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Fender Design

Section 12

Trelleborg Marine Systems
Ship Tables Berthing Modes Coefficients Berth Layout Panel Design Materials Fender Testing

www.trelleborg.com/marine
Ref. M1100-S12-V1-3-EN

12–2

FENDER DESIGN
Fenders must reliably protect ships, structures and themselves. They must work every day for many years in severe environments with little or no maintenance. As stated in the British Standard†, fender design should be entrusted to ‘appropriately qualified and experienced people’. Fender engineering requires an understanding of many areas: B B B B B B B B Ship technology Civil construction methods Steel fabrications Material properties Installation techniques Health and safety Environmental factors Regulations and codes of practice

Using this guide
This guide should assist with many of the frequently asked questions which arise during fender design. All methods described are based on the latest recommendations of PIANC* as well as other internationally recognised codes of practice. Methods are also adapted to working practices within Trelleborg and to suit Trelleborg products. Further design tools and utilities including generic specifications, energy calculation spreadsheets, fender performance curves and much more can be downloaded from the Trelleborg Marine Systems website (www.trelleborg.com/marine).

Codes and guidelines
ROM 0.2-90 1990 Actions in the Design of Maritime and Harbor Works Code of Practice for Design of Fendering and Mooring Systems Recommendations of the Committee for Waterfront Structures Approach Channels – A Guide to Design Supplement to Bulletin No.95 (1997) PIANC Technical Note of the Port and Harbour Research Institute, Ministry of Transport, Japan No. 911, Sept 1998 Guidelines for the Design of Fender Systems : 2002 Marcom Report of WG33

† BS6349 :

Part 4 : 1994

1994

Exceptions
These guidelines do not encompass unusual ships, extreme berthing conditions and other extreme cases for which specialist advice should be sought.

EAU 1996

1996

PIANC Bulletin 95

1997

Japanese MoT 911

1998

* PIANC 2002

2002

M1100-S12-V1-3-EN © Trelleborg AB, 2011

12–3

GLOSSARY Commonly used symbols
Symbol B C CB CC CE CM CS D EN EA FL FS H K KC LOA LBP LS LL M M50 M75 MD P R RF V VB α δ θ μ ϕ Definition Beam of vessel (excluding beltings and strakes) Positive clearance between hull of vessel and face of structure Block coefficient of vessel’s hull Berth configuration coefficient Eccentricity coefficient Added mass coefficient (virtual mass coefficient) Softness coefficient Draft of vessel Normal berthing energy to be absorbed by fender Abnormal berthing energy to be absorbed by fender Freeboard at laden draft Abnormal impact safety factor Height of compressible part of fender Radius of gyration of vessel Under keel clearance Overall length of vessel’s hull Length of vessel’s hull between perpendiculars Overall length of the smallest vessel using the berth Overall length of the largest vessel using the berth Displacement of the vessel Displacement of the vessel at 50% confidence limit Displacement of the vessel at 75% confidence limit Displacement of vessel Fender pitch or spacing Distance from point of contact to the centre of mass of the vessel Reaction force of fender Velocity of vessel (true vector) Approach velocity of the vessel perpendicular to the berthing line Berthing angle Deflection of the fender unit Hull contact angle with fender Coefficient of friction Velocity vector angle (between R and V) Units m m – – – – – m kNm kNm m – m m m m m m m tonne tonne tonne tonne m m kN m/s m/s degree % or m degree – degree

Definitions
Rubber fender Pneumatic fender Foam fender Steel Panel Units made from vulcanised rubber (often with encapsulated steel plates) that absorbs energy by elastically deforming in compression, bending or shear or a combination of these effects. Units comprising fabric reinforced rubber bags filled with air under pressure and that absorb energy from the work done in compressing the air above its normal initial pressure. Units comprising a closed cell foam inner core with reinforced polymer outer skin that absorb energy by virtue of the work done in compressing the foam. A structural steel frame designed to distribute the forces generated during rubber fender compression.

M1100-S12-V1-3-EN © Trelleborg AB, 2011

12–4

WHY FENDER?
‘There is a simple reason to use fenders: it is just too expensive not to do so’. These are the opening remarks of PIANC* and remain the primary reason why every modern port invests in protecting their structures with fenders. Well-designed fender systems will reduce construction costs and will contribute to making the berth more efficient by improving turn-around times. It follows that the longer a fender system lasts and the less maintenance it needs, the better the investment. It is rare for the very cheapest fenders to offer the lowest long term cost. Quite the opposite is true. A small initial saving will often demand much greater investment in repairs and upkeep over the years. A cheap fender system can cost many times that of a well-engineered, higher quality solution over the lifetime of the berth as the graphs below demonstrate.

10 reasons for quality fendering
B B B B B B B B B B Safety of staff, ships and structures Much lower lifecycle costs Rapid, trouble-free installation Quicker turnaround time, greater efficiency Reduced maintenance and repair Berths in more exposed locations Better ship stability when moored Lower structural loads Accommodate more ship types and sizes More satisfied customers

Capital costs
180 160 700

Maintenance costs

Other costs

140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0

500

400

300

Purchase price

200

org Trelleb

100

Trelleborg

Other

0

10

20 30 Service life (years) Wear & tear + Replacements + Damage repairs + Removal & scrapping + Fatigue, corrosion = Maintenance cost

Oth
40

er
50
M1100-S12-V1-3-EN © Trelleborg AB, 2011

600

Purchase price + Design approvals + Delivery delays + Installation time + Site support = Capital cost

Capital cost + Maintenance cost = FULL LIFE COST

energy and reaction force B check mooring line forces Check impact on structure and vessel B horizontal and vertical loading B chance of hitting the structure (bulbous bows etc) B face of structure to accommodate fender B implications of installing the fender B bevels/snagging from hull protrusions B restraint chains Computer simulation (optimisation) Final selection of fender B determine main characteristics of fender B PIANC Type Approved B verification test methods B B B B check availability of fender track record and warranties future spares availability fatigue/durability tests M1100-S12-V1-3-EN © Trelleborg AB. etc) B allowable hull pressures B light. types B special features of vessels (flare. 2011 . list.12–5 DESIGN FLOWCHART Functional B type(s) of cargo B safe berthing and mooring B better stability on berth B reduction of reaction force Operational B berthing procedures B frequency of berthing B limits of mooring and operations (adverse weather) B range of vessel sizes. beltings. laden or partly laden ships B stand-off from face of structure (crane reach) B fender spacing B type and orientation of waterfront structure B special requirements B spares availability Site conditions B wind speed B wave height B current speed B topography B tidal range B swell and fetch B temperature B corrosivity B channel depth Design criteria B B B B B B codes and standards design vessels for calculations normal/abnormal velocity maximum reaction force friction coefficient desired service life B B B B B safety factors (normal/abnormal) maintenance cost/frequency installation cost/practicality chemical pollution accident response Design criteria Calculation of berthing energy CM virtual mass factor CE eccentricity factor CC berth configuration factor CS softness factor Mooring layout B location of mooring B strength and type B pre-tensioning of equipment and/or dolphins of mooring lines mooring lines Calculation of fender energy absorption B selection of abnormal berthing safety factor Assume fender system and type Computer simulation (first series) Selection of appropriate fenders Check results Determination of: B energy absorption B reaction force B deflection B environmental factors B frictional loads B angular compression B chains etc B hull pressure B check vessel motions in six degrees of freedom B check vessel acceleration B check deflection.

Berthing modes may affect the choice of ship speed and the safety factor for abnormal conditions. where fenders can play a crucial role in the overall cost of construction. Berthing Many factors will affect how vessels approach the berth. Many berths are being built in exposed locations. Fenders must suit current ships and those expected to arrive in the foreseeable future. M1100-S12-V1-3-EN © Trelleborg AB. 2011 .12–6 THE DESIGN PROCESS Many factors contribute to the design of a fender: Ships Ship design evolves constantly – shapes change and many vessel types are getting larger. The safety of personnel. the corresponding kinetic energy and the load applied to the structure. The right fender choice can improve turnaround times and reduce downtime. structures and vessels must be considered at every stage – before. Local practice. wear allowances and the protective coatings will all affect the full life cost of systems. Structures Fenders impose loads on the berthing structure. Accessibility for maintenance. Installation and maintenance Fender installation should be considered early in the design process. during and after commissioning. materials and conditions may influence the choice of fender.

gas or bulk. open waters. Coastal berths Maximum exposure to winds. However special cases do exist. Non-tidal basins With minor changes in water level. 2011 . with greater exposure to winds. Structures on river bends may complicate berthing manoeuvres. especially on very soft structures. these locations are usually sheltered from strong winds. and provided the vessel contacts several fenders. Tides Tides vary by area and may have extremes of a few centimetres (Mediterranean. waves and currents. River berths Largest tidal range (depends on site). waves and currents. HRT HAT MHWS MHWN MLWN MLWS LAT LRT Highest Recorded Tide Highest Astronomical Tide Mean High Water Spring Mean High Water Neap Mean Low Water Neap Mean Low Water Spring Lowest Astronomical Tide Lowest Recorded Tide HRT HAT MHWS MHWN Currents and winds Current and wind forces can push vessels onto or off the berth. Once berthed. Baltic) or over 15 metres (parts of UK and Canada). Tides will influence the structure’s design and fender selection. Approach mode may be restricted by dredged channels and by flood and ebb tides. waves and currents.12–7 ENVIRONMENT Typical berthing locations Berthing structures are located in a variety of places from sheltered basins to unprotected. MSL MLWN MLWS LAT LRT M1100-S12-V1-3-EN © Trelleborg AB. Berths generally used by single classes of vessel such as oil. the forces are usually less critical. May be used by larger vessels than non-tidal basins. waves and currents. Local conditions will play a large part in deciding the berthing speeds and approach angles. and may influence the berthing speed. Ship sizes may be restricted due to lock access. in turn affecting the type and size of suitable fenders. deep draught vessels (such as tankers) will be more affected by current and high freeboard vessels (such as RoRo and container ships) will be more affected by strong winds. As a general guide. Tidal basins Larger variations in water level (depends on location) but still generally sheltered from winds.

2011 . Below are some typical structures and fender design considerations. the geology at the site. available materials and other factors. The type of structure depends on local practice. Features Open pile jetties B Simple and cost-effective B Good for deeper waters B Load-sensitive B Limited fixing area for fenders B Vulnerable to bulbous bows Design considerations B Low reaction reduces pile sizes and concrete mass B Best to keep fixings above piles and low tide B Suits cantilever panel designs Dolphins B Common for oil and gas terminals B Very load-sensitive B Flexible structures need careful design to match fender loads B Structural repairs are costly B Few but large fenders B Total reliability needed B Low reactions preferred B Large panels for low hull pressures need chains etc Monopiles B Inexpensive structures B Loads are critical B Not suitable for all geologies B Suits remote locations B Quick to construct B Fenders should be designed for fast installation B Restricted access means low maintenance fenders B Low reactions must be matched to structure B Parallel motion systems Mass structures B Most common in areas with small tides B Fender reaction not critical B Avoid fixings spanning pre-cast and in situ sections or expansion joints B Keep anchors above low tide B Care needed selecting fender spacing and projection B Suits cast-in or retrofit anchors B Many options for fender types Sheet piles B Quick to construct B Mostly used in low corrosion regions B In situ concrete copes are common B Can suffer from ALWC (accelerated low water corrosion) B Fixing fenders direct to piles difficult due to build tolerances B Keep anchors above low tide B Care needed selecting fender spacing and projection M1100-S12-V1-3-EN © Trelleborg AB.12–8 STRUCTURES The preferred jetty structure can influence the fender design and vice versa. Selecting an appropriate fender at an early stage can have a major effect on the overall project cost.

Flared bows are prone to strike shore structures. often with end berthing. sizes and condition of beltings. High berthing speeds. Require low hull contact pressures. White or light coloured hulls are easily marked. B B B B B Ships have own loading ramps – usually stern.12–9 SHIP TYPES General cargo ship B B B B Bulk carrier B B B B Container ship Need to be close to berth face to minimise shiploader outreach. B B B B B B B B B B Quick turn around needed. Bulbous bows may strike front piles of structures at large berthing angles. Coastal cargo vessels may berth without tug assistance. Many different shapes. Increasing ship beams needs increase crane outreach. Passenger (cruise) ship B B B B Ferry Small draft change between laden and empty. M1100-S12-V1-3-EN © Trelleborg AB. Require low hull contact pressures. Coastal tankers may berth without tug assistance. Large change of draft between laden and empty conditions. Require low hull contact pressures unless belted. 2011 . Manoeuvrability at low speeds may be poor. Berthing without tug assistance. Intensive use of berth. Oil tanker B B B B RoRo ship Need to avoid fire hazards from sparks or friction. Require low hull contact pressures unless belted. Large change of draft between laden and empty conditions. Large change of draft between laden and empty conditions. Shallow draft even at full load. B B B B B Flared bows are prone to strike shore structures. Manifolds not necessarily at midships position. Require low hull contact pressures unless belted. sizes and condition of beltings. Some vessels have single or multiple beltings. Many different shapes. High lateral and/or transverse berthing speeds. End berthing impacts often occur. Possible need to warp ships along berth for shiploader to change holds. May occupy berths for long periods. Single class of vessels using dedicated facilities. Gas carrier Need to avoid fire hazards from sparks or friction. Prefer small gaps between ship and quay to minimise outreach of cranes. slewed or side doors.

but may even appear on container ships or gas carriers. large increases in berthing speeds. Care is needed at large berthing angles or with widely spaced fenders to ensure the bulbous bow does not catch behind the fender or hit structural piles. RoRo ships. Larger fender may be required to maintain clearance from the quay structure. Most modern ships have bulbous bows. Almost every class of ship could be fitted with beltings or strakes. Barges. Strong winds can cause sudden. Many modern ships. etc. Big flare angles may affect fender performance. require very low hull contact pressures. Ships with high freeboard include ferries. cranes. Many ships are modified during their lifetime with little regard to the effect these changes may have on berthing or fenders. They are most common on RoRo ships or ferries. as well as many lightly loaded vessels. care is needed to avoid the bridge sitting on top of the fender during a falling tide. High speed catamarans and monohulls are often built from aluminium. small tankers and general cargo ships can have a small freeboard. Tugs and offshore supply boats have very large beltings. Cruise and RoRo ships often have flying bridges. In locks. These are often recessed and can snag fenders – especially in locks or when warping along the berth. 2011 . Fenders should extend down so that vessels cannot catch underneath at low tides and when fully laden. but especially tankers and gas carriers. They can only accept loads from fenders at special positions: usually reinforced beltings set very low or many metres above the waterline. which are achieved using large fender panels or floating fenders. cruise and container ships. Bulbous bows Beltings & strakes Flying bridge Low freeboard Stern & side doors High freeboard Low hull pressure Aluminium hulls Special features M1100-S12-V1-3-EN © Trelleborg AB. car carriers and some navy vessels have large doors for vehicle access.12–10 SHIP FEATURES Bow flares Common on container vessels and cruise ships. or when tides are large. Protrusions can snag fenders but risks are reduced by large bevels and chamfers on the frontal panels.

2011 .12–11 BERTHING MODES Side berthing α Typical values ϕ 0° ≤ α ≤ 15° 100mm/s ≤ V ≤ 300mm/s V Dolphin berthing 60° ≤ ϕ ≤ 90° Tug α Typical values ϕ V End berthing 0° ≤ α ≤ 10° 100mm/s ≤ V ≤ 200mm/s 30° ≤ ϕ ≤ 90° α ϕ V Typical values 0° ≤ α ≤ 10° 200mm/s ≤ V ≤ 500mm/s 0° ≤ ϕ ≤ 10° Lock entrances V ϕ α Typical values 0° ≤ α ≤ 30° 300mm/s ≤ V ≤ 2000mm/s 0° ≤ ϕ ≤ 30° Ship-to-ship berthing ϕ α Typical values 0° ≤ α ≤ 15° 150mm/s ≤ V ≤ 500mm/s V 60° ≤ ϕ ≤ 90° M1100-S12-V1-3-EN © Trelleborg AB.

8. Very low design berthing speeds which might easily be exceeded.* VB = Approach velocity component perpendicular to the berthing line† (m/s). PIANC recommends that ‘the factor of abnormal impact when derived should be not be less than 1.0 EA = FS × EN Where. Container General cargo RoRo. etc Source: PIANC 2002. Causes may include human error. malfunctions.25 1. Range of vessel sizes and types using the berth. berth type.5 2. workboats. EN = Normal berthing energy to be absorbed by the fender (kNm) M = Mass of the vessel (displacement in tonne) at chosen confidence level. cargo Size Largest Smallest Largest Smallest FS 1. How frequently the berth is used.12–12 BERTHING ENERGY The kinetic energy of a berthing ship needs to be absorbed by a suitable fender system and this is most commonly carried out using well recognised deterministic methods as outlined in the following sections. The calculation should take into account worst combinations of vessel displacement.75 1.1 nor more than 2. wind and current exposure.5.2. M1100-S12-V1-3-EN © Trelleborg AB. Section 4. any tidal restrictions. Normal Berthing Energy (EN) Most berthings will have energy less than or equal to the normal berthing energy (EN). The abnormal energy to be absorbed by the fender can be calculated as: PIANC Factors of Safety (FS) Vessel type Tanker.5. CM = Added mass coefficient CE = Eccentricity coefficient CC = Berth configuration coefficient CS = Softness coefficient * PIANC suggests 50% or 75% confidence limits (M50 or M75) are appropriate to most cases.0 2. EA = Abnormal berthing energy to be absorbed by the fender (kNm) FS = Safety factor for abnormal berthings Choosing a suitable safety factor (FS) will depend on many factors: B B B B B B The consequences a fender failure may have on berth operations. Source: PIANC 2002.2.0 1. Vulnerability to damage of the supporting structure. experience of the operators.75 ≥ 2. angle as well as the various coefficients. Allowance should also be made for how often the berth is used. The normal energy to be absorbed by the fender can be calculated as: EN = 0. † Berthing velocity (VB) is usually based on displacement at 50% confidence limit (M50). bulk. exceptional weather conditions or a combination of these factors. Table 4.0 unless exception circumstances prevail’. Abnormal Berthing Energy (EA) Abnormal impacts arise when the normal energy is exceeded. 2011 . Hazardous or valuable cargoes including people.5 × M × VB2 × CM × CE × CC × CS Where. ferries Tugs. velocity.

4m wide and 9. PIANC considers 50% to 75% confidence limits are the most appropriate for design.12–13 SHIP DEFINITIONS Many different definitions are used to describe ship sizes and classes. Panama Canal Lock chambers are 305m long and 33.000 dwt >200. 24. 1. The canal is about 86km long and passage takes eight hours. Some of the more common descriptions are given below. They are divided into Confidence Limits (CL) which are defined as the proportion of ships of the same DWT with dimensions equal to or less than those in the table.000–300. The draft of a partly loaded ship (D) can be estimated using the formula below: LWT MD = LWT + DWT + DWT = MD D DL D≈ DL × LWT MD = DL × (MD – DWT) MD USING SHIP TABLES 50% 75% Ship tables originally appeared in PIANC 2002.7m.000 dwt >300. Length × Beam × Draft 200m × 23m × 9m 215m × 30m × 10m 290m × 32.000 teu 2nd Generation container 1.5m × 24. Cruise and LNG. Please ask Trelleborg Marine Systems for supplementary tables of latest and largest vessel types including Container.0m × 9. each 233m long.000 dwt 2.3m 233. connecting the Mediterranean and Red Sea. RoRo. is about 163km long and varies from 80–135m wide.000–40.000–2.000 dwt 130.5–13.000 dwt 200. It has no lock chambers but most of the canal has a single traffic lane with passing bays.000–8.500–5. with 19 locks. The largest depth of the canal is 12.000 teu 4th Generation container 5.3m × 12m 305m × >32. 2011 .000–200.000 teu 5th Generation container >8.500 teu 3rd Generation container 2. St Lawrence Seaway The seaway system allows ships to pass from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes via six short canals totalling 110km.000 teu All vessel types in Suez Canal All vessel types in St Lawrence Seaway Bulk carrier Bulk carrier Bulk carrier Oil tanker Oil tanker 3.1m deep.5m wide.1m 10. The ship tables show laden draft (DL) of vessels.3m × 13m DWT Comments 1st Generation container <1. Suez Canal The canal. M1100-S12-V1-3-EN © Trelleborg AB. Vessel Type Small feeder Feeder Panamax1 Post-Panamax Super post-Panamax (VLCS) Suezmax 2 Seaway-Max3 Handysize Cape Size Very large bulk carrier (VLBC) Very large crude carrier (VLCC) Ultra large crude carrier (ULCC) 500m × 70m × 21.

5 21.4 DL 3.9 4.5 2.7 9.1 3.1 6.3 11.6 15.9 32.9 22.5 24.8 2.3 6.4 28.7 18.8 5.1 10.3 12.7 12.1 27.1 2.7 9.1 26.8 7.6 19.5 13.2 10.8 23.0 1.7 12.5 8.6 16.3 57.9 3.5 8.9 7.1 32.4 11.8 7.4 1.8 6.6 2.9 5.5 5.0 47.7 5.6 24.4 3.7 16.9 12.4 17.0 17.9 2.1 6.6 4.4 9.0 FL 1.8 4.1 32.4 19.7 4.5 0.0 50.2 19.6 27.9 13.3 2.6 10.0 23.3 36.6 5.5 10.0 50.2 7.5 3.7 29.4 6.0 17.1 4.3 35.3 9.3 32.0 26.2 5.6 26.7 2.6 1.7 3.9 16.6 4.6 21.7 6.6 18.4 9.5 0.1 13.7 1.8 16.6 46.3 12.0 13.1 3.7 8.7 7.2 9.0 3.6 7.0 6.6 8.8 19.1 6.2 3.5 21.9 43.7 11.0 16.7 2.3 32.3 3.1 6.3 40.7 8.6 3.1 Wind area Lateral Front Full Load Ballast Full Load Ballast 227 348 447 612 754 940 1210 1440 1850 2210 615 710 830 980 1110 1320 1640 1890 2200 2610 2950 3240 1320 1690 2250 2750 3220 3660 4480 5230 5950 170 251 315 419 505 617 770 910 1140 1510 1830 2230 2800 3290 4120 292 463 605 849 1060 1340 1760 2130 2780 3370 850 1010 1230 1520 1770 2190 2870 3440 4150 5140 5990 6740 1360 1700 2190 2620 3010 3370 4040 4640 5200 266 401 509 689 841 1040 1320 1560 1990 2690 3280 4050 5150 6110 7770 59 94 123 173 216 274 359 435 569 690 205 232 264 307 341 397 479 542 619 719 800 868 300 373 478 569 652 729 870 990 1110 78 108 131 167 196 232 281 322 390 497 583 690 840 960 1160 88 134 172 236 290 361 463 552 709 846 231 271 320 387 443 536 682 798 940 1140 1310 1450 396 477 591 687 770 850 990 1110 1220 80 117 146 194 233 284 355 416 520 689 829 1010 1260 1480 1850 General cargo ship Bulk carrier Container ship 25000 30000 40000 50000 60000 1000 2000 3000 5000 7000 10000 15000 Oil tanker 20000 30000 50000 70000 100000 150000 200000 300000 M1100-S12-V1-3-EN © Trelleborg AB.12–14 50% SHIP TABLES smaller larger Type DWT/GRT 1000 2000 3000 5000 7000 10000 15000 20000 30000 40000 5000 7000 10000 15000 20000 30000 50000 70000 100000 150000 200000 250000 7000 10000 15000 20000 Displacement M50 1580 3040 4460 7210 9900 13900 20300 26600 39000 51100 6740 9270 13000 19100 25000 36700 59600 81900 115000 168000 221000 273000 10200 14300 21100 27800 34300 40800 53700 66500 79100 1450 2810 4140 6740 9300 13100 19200 25300 37300 60800 83900 118000 174000 229000 337000 LOA 63 78 88 104 115 128 146 159 181 197 106 116 129 145 157 176 204 224 248 279 303 322 116 134 157 176 192 206 231 252 271 59 73 83 97 108 121 138 151 171 201 224 250 284 311 354 LBP 58 72 82 96 107 120 136 149 170 186 98 108 120 135 148 167 194 215 239 270 294 314 108 125 147 165 180 194 218 238 256 54 68 77 91 102 114 130 143 163 192 214 240 273 300 342 B 10.3 37.2 14.7 7.3 14.3 5.8 8.9 20.0 2.0 3.9 6.4 13.2 10.3 2. 2011 .

7 31.0 11.3 10.5 3.8 5.5 7.5 1.7 FL 2.7 3.7 11.4 6.4 17.7 4.1 1.2 4.7 Wind area Lateral Front Full Load Ballast Full Load Ballast 700 970 1170 1480 1730 2040 2460 2810 3400 426 683 900 1270 1600 2040 2690 3270 4310 6090 7660 387 617 811 1150 1440 1830 2400 2920 3830 4660 350 535 686 940 1150 1430 1840 2190 2810 3850 4730 5880 810 1110 1340 1690 1970 2320 2790 3180 3820 452 717 940 1320 1650 2090 2740 3320 4350 6120 7660 404 646 851 1200 1510 1930 2540 3090 4070 4940 436 662 846 1150 1410 1750 2240 2660 3400 4630 5670 7030 216 292 348 435 503 587 701 794 950 167 225 267 332 383 446 530 599 712 880 1020 141 196 237 302 354 419 508 582 705 810 121 177 222 295 355 432 541 634 794 1050 1270 1550 217 301 364 464 544 643 779 890 1080 175 234 277 344 396 459 545 614 728 900 1040 145 203 247 316 372 442 537 618 752 860 139 203 254 335 403 490 612 716 894 1180 1420 1730 RoRo ship 7000 10000 15000 20000 30000 1000 2000 3000 5000 7000 Passenger (cruise) ship 10000 15000 20000 30000 50000 70000 1000 2000 3000 5000 7000 Ferry 10000 15000 20000 30000 40000 1000 2000 3000 5000 7000 10000 Gas carrier 15000 20000 30000 50000 70000 100000 M1100-S12-V1-3-EN © Trelleborg AB.6 2.1 4.9 19.6 27.5 11.6 2.6 13.8 3.8 6.7 8.8 5.0 6.4 30.7 7.7 19.0 24.8 5.7 11.8 6.5 8.1 9.5 24.7 9.0 2.5 21.3 43.0 1.0 4.4 22.9 11.7 4.3 11.3 6.7 11.6 22.2 7.4 8.6 15.3 4.2 23.2 3.2 15.1 25.2 9.2 5. 2011 .6 DL 3.2 3.3 15.1 13.5 35.0 20.3 3.3 10.6 5.8 30.1 4.0 26.2 5.2 9.6 4.1 12.3 3.6 12.7 15.5 39.9 2.12–15 50% SHIP TABLES smaller larger Type DWT/GRT 1000 2000 3000 5000 Displacement M50 1970 3730 5430 8710 11900 16500 24000 31300 45600 850 1580 2270 3580 4830 6640 9530 12300 17700 27900 37600 810 1600 2390 3940 5480 7770 11600 15300 22800 30300 2210 4080 5830 9100 12300 16900 24100 31100 44400 69700 94000 128000 LOA 66 85 99 119 135 153 178 198 229 60 76 87 104 117 133 153 169 194 231 260 59 76 88 106 119 135 157 174 201 223 68 84 95 112 124 138 157 171 194 227 252 282 LBP 60 78 90 109 123 141 163 182 211 54 68 78 92 103 116 132 146 166 197 220 54 69 80 97 110 125 145 162 188 209 63 78 89 104 116 130 147 161 183 216 240 268 B 13.6 25.5 5.4 8.5 33.1 30.8 4.2 2.3 1.7 11.6 7.8 22.2 4.6 17.7 5.7 15.8 29.3 5.9 4.1 17.1 16.9 6.5 6.4 13.9 3.1 18.8 27.7 5.6 4.5 2.2 19.6 7.8 3.6 7.0 2.9 2.0 3.2 26.7 2.7 3.0 5.6 20.6 7.9 5.6 7.

0 4.6 59.6 3.2 6.2 20.5 48.2 5.6 6.4 2.9 21.0 6.8 18.3 4.8 29.9 2.5 6.3 22.8 23.8 2.4 11.3 38.3 3.6 2.7 16.8 27.0 27.4 9.3 16.4 18.7 3.9 10.9 13.5 48.6 10.2 13.8 4.8 30.9 3.4 8.5 9.7 15.0 6.4 17.3 4.9 6. 2011 .3 5.0 7.5 2.9 4.6 4.9 9.1 12.1 4.3 36.4 13.1 18.6 25.3 32.9 27.0 13.3 7.9 DL 3.9 15.7 6.9 4.4 7.4 10.4 25.9 12.6 14.8 13.3 32.6 2.6 7.6 11.4 8.1 1.9 7.0 5.0 3.8 2.0 42.6 19.9 8.1 42.3 3.0 24.2 Wind area Lateral Front Full Load Ballast Full Load Ballast 278 426 547 750 922 1150 1480 1760 2260 2700 689 795 930 1100 1240 1480 1830 2110 2460 2920 3300 3630 1460 1880 2490 3050 3570 4060 4970 5810 6610 190 280 351 467 564 688 860 1010 1270 1690 2040 2490 3120 3670 4600 342 541 708 993 1240 1570 2060 2490 3250 3940 910 1090 1320 1630 1900 2360 3090 3690 4460 5520 6430 7240 1590 1990 2560 3070 3520 3950 4730 5430 6090 280 422 536 726 885 1090 1390 1650 2090 2830 3460 4270 5430 6430 8180 63 101 132 185 232 294 385 466 611 740 221 250 286 332 369 428 518 586 669 777 864 938 330 410 524 625 716 800 950 1090 1220 86 119 144 184 216 255 309 355 430 548 642 761 920 1060 1280 93 142 182 249 307 382 490 585 750 895 245 287 340 411 470 569 723 846 1000 1210 1380 1540 444 535 663 771 870 950 1110 1250 1370 85 125 156 207 249 303 378 443 554 734 884 1080 1340 1570 1970 General cargo ship Bulk carrier Container ship 25000 30000 40000 50000 60000 1000 2000 3000 5000 7000 10000 15000 Oil tanker 20000 30000 50000 70000 100000 150000 200000 300000 M1100-S12-V1-3-EN © Trelleborg AB.6 12.6 3.2 3.2 19.3 9.1 14.5 0.9 7.5 17.2 44.2 32.5 23.2 0.7 5.5 10.2 15.8 23.2 17.3 39.7 FL 1.2 12.4 7.5 1.1 8.8 3.6 20.7 52.0 9.7 8.7 7.9 18.1 2.0 9.8 1.2 32.9 5.6 13.1 7.5 10.2 21.1 28.6 20.9 5.8 11.8 30.0 32.3 2.9 5.6 9.12–16 75% SHIP TABLES smaller larger Type DWT/GRT 1000 2000 3000 5000 7000 10000 15000 20000 30000 40000 5000 7000 10000 15000 20000 30000 50000 70000 100000 150000 200000 250000 7000 10000 15000 20000 Displacement M75 1690 3250 4750 7690 10600 14800 21600 28400 41600 54500 6920 9520 13300 19600 25700 37700 61100 84000 118000 173000 227000 280000 10700 15100 22200 29200 36100 43000 56500 69900 83200 1580 3070 4520 7360 10200 14300 21000 27700 40800 66400 91600 129000 190000 250000 368000 LOA 67 83 95 111 123 137 156 170 193 211 109 120 132 149 161 181 209 231 255 287 311 332 123 141 166 186 203 218 244 266 286 61 76 87 102 114 127 144 158 180 211 235 263 298 327 371 LBP 62 77 88 104 115 129 147 161 183 200 101 111 124 140 152 172 200 221 246 278 303 324 115 132 156 175 191 205 231 252 271 58 72 82 97 108 121 138 151 173 204 227 254 290 318 363 B 10.2 8.

8 5.2 4.0 2.0 37.1 9.5 6.3 12.7 12.3 8.8 5.6 23.0 18.2 8.9 3.3 Wind area Lateral Front Full Load Ballast Full Load Ballast 880 1210 1460 1850 2170 2560 3090 3530 4260 464 744 980 1390 1740 2220 2930 3560 4690 6640 8350 411 656 862 1220 1530 1940 2550 3100 4070 4950 390 597 765 1050 1290 1600 2050 2450 3140 4290 5270 6560 970 1320 1590 2010 2350 2760 3320 3780 4550 486 770 1010 1420 1780 2250 2950 3570 4680 6580 8230 428 685 903 1280 1600 2040 2690 3270 4310 5240 465 707 903 1230 1510 1870 2390 2840 3630 4940 6050 7510 232 314 374 467 541 632 754 854 1020 187 251 298 371 428 498 592 669 795 990 1140 154 214 259 330 387 458 555 636 771 880 133 195 244 323 389 474 593 696 870 1150 1390 1690 232 323 391 497 583 690 836 960 1160 197 263 311 386 444 516 611 690 818 1010 1170 158 221 269 344 405 482 586 673 819 940 150 219 273 361 434 527 658 770 961 1270 1530 1860 RoRo ship 7000 10000 15000 20000 30000 1000 2000 3000 5000 7000 Passenger (cruise) ship 10000 15000 20000 30000 50000 70000 1000 2000 3000 5000 7000 Ferry 10000 15000 20000 30000 40000 1000 2000 3000 5000 7000 10000 Gas carrier 15000 20000 30000 50000 70000 100000 M1100-S12-V1-3-EN © Trelleborg AB.4 7.1 32.4 10.3 17.2 6.3 20.4 7.2 41.1 30.8 FL 2.2 19.5 2.4 32.0 3. 2011 .2 9.0 4.0 8.8 5.6 5.4 8.5 8.0 5.5 6.4 32.7 5.8 23.6 27.4 4.5 13.1 6.5 24.3 12.0 16.4 23.0 28.3 5.3 9.7 22.7 16.2 2.8 13.6 3.8 10.1 2.1 26.5 5.7 28.12–17 75% SHIP TABLES smaller larger Type DWT/GRT 1000 2000 3000 5000 Displacement M75 2190 4150 6030 9670 13200 18300 26700 34800 50600 1030 1910 2740 4320 5830 8010 11500 14900 21300 33600 45300 1230 2430 3620 5970 8310 11800 17500 23300 34600 45900 2480 4560 6530 10200 13800 18900 27000 34800 49700 78000 105000 144000 LOA 73 94 109 131 148 169 196 218 252 64 81 93 112 125 142 163 180 207 248 278 67 86 99 119 134 153 177 196 227 252 71 88 100 117 129 144 164 179 203 237 263 294 LBP 66 86 99 120 136 155 180 201 233 60 75 86 102 114 128 146 160 183 217 243 61 78 91 110 124 142 164 183 212 236 66 82 93 109 121 136 154 169 192 226 251 281 B 14.9 25.4 7.0 10.4 28.9 4.3 6.6 10.7 3.7 14.7 6.2 14.5 6.2 33.2 12.6 18.8 21.3 35.9 3.2 25.4 15.3 2.1 1.6 2.8 20.4 16.3 12.1 7.0 8.9 DL 3.4 4.9 4.6 3.0 8.8 21.6 2.2 4.7 10.2 29.3 9.9 4.2 4.5 6.2 3.3 16.4 35.7 12.9 1.2 7.1 18.3 6.4 2.5 4.4 16.0 12.9 11.1 14.6 8.7 6.4 4.8 7.0 18.2 45.5 3.1 11.

000 a 0.524 0.000 10.000 40. sheltered Easy berthing.117 0.6 d 0.355 0.445 0.000 Velocity. VB (m/s) DWT 1. exposed 0.000 4.151 0.352 0.12–18 APPROACH VELOCITY (VB) Berthing speeds depend on the ease or difficulty of the approach.487 0.000 400.178 0.126 0.039 0.124 0.125 0.597 0.000 5.3 0. VB (m/s) 0. M1100-S12-V1-3-EN © Trelleborg AB.064 0.669 0.090 e 0.071 0.374 0.000 500.269 0.303 0.343 0.1m/s should be used with caution.com/marine .258 0. Conditions are normally divided into five categories as shown in the chart’s key table.083 0.201 0.459 0. PIANC2 and other standards.164 0.377 0.865 0.000 200.000 30.236 0.133 0.111 0.094 0.052 0. sheltered Difficult berthing.019 0.577 0.517 0.000 Deadweight (DWT)* * PIANC suggests using DWT from 50% or 75% confidence limit ship tables.192 0. adopted by BS1.2 a 0.028 0.074 0.296 0.115 † B Approach velocities less than 0. Caution: low berthing speeds are easily exceeded.110 0. 2011 .000 3.8 a b c d e Berthing condition Easy berthing.000 20. exposed Good berthing.022 0.064 d 0. 0.558 0.000 300.279 0. exposed Difficult berthing.221 0.448 0.153 0.1 USE WITH CAUTION 0 1.119 0. B Values are for tug-assisted berthing.000 100.000 50.057 0.308 0.136 0.198 0.404 0. speeds for the main vessel sizes are shown at the bottom of this page.131 0.726 0.017 b 0.137 0.264 0.7 e Approach velocity.041 c 0.4 most commonly used conditions b 0.171 0. displayed and recorded using a SmartDock Docking Aid System (DAS) by Harbour Marine.062 0. The most widely used guide to approach speeds is the Brolsma table. the exposure of the berth and the vessel’s size.† Harbour Marine is part of Trelleborg Marine Systems. B Spreadsheets for calculating the approach velocity and berthing energy are available at www.trelleborg.250 0.5 c VB 0.045 0.239 0.287 0. 100.052 0.099 0. For ease of use.228 0.095 0.000 10.000 2. B Actual berthing velocities can be measured.080 0.649 0.158 0.000 500.179 0.

The Vasco Costa method is adopted by most design codes for ship-to-shore berthing where water depths are not substantially greater than vessel drafts.55–0.1 Recommended by PIANC. effectively increasing its overall mass.025t/m3 Given ship dimensions and using typical block coefficients.12–19 BLOCK COEFFICIENT (CB) The block coefficient (CB) is a function of the hull shape and is expressed as follows: CB = MD LBP × B × D × ρSW Typical block coefficients (CB) Container vessels General cargo and bulk carriers Tankers Ferries RoRo vessels Source: PIANC 2002.8 where.1 ≤ ≤ 0. the entrained water continues to push against the ship. MD = displacement of vessel (t) LBP = length between perpendiculars (m) B = beam (m) D = draft (m) ρSW = seawater density ≈ 1.6–0.5 CM = 1.08m/s. the displacement can be estimated: MD ≈ CB × LBP × B × D × ρSW D LBP B ADDED MASS COEFFICIENT (CM) B The added mass coefficient allows for the body of water carried along with the ship as it moves sideways through the water.875 – 0.72–0.8 0.2 0.1 KC D CM = 1.85 0. 12–19 .1D Special case – longitudinal approach V CM = 1. As the ship is stopped by the fender.5 where.8 for 0.75 KC D CM = π×D 2 × CB × B 2D CM = 1 + B for KC D ≥ 0. KC ≥ 0.7–0. Table 4.2.85 0.5 CM = 1.65 0. D = draft of vessel (m) B = beam of vessel (m) LBP = length between perpendiculars (m) KC = under keel clearance (m) * valid where VB ≥ 0. PIANC (2002) Shigera Ueda (1981) Quay VB D KC Vasco Costa* (1964) for KC D ≤ 0.

11) × LBP x= CE = K2 + R2cos2ϕ K2 + R2 LBP 4 CE ≈ 0. B = beam (m) CB = block coefficient LBP = length between perpendiculars (m) R = centre of mass to point of impact (m) K = radius of gyration (m) Midships berthing x= LBP 2 CE ≈ 1. and it is the transverse velocity component (Vsinα) which much be resisted by the fenders. Velocity (V) is not always perpendicular to the berthing line.2-90 suggests a=0.4–0. x+y= LBP 2 B 2 (assuming the centre of mass is at mid-length of the ship) 2 R= y2 + Common berthing cases Quarter-point berthing K = (0. 2011 . the velocity vector angle (ϕ) is taken between V and R. with a minimum of 10m and maximum of 15m between the midpoint and the vessel’s centre of mass. The correct point of impact. Ships rarely berth exactly midway between dolphins. Dolphin berths Tug ϕ R α M1100-S12-V1-3-EN © Trelleborg AB.0 Caution: for ϕ < 10º.12–20 ECCENTRICITY COEFFICIENT (CE) LBP y x R ϕ B 2 α berthing line VB V VL VL = longitudinal velocity component (forward or astern) The Eccentricity Coefficient allows for the energy dissipated by rotation of the ship about its point of impact with the fenders. PIANC suggests that the ship’s speed parallel to the berthing face (Vcosα) is not decreased by berthing impacts.1L. berthing angle and velocity vector angle are all important for accurate calculation of the eccentricity coefficient.6 Third-point berthing x= LBP 3 CE ≈ 0.3 and 1. In practice. ROM 0.6–0. CE 1.19 × CB + 0.0 for different berthing cases. When calculating the eccentricity coefficient. This offset reduces the vector angle (ϕ) and increases the eccentricity coefficient.0 Lock entrances and guiding fenders ϕ V R α V a Where the ship has a significant forward motion.8 where. CE often varies between 0.

Mode b) Mode c) Breasting dolphins α ≤ 15º A Outer end A R ≤0. Side fenders guide the vessel but ships berth directly against the shore ramp structure or dedicated end fenders. The ships then move along the quay or dolphins using the side fenders for guidance until they are the required distance from the shore ramp structure.25LS Inner end V3 ≤0. PIANC defines these as mode b) and mode c).25LS C End fender and shore based ramp Fender Side Side End End fender and shore based ramp Fender Side Side End Typical values 1000mm/s ≤ V1 ≤ 3000mm/s 500mm/s ≤ V2 ≤ 1000mm/s 200mm/s ≤ V3 ≤ 500mm/s A B C Typical values 100mm/s ≤ V1 ≤ 300mm/s 60° ≤ ϕ ≤ 90° N/A 300mm/s ≤ V2 ≤ 500mm/s 200mm/s ≤ V3 ≤ 500mm/s 0° ≤ ϕ ≤ 10° A B C 0° ≤ ϕ ≤ 50° 0° ≤ ϕ ≤ 50° 0° ≤ ϕ ≤ 10° RoRo vessels with bow and/or stern ramps make a transverse approach to the berth. 2011 .25LS B V2 B ≤0. B Lower berthing energy B Reduced speeds may affect ship manoeuvrability B Increased turn-around time B CE is smaller (typically 0. as the berthing energies which must be absorbed by the fenders can differ considerably.25LS Approach V1 R ϕ ≤0. B Quicker berthing and more controllable in strong winds B High berthing energies B Risk of vessel hitting inside of fenders or even the dolphins B CE can be large (typically 0.7) RoRo vessels approach either head-on or stern-on with a large longitudinal velocity.05LL α ≤ 15º V2 ≤0.6–0.9) M1100-S12-V1-3-EN © Trelleborg AB.25LS Breasting dolphins ϕ V1 ≥ 1.12–21 ECCENTRICITY COEFFICIENT (CE) Special cases for RoRo Terminals Modern RoRo terminals commonly use two different approach modes during berthing.25LS C V3 α ≤0.4–0. It is important to decide whether one or both approach modes will be used.

some of the berthing energy is absorbed by elastic deformation of the hull.12–22 BERTH CONFIGURATION COEFFICIENT (CC) When ships berth at small angles against solid structures. PIANC recommends the following values: CS = 1. In most cases this contribution is limited and ignored (CS =1).0 CS = 0. the berth configuration coefficient CC =1 is usually assumed.9 B Solid quay structures B Berthing angles > 5º Note: where the under keel clearance has already been considered for added mass (CM). 2011 .9 Soft fenders (δf > 150mm) Hard fenders (δf ≤ 150mm) M1100-S12-V1-3-EN © Trelleborg AB. The extent to which this factor contributes will depend upon several factors: B B B B B Quay structure design Underkeel clearance Velocity and angle of approach Projection of fender Vessel hull shape Closed structure Semi-closed structure PIANC recommends the following values: B B B B Open structures including berth corners Berthing angles > 5º Very low berthing velocities Large underkeel clearance CC = 1. SOFTNESS COEFFICIENT (CS) Where fenders are hard relative to the flexibility of the ship hull. the water between hull and quay acts as a cushion and dissipates a small part of the berthing energy.0 CC = 0.

but different height. Whatever type of fenders are used. they must have sufficient capacity to absorb the normal and abnormal energies of berthing ships. reaction and hull pressure.543 kNm/kN R * for a 4. R R E E D Super Cone SCN 1050 (E2) This comparison shows Super Cone and SeaGuard fenders with similar energy. speeds and temperatures when applicable. When selecting fenders the designer must consider many factors including: B B B B B B Single or multiple fender contacts The effects of angular compressions Approach speeds Extremes of temperature Berthing frequency Fender efficiency Reaction ENERGY = area under curve Deflection Comparing efficiency Fender efficiency is defined as the ratio of the energy absorbed to the reaction force generated. 2011 .12–23 FENDER SELECTION Every type and size of fender has different performance characteristics. This method allows fenders of many sizes and types to be compared as the example shows.5m2 panel E = 0. deflection and initial stiffness (curve gradient).537 kNm/kN R M1100-S12-V1-3-EN © Trelleborg AB. E = 458kNm R = 843kN D = 768mm P = 187kN/m2 * D SeaGuard SG 2000 × 3500 (STD) E = 454kNm R = 845kN D = 1200mm P = 172kN/m2 E = 0. Comparisons should also be made at other compression angles.

Bow radiu s. these should be used to estimate bow radius. it is also recommended that the fender spacing does not exceed 0. B Clearance distances should take account of bow flare angles. P ≤ 2 RB2 – (RB – h + C)2 where. including panel) θ = hull contact angle with fender According to BS 6349: Part 4: 1994. RB = bow radius (m) B = beam of vessel (m) LOA = vessel length overall (m) The bow radius formula is approximate and should be checked against actual ship dimensions where possible.15 × L S. Small. where L S is the length of the smallest ship. intermediate and large vessels should be checked. Bow radius (metres) Cruise liner 200 150 100 50 0 0 Displacement (1000 t) 65 0 140 0 425 Displacement (1000 t) Displacement (1000 t) Container ship Bulk carrier/ general cargo Caution Large fender spacings may work in theory but in practice a maximum spacing of 12–15m is more realistic.12–24 FENDER PITCH Fenders spaced too far apart may allow ships to hit the structure. where. M1100-S12-V1-3-EN © Trelleborg AB. A minimum clearance of 300mm inclusive of bow flare is commonly specified. A positive clearance (C) should always be maintained. P = pitch of fender RB = bow radius (m) h = fender projection when compressed. B Where ship drawings are available. the formula below indicates the maximum fender pitch. measured at centreline of fender a = berthing angle C = clearance between vessel and dock (C should be 5–15% of the undeflected fender projection. RB α θ θ h = H – δF θ H δF C h P P/ 2 P/ 2 Bow radius Fender pitch RB ≈ 1 2 B 2 + LOA2 8B As a guide to suitable distance between fenders on a continuous wharf. B Smaller ships have smaller bow radius but usually cause smaller fender deflection. usually between 5–15% of the uncompressed fender height (H). B Bow flares are greater near to the bow and stern. 2011 .

Flare Bow radius Dolphin α us. RB Bow radi θ β P sin θ = P 2RB where RB = bow radius α M1100-S12-V1-3-EN © Trelleborg AB. bow radius and dolphin. 2011 .12–25 MULTIPLE CONTACT CASES 3-fender contact 2-fender contact RB RB RB RB δF2 δF1 δF2 Berthing H line δF Berthing line P P P P P/ 2 P/ 2 P B B B B Energy absorbed by three (or more) fenders Larger fender deflection likely Bow flare is important 1-fender contact also possible for ships with small bow radius B B B B Energy divided over 2 (or more) fenders Smaller fender deflections Greater total reaction into structure Clearance depends on bow radius and bow flare ANGULAR BERTHING The berthing angle between the fender and the ship’s hull may result in some loss of energy absorption. There are three possible conditions for the effects of angular berthing: flare. Angular berthing means the horizontal and/or vertical angle between the ship’s hull and the berthing structure at the point of contact.

In the UK. The table above is for guidance only and is not comprehensive. Corresponding minimum panel thickness will be 140–160mm (excluding UHMW-PE face pads) and often much greater. The panel design should consider many factors including: B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B Hull pressures and tidal range Lead-in bevels and chamfers Bending moment and shear Local buckling Limit state load factors Steel grade Permissible stresses Weld sizes and types Effects of fatigue and cyclic loads Pressure test method Rubber fender connections UHMW-PE attachment Chain connections Lifting points Paint systems Corrosion allowance Maintenance and service life 3 design cases Full-face contact Low-level impact n×T F F1 Double contact R R R1 F R2 F2 Steel Properties PIANC steel thicknesses Standard Grade S235JR (1. The table can be used as a guide to minimum average panel weight (excluding UHMW-PE face pads) for different service conditions: Light duty Medium duty Heavy duty Extreme duty 200–250kg/m2 250–300kg/m2 300–400kg/m2 ≥400kg/m2 M1100-S12-V1-3-EN © Trelleborg AB. Section 4.1.0038) EN 10025 S275JR (1. Exposed both faces Exposed one face Internal (not exposed) ≥ 12mm ≥ 9mm ≥ 8mm PIANC recommends the following minimum steel thicknesses for fender panel construction: Typical panel weights 32 The national standards of France and Germany have been replaced by EN 10025.0044) S355J2 (1.0553) SS41 JIS G-3101 SS50 SM50 A-36 ASTM A-572 345 50 000 450 65 000 0 32 Yield Strength (min) N/mm² 235 275 355 355 235 275 314 250 psi 34 000 40 000 51 000 51 000 34 000 40 000 46 000 36 000 Tensile Strength (min) N/mm² 360 420 510 510 402 402 490 400 psi 52 000 61 000 74 000 74 000 58 000 58 000 71 000 58 000 Temperature °C – – -20 0 0 0 0 0 °F – – -4 32 32 32 32 Source: PIANC 2002. BS4360 has been replaced by BS EN 10025.12–26 FENDER PANEL DESIGN Fender panels are used to distribute reaction forces into the hulls of berthing vessels.0570) S355J0 (1. 2011 .6. Actual specifications should be consulted in all cases for the full specifications of steel grades listed and other similar grades.

excluding bevels (m) Bulk carriers RoRo Passenger/cruise SWATH Source: PIANC 2002. Projection 200–400mm (typical).12–27 HULL PRESSURES W Allowable hull pressures depend on hull plate thickness and frame spacing. 3 M1100-S12-V1-3-EN © Trelleborg AB. others can be poorly maintained or modified. heave. Care is needed when designing fender panels to cope with beltings and prevent snagging or catching which may damage the system.4. Common on LNG/Oil tankers. Belting line loads exert crushing forces on the fender panel which must be considered in the structural design. PIANC gives the following advice on hull pressures: Vessel type Size/class < 1 000 teu (1st/2nd generation) < 3 000 teu (3rd generation) < 8 000 teu (4th generation) > 8 000 teu (5th/6th generation) ≤ 20 000 DWT > 20 000 DWT ≤ 20 000 DWT ≤ 60 000 DWT > 60 000 DWT LNG/LPG Hull pressure (kN/m2) < 400 < 300 < 250 < 200 400–700 < 400 < 250 < 300 150–200 < 200 < 200 Usually fitted with beltings (strakes) R H P= W×H Container ships General cargo Oil tankers Gas carriers P = average hull pressure (kN/m2) R = total fender reaction (kN) W = panel width. 2011 . Table 4. Application Light duty Medium duty Heavy duty Vessels Aluminium hulls Container RoRo/Cruise Belting Load (kN/m) 150–300 500–1 000 1 000–1 500 Belting types 1 2 h 3 ≥h Belting range Belting range is often greater than tidal range due to ship design. and changes in draft. Projection 100–250mm (typical). These vary according to the type of ship. excluding bevels (m) H = panel height. 1 2 Common on RoRo/Cruise ships. offshore supply vessels and some container ships. barges. roll. These come in many shapes and sizes – some are well-designed.1 BELTINGS Most ships have beltings (sometimes called belts or strakes).

The table can be used as a guide to typical design values. Correct location can optimise the deflection geometry.2 0. like polyurethanes (PU) used for the skin of foam fenders. They may also resist vertical shear forces caused by ship movements or changing draft. particularly for restraint chains.5 Steel Steel Steel Steel Steel Steel CHAIN DESIGN Chains can be used to restrain the movements of fenders during compression or to support static loads. 2 SWL = μR + W n cosθ MBL ≥ FC × SWL θ where. Chains may serve four main functions: B Weight chains support the steel panel and prevent excessive drooping of the system. 2011 . Low friction facing materials (UHMW-PE) are often used to reduce friction. local temperatures.12–28 FRICTION Friction has a large influence on the fender design. 3 1 Factors to be considered when designing fender chains: B Corrosion reduces link diameter and weakens the chain.4 0. Other materials. as well as surface roughness. SWL = safe working load (kN) FC = safety factor μ = coefficient of friction R = fender reaction (kN) W = gross panel weight (kg) (for shear chains. W = 0) n = number of chains θ = effective chain angle (degrees) μR 1 2 W Tension chains Weight chains Shear chains 3 M1100-S12-V1-3-EN © Trelleborg AB. B Keep chains are used to moor floating fenders or to prevent loss of fixed fenders in the event of accidents. B Shear chains resist horizontal forces caused during longitudinal approaches or warping operations. Typical friction design values Materials UHMW-PE HD-PE Polyurethane Rubber Timber Steel Friction Coefficient (μ) 0. have lower friction coefficients than rubber against steel or concrete. B Tension chains restrict tension on the fender rubber.7 0. B Corrosion allowances and periodic replacement should be allowed for. static and dynamic load cases. B A ‘weak link’ in the chain system is desirable to prevent damage to more costly components in an accident. Friction coefficients may vary due to wet or dry conditions.3 0.4 0.

impact strength. but UHMW-PE is available in many other colours if required.12–29 UHMW-PE FACING The contact face of a fender panel helps to determine the lifetime maintenance costs of a fender installation. The standard colour is black. temperature extremes. Fastening example W t Always use oversize washers to spread the load. 2011 . These plates can be cut. UHMW-PE is a totally homogeneous material which is available in many sizes and thicknesses. seawater and marine borers. Sinter moulded into plates at extremely high pressure. Large pads vs small pads M1100-S12-V1-3-EN © Trelleborg AB. It uniquely combines low friction. non-marking characteristics and resistance to wear. UHMW-PE (FQ1000) is the best material available for such applications. Larger pads are usually more robust but smaller pads are easier and cheaper to replace. machined and drilled to suit any type of panel or shield. Application Light duty Medium duty t (mm) 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 W* (mm) 3–5 7–10 10–15 15–19 18–25 22–32 25–36 28–40 Bolt M16 M16–M20 Heavy duty M24–M30 Extreme duty M30–M36 * Where allowances are typical values. actual wear allowance may vary due fixing detail.

12–30 CORROSION PREVENTION Fenders are usually installed in corrosive environments. Corrosion of fender accessories can be reduced with specialist paint coatings.5 Sa 2. offshore and high salinity locations and is considered to be the most applicable to fenders. The table gives some typical C5-M class paint systems which provide high durability in marine environments. coats 4-5 4 3 NDFT 320 400 300 Expected durability (C5-M corrosivity) High (>15y) High (>15y) Medium (5-15y) Sa 2. Paint coatings ISO EN 12944 is a widely used international standard defining the durability of corrosion protection systems in various environments.5 is defined in ISO 8501-1 NDFT = Nominal dry film thickness Zn (R) = Zinc rich primer Misc = miscellaneous types of anticorrosive pigments EP = 2-pack epoxy PUR = 1-pack or 2-pack polyurethane CTE = 2-pack coal tar epoxy Design considerations Other paint systems may also satisfy the C5-M requirements but in choosing any coating the designer should carefully consider the following: B B B B B B B Corrosion protection systems are not a substitute for poor design details such as re-entrant shapes and corrosion traps. 2011 . sometimes made worse by high temperature and humidity. It is to help operators estimate sensible maintenance times.09 S7. coats 1 1 1 NDFT 40 40 100 Binder EP . Paint Surface System Preparation S7. The life expectancy or ‘durability’ of coatings is divided into three categories which estimate the time to first major maintenance: Low Medium High 2–5 years 5–15 years >15 years Durability range is not a guarantee. PUR CTE Primer Zn (R) Zn (R) Misc No.5 Sa 2. Stainless steels should be carefully selected for their performance in seawater. Paint coatings and galvanising have a finite life.11 S7.5 Priming Coat(s) Binder EP . Galvanised components like chains or bolts may need periodic re-galvanising or replacement. coats 3-4 3 2 NDFT 280 360 200 Paint System No. Note that coal tar epoxy paints are not available in some countries. by galvanising or with selective use of stainless steels. M1100-S12-V1-3-EN © Trelleborg AB. Coating must be reapplied at intervals during the life of the fender. drying and handling times Maximum over-coating times Local conditions including humidity or contaminants Refer to paint manufacturer for advice on specific applications and products. PUR EP .16 Sa 2. The C5-M class applies to marine coastal. Minimum dry film thickness >80% of NDFT (typical) Maximum film thickness <3 × NDFT (typical) Local legislation on emission of solvents or health & safety factors Application temperatures. PUR CTE CTE Top Coats No.

seized fasteners cannot be further tightened or removed and usually needs to be cut out and replaced.5 Mo (%) 3.1–44.3 10. 2011 . To avoid this problem.5 – – N (%) 0.9–38.uk). The protective oxide layer of the stainless steel gets scraped off during tightening causing high local friction and welding of the threads. M1100-S12-V1-3-EN © Trelleborg AB.3Mo + 16N Cr and Mo are major cost factors for stainless steel. If these are unavailable then molybdenum disulfide or PTFE based lubricants can be used.0 2.5 10.0 Comments used where very long service life is needed or access for inspection is difficult widely used for fender fixings unsuitable for most fender applications 1.1–28.0–2.0 16.2–0. bolts and anchors.4462 SAF 2205 Duplex 1. Source: British Stainless Steel Association (www. Grade Common Name Type Cr (%) 24.03 PREN 37.0–23.5 2.4501 Zeron 100 Duplex 1.4003 3CR12 Ferritic Percentages of Cr. PREN = Cr + 3.1–0. Molybdenum (Mo) and Nitrogen (N) content – is a major factor in pitting resistance.0–26. Spin galvanised coatings are thinner than hot dip galvanised coatings and will not last as long in marine environments.11 0–0.5 17.0 21.0 30. A high PREN material will usually last longer but cost more. When exposed to sea water the zinc acts as an anodic reservoir which protects the steel underneath. Galvanising thickness can be increased by: B shot blasting the components before dipping B pickling the components in acid B double dipping the components (only suitable for some steel grades) Spin galvanising is used for threaded components which are immersed in molten zinc then immediately centrifuged to remove any excess zinc and clear the threads.3 0.5–12.0–19. Once the zinc is depleted the steel will begin to corrode and lose strength.5 17.5–13. always apply anti-galling compounds to threads before assembly. The most common formula for PREN is: Galling Galling or ‘cold welding’ affects threaded stainless steel components including nuts. The pitting resistance equivalent number (PREN) is a theoretical way to compare stainless steel grades. Mo and N are typical mid-range values and may differ within permissible limits for each grade.5–3.org.1 23.4301 304 Austenitic 1. After galling.bssa. Typical galvanising thicknesses: Hot dip galvanising Spin galvanising 85μm 40μm Stainless steels Pitting Resistance Stainless steel performance in seawater varies according to pitting resistance.5–18.11 0–0.0– 4. Chemical composition – especially Chromium (Cr).0–21.22 0–0.12–31 CORROSION PREVENTION Galvanising Hot-dip galvanising is the process of coating steel parts with a zinc layer by passing the component through a bath of molten zinc.4401 316S31 Austenitic 1.

2011 .12–32 PROJECT REQUIREMENTS PROJECT DETAILS Port Project Designer Contractor PROJECT STATUS TMS Ref: Preliminary Detail design Tender F D LBP LOA B LARGEST VESSEL Vessel type Deadweight Displacement Length overall (LOA) Length between perps (LBP) Beam (B) Draft (D) Freeboard (F) Hull pressure (P) (t) (t) (m) (m) (m) (m) (m) (t/m2) SMALLEST VESSEL Vessel type Deadweight Displacement Length overall (LOA) Length between perps (LBP) Beam (B) Draft (D) Freeboard (F) Hull pressure (P) (t) (t) (m) (m) (m) (m) (m) (t/m2) BERTH DETAILS Closed structure Semi-open structure Open structure Other (please describe) Structure Length of berth Fender/dolphin spacing Permitted fender reaction Quay level Cope thickness Seabed level (m) (m) (kN/m) (m) (m) (m) Tide levels Tidal range Highest astronomic tide (HAT) Mean high water spring (MHWS) Mean sea level (MSL) Mean low water spring (MLWS) Lowest astronomic tide (LAT) (m) (m) (m) (m) (m) (m) M1100-S12-V1-3-EN © Trelleborg AB.

sheltered c) easy berthing. exposed e) difficult berthing.12–33 PROJECT REQUIREMENTS BERTHING MODE BERTHING APPROACH Approach conditions Side berthing a) easy berthing. sheltered b) difficult berthing. exposed Dolphin berthing incl. RoRo mode b) d) good berthing. exposed Largest ship End berthing Berthing speed Berthing angle Lock or dock entrance Abnormal impact factor Smallest ship Ship-to-ship berthing Berthing speed Berthing angle RoRo mode c) Abnormal impact factor (m/s) (deg) (m/s) (deg) ENVIRONMENT Operating temperature Minimum ___________________________________ (°C) Maximum __________________________________ (°C) Corrosivity low medium high extreme QUALITY Highest quality SAFETY Maximum safety Lowest price Not safety-critical FURTHER DETAILS AVAILABLE FROM Name Company Position Address Tel Fax Mobile Email Web M1100-S12-V1-3-EN © Trelleborg AB. 2011 .

material certificates issued for other fender types are based on results of standard bulk and/or batch tests which form part of routine factory ISO9001 quality procedures and are for a limited range of physical properties (tensile strength. ASTM D 471 ASTM D5963-04. AS 1683. BS ISO 34-1. AS 1180. 100 hours 28 days at 95°C Original 3000 revolutions Rubber to steel 15.12. † Dynamic fatigue testing is optional at extra cost. Grade 1 = 10 or fewer pinpricks <0. JIS K 6259 BS ISO 1817. ASTM D 471 ASTM D5963-04. ASTM D 2240. wrapping and extrusion require certain characteristics from the rubber. ASTM D 1149. AS 1683. AS 1683-24. Method B Original Condition Aged for 96 hours at 70ºC Original Aged for 96 hours at 70ºC Original Aged for 96 hours at 70ºC 22 hours at 70°C Original 50pphm at 20% strain.8 MPa (min) 350% 280% 78° Shore A (max) Original +8° Shore A (max) 30% (max) 70kN/m (min) No cracks Hardness: ±10° Shore A (max) Volume: +10/-5% (max) 100mm3 (max) 1. JIS K 6251 DIN 53505. JIS K 6251 DIN 53504. BS ISO 4649 : 2002 Original Condition Aged for 96 hours at 70ºC Original Aged for 96 hours at 70ºC Original Aged for 96 hours at 70ºC 22 hours at 70°C Original 50pphm at 20% strain.12–34 RUBBER PROPERTIES All Trelleborg rubber fenders are made using the highest quality Natural Rubber (NR) or Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR) based compounds which meet or exceed the performance requirements of international fender recommendations.2. BS903 A6. Cylindrical Fender. BS 903.0 MPa (min) 10. JIS K 6262 ASTM D 624 Die B. Unless otherwise requested at time of order.2. elongation at break and hardness). BS ISO 37. ASTM D 412 Die C. BS ISO 1431-1. Method B. ISO 815. Method B ASTM D429. Moulded fenders Property Tensile Strength Testing Standard DIN 53504. JIS K 6251 DIN 53505. BS ISO 37. Grades 2–10 = increasing crack size (fail). AS 1180. BS ISO 34-1. ‡ Grade 0 = no cracks (pass). 40°C. BS ISO 37. ASTM D 412 Die C. ASTM D 412 Die C.12. Different manufacturing processes such as moulding.2. AN/ANP Arch.5cc (max) 7N/mm (min) Grade 0–1‡ Elongation at Break Hardness Compression Set Tear Resistance Ozone Resistance Seawater Resistance Abrasion Bond Strength Dynamic Fatigue† Extruded and wrapped fenders Property Tensile Strength Testing Standard DIN 53504.5mm long (pass).2. AS1683. JIS K 6259 BS ISO 1817. MV and MI Elements. Results from samples taken from actual fenders will differ due to the sample preparation process – please ask for details.A21 Section 21. AS 1180. BS ISO 4649 : 2002 BS903 A9.13 Method B.15. AS 1683-24. 100 hours 28 days at 95°C Original Requirement 13.13 Method B. ASTM D 1149.0 MPa (min) 12. JIS K 6252 DIN 53509. JIS K 6253 ASTM D 395 Method B. such as PIANC and EAU. JIS K 6251 DIN 53504. © Trelleborg AB. ISO 815. BS903 A6. BS ISO 37. EPDM and Polyurethane.15. Butyl Rubber. The tables below give usual physical properties for fenders made by these processes which are confirmed during quality assurance testing. JIS K 6253 ASTM D 395 Method B.000 cycles Requirement 16. AS1683. BS ISO 1431-1.4 MPa (min) 280% (min) 224% (min) 78° Shore A (max) Original +8° Shore A (max) 30% (max) 60kN/m (min) No cracks Hardness: ±10° Shore A (max) Volume: +10/-5% (max) 180mm3 (max) Elongation at Break Hardness Compression Set Tear Resistance Ozone Resistance Seawater Resistance Abrasion * Material property certificates are issued for each different rubber grade on all orders for SCN Super Cone. ASTM D 2240.* All test results are from laboratory made and cured test pieces.1 ASTM D430-95. AS1683. JIS K 6262 ASTM D 624 Die B.2. Unit Element. ASTM D 412 Die C.2. SCK Cell Fender. Trelleborg can also make fenders from other NR/SBR compounds or from materials such as Neoprene. AS 1180. 2011 M1100-S12-V1-3-EN . JIS K 6252 DIN 53509. 40°C. AS 1683.

2011 M1100-S12-V1-3-EN . ANP. UE. The nominal rated deflection when RPD is achieved may vary and is provided for guidance only. smaller tolerances may be agreed on a case-by-case basis. Fender type Moulded fenders Dimension All dimensions Bolt hole spacing Cross-section Length Drilled hole centres Counterbore depth Cross-section Length Fixing hole centres Fixing hole diameter Outside diameter Inside diameter Length Cross-section Length Drilled hole centres Counterbore depth Cross-section Length Drilled hole centres Counterbore depth Length and width Length and width Thickness: ≤30mm (planed) 31–100mm ≥101mm Thickness: ≤30mm (unplaned) 31–100mm ≥101mm Drilled hole centres Counterbore depth Tolerance ±3% or ±2mm* ±4mm (non-cumulative) ±3% or ±2mm* ±2% or ±25mm* ±4mm (non-cumulative) ±2mm (under-head depth) ±2% or ±2mm* ±2% or ±10mm* ±3mm ±3mm ±4% ±4% ±30mm ±4% or ISO 3302-E3* ±30mm ±4mm (non-cumulative) ±3mm (under-head depth) ±4% ±2% or ±10mm* ±2mm (non-cumulative) ±2mm (under-head depth) ±5mm (cut pads) ±20mm (uncut sheets) ±0.0mm ±2mm (non-cumulative) ±2mm (under-head depth) Composite fenders Block fenders Cube fenders M fenders W fenders Cylindrical fenders Extruded fenders HD-PE sliding fenders† UHMW-PE face pads† * Whichever is the greater dimension † HD-PE and UHMW-PE dimensions are measured at 18°C and are subject to thermal expansion coefficients (see material properties) Performance tolerances‡ Fender type SCN. Please consult Trelleborg Marine Systems for performance tolerance on fender types not listed above. energy Reaction. AN. They do not apply to energy and/or reaction at intermediate deflections. SCK.5mm ±4. MV and MI fenders Cylindricals (wrapped) Cylindricals (extruded) Extruded fenders Pneumatic fenders Block. M.12–35 TOLERANCES Trelleborg fenders are subject to standard manufacturing and performance tolerances.3mm ±0.2mm ±0. tug and workboat fenders SeaGuard. energy Reaction. energy Reaction.0mm ±6. © Trelleborg AB. W. cube. SeaCushion and Donut fenders ‡ Parameter Reaction. energy Reaction and energy Reaction Reaction and energy Tolerance ±10% ±10% ±20% ±20% ±10% ±10% ±15% Performance tolerances apply to Rated Performance Data (RPD). For specific applications.5mm ±2.

15m/s (or 1.05H (where H = nominal fender height). All other fender types are tested on special request. 2011 M1100-S12-V1-3-EN . AN/ANP and Cylindrical Fenders. CV only: B Deflect the fender once at a constant deflection speed of 0.0003–0. Deflection is not considered to be a pass/fail criterion by PIANC. Test reports shall include the following as a minimum: B Serial Number and description of test fender.005m/s. B Minimum temperature stabilisation time will be calculated as tmin = 20x1. B Table and graph of reaction (RVT) versus deflection and energy (EVT) versus deflection. Additional tests.0 unless otherwise stated) Notes 1 Standard PIANC Verification Testing of 10% of fender order (rounded up to the nearest unit) is included within the price for the fender types listed. Compression Test Method B All fenders will be given a unique manufacturing serial number for traceability. B No additional break-in cycles are carried out unless 1 otherwise agreed. B Date of test. element and similar fenders over 2.1 × VF × TF EVT ≥ ERPD × 0. RVT = reaction from verification testing RRPD = Rated Performance Data (or customer’s required reaction) EVT = energy from verification testing ERPD = Rated Performance Data (or customer’s required energy) TF = Temperature factor when test sample is above or below 23ºC ± 5ºC CV only: VF = velocity factor for actual test speed/time (or 1. Pass Criteria4 Fenders have passed verification testing if they meet the following conditions: RVT ≤ RRPD × 1. Test Apparatus & Reporting The test apparatus shall be equipped with a calibrated3 load cell system and linear transducer(s) for measuring displacement. 2 Rated Performance Data (RPD) is defined in the relevant product sections of this catalogue. please contact your local office to discuss exact requirements. UE. B Stabilising time (tmin) can include the time taken for ‘break-in’ and ‘recovery’.01H to 0. B Sampling is 1 in 10 fenders (rounded up to a unit) unless 1 otherwise agreed.0013m/s (2–8cm/min) and record reaction and deflection.5 (where ‘x’ is the thickness of the fender body in metres). Where testing of cylindrical. B Stop testing when deflection reaches rated deflection or RPD2 is achieved.9 × VF × TF Where. These will provide continuous real-time monitoring of fender performance. DV only: B Deflect the fender once at a linearly-decreasing or sinusoidally decreasing variable velocity with initial velocity of 0.15m/s (or other speed as agreed) and final velocity ≤0. 4 Pass criteria as defined by PIANC ‘Guidelines for the Design of Fender Systems: 2002: Appendix A’. Arch. B Readings shall be taken at intervals of between 0.0 unless otherwise stated) DV only: VF = velocity factor for test speeds other than 0. B Performance will be measured at 0° compression angle. 3 All measuring equipment shall be calibrated and certified accurate to within ±1% in accordance with ISO or equivalent JIS or ASTM requirements. MV and MI fenders are tested using the Decreasing Velocity (DV) method on the dedicated Trelleborg high speed test press. © Trelleborg AB. B Fender temperature will be stabilised to 23°C ± 5°C for at least 24 hours before compression testing. The Constant Velocity (CV) test method is used for SCN. Calibration shall be traceable to national/international standard and shall be performed annually by an accredited third party organization. B Remove load from the fender and allow ‘recovery’ for at least 1 hour. Non-compliant units will be clearly marked and segregated.0m long is required. For load-sensitive structures. B ‘Break in’ the fender by deflecting it three times to rated deflection. SCK. a single break-in deflection for all fenders with reaction of 100t or more is included in the fender price if notified at the time of order. name of test supervisor and signature of Quality Manager. third-party witnessing and special procedures will incur extra charges.12–36 TESTING PROCEDURES Trelleborg testing procedures for ‘solid-type’ rubber fenders comply with PIANC ‘Guidelines for the Design of Fender Systems: 2002: Appendix A: Section 6: Verification/Quality Assurance Testing’.

pneumatic. and then to confirm that performance of fenders made for each project meet the required performances. Many of Trelleborg’s most popular fender types are PIANC Type Approved. Unit Element. composite. Super Cone. Verification testing (Stage 2) Verification testing using either CV method (all fender types except MV and MI elements) or DV method (MV and MI elements only) is carried out on all significant orders to confirm the Rated Performance Data (RPD) of the fender. in their document ‘Guidelines for the Design of Fender Systems: 2002: Appendix A’. Trelleborg’s Type Approval tests are witnessed by Germanischer Lloyd.12–37 PERFORMANCE TESTING Trelleborg is committed to providing high quality products. SCK Cell and Arch Fenders have been Type Approved to PIANC standards. Type Approval testing (Stage 1) PIANC Type Approval testing is carried out to determine the effects of environmental factors on the performance of various fender types. This brings the following benefits: B proven product quality B tests simulate real operating conditions B longer service life B lower maintenance B greater reliability B reduced lifetime costs B manufacturer commitment B excludes unsafe ‘copy’ and ‘fake’ fenders B simplifies contract specifications Verification testing of SCK 3000 Testing is carried out in two stages: to prove behaviour of the generic fender type. Results are normalised to 0. shear. and other fender types are agreed with customers on request and on a case-by-case basis. PIANC has introduced new methods and procedures for testing the performance of solid rubber fenders.15m/s compression speed. 2011 M1100-S12-V1-3-EN . Consistency and performance are routinely checked in accordance with the latest procedures and test protocols. CV testing of SCN Super Cones DV testing of MV elements © Trelleborg AB. extruded. allowing for real world operating conditions. Note: Testing programmes for foam. 23°C temperature and 0° compression angle.

At higher temperatures rubber softens. 2011 M1100-S12-V1-3-EN . meaning that reaction and energy are affected by the speed of compression. RPD is normalised to 0.0 To prove durability. ERP RRP Re a ct io n Energ y Deflection d Correction factors from type approved tests VF Impact speed 0.001m/s to 0. RPD is normalised to 0°.3m/s 1.0 T 23°C (TRP) Compression angle 0° to 20° AF 1. 1.0 0. the manufacturer should publish Rated Performance Data (RPD) for their fenders along with correction factor tables for different velocities. Some rubbers are more affected by the compression speed than others. Temperature –30°C to +50°C TF At low temperatures rubber becomes stiffer.15m/s initial impact speed B 23°C temperature B 0° compression angle. After successful Type Approval testing. 0°C (αRP) α Durability 3000 cycles minimum 1. n To be meaningful. which reduces energy absorption. which increases reaction forces. temperatures and compression angles. © Trelleborg AB. RPD is normalised to 23°C.0 Most fenders lose some energy absorption capacity when compressed at an angle.12–38 RATED PERFORMANCE DATA (RPD) RPD is normalised to: B 0. fenders should be subjected to a long-term fatigue test of at least 3000 cycles to rated deflection without failure. Type Approval testing should be monitored and witnessed by accredited third-party inspectors such as Germanischer Lloyd.15m/s (VRP) Vi Rubber is a visco-elastic material.15m/s.

9 PASS FAIL Energy EVT ≥ ERP × VF × TF × 0.12–39 PASS CRITERIA Verification testing (or quality control testing) is carried out to prove the performance of fenders for each project in accordance with catalogue RPD or other customer-specified values. RVT = reaction from verification testing RRP = customer’s required reaction EVT = energy from verification testing ERP = customer’s required energy VF = velocity factor for actual test speed TF = temperature factor for actual test temperature © Trelleborg AB.9 Assuming a –10% manufacturing tolerance on energy. 2011 M1100-S12-V1-3-EN . Deflection d Energy absorption pass criteria ERP x 0.1 FAIL PASS Reaction RVT ≤ RRP × VF × TF × 1. Reaction force pass criteria RRP x 1. Samples from the project (usually 10% of the total quantity in each size and grade) are tested and the results obtained are adjusted if necessary using the correction factor tables for initial impact speed and temperature.1 Assuming a +10% manufacturing tolerance on reaction. Deflection d where.

12–40 TYPE APPROVAL CERTIFICATES © Trelleborg AB. 2011 M1100-S12-V1-3-EN .

2011 M1100-S12-V1-3-EN .12–41 TYPE APPROVAL CERTIFICATES © Trelleborg AB.

2011 M1100-S12-V1-3-EN . dew point. © Trelleborg AB. tensile strength and elongation at break. A comprehensive document package might include: Quality and environmental B Factory ISO 9001: 2000 quality management system B Factory ISO 14001: 2004 environmental management system Fixing accessories B Mill certificates B Visual inspection report B Certificate of conformity Literature and data sheets B Printed brochures or leaflets for the supplied products B PIANC correction tables (where applicable) B PIANC Type Approval certificates (where applicable) Chains B B B B B Proof load test Mill certificates (optional but recommended) Galvanising certificate Dimensional inspection report (where applicable) Certificate of conformity Performance tests B Verification test results and curves for each fender tested B Third party witness certificate (optional but recommended) B Certificate of conformity Low friction pads B Dimensional inspection report B Certificate of conformity Physical properties B Laboratory report for hardness. before and after ageing B Durability test report (optional but recommended) B Wear.12–42 QUALITY DOCUMENTS Customers should expect to receive appropriate documents to prove the quality of the fenders and accessories ordered. humidity. operation and maintenance manual Inspection logbook Warranty certificate General certificate of conformity After-sales contact details Steel fabrications B B B B B B B B B Mill certificates Welder qualification certificates Weld procedures Dimensional check report (including flatness for panels) NDT inspection report – minimum 5% MPI (optional but recommended) Pressure (leak) test inspection report Paint application report (temperature. etc) Dry film thickness test report Certificate of conformity The accuracy and authenticity of quality documents is very important. Trelleborg will provide an original or certified copy of any third party report on request. tear and ozone resistance test reports B Third party witness certificate (optional but recommended) B Certificate of conformity Other B B B B B B As built drawings Installation.

454 tf-m 0.6214 1 1.205 1 kip/ft2 0.281 1 mph 2.5400 0.81 47.0209 0.225 2.102 1 4.4470 0.895 × 10 -3 m/s Velocity m/s ft/s km/h mph knot 1 0. Volume m3 ft3 in3 1 0.3048 0.3 © Trelleborg AB.12–43 CONVERSION TABLES m ft 3.2778 0. Registered visitors can find Convert on the Technical menu after registering or logging in to the site.45 kNm Energy kNm tf-m kip-ft 1 9.0245 m2 Area m2 ft2 in2 1 0. ‘Convert’.7 × 10 -6 kip 2.0833 ft2 10.6818 0.37 12 1 in2 1550 144 1 in3 61024 1728 1 Length m ft in 1 0.4667 1.88 kip/ft3 0.4536 kN Force kN tonne-f kip-f 1 9.600 1.3048 radian 17.807 1 0.0929 645.5925 0.2046 1 kip-ft 0.3048 0.2046 1 tonne-f 0.2808 1 0.102 1 0.8520 ft/s2 32.205 1 1ksf = 1kip/ft2 1kJ = 1kNm in 39.387 × 10 -6 tonne Mass tonne kip 1 0.8690 1 kip-f 0.17 3.0973 1 1.81 1.45 × 10 -3 1 1MPa = 1N/mm2 km/h 3.04 1 ft/s 3.0624 1 psi 145.2 × 10 -6 m3 Visit www.6093 1.9 tonne/m3 Density tonne/m3 kip/ft3 1 16.9113 1.com/marine to download a free units conversion programme.81 4.88 t/m2 0.895 × 10 -3 degree Angle degree radian 1 57.281 1 0.36 kN/m2 Pressure kN/m2 t/m2 kip/ft2 1 9.018 N/mm2 Stress N/mm2 psi 1 6.1508 knot 1.7376 0. 2011 M1100-S12-V1-3-EN .102 6.9438 0.315 1 578.944 × 10 -3 ft3 35.2369 0.764 1 6.102 1 4.trelleborg.6878 m/s2 9.0283 16.5144 g Acceleration g m/s2 ft/s2 1 0.

12–44 CALCULATIONS TRELLEBORG MARINE SYSTEMS Project Title Client Ref Prepared Date Sheet Nº www.trelleborg.com/marine © Trelleborg AB. 2011 M1100-S12-V1-3-EN .

trelleborg.12–45 CALCULATIONS TRELLEBORG MARINE SYSTEMS Project Title Client Ref Prepared Date Sheet Nº www. 2011 M1100-S12-V1-3-EN .com/marine © Trelleborg AB.

In the interests of improving the quality and performance of our products and systems. This catalogue supersedes the information provided in all previous editions. This catalogue is the copyright of Trelleborg AB and may not be reproduced. 231 22 Trelleborg. All dimensions. Rubbylene and Orkot are Registered Trade Marks of Trelleborg AB. Sweden. © Trelleborg AB. Customers are advised to request a detailed specification and certified drawing prior to construction and manufacture. material properties and performance values quoted are subject to normal production and testing tolerances. © Trelleborg AB.12–46 Disclaimer Trelleborg AB has made every effort to ensure that the technical specifications and product descriptions in this catalogue are correct. PO Box 153. 2011 M1100-S12-V1-3-EN . If in doubt. copied or distributed to third parties without the prior consent of Trelleborg AB in each case. please check with Trelleborg Marine Systems. we reserve the right to make specification changes without prior notice. The responsibility or liability for errors and omissions cannot be accepted for any reason whatsoever. Fentek.

forklift trucks and other materials-handling vehicles. our history. is characterised by a constant drive for quality and a passion for identifying new solution to complex problems. Trelleborg AB was founded in 1905.000 employees in 40 countries. protection and safety of investments. The Group has annual sales of approximately €3 billion. 2011 M1100-S12-V1-3-EN . Trelleborg Engineered Systems is a leading global supplier of engineered solutions that focus on the sealing. Trelleborg Wheel Systems is a leading global supplier of tires and complete wheel systems for farm and forest machinery. damp and protect in demanding industrial environments. aiming for long-term solutions.12–47 Four business areas Trelleborg is a global industrial group whose leading positions are based on advanced polymer technology and in-depth applications know-how. quality is a state of mind. With 100 years behind us. Trelleborg Automotive is a worldleader in the development and production of polymer-based components and systems used for noise and vibration damping for passenger car and light and heavy trucks. Sweden. We develop high-performance solutions that seal. like our future. In 2005. We adopt an in-depth approach to each problem. with about 24. Trelleborg Sealing Solutions is a leading global supplier of precision seals for the industrial. The head office is located in Trelleborg. aerospace and automotive markets. the Trelleborg Group celebrated its centenary. processes and individuals in extremely demanding environments. © Trelleborg AB. Yesterday’s and today’s innovations. know-how and quality form the foundation of tomorrow. To us.

com EUROPE & Mediterranean Trelleborg Marine Systems Benelux Tel: +31 180 43 40 40 marco.f. grothe@harbourmarine.com Trelleborg Marine Systems North & West Africa Tel: +33 1 41 39 22 20 jean.ASIA PACIFIC Trelleborg Marine Systems Australia Tel: +61 2 9285 0200 constantine.com Trelleborg Marine Systems Melbourne Docking & Mooring Group Tel: +61 3 9575 9999 anil.com Trelleborg Marine Systems Asia Tel: +65 6268 8005 steven.com Ref.com Trelleborg Marine Systems Docking & Mooring Group Europe Tel: +46 708 551 562 stefan.madan@trelleborg.com Trelleborg Marine Systems USA (Gulf Coast and South East) Tel: +1 540 550 2344 marc.com INDIA.com NORTH AMERICA & CANADA Trelleborg Marine Systems USA (Main Office) Tel: +1 540 667 5191 faiyaz.mccorkle@trelleborg.com Trelleborg Marine Systems France & Spain Tel: +33 1 41 39 22 20 jean.langford@trelleborg.com Trelleborg Marine Systems USA (East Coast) Tel: +1 540 723 2553 mick.j.kwok@trelleborg.com Trelleborg Marine Systems South & East Africa Tel: +971 4 886 1825 mark. M1100-V1-3b-EN .com Trelleborg Marine Systems USA (West Coast) Tel: +1 540 247 7182 eric.com Trelleborg Marine Systems Docking & Mooring Group Middle East anil Kumar@trelleborg.muramoto@trelleborg.garcia@trelleborg.com Trelleborg Marine Systems Docking & Mooring Group North America Tel: +1 720 299 5506 eric.li@trelleborg.andersson@trelleborg.figueiredo@trelleborg.com/marine tms@trelleborg.lundin@trelleborg.kumar@trelleborg.com Presented by www.welling@trelleborg.gaal@trelleborg.com Trelleborg Marine Systems China Tel: +86 532 8077 0098 bruce.com Trelleborg Marine Systems Japan Tel: +81 3 3512 1981 hiroshi.garcia@trelleborg.com Trelleborg Marine Systems UK Tel: +44 1666 827660 andy.com SOUTH AMERICA Trelleborg Marine Systems Brazil Tel: +55 11 5035 1353 daniel. MIDDLE EAST & AFRICA Trelleborg Marine Systems Dubai Tel: +971 4 886 1825 paul.nahlstedt@trelleborg.com PT Trelleborg Indonesia Tel: +62 21 797 6211 steven.kolsawala@trelleborg.kwok@trelleborg.theberge@trelleborg.com Trelleborg Marine Systems Scandinavia Tel: +46 410 51667 peter.trelleborg.com Trelleborg Marine Systems Germany Tel: +49 40 600 4650 hakan.f.koutas@trelleborg.com Trelleborg Marine Systems India Tel: +91 79 4001 3333 amit.fourie@trelleborg.cope@trelleborg.