PostScript Color Management" checkbox selected). This includes LAB. PDF/X is rapidly emerging as the standard for PDF-based print workflows. as well as tagged RGB and tagged CMYK data. designed for blind transfers. So the PDF/X format and usage guidelines were created to ensure that PDF/X compliant PDFs contained only the data required for print. usable for blind transfers. and based on the PDF ency.

info/index. and sometimes necessary.html. So we recommend an actual ICC profile. The current versions all have 2003 in the name. We know of no third-party products supporting the 2003 versions.pdfx. set- and you'll see what we mean. and PDF/X-3 will and become the dominant standards for blind transfers in the European market. and InDesign CS. ting the Outputlntent with implicit and an explicit possibility. All PDF/X documents must have an Outputlntent Outputlntent. Since it supports usage of externally referenced data. This can be an ICC -registered print condition name or an ICC profile. If at least until the registry matures into something useful. We expect that PDF/X. you produce a PDF/X-2 or PDF/X-3 document that contains device-independent data. and as an internal format inside large enterprises.4.html www. Second Edition All versions of PDF/X were updated but transparency is in 2003. That means there's an —check out the ICC registry really www. PDF/X-2 can be used anywhere an OPI workflow is currently being used. it can reference will become the dominant standard for blind transfers in the United States since this market is primarily CMYK-only (plus optional spot) rarely works with device-independent data requiring additional handling at output time. The implicit at one is www. but the changes are more clarifications.pdfzone. or PDF/X. . Both PDF/X. the versions listed earlier are currently and Various third-party tools discuss make creating PDF/X straightforward —we some of them in "Third-Party Stuff. third-party tools are still very useful. the output intent profile must be fully embedded. in our opinion org/ registry2." later in this chapter.428 Real World Color Management. check out these resources: www. While you can make PDF/X directly using Acrobat 6 Professional.color.planetpdf. and supports both device-dependent and -independent color. They're based on PDF 1. PDF/X-3 documents. expressly prohibited for example. For more information on PDF and PDF/X. fonts.

Objects must be devicedependent (CMYK plus spot) color ICC-Based color isn't allowed. The primary purposes fication — intent of the Outputlntent in PDF/X-la is for veri- it's there to ensure that the document has been if color managed and to a specific destination in mind. It's important to realize that while you can use an ICC profile for the Outputlntent. is it someone needs was used to pick up the phone The Outputlntent the PDF's content. your goal to convert everything to CMYK in advance (an early file. the objects in the document ever. so the profile that for color separation of becomes the source profile for all CMYK content (which is everything except for spot color). and submit a CMYK-only (plus optional spot) you . This is the only PDF/X variant that Allows a destination profile to be included in the PDF for the explicit purpose of performing conversions Supports device-independent data Supports RGB output devices a superset of PDF/X-la. but not both in the same document). Each device. are still device-dependent because PDF/X-la prohibits per-object ICC profiles." For PDF/X-3. get clarification. Likewise PDF/X-2 that's is is a superset of PDF/X-3. the Outputlntent is the source profile for the untagged device-dependent data. How- — an Outputlntent is required. PDF/X-3 can contain device-dependent data (either untagged RGB or untagged CMYK. by definition. but If the order the standards were agreed upon. and is the intended destination profile for device- independent data. has an ICC profile associated with it.Chapter 16: Color Management and PDF 429 PDF/X-la. By far.independent object. and LAB). as it for won't be converted again. and the actual color space is referred to as "ICC-Based. as well as device-independent data (tagged RGB. So the device-dependent data must be separated the intended output already. The numbers are out of sequence. and that doesn't match what's in the job order or ticket. binding workflow). PDF/X-la interests us the most since it's relatively straightforward and has strong vendor support. PDF/X-3. which PDF/X-3 is means that anything that claims to be a PDF/X-3 compliant reader must also correctly handle PDF/ X-la. tagged CMYK.

PDF/X-la is not "for the U. . If you select "Acrobat 3. and the disadvantage is that it's document. but there are markets for which PDF/X-3 would be well suited in the U. and hence are implementing a PDF/X-3 workflow.430 Real World Color Management. The Compatibility pop-up menu in the General tab box is of Job Options affects the options available in the Color tab. Second Edition should make PDF/X-la. Once you have a PDF/X-3 document. and requires special workflow and software considerations. there's no way to simply tag the documents. tions dialog Distiller's Job Opone of the places where they're directly relevant to color management. Unless you have good reasons to do otherwise. Since PDF 1 . which has essentially no standard print condition at and digital presses. but it's one of the most common. good candidates for In subsequent sections of this chapter. printing or proofing it requires both faith and courage. This includes large format printing. Distiller 5 Adobe Distiller isn't the only product capable of converting PostScript into PDF.0 (PDF 1. whereas it's inherent in PDF/X-la. you'll find that specifying per- object ICC profiles isn't for the faint of heart. all.2) .2 doesn't support ICC profiles. serves well as an example ^just look for similar features and settings in the application Compatibility We previously mentioned the various versions of PDF.3). The latter have excellent register but with generally poor adherence to SWOP even though they like to claim so. The notion that one would create CMYK-only PDF/X-3 is silly because that's not what it was designed for. You'll need to use proddocuments to effectively proof and ucts that specifically support PDF/X-3 output them." your only color management policy options are to leave colors unchanged or to convert them. even though it potentially a source of confusion. we recommend choosing "Acrobat 4." because that's what PDF/X is based on (see Figure 16-1).S." That the two markets have different ideas about color management and printing implies that PDF/X-3 will be more popular in Europe.0 (PDF 1 . and it — application you use. There is no advantage to a CMYK-only PDF/X-3 can be done.S." and PDF/X-3 is not "for Europe.

0 Ot)»rU \/ Cwnpr>»Hon\/ Font* \/Ce(er\/ Advanced \ Compatibility settings .Chapter 16: Color Management and PDF 431 Figure 16>1 Job OpMonK DQAPOptMMdvS /" Acrobat Distiller 5.

. and has policies to match. Leave Color Unchanged the PostScript the PostScript file file. CSAs associated with objects are converted into per-object ICC profiles. The destination profile is sRGB. Objects with no CSAs take the Working Space assumed sources. just a completely different beast. then let you edit them in some fashion. So vector objects. Gray: { Gray Gamma 2.2 RGB: $RGBIEC61966-2.Working Spaces. Tag Everything for Color Mgmt (no conversion) the numeric values in the PostScript file —also means preserve converting it when into a PDF. except that only images are tagged. .1 CMYK: - U. Tag Only Images for Color Mgmt (no conversion) —means the same as tagging everything. and apply to all other objects. Ignore any CSAs in don't embed the Working Space profiles. Second Edition ^mm Figure 16-2 Job Options: DDAP0ptimizedv5 . All Colors to Convert sRGB — any CSAs associated with objects are used as source profiles as profiles.0 Color Settings /^ General \y^Compression^^/^ Fonts \/ Color \/Advanced\ Adobe Color Settings File: Settings Color Management Off . Distiller is —this means preserve the numeric values in converting it when and into a PDF. including text.432 Real World Color Management.Web Coated (SW0P)v2 Device-Dependent Data Preserve Overprint Settings Q Preserve Under Color Removal and Black Generation 1 Remove t| Transfer Functions Q Preserve Halftone Information open and display files. are untagged. so every- thing is converted to sRGB.S. Acrobat Distiller 5. All objects are considered tagged. The selected Working Space profiles are embedded. . and considered device-dependent. Color Management Policies Default Leave Color Unchanged intent: [_ Save As!.

and you print a PostScript file. but have their CSAs converted which are embedded into the PDF along with the Working Space profiles. CMYK and gray- scale images. For example. Device-Dependent Data. The Working Space profiles are the ones that are used for tagging. then distill with one of the Management" management policies. The Default option that points to the file is unclear — it's either the default PDF rendering file. a single copy of each working space is embedded in the PDF document. CSAs are the only mechanism that allows Distiller to specify profiles on a per-object basis. the Working Space profile and the Gray Working Space profile becomes the source profile for all grayscale images. if your document contains a mix of RGB. Morking Spaces.Chapter 16: Color Management and PDF 433 A brief note on the Intent pop-up. The key thing to note is that "Working Spaces" the profiles that are in Distiller really start means embedded into the document. on which color management policy you selected. Whether these embedded profiles apply to non-image objects depends becomes the source profile for all CMYK CMYK images. Any objects in the PostScript stream that have CSAs associated with them don't use the Working Space profiles. set in the PostScript CRD that would have been used had the PostScript Distiller. which seems backwards— we generally find that we can't tell which rendering intent will work best for a given object until we know the output destination. just as in PostScript. The RGB Working color "Tag for Color Space profile becomes the source profile for all RGB images. or it's the intent. these settings only affect and prior to PDF generation typically only apply all EPS files. Rendering intents are chosen at the time of PDF creation. As the device-dependent data. intent (relative colorimetric). depending on the color management policy selected. With . since the options are based on PostScript functions. They out as as- sumed profiles and become embedded profiles in the PDF. But that's the way it currently works. to name implies. Distiller also ignores embedded into ICC profiles ICC profiles in the PostScript print stream (which usually appear only file when you print a document containing an EPS with an embedded ICC profile). been interpreted by a PostScript RIP rather than by it gest setting to relative colorimetric— then you We sug- at least know what you're dealing with.

and so forth. it's almost always best to remove them — it's usually counterproductive to use them on other people's equipment. then placed into a page-layout application. If they exist in the PostScript file. PDF/X-la. and have a specific reason for using them. . Use of appropriate settings in Distiller. im- age preparation and linking. ICC-based objects aren't fected by these options. Use of an appropriate PPD file for your PostScript printer driver (which includes making the application you're printing from aware of the PPD — something that may or may not happen automatically). paying special attention to the color settings. or final output (plain PDF. know what you're doing. you usually want to remove halftone information too. and output to PostScript. Making PDFs Three main factors affect your ability to make decent PDFs whether you intend to use them for the Web. Since a PDF could end up beRemove you really ing printed anywhere. especially the final application Distiller will process. exists Under Color Removal and Black Generation" for legacy support. If your mainly images have already been separated to CMYK.434 Real World Color Management. you use to print the PostScript file that This includes page settings. they have to be preserved in the PDF file if you want the It's generally a document to "Preserve print the way the originating application intended. Unless you explicitly want an element to override RIP settings because you placed an EPS with specific halftone screens in your page-layout software. orPDF/X-3): Proper preparation of all support files in their respective applications. the images are "press-ready" so PostScript exist to UCR or GCR functions is shouldn't begin with. soft proofing. Second Edition the possible exception of overprint settings. font embedding. af- good idea to preserve overprint settings. and preserving them transfer functions unless moot.

since there's no source profile embedded it's in the document. so we'll stay focused on the color of the three factors mentioned aspects. and Instant PDF). we recommend producing an final PDF in your page layout application.ddap.ready" so unless you enjoy lessons in ftnstration. This works as long as you produce output-ready PostScript prior to building the PDF The resulting PDF won't have automatic soft-proofing or hard-proofing capabilities. Colors are left X-1 Checkup. We've come to trust and recommend as a starting point third factors The second and the DDAP PPD. . while other applications that can read color-managed the content for some other device (such as for proofing —see Figure 16-3)." only embedding the is it all output device's profile. We've already discussed the first above in the earlier application chapters. and their accompanying Distiller Settings Files.Chapter 16: Color Management and PDF 435 Output-only sources on PDF— prtts. you can de- with a single device profile. (If you refer back to Figure settings file 16-2.) From or Enfocus Certified PDF (part of PitStop Pro it and can Server. but very important. you can feed the PDF to an application such as Apago PDF/ for Distiller 5. Since all the color scribe already converted for one kind of output device. Color-manascd PDF —desktop. you end up with a PDF/X-la document. you'll see that based on the DDAPOptimizedvS unchanged and untagged. PDF that has profiles associ- ated with some objects and not we recommend you avoid doing "output. makes a note of those it can't. This it's is a PDF that has profiles associated for all objects. Using Distiller. fixes problems and Assuming everything can be fixed. Embed that profile. and Acrobat 5 PDFs may be able to repurpose and Acrobat Reader 5 use it automatically for on-screen preview. which are Distiller Settings File turns color available for both platforms at www. Note that the you'll management off. so end up with a device-dependent PDF. mentioned above are workflow-specific. there are many re- how make good PDFs. fix. which preflights the PDF. as previously described in "Output-only PDF — press. to As previously mentioned. While possible to produce a others.

so that device. so you must make sure that all the color is already it converted for output before you feed to Distiller.S. Distiller won't convert any- thing in the document. PDF/X-3 addresses the problem by device-dependent. Second Edition Figure 16-3 Job Options: Print \ Adobe Distiller Settings: color-managed PDF /General\/CompresslonAy^ Fonts \/ Color \/Advanced\ Adobe Color Settings Settings File: None . they won't be black-only if repurposed.Web Coated (SW0P)v2 Device-Dependent Data B Preserve Overprint Settings D Preserve Under Color Removal and Black Generation [ Itemove $ | Transfer Functions D Preserve Halftone Information Be careful: as configured in Figure 16-3. If you print correctly to the where else. which can create major problems. it isn't necessarily repurposable —since all objects. Distiller is just being used to tag objects with a source profile (and of course make a PDF file). including black-only text.. Color Management Policies Tag Everything for Color Intent: Mgmt (no conversion) U Save As. Dot Gain 25% RGB: ColorMatch RGB CMYK: . Also. U. become device-independent. black text gets converted to rich black. The real problem is that Distiller's options don't really offer enough choose "Tag Only Images." non-image objects will only intended destination and will look wrong everyif flexibility. whereas " you choose "Tag Everything For Color Mgmt (no conversion) and print to a destination other than the intended one. Relative Colorimetric Working Spaces Gray: . Cancel . while tagging all it will print you define black text as as black-only on any destination letting objects that need color management to produce the correct appearance. while you can effectively use such a PDF for soft and hard proofing. .436 Real World Color Management.

Color change the Settings None — the Web Next. set Graphics Default color settings file is useless with Adobe the Color set Distiller. Likewise if your document CMYK. set the working space to the CMYK profile you used as the destination when you created the PostScript file (see Figure 16-4). Figure 16-4 ' Jan OiMMis: Scr«*«(POFU) Color \/ Advanced \ IB Adobe Distiller settings: Convert to sRGB PDF /6«wnil\/c»iwprei»lon\/fonti\/ Adobe Color Settings Settings File: None Cancel Color Management Policies Convert All Colors to sRGB Intent: 3 Save As- J Default -WMldiic Spaces. But you want to create the smallest possible files. for example." Finally. you may want tab. In Job Options. The suggestions if two sec- tions generally provide the best results. it set that as the RGB Working Space so that Distiller uses as the source is profile when it converts everything to sRGB. Gray: I None IIGB:lMobeRGB(l998) CMVIC US.Chapter 16: Color Management and PDF in the previous 437 Color-managcd PDF — Internet. Web Coated (SW0P)v2 ^ Device-Dependent Data n Preserve Overprint Settings D Preserve Under Color Removal and Black Generation [ Preserve 1 1 Transfer Functions Preserve Halttone Information . Management if Policies to "Convert All Colors to sRGB. File to random collection of uncalibrated monitors that serve as the delivery system for the Internet. and have the color display reasonably well on the to try these settings instead. whatever output profile you used to create the PostScript as the work- ing space — your document is entirely Adobe RGB (1998).

The redeeming feature of Acrobat is that color management really just happens without any configuration. its While the Color Management is Preferences dialog box looks familiar. but it can't create them itself. even though there's a "Color Management Off" settings Figure 16-5 - file. Like Distiller. Acrobat grabs the display profile automatically from the operating system. regardless of the color management preferences. JavaScript Layout Grid Online Comments Adobe (ACE) -HP Use Black Point Compensation Options Self-Sign Security Spelling TouchUp Update ( Cancel ) . other applications. Second Edition Acrobat 5 Compared to Adobe's other applications.S. _BP _^P _^9 Display Extract Images CMYK Grayscale: I Web Coated (SWOP) v2 Forms Full Dot Gain 20X Screen - Identity Conversion Options Engine: I . color management is always on. of someone needs to embed the correct profiles into the PDFs. Setting up remote soft proofing is as simple as calibrating client side. Acrobat can use Color Settings created Since Adobe applications as well.S. Acrobat 5's color management capabilities are just as funky as Distiller's. Prepress Defaults Batch Processing Management Preferences Color Management Working Spaces Comments Digital Signatures RGB Adobe RGB (1998) U. and profiling a monitor and installing Acrobat on the course. Acrobat Color Accessibility Senings. Acrobat always uses either an embedded or assumed source profile.) Color Management Preferences click To open Acrobat's Color Management Preferences on "Color Man- agement" in other in the list on the left of the General Preferences dialog box (see files Figure 16-5).438 Real World Color Management. and uses embedded profiles automatically and seamlessly. the world compared to the and printing from Acrobat makes us wonder what in scope limited Adobe was thinking. (On the "server" side. „ U.

isn't RGB (your display profile) the . When you print to a non-PostScript printer.PostScript printers. From there. compared to any intent the original producer had for the PDF common. or assumed by Acrobat's Color Management Preferences. you aren't sure. know it time. because they affect untagged objects. with no fewer than seven color-management-related options. be cautious about what profile you select for the Working Spaces. the destination profile is dictated by the printer driver. not one of which is a rendering intent setting — see Figure 16-6! first If We generally ignore the three checkboxes regarding halftones. numbers in untagged RGB images get sent straight to the display. transfer functions and UCR/GCR. Yet for non. scribed later) The Conversion Options only affect conversions and for printing. Clicking opens the Print Settings dialog box. Adobe has provided profile or a renderit absolutely no mechanism for specifying a destination ing intent.Chapter 16: Color Management and PDF 439 all The Working Spaces tagged objects in are the assumed set the profiles — they apply to un- PDF files. . and thus override the Working Spaces. We've confirmed that Acrobat hands off the display profile to the operating system as the source profile for the data stream at print time. When you print to er contains a PostScript printer. Embedded profiles are always honored. lots is you of spare useful for forcing Acrobat to render the overprint function your printer doesn't support it. but you need to specify a destination profile. Therefore. converts from the source profiles to the display profile. you're best off selecting ColorSync or ICM in the printer driver. the Adobe section of the drivin non-PostScript an Advanced button that doesn't appear it printer drivers. If you RGB Working Space to monitor no color management. So when you print to raster printers from Acrobat. which in the are fairly for PDF world If you set your RGB Working Space to ProPhoto RGB. only experiment when you have The same goes for "Apply Overprint Preview" which if if — you need to use these features. for Proof Colors (de- Printing Source profiles are either embedded in the PDF document. most RGB content in PDFs will be superbly oversaturated example. so you're effectively getting but everything else gets color managed and there anything you can do about it.

440 Real World Color Management. Second Edition Figure 16-6 Tiling Print Settings Acrobat Print Settings (PostScript printer only) .

and then reading this one. Distiller 6 internally normalizes a PostScript file to PDF. The distincability to important because neither Distiller nor Acrobat has the minor problems that might prevent a file from being valid PDF/X-la or PDF/X-3. See the new presets in Figure 16-7.Chapter 16: Color Management and PDF 4A1 Distiller 6 Very little has changed in the way of color management in Distiller 6 com- pared to version 5. . which discusses additional features found only in Distiller 6.0 and later.0. and tion fix is if it passes a PDF is saved. PDF/X-la will likely be the more viable in most workflows be- cause of limitations with PDF/X-3 generation. then it essentially preflights it for PDF/ X-la or PDF/X-3 compliance.ayoiit I ps DMinalon: /UMnAMMOMklafMLayout 1 pdf Adeb* PDF SMkigr AitanShiiMMdotM PDF 6X}/Senngs/Prsn CkiaWyjoboptont DMi Tbna: 6 fMonds (OOflODS) **** **** End at Mb When set to produce either of these PDF/X flavors. file tnformalion nOM ( C«nc«l ) Un Sourta: Frogreit Status: Ittatf OK Soma: Ainn««iniOe*tiiopA. For that you'll need one of the products mentioned later in this chapter.0 is that it can create PDF/X-la and PDF/X-3 documents directly from PostScript. If you need to produce PDF/X-3 documents. ngurc 16<7 Acrobat Distiller AAA 6 presets ob»! and Reader 4. Oirrcni File. check out the section on InDesign CS later Distiller 6's in this chapter.0 The major change in Distiller 6. Therefore we recommend starting with that section.

if many is of you will need for no other reason than to set an Outputlntent the default.color. the main down menu (see Figure fact 16-8). when you attempt to troubleshoot the ensuing problems. and will likely cause aberrant behavior in Distiller that will make you homicidal or suicidal. they accept PDF/X-la. located from the Settings Insert False m •ffli Trapped: 3ffl Help Cancel ) ^totiOKwwa^ The remaining area of interest. management perspective. to MediaBox with offsets Top: Rrght: Bonon- If BleedBox is Not Specified ® Set BleedBox To MediaBox C Set BleedBox To TrimBox with offsets (Points): Left: Right: Top: in '. Web Coated (SWOP) mm OutputCondition: RegislrvName(URL): http://www. But chances are settings. PDF/X-3 When jf not compliant: Cancel job 3 (Points): Neither TrimBox nor ArtBox are SpeciHed O Report as error ©Set TrimBox Left. . A major oversight in the user interface is the both PDF/X-la and PDF/X-3 at the you can apparently it. or both.442 Real World Color Management.< Bonom: Default JVajues if Not Specif ied the Document v2 Outputlntent Profile Name: U. and they don't it should raise a red flag until you have the contract proof in your hot little hands. it select same time. profile other than "U. Second Edition PDF/X-1a. Don't try doesn't work. Make sure you have an as to explicit understanding with the receiver of the If file what the Output- Intent should be for the job. from a is color the selection of the Outputlntent Profile Name.S. hopefully the "PDFXla" preset already sufficiently configured for your needs. they should if know what this request is about.S. PDF/X-3 If you intend is to make PDF /X. Web Coated (SWOP) v2" which new area of interest in Distiller 6 is found in the PDF/X section of the Adobe PDF Settings dialog. Please select one or the from custom Distiller. Stttings: Figure 16-8 { General Adobe PDF Images POFXla Advanced MIBP/X Fonts Color Adobe PDF Settings dialog PDF/X Reporting and Compliance Enforcement PDF/X-la i.

Distiller will fail to produce a PDF/X-3. since with device-dependent PDF/X including PDF/X-la. thereby negating the whole point of PDF/X-3. Very few applications insert CSAs in the PostScript stream. . a PDF/X-3. and RGB and LAB objects are dutifully converted to CMYK. Distiller's PDF/X-3 preset expects all RGB objects to be tagged with CSAs. A bigger one that everything that's CMYK in the document will also be tagged. but technically it won't be a valid PDF/X-la It's file. this could be a viable means of creating PDF/X-3. later. and if they aren't. PDF/X-3 using Distiller. But that means you're stuck vdth that Outputlntent in order to ensure CMYK objects null is its transform. which exports PDF/X-3 documents directly. your job won't be hosed. it's not necessary to embed a full ICC profile as the Outputlntent. You can set the CMYK Working Space profile to match the OutputlntPDF/X portion of the dialog. and with far fewer limitations.Chapter 16: Color Management and PDF 443 The RegistryName(URL) field defaults to the ICC Web site. registered behaviors. will If policy in Distiller to Tag Everything for Color Manage- you tag only images. including images you may not want repurposed But if your docu- ment contains only RGB and LAB content. has a PDF/X-3 export feature that we recommend using instead of Distiller. You'll almost certainly prefer using InDesign CS. but we don't recommend If for several reasons. which portability to unknov^ai destinations. on the existence of CSAs. file contains CMYK and Lab. the PostScript file contains only CMYK. you're almost certainly better If it off creating PDF/X. the Outputlntent you select you can reference the is not one of these you should either provide a valid URL or leave it blank. technically possible to create it.1 a instead. you can change the Color Instead of relying Management ment. Distiller can and If will create the PostScript contains RGB. The one that does so reliably. objects that remain untagged then cause PDF/X-3 creation to is so that's a limitation. That way. any RGB fail. ent profile you select in the CMYK objects undergo a null transform at output time. Instead If colorimetric behavior. InDesign CS. a whole lot more easily. If you fail to do this. The bottom line is that Distiller's PDF/X-3 support seems fairly dubi- ous for any serious usage of PDF/X-3.

The preferences by default. and for It is viewing untagged objects only in PDF/X-3 documents. source profile Figure 16-9 not used as a when printing. but otherwise it behaves very much like Acrobat 5. for viewing purposes only. the source profile for viewing all content in PDF/X-la documents. Color Management Preferences dialog. shown tant addition —the "Outputlntent overrides working spaces" It in Figure 16-9. has one new and imporis checked as the makes Acrobat use the Outputlntent profile assumed It's source profile for untagged content.kkk Real World Color Management. so it is also non-binding. Second Edition Acrobat 6 There are a number of subtle but useful added features in Acrobat 6. so we recommend reading both sections to get a complete picture. Acrobat 6 Preferences AccessibJttty Batch Processing Catalog Color Management Settings: ^ Web Graphics Defaults Commenting Convert From PDF Convert To PDF Digital Signatures Forms Screen General Full Identity Internet favaScript Multimedia Page Display Reading Reviewing Search Smoothing Spelling Startup Touch Up Trust Manager Units & Guides Updates Web Capture .

The Adobe Common Color Architecture. See the discussion on Acrobat Preflight for a Overprint Preview simulates overprints on-screen. and have it separately installed. For more information see Chapter Unfortunately it 12. soft or PDF/X-3 document.Chapter 16: Color Management and PDF 445 Proof Setup and Proof Colors This feature works as in other Adobe applications (see Figure 16-10). neither shows nor automatically selects the Outputlnt- ent profile when you open a PDF/X. which is important if your document calls for overprints because they'll look very different on- screen without this option selected compared to how they would be print- Figure 16-10 . you cannot fully workaround. Unless you know what the Outputlntent profile is.

. 2000 Adobe Systems. "POF/X-1 a compliant" Used profile: "PDf /X-3 compliant (ICC/Lab OK)" I^Oocumant • GTS..1.pdf" Used proHe.0" type: Color Management Module (CMM) "AOBE" « o •> ^' ^00vwvtm> ProfJe/Oevice class signature: "Output Device profiie (prtr)" Color space of data: "cmyV data (CMYK)" Profile »-Dp^m '> Connection Space (PCS): "Lab daU (Lab )" Preflight information Magic number "acsp" '> Pnmary Platform: "Apple Computer. Inc.." Sheetfed Coated v2" Document failed PDFIX-la compliance ^ ^ « Subtype: GTS_POFX none * » Layers: none B Embedded files: Color spaces ^Hl Images S GraphK state properties Prefhght information Q Document passed PDF/X-3 compliance... 06:1 1 :25" Default rendenng intent: Perceptual Profile ( Heport.S. Rgure 16-12 Acrobat 6 Preflight: Results ooo B <• Preflight: Resuto OOO Q PriiBgtit: KmuIis Pages from "Untitled-4.. .pdf" 9 Problflnw » '> Pages from "Untitled-4.446 Real World Color Management.S.1a information No problam* found infomntion OOvwvim* ^ (3 Document * *> IQ Detailed o Output Intents Outputlntent: "Custom (Custom)" ^ condition: "Custom" Output intents Layers: rx>oe files: ^ Output ^ Einbedded none < QPlQi:! « neittier 4c nor spot # Object % Object neither 4c nor spot ^ # Ahemate color space rwt POf/X-la compliant # Alternate color space not POF/X-1 a compliant H Output condition identifier: "Custom" Info: "U..POfXVersmn not POf/X-1 • GTS_POFXConformance not POF/X. Second Edition Hgure 16-11 6^^ List List all List all Preflight: Profiles Acrobat 6 Preflight: Profiles JPEG compressed Images images objects not 4c List all List all objects not 4c or spot overprinting objects List all potential List all problems transparent objects 1 plate More than j More than 2 plates More than 4 plates Not supported Not supported Not supported in PostScript 3 In PostScript Level 1 in PostScript Level 2 Output not 100% predictable POF/X-la compliant POF/X-3 compliant {4c + spot) »DF/X-3 compliant (ICC/Lab OK) ^ ( Validation .S... Sheetfed Coated v2" > <> Profile version number: "2.. ) ( ViMdnt. } ) ( Edit. Sheetfed Coated v2" ICC output profile: "U.. (APPL)" Device manufacturer "Adobe Systems Incorporated (AD6£)* Device model: "" o Acthate Snap Background color HKaperrule: f ' light gray 25K ® •> '^ AM ProNe creator: "Adobe Systems Incorporated (AOBE)" Creation date: "07/26/2000. Inc. also shows Outputlntent info and ICC profile ( Activate Snap Background color Hits per rule: ' ' light gray 2S* All 9 Mpon. ) ^ lUummant > > Copyright information. "Copyright Profile description: "U. ) ( Validate. 3 POF/X.. ) embedded.

.. and now you can select it in Proof Setup: Custom for both and hard proofing purposes. verify.Chapter 16: Color Management and PDF A47 You'll note two different items for PDF/X-3.. . Note the specification The "Save as PDF/X-la" or "Save as PDF/X-3" option dialog. ..* »• IM you taHnct an ec output intant proNa that haa baan ambeddad into a f '^ KX proMt. See Figure 16-13. spot. This option will extract the Outputlntent profile from a PDF/X.. Again. Z' ^^ PDF/X-3 Sets. ( ^^ ^^ Extract ^ ^ Eitract CC proNo." you can configure your aattingi for tha POf /X-3 convarmion. if pop-up menu will first and then the PDF passes it will convert the file to the selected conformance Figure 16-13 level. By definition PDF/X-3 allows for CMYK. ) ^ POF/X-3 hh. Romova POF/X. The third option in the Preflight:PDF/X dialog tract is "Ex- ICC profile. " ..„" ramovas ifl POFA tpwific iBlomMrtion. •ik you for an ICC prsitar proM* and th«n rt your POF M« to POF/X-3. ( ^^ Remove PDF/X. ton.' Mi pr««ght your POF W«..... click the PDF/X..forbothP0f/X-3andP0f/X-1af[iat. and the other that ICC/ LAB are acceptable.. ' —^ ^ Extract Outputlntent.. and LAB colors.. one which implies only CMYK+spot. If you have a PDF file that is not PDF/X-la or PDF/X-3 but should be capable of complying with one of those or PDF/X-3 document if it was fully embedded in the PDF You soft can then install the profile in the correct location. We recom- mend using the "ICC/Lab OK" preset for PDF/X-3 verification. con Sm* m f S«w ^^ >f PDF/X-3. Preflight PDF/X Acrobat 6 Preflighl: uw rorpt-i tptenktmtoit JSw PDF/X dialog «r/X-3. ICC-Based. if you want CMYK-only plus optional spot color.. ) ^ Through "POF/X-3 Sets. ) ^ m VNtfy-'MflprvAgMyourPOFMaviddMck whMhwornotRitavAIPOF/X-SMa. use PDF/X-la. butat which reveals a new the top. .

you can print proofs. Apply Working Color Spaces. Checking this option references back to the profile and other settings selected in Proof Setup: Custom. you probably want this selected so that Acrobat will use the Working Spaces as source profiles for any untagged content in your PDFs. Absolute Colorimetric — Paper White . select "Same As Source (No Color Management)". no Black Point Compensation —Ink Black is checked. the print dialog. Second. with a couple of potential produces color-managed . is checked (and Ink Black is checked and grayed out) InDesign CS Export it PDF InDesign's Export pitfalls. When comes to color management. Although it's as mysterious in Acrobat 6 as in Acrobat 5. Select a profile for the printer If you will currently printing to. PDF capability is pretty fully good. Relative Colorimetric. find the Advanced button and click it to reveal the Advanced Print Setup dialog (see Figure 16-14). we'd like to hear about it. you don't want any color management to occur at print time. This functions like the Print Space pop-up menu in other be Adobe applications. Relative Colorimetric. If you find a reason to not check this option. you can now color manage From prints using ACE to non-PostScript printers. In the Advanced Print Setup dialog. and lets you do cross rendering. Unfortunately that profile in other Adobe applications. It InDesign CS can export PDFs directly. First. ensure that you select Output in the list on the far left. is not listed in the print dialog. without the need for Distiller.448 Real World Color Management. with Black Point Compensation — is the default with neither Paper White nor Ink Black checked. as The rendering intent options are affected by the simulation checkboxes in Proof Setup: Custom. Printer Profile. Apply Proof Settings. Second Edition Printing There are two big changes in Acrobat 6's printing abilities.

PrtflMT Stytut n«oto 2200 PK and Advanced Print Setup dialog box Unlit lnch*> Zoom: 9M • WPfJc^^ Adv«nc«d ( c>^) Print Sttup rmmr. IMm PiMM 2100 PK Color QPrMAslmig* .Chapter 16: Color Management and PDF 449 Figure 16-U Acrobat 6 Print dialog box.

Create your own preset with a rational destination profile (sRGB?) and include the ICC profile. and you don't document contains placed tagged CMYK images. but the bad news is that in either case "Include ICC Profiles" so you're guaranteed to see the color differently is not selected that on every machine views the resulting PDF. which you open by choosing FiloPDF Export Presets>Define. PDF. which is then embedded as the Outputlntent profile. We don't know why. These presets set the Destination Profile to Document RGB on some machines. Second Edition PDF Export The PDF Export Presets Presets dialog. PDF/X-3. Figure 16-15 PDF Export Presets Presets InDesign CS PDF Export [eBookJ (Screen! [Print] Presets dialog box [Press] c ( Delete 3 ^ IPDF/X-la] [PDF/X-3] [Acrobat 6 Layered] Preset Settings: P>g«: All Spreads: Off Compatlbilltv: Acrobat S ITOF 1.4) Standards Compliance: NtMic Cencrate Thumbnails: Off Optimize POf : On Screen and eBook. We suggest you familiarize yourself with the various PDF settings for two reasons —familiarity with most of the them seems to make all the difference in the world between exporting don't discuss problematic and problem-free PDFs. and is a real time-saver (see Figure 16-15). This preset works as advertised. and we settings because they don't pertain to color management. and all CMYK objects in the layout are untagged /DeviceCMYK in the resulting tion is CMYK. This preset works with the following limitations: your destina- want any tagged CMYK objects. and Monitor RGB on others. If the are .450 Real World Color Management. lets you create and save presets for making PDFs. PDF/X-la. InDesign produces compliant PDF/X-3 with a CMYK Outputlntent only. the tags ignored and not embedded when making PDF/X-3. Any RGB or LAB content is converted to CMYK using the selected Destination Profile.

We prefer the latter...Chapter 16: Color Management and PDF A51 Due to limitations in the Export PDF interface. we recommend you live within these limitations. In the left column is an Advanced option. If you have more sophisticated requirements. use a third-party application such as PitStop Pro to re-tag CMYK objects you want tagged. for RGB destinations. ) . and be very Export PDF The Export PDF dialog is accessed one of two ways: by choosing and selectingAdobe PDF as the format.UA Mmi ( Wk ) Include ICC Prohlts Ink Manajtf. . Figure 16-16 Lxport PDF InDesign CS Export ^tw I wy/K-ui dkm Color: PDF dialog box CMYK | 0«sttMtton ProMt: . or by choosing a preFiloExport set from File>PDF Export Presets. which is where you'll find the Color and PDF/X sections (see Figure 16-16). or to create PDF/X-3 brave and even more cautious. Omptii imtm AroWc: ( Sjv« Preset. OociiwmW CMYK ..

because some spot colors to process. which you make changes here. tagged and untagged. each profile is embedded in the PDF. Ink Manager. make sure you select Document CMYK as the destiIf nation. so it's not an option you want to use when The Ink Manager can perform a variety of functions. Document CMYK. overprint itself before It makes InDesign do the producing the PDF. Unfortunately. will Profile. document content is converted to Simulate Overprint. to match the Destination . If you select the option to convert all converted using the CMYK equivalents supplied by Pantone in whichever Pantone library you used to specify the spots. are described in the InDesign User Guide. If you used in the document the document to since all Unchanged in the Color pop-up menu. because it sees the CMYK source profile. They aren't converted using ICC-based color management. Ensure you select a profile for the intended this output conditions with this pop-up menu. Include ICC Profiles. With the PDF/X. If you choose to convert that destination. Here select a destination profile for preset. as being different than the Destination Profile. Second Edition Destination Profile. they're of them are used by InDesign's trapping engine. But it also — — — preparing PDFs for press use the Ink Manager instead. so your process Pantone colors probably won't look right unless you're really lucky. not your InDesign document. affect the If converts spot colors to process. InDesign will convert everything. which is useful for making dual- purpose PDFs for screen and print because many consumer devices and even some PostScript RIPs have no idea what overprinting is. snap even though PDF/X-3 allows RGB Outputlntents. This option selected Leave Colors embeds ICC profiles into the PDF. which is the default. This option does two things. only the destination profile is embedded. and vice versa. InDesign CS does not. you don't. RGB or CMYK. If the you destination is a press. PDF/X Output Intent Profile. they exported PDF.452 Real World Color Management. Be careful with if these settings you rely on InDesign to perform trapping.

PitStop Server —for more information. Make sure that the Document Profile (the assumed source for un- tagged objects) and the Destination Profile you select in Export are the same. which means if the Destination Profile is something other than Document CMYK. tents from within InDesign. InDesign assume Document profiles as the source profile for untagged EPS. as well as for outputting InDesign CS will color-manage EPSs containing either PostScript CSAs or PostScript and exporting PDF. Placing PDF or AI Keep in formatted files is similar rules. Third-Party Stuff There are a number of really good products on the either assumed or embedded. PDF. and hence can discuss with some authority. The untagged objects inherit the Document profiles. It and Al Formats uses either for on-screen preview. go to www. consider the industrial. mind PDF an InDesign document follows a container format. and version 6 for Acrobat 6.enfocus.strength PDF user. or per-object rendering in- Image Color Settings is grayed out when placing EPS. PDF Because of the complexities of these formats. Enffocus PitStop on PDFs.Chapter 16: Color Manascment and PDF 453 EPS. untagged CMYK EPS will be converted.) . ICC profiles. but lated. is Enfocus PitStop Pro 5 for Acrobat 5. and the simplicity of the InDesign Image Color Settings interface. as well as untagged objects. PDF and AI (Adobe Illustrator) documents. so it can contain into multiple objects with different source profiles. it is not possible to change the source profiles. The only ways to prevent objects from being converted during Select Leave Colors PDF export are Unchanged. but the one we've worked with the most. Therefore. Pro lets This plug-in for Acrobat we'll you do all kinds of manipulation and editing only look at the ones that are color-management re- Consider it one of the necessary tools in the arsenal if you're a heavy (Or for high-volume workflows.

and PDF as it moves through production. and has the following weaknesses: It offers no rendering intent control for conversions. It offers downloadable "PDF Profiles" that extend its ability to preflight such as the Internet. which use the destination profile's default rendering intent. PitStop Pro weaknesses. PDFs for other target viewers. Gray) and LAB and ICC-Based It lists on a per-object basis. It converting doesn't support DeviceLink profiles. or globally. It doesn't directly support RGB-to-RGB or CMYK-to-CMYK converfirst sions. and RGB. you untag objects. profiles to objects. it isn't perfect. However. reassign profiles on saving the PDF. It It lets and embed which any object can be converted. CMYK-to-RGB. It supports RGB-to-CMYK. . PitStop Pro offers the following useful capabilities for creating It and massaging color-managed PDFs: distinguishes between device-dependent (RGB. and PDF/X-3 docutracks changes to the ments with a preflight report. lets you specify a destination profile to It lets you do any of the above object by object. It preflights and produces certified PDF/X-la.454 Real World Color Management. the embedded profile associated with each object.or CMYK-to-grayscale conversions using ICC profiles. though you can work around the limitation by an object into LAB as an intermediary space. Second Edition PitStop Pro strengths. color spaces CMYK.

it seems likely that PDF workflows. www. OneVision (various products). and PDF Inspektor.dalim. and you can always spot the pio- neers by the arrows protruding from their backs —so if you're considering PDF workflows. PDF/X to a 2P'-century equivalent of the PostScript dumps Bruce used send to service bureaus in the mid-1980s —when things went wrong. . but they come recommended by people whose judgment we trust: Apago PDF/X Checkup. fonts. www. print publishing will be forced by brute economics to make the transition from arcane craft to modern manufacturing process. will standards or on ones that don't yet become prevalent. take it one step at a (Dallas PDF/X Inspektor (free).onevision. whether based on the current PDF/X exist. But while creator unambiguous communication of documents between and linked graphics and pro- ducer will ultimately benefit both sides. the promise. and don't attempt untried procedures when you're facing critical deadlines. www. is some ways. test Dalim TWIST and SWING. PDF workflows hold huge The Wave of the Future If.apago. to delivering a print-ready PDF/X. but they're still blame was always involves a In shift of responsibility back to the content creator. as we suspect.Chapter 16: Color Management and PDF 455 Other Products We haven't worked with these products as much as we have with PitStop Pro. note that the shift from delivering application files.


meant to give solve you a taste of the kinds of things automation and scripting can do. options we need. it's The purpose of this chapter isn't to cover every conceivable automation or scripting option. our desktop applications RIPs. Instead. or even to serve as a primer.Automation and Scripting The Smart Way to Be Lazy Unfortunately. brainless grunt work that doesn't re- quire intelligent human decision making or intervention To make efficient use of our available processing power To work around color-management limitations in our applications or equipment A57 . but also bring a flexibility to workflows that we may not otherwise have considered. Why Automate? We use automation for the following reasons: To free humans from repetitive. and teach you the right questions to ask when you look for products to your particular needs. Fortunately. and printers —don't always give us the exact color-management lot and our equipment —scanners. automation and scripting provide us not of power and only with solutions to these limitations.

When they process bitmap information rewrite the file. another de- do their the numeric values—they don't damage the integrity of the PostScript or work by parsing PostScript or PDF changing only PDF support for vector EPS —many auto- mation products can process EPS files. Second Edition For example. Color servers placed vice /RIP at the front-end of files. they effectively open the file. au- tomation products. or generically. especially with selves RAM-gobbling high-resolution images. repetitive button-pushing. that many people don't even recognize it DeviceLink profiles offer an elegant way to an automation feature. store specific. and we free ourfrom mind-numbing. (such as TIFF. or even in folders of images. we may have scanners we need or digital cameras that we've but the software that drives them doesn't profile embed profiles. in as management one other very specialized type of automafact. and sometimes even embedded EPSs or TIFFs within EPS files. we can use automation batch embed the appropriate profile in a single image. so rather than doing so manually in Photoshop. or bitmap EPS). perform the conversions. or proofing device to have profiles are. Since we don't need to open or display the images. then Common color server features include Processing multiple files or folders of files. — see "DeviceLink Color Servers Color servers are sometimes called batch processors. Color tion— so specialized. Color servers placed in front of such hardware can perform color management tasks before PostScript or offers PDF get to the RIP.458 Real World Color Management." later in this chapter. On the device end. profiled. . the performance advantages can be significant. hardwired device-to-device conversions Profiles. JPEG. A good example of using automation to work around an application's is limitations using a color server to address desktop applications' near- universal lack of color. it's not uncommon for an no idea what ICC imagesetter. in multiple images. platesetter RIP. We (or know which scripting) to to assign to the images they produce.

Chapter 17: Automation and Scripting 459 Performing color conversions on TIFF and JPEG. When you add a new proofer. custom RGB or CMYK batch removing print Batch embedding profiles. Faster. You can set it to color Front end to almost any hardware — sticking a color server into a you can simply add another workflow provides a single front end for color-managing a variety of devices. Color Server Pros Like any other technology. for converting no embedded profile is Using a LAB-based look-up table also Focoltone) colors to Pantone (sometimes builds. but not CMYK. You can color manage RGB images. Users don't have to deal with configuration issues or decide which profiles to use for source and destination — —instead they simply place the and less files into the appropriate hot folder. and your future purchasing decisions don't depend on built-in color management support. but not EPS. because the files don't need to be opened or displayed. Configurability —you can set up color servers to do tasks ranging from files for simply embedding profiles into images to simultaneously producing multiple converted sions. Some support queues that appear on the network as though they were PostScript printers. with a mechanism for assuming present. Supporting embedded profiles if profiles. Some also support EPS (both bitmap and vector). too. prone to error. Most support hot folders. Hot folders and print queues available over network you can set up hot folders to accommodate remote clients over a network and publish print queues on the network. . scatter proofs and monitor soft-proof verset it to manage TIFF. or embedded profiles. color servers have their pros and cons — we'll look at these in a general Fast processing way before is getting into specific examples. — processing much faster than doing an equivalent procedure in an application such as Photoshop. queue to support that device without having to worry if it supports ICC profiles.

000. and it only does so for EPSs that already contain em- bedded profiles. of source profiles. Color servers are very well suited to repurposing already separated jobs (coated to uncoated. Limited rendering intent control late-binding workflows — if —such as using all-RGB page layout. and print- you plan on using a server in ing RGB CMYK space—you generally can't specify per-object rendering intent control. all uses the same CMYK equivalents for instances of a given Pantone or Fo- coltone color. to point out the following we feel bound downsides to most server-based automation products: Costly —especially if you're used to the prices for desktop applications. Color Server Cons Lest the picture we've painted above sounds overly rosy. Second Edition Named color system support—lets you color systems like Pantone deal effectively with named and Focoltone by generating custom CMYK it equivalents for your specific devices.000 about $3. Limited source profile control erates a PostScript stream. it —when a page-layout application genembed ICC file doesn't profiles for formats other than EPS. or between inksets) or to turning any device with a large enough gamut into a proofer. the color server can only assume source Again." to use something else. erate a PostScript stream that contains rendering intents. to Prices range from just under $1. even if it doesn't have explicit color management support. effectively solving the seemingly unending problem of applications that use libraries containing different for the CMYK equivalents same solid colors. but that's it.460 Real World Color Management. PostScript to a color server that converts to the appropriate (We don't know of any page-layout applications that can genYou can. . specify rendering intents for classes of objects. Equally important. such as "images" and "vector graphics.) however. you can specify source profiles for different classes of objects. If you use TIFF or JPEG formats with a variety profiles.

Examples This is by no means an exhaustive review of every server-based automa- tion product available. 120 and 140. Note that this product doesn't process grayscale content — it simply passes through unchanged. the limited source profile control profile is you can standardize on a single source space in the page layout. then the files it contains are processed according let to the configured settings. and — on Windows only— PDF. available for Macintosh and Windows. processes PostScript. Praxisofft ICC Autoflow. The primary differences are that 110 doesn't support PostScript (or EPS). In addition to 120's features.Chapter 17: Automation and Scripting 461 Most of these cons have workarounds. . As discussed in Chapter Color Management in QuarkXPress. ICC Autoflow. iQueue comes in several flavors: 110. Both versions you create and save multiple configuration sets (see Figure 17-1).VectOT- Pro creates custom palettes that are also supported in ICC Autoflow. The subtle differences between relative colorimetric and perceptual rendering may be within acceptable so the limited choice of rendering intent tolerances for many workflows. servers explicit do conversions to use devices that don't color-management support as proofers. Late-binding workflows that use color servers for final conversion simply don't provide per-image control over conversions —but even in can still high-end workflows that demand per-image have control. GretagMacbeth iQueue. 140 adds PDF and print queue support instead of just hot folders (see Figure 17-2). and to assist with solid-color matching. EPS. may only be And if a problem in workflows aimed at very high-quality output. A reduced-cost desktop version doesn't support hot folders—you point it manually to a folder.based automation in general. while the other two do. We've chosen the following examples both because we're familiar with them and because they provide good illustrations of the capabilities of server. 15. isn't a problem because the assumed always correct.

(None | Proofer Rendering intent: Absolute Colorlmetric I Rondering Intent for the Proofer I Cancel | || Done | Color Sets . Bfgooe . Second Edition ngure Praxisoft 17-1 i ICC AutoFtow" Batch Window ICC Autoflow j i:!.y Disable Queue I | Show Queue ] | Activate Queuei j ISS Convert to SWOP Process Normal Main window Color Queue Settings Color Queue: Convert to SWOP Color Set: Process Normalization I Select Input Folder. Bigone ..\!j}uJJ:j'.462 Real World Color Management. Output/Destination Profiles Output Proofer: I USWebCoatedSWOP..:!>j.. Alter Conversion t) Delete Files from Input Folder O Move Files from Input Folder j Select Folder.icc I IJ i \ | PhotoCAL Profile Oct 1.Users ichris :Desktop :Prooessed : | Add a Prefix to the File Name„. I Select Destination Folder. CVMK: USSheetfedCoated. ColorMatchRGB.icc USSheetfedCoated... Prefix to Add: IA_ ..Users :chr is :Desktop :(ncoming .! I Color Queue Settings Active Set: ^ Process Normalization Actions \/ Color Controls \/VectorPalette\/BcceptionColors\ Action iU InputAource Profiles 3 Alvays Enntod FkMl Profllt (InugM only) Images^ RGB: Vector Colors.Icc Proflto for the ffeul output dtvkx.icc » : | Rendering Intent: I Perceptual ~$1 I Absolute Colorlmetric $ | .

and ICC Options A few other features: Explicit support for PDF/X-la and PDF/X-3 (140 version) DeviceLink and abstract profile support Additional file formats: BMP. Queue Setup window. here are three important questions you need to ask: . Scitex CT. server that lets and PNG status A built-in mini-Web workstation you obtain job from any Color Server Questions If you're contemplating a server-based automation product.Chapter 17: Automation and Scripting 463 Figure 17-2 GretagMacbeth iQueue Main window.

They don't describe a single color space. content. which is why we cover them More about Links Three things make them different from the device profiles we've discussed throughout this book: They're an apparent exception to the rule that you need at least two profiles to file. acts as both source and destination.image rendering intent or source profile control able in maybe accept- some workflows and not in others. Even though a profiles. color servers are well suited to As we've previously repurposing and proofing. They rarely contain a PCS. They're an automation feature because the file alternatives involve manually manipulating in this chapter. They can make is separations in high-volume workflows in which the separation subsequently checked by a skilled operator. therefore they cannot describe device behavior in relation to a device- independent color space. DeviceLink Profiles DeviceLink profiles are one of the seven profile classes defined by the ICC specification. Second Edition Which file formats are supported? Most though not all workflows re- quire PostScript (and hence EPS) support. .464 Real World Color Management. This also means you can't embed them into images. A DeviceLink doesn't describe a device— instead. Increasing numbers want PDF support. What is my intended use also for the color server? discussed. It it's a concatenation of two or more profiles. but a hardwired conversion from one set of device values to another. DeviceLink is a single always contains at least two device The DeviceLink itself is not a device profile. it make a conversion happen. What black-preservation options are offered? Does black-only text remain black-only when converted? What about black-only drop shadows? Most products have some means of ensuring that blackonly text is ignored. in a single file. and thus remains device black instead of being converted to a rich black. The lack of per.

only text or drop shadows. For example. but due to the lack of a PCS in the middle. and are at least as much about automation as color management. Traditional color management will . with the attendant registration headaches. A DeviceLink lets you force the conversion to 100% black. if not more so about automating. Most implementations assume you are sending documents to be processed by a DeviceLink that you are doing so with foreknowledge that any be ignored is embedded ICC profiles will This implies content if that's in favor of the DeviceLink's source profile. but we usually want 100% black (CO sometimes do things we don't MO YO KlOO) to stay four. DeviceLinks are well suited for proofing and repurposing scenarios. the PCS has played DeviceLinks are always unidirection profile that —conversions are only from the was originally defined as the source to the profile that was origi- nally defined as the destination at the time the device link was created. or CMYK to CMYK. Some and that if caution is required when building workflows around products scripts that use DeviceLink profiles. but once that initial its role. These advantages seemingly defy traditional color management convention. or yellow text. The most common instance of this is when proofing. Thus. so there's CMYK conversions through the PCS always turn the four original channels into three before turning them back into just no way they can preserve black.) concatenation occurs. afterall.quality stock as well. vice profile for you have a yellow background. so the RGB to CMYK. and not the case you will get less than ideal results. Why 100% use DeviceLinks? profile-to-profile conversions Normal want. Likewise. normal deconversions v^ll add scum dots as it attempts to compensate if hue differences between source and destination. instead. their unique channel data is not lost in the course of a PCS becoming involved in the conversion. but it could just as well be a job originally separated for a low-quality stock and the job now needs to be printed try on a higher. normalized to favor the DeviceLink's source profile. They turn into a rich black. They're just a look-up table. de- pending on the device is profiles used to build the DeviceLink.Chapter 17: Automation and Scripting 465 The source and destination conversions are directly from tables both contain device values. but will require more caution if you use them for making separations. (The PCS involved in the initial joining of the two profiles. black.

such as in photographic images.leftdakota. duction differences.466 Real World Color Management. while also preserving channel purity unlike output device profiles. nor do curves compensate for differences in wet trap. which comes with documentation in PDF format describing the nitty-gritty of various features (see Figure Figure 17-3 17-3). A DeviceLink can. by because it offers controls and options trial we haven't found anywhere else. our favorite tool Left Dakota Inc. You can download a version. is Link-o-lator 2. and a DeviceTraditional workflows will use simple curves to adjust for tone repro- Link can be set to preserve channel purity. but they cannot compensate for differences in ink hues where you should compensate for them. (www. Second Edition to match the dingier gray yellow on the lower-quality stock. Making DeviceLinks For generating DeviceLink profiles.0 .com) . Two features are particularly valuable: oe Source Profile Link-o-lator 2.0.

which can be used to preserve black.Chapter 17: Automation and Scripting 467 You can specify pure channel preservation with dot gain compensation. This is rarely useful. preserving the black channel exactly so the pre-conversion and post-conversion black is identical. for example. Another application also for making DeviceLink profiles is UltraLinks 1. profiles. You can ensure 255 R.0.) (We are convinced they are totally obsessed with is DeviceLink to This application uniquely suited for building RGB CMYK DeviceLinks. because the source and destination devices often have different black dot gain. While uct through the wringer. Most products offering black channel preservation do only that. contain no cyan or black. and but most of the time DeviceLink profiles belong in RIPs. Black channel dot gain compensation preserves the black channel purity while compensating for the dot gain difference. respect to How None to Use These Darn Things? book profiles. and in prepress equipment that explicitly supports them. support DeviceLink in color servers. There are controls to affect the blending between this "color-by-the- numbers" approach. G. discussed later in this chapter. OB always converts to specific CMYK values that. of the major color-managed applications discussed in this While long in the tooth. Some scripting methods. and the colorimetric result mandated by the original source and destination profiles. . but the tonal characteristics of the black channel are preserved. Apple's free ColorSync Plug-ins for Photoshop provide support for DeviceLinks on import and export. OB always converts to 100% yellow. of problems we have not fully put this prod- we think it's interesting and solves a number conventional some people consistently complain about with RGB to CMYK conversions. from Left Dakota. 255 G. so you still get a black-only drop shadow when you repurpose CMYK images. will also support DeviceLinks. such as AppleScript. or any of the other channels in the destination profile. Or 255 R.

are proprietary. Second Edition Prepress Solutions Prepress solutions are proprietary modules that press workflow. Inc.468 Real World Color Management. such as Creo Prinergy or the fit into an existing pre- Rampage. Who Should Consider Prepress Solutions? These products plug into complex and expensive prepress workflow systems that cost tens or even hundreds of thousands of dollars. The trade-off is typically one between convenience and cost. and such workflow systems are something you neither want nor need. You can't get much later than that. While they vary in their capabilities. and its only purpose is to help you decide whether you'd be better served by a proprietary color-management module for your existing (or intended) workflow system or an open color-man- agement solution.stop shop- . If you're an individual or a small shop. these types of solutions generally share two common characteristics: capability as ment The workflows into which they integrate are inherently late-binding. happen to your job once you submit This discussion deals solely with the pros and cons of the color-man- agement aspects of the products. The solutions which are designed to work with practically anything that has a profile. the only reason to read this section is to gain tiquing such systems is well some insight into the kinds of things that it. Conversions happen at the prepress stage. and cri- beyond the scope of this book. rather than at the design or customer approval stages. inte- grated prepress solutions work only in the specific prepress workflow system for which they were designed. immediately prior to printing. Their features vary widely— some only offer color-manage- Rampage System made by an extra-cost add-on. others have very limited colormanagement functionality. A proprietary color-management module offers the convenience of seamless integration into your workflow system and one. In contrast to color servers.

. prepress solutions can help in several situations. that's you can color manage the content less practical in QuarkXPress at print time. then output another PostScript file. convert them. Prepress systems can often parse the PostScript to find instances of solid-to-process Pantone or Focoltone color conversions. Effective late-binding woricflow solutions. products in this category offer per-object source profiles control. Postflight normalization. . but you can expect to pay a hefty price for something that more or less replicates the standard color-management features found in desktop applications. In in lower-volume workflows. is ev- erything ready to create final separations. Enabling color sufficiently large in this category offer explicit Inkjet Inkjet with a management can turn an gamut into a proofing device. For workflows where the in- tended output is unknown during the design process. Solid color substitution.Chapter 17: Automation and Scripting 469 ping for service and support. Some of the products printer support. When it finds them. so that ally and per-object rendering intent for separation without actu- you can prepare the content knowing the destination. That said.. or to have someone open the images in Photoshop. CMYK. matter which application originally specified them. This much more efficient than the traditional which are either to reject the job. the workflow system can assign apsilly propriate source and destination profiles. but rely high-volume workflows that on high-end prepress solutions.. Hard proofing. so you get the best possible simulation of solid colors. it can substitute your custom hand-tuned CMYK no equivalents. If preflight rejects a submitted job solely be- cause it contains a few RGB is images. update the placed images in the page-layout application. and convert those RGB al- images into ternatives. Once the destination becomes known.

Examples The two products presented here typify the potential differences in this class of product and illustrate the need for careful research. and compression. These are separate products. of which the color. Second Edition The Downsides You need to judge the downsides to these solutions in the larger context of the entire workflow system. which sounds like a hefty chunk of change to replicate what boils down to the basic desktop management will features. they often The best piece of advice we can offer you is to be a savvy conlots of questions. None of the vendors we've spoken to are willing to quote exact prices because "they vary" depending on the particular workflow bundle. and is an image handler more than a prepress combines OPI and color-management features. but are complementary in many workflows. but for now. Helios ImageServer and PDF Handshaice. sumer— ask and maybe a few atypical. we predict that color-management capabilities become standard in future prepress solutions. The challenge with closed proprietary systems is finding people who can train you how to use them and integrate them into your specific workflow. Color-management support others.470 Real World Color Management. the approximate is numcolor- ber we keep seeing "thrown out there" $5. The few people who are really knowledgeable about integrating color management into proprietary workflow products tend to command top dollar. ImageServer used to be called Helios EtherShare OPI. while pricing covers a fairly wide range. in addition to doing color management. resolution. to see just cost extra. Training. It can change image size. among term "color-management support" means quite different things to different vendors. With growing demand. Unique features we like about this product include: . and Apogee. jobs) what they'll buy you. You need to dive in and find out what each one means. Rampage. so it workflow solution.000. That said. But the is available in Xinet. Price. and see demos (including ones with component may be a relatively tiny part.

You can upload Naming you can name the as whatever makes sense for workflow and your people. For bitmaps. except that is PDF-based. and converts them one hardwired SWOP-based destination profile. simulating the press using coated stock — systems are workflow-specific the point Remote proofing. black preservation. queue your is that PDFs to PDF Handshake. you'd need to use something like PitStop Pro or Server. and proofing. The standard level sees and uses the embedded profiles for to each object in the PDF as source profiles. so the user simply prints to the appropriate print queue such as "Coated Stock #2" or. PDF Handshake honors embedded profiles in all content.Chapter 17: Automation and Scripting 471 Print queue support. In Helios ImageServer. If you're satisfied with a workflow that converts from the embedded source profiles to a SWOP destination. Prinergy can perform color-management tasks (embed. or convert) when the job at is first brought into the workflow. or any time thereafter. but up to eightprofiles. change em- bedded. the standard level of color management is all you need. It you can use it to make Hi-Fi also supports DeviceLink profiles. but for text and vector content. but proofing conversions happen only when you . so everything that in PDF format. It supports not only CMYK. Prinergy goes into Prinergy is a full-blown prepress workflow system that's it's similar to Scitex Brisque. however. — coated paper. which rasterizes and color manages it. then soft-proof the result in a Web browser on a suitably calibrated and profiled display. Advanced. for a proofing queue. PDF Handshake lets you remove or reassign profiles in bitmaps when you don't want to use the embedded that one. Note. The advanced color-management license lets you override or assign source profiles for each object in the PDF. and select a custom profile for the destination. so channel ICC output device separations. configured print queues appear as virtual printers. both bitmap and vector. Prinergy offers two levels of color- management support: Standard. "EpslOK Mgl CS#2" (to denote an Epson 1000 using a Mitsubishi glossy #2). Creo Prinergy.

and you think you need see if it supports DeviceLink profiles instead (see the section. it doesn't create a sepa- You is select the job. not the original numeric values. destination (the press or a contract proofing system) If your proofing sys- tem does its own color management. Can automatic RGB-to-CMYK conversions give me the quality I need? This is something you can test without buying or upgrading existing equipment. If the scaling function for the black channel to compensate for the differences in dot gain between the source and destination de- product you're looking it. here are some of the questions we think are critical: Does the product support black preservation? It's almost always a problem when 100% black-only text and drop shadows get converted to rich black.472 Real World Color Management. at doesn't have this feature.quality coated stock is the black channel is simply preserved. made with no knowledge of the im- one-size-fits-all. file. up with double color management." earlier in this chapter). Important Questions If you're contemplating introducing such a product into your workflow. This always hapfor repurposing pens when you use color management (CMYK-to- CMYK) conversions. you may be able to create acceptable separations without any intelligent human intervention. Profile conversions are — age content they're With good profiles. so rate proofing profile. treating a picture of a black cat in a coal cellar exactly the same way as a picture of a polar bear in the snow. for a lowis Does the product support black scaling? A black channel quality uncoated stock won't give good results if when the job repur- posed for a higher. What's really needed to preserve the tone reproduction this. you can submit the job for proofing as final press so that you don't end CMYK without specifying a proofer profile. and you prefer it. Second Edition generate the output stream to the proofer. For you need a vices. but premium-quality work . or when your carefully crafted black channel vanishes because it gets converted to LAB. then reseparated. the proofing device. curve of the black channel. "DeviceLink Profiles. and the proofing then the job converted so that the proofer simulates the selected .

and you use one of the products mentioned in the DeviceLinks section. In-RIP Color In-RIP color Management most management is commonly used for or higher RIP supports PostScript color management. because the total lack of control inherent in in-RIP separations usually doesn't work in other workflows. and test the quality of your automatic profile-to-profile conversions. It occurs in three different ways: is Front-end. and automatically replace solid Pantone colors with process is CMYK equivalents. This needs — an example In-RIP.Chapter 17: Automation and Scripting A73 usually needs image optimization either before or after separation. Global Graphics' Harlequin RIP has rarer than an ICC option that literally builds an ICC-based color-management engine into the RIR so it uses regular ICC profiles to perform the conversions. Since there's only one raster object. is inter- like having an integrated color server in your RIP prodin and is most common proofing products such as the BestColor RIP You can treat bitmap and vector objects separately. but resolved more easily and with greater flexibility if the product supports DeviceLink profiles. is is literally in-RIP conversion —color management per- formed by the PostScript interpreter as part of the PostScript interpretation process. workable PostScript color management hen's teeth. earlier in this chapter. The conversions are done before the PostScript preted. This approach is usually adequate for basic proofing is the now-orphaned Adobe PressReady. creating a rasterized page image which is then color-managed and sent to the output device. The two flavors are PostScript color management and ICClevel 2 based in-RIP color management. there can be only one source and one destination. before you can answer this question. You need to look at the work you do. In theory. Are DeviceLinks supported? Many of the above issues can not only be resolved. . Back-end. is but in practice. The PostScript interpreted. any PostScript at version 2017. This uct.

and we've seen what scripting mavens. main advantage files to it confers is — simplicity ^you simply send the final output the proofer. also called CRDs). others honor RGB CSAs and ignore CMYK CSAs. we take our hats off to you and as we mentioned and create a functioning system elsewhere. for anything — maybe you should write a book! Scriptins We sometimes find it strange that smart people who use computers every day to carry out tasks of great complexity simply glaze over as soon as the word "scripting" is mentioned. mechanism for creating Post- profiles and rendering in- per-object source profiles InDesign 2 does provide a consistent Script source profiles for each object (Color Space Arrays.474 Real World Color Management. . we'd have to confess that we often number ourselves among those smart people we're far from being but we often use simple scripts. If you're tenacious enough or lucky enough to sort through the mess more complex than basic proofing conversions. and some use CSAs but ignore downloaded CRDs and use only the RIP's built-in CRD. and rendering intents. and the RIP takes care of the necessary conversion. but proofing is —from output CMYK to proofer CMYK or RGB via absoan exception to our general lute colorimetric rendering—that The enough conversion it's a simple enough and unambiguous rule. Some RIPs ignore CSAs and CRDs entirely. and PostScript destination profiles with the proper rendering intent for each object (Color Rendering Dictionaries. But making it do so demands a hefty initial investment of time and energy. If pressed. and hoping that the mysterious black box does the right thing. enormous amounts of time and eliminate equally Scripting can save enormous amounts of mind-numbing drudgery. The Bad (and The Ugly) In-RIP separations do involve sending your data into a mysterious black box. Second Edition The Good We're generally not fond of solutions that rely on sending our jobs into a mysterious black box. also called CSAs). In-RIP separations tend to rely on tents assumed source —there's no consistent or reliable mechanism for specifying custom. the — more complex ones can do. But you need a RIP that consistently uses them.

and then pass them onto QuarkXPress for possibilities are nearly endless. Java- Scripting Script. than Writing scripts is a great deal simpler than writing code. but it does require you to learn a scripting language. You can also write scripts that automate the communication between applications to Photoshop. is a bit like programming in the way parking a car Space Shuttle learn. rotate. —for example. . but — both require attention to detail and to a lot a bit like landing the that you have to a lot skills one requires attention the other. that Customizability. your time thing too. The Scripting Advantages One of the biggest advantages tools is that it's essentially free —the tools for scripting are already built is that scripting has over other automation into your operating system. not by any stretch of the imagination natural human language.) find But scripting offers other advantages —here are the ones we is probably worth some- most compelling. that it's makes the computer do useful things. (Of course. Leveraging existing applications. including a user interface to prompt the user for information or to provide status report feedback. you leverage and almost anything you can do in Photoshop can be JavaScripted. and Visual Basic — let you create actual standalone applications. more details. or Visual Basic. have it them. lets — existing applications for example. Some scripting languages and tools such as Apple- — Script vdth AppleScript Studio. As such. With AppleScript. and learning more skills. you can leverage the unique capabilities of existing applications as well as existing scripts.Chapter 17: Automation and Scripting 475 What Is is Scripting? the act of writing a script in a language like AppleScript. and color manage automated layout. Photoshop 7 offers extensive JavaScript support. and while scripting language resembles it's natural human language much more than programming languages do. an AppleScript could pass off images run a JavaScript to resize. What Can Scripting Do? It Scripting can do almost anything you can imagine. Perhaps the biggest benefit of scripting it can automate almost any custom task as long as you can break it down into manageable chunks.

On Mac OS 9. and debugging time is often quite lengthy Scripting vaScript. while AppleScript only available on Mac OS. they're in the Apple Extras:ColorSync Ex/ tras:AppleScripts folder. and complex scripting seems to require a certain mind-set that some people have and others simply have not. Scripting Disadvantages The only real disadvantage to scripting is that you have to learn to do it. you can make Photoshop run a different Action to embed the in appropriate profile RGB and CMYK images. they're in the Library/ ColorSync Learning the scripting language is only one part of the challenge. the development. . you can create a script that launches Photoshop. moderately complex scripts cut task time from 30-45 minutes down to 1-2 minutes. Speed. testing. on Mac OS X. asks it to open a folder full of images. then resave the image in a different format. You can't buy scripts off-the- way you can other automation products. Photoshop Actions are mostly cross-platform.476 Real World Color Management. though the Macintosh platform supplies some handy scripts that automate simple color-manshelf the agement tasks. Examples The three scripting methods that we've selected and AppleScript —certainly is —Photoshop Actions. but Actions don't allow conditionals. While you can eventually save time using custom scripts to automate common tasks. embed a profile. while scripts do. /Scripts folder. We've seen advanced. but they're the most widely supported. JavaScripts are almost completely cross-platform. and probably the most widely used. it the folder contains images in different modes. interaction. with a script. You can do many of the same kinds of automation using Photoshop's Actions. If you simwill fail ply use an Action to if embed a profile in a folder full of images. Second Edition For example. Ja- aren't the only ones. By eliminating unnecessary human tically reduce the total time from beginning you can dras- to completion.

Chapter 17: Automation and Scripting kTf Our example scripts show what it takes to make all three scripting methods assign a profile to an image (ColorMatch RGB).org (in case you'd like to hire him learning scripting yourself).S. and then save it with U. Photoshop is file Actions are generally cross- and folder navigation. Photoshop Actions are by with your mouse in you can do it Photoshop. Sheetfed Coated v2. you can probably record it as an Action. on each platform Photoshop Action example . who can be instead of reached at nwade@nwade. or use it with the Automate:Batch — platform the main problem area somewhat Figure 17-4 different syntax command. Sheetfed Coated v2 embed- ded. far the easiest of the three if it — Then you can either run manually. convert it to U.S. These scripts were provided courtesy of Nathan Wade. make it into a droplet. which uses (see Figure 17-4).

is an AppleScript development application that lets suitably motivated individuals create full-blovm applications with an actual user interface. You have to teach it pretty much everything. you'll first notice it's a lot longer.478 Real World Color Management. } else { alert "You must have a document open to " add the filename ( ! ) .S.colorProfileName = "ColorMatch RGB". docRef . ) JavaScript example try { var docRef = activeDocument . Sheetfed Coated v2 using Relative Colorimetric Intent.convertProfile( cmykProfileName. docRef . ) ) . } AppleScript Studio. Black Point Compensation. including the fact you want to open an image. — The file will now be saved with embedded profile.RELATIVE- COLORIMETRIC. Sheetfed Coated v2". false ). // Everything went Ok.S. } catch { ( e ) //An error occurred. var cmykProfileName = "U. and make XML-RPC calls and SOAP requests for remote procedures over the Internet. and No Dither. new in Mac OS X. because AppleScript assumes nothing. throw } e. true. save( ( . In the AppleScript example we've included. Intent . While you need to be a lot more specific and detailed when using AppleScript. alert "Your document has been converted from ColorMatch RGB to U. . Second Edition Figure 17-5 if { { documents length > ." docRef. Very cool stuff for those who understand it. it lets you do things that would otherwise only be possible if you became a programmer (see Figure 17-6). AppleScripts in Mac OS X can also access UNIX command-line scripts.

" •t somefile to choose file with prompt "Choose an . on run „ . AppleScrtpt example '^'^ '^ display dialog "Assign the default RGB « ^. Profile to an image. Convert to the default CMYK and Save with Profile Embedded. « ^ ^ . . Convert to default CMYK Profile. Modify the script to embed another profile instead.Chapter 17: Automation and Scripting 479 Figure 17-6 . and Save with Embedded Profile?" set sourcefiles to filelistFromSelection draggeditems ) repeat with thisFile in sourcefiles tell application "Finder" to reveal item ( thisFile set thisFile to thisFile as alias tell application "ColorSyncScripting" set sourceProf to default RGB profile set matchProf to default CMYK profile try match thisFile from source sourceProf to destination matchProf matching with relative colorimetric intent using quality best end try end tell end repeat tell application "ColorSyncScripting" to set quit delay to 5 -end open dragged files OR files at first level of one dragged folder on filelistFromSelection theselection set hasfolder to false tell application "Finder" repeat with thisltem in (theselection as list) if (class of item thisltem is folder) or (class of item thisltem is disk) then ( ) — returns . Profile. image" open somefile •ad run on open draggeditems tell application "ColorSyncScripting" to launch display dialog "Assign the default RGB Profile.

download and install it. and then have Photoshop CS execute the JavaScript.scriptingpro. Second Edition Fiaure 17-6 ®®*^ hasfolder to true end if AppleScript example." buttons {"OK"} default button 1 return end if tell application "Finder" if hasfolder then set filelist to (every item of folder (item 1 of (theselection as as alias list list) else set filelist to (theselection as list) end if end tell return filelist end fllelistFromSelection ) ) Hybrid Scripting and Remote Profile Access Our friend Nathan Wade (www. continued end repeat end tell if ((count item of hasfolder then ( theselection as list)) > 1) and display dialog "Drag multiple files or a single folder. you can use Visual Basic to access the URL location for the remote profile. .independent JavaScript to perform image handling and conversion. with a bulk of the code in platform. On Windows machines.480 Real World Color Manasement. and save it with the profile embedded. installs the profile. Platform-specific scripting this is used to enable the Web access portion of automation sequence. then uses JavaScript to instruct Photoshop CS to convert a document. Because it uses JavaScript. this capability is not limited to just Photoshop has provided a simple demonstrates the power of combining technologies. profile remotely script that further This script stored is an AppleScript that accesses a destination on a server.

colorremedies. tif") open (docRef). path. space com/downloads /rwcmprofile. Black Point Compensation.Chapter 17: Automation and Scripting 481 The AppIeScript is shown in Figure l