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DEPARTMENT OF ECE

DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS LAB

EXPERIMENT NO. 1 PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION AND DEMODULATION
AIM : To study pulse amplitude modulatio a d demodulatio ! EQUIPMENT REQUIRED: "! Pulse amplitude modulatio a d demodulatio t#ai e# $it! %! Cat&ode #ay os'illos'ope ()*%) M+,.! BNC p#o/es a d pat'& 'o#ds 0! Fu 'tio 1e e#ato# ()*"M+,THEORY: Pulse amplitude modulatio is a modulatio 2&e#e t&e amplitude o3 'a##ie# 'o tai i 1 is 4a#ied li ea#ly 2it& amplitude o3 messa1e si1 al5 e4e t&#ou1& t&e#e a#e t&#ee types o3 PAM i!e! ideal type o# 3lat top type! PAM is most popula# a d 2idely used /e'ause du#i 1 t&e t#a smissio t&e oise is i te#3e#ed at t&e top o3 t&e t#a smissio pulse 2&i'& 'a /e ea#ly #emo4ed i3 t&e PAM pulse is 3lat*top!

LORDS INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING 6 TEC+NOLOG7

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DEPARTMENT OF ECE

DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS LAB

PROCEDURE : "! S2it'& o pulse amplitude modulatio a d demodulatio t#ai e#! %! I 'lo'$ 1e e#ato# se'tio 'o e't pi 8 o3 999 IC to t&e "))p3 'apa'ito# te#mi al!

.! C&e'$ t&e 'lo'$ 1e e#ato# (RF- output si1 al! 0! Co 9! Co e't RF output o3 'lo'$ 1e e#ato# to t&e RF i put o3 modulato# 'i#'uit! e't a AF si1 al 2it& a a#/it#a#y amplitude a d 3#e:ue 'y 3#om 3u 'tio

1e e#ato# to t&e AF i put o3 modulato# se'tio ! 8! S&o#t t&e ")µ3 te#mi al a d ");Ω te#mi al o3 modulato#! <! 'o =! Co e't ") ;Ω te#mi al to pi " o3 IC 0)"8! e't t&e CRO to modulated output o3 modulato# se'tio !

>! Ad?ust t&e "$pot etiomete# to 4a#y t&e amplitude o3 t&e modulated si1 al! ")! Ad?ust t&e AF a d 'lo'$ si1 al 3#e:ue 'y a d amplitude to 1et sta/le output 2a4e 3o#m (su'& t&at 'lo'$ 3#e:ue 'y is 4e#y mu'& 1#ate# t&a AF 3#e:ue 'y-! T&e output o/se#4ed is si 1le pola#ity PAM!

LORDS INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING 6 TEC+NOLOG7

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DEPARTMENT OF ECE

DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS LAB

""! Du#i 1 demodulatio 5 'o "%! Du#i 1 demodulatio 5 'o demodulato# se'tio ! ".! Co

e't t&e modulated output to t&e PAM! e't t&e modulated output to t&e PAM i put o3

e't '&a el " o3 CRO to modulati 1 si1 al a d '&a el @ % to demodulated

output! Ad?ust t&e AF si1 al 3#e:ue 'y to o/se#4e t&e 'lea# output! "0! o/se#4e t&e t2o 2a4e 3o#ms t&at t&ey a#e "=)) out o3 p&ase5 si 'e t&e t#a sisto# dete'to# ope#ates i CE 'o 3i1u#atio !

OBSERVATIONS: SIGNAL PARAMETER AMPLITUDE(i n vol !" TIME PERIOD (in !#$on%!" &REQUENCY (in H'"

X( " S( " X%( "

LORDS INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING 6 TEC+NOLOG7

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VIVA VOCE QUESTIONS: "! De3i e pulse Amplitude Modulatio %! Gi4e 3e2 appliatio o3 PAM . Check the circuit connection thoroughly before switching O . $. 'witch off the supply when not in use. !.DEPARTMENT OF ECE DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS LAB EXPECTED (AVE &ORMS: RESULTS: PRECAUTIONS: 1. Operate the measuring instruments gently% as they are sensitive. &. Rig-up the circuit with utmost care and avoid loose connections 3. Check all the components and devices used in the circuit for its proper functioning. 2.! Dis''uss t&e Ba d2idt& #e:ui#eme ts o3 PAM! LORDS INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING 6 TEC+NOLOG7 Page 0 . "andle the e#uipments carefully.

- THEORY: I pulse 2idt& modulatio 5 t&e si1 al to /e t#a smitted as sampled as i pulse amplitude modulatio ! I pulse time modulatio amp! O3 pulse is o3 pulse is p#opo#tio al to amp o3 si1 al at t&e sampli 1 i sta t! T&e modulatio ! "! PAM %! PPM T&is is also $ o2 as pulse du#atio modulatio (POM.t&e 4a#iatio s o3 pulse 2idt& modulatio a#e pulse is &eld 'o sta t a d '&a 1e i pulse 2idt& 2it& si1 al is measu#ed 2it& #espe't to t&e leadi 1 ed1e! 2e &a4e t2o types o3 pulse time LORDS INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING 6 TEC+NOLOG7 Page 9 .! BNC p#o/es a d pat'& 'o#ds 0! Fu 'tio 1e e#ato# ()*"M+.DEPARTMENT OF ECE DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS LAB EXPERIMENT NO:) PULSE (IDTH MODULATION AND DEMODULATION AIM : To study pulse 2idt& Modulatio a d Demodulatio ! EQUIPMENT REQUIRED: "! Pulse 2idt& modulatio a d demodulatio t#ai e#! %! Cat&ode #ay os'illos'ope ()*%) M+..

! O/se#4e t&e PAM output at pi .DEPARTMENT OF ECE DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS LAB CIRCUIT DIAGRAM O& PULSE (IDTH MODULATION PROCEDURE: "! S2it'& o pulse 2idt& modulatio a d demodulatio t#ai e#! %! Apply 'lo'$ a d AF si1 al 2it& a a#/it#a#y 3#e:ue 'y a d amplitude /y usi 1 3u 'tio 1e e#ato# a d 'o e't t&em to t&e #espe'ti4e te#mi als o3 PAM modulatio ! . o3 999 IC o CRO! LORDS INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING 6 TEC+NOLOG7 Page 8 .

P+l!#.DEPARTMENT OF ECE DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS LAB 0! By 4a#yi 1 3#e:ue 'y a d amplitude o3 t&e modulati 1 si1 al5 o/se#4e t&e 'o##espo di 1 '&a 1e i t&e 2idt& o3 t&e output pulses! 9! du#i 1 demodulatio 5 'o e't PAM output o3 PAM modulatio to t&e PAM i put o3 PAM demodulatio ! O/se#4e t&e demodulatio output at AF si1 al o3 PAM demodulatio o CRO! OBSERVATIONS: SIGNAL PARAMETER AMPLITUDE ( in vol !" X( " C( " XP(M ( " (Di**.i% -!" X%( " TIMEPERIOD (in !#$on%!" &REQUENCY (in H'" LORDS INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING 6 TEC+NOLOG7 Page < .

DEPARTMENT OF ECE DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS LAB EXPECTED (AVE&ORM: A& SIGNAL LORDS INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING 6 TEC+NOLOG7 Page = .

RESULTS LORDS INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING 6 TEC+NOLOG7 Page > .DEPARTMENT OF ECE DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS LAB .

Operate the measuring instruments gently% as they are sensitive. "andle the e#uipments carefully. Rig-up the circuit with utmost care and avoid loose connections *. Check the circuit connection thoroughly before switching O . VIVA VOCE QUESTIONS: "! De3i e Pulse 2idt& Modulatio %! Gi4e 3e2 appli'atio s o3 PAM! .DEPARTMENT OF ECE DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS LAB PRECAUATIONS: (.! Dis'uss t&e Ba d2idt& #e:ui#eme ts o3 PAM! LORDS INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING 6 TEC+NOLOG7 Page ") . 'witch off the supply when not in use. ). 11. 12. Check all the components and devices used in the circuit for its proper functioning. 1+.

e#o /e'ause #elati4ely 2ide /a d '&a el is eeded espe'ially 3o# PPM! LORDS INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING 6 TEC+NOLOG7 Page "" ./ PULSE POSITION MODULATION AND DEMODULATION AIM : To study Pulse Positio Modulatio a d Demodulatio ! EQUIPMENT REQUIRED: "! Pulse positio modulatio a d demodulatio t#ai e#! %! Cat&ode #ay os'illos'ope (CRO.THEORY : Pulse positio modulatio is o e o3 t&e pulse time modulatio s'&eme! I PPM t&e a alo1 sample 4alue dete#mi es t&e positio o3 a ae#o pulse #elate to t&e 'lo'$i 1 time! Te'& i:ues 3o# 1e e#ati 1 PPM a#e also #elated a d it is see t&at PPM is easily o/tai ed 3#om PAM /y a mo osta/le multi4i/#ato# 'i#'uit i t&e lite#atu#e o PPM systems! T&e 'ompa#ato# le4el B5 is o3te 'alled t&e sli'i 1 lead! PAM o# PPM si1 als may /e 'o 4e#ted /a'$ to t&e 'o##espo di 1 a alo1 si1 al /y a #e'ei4i 1 si1 al 3o# PAM dete'tio PAM si1 al is used to sta#t a d stop t&e i te1#atio o3 a i te1#ato# t&at is5 t&e i te1#ato# is #eset to ..@ ()!%)M+.! BNC p#o/es a d pat'& 'o#ds! 0! Fu 'tio 1e e#ato# ()*" M+.DEPARTMENT OF ECE DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS LAB EXPERIMENT NO.

DEPARTMENT OF ECE DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS LAB CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: LORDS INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING 6 TEC+NOLOG7 Page "% .

.! O/se#4e t&e PAM output a'#oss R% #esisto#! 0! O/se#4e t&e PPM output at pi . o3 se'o d 999 IC o CRO a d ote do2 t&e PPM 2a4e3o#m 2!#!t! PAM a d 'lo'$ si1 al! 9! Co e't t&e PPM output to t&e PPM i put o3 demodulatio ! 8! O/se#4e t&e demodulated output o CRO! OBSERVATIONS: SIGNAL Amplitude (i 4oltsTimpe#iod (i se'o dsF#e:ue 'y (i +.X( " C( " XP(M( " XPPM( " X%( " LORDS INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING 6 TEC+NOLOG7 Page ".DEPARTMENT OF ECE DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS LAB PROCEDURE: "! S2it'& o PPM modulato# a d demodulato# t#ai e#! %! Apply 'lo'$ a d AF si1 al 2it& a a#/it#a#y 3#e:ue 'y a d amplitude /y usi 1 3u 'tio 1e e#ato# a d 'o e't t&em to pi % a d pi 9 o3 999 IC #espe'ti4ely! .

2. Check all the components and devices used in the circuit for its proper functioning.DEPARTMENT OF ECE DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS LAB RESULTS: PRECAUTIONS: 1. Rig-up the circuit with utmost care and avoid loose connections LORDS INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING 6 TEC+NOLOG7 Page "0 .

'witch off the supply when not in use. $. !. Operate the measuring instruments gently% as they are sensitive.DEPARTMENT OF ECE DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS LAB 3. "andle the e#uipments carefully. VIVA0VOCE QUESTIONS: "! De3i e Pulse positio modulatio %! Gi4e 3e2 appli'atio s PPM! .! A&at a#e t&e Ba d2idt& #e:ui#eme ts o3 PPM! 0! Compa#e PAM5 PAM a d PPM! LORDS INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING 6 TEC+NOLOG7 Page "9 . Check the circuit connection thoroughly before switching O .

1 SAMPLING THEOREM 0 VERI&ICATION AIM : To study a d 4e#i3y t&e sampli 1 t&eo#em a d #e'o st#u'tio 2a4e3o#m! o3 sample EQUIPMENT REQUIRED: "! Be#i3i'atio o3 sampli 1 t&eo#em t#ai e# $it! %! Fu 'tio 1e e#ato# () @ " M+.! Cat&ode #ay os'illos'ope (CRO. &l2 o5 !245lin6 LORDS INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING 6 TEC+NOLOG7 Page "8 . N2 +32l !245lin6 ).DEPARTMENT OF ECE DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS LAB EXPERIENCE NO.0! BNC p#o/es a d pat'& 'o#ds! THEORY: Sampli 1 p#o'ess is used to 'o 4e#t a alo1 si1 al to di1ital 3o#m i itially it is 'o 4e#ted to dis'#ete si1 al! It is do e /y a p#o'ess 'alled sampli 1! A3te# de3i ed at dis'#ete time i te#4al a d &e 'e dis'o ti uous si1 al 3o#med /asi'ally sampli 1 i 4ol4es t&e multipli'atio o3 /ase /a d si1 al 2it& a impulse t#ai 2&i'& is pe#iodi' 2it& pe#iod! T S i 'o ti uous 2a#e modulatio some pa#amete#s o3 modulatio 2a#e 4a#ied 'o ti uous 2it& t&e messa1e si1 al a d 2e &a4e t2o types o3 sampli 1! 1..()*%)M+.

%0 PROCEDURE: "! Co e'tio a#e made as pe# t&e 'i#'uit dia1#am! %! Apply t&e modulati 1 si1 al 2it& a a#/it#a#y 3#e:ue 'y (3m.a d amplitude usi 1 3u 'tio 1e e#ato#! LORDS INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING 6 TEC+NOLOG7 Page "< .DEPARTMENT OF ECE DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS LAB CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: ")$CD9E ").C ")$CD9E ")$CD9E PIN DIAGRAM ICLM.

is /elo2 %3m 2&e#e 3m is t&e modulati 1 3#e:ue 'y5 t&e disto#ted outputs is o/se#4ed! (Note: 3o# 'lea# output ta$e modulati 1 si1 al o3 &i1& 3#e:ue 'y du#i 1 sampli 1 (FF3s.a d lo2 3#e:ue 'y du#i 1 #e'o st#u'tio -! OBSERVATION: SIGNAL PARAMETER AMPLITUDE ( in vol !" TIMEPERIOD (in !#$on%!" &REQUENCY (in H'" X( " S( " X%( " LORDS INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING 6 TEC+NOLOG7 Page "= .! Sampli 1 'lo'$ si1 al 2it& a 4a#ia/le 3#e:ue 'y s&ould /e 'o e'ted a'#oss t&e te#mi als 2&i'& is i di'ated o t&e $it (o#.DEPARTMENT OF ECE DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS LAB ./y usi 1 3u 'tio 1e e#ato#! 0! No2 o/se#4e t&e sampli 1 output o3 t&e 'i#'uit at t&e output te#mi al /y ad?usti 1 t&e amplitude a d 3#e:ue 'y o3 modulati 1 a d 'lo'$ si1 al (amplitude o3 modulati 1 si1 al is limited to 8B p*p-! 9! By usi 1 'apa'ito#s a d #esisto#s p#o4ided o t&e t#ai e#5 #e'o st#u't t&e si1 al a d 4e#i3y it 2it& t&e 1i4e i put! 8! Re'o st#u'ted si1 al 4olta1e 2ill /e depe ds o 'apa'ito# 4alue! <! Ba#y t&e sampli 1 3#e:ue 'y a d study t&e '&a 1e i #e'o st#u'ted si1 al! =! I3 t&e sampli 1 'lo'$ 3#e:ue 'y (3s.

!. &. 'witch off the supply when not in use. Check the circuit connection thoroughly before switching O . LORDS INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING 6 TEC+NOLOG7 Page "> .DEPARTMENT OF ECE DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS LAB RESULTS: PRECAUTIONS: 1. Rig-up the circuit with utmost care and avoid loose connections 3. $. 2. Operate the measuring instruments gently% as they are sensitive. Check all the components and devices used in the circuit for its proper functioning. "andle the e#uipments carefully.

DEPARTMENT OF ECE DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS LAB VIVA0VOCE QUESTIONS: "! State sampli 1 t&eo#em %! EGplai u de# sampli 15 '#iti'al sampli 1 a d o4e#sampli 1 .! De3i e Ny:uist #ate 0! A&at a#e t&e e33e'ts o3 u de#sampli 1 LORDS INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING 6 TEC+NOLOG7 Page %) .

@ ()!%)M+.:7 TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING AIM : To 4e#i3y t&e ope#atio o3 Time @ Di4isio MultipleGi 1! EQUIPMENT REQUIRED: "! Time*di4isio multipleGi 1 a d de*multipleGi 1 t#ai e#! %! Cat&ode Ray Os'illos'ope (CRO.! BNC p#o/es a d pat'& 'o#ds! THEORY : A alo1 time di4isio multipleGi 1 (di1ital.#e:ui#ed at /ot& side is t#a smitti 1 a d #e'ei4i 1 e ds to &a dle ea'& added '&a el! T&e /a d 2idt& #e:ui#eme t i '#eases di#e'tly 2it& um/e# o3 '&a els! T&ese p#o/lems a#e elimi ated to 1uest eGte t /y usi 1 time di4isio multipleGi 1 to1et&e# 2it& pulse modulatio ! I TDM ea'& i telli1e 'e is said to /e t#a smitted is sampled se:ue tially a d t&e #esulti 1 pulse 'ode is used to modulate t&e 'a##ie# t&e same 'a##ie# 3#e:ue 'y is used to t#a smit di33e#e t pulse se:ue tially o e a3te# a ot&e# ea'& i telli1e 'e to t#a smitted &as /ee allotted a 1i4e time slot o ly o# small modulates t&e 'a##ie# at a y time o added e:uipme t a d o i '#ease i /a d2idt& is eed 2&e multipleGi 1 i /a d2idt& is eed 2&e multipleGed! T&e um/e# o3 se:ue tial '&a el t&at 'a /e &a dled is limited! LORDS INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING 6 TEC+NOLOG7 Page %" .as t&e um/e# o3 messa1e to /e t#a smitted i '#eases5 t&e 3#e:ue 'y di4isio te'& i:ues! T&e um/e# o3 su/ 'a##ies eeded i '#eases a d sta/ilses o3 2&i'& p#o/lem 'a #ise! Additio al 'i#'uit is #e'o#d (o#..DEPARTMENT OF ECE DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS LAB EXPERIMENT NO.

! Co e't t&e si e 2a4e to C+"5 s:ua#e 2a4e to C+% a d t#ia 1ula# 2a4e to C+.DEPARTMENT OF ECE DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS LAB CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: PROCEDURE : "! S2it'& o time di4isio multipleGi 1 a d de multipleGi 1 t#ai e#! %! O/se#4e t&e i di4idual 2a4e3o#m o '&a el " o3 CRO a d otedo2 t&e 'o##espo di 1 amplitude a d 3#e:ue 'y! . te#mi al o3 = to " MUH! 0! O/se#4e t&e multipleGe# output o '&a el " o3 CRO! 9! Co e't MUH output to DEMUH i put! 8! O/se#4e t&e 'o##espo di 1 si1 al outpuIs at '&a el % o3 CRO! <! Repeat t&e a/o4e steps /y applyi 1 di33e#e t i puts usi 1 3u 'tio 1e e#ato#! LORDS INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING 6 TEC+NOLOG7 Page %% .

DEPARTMENT OF ECE DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS LAB OBSERVATIONS: SIGNAL Amplitude (i 4oltsTimpe#iod (i se'o dsF#e:ue 'y (i +.H(tC(tHPAM(tHPPM(tHd(t- H LORDS INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING 6 TEC+NOLOG7 Page %. .

Check the circuit connection thoroughly before switching O . 2. Rig-up the circuit with utmost care and avoid loose connections 3.DEPARTMENT OF ECE DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS LAB OBSERVATIONS: SIGNAL Amplitude (i 4oltsTimpe#iod (i se'o dsF#e:ue 'y (i +. Check all the components and devices used in the circuit for its proper functioning.H(tC(tHPAM(tHPPM(tHd(t- RESULTS: PRECAUTIONS: 1. LORDS INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING 6 TEC+NOLOG7 Page %0 . "andle the e#uipments carefully. !.

Operate the measuring instruments gently% as they are sensitive.! Compa#e TDM 2it& FDM! LORDS INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING 6 TEC+NOLOG7 Page %9 . 6.DEPARTMENT OF ECE DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS LAB $. 'witch off the supply when not in use. VIVA0VOCE QUESTIONS: "! EGplai Time Di4isio MultipleGi 1 %! Name 3e2 appli'atio s o3 TDM .

1) PULSE DURATION MODULATION USING MONOSTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR AIM: To p#odu'e pulse du#atio modulatio usi 1 Mo osta/le multi4i/#ato#! EQUIPMENT REQUIRED: DC Po2e# supply5 IC<0"%"5 T&e#misto#5 Capa'ito# %%))pF5 Pulsa#! THEORY: Pulse modulatio is 2idely used i di1ital 'ommu i'atio s! I t&is type o3 modulatio 5 t&e i 3o#matio to /e t#a smitted i 'o 4e#ted i to pulses o3 4a#ious si.atio o3 t&e time i te#4al /et2ee t2o 'o se'uti4e pulses o3 a pa#ti'ula# messa1e 3o# t#a smitted ot&e# messa1es ma$es pulse modulatio supe#io# to AM o# FM! LORDS INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING 6 TEC+NOLOG7 Page %8 .DEPARTMENT OF ECE DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS LAB E85 No.es a d s&apes a d t&e t#a smitted to app#op#iate statio s! T&e p#o'ess o3 'o 4e#ti 1 data i to pulses 'a /e 'a##ied out i a 4a#iety o3 2ays a d is 'alled e 'odi 1! T&#ee o3 t&e most 'ommo types o3 e 'odi 1 o# modulatio a#e dis'ussed &e#e! I pulse amplitude modulatio o# PAM5 t&e data 'o t#ols t&e &ei1&t o3 t&e pulse 2&ile i PDM o# pulse du#atio modulatio 5 t&e pulse 2idt& is p#opo#tio al to t&e data 4alue! Pulse positio modulatio o# PPM is t&e p#o'ess i 2&i'& t&e positio o3 a pulse 2it& #espe't to a #e3e#e 'e pulse is p#opo#tio al to t&e data 4alue! T&ese p#o'esses a#e illust#ated i Fi1! ("-! T&e esse tial di33e#e 'e /et2ee pulse modulatio a d t&e 'o 4e tio al AM o# FM is t&at i AM o# FM some pa#amete# o3 t&e 'a##ie# 2a4e 4a#ies 'o ti uously /y t&e i 3o#matio 5 2&e#eas i pulse modulatio some pa#amete# o3 a pulse is 4a#ied /y t&e sampled messa1e! T&e pulses a#e usually o3 4e#y s&o#t du#atio a d as su'& a pulse modulato# is JOFFI most o3 t&e time5 i!e!5 lo2 duty 'y'le! T&e lo2 duty 'y'le ope#atio s 'oupled 2it& t&e 3a'ility o3 utili.

s&o2s a simple 'i#'uit to p#odu'e PDM! It is a mo osta/le multi4i/#ato# 2it& t&e#misto# as a eleme t t&at 'o t#ols t&e 2idt& o3 t&e output pulse! As a #esult5 t&e output pulse 2idt& 4a#ies i a''o#da 'e 2it& t&e tempe#atu#e o3 t&e t&e#misto#5 i!e!5 output is pulse 2idt& modulated! O e 'a o/tai PPM /y di33e#e tiati 1 a d #e'ti3yi 1 t&e PDM si1 als! Fi1!.DEPARTMENT OF ECE DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS LAB T&e PDM a d PPM systems a#e ot usually as sus'epti/le to oise as a PAM system! Fi1u#e .: PDM usi 1 a mo osta/le multi4i/#ato# LORDS INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING 6 TEC+NOLOG7 Page %< .

DEPARTMENT OF ECE DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS LAB PROCEDURE: "! Ri1 up t&e 'i#'uit as pe# t&e 'i#'uit dia1#am! %! Pulses a#e 1i4e at Pi 0! .! O/se#4e t&e 2a4e3o#m at K! 0! Plot t&e Pulse du#atio 2a4e3o#ms! LORDS INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING 6 TEC+NOLOG7 Page %= .

upsets t&is e:uili/#ium! T&is 'auses t&e p&ase dete'to# output to '&a 1e i o#de# to mai tai t&e BCO i put at t&is le4el! A '&a 1e i t&e output o3 t&e p&ase dete'to# mea s a '&a 1e i t&e p&ase di33e#e 'e /et2ee its t2o i put si1 als! T&us5 t&e BCO output &as a p&ase s&i3t p#opo#tio al to t&e modulati 1 si1 al amplitude5 i!e!5 it is pulse positio modulated! T&is si1 al is ampli3ied /y T /e3o#e usi 1 t&e same 3o# some pu#pose! LORDS INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING 6 TEC+NOLOG7 Page %> .DEPARTMENT OF ECE DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS LAB E85 No..Capa'ito#s a d #esisto#s! THEORY: T&e PLL 'a /e used to p#odu'e PDM a d PPM 2it& t&e &elp o3 t&e 'i#'uit s&o2 i Fi1!"! T&e p&ase*lo'$ed loop #emai s lo'$ed i3 t&e BCO i put #emai s 'o sta t su'& t&at fi = fo = fo’! t&e modulati 1 si1 al applied to pi < (i put o3 BCO.CRO (%.Dual po2e# supply (8*)*8B(8.(0.Audio os'illato# (. 1/ GENERATION O& PDM AND PPM USING PLL AIM: To 1e e#ate Pulse du#atio modulatio a d Pulse Positio modulatio 2a4e3o#m usi 1 P&ase Lo'$ Loop! EQUIPMENT REQUIRED: (".ICs: 9895 <0=8 2it& /ases5 T#a sisto# %N%%%% (9.S:ua#e*2a4e 1e e#ato# ("9 $+.

DEPARTMENT OF ECE DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS LAB Fi1!": Ge e#atio o3 PDM a d PPM usi 1 PLL T&e i put si1 al a d t&e PPM 'o stitute t&e t2o i puts o3 t&e eG'lusi4e OR 1ate! It 'ompa#es t&e PPM si1 al a d t&e o#i1i al pulse leadi 1 to p#odu'tio o3 PDM at t2i'e t&e 3#e:ue 'y o3 t&e o#i1i al si1 al5 T&e 'e t#e 3#e:ue 'y o3 t&e BCO is ad?usted /y R . su'& t&at t&e 3#ee*#u si1 al 3#e:ue 'y! 9! Mo ito# PDM a d PPM outputs usi 1 CRO! i 1 3#e:ue 'y o3 t&e BCO is 'lose to t&e i put LORDS INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING 6 TEC+NOLOG7 Page .-! 0! Ad?ust R.) .! .! Use t&e audio os'illato# as t&e sou#'e o3 modulati 1 4olta1e (%)) +. to % $+. 2&ile R0 may /e ad?usted to 'o t#ol t&e duty 'y'le o3 PDM si1 al! EHPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE "! Ai#e t&e 'i#'uit as s&o2 i Fi1!"! %! Use t&e s:ua#e*2a4e 1e e#ato# to 3eed t&e i put si1 al vc (pi %at a/out "9 $+.

" .pulse 2idt& o3 PDM a d (/.DEPARTMENT OF ECE DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS LAB 8! Ba#y t&e modulati 1 si1 al 3#e:ue 'y a d o/se#4e (a.! Disti 1uis& /et2ee PAM5 PDM a d PPM! 0! EGplai &o2 a PLL 'a /e used to 1e e#ate PPM a d PDM! LORDS INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING 6 TEC+NOLOG7 Page .pulse positio i PPM! Kuestio s "! A&at is pulse modulatio L +o2 is it di33e#e t 3o#m AM o# FML %! A&at a#e t&e ad4a ta1es o3 pulse modulatio L .