A SOURCE BOOK IN JAINA PHILOSOPHY

[An Exhaustive and Authoritative Book in Jaina Philosophy]

By
Devendra Muni Shastri

Translated into English y
Dr. T. G. Kalghatgi, M.A., Ph.D. Professor and Head of the Deptt. Of Jainology & Prakrits Uni ersity of Mysore

English Translation Edited y
Dr. T. S. Devodoss, M.A., B.L., Ph.D., D.P. & P.A.

Reader in Philoso!hy
The Dr. S. Radhakrishnan institute for Advance Study in Philosophy niversity of Madras

P" lished y
SR! TARA" # R $A!% #RA%T&ALA'A S&ASTR! (!R(L) DA!P R *Ra+.,

#ore$ord
Dr. #. R. Da-odaran .ice/(hancellor, niversity of Madras

Eng% &ss% ' Proo( Re)ision
Dr. Bri+ Mohan $ain

#irst Edition
.ir %irvana Sa-vat 0123 Akshaya Tritiya, .ikra- Sa-vat 0242 May 5367 A.D.

Printing ' *esigning S"!er)ision
Srichand Surana 8Saras9

Printed y
S. S. A:ar;al, Dinesh Printers A:ra Price Rs. 62/22

NATURE OF DARSANA AND DARSANIKA LITERATURE........................................................................................14 DARSANA: A SYNOPTIC STUDY.................................................................................................................................... 14 JAINA CANONICAL LITERATURE AND ITS DEVELOPMENT.............................................................................................. 21 DISCUSSION OF PRAMEYA..............................................................................................................................................32 LOKAVADA (COSMOLOGY)........................................................................................................................................... 32 JAINA METAPHYSICS................................................................................................................................................... 46 ATMAVADA: AN ANALYSIS (CONCEPT OF ATMAN)....................................................................................................... 1 AJIVATATTVA: A STUDY (A SURVEY OF NON!LIVING SU"STANCE)..................................................................#$ PUDGALA (MATTER): A STUDY................................................................................................................................... %2 PRINCIPLE OF THE PUNYA (MERIT) AND PAPA (DEMERIT): A STUDY...........................................................................111 PRINCIPLE OF ASRAVA (INFLU&): A STUDY................................................................................................................. 114 PRINCIPLES OF SAMVARA AND NIRJARA: A STUDY..................................................................................................... 11# THE PRINCIPLES OF "ANDHA AND MOKSA: A DISCUSSION.....................................................................................131 PRAMANAVADA................................................................................................................................................................141 SYADVADA: THE "ASIS OF JAINA PHILOSOPHY........................................................................................................ 141 SAPTA"HANGI: A DISCUSSION.............................................................................................................................. 1 2 NIKSEPAVADA: A STUDY...................................................................................................................................... 16# NAYAVADA: A STUDY........................................................................................................................................... 1'3 JNANAVADA: A STUDY (THEORY OF KNO(LEDGE)........................................................................................1%$ PRAMANA: A STUDY.............................................................................................................................................. 212 KARMAVADA.....................................................................................................................................................................228 KARMAVADA: A SYNOPSIS.................................................................................................................................... 22# JAINA DARSANA AND THE PHILOSOPHIES OF THE WORLD............................................................................271 PHILOSOPHIES OF THE (ORLD: A STUDY................................................................................................................... 2'1 JAINA AND "UDDHIST PHILOSOPHY............................................................................................................................ 2'% JAINA AND SANKHYA PHILOSOPHIES: A COMPARISON................................................................................................. 2#2 JAINA ) VEDANTA PHILOSOPHIES.............................................................................................................................. 2# LEGACY OF JAINA PHILOSOPHY TO THE (ORLD OF THOUGHT....................................................................................2#% APPENDICES.......................................................................................................................................................................292 REFERENCE "OOKS INDE&......................................................................................................................................... 2%2 INDE& OF TECHNICAL TERMS..................................................................................................................................... 2%# JAINA PHILOSOPHICAL LITERATURE AND AUTHORS.................................................................................................... 3$4

BENE*ICTION+BLESSIN,S
Human mind can be compared to a vast ocean. As the ocean never becomes calm, so is the condition of human mind. In it the waves of inquisitiveness always remain in existence. The different questionnaires regarding life and universe, mundane soul and living and non-living substances, either the universe is a chaos or a cosmos, how the activities of the world are going on, etc., perturbs human mind. The hilosophy reconciles all the queries of human mind by logic, by intelligence and with the medium of insight. The philosophy removes all such doubts of human mind so the philosophy can be recogni!ed as "#ivine $ye%. hilosophy is divided into numerous currents. &ut all those currents can be classified into two distinctions, vi!., '() *aterialism and '+) ,piritualism. -ain philosophy is spiritualistic by its nature. -aina philosophy maintains its unique and magnificent position, not only among Indian philosophies but also among the world philosophies. The vast canvas of -aina philosophy is woven by four elements, vi!., '() .on-violence in conduct, '+) *any-sidedness in views, thin/ing and mind '0) stand point-based speech, and '1) .on-possessiveness in social life. These are the four strong pillars upon which the magnificent building is sanding of -aina metaphysics and philosophy. It is neither a fool%s paradise, nor irrelevant imagination, but based on sound footings and solid ground of life and that is why it gives due force to right conduct in the light of holy thin/ing. I wished that at the auspicious occasion of +2th .irvana centenary of &hagavana *ahavira, two boo/s should be prepared, one should be biography of &hagavana *ahavira and the other should be about his hilosophy and *etaphysics. I desired that the style may be comparative but the language should be easy and simple3 so every man can be benefited and /now ins and outs about -ainism by this one and single volume. I expressed the wish to my worthy disciple #evendra *uni. He prepared both the precious volumes with full !eal, enthusiasm and hardship. The present volume discusses the -aina hilosophy. The typical and rough sub4ects, li/e-theory of /arman, theory of /nowledge, intuition, many-sided approach to the reality, noumenal and phenomenal points of view, conception of soul, consciousness -unconsciousness, theory of valid /nowledge, the ob4ects of /nowledge, theory of auspicious and inauspicious activities, inflow and bondage, chec/ing the inflow and annihilation of /armas, state of liberation of soul have been discussed with open-mindedness and giving the views of other philosophies-$astern and 5estern. ,o it became a complete boo/ of philosophy. #ue to the rare qualities of this wor/, I li/ed it much and am sure that every and any inquisitive, who wishes to /now about -aina hilosophy can quench his thirst by this one single volume. #r. T. 6. 7alghatgi has rendered $nglish translation of the boo/ with /een interest and due labor. ,o he fulfilled a great gap in the field of philosophy. I am hopeful that this $nglish version will also be cordially welcomed. It is my hearty desire that my favorite and worthy pupil #evendra *uni may enrich the treasure of literature by deep creative intelligence and /nowledge and with his ever-flowing pen. He may create new milestones in the field of literature and serve the -ainology and flag it. These are my heartiest blessings8

Adinath Jayanti April 5, 1 !"#

-Upadhyaya Pushkar Muni

PUBLISHER-S NOTE
It would be apt to say that without understanding -aina hilosophy, the study of Indian philosophy and metaphysics would remain incomplete9 not only this, but the philosophic and metaphysical bac/ground of Indian thin/ing would remain unclear and un-understood. .ot only among Indian philosophies, but among the philosophies of the world, only the -aina philosophy darefully advocates the limitless power and energy of human soul and its independency9 and bestows full responsibility upon the man and man himself to attain the highest goal of his life-the infinite bliss, without the help of any 6od or supreme being. The non-violence 'ahimsa) is the bac/bone of -aina hilosophy. .on-violence is the base of -aina religion and philosophy. It is all and all of -ainism. :omplete thin/ing and conduct of -ainas are spread on the vast canvas of non-violence. ,o the -ainas presented deep and vivid study of non-violence. ;or this purpose, the exhaustive study of nonviolence, -aina thin/ers pierced sufficiently deep into the material science li/e- hysics, :hemistry, and specially <oology, &otany and &iology. &y the deep study of these sciences, the minutest details, which were presented by the -aina thin/ers, proved true to such a high degree, that even the greatest scientists of today are astonished. They highly esteem those consequences, by saying that it is wonderful how such consequences, by saying that it is wonderful how such consequences obtained millenniums ago while there were no laboratories, etc. These results proved very much beneficial to -ains. =n the one side, they could follow the path of non-violence, in their thought and behavior9 and on the other -ainism is standing upright in the modern science-effected world. 5hile other orthodox religions and isms are either in clash or they slin/ away and hesitate to face the new researches of the modern science9 the -aina metaphysics, philosophy and religion are proved true. The scientificality of -ainism is coming into light as the scientific researches are enhancing. This is the open proof of highest thin/ing of -ainas. Though there are many boo/s to get through the -aina religion and philosophy. An inquisitive can understood the sub4ect with the help of those boo/s, yet the necessity of such a single volume, by which the authoritative /nowledge can be got, is /eenly felt by the scholars and general inquisitives ali/e. The present volume will fulfill the need. =n the one hand, it will prove an authentic boo/ regarding -aina hilosophy and on the other it will be a reference boo/ of the scholars. This boo/ came out from the pen of ,ri #evendra *uni4i ,hastri. *unisri is a great scholar of -aina religion, philosophy and agama literature. He is a learned man. *any ancient and modern languages li/e ,ans/rit, ali, ra/rit, 6u4arati, *arathi, Hindi etc. are at hand to him. He has been devoting his precious time since thirty years in the comparative study of the different currents of Indian culture and literature, li/e-religions, philosophies, yoga etc. He had gone through thousands of wor/s of reputed authors-ancient and modern and himself have written hundreds of boo/s. &ecause of his extra-ordinary genius *unisri now gained the fame as the "5i!ard of comparative study% of different philosophies, religions and literature. The present volume is the result of *unisri%s three years% continuous study. In this volume *unisri has impartially presented the exhaustive study of -aina hilosophy.

three years before. 7alghatgi is a renowned scholar of Indian philosophy and specially -ainology. 5e are grateful to all our aforesaid companions for the heartiest co-operation. T. in the hands of the readers9 but due to unavoidable circumstances-the difficulty of press. At that time the intelligentsia. The members of 6u4arati .irvana. The year (?@@ proved luc/y to *adras citi!ens.riyut . 6. A. for the $nglish version of the boo/. #r. our inquisitive readers and financial co-operators have to wait long. which they have rendered us. 7alghatgi and he accepted happily the burden of $nglish translation. It got appraisal from every corner.ri ush/ar *uni4i *ahara4 stayed there for four rainy months. #eptt.urana ". C revision exerting his full !eal..This volume 'Hindi) was published at the auspicious occasion of +2th century of >ir . >ice :hancellor. #evodoss. &ut lastly. This enthusiasm instigated. Those people pleaded that the $nglish version would be more beneficial for the $nglish spea/ing people and also those persons whose mother tongue is not Hindi. =ur affectionate companion and renowned literary man . #r. He has translated the boo/ in $nglish with full !eal and great effort. we have a satisfaction.thana/vasi -aina Association of *adras were so enthusiastic to see the boo/ in $nglish that they became pre-publication customers and gave financial co-operation in this way. His Holiness.oreword% to the boo/.on-Hindi areas would also be able to /now about -aina religion and philosophy. #r.richand . . The Bniversity of *adras too/ great pains to edit the $nglish translation. of hilosophy. mainly the 6u4arati spea/ing inquisitives earnestly requested to the *ahara4 . Udaipur# . Bpadhyaya .aras% too/ the responsibility of printing of the boo/ with due intimacy. &ri4 *ohan -ain has very /eenly and carefully carried out the tough wor/ of *ss. has encouraged us by giving ". 5e apologi!e for the inconvenience. :onsequently.ahib. rofessor. #amodaran. Honorable #r. Aa4asthan 7esari. 5e planned to give the boo/.wetambara . . #r. the printing of boo/ becomes undesirably late. The Bniversity of *adras. reverend 6urudeva. $veryone li/ed it and gave warm welcome. $e%retary $ri &arak 'uru 'anthalaya. that we could give this long awaited precious wor/ in the hands of our readers.

As rightly observed by #r.upreme Aeality. into a rule of life. Aeader in hilosophy at Bniversity of *adras. Aadha/rishnan. &y following the three-fold path of Aight &elief. #evendra *uni%s exposition is throughout admirable. Dogic and *etaphysics. #evodoss. The present wor/ shows great mastery of the author over not only the doctrine he is expounding but also the realm of Indian thought.. universally /nown as *ahavira.ramanic traditions. 7alghatgi from the original text--aina #arshana3 . sacrifice and asceticism. that of ahimsa. householders.. Dord *ahavir is the greatest exponent of -aina thought.waroop our >isleshana written by the venerated mon/ #evendra *uni who belongs to the .thana/vasi order. The present boo/ is a classical wor/ on -aina hilosophy. #evendra *uni%s scholarship is astounding and deeply penetrating as is evident in his numerous writings and boo/s written in Hindi. #r. The Introductory chapter will serve as an excellent aid to the study of the boo/. The -ains have always stood for the dignity of man and equality of all. rofessor and Head of the #epartment of -ainology and ra/rits in the Bniversity of *ysore has done a great 4ob by translating into $nglish. 6. In essence. 7alghatgi. which is considered central to the -aina ethical.. The essence of Dord%s teaching is embodied in the three-fold code /nown as ratna-traya. 6u4arati and Aa4asthani languages. &hagavan *ahavira stands pre-eminent.OR* The cultural heritage of India is pre-eminently represented by the &rahmanic and .ar from being a recluse concerned only with an inner spiritual experience. T. Aight 7nowledge and Aight :onduct. thought. Dord *ahavira also associated himself closely in uplifting the social life of the people. Dord *ahavira is a -agadguru-a 5orld Teacher whose teachings are meant for the entire man/ind. "The -ainas were first to ma/e ahimsa. as ordained by the -ains. .vetambara . and have preached the elevated ideal of ahimsa.e. Though *ahavira%s teachings are primarily followed by the -ainas. -ainism and &uddhism are the chief representatives of the latter tradition. T. mon/s and shrava/as i.. The boo/ contains frequent references to :ontemporary 5estern hilosophical thought. . rendered into $nglish by #r. allude in the course of explaining its distinctive features to nearly all the other systems of Indian hilosophy. Among the pathfinders to the . T. The boo/ is divided into six parts dealing with discussions of rameya. represents the ancient -aina tradition of India. ramana and a synoptic study of -aina #arshana. #evendra *uni%s classical boo/--aina #arshana3 . thereby drawing the attention of scholars over the globe to the fascinating domain of -aina thought. It is a high standard of editorial competence that is set here in this boo/ by #r. the soul is released from the cycles of birth and rebirth and attains the pure and blissful abode of the liberated souls. 6. they are in fact applicable mutatis mutandis to the followers of other religious faiths. #evendra *uni ran/s among the world%s greatest exponents of -aina thought. the last of the twenty-four Tirthan/aras of the -ainas.#ORE. although usually referred to as a religion. non-violence. The author of the boo/ is a renowned scholar and outstanding exponent of -aina hilosophical thought. i. is basically a way of life. As the author of more than hundred boo/s. . -ainism.waroop aur >isleshana written in Hindi. The boo/ though primarily concerned with -aina #arshana. . He was instrumental for codifying all unsystematic mass of belief into a set of rigid rules of conduct for *unis.e. >ardhamana. renunciation. -ainism is unique in the history of religious philosophy.

i%e-/han%ellor &he University o0 Madras .+A*A. The world of scholars owes a debt of gratitude to #evendra *uni%s monumental contribution to -aina philosophical thought. (5 January.#evendra *uni%s admiration for Dord *ahavira and his teachings and for the civili!ation which embodied it ma/es this not only a learned but also a stimulating boo/. 1 ) '# *# +AM.

The various happenings and changes in nature leave man in astonishment. It suggests to pathway to the ultimate good of man. all the 5estern philosophers are influenced by 6ree/ philosophy so the western philosophy became material in outloo/. 5estern philosophy is based on freethin/ing. The aim of philosophy is to discuss the nature of life and world. He desires to search and /now the causes of these happenings9 and so is the aim of western philosophy to investigate and understand the real nature of this visible physical world. Through Indian thin/ers also discussed the nature and material reality. It tries to understand the nature of reality and ultimate reality by reason and then induces to believe the accuracy and legitimacy of them. It does not do much to remove the miseries of man/ind. the elements constituting the world and how many are they. so it would be apt to say that the current of philosophy is as old as man itself or prehistoric. Indian philosophers have posited their faith in life and enhanced their continued steady footsteps toward the attainment of ultimate truth. can see by the eye of philosophyF . in detail. In other words. It avoids authoritative valid /nowledge. so Indian philosophy became spiritualistic by nature. the faith and reason are in harmony in Indian philosophy. All the Indian philosophies aim at the quest of soul and its nature. In this way. .uch tendency we do not find in 6ree/ philosophies. the philosophy is the vision of insight. and the human mind remain always active to solve these problems. Hence it can be said that the western philosophy is the mental exercise.. misery is responsible for the origination of philosophy and they posit its aim removal of misery. The complete treatise of matter was to understand the nature of soul more clearly. It also reconciles the problems. but to the extent it was pertaining to soul.o. The first such country is India and the second is 6reece. And because the $uropean and American. Indian philosophers are found cra!y to /now the nature of soul and 6od.e. Though they also have tried to /now about the soul but could not go to deep as Indian philosophers. 5hat man cannot see by his physical eyes.PRE#ACE hilosophy is the "#ivine $yeE of man. Indian philosophy and the 5estern effect all the eastern philosophies by 6ree/ philosophy. li/e-what are living and non-living realities. In true sense. hilosophy has logic and cogitation as its bases. Though their style is charming. i. &eing the main aim the quest of the soul Indian philosophers never neglected the life and activities of the physical world. The demarcation line between the $astern and 5estern philosophy is the conception of salvation. philosophy is the medium to get into the inner core of reality. The prominency of Indian philosophy resides in the fact that it is helpful to us to attain the . It is theoretical in nature and its main characteristic is intelligence. &ut the trend of Indian thin/ers always remained towards the soul. what are the effects of living and non-living substances on the different activities of the universe. we find that the systematic /nowledge of philosophy came into existence. yet the outloo/ was mainly material. &ut according to Indian philosophers. 5hen we come to historic period. All the main currents of Indian thin/ing merge in the ocean of salvation while western philosophy neglects this sub4ect. As these and such other questions are eternal and had disturbed the human brain since his invent.

>ast literature has been published in . Gth century &. Aeally -aina philosophy is unique and holds an out-toping place in the philosophic sphere of the world. which place it at the foremost position among the world philosophies. ra/rit and other languages pertaining to -ainology. I get the indescribable 4oy.e. therefore.. Thus philosophy ascertains our highest goal and religion is the way to attain it. Aa4asthan 7esari.irvana centenary of &hagavana *ahavira. purana are my favorite sub4ects. the philosophy and religion remained hand-in-hand in India. I determined to prepare two boo/s3 one-comparative study of life of &hagavana *ahavira. I devoted ten precious years in the perusal of pertaining literature and consequently a volume came into light entitled "&hagavana *ahavira3 $/ Anushilana%. -aina philosophy dipped in the fathomless depth of ocean of spiritual science and solved the unriddle problems of spiritualism by the medium of different view-points and deep piercing reasoning9 and on the other hand it demonstrates some specially astonishing maxims and principles in the science of matter long before modern scientific world. The present volume is also an attempt in the same direction. "sound% fulcrum of motion etc. It is not only the science of reasoning.yadvad) is a greatest acquisition. &iology etc. 5hile I wrote on these sub4ects. It has a specific viewpoint regarding the life and visible world. Bpadhyaya ush/ar *uni4i *ahara4a that at the great auspicious occasion of +2th . The vigilant readers would be the true 4udges of this wor/ and they will estimate that how much I am successful in this attempt.ational language-Hindi as well. i. It gives up the forbidable and follows the beneficial.highest goal. philosophy. &ut I have no hesitation to say that religion. I got the commandment or reverend 6urudeva. literature. hilosophy thoroughly examines the reality and then accepts it by logic and reasoning so that soul can get salvation9 and the religion is the practical way to obtain spiritual truth. -aina philosophy bears in itself some salient features. culture. such type of unique and original literature should be prepared which must be of everlasting value and by the perusal of that literature the vigilant readers should get instigation towards their spiritual upliftment beside increasing their /nowledge. but also an art of life. =n the one hand. Indian philosophy is not only a method of thin/ing but also a method of life. li/e-<oology. *any important volumes also have been published dealing with -ainology. :. In present volume light have been thrown on the special characteristics of this philosophy. Indian philosophy does not satisfy itself by the search and /nowledge of Truth9 but it induces everyone to lead truthful life. salvation. an spiritual ascetic of highest order. It is a matter of happiness that the different branches of -aina literature are being published in . Thin/ing and reasoning find its culmination in conduct-right conduct. It has very minutely considered the conscious powers and energies9 and also a thorough analysis of the sciences. There is neither variance separation between the two. hilosophy purifies the method of thin/ing while religion is the purification of living-method. &ecause of this. are proved true by the modern science. The . hilosophy demonstrates the fundamental principles and religion brings them into action. In Indian philosophy conduct also found its valuable position along with cogitation. Its style of truthdemonstration by the theory of relativity '. The maxims ascertained by -aina philosophy about "atom%. This literature is of both types-simple and complex.ans/rit.e. I am confident that readers will also obtain the same 4oy at the occasion of perusal of the boo/. The nature of elements is considered only due to the cause that such /nowledge helps to remove misery. In this voluminous research wor/ the critical study of the life history of &hagavana *ahavira has been described in the light of literature from the period of agamas i. It gave the unique theory of manysided approach to understand from all directions the reality and the fundamental principles.. &otany. agam.. According to the desire of reverend gurudeva. to modern times. Hence philosophy and religion are complement to one-another.

and . #r. Indrachand4i *ehta.. 7alghatgi is regarded as an authority in -aina philosophy. Anand rasad #ixit 'Head of the #eptt. li/e-#r. Bniversity of *ysore. also rendered valuable cooperation. The boo/ was published in (?@2.o mista/es have been created. 5ords cannot express the pains they too/. =f Hindi). .thana/vasi -aina 6u4arati Association. were present and they appraised the boo/ with full !eal. It is my solemn wish that in the remembrance of Holy mother I might enrich the treasure of literature. Aespected mother *ahasati rabhavati4i *ahara4 is the greatest energy to me. Bniversity of *adras) has edited the manuscript '$nglish translation) ta/ing full pains. #r.ri . *adhu/arbhai *ehta etc. 5hatever good is in this volume.. =f hilosophy. A tedious problem aroused to face. who is always li/e a lighthouse to me.richand .other volume is prepared pertaining to philosophy.or this I studied more than hundred boo/s and invested many years. #r. #. *any merit wor/s came out of his pen.varoopa aur >isleshana% 'Hindi) the dignitaries. etc.. . . #r. The cordial co-operation of .urendrabhai resident of . 5ords cannot express his mercy.. *adras. 7alghatgi 'Head of the department of hilosophy and -ainology. At the inauguration occasion of the boo/ entitled "-aina #arshana3 . #evodoss ' rofessor.urana ". He has good command on $nglish language. Inspite of hilarious efforts of #r.ri &alwantbhai. D.ri ush/ar *uni4i *ahara4. #r. #r. He had fulfilled the 4ob with due labor and vigilance. Alas8 .aras% to get the boo/-printed eye soothing and beautiful will also be remembered. This was a hard nut to crac/.. &arlingay 'Head of the #eptt. #r. I am grateful to both the learned persons. due to the ignorance and negligence of typist. It was estimated that two to three months would be sufficient time for printing the whole boo/9 but since then a chain of difficulties enveloped the fate of boo/. #evodoss to give the manuscript quite correct. 7alghatgi expressed his desire to translate the boo/ in $nglish to the renowned citi!en of *ysore Ai/haba :hand -i :hhallani and . #r. A. of hilosophy. 7alghatgi and #r.he has gone to the father%s abode on +@ -anuary (?H+. &ri4 *ohan -ain 'Agra) solved this problem. as the typist was unaware of philosophy and philosophic words and technical terms. ease the path of publication of this boo/. 5hich cannot be cured must be endured. #eptt. 6. It would be a matter of more 4oy if she could see this boo/ printed by her own eyes9 but nothing can be done. T. &atra etc. even to say that due to the negligence and hostility of press management some pages of the manuscript were missed. Aenowned social wor/er :. &ri4 *ohan -ain also did this wor/ with ability and to my satisfaction. Bnavoidable and ultra wire circumstances regarding the printing press continually hindered the publication of the boo/. He also too/ the burden of tedious wor/ of proof-correction. Bniversity of oona). it is due to the /ind mercy of my 6urudeva Bpadhyaya . The tremendous efforts of . *ehta. the description at some places could not be clear. *anuscript was given in the press for printing in (?@H. as due to their attempts some of the main members of the association became the pre-publication customers of this volume and so created financial co-operation. . *ysore) expressed his earnest feelings that this boo/ should be translated into $nglish so that the readers and scholars of $astern and 5estern philosophies by $nglish medium may also be benefited and $nglish spea/ing world would become aware of -aina hilosophy.ri :hhallani informer me accordingly I consented 4oyfully. In the year (?@2 we stayed for four rainy months in oona '*aharashtra). T. .

Dastly.It would not be proper at this occasion to forget my elder sister *ahasati ushpavati4i *ahara49 because she is a perennial source of instigation to me to step forward in the field of /nowledge. Aa4endra *uni. *isha1h Jan2a Jayanti 5th April. 1 !" $hastri 3arakha%handra 4othari Bhavan &5o. if I do not remember their polite behavior and co-operation. It would be negligence on my part.aresh *uni is of great importance in my writing wor/. Jodhpur# +evendra Muni . /hopasni *oad. whose boo/s are referred in preparing the present volume. . I am grateful to all the writers. The serviceful co-operation of my sramana companions-Aamesh *uni.

The word darsana is derived from the root term #rs to see. a 5eltanschauung. utterances of great prophets li/e the &uddha and *ahavira and the statements of *anu were accepted implicitly as ipso facto Truths. although he draws certain conclusions guided by flashes of intuitive /nowledge. there was the age of faith 'sraddha). His outloo/ is much wider in its scope and includes diverse points of view. the varied viewpoints may be traced to the circumstances. There are some thin/ers who contend that darsana are the perception of the self. . The scientist loo/s at reality from a particular aspect and from analytical point of view. &ut the seer. erhaps the word is advisedly used. to indicate a thought system acquired by intuitive experience and sustained by logical argument.IN O# *ARSANA #aith ..ome thin/ers say that the origin of darsana lies in intellectual inquiry. were implicitly accepted as true in nature. as his sub4ect. which distinguishes him from others. #arsana means "direct /nowledge%. . #arsana originated from the moment when man began to thin/ and cogitate. erception may be of different types li/e sense perception. Thus. #arsana would mean the perception of Atman and not merely /nowledge of the physical world. #r. There have been divergent approaches to the understanding of the origin of darsana. He views life steadily and sees it in all its comprehensiveness. The antiquity of darsana could be traced to man himself. that faith mar/s the starting-point of one%s 4ourney towards the ultimate goal.tatements of an authority. . loo/s at life and the world from the synoptic point of view. . It is considered as a great moral virtue and absolutely essential for a spiritual aspirant for his reali!ation of the . li/e a prophet. logical inquiry or insight of the nature of soul. one as/s the question3 "5hyE. It means the view of the world. however much it may be allied to it.J ( The seer who has darsana gains a wider perspective of the view of the life and the world than the scientist and the poet. we find in recorded history. He thin/s about the nature of the different things of the world. who is a philosopher. It enables one to gain the inner meaning of life and the world. However. The poet has.ome have laid emphasis upon the intellectual exercise. darsana in its true sense would refer to the intuitive experience aided by intellectual discrimination. based on the prevailing circumstances. #arsana stands for a philosophical perspective. #rsyate anena iti darsanam signifies the meaning that it is perception. a philosopher '#arsani/a) is Ithe spectator of all time and existenceK. It is believed that darsana begins from the exact moment. As lato observes. ORI. It also indicates the first vision of truth. *an is a rational animal and rationality is the chief differential. infinite beauty of the whole world in all its manifestations.or instance. He is not bound by the limitations of particular aspects of the sub4ect as the scientist is. Aadha/rishnan holds the view that Idarsana is not an intuition. #arsana is the whole-view as revealed to the soul-sense. which prevailed during particular periods of time.Part 1 Nat"re o( *arsana and *arsani/a Literat"re *arsana0 A Syno!ti1 St"dy #arsana is an expression of man%s inherent capacity for intellectual discrimination. It may be noted in the context. &efore the commencement of the age of darsana. "intuitive experience%. while others have given primary importance to the aspect of wisdom.

the fierce wind blowing.or instance. It may be noted here that science gives up /nowledge. man began to get hold on the understanding of the phenomena of nature. for instance. the rapturous senses of the flowing of rivers and the roaring of seas. "*an /now thyself% may be said to be the chief advice of all the four traditions.K said .rancis &acon. . The criterion of the origin of philosophy lies in the inquiry into the nature of reality. which was baffling to the finite mind.upreme. there is a primary distinction in the connotation of the terms. #arsana leads to the /nowledge of the self. . I*en are not animals erect. Immanuel 7ant based his philosophy on the critique of /nowledge and gave a formalistic philosophy of the ". and he ended with founding philosophy on the solid foundation of intuitive experience. Ibut immortal godsJ. began to doubt the teachings of the :hurch. we find that 5estern philosophers adopted the method of "doubt% in analy!ing the verities of life. The Bpanisada did the same when they exhorted man3 atmanam viddhi '/now thyself). However. He built his super-structure of mathematical philosophy based on the notion of "doubt%.+ Logi1 This gave way to the place of reason. . . *o" t The origin of modern philosophy is to be traced to this early tendency of doubting spirit and also to the questioning attitude. the grandeur and the fragrance of blooming flowers. The starting-point of Indian thought is its emphasis on man himself. Indian philosophers have based their development of philosophical thought on the aspect of the "innate curiosity% of man to comprehend the nature of Aeality. He aimed at bringing about a synthesis between science and philosophy on the basis of integration. ( The 6ita proclaims that only the faithful gains /nowledge. according to the Indian tradition. The 6ree/ philosophers hold the view that the origin of philosophy lies in "wonder%. the rationalistic pluralism was based on the methods used by #escartes. It is an intellectual . The ultimate end of darsana is to /now oneself. The 5orld of . In the process of intellectual inquiry. *ARSANA AN* PHILOSOPHY #arsana and philosophy are often referred to as synonyms. but only philosophy alone gives us wisdom. . the da!!ling-twin/ling stars in the s/y amidst the encircling beauty of moon%s light-all the aspects of nature%s delight were the sub4ects of philosophical inquiry into the nature of its origin and creation.ome philosophers contend that philosophy had its origin in curiosity to understand . To thin/ and to wonder by loo/ing at the vicissitudes of life is philosophy. hilosophy is the intellectual pursuit of the understanding of the ultimate reality. an unusually rigorous effort to thin/ consistently. If we ta/e the utterances of the important philosophers of each tradition into consideration. the sunshine.cience is analytical description while philosophy is synthetic interpretation. . Thus. #escartes too stressed the need of "methodic doubt% as the cobweb-clearing prerequisite of honest thought. The sublimity of nature%s beauty.oumenon%.imilarly. He contended that man must war only on the obstacles that nature offers to the triumph of man. as a philosopher puts it.. The cardinal dictum in this age was the question3 I5hat is the nature of AealityJ.rancis &acon.ocrates said it in so many words. the Agveda praises faith. It is.onder .ature thwarted the imaginations of the poet and the seer.ature%s phenomena.

and the other with reference to the sub4ect matter. . Let modern thin/ers in their enthusiasm for understanding the nature have given exclusive importance to scientific investigations and analyses. The . It is the higher intuition by which reali!ation of the supreme reality becomes true.ewton%s law is no longer accepted today. &ertrand Aussell observes3 Ithe utility of science is twofold-one is that it understands everything that falls within the field of its experimentation9 the other is that whatever is understood should be brought within the scope of rules.cience loo/s at reality piecemeal.J Aussell%s analysis shows that science can be understood from two angles--one are with reference to its methodology. A seer '#arsani/a) transcends the ordinary perceptions of the outer eye and sees the highest reality through the inner eye. In this sense. #arsana is centered round the understanding and reali!ation of the self. while philosophy and darsana are synthetic in approach.gymnastic. A scientist loo/s at reality through the external eye. . #arsana embraces in its fold the manifold aspects of scientific /nowledge and investigations and philosophical pursuits as well. It aims at see/ing solace in the eternal bliss free from the empirical ad4uncts of this life. according to the Indian tradition. *ARSANA AN* SCIENCE In this scientific and materialistic age.cientific hypothesis is liable to be re4ected. it discloses the aspects of truth and not mere probabilities. the seers have gained the vision of reality. &ut darsana has a practical purpose-in one%s efforts to free oneself from the bondage of worldly existence. Thus. The methodological approaches of science and #arsana stand on different footings. #arsana enables one to see/ Truth through meditation while science tries to understand the mysteries of the world through experimental investigation. #arsana. has not remained restricted to the academic pursuits of understanding the nature of the ultimate reality to be sought in philosophy. The conclusions of science are only intellectual shorthands and are provisional.cience analyses the intricacies of nature and discovers the uniformities of the laws of nature. we find. meditation and intuition. #arsana can be said to be the vision.cience is analytic. As *atthew Arnold said3 I#arsana loo/s at life steadity and loo/s at it as a wholeJ. 5hile science uses empirical tools of observation and experimentation. darsana expresses the lofty grandeur of intuition. #arsana gives prominence to reason. philosophy is considered merely as an academic pursuit of /nowledge for /nowledge sa/e. #arsana gives a synoptic picture of reality and. #arsana really enables one to understand the world and life in its entirety. a luxury of the mind. $instein%s Theory of Aelativity may also be overshadowed by a more cogent hypothesis at a later date. . the term "darsana% as applied to Indian thought becomes significant. . erhaps the reason lies in this that men are caught in the web of samsara and fail to reali!e the deeper significance of life beyond this mundane world. The conclusions of science are tentative in nature because they are sub4ect to further investigations. #arsana meditates on the Atman and armatman. we find that men are generally drawn towards gaining materialistic pleasures in life and seem to neglect the spiritual values of life. science proceeds to develop on the basis of the re4ection of earlier hypothesis in favor of more acceptable forms. #arsana loo/s at the universe as an integrated whole. =n the contrary. In fact. while the main tas/ of science is to comprehend the mysteries of nature. . science lays emphasis on analytical experience. experimental observation and deductive analysis. . In the 5est. Hence. therefore. In India. darsana adopts of transcendental modes of meditation and vision. although he uses reason and intuition to understand the nature of reality.cience attempts to comprehend the diverse aspects of the universe. It has transcended the narrow empirical barriers and see/s to reali!e the highest truth.

and tending to become more explicit and static in mythologies. #arsana becomes divine when it is strongly bac/ed by religion. $ach science has its own limited field of experience as its sub4ect matter. and it is not surpassing that they should be closely connected. I>irtue is /nowledgeK and Ito /now virtue is to be virtuous.or instance. vitally influencing life and thought. 5hatever may be the theories of the origin of religion. $ach science studies a particular aspect of life. it is reali!ation. then religion arises.J According to . they are complementary to each other.cholars in regard to their mutual relationships have stated divergent views. darsana and religion are two main aspects of the experience. darsana and religion are tow inseparable entities of life. It is the prerogative of man. philosophers li/e . . . Ireligion is morality tinged with emotion. &iological . However. darsana would be merely delusive. The fundamental approach of all these sciences is empirical in nature.J Indeed. and helps him to say. in order to present a comprehensive picture of reality. Truth spea/ing would then have mere academic interest. &esides. Aeligion enables every man what he is. #arsana and religion are both essential for man to gain self-reali!ation or 6od-reali!ation. There are some that hold the view that they are identical. gives a clear perception of the notion of darsana thus3 "%He who is possessed of true insight 'darsanasampanna is not bound by deeds. religion is born when the Truth arrived at by reason is translated into action in the form of moral codes. *ARSANA AN* RELI. It is generally said. let us now compare and contrast the roles of darsana and religion in all spheres of human activity. mere /nowledge that "it is good to tell the Truth% is not sufficient unless it is translated into action.K ( Against this bac/ground.or instance.tanley :oo/ observes3 IAeligion primarily involves some immediate consciousness of transcendent realities of supreme personal worth. It is therefore analytic. expressing themselves in forms which are conditioned by the entire stage of development reached by the individual and his environment. In other words. &ereft of darsana that gives the rational . while sychology studies the mind.ciences li/e sychology study mind and its states. and scientific doctrines. theologies. when man introspects. I7nowledge is not mere collection of informations nor academic facts. they are supplementary to each other. &ut darsana uses the synthetic method in which reason and intuition are synthesi!ed and harmoni!ed.ocrates. The physical sciences study the physical matter and its modification. :onsidered thus. .J In this sense again. "Here is reality%3 As . philosophies.EE ( . we cannot deny the fact that both are fundamentally essential for man to reach higher heights of spiritual progress. as we /now. H. that a man who has no religion cannot have any morality. 5hatever may be the opposing viewpoints.ome others say that they are entirely different.ION 5e have earlier noted that #arsana is one of the most characteristic and fundamental thoughts of Indian philosophy-the meditative and mystical attitude of mind toward an idealistic conception of the universe. 5hen religion and darsana have in common is they are fundamental to the way of life of an individual or of a society. it has often been held that morality is wholly dependent on religion. Aeligion without darsana is blind and darsana without religion is heretic. the famous Hindu Dawgiver. Aeason. hysics studies matter. &iology studies life.ocrates said. it will not have any meaning.cience studies the universe in its various aspects. hilosophers also contend that religion is "natural% because the ultimate realities must be a "natural% part of the universe of which man becomes conscious. is the differential of man. *anu. Bnless we practice spea/ing Truth. . To /now is to reali!e. 5ithout religion.. &AA#D$L observes IAeligion is rather the attempt to express the complete reality of goodness through every aspect of our beingJ. darsana is born9 but when reason pro4ects into the external world and translates thoughts into action. 5hen reason loo/s within itself. two poles set asunder.. &ut the man destitute of insight 'darsanenavihina) is involved in the cycle of existence.

*ARSANA AN* LI#E It may be as/ed3 5hat is the relation of darsana with life as suchF The answer to it is suggestive of the fact that man is given to thin/ing. such as . .an/ara sums up the unique nature of man thus3 "%7arma-4nanadhi/arat. In short. independent of cognitive consciousness.an/ara. >i4nanavada of >asubandhu and . the reali!ation of the relation of the self with the other. to put them to the test of reason and to act up to the ideals and values of life. =n the other hand. *aterialism would claim its relation to realism.elfdevelopment is possible only through his active social participation that implies the observance of ethical codes of life. Advaita of . 5hen man ceases to thin/ and to intuit. . darsana without the favor of religion would be empty. This is made possible only through darsana. The /nowledge.ome contend that realism leads to philosophy of matter and idealism leads to the philosophy of spirit.aive Aealism and :ritical Aealism. Dife compels man to live in society.ub4ective Idealism. the realist posits the existence and reality of the external ob4ect independent of our /nowledge of it. he falls down to the status of an animal. without the harmonious blending of darsana and religion in man%s life and activity. . in fact. Aeasoning is his prerogative and through it combined with his intuitive power. As Aristotle said. *an%s true destiny is not the conquest of his external nature but the conquest of his own self because atmanigraha or the suppression of the lower self alone indicates the greatness of the human spirit. He is gregarious. . Thus. the /nowledge of the "self% dawns on him and then of the "other% as related to him. In other words.irst. it is impossible for a human being to the status of an animal. Human life would be meaningless and devoid of the divine nature of man. The different trends of idealistic thought are-. let us now attempt to understand the significance of the relation of darsana to the external world. The realist affirms the reality of the external world.unyavada of . there are two fundamental streams-the idealistic and the structure. . religion would degenerate into mere blind belief and become only a collection of superstitious practices without any rational and intuitional basis. man see/s to build a structure of philosophy and darsana. 7nowledge of the relation between life and the external world would give us the idea of the extent to which darsana values the relation and the extent to which man understands his relation to the values of life as such. there are different types of realism. =b4ective Idealism and Absolute Idealism. . as it would not flow with emotion and noble sentiments. .and intuitional basis for its belief and practice. *ARSANA AN* THE . is necessary for the reali!ation of one%s highest goal of perfection. *an continues to thin/ and thin/s constantly. selfish and yet a rational and moral animal.ORL* Having analy!ed the relation between darsana and life. They early primitive forms of religion are blind and have no rational or intuitional basis. The idealist posits the reality of an idea because we /now the external ob4ect and we considered it to be real. *an%s life is a sage of constant and coherent thin/ing.imilarly. To meditate on the fundamental facts and values of life.J Aationality is his chief characteristic.elf-development is possible only through gaining philosophical truths. In Indian thought.agar4una are forms of idealism. In short. *an is not a "lost% creature. is the expression of the relation of darsana to life. The idealist affirms the priority of cognitive consciousness and the reality of idea independent of the external world. In the analysis of philosophical thought. we find the inseparability of darsana to life. He is ever capable of self-development. Human life would be meaningless and devoid of the higher values of life. The world is as much the sub4ect matter of darsana as life is. The two are necessary for the reali!ation of the divine nature of man.EE He is one who is capable of both /nowledge and moral freedom. I*an is a rational animal. it is impossible for a human being to live without darsana or faith. It studies life and the world ali/e. A synthesis of the two would bring about a harmonious development in man%s personality and endow him with a balanced view of life.

ra/rti and urusa. In these philosophies. all philosophy is pessimistic. highly optimistic. *isery is a fact of life. He affirmed that ". bha/ti-marga 'the path of devotion).agar4una. &eing is. right /nowledge 'samyag-4nana) and right conduct 'samyagcaritra). all of them inspired the people of their age to give up en4oyment of pleasures and to adopt the spirit of renunciation and penance. because the aim of Indian thought is to free one from the misery of this life and to lead him to transcend the misery and to attain the highest bliss. The -aina gives the ane/anta point of view. it has lost the status of an academic pursuit and cannot be aptly called philosophy. because it posits the reality of two fundamental principles.han/aracharya. &liss is not to be confused with sense-pleasure. Indian thought is not pessimistic but on the contrary. A study of 5estern philosophy shows that in the . It is realistic and empirical in approach to the understanding of reality. He started with the method of doubt and built a philosophy on the solid foundations of mathematics.orm and pure *atter do not exist in the world. we have the realist schools of thought expressed in the .. armenides affirmed that real is the &eing and not becoming. It is melioristic. Di/e the idealist tendencies.ome have interpreted the sunya in the absolutist sense of the term. . . the empirical as well as the transcendental spiritual reality have been accepted. :. Ideal are real. If we consider the ultimate end of Indian philosophy. Aristotle was more earthly than lato was. . #escartes is considered to be the father of modern philosophy.orm% and "*atter% are the two ultimate principles and ultimate realities. His main ob4ect was to ma/e man good. we can say that it is not pessimistic at all. Indian philosophers aimed at divination of man. They exhorted the people to give up indulgence on worldly or sensual pleasure and adopt an attitude of renunciation.agar4una goes further than the >i4nanavadins and Advaitvadins by affirming that everything including the external world. The -ainas affirm that the way to self-reali!ation is the synthesis of right intuition 'samyag-darsana). and the external world as an appearance. ure . In this sense again. &ut.yaya and >aisesi/a schools of thought. $ven dharma and buddhi are unreal. In this. nor with happiness of this . but they are real. The real is the sunya. >asubandhu states that the world and its modifications are the forms of vi4nana and the real can be described as the alayavi4nana 'storehouse of consciousness). he built a structure of philosophy that may be more realistic than idealistic. the self and 6od is unreal.agar4una.ifth century &. It is difficult to understand the philosophy of . It aims at freeing man from the bondage of this world that is full of misery.ocrates was primary a moral philosopher. lato raised the ideal of . They live in the world of ideas. . .chool of Thought in modern philosophy. >i4nanavada of >asubandhu or Ahimsa and Ane/antavada of *ahavira. 5ith him commenced the Aationalist . . it may be argued that Indian thought is pessimistic.an/hya thought may be considered to be realistic in a sense. lato emphasi!ed the primacy of the spirit. &ut the highest bliss is also the fact of experience that can be attained by every one who transcends the misery of this world. is the attainment of bliss. as we have seen earlier.Advaita affirms the identity of Atman and &rahman. SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS O# IN*IAN PHILOSOPHY 2*ARSANA3 5estern thin/ers have alleged that Indian philosophy is pessimistic and because of its emphasis on renunciation and self-denial. /nowledge and the /nown are identical. eternal and perfect. Their main ob4ect was to impress upon the people that en4oyment of the pleasures of life should not be the primary end of life. and 7arma marga 'the path of action).agar4una is intricate in nature and poses problems to understand it. ob4ective. In this sense. The world consists of form and matter. In $uropean philosophy.unyavada of .ocrates to the metaphysical level and placed them in the world of ideas. This can be achieved by 4nana-marga 'the path of /nowledge). In this sense. 5hether it was the Advaitavada of . The primary ob4ect of philosophy in India is practical. visistadvaita of Aamanu4acarya. &ut pessimism in Indian thought is only used as a means and never as an end in itself. This is the beginning of idealist thought in the 5est. The philosophy of .ome others have interpreted the sunya in the nihilist sense as the "void%. The ultimate ob4ect of philosophy.

A study of Indian philosophy will enable us to adopt a balanced view of life and healthy perspective of the situations in life. is to lead men to the highest end of perfection. but the reali!ation of the Truth permeated every fiber of their being. which is inspired by the spiritual insight of holy men. gave a positive import to the state of perfection expressing pure bliss. and has survived the ravages of time because her civili!ation. .iddhasena #iva/ara. a fundamental loyalty. It is the synthetic vision of India that has made philosophy comprehend several sciences that have become differentiated in modern time.piritual life is the true genius of India. 6od reali!ation or self-reali!ation is a state of perfection where there can be no room for even the least trace of selfishness. *ahadevan.world.K observes #r. philosophy is to be lived and it is not merely an academic pursuit. therefore. the problem of harmony between life and spirit. Indian philosophers gave importance to the path of self-denial and re4ection of the pleasures of this world not out of the sense of frustration but with the supreme ob4ect of the attainment of the highest state of peace and bliss. IThis criticism. the application of moral truths to the facts of social life is the essence of Indian philosophical tradition. deluging the earth again and again with the pure and perennial waters of spiritual truth. not of the worldly existence but of the pure nature of the soul. It is of immense value to the student of philosophy and the study of Indian philosophy alone can give a right perspective about the past of India.wami >ive/ananda describes India as Ithe blessed punya-bhumi and as the land from where came the founders of religions from the ancient times. + . therefore. li/e the &uddha. It is the emphasis on spiritual freedom as the summum bonum that ma/es the message of Indian culture supremely significant to the modern man who is afflicted with the malady of excessive outwardness. The outloo/ of the ancient Indian thought was. . etc. . 2 It should be noted that India did ma/e the first attempt to solve the most vital problem. the stress in Indian thought is on "inwardness% which has often been wrongly understood as an emphasis on "other worldliness%.J 0 . from dar/ness to light and from death to immortality .ome others. The 5esterner remained in his ivory tower without any conscious effort to translate the truth in everyday life. . philosophy was primarily an academic pursuit to be studied in classroom. . a fine balance of individual desires and social demands. primarily spiritual and the translation of the spiritual attitude to the worldly activity. He regards the whole world as his household. In the 5est.EE ( Thus. Its aim. but they experienced the reality and they lived the spirit of reality. It remained far from the madding crowd.he has stood li/e a "Aoc/ of Ages%. Indian seers did not merely get to /now the reality. &ut the supreme aim of Indian philosophical tradition was the /indly light that led men from untruth to truth. is mar/ed by a certain moral integrity. . li/e the >edantins and also the -ainas. Thus.or the man of wisdom there is not the distinction of "mine% and "not-mine%. "%is the result of a gross misunderstanding of the Indian ideal of spirituality.ome critics of Indian thought believe that the Indian pursuit of spirituality is a selfish quest and that the saint and the sage are concerned with their own salvation. leasures of the world are fleeting and ephemeral9 they lead to misery. . which the soul in its pure state can en4oy without any obstruction from the empirical ad4uncts of this world because the en4oyment of bliss is the pure state or characteristic of the soul. of which the vision came to her seers almost at the very dawn of her spiritual history. &ut it is un4ust to regard the Indian attitude towards this world and its people as one of indifference or hatred. It is pure bliss.*. The ultimate state of bliss is the pure state that the Indian philosophers stressed. ..( It has led us from indulgence in worldly pleasures to renunciation of pleasures. individual and collective national and transcendental. The Indian "5eltanschauung% was. #harma/irti. Their world-view had an undeniable influence as a practical guide to life.. practical and pragmatic. They called this mo/sa. T. as we have said earlier. It is not merely a piece of antiquarian investigation that Indian thought deserves study.reedom from misery was considered by some. as the state of nirvana. in India. did not toy with the idea of /nowing the nature of Truth in the academic sense. &esides. 1 The men of 6od have felt that the salvation of India did not lie in imitating the 5est but in holding fast to Indian ideas and institutions and in purifying and elevating them. Theirs was the reali!ation of Truth.

'(M) rasnavya/arana. These wor/s are called ".yaya. "6anipita/as%. . therefore.amavayanga. The five divisions are as follows3 (. The Age of the . "destruction% and "permanence% of a things is called "Anga-pravista%.rom the point of view of structure. of two forms3 (. and +. and therefore. '?) Anuttaraupapati/adasa. The writings of the later elder munis are called Ananga-pravista. 2. The entire canonical literature. The collection and systematic arrangements of the original teachings of &hagavan *ahavira by the 6anadharas are considered as Anga-pravista. .utragama%. It is called ". It has also been suggested that literature which comprised the dialogues between Tirthan/ara *ahavira and his disciples concerning the fundamental questions relating to the triple function of "generation of origination%. it has also been called. #vadasangi is valid by its own inherent nature. . except the twelve angas '#vadasanga). The Age of the establishment of ramanasastra.thaviras '$lders) and 'b) the writings which have come down from the original teachings and from tradition. They are3 '() Acaranga.utra/rtanga. and it is possible on the basis of this division to understand the nature of -aina philosophical literature from the time of &hagavan *ahavira-the twentyfourth Tirthan/ara to the present day. '(() >ipa/a.A&AS The period of the Agamas may be considered to begin with the time of parinirvana of tirthan/ara *ahavira '>i/rama-purva 1@M) and extended for thousand years. THE A. It is self-valid. '2) &hagavati. '@) Bpasa/adasa. Arthagama. It was on the basis of the teachings of &hagavan *ahavira that the elder munis wrote wor/s explaining his teachings.iryudha%. the Agama literature has been divided into two types3 '() Anga-pravista and '+) Ananga-pravista. Ananga-pravista is also valid because its statements are consistent with the truths formulated in the Anga literature. The validity of other canonical writings forming the Anangapravista is determined to the extent to its consistency with the contents of the #vadasanga. '1) . These wor/s constitute "Ananga-pravista% the former is the Anga literature and the latter can be considered as sacred literature constituting the fringe of the Anga literature. The twelvefold #vadasanga occupies the most prominent place in the -ain canonical literature. *ahavira gave the conceptual content of the -ain-sastras 'in the artharupa) and the same has been presented in the form of literature expressed in language by 6anadharas. The 6anadharas collated the teachings of *ahavira. and '(+) #rstivada. The Agama literature has been presented for the sa/e of the study by Acaryas. They are classified as follows3 . The Age of Ane/anta view.Jaina Canoni1al Literat"re and Its *e)elo!4ent The -aina philosophical literature is classified into five broad divisions. 'H) Anta/rtdasa. The collection of the teachings of &hagavan *ahavira has been made into (+ wor/s and has been called #vadasangi. The Age of Agamas. +. '+) .iryudha Agamas are extracts from #vadasangi or urvas. The *odern Age of collection and editing.eo . 1.E O# A.utragama.thananga. has been called Ananga-pravista. '0) . Ananga-pravista Agama literature can again be divided into two types3 'a) the writings of the . 0. 'G) -natadharma/atha. The Agama literature is.

. 'iii) .andi.rutas/andha of Acaranga '0) .rom the point of view of language.imilarly. As the human body has organs li/e.isitha '1) >yavahara '2) &rhat/alpa. #evardhigani 7samasramana today has scribed the canonical literature available. a severe famine struc/ forever twelve years. the canonical literature can be classified into two eras3 the first era is from 1MM &. The second attempt at crystalli!ing the Agamas was made during the period between >ira . therefore. Arya . #. Two recitations were held during this period one at *athura and the other at . #. the Angabahya-sruta literature has been classified in different ways from time to time. Agama literature was not in the written form before this time. the twelve upangas are mentioned as "Bpangas%. . nec/ and the head.uryapra4napti :andrapra4napti 7alpi/a 7alpavatamsi/a uspi/a uspa-culi/a >rsnidasa Acarya Bmasvati in his Tattvartha-bhasya. Anuyogadvara was of Aryara/sita and #evavacha/ wrote .oon after the famine. . Anga-pravista literature was considered as Anga-sthaniya and the twelve sutras were given the status of Bpanga 'Bpanga-sthaniya).isitha and 'iv) #asasruta-s/andha. .utra/rtanga .andi and Anuyogadvara are the :uli/a-sutras. Anga-bahya.6A Acaranga . and 'G) #asasruta-s/andha. to (MM A.irvana . The use of the term "*ula% is of very later date.'() #asavai/ali/a '+) the . a :ouncil was organi!ed in which the Agamas were for the first time recited. In .thananga and . The ears and eyes etc. 'ii) &rhat/alpa. . have been considered as upangas.ayyambhava preached #asavai/ali/a to his son *ana/a. been referred to as "Agama purusa%. Agama literature has been described on the basis of the analogy of purusa. and the writings in this period are in -aina *aharastri ra/rt. ( The other Agamas were taught by 7evali &hadrabahu. Anga-pravista and +. shoulders. #asavai/ali/a and Bttaradhyayana have been considered to be the "*ulasutras%. the human personality having different organs. #.ruta-purusa and therefore they have been called "Angapravista%. An elaborate discussion on this question has been given in the wor/ entitled . to 2MM A. The Agamas written during this period have been written in Ardhamagadhi. similarly the Agama purusa can be considered on that analogy as having organs of this type.ahitya aur . In the second century after the arinirvana of &hagavan *ahavira.yamarya was the author of ra4napana. The second era can be stated to be from (MM A. In this way. 5e get similar distinctions in the #igambara literature also. There are four :hedasutras3 'I) >yavahara.thananga &hagavati -natadharma/atha Bpasa/adasa Anta/rtdasa Anuttarapapati/adasa rasnavya/arana >ipa/a #rstivada B A.econd .ams/rti that may be referred to for a detailed study. Agama literature has.:. The twelve angas are considered to be the organs of the .amvat H+@ to H1M.andisutra we get two types of division3 (.( first used the term EBpangaE The term ":hedasutra% was first used in the "Avasya/aniryu/ti + and later in the commentaries '&hasyas). A.6A Aupapati/a Aa4aprasniya -ivabhigama -ambudvipapra4napti . two legs.

. In its place.andi. 'Ii) ra4napana. In the philosophical doctrines of *ahavira. The present form of Agamas is to be. 'iii) &hagavati. Among the commentators the names of . The Agamas were collected in fragments. . The wor/ of writing the Agamas was done in >allabhi after >ira .amavayanga and 'vii) Anuyogadvara. The :ouncil at *athura was presided over by Arya . *uch of the . 5hatever was available. therefore. In the ra4napana we get a detailed discussion about the nature of the soul '-iva) from various points of view. considered as the editor of the Agama literature in the present form. and the doctrine of separate and independent soul is established. after an elaborate refutation of the atheistic thought. -nana and other topics./andila and the second :ouncil at >allabhi was presided over by Acarya .aya. li/e A/riyavada. The 6od and ..anghadasagani and -inabhadragani are frequently mentioned.aya and other principles. &ut during all these three recitations the Agamas were not put in writing.aya and ramana etc. In the Aa4aprasaniya. . A4nanavada were refuted and the validity of 7riyavada 'activism) were propounded.aptabhangi. These recitations have been referred to as *athuri and >allabhi recitations. 'v) . there is an exposition of the Atman and the other world with copious illustrations and expositions of different concepts. and Ane/antavada. Atman.amavayanga contains discussions on topics li/e. The doctrine of /arma and its effects has been proved.( Philoso!hi1al *is1"ssions in the Aga4as There is a good deal of philosophical discussion in the Agamas3 'I) . >inayavada. which had been handed down by oral tradition. there is discussion of the important topics li/e.>allabhi. therefore. .utra/rtanga refutes the prevailing philosophical schools of thought. It is established that the world 'samsara) is beginningless 'anadi) and endless 'ananta).aturalistic *onism '&hutadvaitavada) has been refuted. -nana. -inabhadragani has written an important commentary called . The theistic concept of 6od has been re4ected.oul *onism '&rahmadvaitvada) is also refuted. They lived in the @th century of vi/rama era. The Anuyogadvara has a discussion of the connotation of the term and incidental references to ramana and . . the doctrine of the plurality of souls is established.everal other theories of philosophy prevailing at that time. udgala 'matter). . He is.irvana ?HM under the guidance of #evardhigani 7samasramana. there are references to .andisutra discusses the nature and types of /nowledge. In the &hagavati we get a beautiful study of the topics li/e. In the commentaries 'Ti/as) of these Agamas we find vivid discussions on philosophical topics. The period upto these were full of obstacles due to effects of many severe famines. was systematically organi!ed and presented in the form of Agamic wor/s.ihnavavada.thananga.agar4una. which refers to the single point of approach or view of e/anta. ramana. traced to the wor/ done by #evardhigani. The wor/ of writing the Agamas was not put in writing. In this wor/. 'iv) . . He collected the Anga and the Anga-bahya literature and edited them.thananga.utra/rtanga.ruta. In the . . was forgotten9 but whatever was possible to be revived by memory was recited and written down. etc. 'vi) .

agar4una%s writings are to be found in all fields of &uddhist thought. :osmology. He has written his commentary in .#. The .amantabhadra gave a systematic . . &ut his special field was logic and metaphysics.. Acarya Bmasvati has also written a commentary '&hasya) on his Tattvarthasutra. we find most enlightened discussions of sub4ects li/e hilosophy.unyavada of . -ainism was also influenced to some extent with the . He has a new turn to the development of logic and metaphysics. and the commentary of the great logician Lasovi4aya4i in the (Hth century A.atural hilosophy and the /arma theory. Logindradeva. philosophy was primarily based on faith and its elucidation. The Tattvarthasutra nearly mar/s the end of agamayuga 'age of agamas). In these wor/s. In these commentaries he has made special use of philosophical discussions.E O# ANEKANTA In the &uddhist literature in India.o also the commentaries on Tattvarthasutra became the central base for the development of -aina logic. Logadeva. *alayagiri%s commentary in the (+th century. $thics.agar4una was the turning point for philosophy9 and philosophy was brought to a systematic level. A. the great scholar . These agamic wor/s ma/e special mention of the in4unctions regarding the codes of conduct for the sadha/as. 5e get important commentaries on Tattvarthasutra in the later period. This was in the Hth or ?th century A. 5e find the same feature in *alayagiri%s commentary9 philosophical discourses have been employed in the wor/. In the +Mth century also we have several commentaries on the Tattvarthasutra in Hindi and 6u4arati languages. These Acaryas belonged to the #igambara tradition. ANEKANTA YU. which discusses various sub4ects including philosophy and science. but it influenced the development of other systems of Indian philosophy.#. The primary reason for this is that the agama literature is mainly meant for sadha/as 'see/ers of truth). there are several other writers of the #igambara tradition who have written commentaries on Tattvarthasutra. a renewed .agar4una we find a new turn to philosophical development that gave emphasis on rational and critical studies.A+A. prominence has been accorded to epistemological and scientific discussions9 however the philosophical aspects has not received much attention as in religious literature other than the agamas.lo/avartti/a are important wor/s. we get very thought provo/ing discussions of the philosophical topics.agar4una. :irantanamuni%s in the (1th century A. #. Acarya u4yapada has written a commentary on Tattvarthasutra. Here. It is a comprehensive philosophical wor/. It would not be an exaggeration to say that 4ust as #harma/irti%s commentary ramanavartti/a on #ignaga%s ramansamuccaya became the centre of the development of &uddhist logic.iddhasena and Haribhadra have also written commentaries on the Tattvarthasutra.anghadasagani%s &rhat/alpabhasya is a classical wor/. 5e cannot easily forget the name of Acarya Haribhadra. In the Gth century A. 6eography.#. &ut in the later literature.rutasagara and >ibudhasena.ramana from the philosophical as well as argumentative points of view. by his intellectual discussions and writings. In the . there are frequent repetitions at many places. . This type of intellectual development was not merely restricted to the development of &uddhist thought.or the edification of the sadha/as. which contains an exposition of the codes of conduct of . . Acarya . A/alan/a%s Aa4avarti/a and >idyanandi%s . In the agama literature. As a result of this.>isesavasya/abhasya. . Da/smideva and Abhayan/i. In addition to these. 5e have commentaries of .vetambara tradition.ans/rit on the basis of the ancient curnis. as for instance.ans/rit commentator.agar4una%s philosophical wave.iddhasena #iva/ara and . created a stir in the philosophical climate of his time and he gave impetus to the development of philosophical thought. &ut with . importance has been given to discussion of philosophical topics. . 5e find in these wor/s evidence of a distinct development of -aina logic and philosophy.#. rior to him. Tattvarthasutra is the most important wor/ of Acarya Bmasvati.arvarthasiddhi. The great logicians Acarya . It is called . A/alan/a and >idyanandi have also written commentaries on this wor/.

in the face of the three theories prevailing in Indian thought at that time. Haribhadra did not write any independent wor/ on ramanasastra. However his wor/s.yadvadaratna/ara and it is really a crest 4ewel 'Aatna/ara) of -aina logic.thapana Luga or Ane/antavadi Luga. The special feature of the written of this age is to be found in their two-fold ob4ect 'I) refutation of the rival schools of thought9 and 'ii) presentation of own school of thought in a systematic way. on the wor/ Astasati of A/alan/a that was a commentary on Aptamimamsa of . #ignaga provided inspiration to the development of Indian logic.inghagani and Acarya atra/esari who built up -aina philosophy on rational and logical foundations. All these acaryas have given an able and logical refutation of the #ignaga%s position concerning -aina logic. This was during the 2th and Gth centuries A. This commentary is called .astravartasamuccaya and . In Indian philosophy we find the influence of rigorous logical discussions of #ignaga on the pramanasastra and . This period is regarded as the golden age '. These Acaryas brought about a systematic development of the Ane/antavada.thapana Luga. #. In . Ane/anta -ayapata/a.yadvadaratna/ara.turn to the development to -aina hilosophy. this age is considered to be the Ane/anta . #uring this period 'i. we find great scholars li/e Acarya . would give both validity and strength to -aina philosophy and that -aina thought could be ably defended with the help of Ane/antavada and . Aatnaprabhasuri. >adidevasuri wrote a commentary on his own wor/ ramanatattavanayalo/a. 'ii) >i4nanavada of >asubandhu and 'iii) Advaitavada of >edanta. They are 'I) .iddhasena #iva/ara. =n the basis of this study. these Acaryas had triple duties to perform . *allisena%s . In this age. . Hth and ?th centuries A.yaya-/umudacandra. &y this wor/ >idyanandi gave a firm status to the -aina pramanasastra.amantabhadra. whose roots could be found in the teachings of &hagavan *ahavira. The intense and rapid development of logical thought due to the inspiration of #ignaga had its influence on the development of logic in other #arsanas also.imilarly.'() They had to present -aina thought in a systematic way on sound logical basis9 '+) To answer effectively the ob4ections and difficulties raised by the &uddhist scholars9 '0) To present the -aina thought effectively and vigorously by answering the ob4ections of the philosophers of the >edic school of thought. In this age. Bdyota/ara and 7umarila helped the development of logic in a systematic way.yadvadaman4ari is a significant contribution to -aina logic of this age. PRA&ANA SASTRA+5YA5ASTHA YU. we can call this age as the age of the establishment of Ane/anta doctrine-Ane/anta . #uring this period rabhacandra wrote rameya/amalamartanda and . These wor/s give an elaborate and critical discussion of the -ana pramanasastra. Indian philosophical thought and three prominent theories which were being frequently discussed.yadvada. Among them may be mentioned. .yayasastra. . . =n this account. -aina acaryas thought that exposition of Ane/antavada and . >idyanandi wrote a commentary entitled Astasahasri. #. eminent logicians li/e >yomasiva. -ayanta. . It gives a comprehensive view of -aina logic.amantabhadra. Acarya .e. *allavadi. #uring this period of hectic intellectual activity.unyavada of . In the >edic tradition. Acarya Hemacandra has made a unique contribution by his boo/ ramanamimamsa.ans/rit literature the ramanasastra became an important sub4ect..addarsanasamuccaya influenced the development of -aina logic and metaphysics in his wor/s ramanasangraha.agar4una. /nowledge of a thing could be established by means of valid sources of /nowledge.yadvada. This dual function of refutation and presentation '7handana-mandana) of the logical discussion is the most important contribution of this age of pramanasastra. has written Aatna/aravatari/a and in this wor/ he has given the salient features of the problems discussed in . #ignaga was the father of the pramanasastra and #harma/irti is to be considered as the promoter of Indian logic.varnima Luga) in the -aina philosophical literature. He was the interpreter of a very strong and systematic theory of logic and pramanasastra. disciple of >adidevasuri.) there were many -aina acaryas who were great logicians.yaya-viniscaya and Daghiyastraya.A According to logic. In this age -aina acaryas turned their attention from discussion of ane/anta to the ramanasastra. the names of Haribhadra and A/alan/a.

eo-nyaya style helped the re-establishment of the Ane/antavada. rofessors A. Apart from Lasovi4aya4i. An explanatory wor/ on Astasahasri was also written. we find that Lasasvatasagara and >imaladasa wrote wor/s on logic in the new style of navya-nyaya. #uring the &ritish period. In his edited wor/s. . In the -aina tradition of writing. He has discussed the problems that are very terse and purely academic in a language that attracts and appeals even to the common man. continued to influence for over a century. Bpadhye.yaya in the navyanyaya style..E+THE A.eo-logic.anghavi.u/halal4i .A.ayopadesa called .ayopadista were important wor/s on nayavada. we find critical notes of these boo/s. In Tattvacintamani. to give copies references while editing the wor/s. #. however.E O# THE NEO+NYAYA 2NA5YA+NYAYA3 In the development of the Indian logic.yadvada/apalata. many scholars have been writing research articles on the problems of -aina logic and philosophy. a new outloo/ and profound scholarship. The boo/s on -aina logic were. a commentary on . Tattvacintamani discusses the naiyai/a theory of pramanas mentioning four pramanas beginning with pratya/sa. The credit for this revolutionary change from logic to . *any scholars have written commentaries on 6angesa%s Tattvacintamani. .aiyayi/a. being written in the earlier style and tradition up to the end of the (@th century A. Two more great scholars andit *ahendra/umar4i -ain and andit #alsu/ha *alvaniya continued the tradition of . the credit of giving new interpretation while editing the ancient texts goes to andit .imilarly.u/halal4i . . the author has used new terminology of logic and written in a new style this wor/ is the most prominent wor/ in the Indian logic and meta physics of this age. The &uddhist scholars were influenced by this new wave. There was another trend that developed during this period.astravartasamuccaya of Haribhadra was written. which Lasovi4aya4i started.ayarahasya and .imilarly. At present. >adarahasya helped the dual function of refuting the naiyayi/a logic and presenting the . &ut the scientific outloo/ and the empirical approach towards loo/ing at the philosophical problems became prominent.E O# ECLECTICIS& The trend of thought and writing. $veryday the wor/ of editing the ancient tests and writing critical papers is fast progressing and it would be difficult to give an exhaustive assessment of the enormous wor/ being turned out in the recent past. >ery few wor/s in . $diting and . It is called . Three important characteristics of the change can be mentioned3-'() :omparative study of the Indian thought in the light of the western thought9 '+) :ollection of and editing ancient classics in the new perspective9 and '0) :ritical notings on the problems of ancient Indian thought. . -ainatar/abhasya and -nanabindu were two important contributions to the -aina pramanasastra. It was only in the beginning of the (Hth century that Bpadhyaya Lasovi4aya wrote his wor/ on .eo-logic of the -ainas.everal other boo/s li/e &hasarahasya. and that was. :ha/ravarti and Hiralal -ain have also contributed immensely to the development of -aina thought by editing many ancient texts with critical notes. The language and the style used for discussing logical problems in this wor/ by 6angesa are entirely new. named 6angesa.ayapradipa. a . The style of navya-nyaya made a profound influence on the -aina acaryas.ans/rit and ra/rt were written during this period. a fundamental change too/ place in the outloo/ in dealing with the problems of logic and philosophy. &O*ERN A. There was also no substantial contribution to the devilment of logic.anghavi. The ancient Indian literature began to be studied in a new perspective under the influence of western thought. the appearance of the boo/ Tattvacintamani gave a new turn to the development of logic that may be called . . The study of western created a profound influence on loo/ing at the problems of Indian philosophy. .ayamrtatarangini is an important wor/. Tattvacintamani brought about a new turn in the development of Indian logic.eologic goes to a brilliant writer of the (0th century. . A commentary on . The -aina scholars also could not escape from the powerful trend of this thought.ome scholars did write commentaries and notes on the classical texts on logic9 but there was no substantial change in the trend of thought. however. His wor/ ane/anta vyavastha written in the .

'x) 7ala and &hava. It is clear from this that the -aina philosophical practices was more developed and nature than the philosophical thought of the >edic seers.aptabhangi 'sevenfold approach to the valid sources of /nowledge) and naya saptabhangi 'sevenfold points of view) are to be found in the early Agamas. by the exhaustive discussion of epistemological and ontological problems the nature and the problems of validity of pramana were presented in the Agama literature in a lucid way. ramana has been classified into pratya/sa 'direct) and paro/sa 'indirect). we can say that the development of -aina philosophy was from the Agamic age to the later stages of logical and critical development.A&AS The question how the -aina philosophy was presented in the Agamas cannot be easily answered unless we develop a catholic outloo/ and a historical sense. hilosophical problems of the Agamas can be studied under two heads3-'() rameya or -neya 'ob4ect of /nowledge).E O# A. It is only loo/ed from new angels of thought every time. As the Bpanisadic philosophy developed in greater breadth and depth and more so through the &hagavadgita. .E OR ONTOLO. The eternal and the non-eternal nature of -iva 'soul) have been discussed. The fundamental value of writing remains constant in all ages. The Agamic thought became broader and richer in depth during the age of :ommentaries while the philosophic development became rich and varied at the time of Tattvarthasutra. 'ii) . 'xv) Acara and Loga and other sub4ects. vitanda and 4alpa found their way in the discussion in the Agama literature.imilarly. 'v) #ravya. 'ix) 7setra. we find that there is a discussion of other pramanas li/e anumana 'inference). in the Agama literature. 'xiv) 7arma and its effects. The school that absorbs the contributions of the age enhances itself regularly and without pause9 but which does not absorb these contributions becomes static and less prominent. 'xi) . we find the distinction between dravyarthi/a 'substance point of view) and paryayarthi/a naya 'point of view of modifications). . 'iv) . 5e have now to see what were the characteristics of -aina philosophy at the Agama stage of thought.interpretation are the special features of this age. The problems of -nana and ramana were discussed with reference to the nature and various forms of /nowledge exhaustively. 'vii) aryaya. . upamana 'comparison) and sabda pramana 'testimony). 5e find a beautiful description of the doctrines of . The -aina Agama literature gives prominence to the discussion of the following problems3 'I) Ane/anta attitude. we can classify -aina literature into five divisions.aya.i/sepa. The inner core is the same.LE*. $very age has something special to contribute to scholarship and literature.yadvada and Ane/antavada by the dream of a cuc/oo. &esides.imilarly. THE PROBLE& O# PRA&EYA 2OBJECT O# KNO. but the outer expressions may differ.iyati and urusartha. #iscussions from the complete 'sa/aladesa) and partial 'vi/aladesa) points of view about the problems of pramana . There are also descriptions of the four types of ni/sepa. 'xii) . 'xiii) .aptabhangi. 'vi) 6una. In this way.imitta and Bpadana. 'iii) .imilarly. and it is clear that the -aina literature is most comprehensive in all its aspects-philosophical or otherwise.iscaya and >yavahara. we get a discussion of the various forms of pramanas and their characteristics. The problems of logic li/e. In this way. In the early Agamas we get the interpretation of the term naya as point of view 'Adesa) and outloo/ or attitude 'drsti). 'viii) adartha. and '+) ramana or -nana 'valid sources of /nowledge).( JAINIS& IN THE A. we get a critical study of the nature of six substances 'satdravya) and nine padarthas 'categories). The former is the ontological and the latter is epistemological in nature.Y3 . The word radesarthi/a naya has also been used for aryayarthi/a naya.

&ut in the case of moral codes &hagavan *ahavira did introduce some modification in the tradition of Tirthan/ara arsvanatha. Dater on his disciples went about preaching the doctrines of Ane/anta to the followers of &uddha and . five asti/ayas. $very substance 'dravya) has infinite qualities and every quality 'guna) expresses itself in infinite modes. in the tradition of &hagavan arsvanatha.yad is prefixed to all the seven predications.amyag4nana% 'right /nowledge) is /nowledge and it has for its ob4ect the highest reality. the other five dravyas are multi-dimensional. &hagvan *ahavira had a dream in which he saw a male cuc/oo with variegated wings this dream was interpreted to mean that &hagavan *ahavira would preach the multivalued theory through the #vadasanga. . >ibha44avada expresses the spirit of ane/anta in the discussion of the problems of things of the world. a technical word used by the -ainas for describing the substance with multidimensions. &hagavan *ahavira carried on the tradition of -aina thought from the earlier Tirthan/aras without ma/ing any material modifications.yaya->aisesi/a.utra/rtanga we get a reference to &hagavan *ahavira being as/ed in what terms the mon/s should tal/ to the people and to his telling them that they should teach >ibha44avada. In epistemological sub4ects &hagavan *ahavira taught the distinction between five /inds of /nowledge as was taught by the earlier Tirthan/aras. The three are inherent. #uring the :hadmastha stage and soon after the harassment given to him by .yadvada. 5e often find three terms3 dravya 'substance). lesya and dhyana were taught by *ahavira in the same way in which the previous Tirthan/aras li/e arsvanatha and all the Tirthan/aras have taught.rom this. 5e get descriptions of the concept of dravya 'substance) in the Agama literature. it appears that the &uddha accepted the -aina concept of Ane/antavada that may also be referred to as >ibha44avada. The concept of >ibha44avada could be better understood.ulapani. /arma. . In the *a44himani/aya we find a reference to Tathagata &uddha answering the question of . it is not "asti/aya%. seven tattvas. #ravya 'substance) has qualities 'gunas) and the expression of quality is paryaya 'modification). It expresses the possibility of predicating other aspects of the Truth. In fact. if we study the -aina as well as the &uddhist literatures. a disciple of *ahavira. Ane/anta and .yadvada are the unique and significant contributions of -ainism to the Indian logic. . 'iii) #harma 'fulcrum of motion). That which is the ob4ect of /nowledge is called prameya. 5hen one aspect is predicated. 'iv) Adharma 'fulcrum of rest) 'v) A/asa 'space) and 'vi) 7ala 'time).imilarly. 5e get references about this in the dialogue between 7esi. the doctrines of four ni/sepas. He did not deviate from the earlier path in these respects.yadvada is the logical expression of the ane/anta spirit in propositional forms. 'ii) udgala 'matter. That which can be comprehended by /nowledge is called 4neya. guna 'quality) and paryaya 'modification) in these wor/s. Therefore. . a full and comprehensive picture of reality would not be possible. And. nine padarthas. that he preached the vow of &rahmacarya separately to the four vows preached by arsvanatha. a follower of arsvanatha. *ahavira preached the doctrine of ane/anta and he eschewed dogmatic approach to the problems under discussions. The ob4ect of /nowledge '-neya or prameya) whatever it may be. Though the vow of &rahmacarya. There is the six-fold classification of dravya3 'I) -iva 'living). In the . they are called "asti/aya%. $xcepting 7ala 'time). 7ala 'time) is uni-dimensional and. the . It would now be necessary to understand the implications of the doctrine of . therefore. can be /nown according to -ainism from different points of view. 6unasthana. was amalgamated in the fourth vow of Aparigraha. and 6autama. I am vaibha44avadi and not e/amsavadi%. ".ubha-*anava/a thus3 "=h8 *anava/a. yet different. There is primarily a dichotomous division of dravya 'substance) into3 -iva 'living) and a4iva 'non-living) substance or the same can be classified as conscious substance and unconscious substance. According to the -aina history.The terms prameya and 4neya have been used as synonyms in sense in the #arsana literature. -ainism affirms that we have to consider the nature of an ob4ect from the point of view of ane/anta 'many-sided approach to understanding of a thing). therefore.

thanangasutra regarding this concept '. This term ni/sepa has been very often used but. 5e find a reference in the . it is clear that &hagavan *ahavira himself taught the doctrine of ni/sepa. This concept of ni/sepa signifying the methodology of use of the term has been discussed in the earliest canonical literature as also in the modern wor/s on logic. &hagavan *ahavira presented the concept of ni/sepa and emphasi!ed that it is possible to view an ob4ect from different fourfold angels3 dravya. Lasovi4aya4i has given all elaborate discussion of the problem of ni/sepa along with the other problems of pramana and naya. In the Agama literature we get discussion of the divisions and subdivisions of /nowledge. . 'ii) the second division ma/es a distinction in /nowledge into 'a) separate direct 'pratya/sa) and 'b) indirect 'paro/sa). CONCEPT O# PRA&ANA There is abundant discussion about the nature of pramana and 4nana as epistemological problems. According to the extent of the influences of these factors.5e get the description of ni/sepa in Agama literature. It is clear from these evidences that the five-fold division of /nowledge with their nature and subdivisions was /nown to -aina long before >ardhamana *ahavira. 7setra. . 5e find that the same ob4ect can be loo/ed at from different points of view. In the Agama literature. A thing can also be considered from the extrinsic points of view that would be described as from the points of view of para-dravya 'extrinsic substance). there would be confusion of thought. 5e come to /now from the Aa4aprasniya that the discussion about five-fold division of 4nana '/nowledge) was there to be found much earlier that of *ahavira%s time. It is not however the wor/ of a 6anadhara. the last of the Tirthan/aras. ramana and 4nana have been considered as the sources of cogni!ing ob4ects. every moment there are fleeting changes in the sub4ective and ob4ective factors influencing and determining the nature of the cognition of the ob4ect. =n the basis of the study of Agama literature. 'iii) dravya 'the ob4ect connoting the name) and 'iv) bhava 'its conceptual meaning). 'ii) . as they are impediments to the reali!ation of cognition by the pure nature . the ability of the person. the cognition of the ob4ect differs. Agama literature gives an exhaustive study of the concepts of dravya. which gives an exhaustive discussion about the nature. we also the distinctions of -iva *arganas 'distinctions in the varying character of selves) in the urva literature. in its own place 'sva-7setra). para/setra 'extrinsic place).i/sepa denotes the method of explaining the exact meaning of a term.imilarly. sources of /nowledge of the ob4ect.arva% in that wor/. A thing in its inherent nature 'svadravya). 7ala and bhava.thananga 13 +??) and by the discussion of ".thapana 'its context). we get different presentations of the nature of the same ob4ect. 7eeping this point in view. In the analysis of the doctrine of /arma we find a critical study of the distinctions in the -nanavaraniya /arma '/arma which obscures /nowledge). we find that there is greater emphasis on the discussion of the topic of 4nana that on pramana. there is a new approach to the understanding of this doctrine from the point of view of . They have been studied from the points of view of intrinsic four-fold distinctions 'svacatustaya) and the extrinsic fourfold distinctions 'paracatustaya). This is due to the differences arising out of the attitude of the person that may consider as sub4ective. &hagavan *ahavira said that a term can be used in four contexts3 'I) nama 'its name).eo-logic. para/ala 'extrinsic time) and parabhava 'accidental characteristics). we can say that there were three basic divisions in the analysis of the nature of 4nana '/nowledge)-'i) in the first division.imilarly. In fact. 7ala and bhava. It would be difficult to present exhaustively the entire canvas of the various factors operating at the time of the cognition of an ob4ect. if the exact connotation of the term is not understood. There is detailed analysis of the concept of ni/sepa in Anuyogadvara. we have a separate part of the urva literature called -nana-pravada. The sense organs do not give us direct /nowledge. the existing state of the ob4ect at a particular place and time. . /nowledge has been divided into five types. :onsequently. in its own time 'sva/ala) and in its own inherent connotation 'svabhava) can be said to have been considered in its fourfold aspects 'svacatustaya). In the literature other than the Agamic. *ati and . That is the reason why we find enormous diversity in the presentation of the view of different individuals and schools of thought.ruta 4nana are considered as paro/sa because the elf gets the /nowledge indirectly through the sense organs. /setra. and the five-fold division of /nowledge.

adesavada and ape/savada. In the Agama and its commentaries we find description of anumana 'inference) and its divisions and sub-divisions. The first three types of /nowledge-mati 'sense /nowledge) sruta 'indirect and /nowledge through other sources) and avadhi 'clairvoyant /nowledge) have their valid and their invalid aspects '/umati. as the self gets direct /nowledge. 'Iii) In the third division. Anumana 'inference) has been distinguished into 'I) purvavat. -aina theory ma/es sense/nowledge as indirect 'paro/sa). it is a specific method of approaching reality and it is the expression of ane/anta view. 5e have already discussed about the implications of the naya and its sub-divisions in the last chapter. There is not much discussion on the concept of pramana in the Agamas. . /usruta and /uavadhi). &ut here is has been considered as pratya/sa in order to correlate the discussion about this problem in the other schools of Indian thought. *any schools of thought present their viewpoints from a specific point of view. the sense-/nowledge is considered both as pratya/sa and paro/sa.andisutra have used the term pramana in a wider sense and have made distinction between 'I) indriya pratya/sa 'direct cognition through the sense organs) and 'ii) no-indriya-pratya/sa 'direct cognition by other sources than the sense organs). The cognition of a particular aspect of an ob4ect out of the varied aspects may be called naya. #iscussion of the nature and types of /nowledge in the Agama literature has been so important and extensive that references to the pramanasastra and comparative study of the theory of /nowledge in the light of the epistemological problems in other systems of Indian philosophy have been neglected. . but the distinction of inference as svartha 'for one%s sa/e) and parartha) for the sa/e of others) has not been mentioned.aya is a specific point of view. There is also a discussion of the constituent proposition of inference as expressed in the form of syllogism. Indriya-pratya/sa has been distinguished into five types based on the five sense organs.E The three types of /nowledge coming under the category of "no-indriya% are cognitions without the help of the sense organs as directly obtained by the self. It is nayavada. In this place the prefix "no% denotes absence of "sense-organs. This means of refutation of other points of view is li/ely to lead to dogmatic and one-sided approach to the understanding of the nature of reality. Avadhi 'clairvoyance). manahparyaya 'telepathy) and /evala 'omniscience). The essence of these concepts is one and the same. ane/anta. &ut in the case of the next two types of /nowledge. as we get abundant description of the nature and types of 4nana '/nowledge).ahitya we get a description of the problems of logic according to the contexts. manahparyaya 'telepathic) and /evala 'omniscient /nowledge) there is no possibility of invalid form of /nowledge. 5riters of Agamas have made a distinction between the samya/tva 'right or valid) and mithyatva 'wrong or invalid /nowledge) on the lines of the distinction between the pramana 'valid /nowledge) and apramana 'invalid /nowledge) in other schools of Indian thought. distinctions have been suggested without using the term invalid /nowledge 'apramana).ayavada has also been considered as a drstivada. The Anuyogadvara and . In the Agama .o -indriya-pratya/sa includes avadhi 'clairvoyance). .of self. CONCEPT O# NAYA In the Agama literature we find that there is discussion about naya also which is an aspect of pramana.thananga. in describing the various types of /nowledge. In this way. 'ii) sesavat and 'iii) drstasadharmyavat. They refuse the viewpoints of others. . &hagavan *ahavira said that such onesided approach to problems is e/anta 'one-sided) and perverse. &asic problems of logic and epistemology have been discussed in the Agama literature. The terms li/e drsti and adesa have been used as synonyms of naya. &hagavati and Anuyogadvara. 5e get a description of the general nature of naya in . He presented a synoptic approach to the understanding of the problem of reality and that is a many-sided view. *anahparyava 'telepathy) and /evala 'omniscient /nowledge) are considered as pratya/sa 4nana.

.amayasara.emicandra. Aatna/aranda . $normous literature has been written on these topics.iyamsara and ancasti/ayasara. metaphysics and ethics.rava/acara. Anagara #harmamrta. 7unda/undacarya has presented philosophical problems in his famous wor/s li/e ravacanasara. ra/arana. Logavimsi/a. Logasastra.A&IC JAINIS& The -aina philosophy that developed after the Agama literature and before the systematic period may be called post-Agamic -ainism.emicandra and 7armagrantha of #evendrasuri.POST+A. . Logasata/a. metaphysical problems. A systematic study of ethical problems is to be found in *ulacara. This presents a systematic development of the philosophical problems of -ainism including epistemology. The Acaryas of this age concentrated on the study and discussion of the conceptual aspects of -ainism. as also in #ravyasangraha of . #harmabindu. 5e get here the doctrine of 7arma.agara-dharmmrta of andit Asadhara.rava/acara of >asunandi. and . . The philosophical concepts of -ainism have been ably and critically presented in Tattvarthasutra of Bmasvati and the commentary thereon. Lagadrstisamuccaya and Logabindu ra/arana of Haribhadra are representative wor/s of this age. . the concept of dravyas and the theory of yoga systematically formulated and discussed. &hagavati Aradhana. the ethics of -ainas. 7arma-doctrine has been discussed in a brilliant and systematic way in 6ommatasara-7arma/anda of .

&eyond this. -iva and udgala 'living substance and matter) are characteri!ed by activity and have their madhyama-parinama 'phenomenal activity). Therefore. . the fundamental substances li/e #harma. the principles of #harma and Adharma 'motion and rest) do not operate. They divide the space into two parts-the limited and the limitless. 6autama. . time is measured for practical purposes on the basis of the revolutions of the sun and the moon. the limited and unlimited. &hagavan *ahavira had a disciple called Arya Aoha. There were discussions on these questions during *ahavira%s period.pace can be divided but the division is only artificial and is meant for practical purposes.rom the phenomenal point of view. I&hagavan8 =f the Do/a and Alo/a. the &uddha. In the vast unlimited beyond. It would be necessary to study these questions in the light of modern researches in philosophy and science.ubstances 'saddravya) are also eternal. and this measurement has relevance only to the human world. He as/ed *ahavira. It is the stellar universe. The limited sustains the universe9 the limitless is the beyond. Time is the fundamental principle that is present in Do/a and Alo/a. time is the basis of the modifications of 4iva and a4iva 'living and the non-living substances). we have the Bniverse and the beyond. It is Alo/a. is the vast un-limited. They have their relevance and they exist in the Do/a. It is beyond and infinite.+ The distinction between Do/a and Alo/a. the limited universe.ramana &hagavan *ahavira has attempted to answer these questions satisfactorily. udgala and -iva have no relevance.aturally some fundamental questions regarding the orgin and the nature of the universe arise. . . Therefore. . the Do/a is described as that which sustains 4iva and a4iva. in the Alo/a. is Alo/a first and then came Do/aFJ *ahavira said to Arya Aoha thus3 Do/a beginningless 'anadi) and endless 'ananta).Part ( *is1"ssion o( Pra4eya Lo/a)ada 2Cos4ology3 5e see the vast universe before us. It is also said that the Do/a is a cosmos which gives subsistence for the five Asti/ayas 'multi-dimensional substances). ( In the Bttaradhyayana. the limited and the unlimited is an eternal distinction and it was not made at any particular time9 because it is not possible to divide the eternal and the non-eternal on some one principle. In the limitless Alo/a/asa. + THE NATURE O# THE UNI5ERSE 5e live in this world. 5e as/ ourselves the questions3 5hen did the universe originateF 5ould there be the end of the universeF 5hat are its ultimate principlesF *any similar questions may be as/ed9 and answers to these questions have varied according to the philosophical predilections of different schools of thought. This is Alo/a. . 7ala. Time is the basis of change and this can be considered from the noumenal and phenomenal points of view. Adharma. The entire cosmos including our world is Do/a. the Do/a and Alo/a. The distinction between Do/a and Alo/a asti/ayas. There is no fundamental division in space. &oth of them are eternal 'sasvata) and none of them is later or earlier. 4iva and pudgala are located in the limited universe 'Do/a/asa). avya/rta) ( but . considered these questions un-answerable.rom the noumenal point of view.

the second is straight and the third is placed on the top so as to give a shape of a "mrdanga%. . and the catches hold of the balls of rice in the mid air before they touch the ground. The universe consists of (1 ra44us. =n the basis of the operation of these principles. . Its shape is li/e the bow attuned.uppose a god '#eva) is standing on the top of the mount *eru.ighra-gati). The upper universe measures little less than seven ra44us. the middle part of the universe measures (HMM yo4anas and the lower part of the universe measures a little more than seven ra44us. He completes one thousand years of his age. because the universe occupies a limited portion of space.LOKA AN* ALOKA 2UNI5ERSE AN* THE BEYON*3 The Bniverse 'Do/a) is bounded and limited. Therefore. .'() the Dower Bniverse 'Adholo/a). The lower part of the universe is again extended. . narrow in the middle and globular on the top li/e the form of musical instrument "mrdanga%. the shape of the upper part of the universe is of the shape of the musical instrument "mrdanga%. Do/a/asa 'bounded space) has innumerable pradesas 'asan/hyeya pradesa) while the boundless space has infinite pradesas. . This is called fast running '. THE LOCATION O# THE UNI5ERSE AN* THE BEYON* 2LOKA AN* ALOKA3 The universe is flat at the bottom 'vistrta). It is said to be of the shape of "trisarava samputa%. 5est.uppose again. &hagavan *ahavira made use of an analogical parable. &hagavan *ahavira said.till. It is one. The limitless space 'alo/a/asa) has no substance subsisting in it.rom the point of view essence 'bhava) and modes 'paryaya) the universe is endless. at the same time a child is born in a merchant%s house his span of life is one thousand years. middle and the upper part of the universe . the universe is endless and eternal because there is no point of time in which the universe does not exist. '+) the *iddle Bniverse 'madhyalo/a) and '0) the Bpper Bniverse 'Brdhvalo/a). . Do/a/asa has been divided into three parts . 6ranting that they throw balls of rice of oblation 'balipinda). He says that the universe is limited while the limitless space is unbounded. Its shape is li/e a curtain without the borders. because the modes of substance are endless. =f the three parts one is curved.( The great scientist Albert $instein has given a picture of the four dimensional reality of space and time which comes nearer to the -aina description of space and time. In the &hagavati we get a dialogue between &hagavan *ahavira and Arya . Alo/a has no parts. The shape of the middle part of the universe is narrow. a division is further made between the lower. the shape of the universe is well defined. It has no boundaries. Bp and #own directions) are standing facing the opposite direction of the *ount./anda/a. which is one la/h yo4anas in height.outh. .e. the god starts running. The analogy is extended in order to explain the extent of the vastness of the Bniverse. the two principles are extended and in some others their extension is limited. In the upper part of the universe the two principles of motion and rest are extended and for this reason. the limitless a/asa. It is difficult to give the shape of the Alo/a although it is sometimes suggested that it is globular in shape. At this point of time.. A/asa is one and indivisible. from the lowest point of the uppermost point. The thic/ness of the limited universe is of seven ra44us. is unbounded. The universe is limited because matter and energy do not exist beyond the universe. that at the foot of the *ount *eru six goddesses of directions 'di/-/umuri/as of $ast. In order to explain the vastness of the universe. we ma/e a distinction between the Do/a/asa and Alo/a/asa on the basis of the operation of the cosmic principles of #harma and Adharma 'motion and rest). but Alo/a 'limitless space) cannot be measured at all. 7ala.orth. IThe universe is limited with reference to the aspect of matter and also with reference to the measurable space. . + The universe in all the three parts measures (1 ra44us in length i. a son is born with one thousand . They have no relevance beyond the universe. while Alo/a. it has no form and it limitless. The vastness of the universe is so great that it cannot be easily measured.uppose again. In other words. And after him.( In some parts.rom the point of view of time.

It appears li/e an open umbrella. are obliterated from the minds. Another name for it is "satpragbhara%. =ne yo4ana above this is end of the universe. They do not suffer premature death. In the Bttaradhyayana it is referred to as "Tirya/ lo/a%.MMM miles per second.iddha-sila is situated twelve yo4anas above ". The gods live in this part of the world. In the centre it measures H yo4anas. They are born in a special form and a divine bed called upapat saiyya.. The other gods are free from sex-impulses. Those who are above the 7alpa are called "7alpatita%.till the god continues to run and he does not reach the end of the universe. It is therefore called "&rahmalo/a%. 0 "Do/anta% has been called "Do/agra% in the Bttaradhyayanasutra. $instein says that the diameter of the universe can be measured as consisting of one crore and eighty la/hs of light-years. #r. they are called "deva-rsi% 'the god-saints). is inhabited by human beings. . it is only the gods born in the 7alpa who can come down to the earth. the liberated souls reside.anat/umara% and "*ahendra/alpa% en4oy sex-pleasures merely by the touch of the bodies of the goddesses. is called the upper universe 'Brdhvalo/a). + It gets narrowed down from all the four sides. They are all equal. It may be that he has covered the ma4or portion of the distance of the universe. They could be classified into four categories on the basis of their residence3 'I) "&havanavasi%..arvartha-siddhi%. Therefore. The svargas having the status of Indra etc. There are seven important divisions in the island called "-ambu-dvipa% 3 '() &harata. therefore it is called ". '0) Hari.( The uppermost part of this world is called ". 1 The gods are not born of wombs. it is only two and half islands 'dvipa) where there is habitation of human beings.ita%. If gods have to descend to the earth where human beings reside. 'iii) "-yotis/a% and 'iv) ">aimani/a%. The gods of the ".HG. There is the *ount "*anusottara% in the centre of the island called " us/aradvipa%. 'G) Hairanyavata and '@) . Do/anti/a gods are also free from the bonds of sex-instinct. The distance of light year is measurable in terms of the movement of a light-ray in terms of time. still the remaining part might measure "innumerable% parts 'asan/hyeya bhaga). 'ii) ">yantara%.0 The structure of each of these two and half islands is similar in form with only this difference that each gets extended by double. In this way. In the vast expanse of this part of the universe. " ranata%. "La/salo/a%. '+) Haimavata.vargalo/a%. there are innumerable islands and seas surrounding each other.iddhasila% measures a little more than the breadth by three times. are considered to be named as 7alpa and the gods ta/ing birth there are referred to as "7alpotpanna%. The "&havanavasi% and the gods residing upto the heaven $sana 7alpa% experience erotic pleasures as human beings does. '1) >ideha. and ". UR*H5ALOKA 2THE UPPER UNI5ERSE3 That parts of the universe that is ?MM yo4anas above the world that we live in. They are extremely brave. A ray of light of the sun travels at a speed of (. The gods of the &rahma and Danta/a 7alpa get sense-pleasures by the sight of the beautiful bodies of the goddesses. the pearl and. It measures 12 la/h yo4anas in length and breadth.ahasrara/alpa% experience the erotic pleasures by listening to the melodious music of the goddesses. In the uppermost one-sixth portion of this one yo4ana space. "#evalo/a%.years of age as his span of life. The circumference of ". The gods of "*ahasu/ra% and ". the cycle continues for seven generations and memory of their family and the status etc.+ It is called "samaya /setra%. li/e the conch.arvartha-siddha%. '2) Aamya/a. The gods residing above the 7alpa does not come to the earth.( In this part of the universe. They are called "ahamindra% as they have the same status as Indra. &A*HYALOKA 2THE &I**LE UNI5ERSE3 The *adhyalo/a 'the middle universe) measures (HMM yo4anas. In this part of the heaven there are no distinctions between individual gods in status. And the gods residing in the "Anata%. It is white and pure. "Arana% and "Acyuta 7alpa% get sensual satisfaction by the mere memory of their beloved goddesses. .

thin air and space. . air. Airavata and *ahavideha are 7armabhumis. commerce. .ER PART O# THE UNI5ERSE3 The part of the universe that is below the mid-universe is called "Adho-Do/a% 'the lower Bniverse). 'iv) Hairanyavata. Airavata and *ahavideha and two each of the same in -ambudvipa and #hata/i/handa respectively. In this part.ifth3 Asva/arna.. They are separated by the thic/ coating of liquid. and space. there are thirty A/armabhumis 'lands of pleasure). urvavideha and Bttaravideha respectively.'i) Haimavata. in all. 'places of en4oyment) in the -ambudvipa. . There are six places of &hogabhumi. the extension of the *id-universe amounts to a negligible portion of the two. two Airavata and two *ahavideha countries. The lower ones are more extensive than the immediately preceding upper world in order of succession.o. Danguli/a and >aibhani/a. There are seven worlds. Thus we find the *id-universe '*adhyalo/a) is vast and extensive. 6a4a/arna. There are twelve countries in each of the two dvipas i. . the hell-beings reside in these worlds. ( "7armabhumi% is that part of the "*adhyalo/a% in which human beings are engaged in activities li/e agriculture. In this way. in the #hata/i/handa dvipa and us/arardhadvipa. there are two &harata. *ostly. and 6a4amu/ha. . Hastimu/ha. The islands in the sea are spread over in seven quadrangles ':atus/a). All these islands have been divided into three parts on the basis of the functional importance as3 'I) 7armabhumi. That part of the universe in which there is no need to wor/ for maintenance by following any occupation li/e agriculture etc. Third3 Adarsamu/ha. we can 4ust imagine the vastness of the *adhyalo/a and specially the three worlds of the universe. is called "A/armabhumi%. They can be mentioned in the following order3 . These are considered to be the places of habitation of human beings. dense air. . almost amounting to !ero. the sea that encircles the -ambu-dvipa alround. we find that there are double countries in #hata/i/handa dvipa and us/arardha dvipa. human beings are capable of earning the highest merit ' unya) and the most intense demerit 'papa). . In this way..irst Nuadrangle3 $/oru/.1 >ideha /setra is further divided into two parts3 'I) #eva/uru and 'ii) Bttara/uru i.econd3 Haya/arna. The measurements of these seven worlds are not uniform. and of the lower.us/uli/arna. and at the fringe of the Himavana *ountain. the en4oyment of life is possible without any wor/. In this way there are fifteen 7arma-bhumis in the two and a half dvipas 'islands). in us/arardha #vipa.till. + All the continents that we have today are covered by a small portion of the &harata/setra in the -ambudvipa.rom this. there are islands among the seas. In the #hata/i/handa dvipa and in us/arardhadvipa there are double than that of -ambudvipa. on below the other.imha/arna.. Hayamu/ha. They are /nown as seven ". In this part.e. It has been suggested that there is one each of &harata. 'ii) Hari. &ut they are not very close to each other. . compared with the vastness and extensiveness of the Bpper Bniverse. >idyunmu/ha. A*HOLOKA 2THE LO. &harata.resthadanta and . there are twenty eight "Antaradvipas% in relation to the ". Apart from the 7arma and A/arma bhumis. ( $ach world has below it the quantity of thic/ liquid.imilarly.imhamu/ha and >yaghramu/ha. There are twenty-eight islands in the "Davana samudra%. .Airavata. Abhasi/a. + . architecture etc. They are called "Antaradvipa. . and 'iii) Antaradvipa. It is also called E&hogabhumiE.eventh3 6hanadanta. 'v) #eva/uru and 'vi) Bttara/uru.ara/as% 'hells). 6a4a/arna and 7arnapravarana. 'iii) Aamya/a.ourth3 Asvamu/ha. *esamu/ha.uddhadanta. .ixth3 Bl/amu/ha. There is constant pleasure in that part as the gods en4oy lie without effort.. -ivhamu/ha and *eghamu/ha. art. and the total of fifty six "Antaradvipas% 'islands) can be mentioned. 6o/arna and . as there is predominance of en4oyment only. 6udhadanta.i/hari% mountains.e. 'ii) A/armabhumi. .

&eings living in these nether worlds are considered to be hellish beings '. The third measures (. The second nether world measures (.he as/ed3 5hat is the ultimate substance of the universeF La4naval/ya3 It comes from air. The suffix "prabhas% to each of the name connotes the characteristic color of the place. the parts of the body 4oin again and form a whole.MMM yo4anas.+H. The devil-gods torturing them are most cruel. They are found to be going upto the first three nether world. They fight with each other li/e cats and dogs remembering their animosity in the previously lives. The lower we go in the stages of the nether worlds. The hellish beings are constantly in the grip of suffering and they have no possibility of escape till the expiry the course of their allotted life in the nether world.+M. They are technically named as aramadharmi/a and are also called as "asuras% 'demons). they are frightful in appearance and nature.MMM yo4anas on the upper and (. . Their bodies become deformed and cut asunder into pieces.( The beings in hell reside in the different nether worlds 4ust in the middle of each part leaving one thousand yo4anas on the upper and the lower parts. They see other with extreme anger and with bloodshot eyes. and they suffer from various disabilities in increasing degrees. there are extremes of heat and cold.MMM yo4anas. &ut li/e mercury. *ahatamahprabha. 0.MMM yo4anas in dimension.MMM yo4anas. .( There is the limitless space 'A/asa) beyond the boundaries of the universe.MMM yo4anas respectively. Thus the total measurement of the extension of Aatnaprabha comes to about (. feet and teeth.MMM yo4anas.MMM yo4anas on the lower portions of the world.ara/i -iva).MH. Aatnaprabha.or instance.MMM and (. is the second part. we find beings suffering and infected with ugliness. . 6argeyi wanted to /now the fundamental principle of the universe. and it measures HM. . 6argeyi3 And where does the air come fromF .ar/araprabha.MMM yo4anas. + LOKASTHITI 2THE POSITION O# THE UNI5ERSE3 &rhadaranyo/a Bpanisad has a dialogue between La4naval/ya and 6argeyi regarding the position the universe. Aatnaprabha has three parts and the upper part has the color of ratna 'diamond). The hellish beings suffer indescribable pain when they are sub4ected to drin/ hot boiling lead. the hellish beings reside in the central part leaving aside (. 1. in the other six nether worlds there is habitation of the hellish beings in the central parts leaving aside one thousand yo4anas each on the upper and the lower parts of each world. . -ust below. The devilish gods ma/e them embrace the red-hot iron-bars and force them to climb the trees brimming with sharpest thorns. The expanse of this universe is so vast that it would not be possible to gauge even the smallest portion of the extensive vastness of this universe by the modern techniques of the modern science.HM. The thic/ layer of liquid below the seven nether worlds also varies in quantity and measurements. The fifth world measures (. All the matter they have is of the same /ind. They are very cruel and they get sadistic pleasure in torturing other inmates of hell. It is covered by water. &alu/aprabha.MMM yo4anas. Their lot is one of never-ending misery. in the Aatnaprabha measuring (.MMM yo4anas. Tamahprabha and @. thought they see/ to get some pleasure. as they have no possibility of premature death.0+.(G. #humaprabha. 2. +.imilarly.(H. The residents of these hellish worlds suffer untold misery. G. It measures (G. there are no parts as we get in the Aatnaprabha.The seven worlds of the nether region universe have been named as 3 (.HM. The fourth world extends for (. They cut each other mercilessly with their weapons and even with hands. In these places. The sixth and the seventh measures (. an/aprabha.rom the second to the seventh worlds in the nether universe.

on-dualism or *onism) and #vaitavada 'dualism). In the >edic philosophy. air and space. He answered all questions and gave full intellectual satisfaction to his disciples.aturalistic *onism). And space is from 6andharvalo/a9 6andharvalo/a from Adityalo/a 'the sun)9 Adityalo/a from :andralo/a 'the moon)9 :andralo/a from .imilarly. @.aturalistic and . &oth the substances are beginningless and eternal. 6argeyi3 And where does the &rahma-lo/a come fromF La4naval/ya3 6argi8 #o not as/ such question. the constitution of the universe is found. &hagavan *ahavira never flinched from answering any question. The moving and the non-moving beings are on the earth. . Air is in A/asa. the universe is constantly changing. we can say that the universe is beginningless and endless from the point of view of substance9 it has a beginning and an end from the point of view of its modes ' aryaya). 7arman is the matrix of mundane souls 'samsari 4iva) and 4iva gets involved in the wheel of samsara due to the influx of 7arman. G. ( (. body is the abode of the soul. water. 0. *ahavira has explained the problem of the nature and the ultimate substance of the universe. There is no relation between them as to the prior and posterior.rom the point of view of modifications. The sea has its basis in the air. There are two fundamental substances in the universe3 the 4iva 'living substance) and a4iva 'non-living substance) this is the dichotomous division of the substances. H. Advaita philosophy presents three views3 'I) -adadvaitavada '. The fundamental substances of matter 'a4iva) and life '-iva) are inter-related and inter-dependent on each other. -iva is the support of a4iva. we do not reach such a situation where one reaches the dead end of intellectual curiosity.La4naval/ya3 It is from space. The primary elements of the universe are earth.a/satralo/a from devalo/a 'the heavens)9 #evalo/a from Indralo/a 'abode of Indra)9 Indralo/a from ra4apatilo/a 'abode of ra4apati) and ra4apatilo/a from &rahmalo/a. -iva comprehends the nature of 7arman and is covered by /armic particles. A4iva is based on -iva. 2. -iva encrusted with 7arman in dependent on 7arman. THE THEORY O# CREATION 2SRSTI5A*A3 :onsidered from the point of view of the end. . &ut the modification of a mundane being 'samsari 4iva) is due to the encrustations of 7arman to the soul9 and this is not the natural condition of the soul. There are constant changes ta/ing place in the substances by their very nature. A4iva is comprehended with the help of -iva. in a sense. The changes are of two types3 natural and artificial. there are two prominent views of thought3 Advaitavada '. 1. In the &hagavatisutra. =n the basis of these elements. The earth is in the sea. The soul when bound by /armic matter gets embodied and becomes involved in the wheel of life and death. 'ii) :aitanyadvaitavada 'Idealistic *onism) and 'iii) -ada-:aitanyadvaitavada '. and a4iva is dependent on -iva. otherwise your head will fall down. Aegarding the nature of the Bniverse. +.a/satralo/a 'the stars)9 . 7arman is responsible for the embodiment of the soul and thereby all the physical activities arise. 0 In the -aina philosophy.

*atter is primary for the *aterialist and spirit is primary for the Idealist.aturalistic *onism maintains that the mind arises out of matter. -iva and Isvara are the three principles that are real and they are all the expressions of the &rahman. And 'ii) &rahmaparinamavada 'expression of the modifications of the &rahman). The . it has been said that the &rahman is beyond the three worlds. The universe is the creation of such combination of the atoms. &ut. Thus. The &rahman is transcendent of the three worlds. the effects show themselves. ra/rti is unconscious. ra/rti is unconscious but active while urusa is inactive.. the . In the Loga philosophy. the &rahman is the ultimate reality and the fundamental principle of the universe.an/hya and Loga philosophies give importance to the concept of ra/rti with tree gunas. The &uddhists advocate the theory of aggregate and continuity and not permanence. The . for explaining the process of reality. &ut the #ualist 'dvaitavadin) posits the reality of spirit and matter independent of each other. In the . The priority of cognitive consciousness is the cardinal principle of the idealist and reality of the ob4ective world independent of consciousness is the assertion of the Aealistic.an/hya he causal theory accepted by the . $ffect is potentially present in the cause and when the cause expresses itself in the modifications. This causal theory of potentiality and actuality. In -aina philosophy. They maintain that ra/rti. >aisesi/a and *imamsa systems of thought contend that 6od brings together the atoms. whatever .an/hya philosophy and *adhavacarya accepts the theory of 6unaparinamavada while >isistadvaita of Aamanu4a advocates the theory of &rahmaparinamavada for explaining the evolution of the universe. In the presence of the urusa. According to :aitanyadvaitavada. although indirectly. They believe in the theory of modifications 'parivartanavada). can be considered in two parts3 'I) 6unaparinamavada 'expression of the modifications of the &rahman). Therefore. It is the by-product of the chemical changes in the body of an individual. This is the union of the spirit and the matter. The -adadvaitavada '. The :arva/a-*aterialism and the *aterialism of the modern science hold this view.an/hya. the *onist does not accept the independent reality of matter and spirit. the concept of 6od is brought. &rahman expresses itself in the aspect of ra/rti and that results in the evolution of the universe. . -ainism and &uddhism do not accept the theory of creation. the Loga system is called theistic . the evolution of the universe begins when ra/rit comes in contact with urusa and there is disturbance in the balance of the gunas in the ra/rti. The need for a :reator 6od is not felt for explaining the evolution of the universe. the . disturbance in the three gunas is created and the evolution starts. As the creation of the universe is based on the combination of atoms. The universe is the effect of the union of matter and spirit. According to the . He thought3 "how can I express myself in the three worldsFE Then he showed himself in the forms of nama and rupa 'name and form). and the Ideal *onistic Idealism maintains that matter is the expression of the spirit.yaya.aturalistic *onists '-adadvaitavadin) and the Absolute Idealism ':aitanyadvaitavada) do not accept the view presented by the -ada-caitanyavadin because the effect cannot proceed from the cause which is dis-similar. =ne does not come from the other nor are they subordinate as reality to each other.atapatha &rahmana. as Aristotle mentions. The &uddhist theory of the world and its evolution depends on the doctrine of pratityasamutpada. and the universe is formed. ( -ada-:aitanyadvaitavada maintains that the universe is a product of the synthesis of spirit and matter 'cetana and acetana).piritualistic *onism).an/hya-Loga and the >edantin is the identity theory of cause and effect.yaya->aisesi/a theory is called Arambhavada. urusa is conscious. . The consequent modifications and effect exhibited in the universe are due to the activities of the ra/rti. It is an epiphenomenon.aturalistic *onism) maintains that consciousness is a product of matter.

In the .imilarly. In fact. =ne moment. . They are3 5hat is the first principle of the universeF 5ho can describe itF How did it originate and what is the cause of varieties in the universeF 5ho can explain the origin of this universeF 5hat is the cause of the creationF . :onsidered from the rational point of view we can say. however. it is not. $verything is momentary '/sani/a). who created the :reation and who did notF =ne who /nows this is beyond us. The >edic seers were perplexed about the origin of the creation of the universe. $very moment there is change.modifications are to be found in the universe. 5henever I try to catch "myself%. The school emphasi!ing difference 'bhedavada) maintains that nothing is permanent. ( The -aina philosophy is clear about the problem of the universe and its reality. sam4na. 5hat we call the Atman is merely an aggregate of five s/andhas 'physical and mental states)3 vi4nana. . the theory of self and the world does not express the reality of permanence but only of the stream or continuity 'santana) without anything permanent to continue. and it is possible that he also does not /now. they are to be explained in terms of the combined co-operation of the -iva 'living substance) and pudgala.asadiya su/ta of the Agveda. there is no non-difference. impermanence is the essence of reality. 5e cannot step into the same river-water twice. and it is merely with reference to time and space. BHE*ABHE*A5A*A 2THE *OCTRINE O# I*ENTITY AN* *I##ERENCE3 The problem of identity and difference in explaining the reality has given rise to four schools of thought. A series of question have been as/ed. . The universe is. =ne school of thought gives primary to difference 'bheda). The wheel of the chariot moves on one point of axle and also stops with that point. the fundamental question of creation and origin of :reation has been raised. and the second gives to non-difference or identity 'abheda). -nana and adartha both are momentary. 5e find that all our empirical thin/ing implies the process of thought leading to the theory of impermanence. there is reality. =ne who trusts his reasons and not the essence /nows that everything flies and nothing is. The identity and oneness are the expressions of the aggregate or collection. it is and the next moment. ( #avid Hume also maintained that permanence is an appearance and change is reality. mean that there is modification of a thing because modification requires a substance to modify but there is no permanent substance.inally. -ainism maintains that matter does not arise from spirit nor does spirit arise from matter. the result of the combined operation of matter and spirit. The third school of thought gives importance to both as of equal reality and the fourth school maintains that there is the qualified distinction of bheda and abheda 'bhedavisista-abheda). + The illusion of permanence is due to the senses but reason /nows that nothing is permanent. and change is the very essence of thing. . These are the aggregate of the s/andhas and what we call the self. It does not. #ifference is the only reality while oneness or identity is an appearance. vedana. They are not visible to the eyes. therefore. sams/ara and rupa.othing is permanent. $verything is changing. These modifications can be considered into two parts3 'I) natural 'svabhavi/a) and 'ii) practical 'prayogi/a) or phenomenal. ( This theory is called sanghatavada 'the theory of aggregates). $very moment there is the origination and destruction. &oth are beginningless and real.rom the point of time. :hange is the fundamental principle of the universe and permanence is only the appearance. ermanence is only appearance. + The 6ree/ philosopher Heraclitus said that everything is changing and nothing is permanent.autranti/a and >aibhasi/a schools of &uddhism advocate this theory. This is also the theory of anatmavada and it is also called pudgalanairatmyavada. &ut the phenomenal changes are gross 'sthula) and they are visible to the eyes. every 4iva lives in moment as a thought is fleeting. I stumble upon this or . The natural modifications are very subtle. so also the 4iva is temporary and fleeting. 5here there is bheda 'difference). things and cognition are different and there is only a stream or continuity of the things and conditions which are discrete. 5here there is not permanence.

He said. 5here there is difference. as particulars derive their identity from the universality of the universal. The triple principle of cit. $very passing thought is itself a thin/er.ext. multiplicity and change are mere illusion. for instance. According to this theory. In the . because it is the reality. There are two forms of this theory. and all difference.rom the sat. This view tries to reconcile the two theories that apparently contradict each other and affirm the reality of the universal or the particular as the case may be. ermenides said that reality is and it does not become. that which changes. :it and acit are derived from Isvara as they are the body of Isvara. The soul merges itself into the &rahman as the waters of the river merge into the waters of the sea. you cannot get another sat. the two are not separate and independent realities. The &rahman and the world are real. It is9 and the diversifications of the =ne are only an appearance.1 The abhedavadin affirms that reality is one. Heraclites attempted to advance the theory of change on similar grounds.E . we come to the theory of qualified monistic theory 'visistadvaita).( His philosophy has. it would not become and there is no problem of diversification of being. we find that there is equal emphasis on the universal and the particular 'samanya and visesa). so is the unity. It is the sat in the language of Indian philosophy and change is the asat. If it were. This is clear from the example mentioned above regarding the relation of the particular cow to the universal "cow in general%. ( . I do not find myself as permanent substance. The universal and the particular are both important. identity or oneness is as real as difference and multiplicity. 5illiams -ames propounded a theory of the stream of consciousness. the universal and particular are both independent and real. been called >isistadvaita 'Nualified *onism). The one is the perfection and duality is imperfection. post the =ne as the ultimate reality because that is the consummation and the limit of the gradual process of the synthetic approach.yaya->aisesi/a theory. and established the theory of the reality of the identity and #ifference. The Absolutists. This viewpoint has been presented in the Bpanisads and by the thin/ers of the Advaita >edanta. The substance and its modifications are based on the universality and the differentia of a thing. In the 5estern thought. Therefore. as they are called. The fundamental principle of the universe is one. However. which becomes. The . being is.unyavada have presented similar points of view. The -ainas have made a specific and significant contribution to this problem of the relation between the one and the many. As ermenides tried to establish the theory of being. -aina philosophers refuted the argument of those who tried to establish the reality as a change and flux. >i4nanavada and . must come out of that which it was not.yadvadaman4ari mentions that the universal and the particular are equally and complementary to each other and yet different from each other. acit and Isvara are real. is not real. The world is considered to be the body of Isvara and Isvara is the soul of the world. According to the -ainas. there is . That. There must be something that changes. It is the one principal that remains the central point of the changes. The primacy of unity is recogni!ed and multiplicity is explained as emanating from the unity. Therefore. =ne gives prominence to the unity for the oneness ma/ing multiplicity only as an expression of the unity. The Aeality is one and the self and the world are the expressions of the reality. It is the eternal principle. =ne implies the other3 =ne cannot be expressed without the other. This is the cardinal principle of the Advaita >edanta. and difference is an illusion. the concept of cow as a universal. therefore. Isvara is. The third view presents a theory of identity and difference. "$x nihilo ni/hil fit. As the multiplicity and difference are the facts of life. That which becomes. considered to be the one with the cit and acit as its qualified expression. Aamanu4a presented a Nualified *onism in which the one expresses itself into the many. we get traces of the development of monistic philosophy from the time of 6ree/ thin/ers li/e ermenides. The $lan is the very source of the world and everything is the manifestation of the $lan. the one and the many are equally real and ontological realities. therefore.that perception. The diversity and difference in life are due to our ignorance. is as much derived from the generality of particulars. 0 &ergson enunciated the doctrine of $lan vital as the very essence of life and the universe.

imilarly. '1) Adharma 'principle of rest). and where there is identity there is difference. A thing is permanent and changing. similar and different. This view is. therefore. The aggregate of two atoms would called "#wi-anu/a s/andha% 'two-atomed molecule). 0 *RA5YA 2SUBSTANCE3 -ainism has presented the six-fold substances. and dis-similar according to the point of view of and the context. . #ivision of the molecule brings bac/ the atoms to their original single atoms. though both are real. conceptually they have innumerable points comparable to atoms 'paramanu). The "s/andha% has as many special points as it has atoms. They are '() -iva 'living substance or soul). the expression of the ane/anta point of view. the identity and difference cannot be considered as independent entities because they do not express themselves independently of each other. identity and difference 'bhedabheda) and permanence and change 'nityanityatva) characteri!e every ob4ect. Therefore. They imply each other. A/asa and 7ala are indivisible substances. ( A thing has all these characteristics inherent in it. These are categories of 4udgment. it is describable from a still different context and indescribable from another point of view. because modifications are not possible without a permanent ob4ect which changes. because they have multi-dimensional forms3 while 7ala is not considered as "asti/aya%. 4ivas are infinite. . 5hen atoms combine they form an aggregate called "s/andha%. but it gives a clearer and modifications are not different. identity and difference characteri!e a thing. It cannot be further divided. It cannot be comprehended without the categories of generality and particularity. general and particular. . It is real and also not real considered from different contexts. The prediction of the attribute of identity and difference at the same time does not nullify the comprehension of the nature of a thing. Time moves in linear dimension.ot can we measure time in the three dimensional categories.identity. It has. + -aina thought has tried to comprehend the essence of a thing in its complex and comprehensive form. . $very ob4ect expresses the generality of its class and particularity of the individual ob4ect. because it also expresses as the inherent characteristic. identity and differences cannot also be considered as separate and independent realities. . The ultimate indivisible point of udgala is an atom 'paramanu). . in a way. It never loo/s bac/. and nothing can exist without the category generality and particularity. been said that reality is similar in a particular context /athancit. one and the many and eternal and non-eternal. the matter ' udgala) is divisible.imilarly it would not be correct to consider the unity and oneness an appearance and not real.urther. it would be apter to say the performance and change. The very nature of generality and particularity 'samanyavisesa). They cannot be divided into parts although A/asa and 7ala in their empirical contexts are practically measurable. and there is no third substance that unites them. The udgala 'matter) alone is divisible. 'the theory of identity and difference). '0) #harma 'principle responsible for the motion in the world). Therefore. It is identical. is dis-similar from another point of view. loo/ed at from the context of differentia and other species and individuals belonging to other species. Aristotle expressed a similar view. different from the different points of view. and difference and change are unreal would be a logical and metaphysical fallacy. &ut they are considered as "avayavi% in the sense. to say that identity and unity are real. *olecule is not permanent. Identity and difference are both applicable to a thing. In this sense. $xcepting 7ala 'time). '2) A/asa 'space) and 'G) 7ala 'time). #harma. as well as. the particularity and diversity as the form of modification 'paryaya). all other substances are called "asti/ayas%. This is the approach of the &hedabhedavada. It is possible to predicate contradictory attributes to a thing at the same time on the basis of the point of view 'nay) and the contextual reference 'ni/sepa). . '+) udgala 'nonliving matter). Adharma.rom the point of view of number. as it has linear dimension only. A thing is characteri!ed both by generality and particularity. It is the substance that undergoes modifications. Therefore. The infinite points of space would characteri!e the molecule 's/andha) consisting of infinite atoms 'anantanu).or instance. identity and difference should be considered as complementary and as simpling each other. A thing can be described as similar. They imply each other. because it also expresses the substantiality and the unity only. It would not be proper to say that an ob4ect expresses the substantiality and the unity only. while it is different. a thing is identical when considered from the point of view of similarity and genus.

Therefore. continuity and has qualities 'utpada. we have to admit that it existed in the past and will continue to exist in future. The substance does imply the reality.( In this. Bmasvati calls it "Tadbhavavyaya%. ancasti/ayasara describes the realty in similar way. dhrauvya and vyayayu/ta) and has modifications 'paryaya). In the substantiality of the ob4ect. . . Adharma. It is eternal from the point of view of its essential nature. . He also says that substance is that which has modifications. it is necessary to give a synoptic picture of the nature of reality in the many-sided approach as the -ainas do. It can be considered from another point of view3 a point of time in the present is the real time and the time measuring the past and the future points of time are the phenomenal time. dravya 'substance) has been defined as that which has undergone modifications. in the empirical existence that is always in time. while time measured by astronomical phenomena would be considered as phenomenal time '>yavahara 7ala). which undergoes and which will continue to do so in future also. it is not destroyed. 0 This is the characteristic of permanence. + In this sense9 the -aina thought does not consider reality from one point of view only 'e/anta) eternal or non-eternal. 5e find that the qualities are expressed in modifications. it cannot to considered an asti/aya. muhurta. permanence and change. It is not possible to say that the ob4ect would exist in original state for all time. :hange is not mere discrete flow of independent points. A point of time that has passed cannot come bac/. 5e experience a thing as permanent only when there is substantiality in the changing modes. Aparitya/ta has the characteristics of origin. ( The real nature of the ob4ect remains unchanged in and through all modifications. the substantial nature of the ob4ect would not remain and the past and the future changes would not have relation whatever. therefore. $very ob4ect has two aspects3 identity and difference. but the substance remains permanent. Acarya 7unda/unda defines dravya 'substance) as that "It is itself%. The present synthesi!es the past and the future. It undergoes modifications9 still modifications do not affect the real and substantial nature of the ob4ect. Adharma and Do/a/asa 'empirical space) have innumerable pradesas. we get the real definition of dravya. and in modifications we get change. It would be onesided view 'e/anta). Acarya Bmasvati says that dravya expresses the attributes of origination. 7ala 'time) has no special point nor is it considered at atomic substance. This theory of the -ainas of identity and change has been compared to the chemical change. day and night etc. we would not be giving a comprehensive and synoptic view of reality. The past and the future have their importance on account of the present.imilarly. The ob4ect does express the identity in modifications. In the Tattvarthasutra. it gets modifications and it is also destroyed. The division of time into samaya. If it were not so. are equally real. Therefore. the conventional and practical distinction and division in A/asa is considered as measurable space called "#i/% 'direction) and it is not an independent substance. but non-eternal from the point of view of the modifications 'paryayas). Do/a/asa and -iva occupy equal pradesas 'points of space). The core is the permanent nature of the ob4ect and that that changes and undergoes modification.imilarly. As it has not the multi-dimensional special characteristic.or purposes of explaining this. 5henever we accept the existence of a thing. permanence and destruction. therefore. there is permanence. An ob4ect is.. past and present do not exist9 they are only empirical and conventional measurements of time. + He has in this connection. Acaryas have made a distinction in time as3 'a) real time and 'b) phenomenal time '>yavahara 7ala). . #harma. #harma. used the word paryaya 'modification) in the place of utpada 'origination) and vyaya 'destruction) and the dhrauvya in place of guna. It is the thing that changes. &y presenting the nature of reality either as eternal in the language of . ancasti/ayasara mentions that the constant change expresses the real time.yaya->aisesi/a and >edic thought or as flux and non-eternal in the language of the &uddhist thought. ermanence and change. equally real. the point of time yet to come is not present at all. :hange and permanence are. are only practical and conventional measurements of time. The origination and destruction express modifications of the substances.Doo/ed at from the angle of special positions. It does not lose its identity in the changes. It is included in the category of substance 'dravya) because it functions as substance and change. It is both eternal in one sense and non-eternal in another sense. The Aeality has to be considered as both eternal and non-eternal9 eternal from the point of view of substance and non-eternal from the point of view of modes. we could say that -iva is characteri!ed as occupying innumerable pradesas 'points of space). Btpada 'origination) and vyaya 'destruction) imply the concept of change. it exhibits the qualities of similarity and dis-similarity.

but it expresses itself in the form of its evolutes. It is also used in the sense of a principle. They are also 4ivas.imilarly. the matter is not altogether destroyed. The . ra/rti is also eternal. The concept of the universal has been considered by the -ainas in two respects3 . >ery often #ravya refers to the universal and paryaya refers to its modes. and it forms as oxy-hydrate.tanita/umaras. It is only converted into ash. . . all are considered as -ivas. oxygen and carbon dioxide are being continuously combined and dis-integrated without ever effecting quantity of the gas. It expresses itself in different forms.imilarly.othing new comes out9 it is transformation or the modification of matter. ( *RA5YA AN* PARYAYA 2SUBSTANCE AN* &O*ES3 The term #ravya has many meanings. there are innumerable two-sense organisms and in this order there are innumerable men. whether empirical individuals or the liberated souls.irst. -ust as the coal when burnt becomes ash.or instance. the substance of 4iva is infinite in its variety of modifications.In (@0?. This is called urdhvatasamanya. it gets rusted. It is only a chemical action on the matter due to its contact. urusa is eternal. the universal in the sense of referring to the 4inas. There are innumerable earth-bodies and air-bodies ' rthvi/aya and vayu/aya).yaya->aisesi/a says that atoms and souls are eternal and the ob4ects of the world li/e a pot and pieces of cloth '6hata-pata) are noneternal. #ravya is eternal9 modifications express change without affecting the quantum of dravya. an ob4ect may undergo modifications.an/hya philosophers have propounded a theory of permanence and change 'nityanityavada). arthasarathi and other do not accept the functional theory of eternity parinaminityatvavada9 but they accept the concept of the ultimate reality. It refers to the universal referring to the substantiality urdhvatasamanya. the number of sense organs9 etc. propounded a theory of conservation of matter. Therefore. The . Dawosier. . ( In this dialogue9 we find the expression of a specific form of distinction based on certain criteria. According to this theory. In its substantial sense it is eternal '. atan4ali. if we /eep a metal not unused for a long time. modifications without affecting the quantum of matter. . Therefore. There are numberless Asura/umaras and . an eminent scientist. liberated souls are the siddhas. The modifications do not destroy matter nor do they add to the quantity of matter. + A disciple once as/ed &hagavan *ahavira3 How many 4iva paryayas 'modifications of 4iva) are thereF *ahavira said3 There are endless forms of 4iva paryaya. in the universe.imilarly. *ahavira said3 There are innumerable deni!ens of hell.itya). . 7umarila &hatta. &ut unli/e the -ainas. Its modifications are only expressions. There are numberless vegetable-bodies 'vanaspati/aya). . all its modifications are its particulars and the ob4ect in its generality is constant. The aggregates of the atoms are eternal. *agnetic attraction will not anyway fundamentally alter the quantity of matter or energy. . They are only paryayas. This reference of the universal 'samanya) to the 4ivas is called tirya/ samanya. A Th qualitative aspect of matter gets transformed into its different modifications due to certain physical and chemical actions. The mass of matter remains constant and there is no change in the essential function the nature of matte.or instance. &ut the rust is not a new substance. There are >yantara beings. $mpirical individuals have their distinctions on the basis of various principles li/e the place of residence. The -ainas have affirmed the same point when they say that in the modifications of dravya the quantum of dravya does not change. 4ivas. There are innumerable siddha 4ivas 'liberated souls). The modifications of the substances of 4iva are to be found infinite forms in . dravya is constant in all its modifications. matter is constant. The second distinction in the meaning of the concept of the universal refers to the verticular distinction of generality. "%How is itF%% as/ed the disciple.or instance. they do not accept the eternity involved in the paryayas also. light-energy may be transformed into heat-energy.

deni!ens of hell can also be described in terms of the various states of existence in hell that they undergo. The distinctions are numerous and various. &hagavati sutra points out that modes are changing and not eternal and even after the destruction of the mode. In between there are innumerable varieties. mati4nana. the 4ivas can be considered from various points of view and can be classified on the basis of different criteria. place and time we can ma/e distinction between the different types of hellish beings. there are innumerable types of the beings. In the analysis of dravya. The disciples &hagavan arsvanatha had. . presumably. equality and omniscience.this universe.thananga+ have mentioned eight types of the 4iva or Atman3 '() dravyatma 'soul as substance). in this sense. and samayi/a is the essence of the soul. we have considered the modifications of 4iva at a particular point of view. Therefore.hruta4nana and also on the basis of their color and smell. . nature. a 4iva has its infinite variations in point of time and space considered from the point of view of its modifications. They are expressed in the form of modes. It has also been considered in some respects as identical. The description of the different modifications of 4iva has reference to generality in the sense that 4ivas assume various forms. words paryaya. This type of the infinite variety of existence of the deni!ens of hell who are of the same nature has been ably described in ra4napana.ome are tall. we can classify the hellish beings into different varieties on the basis of the distinctions in their capacity of understanding and possession of various forms of /nowledge li/e. A question has been as/ed whether substance and mode are different or identical. . when modes are destroyed substance also will be destroyed. color. measurements beings 4udged from one "angula% to five hundred dhanusya.. + $ven considered from their bodily forms. &hagavati sutra and ra4napana sutra have given details study of 4iva from the point of view of substance and also from the point of view of its modes. '1) upayogatma 'hermic energy of the soul). '+) /asayatma 'soul in the affective state). &ut there would be infinite varieties of modifications within a span of many points of time. '2) 4nanatma 'soul as /nowledge).o far. some doubts about the question whether the disciples of *ahavira understood the concepts of samayi/a. the substance remains. The Agama literature has considered the modes as different from substance. .imilarly. It implies that substance is not to be considered as a substance cannot be destroyed. but its variations and modifications may change. visesa. In this sense. &hagavan *ahavira said3 The soul is samayi/a. etc. some are very short. 'G) darsanatma 'intuitive experience of the soul) '@) caritratma 'soul as an ethical being) and 'H) viryatma 'the inherent energy of the soul). The description of soul as a substance has . 5hile thin/ing about the various modes of a particular 4iva we are loo/ing at it from the point of view urdhvatavisesa 'verticular particularity). '0) yogatma 'the soul as active). In this sense. These distinctions are referred to as undhvatasamanyasrita visesa 'particularity from the cross-sectional point of view). . In this sense. The changes and modifications imply the distinction of time and the modes and particularity imply the distinction in space. there are innumerable variations in the complexity of the hellish beings.imilar distinctions could be made on the basis of their span of life. this concept of generality or universality as applied to the 4iva may be considered as tirya/samanya paryaya. =therwise. we have numerous types of deni!ens of hell. the modes are not different from the substance. =ne resident of hell is similar in its substantiality with another resident. Among the 4ivas are also included the perfected souls. utpada and vyaya have similar meanings. these words have been used in various contexts. Here the soul is the substance and the universality and the equality are its essential features. &hagavati sutra( and . etc. These distinctions have been made from the points of view of substance and modifications. Therefore. Therefore. parinama. for instance. &ut considered from the point of view of status. . as has been described in the ra4napana.rom the point of view of the residence. The soul is identical with its attributes of universality. smell.

5here there is substance. and the remaining descriptions of the seven states have been made from the point of view of modifications. are not possible.been made from the point of view of substance. there must be modes 'paryayas).( . . =ne cannot exist without the other.ubstance without modifications and similarly modifications without substance. The substance 'dravya) and modifications 'paryaya) are both mutually complementary to each other.

The terms #ravya. The .aiyayi/as have given (G principles 'padarthas) of the universe. '1) prayo4ana. panca tanmatras '2 elements) and panca mahabhutas '2 basic substances) and purusa. It says that earth 'prthvi). #ifferent schools of philosophy have given the description of the tattva from different points of view. '@) avayava. but it can only be /nown through inference. mahat. '(1) chala. but it can only be /nown through inference. In the philosophical thought the common sense point of view of tattva is accepted but transcended and given a richer content from the ultimate point of view.amavaya 'inherence).ans/rit pronoun. panca 4nanendriyas '2 sense organs). '0) duh/hanirodha 'cessation of misery). there has been a very elaborate and deep study of the concept of the tattva. Tattva comes from the word tat. Tattva.iddhanta. '(2) 4ati and '(G) nigrahasthana. '(0) hetvabhava. &y the suffix of the word tva it connotes the meaning of this 'tasya bhavah tattvam). therefore. and they cannot be separated. air. '(() 4alpa. They are3 '() pramana. '?) nirnaya.amanya 'generality). They are3 pra/rti. '+) prameya. ( A/asa is not the ultimate principle because it cannot be apprehended by sense-experience. '(+) vitanda. Dater. The orthodox systems of Indian philosophy have discussed the concept of ultimate principles according to their philosophical predilections. In -aina thought the concept of tattva has been considered from two aspects3 '() saddravya aspect 'the six substances) and '+) seven tattvas or nine padarthas.an/hya thought the first principle of the universe is described as tattva. &ut all of them emphasi!e that the tattva is very important in life. the self. the essence 'saravastu) and the summary 'saramsa) of a thing. The Advaitavedanta is monistic philosophy and has postulated the first principle of the universe &rahman-all else is its appearance. the life cannot be dynamic. urva *imamsa has advocated that the in4unctions of the >edas are primary and they are the first principles. '1) . The :arva/a philosophy has also accepted the first principles.rom the practical point of view. tattva refers to the existing status 'vastavi/a sthiti). '0) samsaya. '2) drstanta. '(M) vada. '2) >isesa 'particularity) and 'G) .am/hya enunciation of the +2 principles. >aisesi/a philosophers first gave six principles3 '() #ravya 'substance). ( In the >edic literature9 &rahman and aramatma have been referred to as tattva. it would be still. It means the nature of the substance. refers to the first principle. the principle of abhava 'non-existence) was added. In the .Jaina &eta!hysi1s THE I&PORTANCE O# THE #IRST PRINCIPLES The Indian philosophical literature has made an exhaustive study of the concepts of Tattva 'the first principle). panca /armendriyas '2 motor organs). Tattva and adartha are sometime considered as equivalent. '1) duh/ha-nirodha-marga 'way to the cessation of the misery). The &uddha has formulated the 1 noble truths3 '() duh/ha 'misery). The life and thought are intimately connected with each other. 'vayu) and fire 'agni) are the four ultimate principles of the universe. They also emphasi!e that without the first principles or tattva. In philosophical literature. Loga philosophers have accepted the . water '4ala). 'H) tar/a. '+) duh/hasamudaya 'cause of misery). and tat is . The entire Indian philosophy is based on the study of the first principles. They are primarily logical categories. pure principle or the ultimate principle.o to isolate the contemplation of the first principles from the process of life could be to deny the reality of the atman. . . aham/ara.am/hya darsana has enunciated +2 principles in the evolution of the universe. '+) 6una 'quality). '0) 7arma 'activity). >aisesi/a experience. . there are seven fundamental principles of the universe. . 'G) . Thus.

&andha. reality is only fleeting and transitory. sattva. In the philosophical literature there appears to be a general agreement on the usage of the second tradition of the loo/ing at reality from metaphysical and spiritual points of view and they give seven principles. everything is flux. . . partial and e/anta. THE NU&BER O# TATT5AS The -aina philosophers have answered the question regarding the number of the tattvas in different ways in different contextual references. have formulated a theory of the absolute as the ultimate truth that is permanent and unchanging. . the -aina analysis of the theory of the reality. the &uddhists and the >edantins have approached the theory of reality from their different points of view3 one from the synthetic point of view and the other from the momentary point of view.emicandra has stated in the #ravyasangraha that there are two-fold distinctions in the Tattvas3 -iva and A4iva on the basis of the Agamas. in the context to reference to substance. 5e cannot assert exclusive truth in any one of them. apa and unya. the -aina believes that they are equally real. sat and dravya in a similar way.TER&INOLO. The . &oth these approaches are partial truths. Bttaradhyayanasutra0 have mentioned nine principles. padartha and dravya have been used in various contexts as equivalent terms. the third tradition is used.rom the point of view of the cosmic order. &ut >edantins. we have nine principles. in the Tattvarthasutra. In this way. on the other hand. The &hagavati (. it can be said that the universe consists of two fundamental principles3 4iva 'living substance) and a4iva 'non-living substance). These concepts have only linguistic variations. $verything in the universe would be permanent if it is loo/ed at from the point of view of substance and it will be change and impermanent if it is loo/ed at from the point of view of modes. the principles of unya 'merit) and apa 'demerit) in the principles of Asrava or &andha and mentioned the seven distinctions of the tattvas 'principles). tattva. In the Agama literature.emicandra has mentioned a dichotomous division of the tattva into 4iva and a4iva 'living and the non-living) as dravyas. with the element of the spiritual considerations. . Acarya . these terms have their variations of uses.thananga1 mentioned two-fold classification3 -iva and A4iva. $verything is transitory. The universe is constituted of these two fundamental substances. To assert their point of view is to commit the fallacy of exclusive affirmation 'e/anta). tattvartha. The -ainas say that these two points of view are one-sided. According to -ainism the reality is comprehensive and complex. in his commentary on the ra4napana. If we include the ethical and religious overtones to these considerations. artha. we can say that there are @ tattvas3 -iva. There are three fundamental approaches to this problem. Acarya Bmasvati has included. The changing universe is an appearance. now. . It is the permanent that changes. The answer to that would be that -iva dravya is fundamental for the following reasons although other principles are equally important.Y O# TATT5A In -aina metaphysics the terms sat. Asrava.amvara. 2 Acarya *alayagiri has followed the enunciation the principles as given by Acarya Bmasvati. A4iva. Acarya . which includes the seven principles mentioned above and two more are added i. &ecause permanence and change are both real and without permanence there is no change.G THE OR*ER O# THE TATT5AS A relevant question has been as/ed as to why the -iva dravya has been given the first place and other dravyas are mentioned later. Therefore. Therefore. The &uddhist philosophers have propounded a theory of the impermanence of things. Acarya Bmasvati in his Tattvarthasutra has used the word tattvartha. However.. &oth the synthetic and momentary points of view are partial approaches to the understanding of the real. mentioned above.e. but there is no difference between the uses of the words conceptually.ir4ara and *o/sa. Det us consider. ra4napana+.rom ontological point of view.

The separation of 4iva and pudgala leads to mo/sa. =ne is based on the secular activity and the other turns towards spiritual salvation. because these two principles incorporate the other five principles in the form of expressions of the 4iva and a4iva. it experiences the modes of udgala. he would not be able to develop selfcontrol. This causes the bondage 'bandha).imilarly.imilarly.The essence of -iva is consciousness. punya and papa are principles mainly concerned with ethical and empirical considerations. The principle of a4iva is useful for the soul to reali!e the highest end of *o/sa. As such. If the merit 'punya) is related to the good activity that leads to self-reali!ation. the presentation becomes brief and sometimes even suggestive. which is there associated with the soul. 5here there is asrava. =ne who wants to reali!e himself would have the right /nowledge of the principles of 4iva and a4iva9 otherwise. . . samvara and nir4ara are closely associated with the principles of 4iva and a4iva.amvara. bandha and mo/sa. It reaches the state of perfection. $laboration in simple language should be necessary to persons who are rather slowwitted. -iva and a4iva are principles that need to be understood in the proper way 'samyag4nana).ir4ara are the means for the attainment of mo/sa.amvara and .amvara and nir4ara are the means for the reali!ation of mo/sa. If the disciple is sharp-witted.amvara is to prevent the influx of /arma. *o/sa is to be reali!ed. punya. it . one should avoid bandha and samsara. bandha. If the seven-fold principles are crystalli!ed in a brief presentation. THE CLASSI#ICATION O# THE #IRST PRINCIPLES 2TATT5AS3 #RO& THE SPIRITUAL POINT O# 5IE. They are called "samyogi%. 5hen the /armic particles are entirely removed from the 4iva. those that should be discarded and those that should be grasped and accepted. The function of the three principles is to remove the /armic particles that are foreign to the soul. the soul becomes pure and free from /armic tinge. 4ust as we close the inlets of water in a tan/ for the sa/e of obstructing the flow of water inside. It experiences the fruits of good and bad /armas. The soul gets entangled in the wheel of life and death due to the influx of the /armic particles and vitiating the psychic states of the soul. in some Agamic boo/s. then the principles are to be expressed in the two-fold distinction of 4iva and a4iva. Therefore. nir4ara and mo/sa do not have their eyes towards the worldly attainments. Asrava. Asrava. In this way. In this sense. . 4ust as we remove the accumulated water from the tan/ for cleaning the tan/. the four principles of asrava.or the sa/e of salvation. The order of the principles in many wor/s has been . It is li/e the ladder with the help of which. PRESENTATION AN* ELABORATION The Acaryas present the philosophical problems to the disciples /eeping in view the degree of their capability of understanding the intricacies of the problems. Auspicious bandha is punya and inauspicious bondage is papa. 4iva in contact with a4iva will bring about the influx of /arma 'asrava) and bandha 'the bondage). nir4ara. &ut samvara. and that is possible by stoppage of the inlet of /arma. $ach 4iva is aware of the tendency of experiencing the pleasure of the world and also it has a craving for the reali!ation of the self. the external world 'a4iva) is a canvas on which the activities of the 4iva are to be developed. 5hen all the /armas is removed. A4iva is the next category in importance of the seven tattvas. there is bandha. The function of nir4ara is to remove the /arma. we can ascent to the other floor. 4iva /nows. through passions '/asayas). The tattvas can be classified into three forms from the spiritual point of view of the tattvas that will be /nown '4neya). The ways of the forms of tattvas are different. punya and papa have been mentioned before the categories of asrava and bandha9 and in some boo/s they have been included after the categories of asrava and bandha. mo/sa is possible. . It is li/e the boat by means of which we can cross the ocean of life. The soul gets /armic particles encrusted and it is vitiated by the influx of /arma. . bandha. The empirical individual 'samsari 4iva) experiences merit 'punya) and papa 'demerit) due to the influx of /arma 'asrava) and bondage 'bandha). and papa will bring the bondage 'bandha) and they have to be discarded. Asrava is the influx of /arma into the soul. The latter is therefore called "viyogi%. .

In this sense. '1) 7ala 'time) and '2) udgala 'matter). A/asa. bandha. nir4ara and mo/sa. because it is not multi-dimensional. punya has also been discarded. =n the one hand. 5e have already seen the classification of the substances from the ontological point of view. bandha 'bondage) and papa 'demerit) are to be discarded and nir4ara and mo/sa are worthy to be pursued. 4nana and caritra). . It has all the three characteristics. punya and papa. Those that have form are characteri!ed by the qualities of varna 'color). there is the 4iva category and on the others the a4iva.ITH RE#ERENCE TO *RA5YA -ainism ma/es a two-fold distinction in the study of tattvas as follows3 '() from the point of view of the ontological categories and '+) from the point of view of substances. Asrava. *o/sa is also formless. A/asa. bandha. but from other points of view. Adharma. '0) A/asa 'space). Asti/aya connotes the characteristic of multi-dimensional extension. . would attain the states of righteousness. #harma. punya considered from a particular point of view 'e/anta drsti) may be worthy be being discarded. '+) Adharma 'principles of rest). Those who are see/ing to reali!e the self. 4iva and a4iva are 4neya 'worthy to be /nown)9 asrava 'influx of /arma). which is the highest stage. udgala 'matter) has form.has its functions for the path of reali!ation. 7ala and udgala. but because they rely on the noble words of the munis and arhantas 'tirthan/aras). asrava. gandha 'smell) rasa 'taste) and sparsa 'touch). 7ala and udgala are non-living substances.rom the point of view of substances 'dravya).rom the (( th to (0th stages of gunasthanas. It has only linear dimension. That which is characteri!ed by the absence of these qualities is formless. In the lower stages there are emotional upsets. These are expressions of function of 4iva. a/asa and 7ala are formless 'arupi).ITH #OR& AN* THE #OR&LESS3 -iva is formless. JI5A AN* AJI5A The questions arise out of the nine principles. In the fourteenth gunasthana. . It is worthy of /nowledge '4neya). CLASSI#ICATION O# THE PRINCIPLES . RUPI AN* ARUPI 2. it is only /nowable '4neya) and in other gunasthanas. heya 'to be discarded) and upadeya 'to be accepted). Hence. the see/er after truth has need of the punya 'merit) because with the help of the punya he will have treed his way to self-reali!ation.o these are also called 4ivas. In short. In the :hadmastha stage of 6unasthana the self is associated with punya along with the reali!ation of the triple 4ewels 'samyagdarsana. adharma. The modes of pudgala can be found in the forms of /arma. it is heya 'to be discarded) from another view and punya needs to accepted in the earlier stages of self-reali!ation. This question has been considered with reference to principle of samvara. Adharma. tattvas have been classified into two3 4iva and a4iva. but 7ala 'time) is not considered as asti/aya. *RA5YA AN* BHA5A 2SUBSTANCE AN* &O*ES3 . it has the characteristics of 4neya. #harma. A4iva has been further classified into different types as3 '() dharma 'principle of motion). punya and papa are expressions of non-living substances. because punya 'merit) as well as papa 'demerit) have no relevance in that stage. There are 2 types of a4iva category3 #harma. #harma. -iva. unya can be considered from various points of view. these are also called a4ivas. udgala. Adharma and A/asa are called Asti/ayas because they have three-dimensional extensions. how many are 4ivas 'living substances) and how many are a4ivas 'non-living substances).

&y means of these activities.If we want to understand the nature of a thing. i.e. .imilarly. i. unya can be considered from both dravya and bhava points of view and punya affects the soul in its activity and the encrustations of /arma. Adharma. In this way. /asaya 'passions) and yoga 'activity).. The 4iva as a substance is eternal. . dravyabandha that is the /armic bondage and bhavabandha which is expressed in the psychic expressions li/e emotions etc. i.amvara can also be considered from the material and psychic points of view. dravya has reference to the material aspect and bhava refers to the psychic state. . There is the psychic aspect of samvara that expresses itself in the psychic states of the self. pramada 'negligence). samiti and in three forms of gupti.ir4ara has two aspects3 dravyanir4ara that expresses itself in tapa 'austerities) and bhavanir4ara that is the psychic foundation for the practice of austerities. &ut from the point of view of psychic state. #ravya refers to the original matter and bhava has reference to its modes. 4iva can be considered a substance expressing itself in various psychic ways li/e desires and other mental activities. these are psychic states of the self. -ainism considered the various principles from the two fundamental aspects. we have to consider the nature of the ob4ect from the point of view of its substance and its characteristic. In the same way. avrata 'violation of vows). A/asa are non-living substances. we get the dravyasrava9 and dravyasrava expresses itself in mithyatva 'perversity). we have bhavasrava with reference to the same forms of expression li/e mithyatva. The modifications are also non-living 'a4iva) substances. The bandha 'bondage) has also been considered from two points of view. #harma. . The seven tattvas can be analy!ed from the point of view of substance and the modes. .e. which are helpful for enabling us to stop the influx of the /armas. This is considered from the point of view of substance. from the point of view of material aspect and the psychic point of view. the influx of /arma can be arrested and the /armic particles are held in abeyance. beginningless and endless.imilarly. papa also has two aspects3 the material aspect and the psychicEs aspect. #ravya and bhava can be considered from another point of view.amvara expresses itself in activities which are wholesome and which are meant to arrest the influx of /arma.. asrava etc. These activities may be expressed in the forms of practice of vratas.e.. The highest state of dravyamo/sa is a state where all the /armas are removed and bhavamo/sa is a state of perfect and perfect peace of atman. .

This view is called "Do/ayatamata%. that they maintain the view of the soul as a product of the combination of the basic elements and consciousness is also a by-product of the metabolic changes in the body.aiyayi/a philosopher. the materialistic view of reality is very ancient. there would not have been separate mention and separate discussion.utra/rtanga. the theory has not been mentioned in this terminology. If they are different. In the ancient philosophical literature.At4a)ada0 An Analysis 2Con1e!t o( At4an3 5ARIOUS THEORIES O# SOUL . This has been critici!ed by other systems of philosophy in India.vetambara Bpanisad. THE &ATERIALISTIC CONCEPTION O# SOUL :onsidered from the historical point of view. they could have been shown as separate entities as we can show the sword from its case. we find references to these theories of the soul and there is mention of a theory that the soul as a thing consisted of the four elements excepting space. some ma/e the soul the essence of life 'prana) and still others give an idealistic picture of the soul as a person 'purusa). If they were identical theories. and consciousness in this universe. of this theories. there is a discussion of the view of A4ita/esa/ambalin.EE 1 In the philosophic discussions about the nature of the soul. air. Tathagata &uddha has mentioned this problem as one of the unanswerable questions 'avya/rta prasna). water. has suggested that the materialistic. 2 In the #igghani/aya. there is discussion about the ultimate source of the universe. and mention has been made the matter is the ultimate source of the universe. @ >Isesavasya/abhasya H and *a44himani/aya ? we get references of this view. we also get references to the theory called ta44ivatacchariravada as we get the materialistic conception of the soul.0 In the >isesavasya/abhasya we get references to the materialistic theory of the soul.. but in other philosophical wor/s li/e . andit .u/halal . In the . 1 . and soul is a product of the combination of these elements.utra/rtanga ma/es mention of the :arva/a theory of soul as the combination of the five physical elements. some identify it with an aspect of pra/rti. ( In the &rhadaranyo/a Bpanisad. we get discussion about this theory. They as/ed the question3 EEwho am IFEE "%I do not /now. 5e find mention of this view as a polimic in the Bpanisads. . the . In the Bpanishads. There is no consciousness in the dead body 'na pretyasam4na asti) + -ayanta. the &uddhist and the -aina literature. It has been suggested that matter is the ultimate source of the material things. the problem of the ultimate source of the universe has been discussed. "%The soul and the body are one and identical.%% + . 0 The Aigvedic seers speculated over the nature of the soul and they were perplexed to discover the real and the ultimate nature of the soul. In the . a nut from the bag and as we can get the butter from the curds. The earth. + In the &uddhist literature. has suggested that "%&hutacaitanyavada%% and "ta44ivatacchariravada% are two different theories. fire and space have been considered to be the ultimate elements of the universe.ome have said that the soul is composition of matter. ( .ome philosophical theories postulate the ultimate elements as the highest reality of the universe. several views have been presented which mention the nature of the soul in the materialistic and the idealistic strain.utra/artanga discusses different theories of soul.( Ta44ivatacchariravada maintains that body and soul are one. G It is clear from the discussion of the materialistic theories.anghvi etc. but we cannot show the soul as different from the body. who said that the soul is a product of the combination of the four elements except space.utra/rtanga. theory is to be found in ancient Indian thought in the :arva/a philosophy.

( In the :handogya Bpanisad it has been said that prana is life force in the universe. in the Tattvasangraha we get the mention of a theory of 7ambalasvatara that mentions that consciousness is only body '/ayadeva caitanyam). He carried some observations in this respect and made some experiments. the atman. He propounded the theory of atoms. This type of materialistic theory of reality could be found in the :arva/a philosophers in India and in the 6ree/ philosophers li/e Thales. but none came to report to him. can discharge many arrows with his strength. According to the Tattvasangraha ta44ivataccharira is a theory of 7ambalasvatara. They argued that without many philosophers held this view. so also we get consciousness from the metabolic changes in the body. Then a different view possibly came to his mind that atman is prana 'the vital or life force). the body i. He could not let be convinced of the view that the soul is the body. Aneximander and Aneximanes. This view has held by many philosophers. for instance. + &rhadaranyo/a Bpanisad describe that prana is the god of gods 0 &ut . breath would not function. there would be nothing in the box except the body. ra4apati as/ed them to loo/ into the pond of water and he said "%you are that%% i. In both these wor/s there is a similar discussion about the questions of the /ing ayasi or radesi regarding the nature of the soul. His father was also of the same view. air and fire 'prthvi. the consciousness has been described as a product of the combination of the elements. 1 -ust described. This is because the strength is in the body. #emocratus was a luralistic materialist. He had as/ed some persons that they should come and report as to where they were after death. erhaps. but a young child cannot do so. atman is the prana and all functions of the life are possible because of atman. He cut asunder the limb of the body of the person in order to locate the soul but he could not locate the soul. ( In the :handogya Bpanisad. In the -aina literature we have Aa4aprasniyasutra. Therefore. >irocana was satisfied with this view and he went on preaching the materialistic conception of the soul as identical with the body. The life force has sometimes been associated with breath because after death. In the &uddhistic literature there is a part in the #igghani/aya called payasisutta. #igghani/aya mentions the name of A4ita/esa/ambalin as propounder of this theory. . He loo/ed a man in a box and sealed it in order to show that after the death of the man. There is no other source except this. It has been described that the fundamental substance of the universe is constituted of the fundamental elements li/e the earth. AT&AN AS PRANA 2PRAN&AYA AT&A3 &ut Indra had its doubts. They were monistic materialists. te4a and vayu). apah.These two schools of thought can be found discussed in the ancient Indian philosophical literature. Ta/e away the life force and the sense organs would be dead. and if the body is destroyed the energy is also destroyed. these were the first primitive forms of experiments. It is possible that A4ita/esa/ambalin and 7ambalasvatara are the same persons.imilarly.. The /ing ayasi did not consider the body and the soul as separate. This materialistic conception of the soul as belonging to the organism was discussed in the Bpanisads and in some cases it has been supported for the sa/e of presenting theories to the people of different abilities. 0 According to this thought. . -ust as we get alcohol from the combination of 4aggery and ghata/i flowers. A youth. there is a story of >irocana and Indra going to ra4apati for getting a clarification regarding the nature of the atman.. In order to prove this theory he demonstrated that there is nothing that remains after the destruction of the body after death.e.e. They argued that without this life force. Aa4a radesi carried these investigations and was sure that the soul is nothing but the product of the body. Apart from the body there would be no soul.agasena has refuted the theory of prana as the soul in the *ilindapantha. water. sense-experience would not be possible and sense organs would not function.

there is the mention of ten pranas 'life forces). The body may remain in a place resting for sometime. aditya and others are all forms of mind.ome identity the atman with the sense organs. *ind is all-pervasive. Therefore. but the . which is equally important in Indian thought.yaya philosophers have sometimes considered mind as atman 2 because mind is different from the body as we ma/e a distinction between the body and soul. . as accepted by the . andit #alsu/ha *alavania says that there was first the view of atman as prana and later came the theory of atman. *ind is pavana 'wind). *ind is sam/alpa 'will). *ind is aham/ara 'individuality). but philosophers have critici!ed this theory of identifying the atman with sense organs. *ind is the greatest enemy and due to mind we suffer untold misery. as the mind. AT&AN AS &IN* 2&AN*ANA AT&A3 It has been observed that the sense organs do not function in the absence of the mind. it has been said that at death.am/hya. in which the sense organs are also included. .G Taittiriya Bpanisad also says that mind is the atman 'anyoantaratma manomayah). which mentions that indriyas are the purusa. indriyas function because of the pranas and indriyas have been described as pranas. has suggested that there are views. 1 In the &rhadaranyo/a Bpanisad.? Te4obindu Bpanisad describes mind in various ways and gives supreme importance to mind. @ The &rhadaranyo/a Bpanisad discusses the nature of the mind from different aspects.ome have suggested that the mind is immaterial. *ind is sparsa 'touch). the sense-organs cease to unction. but prana which is the source of the energy of the sense-organs is not destroyed. The materialistic view of the atman as presented by the :arva/a has been recogni!ed as a separate darsana in the current of Indian philosophy. ( *ind is subtler than the sense organs and the prana. . rudra. *ind is the whole universe. *ind is considered to be the highest truth 'paramabrahma samrat). The states of wa/ing '4agrti) dream 'svapna) and sleep 'susupti) are all expressions of the function of the mind. rasa 'taste). 5hether it is material or immaterial. *ind is citta 'consciousness). *ind is 4ala 'water). In the :handogya Bpanisad also there is a criticism of the theory as the story of Indra and ra4apati :ontinues.( In this way9 mind is the very source of universe. >acaspati. The philosophers do not uniformly agree as to the nature of the mind.chool of &uddhism maintains that mind is of the nature of vi4nana and it is an expression of vi4nana.am/hya darsana maintains that the mind evolved out of aham/ara before the evolution of the pancabhutas and therefore the mind is subtler than the bhutas 'elements). *ind is sabda 'sound).G In this way. water etc. *ind is 4iva 'soul). . while discussing the vai/rti/a bandha. *ind comprehends all that the senseorgans grasp. Therefore. *ind is agni 'fire). It is the very essence of the universe. >aibhasi/a . This is one of the views. the mind is more important than the sense organs and some have suggested the theory that mind is the atman.imilarly.The sense organs have an important function in the body. gandha 'smell) and panca/osa 'five sheaths) arise out of mind. the deities of direction 'di/pala). vasu. H :handogya Bpanisad ma/es mind the &rahman. These are the views that identify purusa with indriya. *ind is 7ala 'time). Therefore. It is different from the material substances li/e earth.aiyayi/as + and >aisesi/as 0 have considered mind as atomic in nature. *ind is prthvi 'the earth). 1 . Aupa 'from). there have been several views that may be considered as materialistic in nature as they identify the atman either with the body or the sense organs. They are Indriyatmavadina. but the mind moves about. 2 In the -aina literature. mind is considered to be atman and it is not necessary to ma/e a distinction between the atman and mind. *ind is antah/arana 'inner sense). *ind is a/asa 'space). .

pra4na has been described as antaratma and vi4nanatma as manomaya. because he is a physical being.rom this we can say that in the search for vi4nanatma 'i. + *an begins to get /nowledge. which have considered mind as material. the sense organs begin to operate and get experiences as fire is born from the spar/. G >i4nana. sense organs and the mind cannot function. pra4natma and pra4nanatma. avya/ta pra/rti 'undifferentiated pra/rti) is higher than mahat and purusa is the highest of all. It is very often suggested that atman is ananda. mahat 'the great) is greatest than buddhi. The sense organs. if a man is reborn. . the functions of these asceceries li/e the sense organs and the mind are dependent on the pra4na or the psyche. This is expressed in the self as a cogniser. In all these discussions. + In the Taittiriya Bpanisad. According to the rasna Bpanisad. This is the later stage of development of the theory of atma. Therefore.rom this.( 5ithout the atman9 the bodily functions cannot exist. 0 In the Aitareya Bpanisad. it is clear that the intellect '>i4nana) is not the characteristic of the attribute of consciousness but it is the attribute of pra/rti. ra4na is much more important than the sense-organs and the mind. ra4na and pra4nana have the same meaning. pra4na is considered as ultimate truth and it is aspect of &rahman and mind is one of the aspect of the pra4na.2 we have a description of the grades of reality. atman is identical with the 4nana) we arrive at the truth that the atman is consciousness 'cetanamaya) the consummation of the hierarchy in experience will be the bliss 'ananda) which is the highest point of experience. according to this theory.imilarly. In this sense atman is described as vi4nanatma. The charioteer who drives the chariot is that atman.PRAJNAT&A+PRAJNANAT&A+5IJNANAT&A 2AT&AN AS PRAJNA AN* 5IJNANA3 The philosopher transcending the speculations of atman as mind reaches a stage when he finds atman as identical with pra4na 'psyche). The mind and the sense organs cannot function in the absence of the psyche 'pra4na). as the shadow of the man is due to the man. avya/ta pra/rti 'undifferentiated pra/rti) is higher than buddhi. the prana is an expression of the atman. In the 7atha Bpanisad. It is li/e the chariot. are an aspect and function of the pra4na. It arises out of the atman. The contemplations and the nature of these aspects of atman have led the philosophers to the conclusion that these different sheaths of atman are also to be considered as the stages or the states of the self9 for instance annamaya atma is the bodily self. 1 ra4na and pra4nana are considered as identical. therefore.2 The word vi4nana is considered a mode of pra4na. the mere presence of purusa is sufficient to create disturbance in the equilibrium of the three gunas in the pra/rti and then the evolution starts. 0 5ithout the association with pra4na. These may be considered as the sheaths of atman. . The body and the self are two different principles. but the real nature of the atman has not been mentioned. because according to .e. and those views which say that mind is immaterial. in the hierarchy of thought. his experience starts. It is the instrument of experience. . :ognition by mind is possible only if there is a cogniser and that is considered to be. so also prana depends . In these cases. It is anandamaya.am/hya. Transcending these views we come to a realm of views where atman is considered as psyche and the higher aspect of function of psyche. CI*AT&A 2AT&AN AS CIT3 The Indian philosophers have described the different levels of the self in its experiences starting from annamaya to anandamaya. Indriyas are to be the means of cogni!ing an ob4ect of the pra4ana. 5e have already discussed about the views. ( 5e should bear in mind that in 7ausita/i Bpanisad. the outer encrustations of the atma have been described. the sense-organs and mind have been included in the psyche as the man in the sleeping or in an unconscious state does not cogni!e anything even if the sense-organs are there because the pra4na does not function. the pra4na. The man gets up from sleep and he get awa/e and begins to recogni!e things. The intellect 'buddhi) is higher than mind 'manas).1 Therefore. one higher than the other does. it is necessary to understand that the psyche is distinct from the sense organs and mind.

7enopanisad0 ma/es it clear that atman is distinct from the sense organs 'indriyas) and the mind 'manas). The atman cannot be grasped by senses. It is therefore.G The 7atha Bpanisad considers &uddhi-vi4nana 'intellect) as a product of pra/rti and therefore.ramana current of thought which was prevailing much before the Aryans came to India. the son.HT In this way.ramana current of thought was full developed and had its own outloo/. there was. 2 The names are only different. Lama offered him the pleasures of the world. the discussion about the nature of the atman has been copious and all the theories regarding the nature of the atman have been discussed in the Bpanisads. It is a product of pra/rti. The essence of anandatma 'bliss) is in the antaratma. The . and that is the &rahman. were not satisfied with this aspect of vi4nana. 5e have also seen that vi4nanatman is not self-luminating 'svatahpra/asita). They reali!ed that the highest reality is the &rahman and &rahman is pure conscious. ( It cogni!es even intellect also. #eep contemplation on atman is necessary and that is why we find . atman and the prana have to be considered as two different entities although prana is an expression of the atman. 0 The self is the seer 'drasta). and it is the ultimate essence '6idhatma) of all that is in the universe.1 It is cinmatra 'pure conscious). This was the pre-vedic and nonvedic current of the thought. In the absence of the atma they cannot function. It grasps the prana. the wife and the husband are all because of the atman. In this sense. all the wealth.+ Therefore. unconscious principle as an aspect or pra/rti and proceeded further to find out the ultimate reality.ramana current of thought. However. the hearer. It cogni!es the /nowledge. The &rahman is sometimes described as the highest reality and the urusa. necessary to /now the atman.e. 1 &rahman and the atman are not different.aci/eta was not tempted by the worldly pleasures because his aim was to /now the self.2 The first see/ers after the /nowledge of the atman were concerned with understanding the nature of the atman is materialistic terms. they re identical. but . &ut we find that sufficient attention has not been given to the study of the pre-vedic . 5e should meditate on the atman.+ PRE+5E*IC TRA*ITION0 SRA&ANA CURRENT O# THOU. 4ada 'unconscious). all the animals. G *aitreyi gave up all wealth that her husband offered for the sa/e of /nowledge of the self. It is atman and the identity of the &rahman and atman is the consummation of the monistic theory of thought. It is illuminating 'sarvapra/asarupa) and it is all-shining '4yotisvarupa). but it gets illumined in the presence of the purusa and purusa is self-illumined.on the atman. It experiences through the sense organs li/e the eyes and ears. It is possible to /now the atman. As the essence of vi4nanatma 'intellect) is to be found in the anandatma 'the bliss). before the composition of the Bpanisads. although the prominent conceptions of this current of thought li/e nirvana and /arma and ascetic life have been assimilated in the general stream of Indian thought. the &rahman is the highest reality distinct from the vi4nana and ananda. JAN&ANTARA5A*A 2THEORY O# RE+BIRTH3 .+ The &rhadaranyo/a Bpanisad. the thin/er and the /nower. it gets direct experience. if we transcend sense-experience of intuition.aci/eta went to Lama and sought to /now the nature of the self. Dater the meditation of the atman lead to the conception that the atman is the immaterial and spiritual substance. It is possible that the seers of the Bpanisads. ( La4naval/ya said that all things of this world. in India the . It reflects with the mind. describes atman as the higher reality and says that atman is the cogniser it is aparo/sa i.

:. The soul can become independent of the body. present and future. and '+) The -aina theory of self has already established itself by the time of the +0 rd Tirthan/ara arsvanatha in the Hth century &. In the body of the elephant. but really the position of the soul is li/e a bird in the cage. Therefore 4iva is eternal but 4iva. li/e the sword in the sheath and li/e the sugar in a pitcher. . yet we can comprehend the nature of the soul by means of intellect 'vi4nana). A space is formless and as it can be comprehended by its space-giving function. . and flower and its fragrance are related. . -aina theory of soul is prominent and it has a special contribution to ma/e to the theories of souls propounded in Indian thought. It has no beginning or end. the soul pervades entire body of the elephant and if it is the body of ant. It is indestructible. this characteristic of pervasion in a body.u/halal4i says that among those who believe that there are infinite numbers of independent souls that are all pure and perfect in their original nature the -aina tradition is first and foremost. This has given rise to the theory of rebirth and of the other world. The question was very often as/ed3 "5hat would be the nature of the self after the destruction of the body and where would the self goFE =n this difficult problem there have been different theories of philosophy explaining the needs for the postulate of rebirth and the nature of the self in the cycle of birth and death. G. These after-effects constitute the /arma. However. According to . It is eternal. does not affect the fundamental nature and the number of pradesas of the soul.There are many schools of philosophy that advocated the reality of infinite number of individual souls. 1. As the earth is the very basis of all things. as an empirical individual is not eternal. it pervades the body of the entire ant. -iva is beginningless and endless. sesamum and the oil. so also 4iva is formless. it is eternal 'nitya). $ach of them presented its thought from a specific point of view. All our activities have their after-effects. TO JAINIS& andit . Aegarding the description of the empirical self 'the samsari 4iva).ramana tradition the nature of soul may be described as follows3 (. 2. which it pervades the body that it occupies whether big or small. 0. so is 4iva that is the basis of /nowledge and experience. =ne of the characteristics of 4iva is contraction and expansion. The reasons for this are twofold3 '() -aina view is based on rationalistic ground and is very much amenable to reason.rom the point of view of modification 4iva is anitya 'temporary) because it undergoes various forms of empirical modifications. big or small. Therefore.rom the point of view of substance the nature of 4iva is pure and perfect and the same in all three phases of time-past. The /arma has to be exhausted or experienced and there is no escape from it. we can say though mil/ and water. &ut the &uddhist and >edic theories were of non-self and have undergone ma4or changes in the centuries that went by. The theory crystalli!ed during that period has largely remained the same in its core. As time is beginningless and indestructible so is 4iva that is beginningless and indestructible. +. we have to postulate the existence of life after death and series of life as a consequence of the necessity of explaining the bondage and the destruction of the continuing /arma that affects the soul. If it is not possible to exhaust the /arma in order to be pure-self in this life. NATURE O# SOUL ACCOR*IN. as it seems the relation between the soul and body.

There is nowhere in the world. head-dress 'crown) earrings. . we can /now that there is self by observing the psychophysical activities li/e laughter. As the sun spreads its rays and ob4ects illumined and as the sun moves elsewhere at night and the light is not seen so also the soul that exists with a particular body experiences the life in this existence. This is called paudgali/asarira. All -ivas have the same qualities and capacity of development. ((. this experience is no more. -iva. (H.imilarly. The music of the instrument can be heard but cannot be seen. (1. endless and beyond measure. The ghost and the devils can enter the bodies but they cannot be seen. (@. etc. (0. this mixed form of ore has been beginningless. (+. which are fit to be /armic particle. so is 4iva which is indestructible.o also the 4iva gets purified and reaches the state of perfection through samvara and tapasya etc. so also it is not possible to determine the priority or otherwise of 4iva and /arma. As space is undiminishing and constant in all the three times. &oth of them co-exist from beginningless time. (?. 5hen the soul gives up one body and enters another in the next life the su/smasarira will be there with it. +M. As the fragrance of saffron and the lotus flower can be experienced by smell and not by sight so also 4iva cannot be seen by the eyes yet we can /now the existence of the self through the attribute of /nowledge. the human.@. (M. -ust as the particles of gold are mixed up with the earth in the form of ore. Let each 4iva develops in different ways owing to several factors li/e the purusartha and other causes. 5e can also understand the nature of the 4iva by means of its characteristics and effects. accumulates sams/ara 'mnemic traces) and through the sams/ara a su/smasarira 'subtle body) constituted of material particles. the 4iva in its form cannot be seen. . and as it leaves this body. through its activity in the empirical world. The food we ta/e is transformed into seven basic elements through chemical composition. . -ust as it is not possible to decide whether egg is prior or the hen. It gets purified and pure gold is extracted with the help of fire. are transformed into /armic particles '/armavargana) which obscure the free function of the soul. ring. in the four forms of existence-the heavenly. the particles of matter. + (G.. In the same way. a place where subtle bodied and gross-bodied souls are not present. -iva is a source of different forms of energy li/e /nowledge energy '4nanasa/ti).imilarly. and enter another. H. As the gold can get the form of garland. but by its accumulated /armas it has acquired a body and through this body it also becomes with form. ?. lower animal and the hellish stage. 5e can only infer the presence of these by the bodily activities. -iva is formless. . but still as the substance of the gold is the same so also the 4iva is the same although it wanders about in the wheel of samsara. pleasure and pain and bodily activities li/e dances etc. with the load of mnemic traces of the previous life. the energy of the basic power 'viryasa/ti) and will-power 'sam/alpasa/ti) ( (2.

which is the form of buddhi. in the . .am/hya-Loga also presents a similar view. &ut the . as the -ainas maintain the variety of expression of cetana in the empirical form so also the .an/hya-Loga view. According to -ainism. which form the subtle body in terms of material particles. ( @. but the . experiences and en4oyments and substantiality and attributes are not acceptable to the . It also says that the pure and the impure forms of attributes are possible due to activity.u/smasarira) which moves with the soul and which has the characteristic of pervading the body and experiencing the fruits of the /armas. This is pratipurusa in short. purusa itself has neither attachments nor the consequential attributes of cetana. of will and of power.u/sma sarira.am/hya-Loga thin/s that the soul is formless and the forms of the individual soul are due to the subtle and the cross bodies which are products of pra/rti. existence the mnemic traces 'sams/aras). This subtle body moves along with the 4iva into the next life. but it is conscious. Therefore. 0 (.imilarly. -iva from the -aina point of view is beginningless and endless and it is characteri!ed by consciousness 'cetana rupa).am/hya-Loga also the difference in the personality development are traced to the .am/hya-Loga accepts the subtle modes embodied in the principle of buddhi or linga sarira which is a produce of pra/rti.am/hya-Loga also posits a subtle body '.am/hya. . through our reflection. unattached and it is not directly involved in the activity and the en4oyment. it expresses itself in modes. . &ut it appears to have form due to /armic encrustations and the subtle body. In the . The -aina view of the soul is that the soul is formless. 5e have so far discussed the characteristics of 4iva from the point of view of -aina philosophy. 4iva pervades the body that it occupies. The . Loga tradition does not accept the inherent activity of the soul. + 1. . and the energy of /nowledge.am/hya-Loga. 1 G. &ut according to the .am/hya-Loga we find these forces are attributed not to consciousness which is the essence of the soul. 4iva is all pervading and in its characteristic of consciousness. 0. 0 2. According to the . It is pure. the . but in the . but personality distinctions are due to the differences in the purusartha and other causes. In it real nature each soul is equal. According to -ainism.ITH THE SA&KHYA+YO. similarly.or the sa/e of explaining the continuity in the future life. According to -ainism all the 4ivas have the same capacity and the same energy. -ust as space has no form.am/hyaLoga tradition also accepts this view. According to -ainism there are infinite number of souls and each occupies a particular body. . the purusa is passive. The illusion of a form arises due to the fact that the impressions received through the sense organs are reflected in the soul and the soul therefore reflects it bac/.CO&PARISON O# JAINA 5IE.m/hya-Loga. In the same way. 5e shall now consider the comparative picture of -aina view with the . yet we. there is no possibility of parinamitva of expressing in the form of modes. +. The -ainas have advocated a theory that 4iva acquires in its empirical. the soul is the source of infinite energy.am/hya-Loga tradition. The -aina conception of the soul accepts the characteristics of activity and en4oyment '/artrtva and bho/trtva) as belonging to the soul.am/hya-Loga. imagine the form of space. but to the subtle body which is the form of buddhi and buddhi is the product of pra/rti. and the buddhi is the product of pra/rti.A 5IE. the soul expresses the reflection that give rise to forms. It had a characteristic of expansion and contraction according to the si!e of the body. + H.

The soul is receptacle of many attributes and modes.yaya->aisesi/a theory has given an independent view of the soul.yaya->aisesi/a thought has similarities and differences with the -aina and . we do not find this view. 5hile soul is amurta 'formless) but not belonging to the empirical existence 'bhauti/a). although the . There appears to be no difference between the liberated soul and a/asa. li/e the . There is only the denominational difference. There is no other difference between a/asa and 4iva.oul has consciousness9 and hence in the highest state of perfection.yaya>aisesi/a conception of self in the state of liberation could be considered free from any quality life space 'a/asa) with this difference that a/asa is formless but it belongs to the empirical world. . dharma 'merit) and adharma 'demerit) are all considered to be the attributes of the soul.am/hya-Loga. but it maintains that soul is all-pervasive li/e the views of the . hatred. . . these qualities are inherent in the psychic states of the 4iva as expressed in the 4nana and darsana. which do not really affect the true nature of consciousness. . these characteristics are very much present even in the liberated state.or has the soul any other characteristic in the perfect state.CO&PARISON O# JAINA 5IE. However.am/hya-Loga tradition have presented a theory of the soul in which we find the nature of the soul as independent and consciousness. 0 The fundamental reason is that the . In the highest stage of perfection consciousness is free from the states li/e /nowledge and feeling etc.yaya->aisesi/a.yaya->aisesi/a does not accepts the -aina characteristic of the soul as pervading the body. but in the . Therefore. The -ainas maintain that 4iva has the inherent characteristics of en4oyment 'bho/trtva) and activity '/artrtva). but the view of -ainas and of the . However. pain. .yaya->aisesi/a darsana has certain differences in the consideration about the nature of consciousness with the . attributes and characteristics.am/hyaLoga maintains that consciousness is the essence of the soul and according to them the soul is characteri!ed by consciousness. which are mere modes without affecting the consciousness. It is analogues to unconscious states.yaya->aisesi/a. According to the -aina view.yaya->aisesi/a. in the state of liberation '*u/ti). accept the reality of the soul and its independence from the body. . a/asa is a substance 'dravya) and mu/ta 4iva 'liberated soul) is endless 'ananta).yaya>aisesi/a does not accept the characteristic of the expansion and contraction according to the needs of the body that the soul possesses. .yaya->aisesi/a the consciousness is only an attribute of the soul and as such in the highest state of perfection consciousness cannot exist with the soul. 1 The .imilarly.am/hya-Loga systems of thought. These attributes are operative and they exist as long as the body exists. The same interpretation could be even in the case of .( However. . &ut the . pure and simple. :onsciousness is the essence of the soul. It is only a quality. .am/hya-Loga says that soul is consciousness and has no attributes. as there are some similarities also.yaya->aisesi/a li/e the -ainas accepts the possibility in the empirical sense.yaya-Laisesi/a comes nearer to the -aina view. and has the characteristic of bliss 'ananda) and power 'virya) and /nowledge '4nana). . the . consciousness is the quality of the soul.ITH NYAYA+5AISESIKA 5IE. In this sense. will.am/hya-Loga believes that consciousness is the essence of the soul.am/hya-Loga it says that from the substance point of view. they are spiritual substances. The -ainas and the . The .yaya->aisesi/a does not accept consciousness as the essence of the soul. In the highest state. the psychic states li/e /nowledge. + In the -aina point of view the soul is considered to be a source of many powers but in the . However.am/hya-Loga.am/hya. 0 They are eternal. &ut according to . the soul is /utastha nitya. .. However. the self is free from any attributes or modes. . the soul is unconsciousness.ouls are infinite in number and they are beginningless. pleasure.imilarly .yaya>aisesi/a considers consciousness and modes as qualities of the self and self as only a substratum of the qualities. The modes of mental states are due to the reflection of the states in consciousness and in the self. but li/e the . desire. They arise and they are destroyed. The soul is consciousness. According to the -ainas the prominent theory is that in the state of perfection 4iva is consciousness.am/hya maintains that self is consciousness. It is free from the modifications li/e the modes of consciousness. it is self-illuminating. in some points regarding the characteristic of the soul li/e the substance. &ut the .am/hya-Loga.yaya->aisesi/a does not accept the presence of the characteristics of en4oyment '&ho/trtva) and activity . as there is absence of any quality or mode of consciousness in both. self is free from consciousness. the .

am/hya conception of self as consciousness. It is this . It does not accept the . The auspicious and inauspicious effects of activity through sams/ara 'the mnemic mass) affect the . In this respect. The . According to the .yaya>aisesi/a.yaya->aisesi/a ma/es a distinction between the 4iva as substance and 4iva in the empirical state as expressing the mental modes. According to . The attributes of en4oyment and activity have association with the phenomena of origin and destruction.am/hya-Loga conception of the impact of the good and evil on the .am/hya-Loga ta/es the stand that the soul is eternal because it is pure consciousness and the mental states are only modes not connected as essential characteristics of this soul.yaya->aisesi/a comes nearer to the . the . and with the presence of these modes the 4iva is considered as possessing the characteristics of en4oyment and activity.yaya->aisesi/a. the eternity of the soul is established from different standpoints. they differ from the -aina conception of 4iva as having the inherent characteristics of en4oyment and activity. . In this sense. but consciousness is not a quality of 4iva as the . we find that there is the conception of the effect of the good and evil on the rise and fall of the states of 4iva. the characteristics of en4oyment 'bho/trtva) and activity '/artrtva) of the soul are different in content. .yaya->aisesi/a considers the manas as atomic in nature.yaya->aisesi/a. ta/e their origin and are destroyed when in contact with the body 'sarira) and the 4iva expresses the characteristics of en4oyment 'bho/trtva) and activity '/artrtva) only in relation to the body.u/sma-linga sarira and is only. :onsciousness and its modes are only qualities of the soul and hence different from the soul.u/sma-linga-sarira 'subtle body) which is the repository of the good and evil and their effects. there is the total absence of the modes of /nowledge. therefore. &ut the . the 4iva is not characteri!ed by the characteristics of en4oyment and activity. ( The .yaya->aisesi/a considers the soul to be eternal because it is the substance and in this eternal sense as the substratum of qualities. In this sense. It has the capacity of pervading the body it occupies.yaya->aisesi/a. &ut in the liberated state. which is atomic in nature. According to the -inas. although they do admit the presence of these characteristics in the empirical state of the 4iva.yaya->aisesi/a presents its theory of after-life 'punar4anma) in terms of its conception of the atomic vies mind 'paramanu manas). The 4iva being all-pervasive is not able to grasp the /nowledge. &ut in the . 4iva is active and is the en4oyer of the experiences.'7artrtva) in the state of liberation. The .u/sma sarira 'the subtle body) which goes with soul and enters into the body in the next life. According to the . it is the .yaya->aisesi/a considers it to be. as also . the states of consciousness li/e /nowledge. It is the mind. urusa is consciousness. will etc. The fundamental principle involved would be the consideration of the . functions as the instrument of /nowledge. These are totally absent in the liberated state.am/hya-Loga says that we attribute the direct effect of these characteristics on soul.am/hya-Loga. . :onsciousness is the essence of purusa and does possesses the attributes. in both the systems of thought.yaya->aisesi/a.u/sma sarira) which is empirical in existence absorbs the after-effects. The -ainas say that 4iva moves into the next life with the su/smasarira with its characteristics of en4oyment and activity. However.am/hya-Loga darsana postulates a . The . there is not possibility of activity in the pure soul9 these are accidental qualities and modes. ta/es the other body also. The 4iva expresses modes of /nowledge '4nana) will 'iccha) and activity 'prayatna). The -ainas maintain that the subtle body 'the .rom the point of view of ultimate existence 4iva is nitya 'eternal) but from the empirical point of view. the . ( In the liberated state these characteristics are absent. The 4iva is eternal but is characteri!ed in its very nature by the attributes of en4oyment and activity.yaya->aisesi/a view that the substance is different from the attributes. li/e the -ainas accept the view that 4iva.am/hya-Loga darsana does not accept the presence of attributes in the purusa. as the . will and activity and. The 4iva has this atomic mind 'parmanu manas) when the 4iva gives up one body and ta/es into another in the succeedining life.u/sma-linga-sarira which goes alongwith the pure soul from one body into another in the next life.

THE BU**HIST 5IE. O# NATURE O# THE SOUL In order to understand the views of the &uddha about the nature of soul, we should analyse the &uddhist view of the concept of non-self in the historical perspective. rior to the &uddha and during his time, there were two views regarding the nature of the soul3 'I) The Atman is eternal and is not affected by any modes of time and empirical ad4uncts9 'ii) the second view was that the Atman although permanent is affected by the empirical ad4uncts. According to first view, the Atman remains pure and perfect, unaffected by any psychophysical modes in time-past, future and present. The second view, while accepting the Atman as the eternal principle, does accept the possible influences on the nature of the Atman by the empirical modes. &oth these views have one common factor of accepting the conception of Atman as the permanent substance. The &uddha was against the view of the eternity of the Atman. 5hat you call self is merely an aggregate of physical and mental states. It is the sanghata 'aggregate) of the nama 'mental) and the rupa 'the physical states), sams/ara 'mnemic mass), sam4na 'cognition), vedana 'affective states) and vi4nana 'physic energy). There is nothing permanent in the world. $verything is fleeting. $very moment, there is change. 5hat I am this moment, next moment I am not. This /ind of description of the &uddha%s view of the soul was considered Anatmavada. It is difficult to say whether he denied the existence of a permanent self as the eternal or whether he refused to accept the empirical personality as a permanent entity. There has been a controversy over this problem. However, it is necessary to note that the basic attitude of the &uddha was "sarvam praha/% everything is fleeting. The &uddha was considered as the ".airatmyavadin% one who denied the existence of a permanent soul. The &uddha did not however accept the materialistic conception of the soul, as constituted if the material elements as presented by the "lo/ayata% view. He followed the middle path 'madhyama marga). He accepted the concepts of rebirth, 'punar4anma), /arma, purusartha 'fundamental values) and mo/sa 'liberation). In this sense, the &uddha did recogni!e that the concepts of Atman, -iva and consciousness 'cetana) have important place in the system of thought, that he preached. However, it would be a truism to say the schools of philosophy li/e the .yaya->aisesi/a, ,am/hya-Loga and -ainism presented a definite viewpoint on the concept of the Atman. &ut &uddhism did not give a definite view of the elf. :areful study of the development of &uddhist thought shows that there were five different streams of thought in the &uddhist view of the nature of soul(. udgala-nairatmyavada 'materialistic conception of non-soul) +. udgalastivada 'the materialistic view of the soul) 0. Trai/ali/a dharmavada 'theory of elements) and >artamani/a dharmavada 'the theory of momentary elements). 1. #harmanairataya-nihsvabhavata or ,unyavada 'theory of ,unya). 2. >i4naptimatratavada 'theory of consciousness as soul.) ( All these theories have been fundamentally based on the important tenets that the &uddha preached in his conceptions of the four .oble Truths and the eight-fold path. They draw their inspiration from the &uddha%s primary concern for freedom, misery and the spiritual values. PU*,ALA NAIRAT&YA5A*A In the Tripita/as there is the mention of the clear view that atman is merely an aggregate of the s/andha of physical and mental states. The mental states are constituted of vedana 'feeling), sam4na 'cognition), sams/ara 'mnemic mass) and vi4nana 'the psychic energy). These undergo modifications and the chain of modification is called sanghata. It is the flow of the modes of mental phenomena. All these are called nama. + &rhadaranya/a

Bpanisad0 mentions the term namarupa and there, it is suggested that the very nature of the principle expresses its nature and its modes. According to &uddha, however, there is no basic principle li/e nama-rupa and rupanama are the expressions of physical and psychic states. The &uddha says that there is a constant flow of the mental states li/e the vedana, sam4na, and vi4nana. ;or this flow, there is neither the beginning nor the end. This is based upon and centered round the conception of the pudgala and therefore it is called nairatmyavada. PU*,ALASTI5A*A The &uddhist sangha was against the conception of the permanence of the soul and the philosopher featured the argument for the conception of the permanence of the soul, but after sometime those who believed in the permanence of the soul coming from the &rahmanic tradition 4oined the &uddhist sangha. They gave a new orientation to the &uddhist conception of nairatmyavada in the light of their original predilections of the sasvata atmavada. They based their conception on the materialistic theory of the self. 7athavatthu and Tattvasangraha have mentioned this /ind of a theory of the permanence of the soul as a polemic against the &uddhist view of atmavada.( These pudgalvadins maintain that the 4iva is of a materiel nature. 5hen they were as/ed whether the 4iva has form li/e the material ob4ects they were not able to accept this view. The udgalastivada entered the &uddhist sangha but as it was not consistent with the main concept of the &uddhist view as expressed in the atmavada, this theory lost its importance and remained only in name. TRAIKALIKA *HAR&A5A*A ' 5ART&ANIKA *HAR&A5A*A The udgalaniratmyavadins had to perform a two-fold function3 '() It had to defend itself against the atmavadins and to show that there is no permanent self. 'ii) Let this theory had to accommodate the conception of the rebirth, bandha 'bondage) and mo/sa 'liberation). This gave rise to the theory of sarvastivada. According to this theory, the mental states designed as nama were referred to as "citra% and it expresses itself in vedana, sam4na, and sams/ara flux. These are included as dharma 'elements). This theory had to defend on the basic stand of /sani/avada. Accordingly, the sarvastivadins presented the modes of "citta% as flowing in three durations of time and presented the trai/ali/ata + &ut there appeared to be inconsistency with the original &uddhist conception of reality as impermanent and fleeting and is consigned to present only '>artamani/a). &y introducing the conception of >artamani/a to the moments of the present. The efforts to reconcile these views gave rise to the theory of sautranti/avada. The sautranti/avada accepted the sarvastivada conception of "citta% 'mental) and caitasi/a 'mental states). &ut they made them referring to the present moments only '>artamani/a). In this way, they tried to ma/e the reality a flux, yet accepting the mental states of sarvasti/avadin as elements. *HAR&ANAIRAT&AYA+NIHS5ABHA5ATA OR SUNYA5A*A This was the age of vigorous philosophical discussions. hilosophical disputations were very prominent in this age. ,ome philosophers propounded the theory of being 'sat)9 others refuted the arguments of this theory and enunciated the theory of non-being 'asat). ,till others presented the theory of the being and the non-being. In this way the permanent, the impermanent, the one and the many and similar problems were discussed vigorously by the philosophers in this age. .agar4una came to reali!e that the &uddha%s catus/oti 'four-fold predications) was not very useful for providing the philosophical basis for nairatmyavada. Therefore, he presented a theory of ,yadvada. The interpretation of the "sunya% has been various. ,ome have suggested that sunya is the void. &ut some others have suggested that .agar4una could not have considered the reality as the void because he was originally trained in the dvaitic conception of reality, as he was brought up in the Bpanisadic tradition. Therefore, they say that .agar4una%s sunya is not the void, it is the ultimate reality that is unspea/able and inexpressible. However, as .agar4una was converted to &uddhism and as he became the vigorous exponent of the

nairatmyavada and the theory of reality as momentary, it cannot be said that .agar4una presented the absolutist viewpoint. .agar4una%s ,unyavada did not in anyway refute the rationalistic and a spiritualistic conception of reality and the theory of evolution. 5IJNAPTI&ATRATA5A*A After ,unyavada, comes Logacara. According to the Logacara ,chool, ,unyavada does not systematically consider any of the &uddhistic theory, but the &uddhaEs conception of nama was primarily concerned with mental states. It is centered round vi4nana. Therefore, according to the Logacara, reality is mostly mental in nature. It is vi4nana, and atman is the expression of vi4nana, although there is no permanent Atma. >i4nanavadins are generally considered to be sub4ective idealists who give prominence to mental states and to the external wor/s. The mental states are real and external world is only an expression of mental states. >i4nanavadins had to posit an ob4ective conception of the storehouse of consciousness. It is alayavi4nana. In this way, we find discussion of the conception of self from different stages and gradually it has reached the idealistic position of the conception of the self as we find in the vi4nanavada. In this, the self is primarily mental and expressing mental states. $minent philosophers li/e #harma/irti, ,antara/sita and 7amalasila tried to present this idealistic conception of the self in terms of vi4nana, yet not deviating from the original stand of 7sani/avada.( In the &uddhist tradition, all the schools of thought have presented their own views concerning the soul as cuttasantana 'the stream of consciousness). The vi4nana-advaitvadins maintain that there is nothing except vi4nana and the self is considered as a stream of mental states and self that is real. The physical states are subsumed under the general conception of vi4nana. + In the &uddhist philosophy there is no discussion about the specific relation of citta vi4nanasantati or -iva. 5e cannot, therefore, say whether self have any reference to the states of bodily existence, however in some of the wor/s li/e >isuddhimaggo 0 there are reference to the bodily states and it is possible that the mental states li/e the pleasure and pain have relation to bodily states. 5e have already said that in the ,am/hya-Loga, -aina thought and others there is a view that in the rebirth the ,u/smasarira moves from one body to the other. ,imilar description we find in the #igghani/aya about the gandharva. The description goes that one who wants to go from one life to the other after death, has to wait for seven days with gandharva. In the /athavatthu there is a discussion about the inner life in relation to the conception of gandharva. ,imilarly, in some other wor/s and in the writings of >asubandhu and other >aibhasi/as there is mention of transmigration from one body to the other. ( It is li/e the subtle body. In Theravadi &uddhaghosa there is no mention of the subtle body 'antarabhavasarira). He has given certain examples of the movement of consciousness from one body to the other. + UPANISA*IC THOU,HT In the Bpanisadic tradition we do not get a uniformity of views regarding the nature of the self. ,ometimes even in one Bpanisad, we find the mention of different views, regarding the conception of the self. ;or this reason, those who have speculated on the nature of the self have presented various views. &adarayana wrote the &rahmasutra and in the &rahmasutra, we find the mention of various views of the self as presented by the ancient seers. &rahmasutra became a very important wor/ li/e the Bpanisads and several commentaries on that were written. &ut unfortunately all the commentaries are not available today. ,am/racarya wrote a commentary on the

&rahmasutra and presented *ayavada 'theory of Appearance). &ut those who did not accept *ayavada wrote commentaries on the &rahmasutra and presented their own interpretations of the &rahmasutra refuting the *ayavada. Among them may be mentioned the Acaryas li/e &has/ara, Aamanu4a and .imbar/a. These Acaryas presented different views in their commentaries but the basic uniformity of and said that 4iva is real as the &rahman is real. -iva is different from the body. It is eternal and is imperishable. ,am/racarya while presenting his mayavada based his argument on the Bpanisadic streams of thought as presented by these writers into three states, as (. ,am/ara%s Advaita. +. *adhavacaryas #vaita and 0. The vedic interpretations of other Acaryas. 0 ,am/ara said &rahman is real. It is the ultimate reality and all other things are appearances. The differentiations of -ivas in the empirical existence are not real but are only appearance caused due to avidya. $verything is &rahman, and 4iva and the distinctions between the 4ivas are not real distinctions. The &rahman and the atman are identical9 "Aham brahmasmi%.( *adhvacarya%s conception of reality was different from that of ,an/aracarya. His was dualistic conception of reality. &rahman is real, 4iva is also real. -iva is not merely an appearance. &rahman and Atman are both equally real. There are innumerable 4ivas. There are all-eternal. &has/ara and other Acaryas have maintained that 4ivas are real. They are the consequential expressions of the &rahman. It may be said that they are products of the &rahman. They are expressions of the &rahman9 therefore, they cannot become an appearance. In the *ahabharata, there are three views of the conception of the 4ivas based on the ,am/hya philosophy3 '() There are of +1 principles '+1 tattvavadi) '+) those who maintain an independent eternal urusa still belonging to the +1 principles theory, i.e. +2 tattvavadi, and '0) those who maintain that purusa is different from &rahman and belonging to the "chavvisattavavada% i.e. +G Tattvavadi. It appears that ancient philosophers discussed these three streams of thought and the discussions were mainly based on the Bpanisadic thought. In brief, the philosophical discussions concerning the nature of the self based on the Bpanisadic tradition can be summari!ed into some forms of philosophy as '(M /evaladvaita '+) satyopadhiadvaita '0) visistadvaita '1) dvaitadvaita '2) avibhagadvaita 'G) suddhadvaita '@) Acintya bhedabheda and such other various forms. In general, we have exponents of the Advaita and #vaitavada including Aamanu4a%s >isistadvaita. ,am/ara presented /evaladvaita. According to him, &rahman is the only reality. All else is appearance. The world is an appearance. &rahman is the ultimate reality and phenomenal world is only an appearance. According to him, the empirical individual soil is not an independent reality. It is only the phenomenal state of the atman. Atman and the &rahman are identical and the phenomenal reality of the atman is due to avidya and abhasa. ,am/ara ta/es recourse to the conceptions of maya, avidya and abhasa for explaining the phenomenal world. He ma/es a distinction between the different levels of thought li/e the dream state, the wa/ing state, the dreamless sleep and the turiya. These views are based on the Bpanisadic concept. Appaya #i/sita has written a commentary called ,iddhanta Desa-,angraha on vedanta ,iddhanta ,u/timan4ari. In this, he has given a commentary of the various views regarding the relation of the &rahman and atman according to the /evaladvaita 'pure advaita) strain of thought. ,ome of the views may be mentioned as follows3 PRATIBI&BA5A*A ,wami >idyaranya and the commentators have given explanations about the relation between the &rahman the &rahman and the 4iva according to their standpoints. =ne of the prominent views is that the 4iva is the reflection of the &rahman 'the image of the &rahman). This reflection is considered by some as un-understandable

'avidyagata), as the inner sense 'antah/arana) by others and as based upon ignorance 'a4nanagata) by still others.( A5ACCHE*A5A*A ,ome commentators have used the term avaccheda in place of pratibimba and they maintain that the &rahman is not reflected in the antah/arana 'inner sense), but 4iva is an expression of the antah/arana. + BRAH&A+JI5A5A*A According to this view, -iva is neither the reflection of the &rahman nor its EavacchedaE, but the reality of the -iva is due to avidya nor the &rahman is due to vidya. 0 In this way, there are important conceptions regarding the relation of the 4iva to the &rahman in the /evaladvaita as3 '() pratibimbavada '+) Avacchedavada and '0) &rahmabhedavada. 1 Aegarding the number of 4ivas, there is no unanimity among the /evladvaitins. According to some 4iva is considered to be one and the body with the 4iva is living-body and others are non-living. ,ome others maintain that 4iva is one, still other bodies are equally living and still other thin/ers say that there are many 4ivas. ( These views have been briefly mentioned by ,adananda in the >edantasara and *adhusudana ,arasvati in the ,iddhantabindu. According to &has/ara, &rahman due to infinite variety of energy expresses itself in the form of 4ivas as also in the form of the world. -iva is the effect of the &rahman and as such it has functional truth. The &rahman is one, but its effects are many. There is no inconsistency between the concepts of unity and diversity. -ust as the one ocean manifests itself into infinite number of waves, so also one &rahman manifests himself into the infinite soul 4ivas. 5ith removal of ignorance one reali!es that &rahman is one and the 4ivas which appear to be atomic in nature are the same as &rahman. Aamanu4a has presented the >isistadvaita theory. He said that the &rahman is real and the 4ivas are equally real. -ivas are li/e the world, which is the manifested &rahman, are also manifested as the world and as the 4ivas. The unmanifested psychic energy 'citsa/ti) expresses itself in the form of manifested 4ivas and the source is the unmanifested &rahman, which is &rahmanarayana. Acarya .imbar/a said that the &rahman is one and undivided, simple and perfect, yet the 4ivas are the effects of the &rahman. .imbar/a has presented the theory of &hedabheda 'identity and difference). It is therefore called #vaitadvaita 'the one and the dual). The one wind expresses itself in many forms9 similarly, the one &rahman manifests itself into many 4ivas. These 4ivas are equally real. >i4nanabhi/su says that purusa is independent and beginningless li/e pra/riti but not different from the &rahman, this view is called "%avibhagadvaita%% 'undifferentiated advaita). Acarya >allabha presents the pure ,uddhadvaita. According to him, the world and the 4iva are the phenomenal effects of the &rahman. These effects are due to lila 'magic or play). And the &rahman is pure and simple. It is a reality.

:aitanya accepts the "%acintyabhedabheda%%. The &rahman manifests in different 4ivas due to the inherent 4iva sa/ti 'the inherent energy of the soul). -ivas are both identical to and also different from the &rahman. This relation is beyond the speculation 'acintaniya). hilosophers from &has/ara to :aitanya have considered 4iva as atomic in nature. 5hen the 4iva removes ignorance by means as 4nana '/nowledge) and bha/ti 'devotion), then the 4iva attains liberation. All these acaryas are believers in the atomic nature of the soul 'anu4ivavadi.) They maintain that rebirth is possible by means of the subtle bodies ',u/smasarira). *adhya is >edantin, but he does not believe in the theory of non-dualism 'advaita) and non-difference 'abheda). He maintains, on the authority of Bpanisadic tradition, that 4iva is atomic in nature. There is infinite number of 4ivas. They are eternal and real. They re not the effects of the arabhraman, nor are they part of &rahman. 5hen the 4iva removes the ignorance, it reali!es the authority 'svamitva) of the &rahman or >ishnu. The ,aiva%s do not accept the authority of the >eda or the >edanta. They accept the pratyabhi4na darsana. They base their arguments on the pratyabhi4na. According to them, parabhrahma is ,iva. .othing else is greater than ,iva. The parabhrahma or ,iva is the highest reality and by his will, he creates infinite number of 4ivas and the world. ;rom the point of view tattva 'principles) 4iva and ,iva are not different. According to the upanisads and &hagavadgita, atman is different from the body ( different from the manas.+ It pervades entire universe. 0 It is not the effect of anything 'avi/arya) 1 and it is indescribable in words 2 The things 'avi/aryas) and the description of the &rahman can only be in the negative as "neti-neti%. ( The &rahman is neither gross nor atomic, neither small nor large, neither water nor any liquid, neither shadow nor dar/ness, neither wind nor a/asa, neither the aggregate nor having qualities li/e taste, smell, neither eye nor speech nor mind. It is neither light nor prana 'life force). It is not mouth. It is neither in or out. + SI6E O# THE SOUL 2PARI&ANA3 In the Bpanisads we get different views regarding the si!e of the soul. It has been said that the atman, which is manomaya, is within the heart and is of the si!e of grain of rice. 0 There is a view, which says that the si!e of atman is equal to the distance of the top of thumb to the tip of forefinger.1 The atman is considered to be pervading the body. 2 There is another view which says that atman is all pervading. G There is another view, which says that the atman as residing in the heart and which is greater than the earth, than the space, than the world and in fact greater than all the universe. @ According to the -ainas, the 4iva is eternal and has no end. $very 4iva pervades infinite points of space. It has the capacity of pervasion. At the time of 7evali samudghata the atman pervades the entire universe for the some timeH and at the time of the death of mundane soul pervades partially ? and has infinite pradesas. The dharma, adharma, Do/a/asa and 4iva occupy equal number of space, points but from the point of view of measurement they do not occupy the equal number of space-points. #harma, Adharma and Do/a/asa are receptive and they do not express any qualities of action and reaction and there is no effect of any type. ,amsari

the body of an insect. but it cannot fly li/e a bird. which are self-controlled9 for instance. which occupies the body of a small child.rom the noumenal point of view. #ue to the accretion of /armic particle 4ivas occupies a particular si!e of the body. The 4iva. but other machines cannot produce these machines nor do they produce such machines. A machine can be made to eat food but it cannot ma/e use of the digested food for its own development. The capacity of the 4iva of pervading the entire body that it occupies is li/ened to the capacity of the light of the lamp.( If that part of omniscience is also covered by the /armic particles.imilarly. '2) vanaspati/aya 'vegetable /ingdom) and 'G) trasa/aya 'beings can move). possess an infinite part of /evala4nana 'omniscient /nowledge). The samsari 4ivas are to be classified into six types on the basis of the nature of the body they possess. occupies the body of a youth. It should be noted that the attributes of expansion and contraction do not really belong to the nature of the soul. of intelligence and a state of existence li/e animal state etc. '+) ap/aya 'water-bodied). 4iva has the characteristic of growth. The soul. which is big or small. . There is not a single machine. which pervades a huge body. as '() rthvi/aya 'earth-bodied). In the liberated state these characteristics are absent. but such a contingency never arise. &oth the types of 4ivas are infinite in number. All 4ivas have this characteristic of cetana 'the light of consciousness). A bird has psychic energy which train or the machine does not possess. and it is the inherent characteristic of the 4iva. And the effects of this type of pervasion of the body in a particular si!e are due to the /armic body. they do not become all pervasive. Therefore. Therefore.4ivas receive pudgala9 they show activity and their efforts are not uniform. CHARACTERISTIC O# JI5A . can also contain itself in smallest of the bodies. 4ivas express expansion and contraction. A railway train. Let they are atomic in nature also and except in the case of the state of /evalin samudghata. . and also the body of an old man. can ta/e tonnes of luggage and move. so the 4iva pervades the entire body big or small. the development of 4iva depends on the extent of /nowledge based on the removal of /nowledge-obscuring /arma. the psychic energy is the criterion of distinguishing a living soul from non-living ob4ect. however in the lowest possible stage of development. The largeness or smallness of the /armic body is due to the four directions 'gati). a tarpedo has the capacity of moving on its own energy. the 4ivas are called as of madhyama-parimana in the sense they have intermediate si!e. . As the light of the lamp which pervades the entire room big or small. The attributes are ascribed to the /armic bodies. &ut the development of the 4iva differs in each individual case according to its capacity and on the basis of the intensity of the /armic encrustations. In describing the distinction between 4iva and a4iva it has been said that all the 4ivas. This pervasion is possible due to the /armic body. &UKTA AN* SA&SARI JI5A -ivas have been classified into two types as '() mu/ta 'liberated) and '+) samsari 'empirical 4ivas). As the light of the lamp illumines the room. '0) Te4as/aya 'fire-bodied) '1) vayu/aya 'air-bodied). 4iva has the characteristic of cetana 'the light of consciousness). which is self-s/illed and self-producing. #ue to the accrusion of material particles li/e the /armic particles. They can be used. it would become a4iva. There may be some machines. for instance.rom the phenomenal point of view. which pervades the entire room big or small.

those who advocate the reality of the Atman as different from the body of the mind refute the arguments of the epiphenomenalists by showing that the use of the term action '/riya) is ambiguous. Interactionalism. qualitatively different. Three theories explaining the relation between the two have been presented3 (. we do not normally thin/ of cerebrum.$xcept the trasa/aya 4ivas the other 2 types of 4ivas can be distinguished into '() gross 'badara) and '+) subtle 'su/sma). . arallelism. contained in a lump of earth of the si!e of a fruit 'avala). nitrogen atoms and phosphorous atoms. :onsciousness cannot be produced out of the un-conscious energy9 it is the self that gives consciousness. but we digest and we breathe through the intestines and lungs. it is a dead-matter. There is nothing li/e Atman or the consciousness as a separate reality. 5ithout the body has no life. +. The gross-bodied beings cannot live without any support li/e the body and they reside in some parts of the universe. thought and emotion are to ariseF 5e cannot create Homer out of the rattling of dice or . As the function of intestines is digestion. although the function may be operated through the cerebrum. &ut can you see or dream or in any way imagine how out of that mechanical act and from these individually dead atoms.e. The bodily organs by themselves do not function. the function of the lungs is breathing so is the function of cerebrum is consciousness. has been described with an analogy. Imagine them separate and senseless. lungs do not breathe. ( The living beings contained in a spar/ 'cingari) were each to get the body of the si!e of a small egg of louse 'li/ha) then the 4ambudvipa will be over-populated. then they will overflow the 4ambudvipa. 5hen we thin/ of consciousness. then the population of all the living beings in the lump will overflow the one la/h yo4ana of the 4ambudvipa. #ifferent organs of the body have by themselves no active or creative function. it is the self that thin/s and that is conscious. This is purely a mechanical process. The number of the living beings. + The living beings contained in a fraction of air which moves a leaf of a margosa tree were to get the body of a tiny grain of /hasa-/hasa then 4ambudvipa will be over-populated. *aterialistic view. which can be seen by the mind. oxygen atoms. used in describing the relation between body and mind. + If the living beings contained in a drop of water were each to get a body of the si!e of a grain of sesamum. and if each living being were to get the body of the si!e of the dove. :onsciousness ':etana) is the product of the metabolic changes in the brain cells.ather &utler wrote Jthat the brain is formed of the dead hydrogen atoms. which may be described as E$piphenomenalismE. and 0. i.imilarly. It is one thing to say that the action or function of the intestines is to digest food and the lungs to breathe yet another ting to say that the function of the brain cells is to get consciousness. . though we may associate the two. The universe is filled with subtle 4ivas. $piphenomenalism tried to dispense with mind and soul as an independent reality and ma/e them a by-product of the metabolic changes in the body. It is also considered as function a by-product of the chemical changes in the cerebrum. Intestines do not digest the food. The Atmavadins.. sensation. If the living beings. =bserve them running together and forming all imaginable combinations. The consciousness and the cerebrum belong to two different realms. 0 BO*Y AN* SEL# 2SARIRA AN* AT&AN3 The problem of the relation of the body and soul has been an important problem in philosophy. which are earth-bodied.

imilarly.. Atman is the psychic energy ':etana). It is always with the soul as long as soul remains in the samsara. physical ailments li/e the stomachache and other ailments do affect the mental states li/e the cognitive ability the emotional upset and the conative urge. while health will bring wholesome effect on mental life. 5hen the soul .or instance. li/e. there would be impairment to the mental energy. the snowball. It enters another gross body with the subtle body. :ertain types of food can improve memory capacity. At the time of death. The third theory of the relation between the body and mind is the theory of interactionism. In4ury to a particular part of the brain-cells would impair the power of memory. A physical state is correlated to a mental state. THE RELATION BET. And in this sense the samsari 4iva ta/es the form of the gross body by means of Esu/sma sariraE.till they influence each other. the functions of digestion and respiration are unconscious. $very soul in this samsara is encased in the gross and subtle bodies. without affecting the other. arallel occurrence is the point common to both the states.Lou cannot satisfy the human understanding in its demand for logical continuity between molecular process and the phenomena of consciousness. >igorous process of thin/ing brings about bodily fatigue. Ill health does affect the mental energy adversely. Then problem is how the two different principles interact on each other.Edifferential calculusE out of the clash of billiard ball. the body and soul are intimately associated with each other9 and form and the formless can have associations with contradictions. The subtle body is constantly being formed. which adds particles of snow on its downward 4ourney. Those who consider consciousness as the effect of the bodily functions have to face a different question3 EAm I acting on my self-will or am I influenced by the bodily functionsFE sychophysical parallelism is another theory. secretion of glucose in the blood. it is possible to say that the soul from the point of view of phenomenal existence has a certain form. E##ECT O# THINKIN. . . It is indubitable fact that consciousness and psychic energy are an independent force not produced out of the bodily functions. According to this view. while the body belongs to the material realm. $motions do create certain metabolic changes in the body li/e. It is in its pure state formless. The relation between the soul and the subtle body could be considered to be beginningless. . The body and the mind are two qualitatively different substances. particular type of food and drin/ would bring about mental states due to the toxic effects. point by point. =ne is a spiritual substance. ON THE &IN* &ody and mind are intimately related to each other. &ody is material. affective. the bodily and the mental states affect each other. and conative activity does affect the bodily condition. because. it is unconscious.EEN THE AT&AN AN* THE BO*Y The Atman and the body are different substances. it is formless. sychical and physical forces run parallel to each other without ever affecting each other. The bodily and mental energy affect each other. There is interaction between each other. It has form. -ainism tried to solve this problem of interaction between two qualitatively different principles by means of the concept of the gross 'badara) and subtle 'su/sma) body 'sarira). gross body is left here and the subtle body continues to be encrusted with the soul. In this sense. In this way. which has been propounded to explain the relation between body and mind or in a sense the soul. ..J It would be futile to compare the functions of digestion and respiration with the consciousness. if the certain parts of the brain-cells were adversely affected. :ognitive. coagulation of the blood and other chemical effects. They interact on each other.or instance. How this interaction is possible has been a difficult problem to solve. 5hen the soul enters the next birth it carries the subtle body with it.

It would not be possible to explain the qualitative distinction of the mental state from the body by merely asserting that the mental states are nothing but bodily. This could be described as the physical memory. All the experiments in science so far carried are on the empirical and the material aspects of things. that modern science is not clear about the nature of mind and body. In the vrtti of the . whether there are prominent distinctions between the two. The phenomenal progress of science in the modern age is possible only because of the function of the psyche. affective and conative mental functions li/e thin/ing. =therwise. which is different from the brain rather bodily. some scientists have tried to prove that there is nothing. SOUL AN* &O*ERN SCIENCE . *ind is considered as expression of the modes of the brain. through the operation of the bodily processes. avlovEs theory has been described as muscle twitch psychology. The relation between the body which has form and the soul which has no form is beginningless. but which is inscrutably associated with the bodily functions. cognition and memory. it has been described that the cognitive. avlov regarded the memory as merely the expressions of the metabolic changes in the numerous cerebral cells. which is immaterial and spiritual. memory. preserves them and facilitates their revival on appropriate occasions. $ven &ergson.ome scientists do not distinguish between mind and soul. the cerebrum revives the impressions. It is true to say that body affects the mental states9 but the mental states are not the bodily states. It is physical. the mind is not something separate qualitatively from the cerebrum. However. so also the cerebral cells do receive and preserve the impressions of the past. . $ven supposing that the cerebrum is the repository of the mental states. but it has an end. the physiological basis is material and psychic functions are immaterial.ha/espeare wrote the Hamlet by more movements of the muscles and nerves. 5e find prominent qualitative difference in the mental states and the bodily states. The immaterial is beyond sense observation and is not amenable to experimental investigation. because the mental states are based on the physiological states in the brain. *odern science says that there are (M+ elements. &ut the mental states are not physical. did consider the memory is due to the physiological changes in the cerebral cells. It cannot be said that . Therefore. In the mental states we find characteristic which are not to be found in the physical states. by its own efforts can free itself from the association with the body.utra/rtanga. $verything can be explained. The memory traces are revived due to appropriate stimulations. emotions and will are due to the function of the mind which is immaterial. They are immaterial. Therefore. As the photo-plate receives the negative of photograph. it does not disprove the possibility of the presence of psyche 'cetana) as the prime mover of the psychic states.attains its purity. It is difficult to explain the EwhyE of such processes and how corelation ta/es place. mind is both material and immaterial. which has form. It is possible to explain the insoluble problem by positing the presence of psyche 'cetana) which is not physical in nature. it can be said that the mental and physical states are qualitatively different. it would have no connection with the body. although they are not discreet as not to interact on each other. we can say that they are also similar in some respects. Di/e the photo-plate. including mind and thought. as the soul. In this way. Let in a sense. It is clear from this discussion. who established the reality of the self by rational arguments. ( The means of getting the mental states is primarily physiological based on the function of the brain cells. They are material in nature and have from. . by hands and with the brain. we cannot explain the higher values of life. '-nana tantu).ome modern scientists have emphasi!ed this point of view of the distinction of the mental and bodily states. although they are necessary as instrument or media. &rain is physiological and the brain cells are often called /nowledge cells.

which can be explained by means of the rules of mechanical science. that the animals were conditioned by stimulus response to the bell and the food. &ut the physic was not lost. $xperience is a criterion of the psychic energy and experience is neither to be identified with the physiological processes nor to be associated with them. There has been rapid and phenomenal progress in the field of empirical sciences. These functions are not purely physiological. $ven if we consider that cerebrum is the seat of memory and is an instrument for the revival of memory. In the Agama literature it has been mentioned that a 4iva does experience various experiences pleasant or unpleasant in the series of affix lies. one is dumb.*odern science has not been able to find a satisfactory solution to the problem of relation of body and mind. If such a being is tortured by sharp instrument. He too/ a bowl of glass. &ut in the case of human mind. He saw to it that no animate ob4ect. There would be individual variation in the expression of mental states and the revival of past impressions on the basis of the retention of the past impressions. not even an egg is /ept in the glass. by the quantity of saliva collected after ringing the bell. which is distinct from the physical function. In this state no minute organism accumulated there even after a very . he may not be able to communicate to others because of his dumbness and blindness etc.cientist avlov carried extensive experiments concerning the study of the physiological problems of conditioned reflexes. ORI. it is said that life cannot be produced from ob4ect. but he does suffer immeasurable feelings of pain. There is not question of any mental states li/e expecting food. In these experiments. Douis asture has shown by experimental investigation that life is a force by itself.thavara/aya -ivas also experiences such feeling of immeasurable pain. He carried experiments on the dogs and the experiments are called Ethe dog and the saliva experimentsE. one is deaf and similarly one may be suffering from incurable diseases. He showed.. Then he gradually removed the air inside the glass. it cannot be said that psyche 'cetana) is not there at all. The animal behaved mechanical ate food and other physiological processes li/e blood circulation and the respiration were also normal. and /ept some inanimate ob4ects in it.INAL #OR& O# CETANA Aegarding the nature of cetana the philosophers have expressed two different views. &ut the cerebral part cannot function as a guarantee of the future events. However. According to one view. independent and beginningless. this can be explained only with the help of the function of a psychic energy. =ne is blind. The problems regarding the EhowE and the EwhyE of the cognitive function can only be understood if we posit independent of the cerebrum. This has been possible due to the enormous amount of systematic thin/ing and imagination. . but having no sense organ to express. it cannot be said that the person does not experience the pleasures or pains. Douis asture carried experiment in this connection. After sometime he rang the bell but did not give food. we find there is variation and unpresentability based upon the relation of the past impression. This proves the presence of the independent psychic energy. and made it into a vacuum. It is merely a physiological response without any element of independent psychic states. they cannot express their misery. $ven when certain physiological function do not operate. he first rang the bell and then presented food to the animals. It is a necessary mechanical and routine process. Di/e the negative of the photo-plate. The Aussian . which are expressions of the psychic energy 'cetana sa/ti). &ut they have the psyche as a spring cord. although physiological processes are the basis of psychic activity. Dife force is equally real. However. the cerebral cells do function as repositories of past events in the form of memory. it is also true that experiments shown that by operating on the animal and removing particular parts of the brain certain mental functions became inoperative. although he is not able to communicate his experiences to others. In the case of the mechanical retention of the negative in the photo-plate there is neither variation nor novelty.

a particular psychic function is paraly!ed. It is only an attempt. The sense organs function normally as long as these veins are wor/ing in perfect harmony. it solidifies into ice.reud. can be shown that the psychic energy is different from the brain and its functionings. It is simple and pure. Therefore. . memory may be impaired. . the cerebrum is the center of the sense-organs and the vital life forces 'prana). so is the brain the instrument of retaining the sense-impressions. even then memory may continue to be experienced.rom the point of view of biological science. it is not appropriate to identify the cerebrum with the atman although it is the source of /nowledge. it was clear that the atmosphere contains infinite number of minute organisms fleeting in the air and they are deposited on the ob4ects. or due to the combination of all of them or some of themF . As the sense organs are the instruments of receiving external stimulations. Tandula >eyaliya gives a description of the physiological functioning of the body.o far empirical sciences have not been able to give any solution to the problem of the origin of psyche out of the physical changes. at what stage the changes in the physical things does consciousness ariseF The cerebrum contains various forms of material particles and the gases li/e oxygen. It is eternal and perfect. &ody is composed of infinite material particles. &ut when same ob4ects were /ept in the open for some days and it was found that some animate infinite small organisms were deposited on the surface of the ob4ect. if it is possible to say so. . so is psyche produced from the changes in the physical ob4ects.inite number of pradesas cannot from the 4iva. They start from the navel and terminate in the head. it can be shown that atman cannot be identified with the brain. &ut the question is. According to another view. *arxist theory maintains that the psyche is the qualitative transformation of the physical ob4ects. nitrogen. AT&AN AN* IN#INITE PRA*ESAS 5e have already seen that atman has infinite number of pradesas. &ut all other physiological and mental functions in some respects do wor/ without impairing the normal physiological routine of the mentally defective. it is said that the atman is a spiritual substance. memory traces of previous experiences continue to be experienced without the functioning of the sense organs.long time. an imperfect attempt to find out the measurement of the atman. It has sometimes been suggested that the atman can be identified with the sense organs and the brain. even though it may not function normally. Threads are the part of the cloth. but life is formed of the protoplasmic units.imilarly. infinite number of cells form the individual life and the body 'psychophysical organism). There are (GM EurdhyagaminiE and ErasavahiniE veins in the human body. &ut . This view is not correct because even when the sense organs cease to function due to some defect.tanley *illar have suggested that life can be generated from the inanimate ob4ects. . consciousness does wor/. A piece of cloth is woven with threads. . Let we can say that in the mentally defective beings. ( Accordingly to :ara/a. .rom the noumenal point of view. Aussian lady scientist Dapesins/eya and the atomic scientist li/e #eraldure and his assistant . carbon and phosphorus.ome scientists li/e . hydrogen. it is maintained that life can be generated from inanimate ob4ects.rom this. And the description of atman as constituting of infinite pradesas is only to be loo/ed at from the practical point of view. + It is truism that if a particular chord in the brain is cut. although brain cells are the repositories of the psychic functions. 5hen the same function of the cerebral cell cease to wor/. . The sense organs and the brain are only the instruments for getting experiences. Thy have not was able to determine the original nature of cetana. It is possible to determine which of these gases or physical particles become the origin of consciousnessF Is it due to one of them separately. As water heated to a particular degree becomes vapor and cooled to the !ero degree.rom this. It has been pointed out that if the brain cells are in4ured. but this does not mean that the brain cells are the psyche.

in all these modifications it retains its essential nature and identity. .elf is the ob4ect of direct experience. and cannot be sha/en. not forces. :onsciousness is the characteristic of the atman. Doc/e and &er/ley have shown that the reality of the self is self-evident. Albert $instein says. by giving a very simple example. . THE 5IE.or can we say that the aggregate of threads could be called cloth. . 5ithout consciousness soul cannot exist. not any physical thing. He based his arguments regarding the reality of the self on the indubitable fact of the process of thin/ing and reasoning.threads by themselves do not constitute the cloth..J In the boo/ entitled EThe 6reat #esignE there is a description of the views of many scientists regarding the nature of the self. that EI thin/. we may call this intelligence by any name we want. independent of other substances. The doubter is a substance. and among them consciousness and extension is prominent.. Haldane expresses his view on the nature of the self as. the universe is not merely a mechanical and unthin/ing process which rolls its way with inexorable necessity. but there is a design and a plan. This postulates an intelligence.I regard consciousness as fundamental. 5estern and $astern have perceived that this un/nown and un/nowable is our very life.pino!a said that substance his infinite number of attributes.J 1 Arthur H.. . the atman has infinite number of pradesas.. He doubted everything but he could not doubt the doubter.the possibility of consciousness after death. .J The EIE is the substance9 it is the substratum of experiences. &.elf is an ob4ect of /nowledge.. That is the . The consciousness is the essential characteristics of the soul..o proofs are necessary.0 -. #avid Hume denied the reality of . and many philosophers ancient and modern. extension has its infinite modes9 they constitute the physical universe.imilarly.J + Herbert . The stream of consciousness is the attribute of the atman.. we do not /now what it is. not matter. and the design of the universe. . #ue to its characteristic of activity the 4iva expresses modifications.. JI believe that intelligence is manifested throughout all nature. I regard matter as derivative from consciousness. -ohn Doc/e said that .The old Atheism is gone. . therefore I amE.S O# THE SCIENTISTS rof. Aeligion belongs to the realm of the spirit and mind.elf. #escartes. They constitute the pattern of the atman.imilarly. It is the pattern that is important. .. '+) 6od 'Bltimate self) and '0) The external world. and the atman remains the same through the modifications constituted of origin and decay. #ue to its characteristic of sat it is a parartha 'substance). I experience pleasures and pains. which suggests. The non-living substances do not possess this characteristic. &ut.ir A.J ( . I argue. According to their views. The 4iva expresses the characteristics of sat 'existence) and /riya/aritya 'activity). no arguments are necessary. This characteristic of consciousness is psychic energy and it is a differential of the atman. JI thin/. although threads are necessary for the cloth. JA conclusion. Jsomething un/nown is doing. 6eorge &er/ley has shown that the universe is constituted of three principles3 '() The self. but mind and personality is the central fact of the universe.. :onsciousness is a form of the attribute of thought. $ddington said.. the flame is distinct from the log of wood which serves it temporarily as a fuel. Aene #escartes has said. atman is considered to be a pure substance. &ut. Therefore. The philosophers that we have 4ust mentioned. JThe truth is that.pencer maintains that the teachers and founders of the religion have all taught. :ompton has written to say. which wor/s behind the process of the universe and the designer.

there should also be a favorable circumstance of the presence of the light. It is of the nature of stimulus response and conditioned reflex. Therefore. . The .the self and said that it is only a fleeting collection of impressions. &ut on the whole. there is a possibility of maintaining that the atman is real. It can be inferred through its ob4ect. &ut the experience of sight will be possible if there is a . the development of life has to be from life only. Therefore. Those who question and those who doubt the reality of the . this would not be a counter-argument against the existence of the atman. there have been attempts to argue against the existence of the atman. His view is nearer to the &uddhist concept of atman as not a real substance but merely an aggregate of physical and mental states. as the Asat/aryavadin would assert.amsari 4ivas 'soul involved in this world).elf have no valid arguments to give. .. it can be said that arguments against the existence of the atman do not hold ground. 'iii) Te4as/aya 'fire-bodied). It cannot be from non-living to life. They have been distinguished into3 gross 'badara) and subtle 'su/sma). The problem of the . 'iv) vayu/aya 'air-bodied) and 'v) vanaspati/aya 'vegetable-/ingdom). The 4ivas of the air and fire-body have movement as their nature and they are called gati-trasa 'moving). it would be proper to consider that the immaterial soul and the material body are qualitatively different. The . Therefore. which are within the range of the sense organ of sight. CLASSI#ICATION O# JI5AS -ivas have been classified into different types on the basis of the different principles.elf.thavara 4ivas have been classified into five different types3 'I) rthvi/aya 'earth-bodied). It is an independent substance. 5e see with out eyes and we see ob4ects. on the basis of the principle of the capacity of movement 4ivas have been classified into3 'I) . The foremost classifications of 4ivas is '() *u/ta 4ivas 'liberated souls) and '+) . 5e cannot get the /nowledge of the atman through the senses.imilarly. although some .htavara 4ivas 'beings which cannot move e.+ . its physical capacity and environmental factors limit the function of sense organ. . which perceive. THE PROO#S #OR THE E7ISTENCE O# THE AT&AN Attempts have been made to give positive proofs for the existence of the atman.amsari 4ivas. =f the .till.elf is different from the non-living ob4ect.thavara 4ivas are of three types3 '() rthvi 4ivas '$arth-bodied) '+) -ala 4ivas '5ater-bodied) and '0) >anaspati '>egetable /ingdom).or instance. 5e have seen that those who argued that consciousness is the product of the physiological and chemical changes in the brain cells. Therefore. =n the contrary. 'ii) 4ala/aya 'water-bodied). have not been able to prove that the brain cells of the chemical effect is the soul. Therefore. trees) 'ii) Trasa 4ivas 'beings which have the capacity of movement).elf is expressed through the experiences of the senses. That would mean arising of something out a thing of a different nature. It is a spiritual substance. *oreover. there are different classifications again on the basis of different principles. This classification is based on the principle of the attainment of perfection. evolution of anything has to be from within its nature. .elf cannot directly be seen through the senses.elf has still remained a mystery.ometimes. the . 5e cannot get the /nowledge of the atman through the senses.aturalist sychologist li/e avlov have tried to demonstrate that all activities of an organism are physiological.othing can evolve from something which is not of its nature. ( . They have not been able to show that the physiological processes produce mental states.g. the . The . The scientists right from the beginning have been discussing the problem of the nature of the self but they have not come to any definite conclusion.

0M.ila 'granite. 0+. @. (0. 1.phati/a *ar/ata &hu4amoca/a Indranila :handana ula/a . 0.urya/anta . H. +M. (+. lohita 'red). +H.augandhi/a :handraprabha >aidurya -ala/anta . ?. (1. harita 'yellow). su/la 'white) pandu 'orange) and pana/amrti/a.imilar distinction has been made in the ra4napana. +(. +G.rthvi 'earth) . +2. (?. ((. ++. 0(. 00. +@.uddha. . +.0 6ross earth-bodied being are of two types3 '() mrdu 'soft) and '+) /athina 'hard). 02.uvarna 'gold) >a4ra 'diamond) Haritala 'emerald) Hingulu/a *anahsila . The hard portion of the earth has been divided into &hutalavinyasa 'terrain) and /arambapalo. while the gross-bodied beings live in specific places of the universe. 01.isa/a 'lead) Aupya 'silver) . 0G.1 . +1.ar/ara 'sand) &alu/a . (M. +0. This distinction may be considered to be more scientific. +?. 2. The soft earth-bodied beings are again classified into seven types on the basis of the color of their bodies3 /rsna 'blac/). nila 'blue). (@. (G. roc/s) Davana 'salt) Bsa 'soft earth) Ayasa 'iron) Tamra 'copper) Bpala 'some type of roc/) Trapu '!inc) . Those too have parts and have been further classified into 0G parts3 (. (H.asya/a 'a variety of emerald) An4ana ravala/a( Abhra/a &alu/a Abhrapatala 6omeda/a Auca/a An/a .subtle-bodied beings are pervading the entire universe. G. (2.

According to the &rhadvrtti commentary on the Bttaradhyayanasutra Dohita/sa and *asaragalla are species of . The trasa 4ivas are of six types3 (. the living beings who have not got the capacity of movement. but. while the gross-bodies beings have a habitation in a particular place. They move about randomly. Data 'creeper) 2. '0) Haratanu 'green bodied).o far we have considered the . Agni 'fire-bodied) +.uddhavata and 'G) . :aturindriya 'four-sensed organisms) G. '1) 6un4avata. ancendriya 'five-sensed organisms) + The fire-bodied and the air-bodied beings do not possess self-willed movements. '0) 6hanavata. Datavalaya 'encircling creepers) H. ratye/a sariri being in the vegetable /ingdom are of twelve types as3 (.amvarta/avata. The other 4ivas from two sense-organisms onwards have self-willed movements. 7uhuna (M. Therefore. >ayu 'air-bodied) 0. ( . 1 The gross air-bodied beings have the following types3 '() Bt/ali/a. if one body contains innumerable 4ivas 'living cells) it is called sadharana sariri. etc. 6ulma 1. . The fire-bodied and air-bodied animals are gross and subtle. Ausadhitrana 'medicinal grass) (+.uddha uda/a 'pure water). vidyut. 6uccha 0. arvaga ?. 4wala. self-moving beings. 0 The gross vegetable /ingdom is of two types.. '+) *andali/a. Harita/aya 'green bodied plant)1 The beings of sadharana sarira have innumerable types li/e 7anda and mula etc. '+) =sa uda/a 'dew).e. '2) .phati/a and *ora/ata respectively. >r/sa 'tree) +. '1) 7ohara 'fog) and '2) Hima 'ice).ow we consider the trasa 4ivas 'living beings who can move about) i. as3 '() pratye/a sariri 'having separate bodies) and '+) sadharana sariri 'having one body). suddha agni.e.thavara 4ivas i. The being having one 4iva in one body is called pratye/a sariri. ul/a. 2 . >alli 'plant) G. -ala4a ((. archi. The subtle-bodied beings pervade the entire universe. Trindriya 'three-sensed organisms) 2. + The gross water-bodied beings 'sthula 4ala) can be divided into 2 types. #vindriya 'two-sensed organisms) 1. they are called gati trasa. as3 '() . 0 The gross-bodied fire beings have various forms li/e angara. murmura. Trana 'blade of grass) @.

There are four types or trasa 4ivas3 (.e. Aomapa/si 0. a distinction has been made among the 4ivas as those who are liberated 'siddha 4ivas) and those whoa are in samsara 'samsari 4ivas). '+) Tiryanca 'lower animals). + The 4alacara animals are of various types. we can classify trasa 4ivas on the basis of the criterion of the number of sense organs they possess.. 0 The sthalacara animals are mainly of two types as3 '() catuspada 'four footed) '+) parisarpa 'crawling). li/e lions etc. 1. :aturindriya 'four-sensed organisms) 1. :armapa/si +. rominent among them are3 '() *atsya 'fish). '() 4alacara 'moving in water) '+) sthalacara 'moving on the earth) '0) 7hecara 'moving in the air). '0) *anusya 'human) and '1) #eva 'heavenly beings). #vindriya 'two-sensed organisms) +. Trindriya 'three-sensed organisms) 0. &ut from the point of vie of modes. >itapa/si( SA&SARI AN* &UKTA JI5AS According to -ainism.rom the point of view of the states of existence. Twosensed. Among the fivesensed lower animals. magara 'crocodile) and sumsumara etc. The five-sensed organisms are of two types3 '() sammurchana4a 'self-born) '+) 6arbha4a 'born of womb). express the feeling of fear and run about. +. ancendriya 'five-sensed organisms). graha. li/e elephants.Those beings who have the capacity of movement on their own account and being aware of the movement and those who can more forward and bac/ward. 7acchapa 'tortoise). 0. animals with one hoof-horses etc. with round legs. from the point of view of substance and energy all 4ivas are equal. all these are trasa 4ivas. three-sensed. li/e sna/e etc. and four-sensed organisms are sammurchana4a i. They are self-born. create sound. 1 :atuspada animals are of four types as3 (.G According to the terminology of the trasa 4ivas. They re considered to be the freed souls and those who in bondage in this wheel of samsara. . There is no distinction between a 4iva and Isvara as a higher 4iva. G 7hecara animals are of four types as3 (. &hu4aparisarpa 'moving with shoulders) +. with two hoofs-oxen etc. . 5ith feet having claws and nails. there are three types. 5hen the soul is freed . they did not ta/e their birth in a womb. Brahparisarpa 'crawling with the stomach) reptiles. the five sensed-organisms are of four types3 '() . expand and contract. 2 arisarpa animals are mainly of two types as3 (.airayi/a 'hellish). ( They are all gross-bodied and there are no distinctions of subtle-and gross-bodied organisms in this case.amudgapa/si 1. namely.

The samsari 4ivas are being eternally moving from one state to the other experiencing the /armic effects and in turn accruing more and more /arma. + #ue to the absence of the principle of motion 'dharma) the soul does not go to alo/a.. The freed soul is free from the body. i. ( Therefore. It is saccidananda 'perfect reality. each atman retains its individuality. They are omniscient and perfect.0 bahihvihara. '+) asangata '0) bandhaviccheda. It is formless and therefore many siddhas can live together in the same space. It is free from rebirth and is in the highest state of perfection. A question arises. The state of the soul in mu/ti condition is characteri!ed by freedom from disease. Therefore. the downward force of the world li/e the gravity does not affect the soul. It is full of /arma and therefore. how can be explain the reduction of the su/sma sarira to one-third sarira in the highest stage.1 siddhalo/a. there is no question of pervading or expansion or contraction of the soul. The freed soul en4oys perfect bliss of itself. .e. it is held down in the wheel of life and when the /arma is destroyed. The &hagavati sutra mentions the four causes for such state of Brdhvagati. in the state of freedom. It has no empirical body attached to it. + nirvana. it goes up freed from all /armas to the siddhasila. perfect consciousness and perfect bliss). The liberated souls are not bound by any other state. the ghanatva of the world i. without destruction and possessed of perfect /nowledge and intuition. last life minus one third of its form.( The atman in the highest stage of perfection is the paramatman and there is really spea/ing no distinction between the atman and the paramatman in the highest stage. It is free from material ad bodily modes of movement and variations. during the su/ladhyan state 'deep peaceful meditation) vibrations of he su/sma sarira are reduced to this form. as '() prayoga. In the freed state the soul is without body. Bttaradhyayana and other agama boo/s give various synonymous words for mu/ti which have been used in their boo/s3 mo/sa. It is freed from all the /armas. 5hen the /armic particles are completely destroyed atman becomes free from all the modes of the body li/e old age. one-third portion of the earlier su/sma sarira is eliminated. The si!e of the mu/ta 4iva 'freed soul) is of the dimension of the subtle body that it have been.2 atmavasati. &ut the freed souls are free from /arma. perfect purity and perfect holiness. . It is in its own nature. it is considered to be ghanarupa. Therefore.@ pradhanagati. disease and death and is free from the rebirth. unli/e the >edantic conception of the identity or the merger of the atman with the &ahaman.H varagati. There are no distinctions between the different individual souls in the free state although they retain their individuality. The movement is the attribute of the body and therefore. The soul in its liberated state is freed from the bodily activities li/e birth and death. It has no form and whatever description is given about the nature of the soul in the liberated state9 it is only with reference to the space points and not extensions. the en4oyment of the perfect bliss and peace. In the highest stage of perfection. Brdhvagati 'tendency to go up) is the very characteristic of the atman and when the /armic encrustations are removed. '1) tathavidha svabhava.ext distinction of the 4iva is the samsari 4iva.? sugati. the soul has not movement at all.(( avyabadha(+ and lo/ottamottama(0 etc.G anuttaragati. The answer that has been suggested is that the 4iva has been shown to be pervading the body that it occupies in a particular empirical life. the souls involved into the wheel of samsara. without body.(M apunaravrtta. *o/sa is not to be mista/en as a negative state of void. The 4iva has perfect /nowledge and intuition 'samyag4nana and darsana) and its inherent characteristics. without experiences of misery. As long as the /arma vitiated the soul. . Therefore. when the atman is free from the body either it should be atomic in form or all pervasive. The form of the soul was neither atomic nor all pervasive. is becomes pure and is freed from the wheel of life and death.e.from the /armic matter. They en4oy their own state without being affected by any other external or internal forces. the soul moves towards the upward path to the siddhasila. It is positive state of bliss. it is embodied and not freed from bodily modes. It has no other types of vibrations.+ This is because.imilarly.

there are no repetitions. . revivals or re-occurrence of the physical and psychic states because the /arma is removed and the /arma is the cause of all these modes. Therefore.The liberated soul is completely free from the empirical ad4uncts li/e the modes of the body and the mind.

In the use of these words the #harmadravya connoted assistance of movement. It is formless and therefore it has neither the attributes of the physical ob4ects nor the attributes of mental states. -aina literature gives it the name of #harmadravya 'principle of motion).e. and 7ala are arupi 'formless). It is the principle by which the movement is possible although it does not contribute directly either in the material substance or as the energy that ma/es ob4ects moves. =ther #arsanas in Indian philosophy have not given thought to the conception of #harma and Adharma in the sense of connoting the principle of motion and principle of rest. These two are the functional principles. ( In the -aina literature the words dharma and adharma have also been used in the ethical sense as subha 'auspicious) and asubha 'inauspicious). 4iva and pudgala have been considered to be both gatisila 'having movement) and sthitisila 'being stationary).( :etena is the characteristic of 4iva and it has the attributes of upayoga i. It has no color. -ust as the movement of the fish is possible in water although the water does not or may not ma/e it to move. It is eternal. All the activities and movement of the 4iva in both physiological and psychological sense li/e physical movement and mental states. smell. In modern science. similarly the space beyond the universe 'alo/a) is also limited.ewton for the first time discovered the principle of motion. Adharma. #harmadravya is one and whole and does not appear as arts. 1 udgala has form. SUBSTANCE3 -ivatattva is opposite of a4ivatattva. Albert $instein while advocating the principle of motion said that the universe is limited.and for this /ind of movement they have a medium of motion and that is the principle of #harma9 and Adharma is the principle of rest. and #harma assists movement. It is the principle of motion by which matter moves. The other four dravyas are having no motion. *HAR&ASTIKAYA =f the six dravyas. while Adharmadravya has a connotation of stagnation. It pervades the entire universe and there is no place in the universe in which #harmadravya is absent.imilarly. 4iva and pudgala have the capacity of movement. In the agama literature the substances having form have been called J*urtaJ while those substances which have no form are called JamurtaJ. &eyond this universe.+ &hagavana *ahavira said that the #harmadravya is one. It pervades the entire universe. . 4nana and darsana. . They have the capacity to move from one place to the other. It only means that they have motion as a capacity and possibility and are not absolutely stationary 'sthitisila).A8i)atatt)a0 A St"dy 2A SUR5EY O# NON+LI5IN. there is neither substance nor energy that is responsible for the motion.. *ovement 'gati) is the characteristic. the principle motion '#harma) is the principal by which the movement is possible. The other four substances 'dravya) #harma.) 0 A4iva is of two /inds3 '() rupi a4iva 'with form) and '+) arupi a4iva 'formless). The universe is limited because the substance or energy is limited to the sphere of universe. . nor touch and taste. A/asa. The substance which is in a body and which sees. but it does not mean that they are constantly moving every instant. /nows and experiences pleasure and pain is called 4iva. In -ainism.+ The body in which there is no cogni!ing substance experiencing pleasure and pain is the a4iva 'non-living substance. It has infinite number of pradesas 'space points). 5hat the scientists call $ther as the principle of motion. are due to principle of motion. It is indestructible. It does not move although it is the principle of motion. which refers to the movement from one place to the another.

. the movement and the rest are natural to the ob4ects. because it is experienced through the senses. motion or rest. where #harma and Adharma operate that is Do/a. where would be the motionF 5ho would come and who would goF How could the waves of the sound travelF How could eye lids openF 5ho would tal/ and who could move aboutF The whole world would have remained stationary. ( . similarly #harmadravya assists movement. Therefore. 6autama 6anadhara as/ed &hagavana *ahavira J5hat is the use of #harmasti/aya for the 4ivasFJ *ahavira said3 J= 6autama. sometime they move and sometime they rest. J&hagavan8 5hat is the use of the Adharmasti/aya for the -ivasF *ahavira said.. as. how important are the substances of #harma and Adharma in this universe. &ut when we accept the existence of Do/a. we can say 4ust as the movement of the train would be possible because of the rails. udgala. and where these principles are not operative it is Alo/a. if the Adharmasti/aya were not to operate as principle of rest who stand and who would sitF 5ho would sleepF 5ho could concentrateF 5ho could remain silentF 5ho can remain inactiveF 5ho could /eep the eyelids steadyF The world would have constant movement without brea/. there must be a limited as if there is the limited. The logic of our arguments would certainly show that if there is a beyond.( This world is a fact. They do not have mere motion or mere rest. if the principle of motion were not to operate. + The universe has all the six substances li/e the -iva. #harmasti/aya is the means to all the moving things. the Alo/a is not sub4ect to sense-experience. The immediate causes of movement and rest in -iva and udgala are in the very nature of these substances however the efficient causes are #harma and Adharma. and are causes for the movement and rest of the two. 4iva and a4iva cannot exist because #harma and Adharma are the criteria of the distinctions between the two spheres of Do/a and Alo/a. which are remote. . These are relative terms. because the limited does imply the unlimited. the existence and the non-existence of the alo/a have been a problem. '() from rest to motion. They are the principles of #harma and Adharma. J=. which are the characteristics of pudgala and 4iva 'matter and soul). It is necessary to postulate the #harma and Adharma as principles of motion and rest. the movement of pudgala 'matter) is possible due to #harmadravya.0 6autama as/ed. because we cannot explain the movement and the state of rest in the universe nor can we divide the cosmos into Do/a and Alo/a. In this world there are four states of movement and rest of a thing. *otion and rest are the two states. Di/ewise.e. #harma and Adharma and A/asa and A/asa and 7ala. &ut the beyond i. &ut where there is only A/asa.imilarly 4iva and pudgala have movement because of principle of motion '#harmadravya). The states of motion and rest are to be found in the universe and these two are possible by the #harma and Adharma dravyas which do not themselves possess. 5e have already said that -iva and A4iva have primarily the state of movement as a characteristic. motion is not possible. ( It is therefore possible to understand. To give an example of modern life. '0) always at rest and '1) always in motion. Acarya *alayagiri said that the order in the Do/a and the Alo/a 'universe and the beyond) is not possible without these substances. And they have principles assisting them. All that is steady and at rest is due to the principle of rest. 4ust as the fish cannot move outside the water. i. In the Alo/a. 6autama. but which assists the motion and rest. Therefore. '+) from motion to rest.5ithout this principle. we have also to postulate the existence of the beyond. AdharmaJ.e. it is the beyond9 the unlimited and it is called Alo/a. which implied the unlimited.

They are a4iva and they are inferable. they are contrary. . then there would be continuous motion and there would not be any possibility of steadiness. 6. both of them re formless.. Adharma also pervades the entire universe.. JThis does not mean that the $ther is abolished. How can they assist motion and restF The answer is that the capacity to help not necessarily remains in those substances. -ust as the shade of the tree provides coolness and possibility of rest for a traveler. -ain says Jthat it has been established that the -ain philosophers and modern scientists agree regarding the principle of $ther and the #harmadravya as synonymous because both of them are non-material. A.CO&PARISON . continuous whole and all-pervading li/e A/asa. In the modern science $ther has been suggested to be the medium of movement. how can they co-existF &oth of them are continuos. which have form. we can say. it is agreed that $ther is not a /ind of matter. . The question. It is analogous to the -aina conception of #harma. . A. if the state of rest which is due to Adharmasti/aya in what way does it helpF .. &oth these functions are different. even the formless substances have this capacity. A*HAR&ASTIKAYA As the #harmadravya is necessary for movement in the world so is the Adharmadravya necessary for explaining rest and a static state of the ob4ects.. being. non-discrete and co-extensive with space. As in the absence of the #harmasti/aya we cannot explain the existence of motion.. non-discrete. + Albert $instein has propounded the Theory of Aelativity and he has shown that $ther is non-material. Di/e the #harma. nor have they movement although they are the medium of movementJ. continuous. and non-discrete. they are the basic principles of motion and rest. They have no form. It is whole. They cannot be attributed to the same principle. similarly the Adharmasti/aya enables the 4iva and pudgala substance to experience the state of rest. it can be said that their functions are different. 5hile discussing the comparative study of the #harmadravya with $ther. -ust as A/asa 'space) is formless. so also we cannot explain the state of rest without Adharmasti/aya. rof. =ne helps motion and the other helps the static existence.in the last century it was widely believed that $ther was a thing of matter.or this. The $ther is one of the outstanding discoveries of the modern science. $ddington writes. so also the principle of Adharma pervades the entire Do/a/asa 'the universe). As the sesamum oil pervades he entire grain of sesamum. if the state of rest were not possible. so also the #harma and Adharma has the capacity to help the motion and rest. The eminent scientist #r. but they have not found it necessary to postulate a principle by which the movement is possible. but still it accommodates infinite number of things so also #harma and Adharma are formless. It would be difficult to say when this view died out.ow a days. A/asa has the capacity of accommodating things.This stage of steadiness and static existence is possible through Adharmasti/aya. non-material-its properties are signaries 'quite unique) characters such as mass and rigidity which we meet within matter will naturally be absent in $ther but the $ther will have new and definite characters of its own---non-material ocean of $therJ. It has again been as/ed that if #harma as a principle of motion and Adharma as the principle of rest.or this. .ITH EHTER *any Indian and 5estern philosophers have recogni!ed the reality if motion in the universe. The third question has been as/ed3 #harma and Adharma are formless. 5e need an $ther.

it is with reference to the functions of the #harma and Adharma dravyas. Acarya . &ut #r. if A/asa were not to be there. . -ust as numerous lights illumine the room and the light of each lamp pervades the entire room. where would the 4ivas beF 5here would the #harma and Adharma asti/ayas pervadeF 5here would be the 7ala extendF 5here would the dance of udgala be possibleF The whole world would be without foundationF 1 A/asa is not a solid thing. udgala. it is completely free from any other substance. . how could there be distinction between the Do/a/asa and the Alo/a/asaF How can A/asa be divided into these twoF &ut the answer is. so Alo/a/asa does not accommodate but it does not mean that it looses its function of accommodation. #harma.ome thin/ers have compared Adharma with the principle of gravitation and field.imilarly. A/asa is one and formless. + It is the basis of all dravyas and therefore it has a special function.ubstances are limited to the Do/a.o. are called Do/a/asa and the beyond is called Alo/a/asa.( AKASASTIKAYA That substance which accommodates -iva. formless 'amruta) and it has infinite points of space 'ananta pradesi). $ach does its own functions although they do co-exist. yet their functions are different and there are no contradictions in their functional distinctions. That part of A/asa where substances li/e -iva. which accommodates all things. It does not mean that the function of one is not distinct from the other and it is lost and ahs not existence. A/asa is divided into two parts3 '() Do/a/asa 'the limited universe i. &ut the limitless and the beyond void. it can be said that as substances they are all pervading but as to their functions they are different. but we ma/e a distinction between Do/a/asa and Alo/a/asa because we have to explain the distinction with reference to the accommodation to the other dravyas. udgala. the world) and '+) Alo/a/asa 'the limitless beyond). #harma and Adharma are all pervading.e. but in Alo/a/asa there is nothing.or this. 5e may call it A/asa.iddhasena #iva/ara does not find it necessary that #harma and Adharma be considered as independent substances 'dravyas). A question has been as/ed that it may be true that which accommodates things is the A/asa. It is all pervading 'sarva-vyapi). there is no distinction in substance. . but it is empty space. The fact is this that due to the absence of #harma and Adharma as the principles of motion and rest in the Alo/a/asa. And there will be no distinction between them. In the Alo/a/asa there are no substances at all. . . *ohanlal *ehta is of view that the #harmasti/aya is quite different from the gravitational force and field and it is an independent principle. Do/a/asa accommodates the substances. . #harma and 7ala exist.till why is it called A/asaF The answer is that the very nature of A/asa is to accommodate things and Do/a/asa accommodates dravyas. ( As a la/e gives space to the water. 0 6autama 6anadhara as/ed to *ahavira3 &hagavan8 5hat is the use of substance of A/asa for the -iva and A4ivasFJ &hagavana *ahavira said3 = 6autama.The next question is3 if #harma and Adharma are all pervading then they must inter-penetrate each other. similarly A/asa is a resting-place for all the dravyas. Adharma and 7ala is called A/asadravya. He considers that both of them are not substances but they are modes of substances. Adharma. A/asa is really one and continuous without parts. there is no question of accommodating. . A question has been as/ed that if A/asa were to be one and continuous. this division is not on the basis of substance.

Do/a/asa has infinite number of pradesas 'space points). The whole A/asa is limitless and endless. A/asa is beginningless and endless and considered from the point of view of nature.e.yaya-/ari/avali ma/es di/ as that which has the attributes of the farness and nearness 'duratva and sampiya) and which ma/es distinction between the one place and the other.imilarly. permanence and destruction 'utpada. ( That which has the attribute of sabda is A/asa. A question is again as/ed3 If all substances exist simultaneously and if A/asa accommodates all substances on the basis of #harma and Adharma.am/hya and #evantins. .rom the point of time. sthiti and vinasa). A/asa is not one. infinite pradesas are ta/en out from the limitless A/asa. still infinite pradesas remain. and A/asa is formless. which get accommodation 'adheya). It moves from one place to the other. &ut A/asa has no support outside itself. + . . A/asa has been considered to be of different as ananta 'endless). from the point of view of extension. A/asa is not considered in a negative connotation. These are conventional measures. -ust as the hands and the body can be related as the part and the whole or the organs and the body. In modern philosophy #harma. and that which limits the external world by direction is called di/. every ob4ect is in one place or the other. while Alo/a/asa has limitless space.rom the point of view of extension. we find the di/ i. we cannot say that A/asa is a product of pra/rti nor is it an appearance of &rahman 1 because A/asa is an independent substance.( All these are the forms of the endless. the direction. According to -ainism. how can these substances be considered as those. in terms of abhava 'non-existence). A/asa as a substance has infinite number of pradesas. The answer is A/asa is more extensive than the other substances. According to the &uddhists. #i/ is one and nitya 'eternal). Adharma and A/asa have been considered as the forces in A/asa. .. paritananta 'endless more) and yu/tananta 'still more endless) and anantananta 'endlessly endless). It is limitless because. it is called ananta 'endless). Therefore. It is selfexistent and it does not need the support of any other substance. which produces sound because sabda is produced by matter. and A/asa is the support of >ayu. &ecause in the variable measurable distinctions of A/asa. . In the &uddhist philosophy. A question is as/ed3 How does A/asa accommodate a thingF That which has no place prior it can be given a place or the thing which was no there could be /ept thereF The answer is. A/asa is considered to have a characteristic of avaranabhava 'absence of pervasion) and it is considered to be simple element 'asams/rta dharma). It gives accommodation to all substances and so it is called base 'adhara) and as the other substances ta/e accommodation it is so they have been called adheya. so are other substances. and also it is not considered as asams/rta dharma because it has the characteristic in it of the origin. which has form. As A/asa is beginningless. A/asa is formless. >ayu is the support of water. 0 In the -aina philosophy di/ is not considered to be distinct from A/asa. It is the limitless. + &ut in the -aina philosophy. . &ut we do not get an elaborate discussion of A/asa in these schools of thought as we get in the -aina philosophy. it is endless and limitless extending from Do/a to Alo/a. The entire canvas of the ob4ects depends on each other. water is the support of the earth. According to -ainism. Therefore. They have considered the directions different from A/asa. >aisesi/as have made A/asa as independent substance and it has a characteristic of producing sabda 'sound).Therefore it is empty. It is not possible to say that the formless A/asa produced substances with form. >aisesi/a. &y the phenomenal distinctions for practical purposes it is called the east and west and other directions. It is the limitless beyond. A/asa is the substance.

5ater. If a man faces the $ast and expands his both the hands. the product of pra/rti. These are also called tapadisas. A/asa is not a product or a mode of a material substance. The products of a pra/rti arise out of the disturbances in the three gunas and due to the presence of the purusa. nor is it neither extensible nor extendable due to the material substance. it covers infinite number of pradesas. 5e cannot consider A/asa as the substance having the attribute of sound. the sound is experienced. . and increasing itself by two-two pradesas.( The $ast is a direction which a man. The pra/rti evolve into a variety of complexes of modes to form the universe. with reference to different locations. have form and how can the product of A/asa which is also a product of pra/rti cannot have form. there are four pradesas till the end. radesa give a pattern for the empirical measurement of A/asa. and all pervasive. The evolution of the pra/rti is based on the disturbance in the equilibrium of the three gunas-sattva. earth and other substances have A/asas the matrix. we have the Jdisa and a anudisaJ. considers as the direction from which sun rises.outh to his right hand. the particles are little apart and they are bound to be in-between. 1 In modern science A/asa 'space) is not to be considered to possess the characteristic of producing sound. formless. There is no increase in the pradesas. radesa can be considered to be a point of space in which one parmanu exists. &ecause A/asa is inactive. #isa commences with two points of space of A/asa. A/asa has infinite pradesas 'points of space). It cannot be said that pra/rti gives rise to A/asa and we cannot ma/e A/asa. This distinction is called ra4napa/a #isa. if we accept A/asa as a product of pra/rti. #ue to this contact. but it is measured for practical purposes. According to . -ust as every point in a piece of cloth is necessary for giving pattern. Therefore. ra4as and tamas. water and air and agni etc. the districts and the other sub-divisions as independent space. This appears to be difficult to understand. #isa has been conventionally formed for the sa/e of measuring space and determining directions. A/asa accommodates all substances. urusa is inactive and pure consciousness. similarly all the pradesas give a pattern for the empirical measurement to A/asa.orth to his left hand and .ound is experienced by the sense organs which are material in nature. . The stimulation of the sound is received by the sense organ-the ear.am/hya. where he is. It is the measurable extent of A/asa. They are not to be considered as separate entities and we cannot consider the countries. the .#i/ 'direction) is a form of empirical measurement of A/asa with reference to the existence and location of the things. urusa is an independent reality and pra/rti is to explain the evolution of the entire universe including A/asa. The products of pra/rti li/e prthvi. endless. the direction to the right hand is south and the direction to the left is the . 5hen we measure and determine the directions li/e east and 5est. &ut the evolutes of pra/rti will have different qualitative distinctions as some having form and some formless.rom the slanting lo/a 'tirya/ lo/a). . they are only for practical purposes. This is the primary limit of measurement.orth. These directions are conventional measurements based on the sunrise and sunEs movement. Therefore. In the case of water.0 5e should remember that #isa 'direction is not an independent substance. sound is produced. pra/rti is the primordial substance and rthvi and A/asa are the products of the pra/rti but it is a question worth considering. It is for astrological purpose. Brdhva disa 'upward direction) and adhodisa 'downward direction) begin with four pradesas and in these. The direction in which the sun sets is for him the 5est. + In Acaranganiryu/ti we get another description of directions. material particles come into contact with the other material particles and due to the resistance of the material particles. The $ast would be in front of astrologer 'pra4napa/a) the 5est behind him. It is all one. Anudisa is a part of #isa.

5hile lato. #escartes. All experience is possible because of the matrix and space and time. The -ainas have given an independent reality to A/asa and have considered it as an asti/aya because it has the dual characteristic of astitva 'existence) and /ayatva 'extension). It is a priori principle and it is cognitively priori. we cannot construct the order of the universe. The -ainas have advocated the possibility of empty space in their concept of Alo/a/asa. &ut the . ap. It is an intellectual construct. >aibhasi/as describe the nature of A/asa as a non-pervasive element. If it is considered to be an independent reality there would be no distinction between Isvara and A/asa. Aristotle and even upto 7ant. &ut from the phenomenal point of view. However. Deibnit! and other philosophers have considered space as a form of experience. because space is a fact of experience and the things of the world do require a . &ecause the facts of the world contradict it. There is the rationalistic approach presented by #escartes and Deibnit! and that is the idealistic view presented by lato. #escartes. appears to be inadequate. the things of the world require some support and without the concept of A/asa. ( It does not pervade anything nor is it covered by any ob4ect. those elements which have the attributes of origin and destruction are called sams/rta dharma 'composite elements). te4a.1servation6 The idealist philosophers have considered space as only a product of understanding and that has no independent reality. However. The idealistic philosophers li/e 7ant and others have considered the empty space as possible. but A/asa cannot be purely described in terms of paricheda. is it possible to have an ob4ect with empirical characteristic and at the same time not producedF It is possible that we cannot describe the products of A/asa in the language of origin and destruction. However. . There are different views. 7ant said that space is a form of perception and it is intuitive perception. It is the matrix on which perception is possible. because it is one and continuous and also because in empirical characteristic li/e origin and destruction are applicable to composite ob4ects 'sams/rta dharma). abhidhammasangraha has described A/asa in terms of paricheda 'analysis). 7ant and others. and vayu. Aegarding the nature of A/asa as sunya 'empty) or otherwise. Deibnit! and lato and Aristotle have said that empty space without the content of ob4ects is not possible. it is not in-reality.BU**HIST CONCEPTION O# AKASA The &uddhist philosophers have considered A/asa to be a simple element 'asams/rta dharma). Aristotle and others have said that space is an independent substance. A/asa is not an independent substance. which is a postulate. but have its own characteristic. as we mentioned earlier. A/asa is always filled. $ven the support of the things that is attributed to A/asa is a product of intellect. believe that space is a form of perception.o.( A/asa is 4ynatasape/sa 'a product of intellect). They have described it as having the characteristic of anavrtti 'non-covering) and avaranabhava 'non-pervasion). Aegarding the nature of A/asa.arva/sani/avadi &uddhists maintain that A/asa is a simple substance and not composite.ESTERN CONCEPTION OE SPACE 2AKASA3 The western philosophers have given an elaborate discussion about the reality and nature of space. This view. Thirdly. 7ant said that space is a form of perception. there are different views. A/asa is eternal and not produced unli/e the other our elements li/e prthvi. . It is made to be based on cognitive consciousness. philosophers are not agreed. yet it cannot be said to be a mere product of imagination. . &ut it is free from the characteristic of origin and destruction. The idealist contention that the all-pervasive nature of A/asa would lead to the identity of the Isvara and A/asa is not also correct. + &ut the question is.

#escartes says that space cannot be considered as an attribute of the ob4ect.(( #evacandra.1servations6 If A/asa has a reality of its own. This has relevance to the scientific conception of space.ewton. ( Bttaradhyayana. &ut according to the -ainas the principles of motion and that of rest '#harma-Adharma dravyas) are independent substances and they are the basis of motion and rest in the universe. This is meant to explain the principle of motion. there is a difference between . but if it considered in relation to the ob4ects occupying space. According to 6asendi. 7ala is considered to be an independent tattva. A/asa cannot inherit the qualities of the ob4ects it accommodates. According to one view. because physical ob4ects are destructive while A/asa is endless. 4ust li/e -iva and A4iva. one and continuous.elf.pace is considered to be without movement 'agatisila). $instein has considered space as a reality9 infact it is space-time reality.substance which give support to them. Aristotle would only accept the reality or space in the presence of physical ob4ects. He would li/e to distinguish the filled space. ether as a substance cannot be explained without the conception of A/asa.(+ and other . lato has said that space is the blan/ principle.(M >inayavi4aya. space is a reality independent of matter and the .e. there is the mention of both the views in &hagavati.H Acarya Hemacandra. . li/e the -ainas. they accept the possibility of the empty space.@ Haribhadrasuri. 0 -ainas and 7ant agree in one point. *any ob4ects can exist together and the same ob4ect may exist in different ob4ects as different times. To occupy certain space and so obstruct have certain space is the characteristics of the physical ob4ects.G -inabhadragani. it can be described as having form. However.iddhasena #iva/ara. space is indelibly connoted with ether and matter. This view is nearer to the -aina conception of giving independent reality to A/asa. 7ala is an independent substance. have accepted the reality of space with ob4ects i. Deibnit! and other philosophers have considered space.. filled-space as having form. but to give space to these ob4ects is a different thing. In the same sense 7ala cannot become the expression of change in the ob4ects although it is the medium of change. &ertrand Aussell also comes to a similar view.vetambara Agama literature. This ma/es it clear that the ob4ect occupying the space.ewtonian and the -aina conception of space.? Bpadhyaya Lasovi4aya. .+ -ivabhigama0 and ra4napana. According to the other view. These two principles and the A/asa are not inherent. 7ala is considered to be the mode of substances of -iva and A4iva.2 . and empty space on the basis of rigorous of logicF KALA 2TI&E3 -aina philosophers have presented two prominent views regarding the nature of 7ala 'time). In this sense. According to lato and Aristotle. a form of visible ob4ects. and 7ala is an independent substance.ewtonian conception.+ $uclidean hysiometry and the later mathematical development have proved contrary to the 7antian conception of space as a form of pereption. . space is considered as a substance. because it is not multi-dimensional but it is only uni-dimensional. the substance of A/asa can accommodate many ob4ects in one space. In the . It is li/e the void. However. According to -ainas. In that. it must be different from the physical ob4ects. It is a dravya although it is not an asti/aya. According to the . A/asa is formless. and space accommodating the ob4ects is different sub4ects.1 Dater Acarya Bmasvati.

The changes in the various ob4ects are possible in time. but they are complement to each other. but it is of the nature of the anu. we find that there are two views mentioned. The modes are special features of the substances 4iva and a4iva. The functions of 7ala can be mentioned as change. the universe. 7ala is an independent substance. day and nights are the modes of 7ala from the practical point of view. the one and the other etc. there are aggregates of many points that 7ala always moves in one direction. In the constitution of the world.1 -ivabhigama. In these. 4iva and A4iva are the constituent principles and both of them are expressed in the form of modification.2 &hagavati. pancasti/aya. The rotations and evolutions of planets are possible in time. it is forward-loo/ing. #harma and Adharma and the panca dravyas except 7ala have threedimensional forms. + However. muhurta.vetambara literature li/e .rom noumenal point of view. In this sense. #harma and the principle of rest. activity. . The time series are always in forward direction 'Brdhva pracaya). 7ala is considered as dravya. 7ala is abode of the -iva and the A4iva and not an independent substance. According to the first view of 7ala. It may be noted that although 7ala is a substance. $very point of time is discrete and at a particular moment of time the present alone exists and . It is a linear series. time is a substance and change is possible in time. It is not a substance having the characteristics of s/andha 'aggregate of atoms). the two views mentioned above are not contrary to each other..G and ancasti/aya. These modifications and their clusters are considered as 7ala. .1 If we survey the -aina literature regarding the constitution of the Do/a i. 7ala need not be considered as an independent substance. it is not a substance li/e the other five substances having extensional dimensions. effect. 0 &ut from practical point of view. according to #alsu/habhai *alavania. the measurable distance li/e samaya.( According to the second view. In the #igambara literature 7ala is not merely considered as an aspect of or an expression of human intellect with reference to human activity. the phenomenal existence can be explained. The first view maintains that the universe is constituted of six substances 'saddravyas) ( and the other view advocates the constitution of the universe as made up of five principles. The conventional measurements of time li/e samaya and avali/a are not different from 4iva and a4iva. .0 In the .or this reason. They are the modes of these substances. (0 u4yapada. -ust as #harma and Adharma as principles of motion and rest are independent substances -iva and A4iva have their functions of movement and rest.imilarly. ( The span of 7ala is considered to be uni-dimensional. 7ala has relevance with reference to human intellect. BttaradhyayanaH and #harmasangrahani have described 7ala as of the measure of two and a half dvipa 'islands). It is nondimensional. . but it is also pervading the entire universe. the view of six dravyas mentioned in the Bttaradhyayana may be considered as an exception.e..@ in #igambara literature.thananga. #igambara acaryas li/e 7unda/unda. The two are independent substances. &y ma/ing 7ala the mode of the substances of -iva and A4iva.vetambara acaryas have mentioned both the views. it i suggested that the universe is constituted of 2 principles 'pancasti/aya). It is not an asti/aya.e. 7ala by itself is not an independent substance. It is considered a substance because of its functions. &ut from phenomenal point of view 7ala is a substance.(1 &hattara/a A/alan/adeva (2 and >idyanandasvami(G have mentioned that 7ala is an independent substance.rom the noumenal point of view. + However. In face 7ala has relevance in the world of men and also in the astronomical and astrological calculations. It has no magnitude9 therefore it has no /ayatva. &ut the movement and rest are possible in the medium of the principle of movement i. 7ala has been considered as an independent substance 4ust as -iva-A4iva and their modes are considered.

Therefore. $very petal is pierced successively within the minutest fraction of time and that samaya which ta/es to pierce one petal is the unit. It may appear that the piercing was done simultaneously. a piece of cloth is woven into large number of threads and each thread is constituted as the infinite points of cotton. As it is mono-dimensional.( The minutest division of /ala is samaya.one avali/a +2G avali/as -one /sulla/a bhava 'the shortest life span) +++0 (++?-0@@0 avali/as -one breath 'inhaling and exhaling) 111G +12H-0@@0 avali/as -one prana . This is the phenomenal measurement of time with a practical purpose of determining the span of time. 5e may now mention the conventional measurements of time for the purpose of human activities from samaya. It is a primary distinction of measurement of time. niscaya /ala. there is not possibility of aggregate of time 's/andha). but this was not so. it may appear that all of them have been penetrated simultaneouslyF &ut this does not happen. Therefore. -one ghati '+1 minutes) @@ lavas -+ ghati or-G220G /sulla/a bhava or . is the mode of 4iva and a4iva. The duration of life is considered as yathayunirvrtti 7ala and the cessation of the duration of life is death and is called the *arana/ala.e.(G@@@+(G avali/a or -0@@0 prana or -one muhurta '1H minutes) . The measurement of time based on the revolutions of the sun and the moon is called the addha/ala. 5e have already said that the real time i.adhi/a (@ /sulla/a bhava or-one breathe @ pranas -one sto/a @ sto/a -one lava 0H(O+ lava. Lathayunirvrtti/ala 'life span time of a 4iva) 0. There are not divisions in real time. ramana 7ala 'measurable time). It is indivisible. tirya/ pracaya. it cannot present a reverse direction i. Therefore 7ala is not considered an asti/aya. As a strong man. The indivisible minutest fraction of time -one samaya Infinite number of samaya . The other distinctions are forms of this distinction. $very thread is torn at every fraction of time and that is the smallest unit of time. Addha/ala 'time relative to the movement of sun and moon). The life and death are two relative spans of time. 5hen the piece of cloth is torn every point of cotton and every thread needs to be torned separately and each requires an indivisible and minutest fraction of time and this is called samaya. you may tear a piece of cloth at once. the smallest unit to the largest unit of ananta/alaca/ra. All the divisions from samaya to pudgala-paravartana are made of the addha/ala. And it is all pervading both in the Do/a and Alo/a.the past has gone and the future has no come. :onventional measurement of 7ala is impossible and is possible through the changes in the ob4ects. +. #OR&S O# TI&E 2KALA3 . this is restricted to the human world and it is meant to measure the various distinctions of time for human activities. If the (MM petals of lotus are /ept one over another and if now is to pierce a needle so as to penetrate all the petals. In short. here is only one samaya every time.thananga+ mentions four types of 7ala3 (.e. *arana/ala 'moment of death) and 1.. Therefore.. It can be described on the analogy of a hole in the /amalapatra or hole in a piece of cloth.

In the Loga philosophy.one masa 'month) + masa . In the Loga philosophy.am/hya and Loga #arsanas. It is only an efficient cause9 it is to be understood as a principle on account of which change can be measured. >aisesi/as consider /ala to be indirect in cognition. He says that measurable units of time li/e muhurta. the .yaya->aisesi/a and purva-mimamsa maintain the time as an independent substance.( have discussed this problem of time and have largely accepted the >aisesi/a concept of time.one pa/sa 'fortnight) + pa/ras .one year 2 years .one sagara +M :rore-crore sagara .one pudgala paravartana THE NATURE O# KALA IN THE 5E*IC TRA*ITION The term 7ala has been used at many places in the >edas and Bpanisads. yet it has its changing aspects. in his commentary. mind etc. the commentator li/e arthasarathi and andit Aama/risna.one purva Innumerable years . ra/rti is eternal. It is the ground of change.one palyopama (M :rore-crore palyopama . do not ma/e 7ala as an independent substance. we can say that . &ut the commentator >yasa. but active. Incidentally.am/hya. 7sana is real but it is not the fundamental substance. ( &ut we do not get a clear picture of the exact meaning of the 7ala in all these references. &ut the ground of activity and not the cause of can be considered to be the principle of time. atan4ali has not discussed prominently the nature of time. unli/e >aisesi/as. -ust as >aisesi/as have done.yaya->aisesi/as has a similar view of 7ala. . The gross and subtle matter is expressions of pra/rti.one day and a night (2 days . However. ( . In this sense. 2G la/hs /rore years . with certain modifications in that. -aimani has not given specific reference regarding the nature of the 7ala. disa 'direction). has made specific mention of the time. are phenomenal measurements of time and for practical purposes they are products of intellectual discrimination.yaya philosophy 6autama has not given an independent interpretation about the nature of 7ala. A/asa. + There is no independent substance li/e time. and the minutest unit on which change is measured is 7sana. purusa and the pra/rti are the two fundamental principles.one yuga @M crore-crores. day etc. prahara. while mimamsa/as ma/e direct cognition. He says that 7ala is substance.one rtu 'season) 0 rtu . pra/rti is considered to be unconscious. In the urva-*imamsa there is not much discussion about the nature of the 7ala. 7anada in the >aisesi/a darsana has presented four sutras for describing the principle of 7ala. He shows that 7sana can be measured by the time-span ta/en by an atom to reverse form from one point to the other. According to .one ayana + ayana . are nothing but the products of pra/rti.0M muhurta . Activity is the inherent characteristic of pra/rti and therefore it does not need any other force to bring activity in pra/rti.one /alaca/ra Ananta/alaca/ra . However. but it is only an expression of pra/rti.am/hya. he has described the nature of 7ala as the ground of all activities. also li/e the . it is eternal and it is the ground of all activities. 5e ma/e distinctions in the different spans of time on the basis of minutest units of a 7sana 'moment). + In the .

Atman is the &rahman.imbar/a. etc. However. all else is appearance. &rahman is the only reality. It is a cognition. . The propounder of this school of thought was &adarayana. According to him. are not independent reality. &adarayana has not discussed the nature of time but . + The past. atoms. They have not considered 7ala as an independent substance. Thus we have two views regarding the substance 7ala in the -ains philosophy. have given their interpretation of the relation of the &rahman and the Atman although the foundational principle of the &rahman as the sole reality continues to determine their interpretations of the &rahman. substances li/e a/asa.an/aracarya has presented his theory of absolutism. . etc. as we have seen earlier other >edantins li/e the >isistadvaitins. All the >edantins alongwith the .>edanta darsana is also called Bttaramimamsa or aupanisadi/a darsana. It is an only experience. >allabha. According to this theory. THE BU**HIST CONCEPTION O# KALA 2TI&E3 The &uddhists consider time as a mental construct for the sa/e of the practical purpose.am/hya and the Loga are agreed that the 7ala is a form of perception and is not an independent substance. the present. the future are all phenomenal distinctions of time made for practical purposes and they are not real time. of Aamanu4a school of thought and other forms of >edantins li/e . Time is not an independent substance. we have also two views. the one advocating the time as an independent substance and the other denying the independent substantially to 7ala 'time). *adhva.imilarly in the >edic tradition.

. however. etc. udgala is that substance which can be divided and also combined. while A/asa is indivisible and endless.or instance. If we imagine the extension. They. In the &uddhist philosophy. The sense organs do not impose these attributes on matter. sense organs are not the products of varna and rasa.P"dgala 2&atter30 A St"dy . 4oining and separating. ud refers to completing or 4oining9 EgalaE refers to dropping or finishing. The substance which has the characteristic of constantly integrating and disintegrating i.0 #havala1 and the Harivamsapurana 2 have stated that due to the characteristic of integration and disintegration. . udgala is considered to have the characteristics of integration and disintegration 'purana-galana). except 7ala. gandha. rasa 'taste).ALA IS RUPI In this sense. The minutest part of udgala is paramanu i. As it has the attributes of rasa. vi4nana.HAT IS &ATTER 5hat the scientists call matter and what . the substance udgala is considered to be matter. because they have extension and astitva. udgala has the attributes of rasa. =b4ects without form cannot be experienced through the sense organs. that as the udgala has the attributes of rasa. A/asa and 7ala are formless and we cannot get the experience of these through the sense organs.or this reason also. The relation is between the sense organs and varna-rasa is not between the cause and effect.yaya->aisesi/a call the physical universe '4ada)9 the -ainas call it udgala. It is true that experience of these qualities is due to the contact of matter with the sense organs. *atter has the inherent characteristics of these varna. In the -aina agamas. #harma. atman embodied and associated with mater is also sometimes called with form.. interact on each other. Its distinctions are donated by means of atoms. It is mentioned as mahas/andha + and as pervading the entire universe. 5ithout these attributes. substances li/e -iva. udgala is an ob4ect of sense-experience. udgala has the attributes such as sparsa 'touch). TER&INOLO. but between the /nowledge and the ob4ect of /nowledge.e. #harma and Adharma have innumerable parts. .e. forming and separating is called pudgala. etc.iddhasena. gandha 'smell) and varna 'color). rasa. Adharma. we can find that -iva.imilarly. &ut it does not mean that these attributes are not in the matter. it is called rupi or rupavan 'having form). Tattvarthavrtti of . =f the six substances. matter has no existence at all. etc. . #harma. A question arises9 namely. ( Tattvarthara4avarti/a +. The ob4ects with form can be experienced and cogni!ed through the sense organs. if possible of the four substances. cetanasantani etc. the word pudgala has been used to connote alaya. G PU*. Atom can be considered as macro-cosm and cosmos can be loo/ed at as macro-cosmic.Y O# PU*. -iva. atom. are called Asti/aya. gandha etc. udgala is not indivisible. five of them. and A/asa do not possess characteristics of integration 'samyoga) and disintegration 'vibhaga).ALA The term udgala has two parts-pud and gala. and the biggest part of the udgala is the entire cosmos. gandha. can we say that these attributes are inherent attributes of the substance udgala or are they products of experience and imposed by the mind on substanceF The answer is. Adharma. &oth of them have independent existence.

etc. . and the external causes are concerned with external stimulations. Two atoms each separate and one dvi-pradesi s/andha. The causes are twofold '() internal and '+) external. '0) s/andha pradesa ''aggregate occupying limited space). =ne atom and one three-atomed aggregate 'three-pradesi s/andha). If they are separated we get the following forms3 (.imilarly. we get either three paramanus or one paramanu and dvi-pradesi s/andha. . . and that would be one s/andha. . 0. how is it that experiences of these attributes with different individuals differ and how is it that there are illusions.ALA 2&ATTER3 *atter ' udgala) is a substance and it is of four divisions 'bheda)3 (. And if the dvi-pradesi s/andha is divided. In the s/andha.There is another question regarding the experience of illusions.ometimes. etc. gandha etc.imilarly. the aggregate is called dvi-pradesi. THE #OUR TYPES O# PU*. bright light may give different stimulations and discordant music may also give different stimulations for the harmonious music. #ue to these two types of causes. '0) &heda and sanghata purva/a 'with distinctions and collection. However.) + . The internal cause refers to the differences in the sense organs.e.ubstance is the substratum of the attributes and the attributes are equally real and independent. If color and taste are inherent attributes of substance. substance cannot exist. '1) paramanu 'atoms). '+) s/andha desa 'aggregate occupying space). gandha. from two atoms to infinite number of atoms arise.uch differences of experiences are also possible due to the differences in the intensity and the extent of the stimulations that the sense organs receive from the external world. Two dvi-pradesi s/andhas 'aggregates of two atoms each). concerning the color. the attributes of rasa. 5ithout these attributes.or instance. taste. are inherently present in the substance. . If we are in a bad mood. If they are separated. a person suffering from 4aundice sees everything yellow. The aggregates of atoms are called s/andha. it is called :atuhpradesi s/andha. A color-blind man will see everything grey./andha formation is of three types3 '() bhedapurva/a 'having distinctions) '+) sanghata purva/a 'collection). 5e get two atoms. . If four atoms are combined. It is the aggregate of atoms. we experience ob4ects differently. These differences in experience are therefore due to the internal and external causes. #ue to these differences in the external stimulations. it is true that these experiences of color. the aggregates also may 4oin with atoms. Aggregate 's/andha). i. . 1. taste etcF How is it that there are differences in the experience of taste and color according to the differences in individual capacities.or instance. . we find the integration and disintegration of paramanus. may be different with different individuals and also in different circumstances.F The answer is.our atoms separate each. If three atoms are combined we get three-pradesi s/andha. . The -ainas maintain the distinct relationship between the substance and the attributes.. ( SKAN*HA0 The unit of formed matter '*urta dravya) is s/andha. place and time etc. thee music drags on. our experiences of the melody and the music depend upon our mental get up. we experience defenses in the experience of rasa. If two atoms combine. +. infinite number of atoms combine and they form the cosmos.

If we imagine that this is a part of one pencil or a boo/ it is considered to be e/adesa s/andha. then they become separate s/andhas. According to -ainism. however. &ut as we go on dividing a piece of ob4ect. 0 The internal causes for the distinction between the one s/andha and the other do not depend on any external factors.or instance. It has been pointed out that physical ob4ects are formed due to the aggregates. . If the pot is bro/en into two pieces.The distinction is possible due to internal and eternal causes. It does not change the characteristic of a pot in the s/andha. The aggregate may be formed only by bheda or only by sanghata or sometimes due to both the processes. This is due to the external causes or the internal causes. It means that desa and s/andha are not separate. The aggregates formed due to the distinctions 'bheda) and sanghata 'union) are called bheda-sanghata purva/a s/andha. the nature of the chal/ remains essentially as chal/. &ut./andha 'aggregate of atoms) may be considered as one unit. each particle of the powder is a s/andha. These molecules have tremendous velocity in various directions in the gases and in the aggregate s/andha. It is a molecule. In modern science.or instance. . They are only discriminations made due to intellect. we may reach a point where it cannot be further divided. one unit or collection of units of atoms is called s/andha3 it may be a pot or a table or a boo/. The minutest part of the chal/-piece is also s/andha. Two different atoms combine and they form a sanghata. . . That is the indivisible unit of the ob4ect and that s/andha and the modern concept of aggregate 'molecule) have some similarities although there are some differences. It is the indivisible part. This unit can be measured intellectually as one unit 'through out our intellect) and is called s/andha-desa. most subtle and which cannot be further divided. If it is divided into two parts and further divided into two parts and in this way if we divide the piece of atoms into infinite parts. then also there are two s/andhas and if it is bro/en into thousand pieces. It means the paramanu having the capacity to combine may be considered as s/andha-pradesa. the s/andhas are formed in three different ways. According to -ainism. If they actually are separated. *odern science considers such a particle as one s/andha also. The minutest parts of an aggregate are aggregate. and these called s/andhas formed due to external causes. at a particular moment one part of the s/andha gets separated and at the same time another s/andha comes and 4oins it and forms a new s/andha then this s/andha is called the s/andha due to distinction and union.ormation of unity of different elements is called sanghata. SKAN*HA+*ESA0 . the minutest part of the pot is also a s/andha. SKAN*HA+PRA*ESA0 The inseparable unit of a s/andha is called s/andha-pradesa. there are thousand s/andhas.imilarly. the concept of aggregate has been designated as molecule and it is very much discussed in the physical sciences. The causes are inherent in the s/andhas themselves. the indivisible part looses its characteristics of a pot and may form as a part of something else. The external causes are due to some external factors. a piece of chal/ is considered to be an aggregate of atoms and molecules. as long it does not reach the stage of an atom. if we go further. if we grind the pot into powder. In this way. PARA&ANU0 .

The indivisible unit of a s/andha is called paramanu. As long as it has the tendency to combine, it is considered to be pradesa and if it becomes separate and remains separate, it is called paramanu. The commentators on -aina sastra have explained the nature of paramanu in different ways. aramanu pudgala ( 'matter), is indivisible 'avibha4ya), is indestructible 'acchedya), cannot be pierced 'abhedya), adahya 'cannot be burnt), agrahya 'cannot be grasped). 5e cannot have divisions of paramanu by any means even with the sharpest of the instruments. It can remain on the tip of a sharp sword and remain uncut. ;ire cannot burn it. The rains cannot ma/e it wet. The great 6anges cannot wash it away. The paramanu as the minutest particle has no parts, does not occupy definite space and as neither beginning nor end. + It is neither long nor short, neither big nor small. It has one definite form. As it is subtle, it is itself the middle, the beginning and the end. It occupies a point in space.( That which has the beginning, the end, and the middle in itself and is not possible to grasp it through the sense-experience, has no parts and that minutest particle is paramanu. + In the ancasti/ayasara,0 we get the description of some of the characteristics of parmanu. aramanu is that particle of mater, which has one color 'varna), one smell 'gandha), one taste 'rasa) and two sparsa. A paramanu is the cause of producing the sound, but by itself it has not sound. It is different from aggregate of paramanu. In the paramanu, the senses of color, smell, taste and touch are present in specific degrees. &ut id does not have the sense of space '/setrendriya). The sabda or word is and expression of the aggregate 's/andha) in the form of sound. aramanu is the cause of sabda, but it is not possible to say that one atom is the ob4ect of the sense of sight, smell and other indriyas. Let these senses coming from the sense organs are the basic characteristics of paramanu. The distinction of pradesa and paramanu from s/andha can be explained with reference tot he non-differentiation 'aprtha/bhava) and differentiation 'prtha/bhava). THE #IRST *ISCUSSION O# PARA&ANU IN IN*IA In the -ain agama literature, is given an elaborate discussion about the nature of paramanu. According to the -aina philosophers, whatever differentiations and non-differentiation, integration and disintegration in the things ta/e place-all these are possible due to the coming together and separation of 4iva and paramanu. ,ome of the western philosophers are of the opinion that the atomic theory mentioned in some school of Indian philosophy has been borrowed from the ancient 6ree/ thought. &ut this view does not appear to be satisfactory. There is not evidence for this. In 6ree/ philosophy #emocrats was the founder of the atomic theory, and he appears to have lived in the 2th century &.:. i.e. 1GM to 0@( &.:.( The 6ree/ theory of atomism has certain similarities with the -ain theory of atomism. &ut there are certain fundamental differences between the two. According to the -ainas, the nature of atom is unconscious. &ut #emocrats and :arva/a in Indian thought have mentioned that what we call atman or self is only the subtlest form of atom. ,ivadatta -nani that atomism has mentioned is the speciality of only the >aisesi/as. The roots of atomic theory as propounded by >aisesi/a system can be traced to the Bpanisads. -ainas and A4iva/as have given references tot he atomic theory, but it was 7anada who gave a systematic explanation of the doctrine of atomic theory. + &ut considered from sub4ective point of view, it can be said that >aisesi/a atomic theory was not prior to the -aina theory of atomism and unli/e the -aina theory, >aisesi/as have given specific details about the nature of the atomic theory. The term anu was used in the Bpanisads. It reads JAnoraniyan mahato mahiyanJ, but there is no mention of paramanu in the Bpanisads, nor is there any discussion about the paramanu theory. #r. -acobi is of the opinion that the mention of the atomic theory in the Bpanishads and also in the philosophical literature of the Bpanishads is very little and therefore in the >edantic literature, there is a refutation of the atomic theory as supposed to have been mentioned in the Bpanisads. In the ,am/hya-Logadarsana, atomic theory has not been accepted. And ,am/hya-Logadarsana claims to be as old as thee >edas. &ut the atomic theory is an

integral part of the >aisesi/as, and the .yaya philosophers have accepted >aisesi/a theory of atomism. These schools of philosophy, the >edantic and the .yaya->aisesi/as belong to the >edic tradition. -ainas and A4iva/as are considered that -aina theory of atomism is very ancient because -ainism has its theory of atomism on the theory of matter.0 *odern philosophers have accepted the view that the atomic theory was first presented in a systematic form by the -ainas.1 T.O #OR&S O# PARA&ANU 5e have already seen that paramanu is indivisible, indestructible, and inaccessible to senses and it cannot be burnt, not can it be divided into parts. The description of these characteristics might trace some difficulty in the minds of modern scientists, because modern science has shown that paramanu is not indivisible, it can be split. If it is to be said that paramanu is not indivisible, we cannot call it J arama-anuJ. *odern science has shown that what we call parmanu, can be split. 5e do not deny this aspect of the nature of the paramanu as that which can be split. 5hat we need is the recognition of the view that the aramanu is the ultimate indivisible unit and it can be split. There it has been suggested that paramanu has two forms3 (. ,u/sma paramanu 'subtle), and >yavahara paramanu 'paramanu from the practical sense). ( The description of the paramanu as indivisible, indestructible etc. refers to su/sma paramanu. >yavahari/a paramanu consists of aggregate of endless su/sma paramanus. + Aeally spea/ing the aggregate of su/sma paramanu is the nucleus of paramanu ?paramanupinda). This cannot be grasped from ordinary or normal sense, as it is subtle. And it cannot be split by ordinary instrument or weapon. As it is su/sma in effect, it is considered to be paramanu from the practical point of view. And what the science calls EatomE is the >yavahari/a paramanu 'paramanu from the practical sense). Therefore, -ainas also consider that if it is to split, it is practical paramanu. CHARACTERISTICS O# PU*,ALA udgala has four primary characteristics3 '() sparsa 'touch), '+) rasa 'taste), '0) gandha 'smell) and '1) varna 'color). In every paramanu of the matter these four characteristics are present. These characteristics express themselves to twenty qualities. They are'() ,parsa 'touch)- 'i) sita 'cold), 'ii) usna 'hot), 'iii) ru/sa 'rough), 'iv) snigdha 'oily or viscous nature), 'v) laghu 'light), 'vi) guru 'heavy), 'vii) mrdu 'soft) and 'viii) /athora 'hard). '+) Aasa 'taste) - 'i) amla 'acid), 'ii) madhura 'sweet), 'iii) /atu 'sour), 'iv) /asaya 'bitter), 'v) ti/ta 'astringent). '0) 6andha 'smell) - 'i) ,ugandha 'fragrance), 'ii) durgandha 'foul smell). '1) >arna 'color) - 'i) 7rishna 'blac/), 'ii) nila 'blue), 'iii) ra/ta 'red), 'iv) pita 'yellow) and 'v) sveta 'white) 5e find the ,amsthana 'formation), parimandala 'globular), vrtta 'circular), tryamsa 'triangular) caturamsa 'square) and ayata 'rectangular) in udgala. ,till these are not the real characteristics of the paramanu. ( These are the modes or form of paramanu. The twenty characteristics of udgala mentioned above, can be considered in respect of its measurement and intensity into three distinctions, as '() san/hyata 'measurable), '+) asan/hyata 'immeasurable) and '0) ananta 'endless).+

;rom the point of view of substance, paramanu is partless and indivisible, but from the point of view of modes, it is not so. :onsidered from the point of view of modes, the four characteristics of varna, rasa, gandha and sparsa have their infinite modifications.+ 5e have already seen that paramanu has the four characteristics as mentioned with its sub-divisions li/e sita, usna and snigdha, ru/sa etc. :onsidered from the point of view of modes, we find a paramanu with infinite modes can become a paramanu of one mode. And paramanu wit one mode can express itself into many modes. And paramanu, according to the -aina theory one paramanu can transform itself from one attribute of varna to rasa and to gandha to sparsa. The same is the case with the others. The matter with one quality can remain in that stage approximately from one samaya to a san/hyata /ala 'innumerable points of time).( The same is the case in the case of transformation of paramanus of two qualities to ananta qualities. All the modifications in the paramanu on the basis of qualities are natural expressions of the modifications. THE #OUR TYPES O# PARA&ANU 5e have already seen that paramanu is indivisible and without parts. &ut it has been suggested that other substances have their minutest parts, which are intellectual constructs, and they are also called paramanus. In his sense, we can say that there four types of paramanu as3 '() #ravya paramanu 'substance paramanu) -pudgala paramanu 'material paramanu). '+) 7setra paramanu 'space paramanu) - a/asa paramanu. '0) 7ala paramanu 'time) 'time) -samaya 'definite span of time). '1) &hava paramanu - attribute. &hava paramanu is of four types as varna-guna, gandha-guna, rasa-guna, sparsa-guna 'color, smell, taste and touch). There are (G sub-divisions of these qualities li/e(. 7rsna 'blac/) +. .ila 'blue) 0. Aa/ta 'red) 1. ita 'yellow) 2. ,veta 'white) G. ,ugandha 'fragrant) @. #urgandha 'foul smell) H. Ti/ta 'astringent) ?. *adhura 'sweet) (M. 7atu/a 'sour) ((. 7asaya 'bitter) (+. Ti/sna 'sharp) (0. Bsna 'hot) (1. ,ita 'cold) (2. Au/sa 'rough) (G. ,nigdha 'oily or viscous nature) These sub-divisions are one-quality divisions '$/-guna). In short we can say according to the -aina conception of paramanu the paramanu possess the four qualities mentioned above.

PARA&ANU INACCESSIBLE TO SENSES 2ATIN*RIYATA3 aramanu is not accessible to sense experience through the sense organs, but it is not formless. It has form. It is so subtle that even when it has form, it cannot be grasped by the senses. It can only be seen through intuition or the higher perception. The omniscient souls '/evala4nana) can see the all substances, having form and formless. In the :hadmastha stage of gunasthana where there is the destruction-cum-subsidence of /arma and which is partial, one can /now the paramanu and also may not /now it. =ne who has clairvoyant /nowledge 'avadhi4nana) can see the ob4ects with form upto a particular distance, can /now the paramanu but one who can see only through the sense-organs cannot see the paramanu.( #OR&ATION O# SKAN*HA Imagine for a moment that each paramanu is independent, isolated li/e a bric/, then the problem arises ho the combination of paramanus and their integration bring the formation of maha/ayas/andha, the cosmos. 5hen we construct a house, we /eep the bric/s one upon the other plastered with cement etc. &ut the cosmos is formed by its own principle of necessities and not by any external agency or intelligence. As the s/y becomes laden with clouds and again becomes clear so also the s/andhas are formed and are separated by their own nature. ,till the problem remains-what is the ob4ect of such combination and disintegration of s/andhas and atomsF The universe as we see is material in nature and is due to the integration of the paramanus. aramanus combine into s/andha, and s/andhas combine to form the visible and gross ob4ects. In udgala we find the inherent forces of integration and disintegration.+ 5hen paramanus integrate s/andhas different ob4ects are formed. These forces of disintegration and integration are natural to matter and these forces are also operative due to the 4ivas, as 4ivas are active. If the udgala has not possessed the inherent attribute of integration, paramanus would have remained isolated, and if the force of disintegration were not in operation them the paramanus, would have been found in an unorgani!ed cluster. The cosmos would not be possible and there would be no use of the paramanus and s/andhas for the 4ivas. According to the -aina sciences, the formation of s/andha has been explained in the scientific way on the basis of the principle of chemical composition. The formation of s/andha can be explained in the following process3 (. The paramanus combine themselves into due to their characteristics of viscosity. The separation of the atoms out of the s/andhas is due to the attribute of roughness. +. The paramanus, which are ali/e having snigdha, come together and form into s/andha. 'If the two paramanus have the viscosity to a degree less than two, then the combination is not possible). 0. A paramanu which is viscous and the paramanu which is dried, if they come together it is possible to form s/andha. 'In these cases the intensity of dryness should be more than two degrees). 1. >iscous and the dry paramanus form s/andha even when they belong to different categories. In all these, there is one point of exception i.e., that paramanus cannot form s/andha if the dryness and the viscosity are of one degree difference. In other words, 'i) The parts, which have different characteristics '4aghanya guna), do not form into a combination. 'ii) The aramanus with identical attributes li/e either the viscous or dry cannot form a combination.

'iii)

The two coming together would form a combination. (

The ,vetambaras and the #igambaras have expressed difference of opinion regarding the formation or combination of s/andhas. According to the ,vetambara tradition, if two paramanus with viscous nature having abominable tradition, if two paramanus with viscous nature having abominable attributes '4aghanya guna) comes together there would be no bandha 'combination), but if now paramanu consisting abominable attributes and the other of unabominable attributes 'a4aghanya guna) there would be a combination form9 but the #igambaras maintain even if one paramanu is of '4aghanya guna) there would be no bandha. According to ,vetambaras in the formation of parts and from one part to the attributes of viscosity and the dryness vary in increasing degrees from two, three, four, upto endless gunas, then also, the combination is possible9 but by the increase of one degree only bandha is not possible. &ut according to the #igambara tradition by the increase of attributes of two degrees only the combination would be possible. The parts having the degrees of intensity of viscosity and dryness from one unit to the infinite units in ascending order the combination would not be possible the ,vetambara version says the two, three or more qualities in the paramanus would lead to the process of combination and this is possible if the qualities are of similar nature and not dissimilar9 but the #igambaras say, the formation of combinations would be possible in both the cases where there are similar or dissimilar qualities. In short, the #igambara and ,vetambara version of the combinations would be as follows3 S5ETA&BARA TRA*ITION ,adrsa 'similar) .o .o Les Les .o .o Les Les >isadrsa 'dissimilar) .o Les Les Les Les Les Les Les

(. -aghanya plus 4aghanya +. -aghanya plus e/adhi/a 'one addition) 0. -aghanya plus dvyadhi/a 'two addition) 1. -aghanya plus triadhi/a 2. -aghanyetara plus sama4aghanyetara G. -aghanyetara plus e/adhi/a 4aghanyetara @. -aghanyetara plus dvyadhi/a 4aghanyetara H. -aghanyetara plus tryadhi/adi 4aghanyetara *I,A&BARA TRA*ITION

(. -aghanya plus 4aghanya +. -aghanya plus e/adhi/a 0. 4aghanya plus dvyadhi/a 1. -aghanya plus triadhi/a 2. -aghanyetara plus sama4aghanyetara G. -aghanyetara plus e/adhi/a 4aghanyetara @. -aghanyetara plus dvyadhi/a 4aghanyetara H. -aghanyetara plus tryadhi/adi 4aghanyetara

,adrsa 'similar) .o .o .o .o .o .o Les .o

>isadrsa 'dissimilar) .o .o .o .o .o .o Les .o

After the combination of the atoms, which of the paramanus effect combination with what type of paramanus, is a question that has been as/ed very often. ,imilarly, another question has been as/ed very often, of the similar and the dissimilar paramanus of similar qualities do not form combinationF If the paramanus are of dissimilar nature, they combine in the formation of the similar paramanus collecting together or sometimes similar paramanus in two degrees combine with similar paramanus of one degree. The combinations are formed

according to the substance and the place etc. The combinations are formed according to the integration of paramanus. These types of combinations are considered as madhyamabandha. The combinations of paramanus with higher intensity and qualities absorb the combinations of the paramanus with lower intensity and qualities.( In the tradition, similar qualities do not come together and the more intense qualities absorb the less intense qualities.+ *I5ISIONS AN* SUB+*I5ISIONS O# PU*,ALA The two ma4or distinctions of udgala can be stated to be anu 'atom) and s/andha 'aggregate). =n the basis of this distinction, we can classify the matter 'pudgala) into G types. 0 '() ,thula-sthula 'very gross)-It contains the gross ob4ects li/e-earth, stones, wood etc. '+) ,thula 'gross)-It has the following varieties, li/e-mil/, curds, butter, water, oil and other fluid material. '0) ,thula-su/sma 'gross subtle)-It has the following forms, li/e light, electricity, etc. '1) ,u/sma-sthula-5ind, vapor etc., belongs to this category. '2) ,u/sma-The ob4ects belong to this category cannot be experienced by the senses e.g., *anovargana 'atoms of mental structure), etc. They are called Aca/susa s/andha. 'G) ,u/sma-su/sma-The minutest paramanu is the subtlest form of atom. That part of matters which is the aggregate of paramanus due to the combinations and disintegration is unaccessible to sense experience. If the aggregate of atoms becomes bigger and coarse 'sthula) then the aggregate becomes accessible to sense-experience. The combination and disintegration of atoms is considered to be the coming-together of atoms and separation. The degree of the combination so as to enable the aggregate to be coarser and coarsest will ma/e the aggregate accessible to sense-experience. THREE TYPES O# PU*,ALA 2&ATTER3 udgala 'matter) can be considered into three types on the basis of the distinction on the types of combination of paramanus.( (. rayoga parinata-The collection of atoms processed by the 4iva in the formation of the body is called prayogaparinata-sense organs, body blood, flesh, etc. +. *isra parinata-In this, the atoms are brought together by the 4iva and they are again discharged, e.g. nails which are cut, hair, cough and excretion etc. 0. >israsa parinata-In this, we find aggregate of atoms without the help of the 4iva. The atoms come together by themselves, e.g., rainbow, clouds, etc. ORI,INATION9 CHAN,E ' PER&ANENCE IN &ATTER *atter is both permanent and impermanent. + ;rom the point of view of substance, it is permanent and from the point of view of modifications, it i impermanent. ;rom the point of view of substance, a thing is permanent because the atoms that form the aggregate are permanent, although the ob4ects that are formed due to the combination of atoms change their nature and structure, and as such, from the point of view of modifications of the substance due to the integration and is integration of atoms, it is impermanent. #ue to the combinations of atoms, the substance is not considered to be permanent, but from the point of view of the original nature of atoms and from the points of view of place and the time of the combination, it may be considered to be relatively permanent.(

it has a beginning and it is characteri!ed by change.rom the point of view of /setra 'place). 5hen molecules are affected by quality of softness and viscosity they combine into producing the quality of soft touch similarly. The subtle forms of aggregate of atoms have fourfold attributes of touch. APRA*ESIT5A 2NON+SPACIAL POSITION3 AN* SAPRA*ESIT5A 2SPECIAL POSITION3 aramanu considered from the point of view of substance and special position can be considered as apradesi. li/eguru-laghu. The paramanus can remain in their original states for at-least a period of one samaya or at the most upto asan/hyata /ala 'innumerable points of time). The two combinations are3 '() &adara 'gross). it is considered to be apradesi. In short. but a molecule may occupy one point of space. &ut from the point of view of temporal extension.'() sita. two. because it is in one samaya.THE TRANS#OR&ATION O# &ATTER *atter may be considered to be of two forms on the basis of the manner of the integration and disintegration of atoms. usna. it is called sapradesi. 'nature) a paramanu is apradesi 'non-special). we can say the paramanu and s/andha can remain in a particular point or space for samaya or at the latest for innumerable points of time '/ala). when heat and dryness are combined quality of roughness is expressed. aramanus form themselves into s/andhas and s/andhas disintegrate into paramanus. it might ta/e one samaya or at the most ananta /ala. + The molecule with two atoms or the molecule with three atoms can come bac/ to its original position paramanus and that would ta/e one samaya at least or ananta /ala 'endless time) at the most. 1 A paramanu occupies one point of space. are beginningless and without any change. . '+) . In the same way. if it is one guna 'quality) but if it is characteri!ed by many qualities it is sapradesi 'special). but if the combination of snigdha paramanus 'viscous atoms) then the ob4ect gets the quality of guru sparsa. 0 If a paramanu or a molecule moves from one point of space 'a/asa pradesa) and returns to that very point of space.u/sma 'subtle). mrdu-/athina. . If dry atoms are combined together. It may also pervade the entire lo/a/asa. snigdha and ru/sa. transformation is inevitable. as it covers extended space. ( After this period. then the ob4ect has the quality of laghu sparsa. as it does not occupy an extended point of space.ometimes the aggregates so formed are subtle and they are not accessible to the sense organs. the ob4ects have four forms of touch. but if it is in more than one samaya. . innumerable or numberless points of space. Infinite number of atoms combine together to form ob4ects. li/e. if the molecule remains in its nature of molecule. . when the transformation is from the subtle qualities to the gross qualities then there would increase four types of touch. it can do so at-least for one samaya and at the most for innumerable /ala. + THE E7TENT O# &ATTER The molecules 's/andha) and paramanu 'atoms) are considered from the point of view of flow. :onsidered from the point of view of effects. If the atoms are combined to form gross ob4ects.rom the point of view of bhava. If a paramanu 4oins to form a molecule and again gets disintegrated to its original nature of paramanu it might ta/e one samaya or at the most asan/hyata /ala. It is cosmos. 5e have already seen that the aggregate paramanus pervading the entire universe is called acittamahas/andha.

. a paramanu is not always in motion. the principle of movement '#harma) is the principle due to which motion in paramanu is possible. in the molecule one atom may vibrate and the other may not. *olecules with four atoms may express all forms of permutations of vibration and non-vibration. due to 4iva.or instance. and two atoms may remain non-vibratory while the one atom may not. A molecule with two atoms has both the characteristics. it is sapradesi. If there are some crosseffects or other paramanus and material particles. In on samaya. . The motion of the paramanu is sometimes due to some cause and sometime without any cause. And the cause is material only. The answer is that paramanu does not move because of 4iva. but if covers more than one point of space. &ut the principle of #harma is not the cause of the motion9 it is only an efficient condition. as paramanu is not transformed or combined into molecules. &ut if has more than one quality. It is material in nature.+ A question arises. whether the motion in paramanu is due to itself of is caused by 4iva. 5hile the other points of space may express vibration and the one point may not and so on. aramanu can be described as being vibratory 'sa/ampa) ( and non-vibrate 'a/ampa). *olecules of five atoms and molecules upto the infinite number of atoms have similar characteristics of vibration and non-vibration. It is sometimes in motion and sometimes not.rom the point of view of bhava 'nature). and not constantly vibrating. the two atoms may vibrate and the one may not.:onsidered from the point of view of substance. A molecule which covers one point of space is apradesi. It being composed of two atoms it has special vibration and also absence of special vibration. . The number of paramanus it has determines the moleculeEs extension. The natural motion is always in straight lines. it becomes sapradesi. ( &OTION O# &ATTER aramanu is 4ada 'unconscious) still it is characteri!ed by motion. The characteristic of motion is inherent in the atom. -iva has no power to move the paramanus. a molecule is sapradesi 'extensive in special extension).o. LI&ITS O# &OTION O# PARA&ANU The motion is paramanu has certain limits. a molecule is characteri!ed by one quality it is apradesi. although it may not always move. *olecules with three atoms express similar forms of vibration and non-vibration.rom the point of /setra 'space). In fact. it can travel from one point of space in the universe to another point of space is the farthest point which is at a distance of innumerable yo4anas. and expresses both the characteristic li/e-vibration and non-vibration. the motion gets curved. -iva is not directly responsible for the . =ne special point may express vibration while others may not. It is not unsteady. . s/andha 'molecule) is sapradesi 'extensive) and also apradesi.

( And after the infinite number of points of avali/a the paramanu will definitely start motion.or this reason and because of the power of contraction etc.0 .or instance. If the orbital shell splits. the light of the lamp illumines the room fully9 but if it is covered by a small pot. . + THE SUBTLE NATURE O# PARA&ANU The special characteristics of paramanu are that it can occupy a point of space and the same point of space can be occupied by another paramanu without any resistance.ometimes the movement of the paramanu may be arrested by the particles of matter due to its contact with matter. it can be contained in a bas/et or in our poc/et. which is unimaginable. In this connection Acarya u4yapada has pointed out that there is not difficulty in atoms and molecules in occupying same point of space without friction or resistance because they have no visible extension and they are subtle in nature. As the maximum form of motion has been described. These split atoms are called stripped-atoms. infinite number of atoms and molecules can remain in one pradesa without any difficulty. $ven the mountain li/e . can move from one point of space of the point of space is of the same extension as of paramanu. is difficult to say. atoms can penetrate a thic/ wall built of cast iron. + . The volume of a nucleus is much smaller than that of an atom.umeru cannot obstruct the movement of paramanu. as it is extremely subtle. . a paramanu can remain along with molecules in the same point of space. O# PARA&ANU If we study paramanu in a scientific way. The -ain theory of atoms explains these phenomenon by means of the subtle process of movement in atoms.or this reason. . that the material aspect of the atoms of matter have the characteristics of contraction and expansion. as we have seen earlier.motion in a paramanu. the subtle form of molecule consisting infinite paramanus can occupy the same point without any resistance.imilarly. $ddington has said that if one ton '+H mounds) of nuclear mater is ta/en. .imilarly. . It contains electrons.or instance. we find that anu 'atom) is of two parts. ( The subtle transformation is contraction of a paramanu and in this it is reduced in its mass and effect. . The central part is a nucleus in which there are two functions-the protons and the neutrons. paramanu acts. it restricts its illumination to the pervasion of that very pot. . The external part is the orbital shell. 1 It is clear from this. which move constantly with the velocity. In the language of the astronomical science that some stars have density which is two hundred times more than the densest ob4ect on our earth. This heave weight of the stars is due to the stripped atoms and the atoms in these are primarily nuclear and they have no orbital shells. may be due to more inherent causes or due to some other external factors present in matter. a paramanu may stop movement within one samaya or at the most within infinite part of avali/a. 5hen the motion in the paramanu starts. The motion in paramanu. so has the minimum form of motion has been described. A star has been discovered whose destiny is G+M tons '(@0GM mounds) for every cubic inch.imilarly. The atoms are unobstructible 'apratighati) and they can penetrate any ob4ect of any type. &ut 4iva can influence the motion of molecules-big or small.. then the circumference of an atom becomes smaller. This is the special characteristic of paramanu. a lamp lights a room to the fullest extent and this room can also merge the light of many other lamps. &ut at that time paramanu also affects the matter to which it has come in contact. but one thing is certain that after infinite number of points of time. THE SCIENTI#IC 5IE.

They are called varganas. This forms the subtle body.MM. li/e--nanavaraniya etc. '1) Tai4asa vargana3 It is the aggregate of matter formed of the paramanus with energy.MM.MMM 'ten nila) paramanus. molecules as molecules. taste.MM. smell and color. earth. '+) >ai/riya vargana3 In this. $ven then the atoms inside it will have the diameter of (O(MMM of an inch. The drop of blood may be magnified in si!e of the extent of @ feet in diameter. In the &hagavati sutra we get description of the four forms of the existence of atoms. without middle and without space. li/e-short and large. either in the form of paramanus or in the form of s/andha. The form of the atom orbits extension can also be measured if compared with the magnified si!e of a small drop of blood coming out of the head. '@) >acana vargana3 The collection of matter. In the thic/ness of a cigarette-paper la/h of atoms may stay.MM.vasocchvasa vargana3 This is the aggregate of matter.MM. 'H) *ano-vargana3 This is the collection of minutest particle which are very subtle and which forms the mind for the sa/e of reflection and thin/ing.MM. '0) Ahara/a vargana3 This is the aggregate of matter formed by the paramanus and molecules with a capacity of forming body by Loga-sa/ti. we get the aggregates of matter which have the capacity of expressing the qualities. which are responsible for the formation of /arma.MM. which is responsible for speech. EI.ANAS3 O# PU*.MM. The differences between /setra and avagahana are that the first in pertaining to space while the second to the pudgala 'matter) itself. light and heavy.MM. vegetable. '1) &hava-sthanayu3 In this form paramanus express the attributes of touch.e. A molecule with two atoms is with parts. 0 THE SI6E AN* #OR& O# THE &ATTER The material atom is one.MM. but without middle and it has special extension.MM. '+) 7setra-sthanayu3 This is the a/asa pradesa. '() Audari/a vargana3 It is gross matter. '2) 7armana vargana3 It is the aggregate of matter formed of the minutest particles of matter. fire and air. visible and non-visible.MMM '2M san/has) of atoms weigh + tolas and occupy only one tenth crore of an inch space. 'G) . '0) Avagahana-sthanayu3 The specified form and si!e of paramanus and s/andha. without parts.HT CO&BINATIONS 25AR. And molecules with odd number of atoms express the characteristics possessed by molecules with three atoms. water. .MM. if we pull one hair. which enables the function of breathing.MM. A molecule with even number of atoms has characteristics li/e the molecules with two atoms. in which paramanus and s/andhas exist.ALA aramanus have been classified into H forms of combinations on the basis of the intensity and extension. etc. A mole of dust in the air contains more than (M. ( '() #ravya-sthanayu3 It is the state when paramanu remains as paramanu and s/andhas as s/andhas i.*odern science has shown that atoms are very subtle in extension and the subtlety can be explained that 2M. This consists of the combination of paramanus to form gross bodies for the 4ivas.

&ut sabda has form and it has qualities of touch etc.abda 'sound) is produced due to the friction of one molecule with the other. '(M) Bdyota 'cool-light). According to -ainism the function of pudgala is ten-fold. &ut they ma/e it an attribute of a/asa. . And then it cannot be grasped by the sense organs. It can be grasped. ahara/a and tai4asa have the qualities of eight types of touch and they are of the form of gross molecules.vasocchvasa vargana has four types of touch and also eight types of touch.. Thirdly.am/hya philosophers say. water. . ( SAB*A 2SOUN*3 .*atter is of infinite variety. &ecause sabda 'sound) is material in nature and hence sabda 'tanmatra) the subtle elements should also become material in nature. If sound were to be the qualities of a/asa. a/asa is a substance. =ne form of matter can be transformed into another form of matter due to the formation of molecules and the integration of paramanus in different intensities. -ainas differ fundamentally from the sense cause of a/asa. etc. The varganas li/e audari/a. which would also be formless. These types of matter have graded existence forming from the gross matter. It has no qualities li/e touch etc. the friction of molecules produces sound and due to the friction there would be echo and sound production. which is formless.an/hya philosophers. -ainas differ fundamentally from the >aisesi/as and . etc. must have qualities. A/asa is not material in nature.e. a/asa is not produce of sound as the . The ob4ects.ourthly. + The sound is the ob4ect of sense hearing i. the li/e of which we do not get in other systems of philosophy. ears. '?) atapa 'heat).an/hya-darsana considers the formation of sabda as the sense cause of a/asa. viscous and dry. If it were the quality of a/asa how could it be possible to chec/ the sabda. 'G) bheda 'distinction). which is formless. to the subtlest form of matter in mind. The substance. If sabdatanmatra were to be material in nature its product a/asa should also be considered as material. which are formless. 'H) chaya 'shade). vai/riya. '2) samsthana 'formation).( EI. They are subtle molecules and they have the qualities of cold and heat. They posses the qualities-light or heavy. because it becomes an ob4ect of sense organ. which have form. smooth and rough. . '+) bandha 'combination). >aisesi/as do not consider sabda as a mode of matter. And it cannot produce sound. '0) sau/smya 'subtlety). which have form. . They maintain that sabda 'sound) is material in nature. bhasa and manovarganas have four types of qualities of touch.imilarly. cannot be grasped by the sense organs. we find recognition to large extent of the -aina view of matter. '1) sthaulya 'grossness).econdly. Therefore a/asa is not a product of sabdatanmatra. &ut a/asa is not material in nature.ALA The -aina philosophers have studied the pudgala 'matter) with its various distinctions.abda 'sound). which is formless. According to the -ainas varganas of one type may also be transformed into another. the eight varieties mentioned above are prominent. In modern science. sabda can be arrested and chec/ed. . The varganas li/e /armana varganas..HT *ISTINCTIONS O# PU*. . Among them. '() . '@) tama 'dar/ness). such interruption of atoms and molecules would not be possible. which we get in earth.

li/e-vina.. pataha etc. conch 'san/ha). &ecause quality pervades the substance having that quality and there is not question whether there is the need of the presence or not. 'iv) sausira. It is the sound waves that travel through a/asa in the form of sabda. artificial) '+) vaisrasi/a 'natural).g. e. south.2MM years ago. The ghana type of sound is produced by musical instruments li/e tala. argument would be considered from scientific point of view. bell etc. The sound so produced spreads in the a/asa and the waves of the sound travel throughout space. If the intensity of the sound produced is high. Therefore. The tata form of sound is produced by a musical instrument made of leather 'carma) li/e mrdanga.'i) tata.( -aina agama literature has elaborately discussed the nature of sabda as material in nature and also the characteristics of sabda in its various aspects. contained the waves of the sounds. the sound travels li/e the waves of the water for quite sometime for several yo4anas and then the waves of the sound fade away. stationary nature 'sthititva) and other forms. sabda cannot traverse in space if there were no matter. rayogi/a-The production of the sound in this form is possible due to efforts and these efforts are of two typesdue to speech and due to efforts without speech. This phenomenon was recogni!ed and explained by &hagavana *ahavira +. The vitata sound is produced by musical instrument having streams.ifthly. . 0 5e have already seen that sound is produced due to contact. ( The vaisrasi/a sabda is all sounds produced without any effort on the part of an individual. The sabda pervade the entire universe in a fraction of moment. it is called arthapratipada/a vani. west. '() &hasatma/a expresses some meaning. &ut if the waves of the sound are received in odd combination 'visreni) we hear the sabda in the waves of the sound only.( . the thunder of the clouds is vaisrasi/a sound.. etc. sabda has velocity 'gatimanata). 'iii) ghana. '+) Abhasatma/a does not convey any meaning. north. li/e-the production 'utpatti). up and down. + According to -ambudvipapra4napti the ringing of the bell 'sughosa ghanta) in a particular region will be echoed in a bell in a far of palace even though there is no medium of transmission li/e the wires except the medium of air. The sound that we hear spo/en by a particular person is not the original word of the person spea/ing.e. for instance. The moment it is communicated through sound to other individuals. it passed on to other individuals. And sausira form of sound is produced by musical instruments. Abhasatma/a sound is of four types. but a/asa is without any motion and is passive. 'ii) vitata. The sound waves so produced spread in all the six directions-east.. pervasion in the universe 'lo/avyapitva). If sabda were the quality of a/asa it would have penetrated into every point of a/asa. An individual grasps a sound and communities it through language. friction and inter-action of the molecules formed by paramanus. It implies that we hear the sabdadravya that is uttered by an individual and the sabdadravya i. velocity 'stghragati). This can explain the function of a radio. flute. .abda is of two-type '() prayogi/a 'practical. which are to be blown through mouth. If the intensity of the sound produced is low.ixthly. If the waves of the sound spread in even combination 'samasreni) then we hear the misra sabda 'combined). the waves of the sound travel to farther distances even upto the end of the world.

the si!es of the fruits li/e the lemon and the mangoes vary in form. '+) ape/si/a su/smata 'relative fineness). it is associated with quasi-/armic material. They may also be disintegrated. 1 It has no specific form. It is of two forms3 '() antya sthulata. In this way. These are formed at a particular time and they have a beginning. but in the case of matter. rectangle. connected with non-living matter and 'b) combination. curna. Two paramanus or more than two paramanus can come together and become bound together. '-iva4ivavisaya/a). It is of two types.e. circle. The relative fineness has a reference to relative extension of the ob4ects. The association of the soul with the bodily forms li/e audari/a body etc.amsthana is of two types. .u/smata is related to fineness. Therefore their formation is sadi. pratara and anucatana. &andha is of two types.+ The ultimate fineness to be found in the paramanu. That is.BAN*HA 2CO&BINATION3 &andha means tieing. The lightening. The first type of samsthana has been divided into two types as3 'a) it is called ittham samsthana which related to geometrical forms li/e triangle. . SA&STHANA 2#OR&ATION3 . =ne ob4ect would appear larger than the others. rayogi/a bandha is of two types. Adharma and A/asa have bandha. have a beginning. the combination or the aggregate can be of two or more paramanus or two or more molecules. It is concerned with determining the si!e of the ob4ects.ROSSNESS3 .'() vaisrasi/a 'natural) and '+) prayogi/a 'artificial).'a) sadi 'with beginning) and 'b) anadi 'without beginning).0 for instance as we have seen earlier the si!e of a mango is larger than the si!e of betel nut. etc. The bandha or union of paramanu in the case of wood and wax is of the a4ivavisaya/a types. meteors. is called no/armabandha. curni/a. . . #harma. >aisrasi/a bandha is of two types. The 4iva4ivavisaya/a which is connected with the combination of paramanus in association with 4iva and a4iva may be referred to those of /armic and quasi-/armic 'no-/arma). It is the cosmos. The bondage of the soul with H types of /armas is called /arma-bandha.imilarly. =ne ob4ect is finer and smaller in si!e than another ob4ect. ( SAUKS&YA 2#INENESS3 . which is without beginning. In samyoga '4oining together). which is all pervasive.or instance. The paramanus may 4oin together in a group of two or more and form molecules. etc. ut/ara. 'b) anittham samsthana refers to irregular forms.'a) a4ivavisaya/a i. fire and rainbow.thulata refers to the largeness in si!e. It is mahas/andha.'() antya su/smata 'the ultimate fineness) and. there is the combination without any distance 'antara rahita avasthana) but in bandha there is the identity or unison of the aggregate. STHAULYA 2. /handa. the flow of water. '+) Ape/si/a sthulata is relative largeness of the si!e. which is connected with the living and the non-living substance. if we compare the si!es of the ob4ects.amsthana connotes form or structural design. However it has various structural designs-regular or irregular and it has been classified into different types. the bandha has beginning. two or more molecules can also come together. 4oining and combination 'samyo4ana). =ne is smaller than the other is.

in the form of a dar/ band. which embody the 4iva. it is cool but it its light is hot. They also may be expressing different types of reflections and images. give dar/ band. 0 If light is obstructed by opaque bodies we get shade.( &y itself. vamana. &ut if light is a substance conception in nature 'bhavatma/a in nature). BHE*A 2*ISTINCTION3 &heda refers the disintegration of the molecules into different atoms or separation of some atoms from a molecule.imilarly. The negative of the photographic plates expresses similar phenomenon. ( The Indian philosophers li/e naiyayi/as do not consider dar/ness 'andha/ara) as a substance. the visibility produced by the various combinations of paramanus can also be considered in the light reflections and these reflections are of two types3 '() vastavi/a 'natural) and '+) avastavi/a 'unnatural). These rays could be found in the eyes of some of the animals li/e cats owls. The light can function through reflection 'darpana) and the refraction. vamana refers to a dwarfish body and /ub4a refers to hunch-bac/ed body. chaya or shade has reflections in these two types.hade may be considered as a form a/in to dar/ness. referring to characteristics 'bhavatma/a dravya). . Inverted images would help formation of the correct images. which may be considered as dar/ness. /ub4a and hunda/a. because dar/ness is possible due to infrared heat rays.or instance. nyagrodha. These two functions can be natural and artificial. but these philosophers give a negative interpretation of dar/ness implying absence of light. It is considered to be a positive substance. &ut it is not absence of light9 it is to be considered as modification of matter. It shows that in addition to the visible light. *odern science does not give a negative interpretation of dar/ness. It is the heat rays of light. we have invisible light. The dar/ band is not merely the absence of light. but it is the electronic effect. etc. &ecause light has form so also the dar/ness has form. . sadi/a. It has also been classified into different types of3 '() samacaturasra. ATAPA 2HEAT3 Atapa is heat. According to modern science.The second type of samsthana has reference to the different forms of the bodies. if reflected upon. These are li/e the electronic effects. It is that which obstructs vision and which is opposite of light. 5e find that due to interference bands of the counting machine when wor/ed. + CHAYA 2SHA*E3 That which covers the light is called chaya 'shade). it is necessary to consider dar/ness also as a substance. TA&A 2*ARKNESS3 Tama is dar/ness. . .

cientifically considered. $lectoral magnetism and every minute the light travels from the sun with unimaginable speed characteri!e it. and other forms of matter.ound is a mode of matter. Then they express themselves in the form of heat. which give a cooling effect.emicandra has pointed out that matter is responsible for the production of the body.U*YOTA 2COOL LI. &ut modern science has shown that the ancient conception is wrong. It has been shown that when atom is split.HT3 Bdyota refers to the rays of the light. etc. -ust as the electrical energy transmits the sound-waves to far distance. and inter-penetration. They are very subtle rays creating invisible effects. telegraph is based on the fundamental conception of the material nature of the sound. Television is based on this principle.cientific have considered light as the continuous process of movement. This process of radiation is called radiM-active process. They say that the cosmos contains the light rays. It also gets cooled and its effect would be coolness. It is different from the heat of the fire.rom the scientific point of view. infinite energy released. . which are moving with a velocity. ghana and usna are two forms of electrical energy.vasocchvasa 'breathing). This energy is accompanied by the sound. These two are the modes of matter. so we find expressed in television. are nothing but modes of matter. These are caught and crystalli!ed in mirrors and water. we find that electrical energy may be seen in two forms as ghana vidyut 'electricity produced from the friction of particles) and 4ala vidyut 'electricity produced from water particles).ALA The primary functions of 4iva are six li/e ahara 'food). we find that there is friction of the proton and the electron particles and they produce electrical energy. taste. it has been described that every moment the ob4ects in the universe are receiving reflections and spreading far and wide.. which is un-imaginable. Heat is considered to be a quality of the matter. In -aina literature. sarira 'body) indriya 'sense organs) . . . 5hen we find the lightning and the thunder produced. These express fundamental functions of the cetana in various forms9 and these are material in aspect. >ai/riya sarira is formed by vai/riya varganas. =rdinary. The basis of ghana is protons and the source vidyut/anas is electron. #UNCTIONS O# PU*. Therefore. the paramanu were not considered to be as capable of splitting. smell. *odern science has discovered the function of the P-rays. This is the principle for the manufacture of atom bomb. 5e find that the principle of manufacturing the radio-transistors. . Audari/a sarira is due to audari/a varganas 'clusters of paramanus). Acarya . paramanus have distinctions li/e dhananu and rnanu and they are constantly in motion. The -ainas have considered the cooling and heating effect as the forms of light. so also the light waves transmit images to far off distances. . This is a scientific approach to the problem and it shows remar/able insight and discriminating power into the phenomenon of light. bhasa 'speech) and manas 'mind). but recent scientists have begun to reali!e that light has also mass 'bhara). $arlier. we can say that the light as former mode of matter is expressed in such phenomena li/e P-rays etc.imilarly . In ancient Indian science. it was considered that light has no mass. ( Thus we find all the sense-experience arising out of touch.

These two forms of bodies are associated with samsari 4ivas from beginningless times. Tai4asa body is formed due tai4asa varganas. These thought-processes have their different types of durations. &ut when the ahara/a body is formed during the pure state of mind. we can say the matter has a tremendous influence on the functions of the 4iva and the formation of the universe as such. The same can be said about bhasa and manas.vasocchvasa and bhasa. They are with every 4iva. ( It is not necessary to give a detailed description about the ahara. 1 but such is not the case of ahara/a function. They can move in lo/a/asa according to their capacities.ahara/a sarira is formed by ahara/a varganas. The other forms of body cannot be seen through the sense organs. indriya. 0 &ut all the five bodies cannot co-exit because the vai/riya and the ahara/a functions do not simultaneously express themselves. These mano-varganas. tai4asa and /armana into five types.vasocchvasa 'breathing) based on ahara/a varganas in the same way.ormation of ahara/a body is possible in the pramatta dasa. In short. Therefore. + Tai4asa and /armana bodies do not interact with other bodies. In this sense. thoughts emanate from the mind through the molecules of mano-varganas. The vai/riya function is generally possible in the pramatta dasa 'in the uncontrolled state). . a samsari 4iva is very closely associated with various forms as in the form of gross bodies and the subtle body and in the mental functions. vai/riya. therefore. leave the mnemic traces on the cerebral and have their effect on body. They do not suffer from any external bonds. The mental functions are not possible without the material basis. . 5e can describe the . 5e can experience the audari/a sarira through the indriyas. -aina philosophers have made distinctions of sariras in the audari/a. some flash across the mind and some create impact in the mind as mental traces through the mano-varganas. They gradually become finer and finer. . vai/riya and ahara/a functions do not ta/e place simultaneously. 5hile we thin/.ome continue too remain in the mind. $very 4iva can have at the most four bodies at a time. . The thought forms get shape through mano-varganas and these flit across leaving behind their traces in the form of thought-processes. apramatta avasiha is inevitable. ahara/a. and they are formed by the respective varganas 'fine particles of matter).

while the dravya-punya and dravya-papa are pudgalasa4ivatattva. '2) >astra punya-to give cloths to the needy persons. physiological and vocal tendencies of atman and are connected with 4iva9 if they re auspicious. if he serve others by his body. It can be acquired by the auspicious deeds. li/e-to have sympathy and /indness towards the poor and distressed people and serve them. virtuous and meritorious people are the cause of this type of punya.thananga etc. 4ivarupa.till due to behavioral point of view.e. Agamas have told that 4iva can acquire punya by the nine deeds. TYPES O# PUNYA AN* PAPA Auspicious /arma-pudgalas are called punya. A question may arise that the auspicious and inauspicious /armas. '1) . As the result of atmic tendencies. $verybody should give shelter 'i. These are'() Anna punya-to gives food to the hungry ones /eeping /indness and with faith and devotion to saints. ( Here the punya and papa. '+) ana punya-to give drin/ing water to thirsty people. &oth are a4ivatattva. Hence the tendencies of atman are bhava-punya and bhava-papa.e. .. As the atmic tendencies are of innumerable types so the cause of punya and papa 'merit and demerit) are also innumerable. Hwy merit and demerit are enumerated under a4ivatattvaF The question is answered as-the auspicious and inauspicious tendencies of atman are mental. they are punya and if inauspicious. philanthropic deeds. which are enumerated under principle of a4iva are the auspicious and inauspicious tendencies of atman9 and the tendencies of atman should be 4iva. none should be sorrowful. 'G) *ana punya-to thin/s that everybody should be happy. they are papa. the /armapudgalas gets connected with the atman9 they are called as dravya-punya and dravya-papa. '?) . only means that the /arma-pudgalas which are attracted by the psychological.ayana punya-..This type of punya is acquired by vinaya. many causes are enumerated of these are described in agamas li/e . These are enumerated under the influx 'asravatattva). The auspicious and inauspicious tendencies of atman are bhava-punya and bhava-pap. they cannot be a4iva. etc. This type of punya cans be acquired by physical auspicious activities. place for living) to the needy persons. To bow to the elders. i. '0) Dayana punya-Dayana means shelter.Prin1i!le o( the P"nya 2&erit3 and Pa!a 2*e4erit30 a St"dy PRINCIPLES O# PUNYA AN* PAPA unya 'merit) is auspicious /arma-pudgalas and papa 'demerit) is inauspicious /arma-pudgalas.ayana means to give space for sleeping. to be glad to see good charactered people etc. physical and vocal. '@) >acana punya-It means to acquire punya by sympathetic and sweet words. .amas/ara unya. 'H) 7aya punya-A man may acquire punya.

There is no difference. unya is golden fetters while papa is an iron fetter. in this world. punya can be termed as first class imprisonment. 7rodha 'anger) @. *ithyadarsana 'delusion). in this world.. punya can be called better than papa can.rom the spiritual point of view. To bow. punya and papa-both are abandonable. merit and demerits both are bondages. medicine. *aya *rsavada 'deceitful lie) (H. while papa as rigorous imprisonment. 7alaha 'to ma/e dispute) (0. 1 There many causes of papa. These are enumerated as under3 (. as that of iron-fetters. *aya 'deceit) ?. &ut. Himsa 'violence) +. A traveler. &ut -ain philosophy. :aurya 'theft) 1. *rsa 'to tell a lie) 0. Hence punya is regarded better and selfsoothing. They regarded punya 'merit) as the aim of life. and many /inds of miseries and pains. it can be said that the punya can be acquired by giving food. regarded punya as heya 'abandonable). disfame etc.In other words. Abhya/hyana 'to nic/name anybody.e. if a sword is made of gold or iron. Aati-Arati 'Aati means inclinations towards demerit and arati denotes non-inclination towards auspicious deeds). i. 4iva gets the 4oyful heave-life and fame. &eing spar/ling and charming. drin/ing water. . In the modern language. 4iva has to bear the agonies of hell. uncharming. ( Auspicious and meritorious /arma-pudgalas are called punya. eighteen causes are described in the agamas. Aaga 'attachment) ((. and to give place to rest to the needy persons. gets relief in the shadow of a tree9 so 4iva. Indian thin/ers have widely discussed these merits and demerits. &oth can be used equally to /ill anybody. 5hile as the result of punya. Dobha 'lust or greed) (M. pleasure etc. yet. *ana 'pride) H. + #emeritorious /armas are papas. to spea/ sweet and advantageous words and to do good deeds by body. arigraha 'covetousness) G. etc. #ue to papa. 4neya '/nowable) and upadeya 'acceptable). These are also called papa-sthana 'the homes of papa). . (@. aisunya 'bac/-biting) (2. ara-ninda 'to blame) (G. The punya is li/e a shadow of tree.. 0 In other words. to call bad names) (1.. both are to be discarded.. It also bounds the atman. #vesa 'detachment) (+. the auspicious mental. unya is charming while papa reverse to it. gets rest and relief by the punya. for getting salvation. Abrahmacarya 'non-celibacy) 2. /eeping devotion and faith in heart towards the deva. by the different points of view. guru and dharma is also the cause of acquiring punya. during the long-long rigorous 4ourney of his mundane life. due to papa atman could not do auspicious deeds. the golden fetters are a bondage to atman. Acarya Bmasvati tells. briefly. bodily and vocal activities are punya. under sharp sunlight. *imansa/as gave two much force to acquire merits. &y the noumenal point of view. According to behavioral point. to have good feelings to everyone. after a long 4ourney.

It is called punyanubandhi punya. who robs everything and ma/es man a beggar. 4iva experiences agonies. so he earns punyas for future. being the filters for atman. salvation. .e.o. which gives 4oy to 4iva. pains. Hence the punyanubandhi punya is regarded acceptable 'upadeya) and papanubandhi as abandonable 'heya). &y the noumenal point of view. due to this papa. butcher. papa is outrightly abandonable9 but punya is acceptable upto some extent. The second type of papa is troublesome9 but it acquires merits 'punyas) for future.. &ecause. this type of punya robs all the previously earned punyas9 and becomes a cause of downfall of 4iva. during operation9 but leads it towards the wrong deeds. #uring this type of merit 4iva earns papas. fishermen are the men of this type. . &ecause. does philanthropic deeds. atman may progress and get the path of salvation. . In the -aina literature. papanubandhi punya is li/e a robber. while en4oying the consequences of previously acquired punyas. It also paves the way to salvation to 4iva. a man gets all means of happiness in world9 but he leads a sinful life and earns new papas as the result of his bad activities. punyanubandhi punya is described li/e a guide. . who leads atman to his ultimate goal. so he acquires papa-/armas for future also. Nuite reverse to it. i. These are'() apanubandhi papa-Troublesome in present experience and also acquires sinful /armas for future. in this life and also absorbs himself in sinful activities. on account of this. '+) apanubandhi punya-This is a punya. These are'() unyanubandhi punya-This type of punya 'merit) is virtuous both in operation 'udaya) and result 'phalabhoga). a man gets all types of worldly luxuries by his previously acquired meritorious deeds and in this life also he becomes virtuous. &ecause. the principle of papa and punya is described in the -aina literature with various points of view.or example. he acquires new punyas. though man experience miseries in present. disfame etc. Hence. he /eenly absorbs himself in such activities which may lead to the salvation. due to this type of papa.uch persons are called as papanubandhi punya 4ivas. T.T. regarded abandonable and /ept in one category.O KIN*S O# PAPA Di/e punya. papa is also of two /inds. 5hile by behavioral point of view. =n the other hand..O KIN*S O# PUNYA Acaryas described two /inds of punya. .or example. but he absorbs himself in auspicious activities. '+) unyanubandhi papa-Troublesome in present experience but acquires meritorious /armas for future. This /ind of punya is called papanubandhi punya9 because it is a cause of new papas. The first /ind of papa is troublesome both for present and future. which is the ultimate goal and real home of mundane soul.

. The description of the five causes. and color i. . para-bhava or vibhava. He exposes his belief in pseudo deities '/udeva). rupi9 it is also totally senseless.Prin1i!le o( Asra)a 2In(l":30 a St"dy PRINCIPLE O# ASRA5A 2IN#LU73 The asrava. and pseudo-saints '/u-guru) and public follies 'lo/a-mudhata). the pudgalas of /arman-vargana which are called as /armas flow-in. The emergence of /arma-paryaya in the matter and coming upto atman is dravyasrava. Hence.. smell. the truth-see/ing tendency cannot arise in the 4iva. in -ain agamas and philosophy is defined thus-the thoughts. udgala is rupi while atman is arupi. pramada 'negligence). He remains in illusory state. briefly. words and activities. #I5E TYPES O# ASRA5A The causes of bondage are five. consciousness and bliss9 while that of pudgala are-touch taste. he also cannot differentiate between dharma 'path of salvation) and adharma 'cause of bondage). attracts towards other ob4ects i. ( Atman and pudgala.o these ?wrong-belief etc. and flowing-in of /armic matter is dravyasrava. In other words. /asaya 'passion) and yoga 'psychophysical activities). 5rong belief is the root cause of the infinite samsara. the /armic matter is attracted and attached with the soul. both are of opposite nature. #ue to both of these wrong beliefs. to get connected with atma-pradesas. by which the pudgalas of /arma-varganas flow-in. is asrava. is asrava. The thoughts of atman by which /armas flow-in is called bhavasrava. vocal and physiological activities-vibrations 'yoga) of atman.. wrong belief etc.. BELIE# 2&ITHYAT5A3 It means reverse or contrary belief9 or lac/ of metaphysical /nowledge. Atman gets /armas through asrava.) are called thought-influx. avirati 'vowlessness).e. /armas do not inflow9 but as soon as atman. pseudo-religion '/u-dharma). a person considers non-living as living matter and vice-versa.. which is the immediate cause of attracting the /armic matter. The way of flowing-in-of /armas is called asrava. without consciousness and any /ind of feeling. 5rong belief is of two types3 '() natural 'naisargi/a or saha4a) and '+) grasped 'grhita). As in a pond water comes through a channel so the /armas come to the atman through asrava. psychological. i. #ue to wrong belief. as under. asrava or influx means the way of /armas to come to atman. five causes are called as thought-influx 'bhavasrava)9 but really at the first movement these are the efficient causes of psycho-physical activities.e. is. Bntil and unless atman remains in his own self nature. The next momentary thoughts are bondage. The qualities of atman are-/nowledge. Though wrong belief etc. According to the varying intensity of thought-influx. mithyatva 'wrong-belief). doe to delusion.RON.e. . vi!.

vi!. 4iva does not renounce the sensual pleasures9 even he has no wish to do so. yet they ma/e defective the inherent qualities of atman.9 '(-1) tal/s about food 'bho4an-/atha). pride 'manu).ENCE 2PRA&A*A3 .LI. hypocrisy and greed '?-(0) five /inds of sensual en4oyments. pride.ayyambhava . which moves the 4iva in the circle of life and death. PASSIONS 2KASAYA3 assions '/asaya) are the root cause of misery.+ assions are spiritual defects. the circle of life and death stops. Anger and pride are dvesa. yet. papas are acquired.. &hagavana *ahavira said to his first disciple 6anadhara 6autamaJ6autama8 Always be careful and do not negligent for a single momentJ. It is of fifteen /inds. NE. These raga-dvesa 'attachment and aversion) are the main asravas 'influx). to 4iva. The four types of passions are fundamental passions. miseries and agonies etc.egligence is the lac/ of enthusiasm towards the spiritual progress. attachment 'raga) and aversion 'dvesa). says that passions ma/e the /arma-field fertile. In this state. These are the main causes of transmigration of the 4iva. i. '(1) sleep '(2) affection. Acarya >irasena in #havla. The passions /eep the tree of transmigration green. 6ita and ali Tripita/a literature also ascertain the raga-dvesas the root of demerit or sin.yaya-sutra. while deceitfulness and greed are raga. anger '/rodha). . upto long-long time and in this world.LESSNESS 2A5IRATI3 >owlessness means lac/ of control over five senses and mind. . :onsequently...uri said-EThe uncontrolled passions /eep the root of transmigration fresh. These are classified into two categories. These are passions. assions are four in number. 4iva beings to acquire papa-/armas. These are called no-/asayas 'quasi-passions). pain and agony etc.ome acaryas have also classified four fundamental passions in many other ways. women 'stri-/atha) and state 'desa-/atha). . &esides these there are nine types of passions more. He wants to en4oy sensual pleasures and has no inclination towards renunciation. atman gets the pains. 5hether he does or does not the sinful deeds. on account of negligence. deceitfulness 'maya) and greed 'lobha).e. . in raga and dvesa. the 4iva forgets his own welfare and gives no preference to salvation-path 'mo/sa-marg).5O. As the passions extinguish. vi!. due to them it can not dryE. This is why. &eing indulged in these fifteen /inds of worldly activities. #ue to the intensive passions atman cannot accept the vows of a mon/ 'sramana-caritra) and not even householderEs vows.( Aeally the velocity of passions is very great. *ay these be manifest or not. =n account of these. '2-H) four passions-anger.

e. vocal.. Iryapathic asrava. #iscussing asava in ali literature.O+#OL* *ISTINCTIONS O# IN#LU7 2ASRA5A3 Influx 'asrava) is of two /inds.amparayi/a asrava ''activities bac/ed by passions). is the cause of bondage.o. -aina philosophy uses this term in the meaning-to contact /arma-pudgalas with atma-pradesas3 while yoga philosophy means to 4oin atma with aramatma. IN#LU7 2ASRA5A3 IN BU**HIST LITERATURE The original &uddhist literature is written in ali language and in ali word asravaE is transformed as asava. In -aina philosophy yoga signifies the mental. physical movements.A3 The vibrations caused in atma-pradesas. This activity continues upto (0 th gunasthana 'soul stage) i. #ue to this /ind of influx /armic pudgalas flow in9 but they does not combine with atma-pradesas9 because the cause of bondage are passions and in this type of inflow.. '+) &havasava-#esire of life. Inauspicious influx is also called meritorious 'punya-asrava)9 while inauspicious influx denotes #emeritorious 'papasrava). ( . it is said-Avidya is the cause of accepting anything stable9 while really it is unstable. Asrava is the general result of avidya9 while sorrow. Diterally the word yoga means to add. '1) Avidyasava-To accept unstable things as stable etc. The complete chec/ up of yogas is possible only in (1th gunasthana. is not the cause of bandha. it is abandonable. T. due to mental. #ue to this asava. vocal and physical activities. for getting salvation. These activities ma/e the contact of /arma-pudgalas with the atma-pradesas. there is no existence of passions. In Logabhasya etc. Loga is influx 'asrava). According to -ain philosophy. to contact. man wishes to live in the same body for a long time. yoga is described as the chec/ of mental activities9 but -aina philosophy differs at this point. Asava is the cause of this avidya 'delusion). '0) #rsvasava-=pposite point of view that of &uddha philosophy.ubtle influx 'Iryapathic asrava) and '+) . the vibrations in atma-pradesas are caused.'() . #ue to mental.PSYCHO+PHYSICAL 5IBRATIONS 2YO.tate. 4iva can attain nirvana 'salvation) only after the destruction of /armic filth and yogic movements. Asava is distinguished into four types3 '() 7amasava-#esire to get sensual pleasures. vocal and physical activities cause auspicious influx 'subha-asrava)9 while inauspicious activities become the cause of inauspicious influx 'asubha-asrava).e. atman is an active substance.. 7evalin . so these activities are called yoga and to chec/-up or control these yogas is termed as dhyana 'meditation). i. In this stage of soul the 4iva becomes quite pure. vocal and bodily movements. pain etc. are special results. Auspicious mental. :onsidered by the point of view of bondage.. are called yoga. . to 4oin. non-desire towards death. Aeally.amparayi/a asrava being bac/ed by passions. .

The &auddhas use this word in the same meaning.rofessor -acobi holds the view that Jall the three words asrava. which is the most important among all the three. + . This also proves that /armavada 'theory of /armas) is the original thing of -ainas and it is much more ancient than the beginning of &uddhismJ. samvara and nir4ara are as old as -ainism itself. &auddhas have borrowed the word asrava from -ainas. The cause of this difference is-they does not accept /armas as real entity and also does not accept atman9 and the existence of asrava is only possible in atman. as that of -aina9 but they ma/e difference in literal usage.

gupti 'self-restraince) etc. There are two types or divisions and /inds of . anupre/sa 'reflection). The atman is a pond. The /arma is li/e water. Asrava 'influx) is li/e a channel through which the /armic matter flow-in.Prin1i!les o( Sa4)ara and Nir8ara0 A St"dy PRINCIPLE O# SA&5ARA To chec/ the influx 'asrava) is samvara. the samvara becomes complete. .o is the position of samvara. uttama /sama 'excellent forgiveness) etc. 5hat is the reasonF The reason is that the water is regularly flowing in through the channels. . + #ravyasamvara 'material chec/-up of influx) means the chec/-up of receiving the /arma-pudgalas9 while bhavasamvara 'thought chec/-up of influx) includes to give up the activities which are cause of increasing the circle of life and death.) It chec/s the inflow of /armic matter. TYPES O# SA&5ARA 6upti 'self-restraince).o. which are due to attachment and aversion 'raga-dvesa). . are regarded as bhava-samvara 'thought chec/ up of influx). A devotee is throwing off /armas by meditation and penances9 but he does not chec/-up the channels through which newly bound /armas are regularly flowing in. It is the principle. ( =n account of samvara new /armas could not come and get contact with atma-pradesas.uppose.ow let us express the above example. opposite to influx 'asrava. &y chec/ing the same channel to stop the inflow of /armic matter is samvara. Then he should throw off the water. ten sramana dharmas. parisaha-4aya 'victory over the hindrances during penances) and charitra 'right conduct) are the ingredients of samvara.'() #ravya . new /armas regularly coming. ( &y all these. which is filled in. &y this process the pond will be empty. according to Tattvarthasutra. The main function of samvara. samvara or to chec/-up the inflow of /armas is too much essential to get salvation.amvara. a man is throwing off water so that the pond may be empty. is to chec/ the impure activities of atman. How the pond may be emptyF He should first of all chec/-up the channels so that water may not flow in. samiti 'vigilance).amvara 'material chec/-up of influx) and '+) &hava samvara 'thought chec/-up influx).amvara is the activity of chec/ing inflow 'asrava). as water flows in through channels. An example will be sufficient to clearly understand the sub4ect. . and to indulge himself in his own spiritual suddhopayoga 'natural conscious attentiveness). samiti 'vigilance). Asravas are the channels though the medium. . Imagine how could he accomplish his goal of mu/ti or to be free from the ties of /armasF Hence. He is wor/ing hard9 but the water of pond is as much as before was. The .

#ue to asrava there is regular inflow of /arma-pudgalas in atma-pradesas and this inflow is stopped by samvara. pride. In Anguttarani/aya. hallucination 'murcha) of possessions9 to control all the five senses and to control the mental. The restlessness of atma-pradesas. there are +M types of .ri #evendra . These are. '+) &y pratisevana. 0 gupti 'self-restraince).amya/tva-to be free from wrong faith 'mithyatva) +. speech and body). . &esides these.same view is adopted in . then his mind can not be happy to /eep the mind happy. + Therefore it is definite that the main cause of transmigration 'samvara) are asrava 'influx) and bandha 'bondage) while that of salvation are samvara 'stopping of influx) and nir4ara 'shedding or annihilation of /armas). he tells that asrava can be chec/ed up by samvara.amvara. hypocrisy etc.amya/tva-samvara. '() mithyatva 'wrong faith) '+) a4nana 'nescience). '0) avirati 'vowlessness) and '1) yoga 'activities of mind.uri tells 2@ types of . to /eep the mind happy. li/e-violence.amiti 'vigilance). 2 . 0 BU**HIST CONCEPTION O# SA&5ARA Tathagata &uddha also accepts samvara. >rata-To renounce all the eighteen /inds of sinful activities. . as soon as the asrava or influx of /armas in stopped. Apramada-to have a /een desire towards auspicious deeds or dharma.If a man does not eat food. &ut here he 'Tathagata) warns that if food is ta/en for tastefulness that it would be the cause of asrava 'inflow of /armas). there are many traditions. ( with slight difference in order.'i) partial or small vows '#esa-virati) and 'ii) great vows or complete vows 'mahavrata). due to it. It is of two /inds.e. As far as there is asrava. he bounded with /armic ties. the type of asrava. he should ta/e all these things. falseness. stopping the activities of mind.o. . which is due to asrava turns into calmness.wami 7arti/eya in his #vadasanupre/sa 2 tells only four /inds of samvara. &ut the ingredients are the same as described by Bmasvati in his Tattvarthasutra. etc. Hence.avatattvapra/arana. body and speech. the atma-pradesas 'the space-points of atman) always remain vibrating. Therefore. This vibration stops only when the inflow of /armas chec/ed up.'() . '+) >irati samvara. 1. A/asaya-subsidence 'upasama) of anger. ++ parisaha-4aya 'victory over the hindrances during penances) and 2 caritra 'right conduct) 1 . There the division of samvara is as follows3 '() &y senses 'indriyas)-&y the samvara 'chec/ing up) of senses. which is possible due to senses. wear clothes and ta/e medicine.amvara. (M sramana dharmas 'excellent forgiveness etc. Ayoga-stopping all the mental.these are asravas9 and to stop all these is samvara.amvara. 0 .. &ut mainly there are five types of samvara +(. vocal and bodily activities. samvara is also of four types. it can be said that the restlessness of atmapradesas is asrava and the calmness is samvara. i.. 0. Acarya 7unda/unda in . artial vows are for householder and great vows for a mon/. extinguishes. to give up all the sins. and '1) Logabhava samvara.. 2. drin/ water. '0) 7asaya samvara 'passions).) (+ Anupre/sas 'reflections).. This chec/s up the inflow of /armas. stealing. vi!.amaysara ( tells four types of . cohabitation of sexual desire. vocal and physical activities are also samvara. In this way. greed. Aegarding the number of ingredients of samvara.

. tiger etc.'reflection)-Asrava is also possible due to inauspicious reflections. all of these should be forbidden. If a man does not indulge himself in the auspicious reflections then the reverse. As a man reaches the upper storey by step by step and every step should be firm and steady. sensual pleasures etc. it can be said that the Tathagata &uddha does not believe in 7aya/lesa tapa 'mortification of the body). . papa-vitar/a 'discussions regarding sins).A man. this type of asrava can be chec/ed up. so much the spirit or soul becomes pure. li/e-himsa->itar/a 'violent discussions). As much as the soap enters through the threads. &y it. . the tolerance of bodily hardships is the cause of chec/ing up the inflow of /armas 'asrava-nirodha) '1) &y parivar4ana 'forbearance). + PRINCIPLE O# NIRJARA .. As much as the filth of /armas removed from atman. As the water of a pond dries up by the sharp sunlight. li/e-elephant.'0) &y adhivasana 'tolerance). &y forbidding these bandha/a-vitar/as. and '() sa/ama nir4ara and 'ii) a/ama nir4ara. Here. who wants to tolerate the physical hardship then he does not li/e bodily pleasures.. previously bound with the atma-pradesas are annihilated gradually. -all these are painful to a man. In the order of sapta tattvas 'seven essential elements). He wants that the devotees and mon/s should forbid all the painful circumstances and should live in peaceful places. . a man should always /eep auspicious thoughts in his heart and head. so that the external causes of /armabandha 'bondage of /armas) may not arise.or stopping these inauspicious /armas of asrava..amvara stops the inflow of new /armas9 while nir4ara means the destruction of previous bound /armas.or such a man. . a man is washing his dirty coat with washing powder of soap9 but the dirt does not come out at the very moment. sna/e etc.uppose. It comes out gradually as the soap enters through the threads of the coat. the separation of /armas in called nir4ara..A devotee and a mon/ and even a layman should not indulge in the vain discussions.. + Bmasvati says in his Tattvarthabhasya. This can be an example of nir4ara. .ierce animals. air.ir4ara means the annihilation or shedding off the /armas. if the inflow channels have been stopped. ( Anguttarani/aya also asserts that the chec/ing up of avidya 'hallucination) is the chec/ing up of asrava.. :omplete exhaustion of /armas is the pure state of soul and this is the salvation. Therefore. /ama-vitar/a 'discussions regarding mean and false desires. the asrava could be chec/ed-up. 0 . inauspicious /armas may flow in.. . . 'G) &y bhavana. the places full of thorns the meantype friends etc. and poisonous creatures. also. Here we may ta/e coat or cloth as atman.e.o the /armas. lion.. being ripen by penances etc.ir4ara is li/e the ladders for getting the pure state of soul. &y this point of view nir4ara means the partial separation of /arma-varganas from the atma-pradesas..)9 because all of these are bandha/a-vitar/as 'bounding discussions for atman).ir4ara is of two /inds. li/escorpion. if the inflow of new /armas have been stopped by samvara. The ascetic has chec/ed the inflow of new /armas by samvara and began the penances9 but the filth of previously accumulated /armic matter ta/es time to separate. nir4ara means the separation of /arma-varganas of aggregate of /armic matter from atma-pradesas. ( According to #vadasanupre/sa. i. '2) &y vinodana. vi!. it comes after samvara. etc. the threads of which it is made as pradesas and filth as the /arma-varganas or the /armic matter. The ascetic or devotee as much indulges himself in penances9 so much the /arma-varganas separate from tama-pradesas.o to get salvation atman also has to march forward by steady steps. the filth comes out.

e.. ( The Tattvarthasara states-after the experience of effects. '() 7ala-/rta 'by the completion of duration of time) and '+) upa/rama-/rta..amyag-drsti 4iva) can do sa/ama nir4ara9 while the souls deluded in wrong faith 'mithyadrsti 4iva) can not do it. and it pertains to all the mundane . >acha/a Bmasvati gives two types of nir4ara. A general view also prevails that only the souls having right faith '. and '+) tapah-/rta 'by penances etc. nir4ara is of two types. tapah-/rta nir4ara can be done only the vowful 'vratayu/ta) 4ivas. and toe experience the /armas.a/ama-nir4ara is possible only by those who have adopted vows 'anuvratas and mahavratas) and self-control 'samyama) and the a/ama nir4ara ta/es place with all the rest samsari 4ivas-says Hemacandra . /ala-/rta.. also denotes the same fact.ome of the differences of great thin/ers are given here. is /usalamula.+ Aeally. which are not in operation. The nir4ara or shedding off /armas by penances. bringing in operation avali/a 'udayavali/a) is avipa/a4a nir4ara.. The /armic experience. i. swa-/alaprapta nir4ara is always in existence of all the 4ivas of four gatis. the 4ivas who have accepted the vows. the shedding off the /arma-pudgalas is /ala4a nir4ara 'separation of /armas on the completion of the duration of time).e. All the thin/ers have the same opinion about this type of nir4ara9 but they differ regarding sa/ama-nir4ara. the annihilation of /armas. . vi!.. andit 7hubacandra . is called sa/ama nir4ara and the annihilation of /armic matter. is vipa/a4a nir4ara.) eight 7armans is called their intensity 'anubhaga or rasa or vipa/a.. ''-nanavaraniya /arma etc.wami 7arti/eya-a/ama nir4ara is the regular formality of all the mundane souls residing in four gatis and sa/ama nir4ara is possible only by the souls who have adopted vows. It is regular. etc. which the 4iva gets unintellectually in the nara/ gatis etc. . The upa/rama-/rta nir4ara place by penances etc. a/ama-nir4ara is automatic. The first type of nir4ara or the exhaustion of previously accumulated /armas i. + . as 'i) abuddhipurva/a 'without the use of intellect) and '+) /usalamula 'with intellect).iddhantsastri gives his conviction in the following words-yatha/ala nir4ara 'shedding off /arma pudgalas after completing the duration time) is the regular process. vows etc. It is of two /inds.e.). The second type nir4ara.. It needs no efforts on the part of atman. who have adopted mahavratas and savipa/a nir4ara pertains to all the mundane souls) shows the above-mentioned phantom. ripen itself is a/ama nir4ara.'() swa-/ala-prapta 'at the completion of duration of time).wami 7arti/eya also describes two types of nir4ara. 1 6enerally prevailed phrase Eavipa/a munindranam savipa/a/hilatmanamE 'avipa/a nir4ara is possible only by the -aina mon/s. without any interruption.. The other names swa/alaprapta. 0 The :andraprbhacarita states-the exhaustion of /armas i.) After the operation 'udaya) of /armas and giving their fruits to atman the /arma pudgalas are separated from atma-pradesas. is called abuddhipurva/a nir4ara. It is called nir4ara 'shedding off the /armas). abuddhipurva/a. After experiencing the effects of /armas. He says that the fruition power 'the power by which the atman experiences the effects of the 7armans) of /nowledge obscuring 7armans etc. 0 In the opinion of .The shedding of /armas on account of vrata 'vows) etc.( In a/ama nir4ara.uri. /armic matter separates itself after fruition and giving effects.

shedding off the /armas by effort.. /eeping only the aim of /arma-nir4ara is the result of unwise and without owning mahavratas. and the shedding off the /armas on the completion of their specified period. penances etc. . nir4ara is of eight types9 because 7armans '/nowledge obscuring 7arman etc. .thanangasutra asserts as edge ni44ara-one nir4ara + There we get only these general wordings9 but elsewhere twelve types of nir4ara are described..asting 'anasana) +. The same position is with nir4ara... which are accumulated in the atman from the timeEs beginningless 'anadi/ala). As nir4ara is the result of many causes. is possible by penances.. . ( Hence it may be concluded that the annihilation of /armas due to penances.. vows etc. with the aim of nir4ara. The one and only goal of the devotee is to brea/ all the ties of /armas. when we spread it under sharp sunlight9 and if do not do so. Aeally.1 Acarya Abhayadeva writes in his vrtti of . on account of twelve types of penances. etc.. but he should practice penance etc. i. li/e-a/ama 'without any desire) tolerating hunger. li/e-fame. ( The . The other type of nir4ara. while we consider its nature9 but due to instrumental causes '. 0 There are innumerable /inds of penances 'tapa) li/e--/ana/a-vali etc. and attain salvation. it is suggested in #asavai/ali/a-Ea devotee should never practice penance. + TYPES O# NIRJARA The covering of /armas around atman is destructed by penances. 5hen a person 'devotee or ascetic) indulges himself wisely and with discrimination in penances and vows. cold. during other life etc. this must be called as principle of nir4ara9 because it is the cause of salvation. vows etc. nir4ara is also of twelve /inds. is sa/ama nir4ara. &eing produce of twelve types of penances. immense riches. . The wet cloth dries up sooner. there are twelve types of nir4ara. meditation etc. and the vow of celibacy etc.e. giving their effects 'good or bad) to the 4iva.. it 'nir4ara) is also of many types. Though &alatapa is also a cause of /arma-nir4ara and by it 4iva can get worldly and sensesnal pleasures9 but it cannot be the cause of sell-purification..o this type of nir4ara should not be regarded as the element of nir4ara9 because it does not help 4iva to get salvation..o being nir4ara as one.o the penances are also regarded as nir4ara.. These twelve types of nir4ara or tapas 'austerities) are as follows3 (. stone-fire. to get worldly pleasures. Bndiscriminatory and without self-control 'samyama) the penances etc. ma4esty. so nir4ara may also be of innumerable types. .souls9 because all the previously accumulated /arma-pudgalas sheds off themselves after the specified duration of time.thananga-E:onsidered from the point of view of 7armans. As the fire has no distinctions. then it would ta/e too much time to dry. wealth. heat etc. thirst. All the thin/ers are oneminded on this point. it has distinctions.imitta /arana). with the point of view of its nature9 but due to instrumental causes it is divided in twelve types. $ating less than oneEs fill or hunger 'unodari) . are called unwise hardships '&alatapa). Thus there is basic difference in the cause and effect of both types of nir4ara.2 &ut mainly. grander etc.o.) are also of eight types. li/e wood fire.

Ta/ing a definite vow secretly to accept food from a householder only if certain condition is fulfilled 'bhi/sacari). by giving up to eat food the senses become pure and consequently mind also becomes pure.asting 'anasana) is the first of the external austerities. 2. It is the maxim of vaidya/a sastra-to /eep fast is the best medicine 'Danghanam paramausadham). 6anadhara 6autama once as/ed humbly to &hagavana *ahavira-->enerable8 &y /eeping fast 'anasana) 4iva accomplishes whatF . who can be termed as world-victorious. @. a >edic saint has said--Ethere is no hardship greater than fast. To be static in self-nature 'pratisamlinata). He will shine li/e a spar/ling star. 7asaya 'astringent) and G.elf-study 'swadhyaya). *uch man and animals. (+. 1. (M. These rasas or tastes are--(. 6iving up through non-attachment 'vyutsarga). Abstinence from one or more of the six ob4ects of taste 'rasa-parityaga). it an be said that hunger has got victory over every 4iva of the world. *odesty 'vinaya) ?. nay only difficult but most difficult to the superlative degree. The fast does not only purify the body but it also purifies the mind even. griefs given by other beings or aroused by previously accumulated demeritorious /armas '7aya/lesa). &ut a devotee has to win this world-famous hero. *adhura 'sweet). Ti/ta 'bitter) 2. who can practice it. ANASANA 2#ASTIN. . To win hunger and control the mind is anasana austerity. *ortification of the body or to tolerate the pains. *editation 'dhyana). 0. 7atu 'sour). In this type of austerity a devotee has to win victory on hunger. G. :onsidering from medicinal point of view.3 . 6ita says.. It would be austerity when a devotee can get food easily. Amla 'acidic). first six are external penances or austerities 'bahya tapas) and the last six are internal austerities 'antaranga tapas).0. Among these twelve tapas 'penances). It is much more difficult to practice in comparison to other austerities.ervitude 'vaiyyavrtya). ((. Davana 'saltish). ( That is why. H. &ut their being hungry cannot be regarded as austerity. in other words. =nly to remain hungry cannot be regarded anasana austerity. will be capable to burn all the filth of body and mind. $very type of sin is the consequence of hunger. fasting is a cause of bodily-purification. creaturesE etc. to /eep fast and observe anasana tapa is a fire-bath. 1. + Aeally. $xpiation 'prayascitta). . &ut generally it is very difficult to practice. +. have to remain hungry when they could not get food and drin/ing water. =ne. It is a hero. but he willfully /eeps fast and controls his mind and indulges himself in auspicious and religious activities. and it is well /nown to all that hunger is too difficult to win.

ava/arasi 'for 1H minutes). Therefore it is not possible for other or general men. It may be at least for one day and at the most of six months and in special circumstances life-long.+ There are innumerable /inds of itwari/a tapa. etc. =ne thin/er warned the person. otherwise it is impossible to be static li/e a mountain. UNO*ARI The next type of nir4ara is unodari 'eating less than oneEs hunger).e. the devotee becomes static li/e a stal/. there remains the limit of specified period and after this period. 0 Lavat-/athi/a anasana is of two types-. to /eep fast li/e-. adapopagamana is harder that bha/ta-pratya/hyana. 0 :onsequently the ascetic gets bereavement from the attachment towards his vital forces and body. 1 #uring bha/ta pratya/hyana. not to do three deeds vi!.'() padapopagamana and '+) bha/ta-pratya/hyana. it is quite necessary that man must have va4ra-rsabha narach sanghanana( of his body.'() #ravya 'regarding matter or external) and '+) &hava 'thought or internal).e. . meditation and self-reali!ation. . he will not shut them and vice versa..criptures and '0) self-reali!ation.. It can be said as to eat little food or limited food. There are two divisions of unodari-. porasi 'for 0 hours).o it called as austerity without desire 'nirava/an/sa tapa). The word anasana means forbearance of food. it begins from the sun-set of the previous day and completes in the morning of the day-after) caturtha-bha/ta 'a full day-night fast). It is second external austerity.criptures.or example.. '() to observe celibacy '+) study the Holy . there is no existence of desire regarding getting food. ratribho4anatyaga 'not to eat and drin/ any thing after sunset upto the sun-rise the next day.'() Itwari/a 'for specified period) and '+) Lavat-/athi/a--life long or upto death. It is also called avamaudarya. 4iva is bereaved from the desire of living. There are two distinctions of anasana-.o it is called as the austerity with desire 'sava/an/sa tapa)9 while during Lavat-/athi/a tapa.or padapopagamana anasana and santhara. . it is necessary for a devotee to pass every moment in studying Holy . . If his eyes were open. nor will lie or vice versa. while /eeping fast.. unodari also pertains to passions and possessions as well. the fast-/eeper has the desire of getting food in his mind. He as well suggested to do three deeds vi!. He does not even change his posture and remains in the same posture. alias his attachment towards the body and vital forces 'prana).. Di/e food. if he is standing then he will not sits.. Agamas definitely asserts that with the dispersion 'vicheda) of (1 purvas the padapopagamana santhara also dis4uncts. i. '() anger '+) pride and '0) negligence 'pramada). full night) chattha-bha/ta 'two full day-night) etc. purvardha 'for beginning half of the day.e. i.( #uring Itwari/a tapa. besides giving up the food. in which he has accepted the vow of anasana. for six hours from rising the sun) divasa-carima 'for full day.>enerable &hagavana *ahavira replied thus--= 6autama8 &y practicing anasana tapa. i. #uring this type of anasana. .

etc. is called rasa. 0 >igayas. Aeally spea/ing #ravya-unodari 'external) ma/es the external life of an ascetic light and easy9 while internal 'bhava) unodari paves the way for attaining mental and internal happiness and the evolution of good qualities.trong. healthy persons capable to earn their livelihood. and '0) . .. There are six /inds of rasas regarding food.'() #ina-vrtti. oppressed.+ The poor. The non-violent and content saints ta/e food according to their limitations from a house-holder only for giving dose 'diet) to the belly is called sarva-sampat/ari bhi/sa. greed and to spea/ as little as possible. there is the description of many /inds of bhi/sacari. &y these rasas the food becomes tasty and delicious9 and being so it is eaten more than hunger. The ingredient. This type of beggary depresses the manhood and vigor of a person.arvasampat/ari. In the agamas.uri describes three /inds of bhi/sa-. '+) aurusaghni.amyama 'self-control) and consequently he has to go to vigati or durgati 'downward conditions of mundane . These are-.#ravya unodari is of many /inds. orphans. pride.. because he accepts food and drin/ing water only when his secretly adopted vow and certain conditions are fulfilled.o the rasas are also called inspiring elements.o the person falls down the highest altar of . it is called aurusaghni bhi/sa. curd..A Aasa literally means--en4oyment-increasing ingredients. and deaf-dumb-blind-maim etc. hypocrisy. BHIKSACARI In general sense bhi/sacari is to get food from a householder. Acarya Haribhadra .. when beg to get food.'() 7atu 'sour) '+) *adhura 'sweet) '0) Amla 'acidic) '1) Ti/ta 'bitter) '2) 7asaya 'astringent) and 'G) Davana 'saltish). li/e--*il/. are called vigayaF Acarya . grief-stric/en. who ta/es food by begging is called beggary or #ina-vrtti bhi/sa. He accepts it according to his vows and limitations. + RASA+PARITYA. gee. so it is regarded the meanest type of beggary. He says--by eating or ta/ing these the perversion 'vi/ara) arouses in the tendency of atman. which inspires attachment towards any thing.iddhasena answers this question. but for -ain mon/s it is an external austerity. &hava unodari means to subside the passions. sturdy. li/e--food etc. li/e--anger. ( -aina mon/ accepts the alms only when it is completely faultless and without any /ind of shortcomings. 5hy these mil/ etc. He is not a general beggar who can accept and any /ind of food. &y it both the ta/er and giver gets auspicious gatis. etc. . downtrodden. . not to come into conflict with anybody. re also called rasas.

( &ut it should be remembered that the healthy diet is not altogether denied to mon/. '+) /asaya 'passions) pratisamlinata. Therefore. it can never be destructed 'natthi 4ivassa nasu tti). according to his needs. ( . i. mediation and standing posture.thanangasutra describes the type of 7aya-/lesa--7ayotsarga. The ascetic /eeps no inclination or attachment towards his body. '0) yoga samlinata.e. + This shows that 7aya/lesa tapa is the mortification of body. stand erect '#andayat) posture. my soul is full of conscience.o samlinata is svalinata to 'remain in own nature). The pain may be to body through trouble and turmoil. It is pure and blissful and this is my own nature. .or taste-sa/e even to chew and suc/ the food is also regarded as defect.ourteen types of 7aya/lesa are described in Bvavai sutra. 0 The thin/ing of spiritual thin/er is thus--the pains. Hence. Acarya &hadrabahu wrote in his Avasya/a-niryu/ti--Eatman and body are quite differentE--by this type of pure intelligence. the ascetic renounces the attachment towards his body.'() swa-/rta 'done by own-self) and '+) para-/rta 'done by others). troubles and miseries are all to the body. . to accept pratima 'a special type of vow)9 virasana. It can never be destructed. things are called vigar. sitting in palathi posture for the study of Holy .. 1 He thin/ that I. To restraint internally.ire cannot burn it and water cannot drench it. The body may be destroyed by the stro/es of weapons.soul). . PATISA&LINATA The process of bringing soul to its own nature. bringing bac/ from external tendencies. cognition and bliss etc. He firmly believes that atman and body both are quite separate from each other. is samlinata. senses and yogas. The turmoil or trouble are of two types. but he does not ta/e it for the sa/e of taste only. and '1) vivi/ta saiyyasana 'sitting and stopping in a lonely place).+ #ifferent types are described of rasas also.0 PRAYASCITTA . He can ta/e vigaya. not to me 'self). the passions. by ta/ing off from external thoughts is called ratisamlinata.o power of the world is capable to destroy it. . these things are the causes of sad effects 'vi/rti) and bad or inauspicious gati 'vigati).criptures. . KAYAKLESA 7aya/lesa literally means to give turmoil to the body. &ut atman can never be destroyed. &y the dint of this thin/ing and having deep faith to the core about atma-svarupa 'nature of self) the ascetic tolerates all the agonies peacefully. &hagavati sutra has given four distinctions of pratisamlinata. These are3 '() indriya 'sense) pratisamlinata. which is the cause of grief and ain. meditation by ut/atu/a posture.

rayascitta is the formation of two words--EprayahE and EcittaE. The word E rayahE denotes sin and the word EcittaE denote visodhana 'purification). ,o prayascitta 'expiation) is the process of purifying the sinful activities. 1 According to Acarya A/alan/a offence is EprayahE and EcittaE means purification. Hence prayascitta is the process by which crimes or offences are get purified. 2 In the ra/rta language word EprayascittaE is termed as payacchittaE. The origination of word EpayacchittaE has been described thus--EpayaE means papa 'sin or demerit) and EcchittaE means destruction. In this way, the process which destroys sin, is Epayacchitta 'expiation). ( There is a vast difference between expiation and punishment. ,uppose, a man has done a wrong deed due to negligence. After it he repents heartily for this wrong deed. He goes to his elders and clearly tells them all about his wrong activity and prays them to give any /ind of punishment for the purification of that misdeed. He accepts the punishment told by the elders and practices the hardships etc., then it is expiation. .ow we ta/e punishment. The ruler gives punishment to a criminal. ;irst of all, he does not confess his guilt. He tells thousands of lies to escape himself from punishment. The 4udge or ruler needs proofs and witnesses to ascribe crime. If anyhow the crime is proved and he sentenced a legal punishment. ,till there is not repentance in his mind and heart. He accuses 4udge, advocates and witnesses. ,o there is no change of reform of the criminal by punishment. Another difference is that, when expiation is self-punishment9 while punishment is external. ;irst is internal and second is external. Ten types of prayascitta are described in ,thananga sutra. + &y prayascitta 'expiation) the defects are removed and the heart becomes pure. The simple hearted man can practice prayascitta 'expiation). 5INAYA >inaya 'modesty) is directly related to heart. It is a spiritual quality. The word >inaya 'modesty) has been used in three different meanings, in the -aina literature. These are-'() >inaya--discipline '+) >inaya--self-control, sila, good conduct. '0) >inaya--namrata 'modesty) good behavior. Acarya Abhayadeva wrote in ,thananga-vrtti-->inaya removes all the eight type of 7armans and by it soul gets salvation.( In the vrtti of the ravacanasaroddhara, it has been suggested that >inaya refers to the removal of the /armas which lead to afflictions and which are enemies of the soul.

In the agama literature li/e the &hagavati, distinctions have been made of the >inaya3 '() #arsana >inaya '+) -nana >inaya '0) :aritra >inaya '1) *ana >inaya '2) >acana >inaya 'G) 7aya >inaya and '@) Do/opacara >inaya.+ >inaya 'modesty) and formal courtesy or flattery 'capalusi) is diametrically opposed to each other. In the vinaya there is sincerity and the openness of the heart, but courtesy expresses only formality. It may not have sincerity. =n the contrary, it may have veiled hypocrisy. 5AIYYA5RTYA 2SER5ETU*E3 >aiyyavrtya refers to protection and service of things and individuals leading to the attainment of the righteousness. Through service, it is possible to be free from the .ama and 6otra /arma. 0 ,ervice to the deceased persons, the sadhus and the acaryas leads us towards .ir4ara. Aeal and devoted service leads us to the freedom from the wheel of samsara. 1 ,thananga mentions eight commandments and out of these two refer to the service to humanity. 2 In the &hagavati sutra G ten types of vaiyyavrtya has been suggested. A poet has praised the qualities of the >aiyyavrtya and says that the excellence of service is so great that even the yogis cannot easily understand its importance. S5A*HYAYA 2SEL#+STU*Y3 ,vadhyaya refers to self-study. It is a systematic study of the sastras. ( ,vadhyaya also means introspection on the nature of self.+ The self-study increases the capacity of intellect. As food is necessary of the body, self-study is absolutely necessary for the development of the mind. ,elf-study and contemplation lead us towards creative thin/ing and towards the development of the mental capacity. 5rong types of physical exercises are harmful to the body. Bnwholesome food is in4urious to the body. ,imilarly, study of literature li/e--sex literature, would be very harmful to the purification and to the development of the mental states in the proper direction. *ental activities become distorted and one loses the power of discrimination. It would, therefore, be necessary that we always study wholesome literature, although we may study less. It is possible to be free from misery, through svadhyaya. 0 The accumulated /arma coming from a chain of previous life can be annihilated by svadhyaya. 1 ,vadhyaya9 itself is a form of important tapas. Acarya ,anghadasagani says, that svadhyaya, is unique and the austerity of svadhyaya is unparallel because such noble type of austerity has not been experienced in the past, nothing so great in the present and nothing similar to it in future.2 The >edic seers have also said that svadhyaya is a form of the tapas. G we should not be negligent of svadhyaya. @ -ust as the wall becomes shining by constant rubbing and polishing, it reflects the image of the persons standing in front of it, so also svadhyaya if done carefully and seriously and without fault, becomes transparent and it

reflects the essence of all the satras. atan4ali has said that it is possible to get the direct experience of the deities through svadhyaya. ( ,vadhyaya can be distinguished into five types as '() >acana 'reading), '+) racchana 'in arrogation), '0) arivartana 'rotating or repeating loudly), '1) Anupre/sa 'psychic preparation through meditation) and '2) #harma/atha 'listening to religious stories). + *HYANA 2&E*ITATION3 #hyana is concentration of mind. Acarya Hemacandra says that #hyana is the concentration of mind on a particular sub4ect.0 &hadrabahu also says, that #hyana refers to the concentration of the mind on a particular sub4ect and fixing the mind on that sub4ect. 1 #hyana is of two types3 '() auspicious and '+) inauspicious. Inauspicious #hyana 'aprasasta) is of two types3 'i) Artadhyaya 'concentration of mind on things of the world) and 'ii) Aaudradhyana 'revengeful concentration). Acarya ,iddhasena #iva/ara has said J,ubhai/a pratyayo dhyanamJ. 2 It means auspicious dhyana is concentration of mind on an auspicious ob4ect. It is suggested that the one who aims at the highest from of selfconcentration, which is, called samadhi must avoid Arta and Aaudradhyana and he must practice righteous concentration '#harmadhyana) and pure concentration ',u/ladhyana) G #harmadhyana consists in the concentration of the mind on the auspicious and righteous ob4ects. It is also been described as self-concentration i.e., concentration on the self by the self. @ In this way, the atman withdraws itself from the external ob4ects and concentrates on its own nature. Through #hyana, /arma is destroyed, 4ust as in fire9 pieces of wood are burnt away. 5YUTSAR,A 2,I5IN, UP THROU,H NON+ATTACH&ENT3 >yutsarga has two elements--EviE which means specific and EutsargaE which means giving up, or renunciation. >yutsarga, therefore, means giving up or renunciation in a specific way. Acarya A/alan/a says that vyutsarga may be referred as renunciation, non-attachment, fearlessness and giving up of hunger and thirst for things of the world. ;or the sa/e of self-reali!ation and for the sa/e of righteousness, vyutsarga aims as self-denial and renunciation. ( >yutsarga is of four types, li/e-- '() 6ana >yutsarga 'renunciation of group), '+) ,arira >yutsarga 'mortification of the body), '0) Bpadhi >yutsarga 'giving up of the things connected with activities) and '1) &ha/ta- ana >yutsarga 'giving up of food and drin/) + ,arira >yutsarga is considered to be 7ayotsarga. It refers to the affliction through the body. The see/er after self-reali!ation practices prayascitta for all the ills that he has done. He gives up attachment for the body and resolves to by free from all faults. 5ith this firm resolution and with a repentant heart the weight of the /arma becomes lighter. The stream of auspicious concentration of mind flows freely. It gives peace and tranquility. The atman en4oys the pure bliss. In the practice of 7ayotsarga, it is possible to have all forms of difficulties and obstructions from the gods, from men and from the lower animals too. &ut one who is engaged in the practice of #hyana accepts these troubles with equanimity of mind and by this process the 7ayotsarga gets purified. 0

7ayotsarga is a routine procedure of everyday, and it is absolutely necessary for everyone to practice. In this, every moment, the mental preparation for 7ayotsarga goes on. &hagavana *ahavira says3 Jabhi//ahanam /aussagga/ariJ--the see/er practices 7ayotsarga very often. 7ayotsarga has been distinguished into two types3 '() #ravya-7ayotsarga is concerned with the bodily aspect of self-control and '+) &hava-7ayotsarga is concerned with the psychic accompaniments of vyutsarga. ( #ravya-7ayotsarga refers to the control of the bodily states and &hava 7ayotsarga is involved in the #harmadhyana and ,u/ladhyana. 7ayotsarga is one of the important forms of tapas and for this reason we get in the agamic literature the description that 7ayotsarga is infact a full form of the vyutsarga. The see/er after self-reali!ation will attain full vyutsarga if he is successful in the practice of /ayotsarga.0 There is a regular procedure and the graded process of the practice of tapas from Anasana 'fasting) to >yutsarga 'renunciation). There is a study flow of austerities in these graded processes. ;rom the discussions above, we may conclude that the -aina description of tapas does not merely refer to the physical austerity, but it has also reference to mental austerity, which consists of control and practice of mental states and events, which lead to the purity of the mind and soul.

The Prin1i!les o( BAN*HA and &OKSA0 A *is1"ssion
THE PRINCIPLE O# BAN*HA The association of two things with each other is called &andha. There are two types of &andha3 '() #ravyabandha 'the association or contact of the material things) and '+) &havabandha coming together or 4oining of the psychic states and events). The 7armic particles coming in contact with the soul and creating the veil of obscuration is called the #ravyabandha. The psychic states accompanying the physical activity and also those psychic states which are the causes of the physical activity and which come together and vitiate the 7armic particles associated with a soul is &havabandha. In the #ravyabandha the atman is connected with the /armic particles. In the &havabandha the psychic states are associated with the soul leading to the /armic bondage. These two are complementary to each other and the one is intimately connected with the other. If the particles of the matter are brought together, there would be the specific form of binding or association. It may create chemical action. ;or instance, if the viscosity and dryness are combined in the particles of matter, a new chemical action will be created and new properties are formed. The atoms come together to form molecules and when they are combined in different degrees, chemical reaction is possible. ,imilarly, if the /armic particles are formed into the aggregates of /armic particles, those will have some effect and association with the soul, although there is no chemical action in this activity. This is because the 4iva and the /armic particles are qualitatively different. The manifestation of the 4iva is to be found in the psychic and the conscious states while the modes of matter are unconscious. The manifestation of 4iva is through the expression of :aitanya 'consciousness) and its states, while modes of matter are expressed in the qualities li/e taste, smell and touch etc. THE TYPES O# BAN*HA The &andha has been distinguished into four types such as3 '() ra/rtibandha, sthitibandha, anubhagabandha and pradesabandha. Tattvarthasutra uses the word anubhava in place of anubhaga. ra/rti /arma refers to the nature of /arma, ,thiti-/arma has reference to the state and the limitation of the /armic particles with the soul. Anubhaga is the in intensity of the experience of /arma, while radesa /arma has reference to aggregates of /armic particles associated with the soul. #etailed discussion of this problem can be found in the theory of 7arma as presented by the -ain philosophers. hilosophical literature on the 7arma theory of the -ainas gives the analogical example of a pudding 'moda/a) with its medicinal properties. A pudding may be used for the sa/e of gastric trouble9 some other puddings may be used for curing the diseases of phlegm and other types of intestinal disorders. ,imilarly, some form of 7arma is responsible for obscuring /nowledge, some other forms of 7arma would obscure intuition, and still others would be responsible for limiting the inherent energy of the soul etc. There are some forms of 7arma, which create the deluding effects on the soul. This, we can say refers to the ra/rti-/arma and ra/rtibandha. ,ome puddings last for a day, while some others may last for a wee/ and so on and after which the efficacy of the pudding will be lost. ,imilarly, the /armic particles affecting the soul have their duration of the effect in varied degrees. As some puddings are sweet and some sour, similarly the experiencing effect of the 7arma will be different in intensity.

-ust as a pudding may be half in si!e or full in si!e, similar description can be given about the 7armic radesa. ra/rti and radesabandha are caused by activity 'Loga). ,thiti and Aasa-bandha are caused by 7asayas 'passions). The intensity of passions depends on the nature, and the potency of the /armic particles. This is called by the expression of ,thitibandha and Anubhagabandha. These types of &andha are due to passions and emotional disturbances. In the case of those in whom the passions are subdued, and in the case of those, the passions are destroyed and similarly in the case of 7evalins, the /asayas 'passions) have no effects. There is no rise of /asayas in the 7vealin. $ven if the /armic particles are encrued in the soud of a 7evalin due to activity, they are immediately washed away in the next moment because the soul has reached the state of purity. In these cases, ,thitibandha and Anubhagabandha are not possible in these cases. &andha is of two types3 'i) subha and 'ii) asubha. ,ubhabandha 'auspicious bondage) brings in merit and asubha bandha 'inauspicious bondage) brings in demerit. As long as 7arma does not fructify in the form of an effect, it remains potential, and it is called the ,atta ,tate of 7arma. The moment the 7arma fructifies unya and apa flow in. The potential form of 7arma is &andha and the fructification of 7arma refers to the acquisition of unya and apa. &OSKA AN* THE PATH.AY TO &OKSA IN IN*IAN PHILOSOPHY There are three great philosophies of the world--6ree/ philosophy, *odern 5estern philosophy and Indian philosophy. Aristotle, a great 6ree/ philosopher said that philosophy begins in wonder. lato also held the same view. *odern western philosophers li/e #escartes, 7ant and Hegel hold a similar view expressed. It is said that the philosophical speculations are rooted in curiosity ( and curiosity results in misery, birth, old age, disease and death have to be overcome for the sa/e of self-reali!ation. 'This is possible through the arousal of the metaphysical curiosity). Indian philosophy does not merely aim at the achievement of the /nowledge of the reality, but it has dual purposes of /nowledge and virtue. The main purpose of philosophy in India is to free oneself from the misery of this life. In this sense, we can say that in the western thought the aim is purely academic, while Indian philosophy is practical and it aims at self-reali!ation. It is not merely an academic pursuit of /nowledge of reality, but it has the highest aim of the reali!ation of the truth in life. *o/sa is the highest ideal of Indian philosophy. ,ri Aurobindo considers the concept of *o/sa to be the central point of Indian thought. This is the distinguishing feature of Indian thought. In the description of the urusartha. *o/sa is considered to be the supreme ' arama purusartha). *o/sa is the highest ideal to be achieved and dharma is the means of achieving this supreme end. ( In Indian philosophy the concept of *o/sa may be considered from four different points of view9 vi!. >edic, -aina, &auddha A4iva/a. A4iva/a has not remained as important philosophy. It is, therefore, not necessary here to consider the concept of *o/sa from the point of view of A4iva/as. The >edic tradition gives six darsanas li/e .yaya, >aisesi/a, ,an/hya, Loga, urva-*imamsa and Bttara-*imamsa, urva *imamsa was primarily considered to be 7arma *imamsa. It was mainly concerned with the study of *o/sa. + &ut in the other five darsanas, the concept of *o/sa is important. 5e should remember that as there are differences in the presentation of the nature of self, so are there differences regarding their speculation on the nature of *o/sa. ,ometimes the concepts of *o/sa are not only different but also contrary. Those systems of philosophy which have based their thought on the Bpanisads and &rahmasutra also differ regarding the nature of *o/sa. ,ome philosophies ma/e a distinction between the Atman and aramatman, some others considered them to be identical and still other philosophies consider the

2 In the final state of *o/sa the .yaya->aisesi/a. This cognition is possible due to consciousness.an/hya-Loga and >edanta. desire. the cycle of birth and death also stops. because in the sate of *o/sa.yaya->aisesi/a darsanas have generally a common viewpoint of the nature of Atman.yaya->aisesi/a lays emphasis on the absolute cessation of misery and the cause of misery. However. The association of body. and bliss 'ananda).yaya->aisesi/a says that the highest state of *o/sa is absolute freedom from misery ( and there is no possibility of the recurrence of misery in any from. It is only a quality. It is qualiityless.G A disciple of lord 7rishna says that instead of the state of *o/sa as described by .yaya->aisesi/a darsanas maintained that Atman has consciousness.yaya->aisesi/a.@ . happiness. &ut consciousness is not the essence of the self. punya 'merit) and papa 'demerit) do not exist.yayasutra have pointed out that in the state of perfection there is absolute cessation of misery.yaya->aisesi/a have analy!ed the concept of *o/sa from the empirical point of view. misery. all imperfections are removed.ri Harsa says that the state of *o/sa described by the . They believe in the plurality of the Atmans. . The . the accidental quality of consciousness of the soul is absent. because in the worldly experience. will 'sam/alpa). all the philosophies above have accepted to primacy of the concept of the Atman in one from or the other. Therefore. hatred. it can be said that the self as consciousness and not that the self is consciousness. *allisena in the . sense organ and central function of mind gives rise to cognition. &ut consciousness is not the essence of the Atman9 it is its attribute.ome philosophic traditions have accepted the plurality of Atman while others consider it to be one. and therefore in a sense. . we sometimes get happiness. self does not have any experience or consciousness9 it is pure satta 'reality). It does not experience pure consciousness or pure bliss. there would be no possibility of diversity in life.yayasutra says that when perversity of /nowledge is removed through philosophy. one who wants to reali!e the highest end must aim at the removal of the misery and the unwholesome and unrighteous states of existenceF There is no evidence to show that in the highest state of *o/sa. some philosophies have considered the Atman to be all pervading. According to them. There is the absence of consciousness.( . This view of the nature of the self is different from the view of the nature of self-presented by the philosophical systems li/e . there is the presence of either the consciousness of bliss.yaya>aisesi/a presents a bloodless category since consciousness and sang happiness.yadvadaman4ari says that considered from the point of view of the . The Atman is not one. but in the highest state of *o/sa.imilarly.distinction and the identity to be equally real. If the Atman were one. They consider it to be the essence of the self. In the highest state of *o/sa the self subsists in itself without any attributes of /nowledge '4nana). there is absolute cessation of happiness also. NYAYA+5AISESIKA The . They consider Atman to be the ultimate and eternal substance. H . then the tendency to perform /arma also ceases. . 5ith the cessation of the tendency to do /arma.1 In the state of *o/sa the nine attributes li/e intellect.0 and some others ma/e Atman to be atomic.yaya->aisesi/a the worldly experience would be superior to the state of *o/sa. we can say it is free from consciousness and also because consciousness is an empirical ad4unct of the relational categories. >atsyayana+ the commentator on . + In the highest state of *o/sa. There are as souls as there are bodies. 5hen imperfection is removed. the description of life in &rndavana is much better. according to the . 0 The commentators on the . These systems do not accept the conception that consciousness is an attribute of the self.

imilarly. although the self is a spiritual substance. The . -ust as the image of a bird flying in the air is reflected in the waters of the pond below. self- . The self.aiyayi/as contend. while Loga is practical. both physical and mental in the world are the expression of ra/rti. &ut urusa does not produce anything nor it is produced by anything else. the -aina conception of 4iva and the monad of Deibnit!. there are many selves.an/hya-Loga is different from the conception that the . Therefore. reali!es that it is free from ra/rti and this reali!ation leads to the freedom from the bondage. In the highest state of *ugti there is no consciousness nor the mental states expressed in the self. Di/e the &uddha.tate. The modes. In the . The main cause of bondage is ignorance and the false identification of urusa with ra/rti and its evolutes. The &andha 'bondage) and *o/sa 'the self-reali!ation) are due to the states of ra/rti. urusa is uncaused. The things of the world are the products of ra/rti. However. happiness and other mental sates are no longed present and there is not scope for any activity of consciousness. ( &ut through nescience 'avidya) urusa falsely identifies itself with the evolutes of ra/rti. The . The self does not /now its real nature.an/hya-Loga contends that if the urusa were one. In this sense. urusa and ra/rti are the ultimate realities. The presence of the purusa disturbs the equilibrium in the gunas and the activity of the ra/rti. urusa in its real nature is unaffected by the evolutes of the ra/rti. in the sense9 it presents the pathway to the reali!ation of the highest end.an/hya and Loga philosophies have posited the plurality of self. The . . the same conditions would have been experienced by all the individual selves.A *ARSANAS . The . later . According to .an/hya philosophers have given description of the nature of *o/sa. then with the death of the urusa all individual selves would have cease to exist. urusa is a sub4ect and the cogniser. &ut with the awa/ening of the real /nowledge ad discrimination. it is not consciousness. 7apila does not elaborately discuss about the nature of *o/sa.SANKHYA AN* YO. The conception of *o/sa of the . he also says that this world is full of misery and the main ob4ect is to be free from misery. Then ignorance is destroyed.an/hya-Loga the self is free from any attributes 'nirguna). urusa reali!es that it is different from ra/rti.an/hya. According to the . the states li/e intellect. ra4as and tamas. nescience 'avidya) is the cause of bondage. . The activity of the ra/rti through the disturbance of the guna due to the presence of the urusa gives rise to the evolution of the universe.an/hya-Loga concept of the nature of urusa is similar to the >edantic conception of the Atman. ra/rti evolves but it is not the product of any other higher principle. According to . so also the states of &andha and *o/sa are reflected in the urusa.yaya->aisesi/a. and the elf becomes free from the bondage '&andha).an/hya and Loga darsanas are complementary to each other. we can say urusa is consciousness. . This is due to avidya.an/hya gives the metaphysical foundations to Loga and Loga presents the practical pathway to the reali!ation of the highest end of perfection '7aivalya). In the state of *u/ti. ra/rti is the primordial matter and it is the expression of the equilibrated state of the gunas--sattva.an/hya darsana *o/sa is also described as 7aivalya.an/hya presents the dualistic principles of urusa 'self) and ra/rti 'matter). This is the bondage. if one urusa were to be in bondage or if a urusa were to be free from bondage and reach the *o/sa .an/hya presents the metaphysical aspect of reality. This concept of plurality is not qualitative. but numerical.an/hya-Loga maintains that consciousness is the essence of the self and not a quality of the self as the .yaya->aisesi/a presents. It forgets its real nature and identifies itself with the ra/rti and its evolutes. :onsciousness is the essence of urusa. when it gets enlightenment. eternal and is a spiritual substance. The .

yaya->aisesi/a considers that mental states experiences are due to the contact of the body. &ut . And that is samsara. In this sense. According to this school. In the highest state of *u/ti.an/hya propounding twenty-four principles does not say that the self. Aamanu4a and >allabha maintain that in the highest state of perfection there is the pure light of consciousness and bliss. the empirical experiences li/e happiness and misery and /nowledge and ignorance are primarily due to the ra/rti and its attributes.an/hya propounding twenty-four principles is different from the . but due to the antah/arana 'the inner organs). In the highest state of *u/ti. these empirical experiences are absent.an/hya-Loga contends that in the highest state of *u/ti. Therefore. The first view oriented towards the /arya prapanca 'empirical activities) and the second emphasi!es guna prapanca 'the attributes of ra/rti). The . The thing appears to be somewhat ideational strange. These modifications are related to the attributes only and not to the substance.yaya->aisesi/a distinguishes between substance and quality. misery and desire are due to the states of consciousness. the self reali!es that it is not the agent of the experiences but these experiences are reflected in it.yaya->aisesi/a accepts the empirical states of the Atman as doer. 5hile the later schools of thought show that in the state of *o/sa there is the complete absence of the states of experience associated with the activity of ra/rti. The former view of the . The modifications and changes in the states do not adversely affect the nature of the substance. In the highest state of *u/ti. we can say that the Bpanisadic conception of *o/sa is different from the . The self falsely believes that it is experiencing all the empirical experiences.yaya->aisesi/a conception in some form. In this sense. which is in the state of bondage. The .an/hya-Loga maintains that the mental states and epxeriences are not due to the self.an/ara. The Bpanisadic view of *o/sa presents the self as in the state of pure consciousness and bliss and of the ultimate reality of the &rahman. The . The earlier . &ut the . we can say to some extent that the . The >edantic philosophers li/e . the . &ut the . . These states arising due to the antah/arana are reflected in self-the self falsely identifies it with varied mental states and experiences. is completely different from the empirical consciousness due to the dance of ra/rti. The attributes and the modes arising out of the attributes are not related to the substance. again. desires and other forms of psychic states are completely absent in the state of *u/ti.an/hya-Loga does not accept the distinction between the substance and its attributes. which is the attribute of the self. The differences in the presentation of the nature of the self in the two schools of thought are only due to terminological differences and not due to real differences.yaya->aisesi/a the . although there are variations in their the &rahman. the empirical experiences are absent. but pure consciousness is its real essence. This is the cardinal distinction between the two different schools of philosophy. THE BU**HIST CONCEPTION O# NIR5ANA 2Nir)ana3 . there is pure consciousness and bliss. although its presentation depends in the ideational distinction between the self and consciousness. The . and it is different from the ra/rti and its evolutes. Bnli/e the .an/hya propounds twenty-five principles of evolution.yaya->aisesi/a says that the empirical experiences li/e happiness.an/hyaLoga posits the self as nirguna but consciousness as its essence.yaya->aisesi/a. which is consciousness. in the highest state there is absence of consciousness.an/hya-Loga conception of the nature of the *o/sa comes nearer to the Bpanisadic view. the en4oyer and that. misery and happiness.luminous and consciousness is the essence of the self.an/hya points out that in the state of *o/sa the activities of ra/rti are differentiated from the pure nature of the self. mind and the states li/e intellect. which is the substratum of the attributes. In this sense.an/hya with twenty-four principles presents similar view with the .

They give different conceptions of the . >ana also means bad smell and .irvana as a state with the bliss as its category.irvana is a state of freedom and from misery. The result was his disciples followed different paths of interpretation. There is not atman as the permanent principle and . because he was averse to metaphysical discussions.irvana i. Amara/osa also presents the same view. in fact freedom from everything. He was only silent about it.irvana positive in content during the discussions with /ing *ilinda.irvana has been discussed. #r.irvana is the cessation of misery and the experience. The &uddha said that . The nun 7hema.agasena has given the interpretation of . The &uddha did not discuss the nature of . *urthy says that the history of &uddhist philosophy is the history of the conception of . says that 4ust as the sands on the ban/s of the 6anges cannot be counted. $verything is momentary. It is the highest state of moral perfection and it is full of bliss. The &uddha does not deny that highest state of perfection expresses bliss.irvana and other metaphysical problems. The first is called the Hinayana conception while the second refers to the *ahayana conception in its broad content. inaccessible for speculation.ome say that . The Hinayana and the *ahayana ways. so also the . Aadha/rsnan and others maintain that the state of .irvana are avya/rta. #r.irvana is negative in its content. The Tathagata &uddha said that . According to the &uddha.irvana whether it pertains to individual existence or to the existence in general.ome adduced negative interpretation of . Thomas.irvana as cessation or destruction. 5herever there is reference to the . 4ust as the waters of the sea are immeasurable. The first is the individualistic and the second is the universal content. which gives the negative meaning of .irvana would be freedom from bad smell of the /arma. .irvana is absolute cessation from misery.irvana is the most important conception in the &uddhist philosophy. This is possible because the >edic seers did not . It is extinction of all empirical existence. It is nothingness.irvana as extinction. There is nothing real.irvana is incomprehensible. &ut the -aina conception of *o/sa does not accept differences of opinion.irvana does not represent the denial of the self or personality. The result was his disciples followed inaccessible for speculation. while some others have emphasi!ed the cessation of existence in general as .unyata. The metaphysical questions li/e .irvana as absolute cessation of existence. 0 In this sense9 the &uddhist conception of . In another sense.irvana. .irvana cannot be described in words nor its nature can be comprehended by thought. it is .irvana is freedom from rebirth. there is ambiguity in the interpretation. + *axmuller maintains that there is no version in the #hammapada. the passions and the craving for life due to ignorance. . while explaining the concepts to rasena4it. rof. indescribable in words and inexpressible in thought. . The ali Texts . The question arose about the nature of . It is beyond comprehension in thought and description in words. Anand/umaraswamy.ociety explains the meaning of the word . vana refers to the 4ungle and . but it is not the destruction of the Atman.irvana is Eavya/rtaE. ( The disciples of the &uddha however. .irvana refers to the individual freedom from misery.yaya->aisesi/a conception of *o/sa as a state in which there is no consciousness. too/ two different paths.irvana would be cutting of all the threads of empirical existence. >ana refers to rebirth and . . . In the third sense. It has moral overtones. Aadha/rsnan maintains that the concept of .. + JAINA CONCEPTION O# &OKSA There are varied interpretations regarding the nature of *o/sa in the &uddhist and >edic traditions. It is the destruction of the desire.irvana is freedom from misery and it is different from the ad4uncts of empirical personality.irvana would be escape from the thic/ 4ungle of 7arma.irvana is absolute cessation. .e.irvana.The &uddhist refers to the conception of *o/sa as nirvana. which are formed due to /arma.irvana is different from the .irvana. The others gave a positive content to . some philosophers contend that . .everal philosophers li/e Ahys #avids.( In the Abhidhamma *ahavibhasa sastra the etymological meaning of .

&ut this is not so with the development of -aina thought. He said to his disciples that they should accept whatever stands the test of reason and should not accept any view because the Tathagata has said.yaya->aisesi/a conception of the eternity of the soul so far as it refers to the soul as substance. It agrees with the . This theory is a special contribution of the -ainas. The -ainas do not consider the Atman as all pervading li/e the . This conception of the nature of the soul in the *o/sa is a special contribution of the -ainas. The -aina conception of the Atman is a synthesis of the principles of permanence and modes. but the -ainas do not accept the /sani/avada of the &uddhists. *oreover. The eternity of the soul is not the static eternity as in some systems of Indian philosophy. ( It should be remembered that though the quality of the contraction and the expansion is inherent in the soul but it do the accumulations of particles of /arma form expression due to the /armic body. it is described as having form. :onsidered from the point of view of modes. the self is changing. the -ainas contend that at the time of attainment of *o/sa the pervasion of the soul becomes less by one-third of the body of the soul 4ust previously occupied by it at the time of *o/sa. there are modes. Therefore. This also gives a clear picture of the nature of the soul in the state of *o/sa. it is nearer to the .rom the noumenal point of view the soul is eternal as a substance. They say.irvana and the self. In this sense of psychic energy of the soul. This is the empirical description of the soul from the empirical point of view. however. a 7evalin.irvana it is referred to the Ealaya vi4nanaE the storehouse of consciousness. there did not appear to have differences regarding the metaphysical problems li/e the nature of the *o/sa. pervading the body that it occupies. . The Tirthan/ara *ahavira was an omniscient. The -ainas have accepted the principle of the co-reality of substance and its modifications. The later philosophers of the >edic tradition gave their own interpretations of the nature of *o/sa when the concepts were introduced in the >edic tradition. The -aina conception of the universal and the particular.discuss the nature of *o/sa.rom the phenomenal point of view.an/hya conception of the urusa. bliss and infinite energy.rom the noumenal point of view. the &uddha was silent over the nature of metaphysical problems li/e . The soul has no form but due to its extension in space. . but it expresses the inherent nature of infinite energy. In regard to the inherent characteristics of the soul as infinite /nowledge. The principle of permanence. the soul is permanent as a substance. The -aina conception of *o/sa is different from other conception in Indian thought. that Atman is madhyama parinami.yaya->aisesi/a or atomic in nature li/e Aamanu4aEs standpoint. whether small or big. . -ainas have a common point.or this reason.irvana in the &uddhist philosophy. According to the -ainas. is not li/e the eternal principle of urusa and ra/rti in the . The conception of the ultimate si!e of the soul 4ust at the time of *o/sa is based on the conception of the si!e of the soul 4ust at the time of *o/sa is based on the conception of the si!e of the body that it last occupied. This is because9 the -ain conception implies the pervasive quality according to the body9 while according to some thin/ers the soul is described as atomic in nature.an/hya philosophy. the liberated soul has infinite /nowledge and bliss because of its inherent nature of consciousness and bliss. He did not impose his views on his disciples. It has the characteristics of both expansion and contraction in order to pervade the entire body. This is one of the reasons why there developed differences of opinion regarding the nature of . The liberated soul has no body and therefore there is no question of contraction or expansion. . It is non-eternal from the point of view of modifications. And the words of the 7evalin had absolute authority. The &uddha never claimed to be and omniscient being. . the identity and difference and the permanent substances and its changing modes as equally real has influenced the -aina conception of *o/sa. The &uddhist schools of philosophy of Logacara posit the conception of >i4nana as a centre of self and in the state of .

It is only the psychic continuity of vi4nana that pro4ects itself into the next line. Therefore. The absence of the empirical ad4uncts 'Bpadhi) in the liberated state does not mean that the liberated soul is different from the empirical soul. . freedom from the subtle body. 5hen the soul is liberated it reaches the &rahmalo/a and gets merged in the &rahman. . . the liberated souls do not possess9 state of liberation the souls become free from the gross bodies and also from the subtle bodies which is due to a gross body. due to devotional preponderance enter the samsara in the state of practical liberation for the sa/e of expression of devotion.irvana are nearer to the state of .an/hya-Loga maintain that the soul is all pervading. but it is not one substance.irvana.irvana. -ust as through the friction of two pieces of metal fire is created so also the . $verything is transitory and in flux. the soul goes and settles in a sthana. but there is no plurality. those who maintain the soul as atomic in nature li/e the >isistadvaitin accept the plurality of souls. The . so also there must be a place for .irvana is a state of experience of the purity . 5e cannot say that in the state of . souls are atomic in nature. &ut in its real nature.ome souls get merged with the &rahma but some other souls. so also the vi4nana the psychic energy.agasena replied3 There is no state analogous to these which can be called . in the liberated souls the soul becomes free from the subtle bodies. -ust as a snow ball goes on accumulating. particles of snow in its movement.. there is not permanent self that is reborn. According to this school of thought. . 7ing *ilinda as/ed3 J4ust as there are pearls in the sea.irvana in the purity of mind.yaya->aisesi/a and . the &rahman has vyapa/atva. it is the &rahmasvarupa in its pure form.irvana is real.imilarly. The -ivatman or a urusa becomes different from the differentiated states and becomes all pervading. In the state of rebirth. According to >allabhacarya.irvana is not something external. The *adhva philosophy posits the souls as atomic in nature.agasena3 which of the states of life prior to . It reali!es the state of the &rahman. The 7evaladvaitin maintains that the atman i. As a consequence of this. According to this theory. the soul is free from all empirical ad4uncts. The difference between the souls that are liberated and the souls that are in bondage is with reference to the freedom and the presence of the su/sma sarira and the empirical ad4uncts. the soul is not different from the arabrahman. They also maintain that there are many souls. The /ing *ilinda as/ed to . loaded with its sams/ara the anamic mass pro4ects itself into the next life i. fragrance in the flower and the grains in the field. However.irvanaF Acarya said that there is no analogy to explain the state of . According to this interpretation. which is antah/arana. but at the same time souls reach the state of &rahma in their state of merger with the &rahman.e.THE STATE O# &UKTI 2&UKTI+STHANA3 There is a fundamental question regarding the state of the soul at the time of *o/sa3 5hat is the state of the soul when it is liberated from the bodyF There is different interpretation on this question based on the different philosophical predilections.e. They are different from arabrahman. there is no permanent self that emerges from the earlier birth to the next birth. THE BU**HIST CONCEPTION O# THE &UKTI+STHANA The &uddhists maintain that nothing is permanent. the state of .irvana. the liberated soul lives in the sannidhya of >ishnu. 5e have to reali!e the state of .irvana which is permanentJ. in which we can say the self goes to settle there. rebirth.

we cannot distinguish between the state of . the four fundamental truths have been enunciated3 '() bandha 'bondage). '0) du//ha-nirodha 'cessation of misery) and du//ha-nirodha marga 'the pathway to the cessation of misery).irvana. The Acarya replied3 udgala 'the continuing self) is rooted in the . ( 5hen the /armic particles are removed and when the soul is free from /arma. we can say . However. It is the state absolutely free from misery. It does not move further because there is the absence the #harmasti/aya in Alo/a/asa. and the spiritual with path for the salvation. =n the basis of the thoughts expressed in the Bpanisads and the &hagavadgita.irvana and the purity of experience. in his .ermon at &anares. *o/sa is the complete freedom from /armic matter. li/e3 the disease. and can experience the state of . '0) mo/sa 'state of liberation) and '1) samvara 'the way to the cessation to the bondage). The -aina literature presents the extension of . '+) asrava 'cause of bondage). there must be some state from which a pudgala experiences the state of . the removal of the disease and means of the removal of the same9 so also in the understanding selfMreali!ation. four factors are important for consideration. O# THE &OKSA+STHANA The -ainas say that the -iva has the characteristics of Brdhvagati 'tendency to go upwards). The next stage would be the removal of the accumulated /arma.iddhasila and such a description of the extension of the place where liberated souls reside is not stated in any other school of Indian thought.irvana. 'cause of misery).iddhalo/a. . -ust as in the science of medicine. 2 The &uddha enunciated. men can attain perfection through their self-efforts. '+) du//hasamudya 'cause of misery). According to the -ainas the world where the human beings inhabit.imilarly.irvana from any point of space. we can say. the four noble truths 'Aryasatva)3 '() du//ha 'misery).ila 'righteousness). ( THE JAINA 5IE.iddha/setra has also forty-five la/hs of yo4anas. atan4ali has given as elaborate discussions about *o/sa and pathway to *o/sa. G In the -aina darsana. It is the cause of misery. + The different schools of >edic traditions have given their interpretations of the pathway to *o/sa.rom the 7armabhumi of the human beings. It is a state of self-reali!ation. The /ind said3 5e may accept the view that there is not special state of . we should also consider the four important principles li/e samsara.of mind. It is due to the passions and the activity.AY TO &OKSA3 5e may now consider the pathway to *o/sa. Therefore . According to him the four cardinal principles are3 '() heya ( 'misery). that the state of mo/sa is the highest state of perfection to be attained. '0) hana0 'cessation of misery C '1) hanopaya 1 'the pathway to the cessation of the misery). . it moves upwards to the end of the Do/a/asa and remains in its pure form in the . This state of perfection at the end of the Do/a/asa is called . the noted commentator of .yayasutra has elaborated the four principles of the *o/sa and pathway to *o/sa. This is possible if the influx of the /armic particles is obstructed. Asrava is the influx of /arma. This creates misery. . It is the state of freedom from misery. has the extension of forty-five la/hs of yo4anas and the extension of the .amvara is the way to the cessation to the misery. the cause of samsara.irvana is the reali!ation from the purity of the mind. at the end of Do/a/asa. The Bpanisads and &hagavadgita are the foundational texts for the >edic tradition. The &andha 'bondage) is due to the passions arising out of ignorance. This is the nir4ara. >atsyayana. These two constitute the pathway to *o/sa. &OKSA &AR. In this sense.iddhasila.A 2THE PATH+. 5e cannot say that there was first the fire or first the friction and then the fire. mo/sa and the pathway to mo/sa. cause of the disease. '+) heyahetu+. In this sense.

It causes the destruction of /asayas and other blemishes. In the other systems of Indian philosophy. and in explaining the concept of *o/sa. It is the absence of the right /nowledge regarding the nature of the pure self. this has been referred to the cause of all blemishes. 0 7athopanisad1 and the &hagavadgita2 have also emphasi!ed that avidya is the primary cause of all passions and difficulties. The different schools of thought have used their terminologies to describe the stages in the pathway to perfection. In the >edic tradition. which has been referred to by other systems of Indian philosophy as asmita. . dvesa and trsna.chool. They have suggested that the root-cause of samsara and the misery in this life is due to avidya 'nescience).+ In this way the Indian philosophers. $very school of Indian thought has emphasi!ed the importance of the concept of *o/sa as the highest stage of self-reali!ation.that the -ainas have propounded the four fundamental and noble truths in the tradition of the >edic and Bpanisadic thought and similar to the &uddhist tradition too. -ainism has advocated the three-fold path for the attainment of perfection3 '() samyagdarsana 'right faith). the Indian systems of philosophy. In the &uddhist literature. avidya is perversity of /nowledge. 5e find that there is a fundamental similarity of approach and a unity of thought in the description of the highest end of life. vi!. which gives rise to all sorts of passions. and difficulties. atan4ali says avidya.irvana. The -aina have used the word samyag4nana 'right /nowledge). li/e sila. as the highest end of life. samadhi and pra4na for the sa/e of reali!ation of . 7anada has said avidya is the root cause.rom the spiritual point of view. The difference in terminology is mainly verbal and it does not effect the basic unity in the conception of state of perfection and pathway to the state of perfection. including the -ainas. 7anada says that avidya can be removed by >idya 'discriminative /nowledge. . This has exception only in the :arva/a . G -ainism asserts that the root cause of samsara is darsanamoha C caritramoha. li/e the *a44himani/aya it has been described that the &uddha has said that avidya is the root cause of misery because it leads to craving trsna and other blemishes. Avidya gives rise to passions 'ragadvesa). #arsanamoha refers ignorance or perversity of attitude in the sense of avidya used in other Indian thought. ( Isvar/risna + in the . asmita raga-dvesa and abhinivesa are the five obstacles or hardships which cause misery and which bring obstructions to the path of liberation. :aritramoha is perversity in conduct. A/sapada has used the term tattva4nana or samyag4nana 'right /nowledge). The &uddha advocated the eight-fold path. have emphasi!ed the importance of the reali!ation of *o/sa or . In this sense. for the reali!ation . '+) samyag4nana 'right /nowledge) and '0) samyagcaritra 'right conduct).irvana.irvana3 '() samyagdrsti 'right belief) '+) samyagsan/alpa 'right resolve) '0) samyagva/ 'right speech) '1) samyag/arma 'right action) '2) samyag a4iva 'right living) 'G) samyag vyayama 'right effort) '@) samyag smrti 'right thought) and 'H) samyag samadhi 'right self-concentration). He has suggested that avidya is the root cause of all these things. attachment and hardship '/lesa).am/hya/ari/a has elaborated the five obstacles in the way to self-reali!ation.( &uddhaghosa has enumerated three important ways. both of the >edic and the non->edic traditions. have given prominence to avidya 'nescience) as the root cause of misery..) atan4ali calls it vive/a/hyati. raga. self-reali!ation '*o/sa) and pathway to the reali!ation of this end. The &uddhist have suggested that EvipassanaE or pra4na are analogous to vidya. the pathway to destruction of avidya and to the reali!ation of the *o/sa has been suggested to be three-fold as '() 4nana '/nowledge) '+) bha/ti 'devotion) and '0) /arma 'action).

Acarya . ( E>adaE presents a theory of logic and metaphysics.yadvada is the expression of the pictures of reality obtained from different points of view in definite and determinate logical predications. it is to be considered as implicit in the predication. but considered from the logical distinctions inherent in two theories. It is the unique contribution that the -ainas have made to the logic and epistemology. The -aina acaryas have made .Part " PRA&ANA5A*A SYA*5A*A0 the asis o( Jaina Philoso!hy . . . It refers to a point of view or in a particular context.yadvada.amantabhadra says that the word syat is a symbol of truth. which expresses presence and coexistence with particular points of view. 0 . Ane/antavada is a special contribution of the -ainas to the philosophical world. or in a particular sense.yadvada is the expression of the Ane/antavada in logical and predicational form. dogmatic and fanatical approach to the problem of Aeality.yadvada means a theory of predication of the description of reality from different points of view.yadvada is identified with Ane/antavada. the -aina Acaryas say that in some cases of predications. Ane/antavada is the foundational principle and syadvada is the logical expression of the foundational principle. we can say that Ane/anta is the basic principle of the complexity of reality and the possibility of loo/ing at reality from different points of view. 1 6enerally . such thin/er cannot reali!e reality in full.or this reason. of the different characteristics li/e permanence and impermanence. which expresses the fundamental principle that reality is complex.2 In this sense. .yadvada is the logical expression of nayavada in predication from. The thin/er having one-sided view in his mind can see only one facet of Aeality. Ane/anta is the basic attitude of mind.imilarity and difference. and it can be loo/ed at from different points of view.yadvada expresses protest against one-sided.yatE very often supposed to suggest the meaning of EdoubtE or EperhapsE but EsyatE does not express doubt or uncertainty. . expressibility and inexpressibility. the foundation of -aina philosophy. in different contexts or from different JBniverses of discourseJ. The points of view are the nayas and the naya is the psychological expression of the basic principle of ane/anta. . .yadvada presents a comprehensive and a synoptic picture of reality. . even if the term the syat is not used.( .yadvada is formed of the two words EsyatE and EvadaE. narrow. It is the foundational principle for philosophical position of the -ainas.yadvada promotes catholic outloo/ of many-sided approach to the problem of /nowledge of reality. It has the significance of expression and communication in the logical and predicational pattern. It affirms that there are different facets of Aeality and they have to be understood from various points of view by the predications of affirmation. E. negation and indescribability. . + And therefore. reality and appearance. It is anti-dogmatic and it presents a synoptic picture of reality from different points of view.HAT IS SYA*5A*A. .

ome other school of thought has said that reality is incomprehensible 'a4neya). and we are at a loss to /now which of reality should be accepted. :arva/a denies reality of the Atman as a permanent substance. . They see/ to emphasi!e diversity as presented in the universe. The -aina Acaryas have presented a synoptic outloo/ in understanding the problems of philosophy on the basis of Ane/anta. . In fact. . but it is many and diverse.iddhasena.amantabhadra. there is an ambiguity and metaphysical confusion. the oneness and duality and other forms of philosophy on the basis of Ane/anta. some maintain that it is atomic in nature and some others say that Atman is of the si!e of the thumb. *imamsa/as maintain that Atman is a substance and is eternal. They see/ unity in diversity. there is intellectual chaos in the study of the metaphysical problems. The eminent Acaryas. is a direct experience. Aegarding the nature of the Atman. even in the concept of the Atman. which is Javya/rtaJ 'indescribable) 0 and became silent. ( SYA*5A*A0 THE PRINCIPLE O# COHERENCE The different systems of philosophy have given different pictures of reality.amantabhadra says that . the theory of Ane/anta has become foundational for -aina thought. for them.irvana.an/hya atman is passive without attributes. It is the product of intellectual discrimination.ome others maintain that consciousness is not the characteristic of the Atman. The first. $ven in those schools of thought where there is agreement regarding the reality of the Atman. . . but is inherent in the soul.ome say. Ane/antavada see/s to find out a solution out of this intellectual chaos. although it expresses modification in different forms of status. :onsciousness is its essence. and posit that the reality is one. but it is due to the wor/ing of the intellect. If the intellect is pure in its essence then $/anta will . refuses to discuss the metaphysical problems li/e the Atman and .or instance.+ . As a result. A comprehensive picture of reality is sought to be presented by the theory of Ane/anta. .yadvada expresses the predicational propositions of the experience of reality presented in /evala4nana. According to .ome other schools of thought loo/ at reality from the empirical point of view. He said that Atman is a sub4ect. And for this reason. The differences in the views regarding the nature of reality presented by different schools of thought are based on their basic outloo/ of.Acarya . and their approach of loo/ing at reality. . which has qualities. A/alan/a and Haribhadra have presented the subtle logical distinctions and the metaphysical thought involving unity and diversity.till others say that consciousness is not a quality of the soul. It see/s to find meaning in the diversity of opinions and tries to establish that these diverse views are neither completely false not completely true. In this way.yadvada is the indirect expression of the direct experience. In this sense. different schools of thought have given different interpretations about the nature of the Atman. It includes the consciousness and the unconsciousness as aspects of reality.yadvada and /evala4nana 'omniscient /nowledge) are the foundational facts of /nowledge. some say that it is the product of the elements. there are basic differences between the different schools of philosophy regarding the nature of the Atman. but it is produced by the metabolic changes of the body. This creates intellectual chaos. In this way. the Ane/anta outloo/ is the basis for other schools of Indian thought. They say that $/anta or dogmatism or onesided approach to the problems of reality is not inherent in reality 'vastugatadharma). . . The Ane/anta see/s to determine the extent of reality present different schools of thought and gives a synoptic picture of reality. &uddha. because the pictures of reality presented by different schools of thought sometimes contradict with each other.an/hya philosophy accepts the eternity and substantiality of the Atman. is not one or a unity.yaya->aisesi/a posit the reality of the Atman and say that Atman is a substance. li/e . Aeality. The difference between the two is that /evala4nana expresses the comprehensible /nowledge of reality while . . there are different views expressed by different philosophies.ome ta/e the synthetic point of view and present the picture of reality in a synthetic sense. They present partial truths from different points of view. it is all-pervading li/e space 'A/asa).

does expressed in the paramarthi/a.ome of the systems of Indian thought have expressed their opposition to the Ane/anta theory. He has the spirit of equanimity in approaching for the understanding of the problems of other theories. >yavahari/a and pratibhasi/a satya. truth can be understood in the true perspective and in a comprehensive way. &ut in trying to refute the validity of . all /nowledge would be fruitless. =ne who believes in the Ane/anta outloo/ loo/s at the conflicting and diverse theories of realities with equal respect.an/aracarya and Aamanu4acarya have argued against the validity of . The e/anta attitude is compelling and it drives us to accept its point of view and discourages us to accept the othersE point of view. and while churning the buttermil/.an/ara mentions that there is nothing in the world which is purely without faults and without attributes--Istam /imapi lo/easmin na nirdosam na nirgunamJ. .uri says that one who develops the e/anta attitude and insists on his point of view is one-sided in his approach and would li/e to lead others also to his points of view. This is the expression of the Ane/anta. A mil/maid churns the buttermil/. Let we can observe the impact of Ane/anta on their theories also.yadvada outloo/ only. which is inside and outside. >yavahari/a and pratibhasi/a satya.othing is purely perfect and purely attributes.yadvada. . &ut the one who develops the synoptic outloo/ based on the ane/anta attitude is always guided by ob4ective and rational considerations in evaluating the theories of reality. It is not possible to disregard the Ane/anta theory. In the absence of the spirit of equanimity. The description of the &rahman as Epara and aparaE and the analysis of the degrees of reality as expressed in the paramarthi/a. 4ust as a father loo/s at the activities of his son. which is near and far.yadvada they seem to have adopted the . THE I&PACT O# ANEKANTA ON OTHER *ARSANAS The Ane/anta attitude gives a comprehensive and synoptic view of life. Bpadhyaya Lasovi4aya says that one who has developed the Ane/anta outloo/ does not disli/e other viewpoints.disappear. The consequence is butter is extracted from the buttermil/.yadvada gives a comprehensive and true picture of reality. Ane/anta states that the nature of reality should be considered and studied purely from the rational point of view without pre4udice or bias. The pure exercise of intellect will give rise to a synoptic view-point expressed in the Ane/anta and the different partial view-points get merged in the Ane/anta. He loo/s at other viewpoints with understanding and sympathy.imilarly. . . The intellectual confusion is created by e/anta while Ane/anta clears the welter of confusion9 the synoptic outloo/ of .( Haribhadra . and any amount of reading the sacred texts would not lead to any fruitful results. if we loo/ at the different points of view of /nowing reality in their proper perspective. This would mean that everything has its good qualities and also its faults. considering the primary points of view as important and the secondary points of view with their due consideration. In the Isavasya Bpanisada Atman has been described as a substance which moves and does not move. . she pulls the string on the side and loosens the string on the other.yadvada on the ground that contradictory attributes cannot co-exist at the same time. . He does not loo/ at the diverse theories of realities as one superior to the other. 4ust as the different rivers get merged in the sea. as it is rational and ob4ective in its outloo/. does express the spirit of Ane/anta and .yadvada point of view. This is the expression ( of the .

but with reference to the practical world. There is not difference in essence.am/hya .arasvati was once as/ed whether he was a wise man or not. All these states express modifications of the substance but these different states ta/en independently for consideration express the theories of permanence.rom the point of view of substance. it would now be necessary to understand the extent of the expression of the Ane/anta in the different problems of philosophy li/e the problem of permanence and change. it is clear that Ane/anta expresses the synoptic point of view and gives a comprehensive picture of reality in which partial pictures from different points of view are synthesi!ed and harmoni!ed.rom this. . . it is changing.. . $insteinEs theory of relativity expresses the spirit of . It is the thing that changes. 5ithout substance 'dravya). ( This is true of every ob4ect and there are not exceptions to this. -iva is necessary for the expression of the various states li/e man. PER&ANENCE AN* I&PER&ANANCE 2CHAN. are both necessary and complementary to each other. He said that in the field of darsana he is wise. $very substance is permanent but its modes are changing and in a flux. In this sense. Among the 6ree/ philosophers. The .ome of the theories may be mentioned as arinamavada. According to the Ane/anta view. -iva as a substance and the states of 4iva in the empirical sense. The modes originate and are destroyed but the substance remain permanent. Having considered the impact of Ane/anta on the different schools of thought. a substance and the expression of the various states li/e man. the other does not exist. Aupantaravada and >ichedavada. Aain brings greenery on the land.E3 The Ane/anta view presents a theory that every ob4ect is a synthesis of the attributes of permanence and change.ubstance is permanent. ra4as and tamas in the state of equilibrium in the original state of pra/rti and as expressed in varied degrees in the process of evolution expressed the spirit of Ane/anta. . of the identity of self and the body etc. we recogni!e him and say he is the same man that we met. A thing changes in its attribute. -iva is permanent and is indestructible. 5hen we meet a person whom we have already met.yadvada expresses the synthesis of the theories of permanence and of change. There are different theories of causation regarding the origination of the substance and ob4ects. lower animal and bird. The &uddhist conception of the >ibha44avada and *adhyama *arga express the Ane/anta spirit. .or instance.wami #ayanand . This spirit of Ane/anta cannot be ignored by any school of thought because of its intrinsic value. :hanges do not exist without a thing.an/hya conception of pra/rti as having the three attributes of sattva. but the difference can be seen in expression. he is not wise. #estruction and ermanence. &ut the modes as expressed in the states of 4iva are not permanent. . Arambhavada. it is permanent and from the point of view of modes. 4iva is a substance and its various states are its modes. .ubstance and modes are inseparable and complementary. These are the modes of the 4iva. . change and destruction. This is an expression of Ane/anta. lato has presented the theory of the degrees of reality. 5e have camphor on the palm and anon it evaporates. but modes are changing. This is also the expression of the Ane/anta. and then we say it is not there. every ob4ect has the triple attributes of =rigination. modes 'paryaya) are not possible and without modes substance cannot be understood. The world of ideas is real and the physical world is real to the extent of the participation of the ideas in the physical ob4ects. &ut it should be remembered that substance and its modes are not two different entities. 5ithout the one.yadvada.

In this sense. . which is purely permanent without modes. which are susceptible to change. *odern science has shown that matter and energy are mutually convertible. ( If a thing were to be purely permanent. . cause and effects are different events. cannot be destroyed. a substance 'dravya) has been considered a synthesis of permanence and modifications. which gives exclusive importance to the flux. -ust as a candle. but it expressed itself the empirical world in its various modifications and states in different forms of life li/e men and lower animals. it would have may remain in one static form only and there would not have been any states or changes. and there is no change.aiyayi/as Isvara is eternal 'non-changing reality) while the flames of a lamp are non-eternal. A substance without modes cannot exist. a philosophy. Therefore. The modern scientific view of reality accepts the fact of transformation. the -ainas maintain that substance and modes are both real.ubstance is a substratum of change and changes ta/e place in a substance. which is. In this sense.philosophers have presented arinamavada. the gases li/e hydrogen and oxygen. Therefore. which are fleeting. :ause has the potentiality of the effect is the actuali!ation of he cause.yadvada theory. but changing in the form of modes.aiyayi/as considered the perceptible ob4ects as impermanent and the &uddhists considered everything as fleeting. cannot a thing that changes. . and modes must have a substance for its substratum. . The &uddhists maintain that there is nothing permanent and what we call a thing appearing to be permanent is an aggregate of states.imilarly. every substance has its modes. Therefore. *odern science analyses an atom into its three constituentEs '() neutron which is its central and focal point. It is the actuali!ation of the potential. A thing as a substance is permanent.rom the standpoint of .ubstance has the modes of origination and destruction. This view is supported by actual scientific experiments. According to the . If there were only change and flux without any substance that changes. but in its process or burning the substance of the candle is not destroyed. According to the .at/aryavada. that which is not cannot originate and that. '+) electron which is moving with a velocity and '0) proton which is non-moving. permanence and change are equally real. According to this theory. the . water is formed through the combination of hydrogen and oxygen in a definite proportion of +3(. They are permanent in the form of substance. This is called . . It has been suggested that nothing is destroyed. It is also called Asat/aryavada. there is nothing. never comes into being. there would not have been any substratum and a support and any form. it is only that an ob4ect gets transformed. A philosophical system. we find transformation of water into a different form li/e ice and water.or instance. which maintains that reality. As we are aware. It is only a transformation.imilarly. . the hydrogen and the oxygen can be separated of the water and water expresses itself in the form of gases. 5hen the effect appears. According to them.+ There is nothing which is free from the modes of coming into being and destruction. It is transformed into some other element. of hydrogen and oxygen.yadvada -ainas affirm that a thing is never destroyed. According toe . That which is not. . which is a substance. &y the process of disintegration. cause and effect are not different events. while the changing modes are not permanent. cause disappears. which has not got a thing as a substratum of change. . the 4iva is a substance. changes in accordance with its flames. .yaya >aisesi/a darsanas present the Arambhavada theory.or instance. $ffect is in the cause. is the permanent and the eternal cannot easily dispense with the facts of life. In this world. as a vast continuum. a candle burns.at/armavada. which present the changing modes. In this sense. matter and energy are convertible and conservable. It is thing that changes and has its modes. the 4iva and the chandler have both the characteristics of permanence and change. ( The accepted principle of conservation of matter and energy has been a primary principle in the science of hysics and :hemistry.

&ut in the real sense of 4iva as a spiritual substance. the four-fold aspects of understanding the nature of the ob4ects will be '() #ravya 'substance) '+) 7setra 'place) '0) 7ala 'time) and '1) &hava 'its nature). 5e may ta/e the example of a pot made up of gold. because the Atman of -inadatta is not associated with the body of #evadatta. *ahavira said to his main disciple 6autama that Atman is different from the body is one sense9 it is identical with the body in a different sense. Therefore.ome other darsanas have considered that Atman is different entirely from the body. 0 . place. may give a negative predication. It is in a particular place and it is a golden pot with reference to its nature and characteristics li/e the yellowness of color etc. &ut the same pot considered from the point of view of other material li/e the clay out of which the pots are made. . In this sense. a comprehensive seven-fold predication of . with reference to another place. the association of the 4iva to a particular body is only external and temporary. It may also be considered from the four-fold aspects of the otherness of a thing in respect of substance. they are very closely associated and in the empirical sense they may be considered to be identical. &ut rational considerations and testimony of the . 5hile explaining this problem of relation of the body and the soul. there is no possibility of the conceptions of the mo/sa and rebirth 'punar4anma). the time at which it is and the real nature of the pot. 5e experience pain if the body is hurt. .utra/rtanga has mentioned a similar theory of tat4iva tatsariravada. In this sense. another time and another nature. In this sense. + .or instance. The affirmation and negation have to be predicated with reference to the identical nature of the four-fold aspects of consideration called EsvacatustayaE and with reference tot he four-fold aspects of other nature of a thing Epara-catustayaE. SATTA AN* ASATTA 2The Real and The Unreal3 Aeality of a thing and the reality of its modes can be considered from the point of view of . This brings the negative predications. . that the Atman of #evadatta is not associated with body of -inadatta. it is also necessary to postulate the relation between the Atman and the body as closely associated with each other from beginningless time.or instance. At the same time.yadvada. yet the Atman of #evadatta is associated with his own body.. Its substance is gold.imilarly. then the Atman will be destroyed with the destruction of the body. it is gold. it is necessary to accept the theory that the Atman and the body are different. consciousness is also destroyed. 5ith the destruction of the body. Therefore. It is slightly different from the :arva/a philosophy. place.THE I*ENTITY AN* *I##ERENCE BET.yadvada presents the manifold aspects of reality in its affirmative and negative forms of predications. we may give negative predications. In this sense again. the golden pot is a golden pot and it is not a pot made of clay. and not an earthen pot with reference to the nature of the substance of clay. It Atman and body were considered to be identical. we may predicate affirmative predications with reference to its own four-fold aspects and negative predications ma/e with reference to other four-fold aspects not belonging to it 'paracatustaya). They consider consciousness to be a product of the metabolic changes of the body. time and nature. time and it gives affirmations.astras to admit the possibility of mu/ti and rebirth. but if the body of #evadatta is hurt. #ifferent philosophical systems have given varied explanations about the relation between the Atman and the body. yet basically it does emphasis the identity of the 4iva and the body. from the point of view of substance. It is clear from this. $very thing can be considered from the point of view of its own substance. -inadatta does not experience the pain. its yellow color and other modes are of its nature.EEN AT&AN AN* THE BO*Y The Atman and the body are both identical and different. Affirmative predications may also be made in respect of the place in which it is. In this state. .

. . To give a comprehensive picture of a thing in all its varied aspects the -ainas have formulated seven-fold predications incorporating affirmation. A/alan/a. According to them originally. negation and affirmation-negation. This doctrine would be more effective to establish world-peace. An American philosopher rof. CLARI#ICATION O# SO&E &ISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT SYA*5A*A It would not be out of place to mention some misconceptions regarding the validity of the theory of . but they are only expressions of the many facets of reality for the sa/e of comprehension. . . It would be apt to say that the . These statements do not contradict each other and these statements are not only logically compatible.yadvada presents the predicational form of expressing the nature of reality indifferent aspects.aptabhangi as affirmation. In the earlier portion of the Agamas. It is necessary to note that . The 6anadharas formulated and taught the same to their disciples.yadvada opens the floodgates of the comprehension of the nature of a thing in its different aspects. have developed the . &ut we should recogni!e that Tirthan/aras first presented the -aina darsana. but he is not eternal9 he is wise and is not unwise. Acarya >inoba &have has emphasi!ed the need of understanding .amantabhadra. Herman -acobi says that .aptabhangi have been mentioned briefly. SAPTABHAN.or this. &ahm has stated that .aptabhangi.yadvada for the sa/e of world peace. These examples do emphasis the fact that it is possible to present a comprehensive picture of reality by predicating different aspects of reality in their negative and affirmative states. if populari!ed. It is not possible to say that he did not /now the .arvadarsi.aptabhangi. >idyanandi. we may affirm that a particular person is a man9 and deny that he belongs to any other species than that of man. Hemacandra. the -ainas have formulated a methodological scheme presenting seven-fold predications.yadvada doctrine in all its aspects. The seven-fold predications re not fragment of imagination.yadvada is the expression of non-violence in the intellectual form. negation and inexpressibility with their possible permutations. + Acarya 7unda/unda ahs mentioned some predications of the .I $verything is complex in its nature and it expresses many facets of its characteristics. 0 Dater philosophers li/e . This gradual presentation of the doctrine in an elaborate form from the Tirthan/ara to the 6anadharas and their disciples does not mean that the doctrine was not fully formulated at the time of the Tirthan/aras.yadvada as the intellectual basis of the ethical doctrine of non-violence.iddhasena. &ut it has been recogni!ed that affirmation and negation may be predicated of a thing from specific points of view is specific situations. Dater it was expressed in the form of written documents.. Tirthan/ara is an all-/nowing . but are also compatible in fact.ome scholars have ta/en this as gradual development of the doctrine of . *ahatma 6andhi gave importance to non-violence and he emphasi!ed the primacy of . That is called . There should be no contradiction between affirmation and negation as predicated from different point of view of the same thing. Archie -. roots of .yadvada was formulated not in its full form and it was later developed in its seven-fold predications. It is the foundational intellectual attitude of the -ainas.aptabhangi. . >adideva etc. ( 5e shall discuss about this in the later chapter. 5e may say that a particular person is an Indian and that he is not a 5esterner9 he is at present living.or example. .aptabhangi doctrine in its fuller and detailed aspects of predications.ome scholars consider that affirmation and negation at the same time contradict each other.uch varied statements from different points of view are necessary to present a coherent and comprehensive picture of the nature of a thing with its many facets. the theory of .

In the act of elaboration and presentation. It is not that a thing is9 +. He has presented the doctrine of .rom this. The conceptual form of :atus/oti is formulated as follows3 (. :atus/oti is neither the expression of the affirmation nor is it the presentation of the different aspects of the nature of a thing. In this way. This is far from the truth.( There were twenty three Tirthan/aras before the &uddha. Tirthan/ara arsvanatha lived two hundred and fifty years before the &uddha. . 5e may also point out that there are fundamental differences between the :atus/oti and .an4aya >elatthiputta lived much earlier to the &uddha. It is not that a thing neither is nor is not. It is not that a thing is not9 0. It is possible that the personal factors and the intellectual achievements of the later philosophers have influenced he presentation of the doctrines.aptabhangi incorporates the predications of affirmation negation. . it is clear that . The affirmation and negation are to be predicated with reference to the four-fold aspects of the elf nature of the ob4ects 'sva-catustaya) and the four-fold aspects of the other-nature of the ob4ects 'para catustaya). As we have seen earlier the &uddhist doctrine of catus/oti is fundamentally negative in its predications. Therefore. The twenty-three other Tirthan/aras presented his teachings to people from time to time. because -ainism prevailed much earlier to time of the &uddha. &ahm have ignored these factors and they have misunderstood the elaborate presentation of the doctrines as the later developments.yadvada.yadvada as a from of samsayavada 'the theory of doubt). it is not that a man is other than the man.aptabhangi does not deny the possibility of the affirmative predications about the existence of a thing. as it is not that a man is a man. &tu :atus/oti would express negative aspect of predications.yadvada. .aptabhangi could not have arisen and developed out of the &uddhist theory of :atus/oti. It is not merely an expression of negation of a thing9 it predicates the nature of a thing in its different aspects. &ut scholars li/e Archie -. He had critici!ed the . It is not that a man is and is not other than the man9 and it is not that the man neither is nor is not other than the man. and inexpressibility in their possible permutations. &ut . This type of presentation has developed in dialectical forms too.cholars li/e him have suggested. The first Tirthan/ara of this era is Asabhadeva. that the . It points that a thing is and has affirmative predications about its nature from its self-nature points of view in its four-fold aspects and it denies the absence of the other-nature points of view in its four-fold aspects. According to . certain factors li/e the capability of the Acaryas who had elaborated and intellectual climate of the time when it was presented in a fuller and detailed form have to be considered. we find that in the later presentations in the boo/-form the scholars have used the two-fold ob4ects of first presenting the other systems of philosophy as a polemic for refutation and later presented their own doctrine in a positive and constructive form.6anadharas only elucidated the doctrine of . . It is not that a thing is and is not9 1.aptabhangi and the later philosophers and not that they developed the theory in an elaborate form.aptabhangi. If we loo/ at this problem from the historical perspective we can very well say that . in the form of affirmation and negation. These teachings were elaborated and crystalli!ed in boo/ forms by the disciples and philosophers of the later times. .yadvada was formulated before the time of the &uddha.aptabhangi doctrine is the development from the &uddhist conception of :atus/oti nisedha. The theory of :atus/oti was formulated much later than the &uddha. the predications of the nature of man would be that he is a man and he is not a non-man li/e other animals.

the comprehensive description of the varied nature of the ob4ects is possible by different predications involving affirmation.an/aracarya did not go through the texts of the -ainas in their original form. . the affirmation of existence and the predication of negation are well-defined and certain from specific points-ofview.yadvada presents a picture of reality in its many-colored aspects.yadvada is not a theory of doubt.an/aracarya has critici!ed the saptabhangi on the grounds of the impossibility of contradictory attributes coexisting in the same thing. It is possible that . . rof. the confusion that arises due to the word EsyatE is not to be ta/en as the final say regarding the value of . It is not s/epticism. the -aina theory of .yadvada. . &ut in the case of seven-fold predication. The -aina theory of . All philosophies accept and utili!e it in one way or other9 but they hesitate to accept in by name. he would have replied that he was a sannyasi. The condition of these determinations ma/es doubt impossible.an/arabhasya has stated that . =nce &hagavana *ahavira was as/ed what form of language the sadhu should use. hanibhusana Adhi/ari has stated that there is not theory. Thomas says that . The illusioned conception began from .yatE means Jin a particular contextJ or from one point-of-view. &ut to one whom has understood the theory of . were to say that he is a sannyasi and that he is not a sannyasi. It has infinite number of characteristics. RE#UTATION O# CONTRA*ICTIONS .yadvada. but there is no such uni- . it may be pointed that the conditions of doubt are not present in the predication of .an/aracarya were as/ed who he was. negation and inexpressibility.yadvada has created a good deal of controversy. It does not present two contradictory predications from the same point-of-view.or instance. E.or instance. Therefore. It is very often suggested that EsyadE means EperhapsE or Emay beE. The word J. which has been as such misunderstood s.yadvada would not present a theory of doubt. ( In describing the characteristics9 one has to loo/ at it from different points of view. It is evident that . It would lead to s/epticism. These two opposite predications are consistent in their contexts and from their points-of-view.yadvada is free from obscurations and inaccuracies of presentations. The western thin/er.yadvada theory has great depth and needs a /een intellect to understand. The word has been very much misunderstood. If he were have said that he was not.yadvada in its proper perspective of dialectical predication the change of contradiction does not stand. there is the elements of doubt and lac/ of determination.yatE does not lead to any element of doubt. . a thing cannot have the attributes of coldness and hotness at the same time. there would be contradiction. It refers to a particular Euniverse of discourseE In this sense9 E. Thus we find syadvada presents the many-folded predication from the different points of view in different contexts. &aldeva Bpadhyaya has also stated that . rof.an/aracarya is still prevailing to somewhat extent. &ut as we have already said. If . if from the same point-of-view.an/aracarya gives the characteristics of a grhastha of his nature. Therefore. In the case of a man who is in doubt regarding his perception whether the ob4ect that he sees is the man or a tree.an/aracarya in his . &ut. .yatJ in the .yadvada is not the theory of doubt. This would lead to doubt and more probability. In philosophical world . It does not mean perhaps and it does not express any from of doubt in the seven-fold predications.yadvada has the element of doubt and it gives an indefinite /nowledge. It gives a comprehensive picture of the varied aspects of reality. there would be no contradiction if it were to be predicated that as a sannyasi .yadvada is li/e an emperor.yadvada. &ut the word EsyatE has to be ta/en in a proper perspective.SYA*5A*A IS NOT A THEORY O# *OUBT According to -ainism. the nature of a thing is complex. >ibha4yavada is interpreted as syadvada. *ahavira replied that the sadhu 'ascetic) should use the language of >ibha4yavada.

ayavada is analytical in character and .yadvada. if a person ta/es curds. Therefore.iscaya 'noumenal) and >yavahara.ayavada and . &ut naya presents the specific characteristics of an ob4ect. ramana expresses the different characteristics of an ob4ect.yadvada is the logical expression of . but he is not prepared to ta/e its modification. . -ust as a part of the sea + is not the sea. . &ut its modes change. &ut . The &uddhist approach of loo/ing at reality was from the point of view of momentariness.yadvada does that. . The different systems of philosophy pro4ect a particular point of view.or instance. has to give up mil/ and the curds also.ayavada presents the theory of different points-of-view.angrahanaya. . &ut the . he accepts the modifications and does not accept the substance out of which it is made. They cannot have a full and comprehensive picture of reality in all its aspects. the Advantin loo/s at reality from the synthetic point of view . &ut one. the denial would be dogmatic.yadvada.imilarly. This partial approach of loo/ing at reality does not give a correct picture of the real. Therefore. The naya comprehends the aspect and the characteristics of an ob4ect.ayavada presents the catholic approach to the problems of reality. according to the -ainas is from the point of view of A4usutranaya. is the same in both. . . . li/e-#vaita and Advaita .ayavada is against dogmatism. yadrccha-purusarthavada etc. . the first state of pot is destroyed and a new form of crown is made.amantabhadra had made obeisance to -inendra 'Tirthan/ara) for presenting a synoptic approach to the understanding of reality in the .yadvada presents dialectical predications from different points-of-view. they emphasi!e that there is nothing permanent in the world. gives a synoptic picture of different doctrines. &ut in both these. a goldsmith presents a crown after brea/ing up the pot made of gold.ayavada. therefore. if a person only ta/es mil/ and refuses to ta/e curds. The &uddhist approach to the problems of reality. If it were to deny the possibility of other characteristics. $verything is in a flux. In this case. .yadvada. . Again. It is the psychological aspect of ane/anta.contextual predications in the .imilarly. That is EdurnayaE( redications have a reference to pramana. That gives a fuller picture of reality. Therefore a thing is permanent as a substance. he ta/es the substance. nor is it non-sea. . who does not accept the mil/ and its modes. the substance of mil/ is constant.yadvada are varieties of Ane/antavada. but does not ta/e mil/. a particular naya but their presentation is always one-sided. Acarya . It has been said that a thing has three characteristics origination 'utpada). which gives exclusive importance to a particular point-of-view. It is the part of the sea.ayavada. The formation of curds involves the destruction of the state of mil/ and the production of the state of curds. . These points of view have to be expressed in predicational form for the sa/e of communication. . NAYA5A*A .aya is different form and is an aspect of the pramana in a particular sense. &ut the substance out of which it is made and the material gold.ayavada does not discard any point-of-view.ayavada is the basis of . destruction 'vyaya) substantiality 'dhrauvya). .yadvada is synthetic.ayavada demands us to loo/ at reality from different points-of-view. 5hile presenting the characteristic of an ob4ect nay does not deny the possibility of other characteristics present in an ob4ect. The other points-of-view presents only an appearance.

&ut the real nature of the ob4ect is complex. I do not propose to elaborate on this point for the fear of being lost in the woods. and the point of view. which loo/s at reality from the side of its modifications. There is enormous literature on this problem of nayavada in the -aina philosophy. both real. is the paryayarthi/a naya. =ne who loo/s at the ob4ects from the substance point-of-view as a synthetic approach 'dravyarthi/a naya) and one who loo/s at the ob4ects from the point of view of its modes has paryayarthi/a naya. . This is called dravyarthi/a naya. The substance point-of-view gives exclusive importance to the substance 'dravya). a thing has its substantiality and modifications.Therefore. It has substance and its modes.

it has been said that curiosity '4inasa) may be analy!ed into seven forms9 as a consequence there are seven-fold predications. ( . The development of &uddhism can be seen in the theory of >i4nanavada i. $verything can be presented in seven-fold . 2 Acarya A/alan/a has stated that in the presentation of the nature of the ob4ect in its infinite aspects we have to adopt predicational form in the seven-fold predication which may include the positive and negative predications also without contradicting each other.aya va/ya is considered to be vi/aladesi 'partial presentation) because it presents one aspect of the nature of reality from a particular point of view. This gives the predicational form of expressions. ( The nature of the ob4ect can be considered from seven points of view and their predications would be seven-fold. The -aina Acaryas have discussed these problems elaborately. =n this basis.SAPTABHAN. The ra/rti and the urusa are the primary principles. 5hile pararthadhigama is concerned with presenting the /nowledge to others in the form of communication in language.aptabhangi. . he salutes the theory of ane/anta. Therefore.I Nuestion has been very often as/ed regarding the nature and the function of saptabhangi.imilarly. a distinction has been made in the saptabhangi as pramana saptabhangi and naya saptabhangi. This can be called as in seven different ways. It is the very essence of -ainism and it pervades the thought and philosophy of the -ainas.or understanding the nature of a thing.anmati ra/arana. The concepts of pramana and naya can be properly understood if we /now the essence of saptabhangi. In this sense.( The .I0 A *is1"ssion Ane/anta is the foundational principle of -ainism. we find the spirit of Ane/anta pervading the thought and life of the people. SAPTABHAN. Ane/antavada and . has stated that Ane/anta is the very first and foundational principle which teaches us the first and the last lessons of the -aina darsana. Therefore. this is called seven-fold predication of saptabhangi. It would not be an exaggeration to say that a thorough understanding of Ane/anta would give the /ey to the understanding . The nature of a thing is complex having many characteristics and the nature of any one of characteristic can be described in seven types of words. 'theory of consciousness).an/hya theory of evolution is expressed in the evolution of ra/rti in the presence of the urusa.yadvada are to be all and the end all in -aina philosophy. The reasoning is of two types--svartha 'for oneEs own sa/e) and parartha 'for the sa/e of communicating to others). Tattva. 0 ramana va/ya is comprehensive 'sa/aladesi) because it is more concerned with presenting the nature of the ob4ect as a whole in its various aspects through the valid source of /nowledge. In the pararthadhigama we have + forms of expressions3 '() pramana va/ya which is concerned with the predication of the validity of the /nowledge and its source and '+) naya va/ya which is concerned with predicating the nature of a thing from a particular of point-of-view 'naya).aya and ramana do give a valid and comprehensive /nowledge of the nature of the thing.e. .+ . .varthadhigama aims at presenting the /nowledge to oneself. it is necessary to /now the thing in the light of naya 'point-of-view) and pramana 'valid source of /nowledge). although reality is complex and has infinite aspects.yadvadaman4ari while describing the nature of an ob4ect has stated that an ob4ect is constituted of the attributes and its modifications. ramana and naya present the bac/ground of understanding of Ane/anta and Ane/anta is expressed in the form of . 1 *allisena in his . In everyday life. adartha and #ravya are synonymous to a thing or reality. The development of the >edanta has culminated in the principle of Advaita.

. 6autama as/ed again--Dord8 How your are describing the same earth in such different waysF &hagavana *ahavira said '() it is a soul from the point of view of the self-nature of the soul. He then as/ed about the description of the nature of molecules with two pradesas 'having two space units) C he got the following answer. *olecule with two space units is indescribable 'ava/tavya) from still other point of view. &hanga refers to the partial presentation 'vi/alpa) or a particular form of expression.I AN* ANEKANTA Ane/anta is the basic attitude of the -ainas.yadvada from the historical point of view tracing its presentation in the Agamas. as we have said earlier. SAPTABHAN. negation and inexpressibility. *olecule with two space points is atman and is not atman from different points of view.predications. planets. 5e can find the presentations in the Agamas enunciated from the philosophical points of view. '+) from another point of view it is no soul9 '0) from still another point of view its nature is inexpressibleJ. '+) it is no soul from the point of view of other aspect than the soul and '0) from the point of both the aspects its nature is indescribable. Aatnaprabha is atma. if affirmational and negating propositions are presented. the habitation of the gods 'devalo/a) and siddhasila 'the place of the liberated souls).aptabhangi is primarily logical.yadvada and its predicational forms are not later developments. regarding the nature of other earth. negation and inexpressibility. And all of them put together would give as a contradiction. that reality is complex and it has infinite aspects to be /nown and understood. Ane/antavada is the foundational attitude.ayavada. it is clear that . It is the foundational principle.yadvada is the dialectical presentation of the Ane/anta attitude.A&AS If we study the theory of . Having heard these predications. '() Jfrom one point of view. They are related to each other. It expresses itself in the theory of naya 'points of view) and the points of view are primarily epistemological and psychological. Again. Ane/anta emphasi!es. redications from these points of view give us the dialectical form of propositional expressions. Then he as/ed about the nature of the aramanu 'atom) and he got similar precepts. .( Then 6autama as/ed for clarifications on the same lines. He received similar presentations from *ahavira. These can be presented from different points of view. '() '+) '0) '1) '2) *olecule with two space units 'dvipradesi/a) is atman from one point of view. These predications are not absolute. SYA*5A*A IN THE A. 6autama 6anadhara as/ed &hagavana *ahavira whether the earth called Aatnaprabha is soul or notF &hagavana *ahavira replied. we can say that Ane/anta attitude gives a fuller picture absorbing all aspects of reality. *olecule with two space units is not atman from another point of view. These predications have been wor/ed out on the basis of permutations of the fundamental threefold predications of affirmation. The first is the expression and the second is the basis. A particular point of view gives one aspect of reality and these various aspects have been classified into seven fundamental forms on the basis affirmation. . It is the logical expression of the psychological basis in . *olecule with two space points is atman and is indescribable.

'1) A molecule with three space points is and is not atman from a different point of view. '+) A molecule with three space points is not atman from a different point of view. '@) . '+) .rom the points of the mode of existence of one place unit and of both existence and non-existence of the second place unit a molecule with three space points is atman and is indescribable. A molecule with three space points is not atman from the other nature. Then. '0) A molecule with three space points is indescribable in nature from still another point of view. A molecule with one space point can be considered from the points of view of the mode of existence and also of non-existence. '@) A molecule with three space points is atman and is indescribable. molecule of two space has the predications of affirmations and inexpressibility. *ahavira said thus3 '() '+) '0) '1) A molecule with three space points is atman from the points of view of the self-nature of the atman.rom the points of view of the mode of existence of one place unit and non-existence of the other place unit. '(0)A molecule with three space points is and is not atman and is indescribable. it is indescribable. . 6autama as/ed clarifications about the predications regarding molecules of three space points. A molecule with three space points is indescribable from the points of view of both the natures. 'H) A molecule with three space points is atman and 'two) indescribable. *ahavira replied thus3 '() A molecule of three space points is atman from one point of view.'G) A molecule with two space points is not atman and is indescribable. 'G) . but is not 'two) atmans.rom the point of view of its nature other than the atman 'para-adesa) it is not atman.rom the points of view of the mode of existence of one place unit and also of the mode of non-existence of two place units and a molecule with three space points is atman and is not 'two) atman. '1) . '0) .rom the point of view of the mode of existence of a molecule of one place unit 'ege desi) and of the mode of non-existence of the same a molecule of two space points has the predications of affirmations and negation. 'G) A molecule with three space points from another point of view is 'two) atman and is not atman. '?) A molecule with three space points from one point of view 'two) atman and is indescribable. '(()A molecule with three space points is atman and 'two) indescribable.rom these points of view. &hagavana *ahavira explained to 6autama 6anadhara when he was as/ed certain clarifications thus3 '() A molecule with two space points is atman from the point of view of its self-nature of atman. .rom the point of view of both the self-nature 'sva-adesa) and the other nature 'para-adesa). a molecule of three space points is 'two atman) and is not an atman. '2) . 'G) A molecule of one place unit having the modes of non-existence and the other place unit the modes of existence and non-existence a molecule of two space points has the predication of negation and inexpressibility.rom the point of view of the mode of existence of two place units the mode of non-existence of one place unit. '2) A molecule with three space points is atman. 6autama 6anadhara as/ed clarifications regarding the function of these different predications. '2) . '(M)A molecule with three space points is atman and is indescribable. a molecule with three place units 'tripradesis) is atman and is not atman. '(+)The molecule with three space points is not 'two) atman and is indescribable.

a molecule of four space points is not atman and is indescribable. a molecule of four space points is 'two) atman and is 'two) indescribable.rom the points of view of the mode of existence of numerous place units and the modes of existence and non-existence of one place unit. '(G). a molecule of four space points is atman and is indescribable. is not atman and is indescribable.rom the points of view of mode of existence of two place units and of existence and non-existence of one place unit a molecule of three space points is 'two atmans) and is indescribable. After this. a molecule with three space points is the atman and 'two) indescribable.rom the points of view of the mode of non-existence of one place unit and of both existence and nonexistence from other place units.rom the point of view of the mode of non-existence of one place unit and the modes of existence and nonexistence of numerous place units and molecules of four space points it is atman and is indescribable. a molecule of four space points is 'two) atmans and is not 'two) atman.rom the points of view of the modes of existence of one place unit and non-existence of two place units. a molecule of three space points is atman.rom the points of view of the mode of existence of one place unit and of non-existence of one place unit. . '(+). .rom the points of view the mode of non-existence of one place unit and of mode of both existence and nonexistence of tow place units a molecule of three space points is not atman and is 'two) indescribable. A molecule with four space points is indescribable from both the points of view. a molecule of four space points is not 'two) atmans and is 'two) indescribable. 'H) . a molecule of four space points is atman and is not atman.rom the points of view of the mode of non-existence of one place unit and of the modes of existence and non-existence of one place unit.rom the points of view of the mode of non-existence of numerous place unit.rom the viewpoint of the mode of existence of one place unit and of non-existence of one place unit. a molecule of four space points is not 'numerous) atmans and is indescribable.rom the points of view of mode of non-existence of one place units and of existence and non-existence of numerous 'place units) a molecule of four space points is not atman and 'numerous) is indescribable.rom the viewpoints of the modes of existence of one place unit and non-existence of numerous place units.rom the points of view of mode of existence of one space point and the mode of existence and nonexistence of one place unit. a molecule of four space points is atman. '((). 6autama as/ed explanation about the predication of the molecules of four space points. a molecule of three space points is not atman and is indescribable. &hagavana *ahavira enunciated nineteen predications-'() '+) '0) '1) A molecule with four space points is not atman from the self-nature of the atman. A molecule with four space points is not atman from the nature other than the atman. '(2). '(M). '(1).rom the points of the view of modes of existence of two place units and of non-existence of two place units. '(@). '?) .rom the points of view of mode of existence of one place unit and of non-existence of one space point and of the modes of existence and non-existence of one place unit. 'G) . is not atman and is indescribable. '2) . a molecule of four space points is atman and is not 'numerous) atmans. '(0). '?) .rom the points of view of the mode of existence of one place unit and of existence and non-existence of the two place units. a molecule of four space points is 'numerous) atmans and is not atman.rom the points of view the modes of non-existence of two place units and of existence and non-existence of two lace units. a molecule of four space points is not atman and is 'two) indescribable. '(+). '@) . a molecule of four space points is 'numerous) atmans and is indescribable.rom the points of view of the modes of existence of one place unit and of non-existence of one place unit. '(0). '((). and also the modes of existence and non-existence of one place unit.rom the points of view of the mode of non-existence of two place units and of the modes of existence and non-existence of one space point a molecule of three space points is not 'two atman) and is indescribable.rom the points of view of the mode of existence of two place units and the modes of existence and nonexistence of two place units. '(M).'H) .

and of nonexistence of two or three place units.rom the points of view of the modes of existence of one place unit of non-existence of numerous place units and of existence and non-existence of one place units a molecule of five space points is atman. of non-existence of one place unit and of existence and non-existence of one place unit. '?) and '(M) These are similar to the predicational forms similar to the molecule of four space points. '+) A molecule of five space points is not atman from the point of view of other nature 'paratva). a molecule of five space points is atman is not 'two) atman and is 'two) inexpressible. '(() . and G) These are similar to the predicational propositions of the molecule of four space points.rom the points of view of the modes of existence of two place units. '(1). . then we should ta/e the mode of non-existence of three place units. a molecule of space of five points is atman and is indescribable. of non-existence of one place unit and of both existence and non-existence of one place unit a molecule of four space points is 'two) atmans. a molecule of four space points is atman and 'two) not atman and is inexpressible. of non-existence of two place unit and of both existence and non-existence of one place unit. '(H). '0) A molecule of five space points is indescribable from both the self and other nature.rom the points of view of the modes of existence of two place units of non-existence of one place unit and from the point of view of the modes of existence and non-existence of two place units. '(?). '+().) 'H) . and &hagavana replied by enunciating twenty-two predicational propositions from different points of view.rom the points of view of the mode of existence of one place unit. (0 and (1 predicational forms are similar to the predicational forms of a molecule of four space points. '(2)This propositional form is similar to the propositional form of the molecule of four space points. '5hen we ta/e the mode of existence of two place units.rom the points of view of the modes of existence of two or three place units and of non-existence of two or three place units C of non-existence of 'two or three place units) a molecule of five space points is 'two or three) atmans.rom the points of view of the modes of existence of numerous place units.rom the points of view of the mode of existence of two place units and of non-existence of two place units and of the modes of existence and non-existence of one place unit.rom the points of view of the modes of existence and non-existence of two or three place units. '(@). is not 'numerous) atmans and is indescribable.'(H).rom the point of view of mode of existence of two or three place units and of existence and non-existence of two or three place units a molecule of five space points is 'two or three) atmans and is 'two or three) inexpressible. is not atman aid is 'two) inexpressible. a molecule of five space points is not 'two) atmans. of non-existence of two place units of existence and non-existence of two place units a molecule of five space points is atman. '1. a molecule of five space points is two atmans. 5hen we ta/e the mode of existence of three place units we should also ta/e the mode of non-existence of two-place unit. They are3 '() A molecule of five space-points is atman from the point of view of the self-nature of the atman. non-existence of the one place unit of the modes of existence and non-existence of one of numerous place units. 2. is not 'two) atmans and is ava/tavya 'inexpressible). '(G). the question was as/ed regarding molecule of five space points.rom the point of view of existence of one place unit.rom the points of view of the modes of existence of one place unit. is not atman and is inexpressible. '(?). After this. '+M). '@) . is not 'two) atman and is 'two) inexpressible. a molecule of five space points is not 'two or three) atmans and is 'two or three) indescribable. (+.

THE &ETHO*OLO.rom the combinations and permutations of the two propositional forms. is not 'two) atmans and is 'two) inexpressible. &ut in the Agama literature. is not a later development presented by the acaryas. $ach predicational form is accepted and is proved. It is valid from a particular point of view in a particular universe of discourse. neither more nor less. Twenty-two predicational forms are the same as described above and twenty-third is as follows3 . for analy!ing the doctrine of saptabhangi. Therefore. the word EsyatE has been used. we find that the first three predications are Esa/aladesiE and the remaining predications are Evi/aladesiE. it is clear that the seven-fold predicational school called saptabhangi. there must be seven predications including the affirmation and negation. how and when the predication of Java/tavyaJ was given the fourth place9 and who gave it. These two propositional forms combine to give rise to seven-fold predications. ( . It would be a fallacy to say that the saptabhangi doctrine is not restricted to seven-fold predications alone. =n the basis of these considerations it is clear that the syat is used for connoting a point of view or a specific situation. because affirmation implies the negation of its opposite and negation implies affirmation of its contrary. the word EsyatE has a preference to the point of view or the context in a particular situation in the bac/ground of the other situations as rational presentation. the two forms of proposition of affirmation and negation are complementary to each other. '+) . .rom the discussions given above. we get other predications. &ut these predicational forms are only permutations of the seven-fold predications based on the number of space only.rom the absolute point of view there is relation between the affirmation and negation. Therefore. but considered from relational point of view. 5hen this point of view is clear.rom the points of view of modes of existence of two place points of existence of two place units and of the modes of existence and non-existence of two place units. The seven-fold predications are3 .ome -aina philosophers have made is the fourth predication. #alsu/ha *alavania ( says that-'() The syadvada doctrine is based on the predication of affirmation and negation. In the agamas. It is worth considering. In the case of the predications regarding the nature of the molecules with three place units and in the case of more place units the predicational forms are many. 'G) In the seven-fold predicational forms.In this way. the doctrine of seven-fold predications has its roots in the Agamas. These predications are complementary. '2) The third predicational form is Java/tavyaJ inexpressibility. a molecule of six space points is 'two) atmans. . There are twenty-three propositional forms.Y O# SE5EN+#OL* PRE*ICATIONS . this predication has not got the fourth place. '0) The primary predications of affirmation and negation give rise to the possible logical combinations for the sa/e of presenting other forms of predications. $ach predicational form must have its own viewpoint. '1) The word JsyatJ has been prefixed to every predicational form for the sa/e of expressing the implication of the point of view. '@) The conception of the partial place unit structure 'vi/aladesa) and complete place unit structure 'sa/aladesa) is also to be found in the Agama literature. various combinations and permutations of the propositional forms regarding the molecule of six space points have been presented. Therefore. this theory is called E.rom the point of view of grammatical presentation of the propositions. there are two forms of predication 'i) of affirmation and 'ii) negation.yadvadaE.

. It implies that from a particular point of view of nature. The question of the relative approach to the problems from a particular point of view has been given in this predication.rom another point of view Eit is not and is inexpressibleE. the pot is made up of clay or some metal li/e brass. . . This predication has reference to the four-fold expression of the other forms and nature of the ob4ects li/e the material out of which it is made.rom a different point of view Eit is. in the ancasti/ayasara + has mentioned the seven-fold predications.or instance. The affirmation as a predicate does imply the affirmation with reference to its self-nature which is expressed in the four-fold scheme of expression of dravya 'matter) out of which it is made. it would be no longer be called a piece of cloth. negation.rom the points of view of its nature. SECON* PRE*ICATION 2SYA*+NASTI3 The second predication is the predication of negation. SYA*+ASTI 2#IRST PRE*ICATION3 The first predication is syad-asti.or example. and the nature of the function of the pot. These are the inherent characteristics. If the pot were not able to perform its function of holding water. The predication of affirmation also implies the predication of negation of its opposite. a pot exists as a pot-syad asti ghatah. 7unda/undacarya has made it the fourth predication. . . the time of its existence and its nature as the pot.imilarly. 0 In the ancasti/ayasara.yad ava/tavyam--.yad-asti-nasti--. in the context of its in which it is. as pot.rom a point of view. It cannot be made out of sand. nasti-ava/tavyam 'negation and inexpressibility) and asti-nastiava/tavyam 'affirmation. the function of the predication of affirmation has its importance in presenting the self-identity of the ob4ects.'() '+) '0) '1) '2) 'G) '@) . Eit is and is inexpressibleE. the place. These seven-fold predications have been mentioned in the Agama literature.yad-nasti--.rom a still different approach to problem Eit is and is notE. Eit is inexpressibleE. we affirm the existence of the pot.yad astiava/tavyam--. we get the remaining four3 asti-nasti 'affirmation and negation). In this sense.rom a different point of view Eit is notE. It expresses that in a particular context with reference of the other nature of the ob4ects 'para catustaya)9 there is the predication of negation.( 7unda/undacarya. . then it would no longer be called a pot.yad-asti-nasti ava/tavyam--. 5ith the combinations of these three predications. negation and inexpressibility). . The predications of ava/tavya 'inexpressibility) has been made the third predication in the &hagavati sutra and in the >isesavasya/abhasya. In the seven-fold predications affirmation. It is . the time and its nature. 2 Dater philosophers have used both the methods of predications according to their convenience.imilarly.rom a particular point of view Eit isE.yad-asti--.yad nasti-ava/tavyam--. These refer to the self-nature of the pot.1 but in the ravacanasara. /ala the time of its existence. then there would be no difference between a quantity of manure and a similar quantity of 4aggery. . If these distinctions in the functions of different ob4ects were not to be recogni!ed. and inexpressibility are primary forms of predications. .rom another point of view. In the &hagavati sutra. seven-fold predications are mentioned. if a piece of cloth does not possess the qualities of covering or the function that the cloth has to perform.yad-nasti. the place of its existence. . the characteristic and function of the cloth would be a cover. he has placed it as the third predication. . other than its own . astiava/tavyam 'affirmation and inexpressibility). it is not and is inexpressibleE.

the nature of the pot as pot would no longer be existent. This predication of negation from the other point of view is also important and the predicational forms would not be complete without the predication of negation. there would be contradiction. necessary to have second predication of negation. the pot exists as pot. the pot would be a pot and would function as a pot only. These two predications are also to be considered as presented from two points of view in a situation. . #I#TH PRE*ICATION 2SYA*+ASTI+A5AKTA5YA&3 This is the composite predication of affirmation and inexpressibility. . . =therwise. .imilarly. If the negation were to be applied to the ob4ect with reference to its own nature.( . #OURTH PRE*ICATION 2SYA* A5AKTA5YA&3 The fourth predication presents the concept of inexpressibility. but express the inability to express the full nature of the pot.imilarly. In the first instance.rom the point of view of the four-fold scheme of expression of self-nature 'svacatustaya). time and the material out of which it is made.or instance. if the negation were to be predicated absolutely without reference to the other nature of the ob4ects then it would lead to nihilism. 5ith reference to the other characteristics li/e its creation out of different materials li/e sand and its other place and time9 it would not be pot. it affirms the existence of the pot as a pot. it is inexpressible. the pot is not a pot. The real nature of the pot is its pure form may not be expressible in terms of words. it would lead to agnosticism. separate and independent expression of affirmation and negation has been made. but it is difficult to predicate these characteristics in the form of language. then the real nature of the pot would not be understood. This refers to the impossibility of simultaneous affirmations and negations of the characteristics of the pot. .or instance. therefore.or instance. . from a particular point of view and in a contextual situation the nature of the pot is inexpressible. And from the point of view of the expression of other nature 'papa catustaya) the pot does not exist as pot. &ut it should be reali!ed that the predication of inexpressibility is not final. because a thing is complex and has infinite characteristics. . In the first two predications.or instance. All of them cannot be presented in words. and. It has always reference to a particular point of view and the situation. This predication shows that we may understand the nature of the ob4ect in its various aspects. infact. It is. =therwise. the pot is and is not. it is based on the acceptance of contradiction of the predication of affirmation and negation simultaneously. To ma/e this as an absolute predication would lead to dogmatism and ultimately to agnosticism. from a particular point of view it is not a pot and in the second instance. if it had its own characteristics. from the point of view of simultaneous affirmation and negation. THIR* PRE*ICATION 2SYA*+ASTI+NASTI3 The third predication is the composite predication of affirmation and negation. because it may not function as an ob4ect holding water. &ut in the third predication the affirmation and negation are predicated of a thing successively for the sa/e of presenting the positive and the negative aspects of the thing. >idyanandi says that the predication of negation has a reference to the other nature and the presence of opposite characteristics.and its expression of other forms li/e place. These predications are to be considered as presented successively from different points of view and not simultaneously. SI7TH PRE*ICATION 2SYA*+NASTI+A5AKTA5YA&3 The sixth predication is a composite predication of negation and inexpressibility.

if it is made out of clay.rom the point of view of the nature of matter out of which a thing is made. 5e have seen that the word EsyatE is not an expression of uncertainty of mere probability. from the point of view of the substance out of which it is made. negation and inexpressibility. Bnderstanding a thing requires the insight of analy!ing its various aspects. and if they are consistent with its nature. ( The four-fold aspects are3 '() the matter out of which a thing is made 'dravya). we may predicate its existence if it is consistent with its nature. Aecent researches have shown that saptabhangi doctrine is very useful in understanding the dialectic of the theories of probabilities and quantum physics. The dialectics of logic has been an important contribution in the field of logic and metaphysics.&. . we can predicate the existence of a thing affirmatively. It is the expression of a particular context of a point of view. Therefore.rom the positive aspect of self-nature. There is no inconsistency either logical or metaphysical in the seven-fold predications. we can predicate the negation of the ob4ect. although in the case of the predication of inexpressibility it refers to the impossibility of affirmation and negation. say winter and from the point of view of its nature as blac/.rom a . positive and negative. we can predicate the affirmation of its existence as the ob4ect is considered from the point of view of the contrary nature with the ob4ects with reference to the four-fold expression of its otherness of the aspects. Therefore. If we have to refer to its place. Haldane and *ahalnobis have recogni!ed the importance of the doctrine of syadvada for the dialectic of probability and for discoveries of biological sciences. then we predicate the negation. simultaneously and consequently inexpressibility of its nature.+ $very thing in the universe is complex in its nature with its infinite characteristics. . a thing is not merely made up of positive qualities. . :onsidered from points of view of its self-nature. negation and in expressibility. .or instance. negation and inexpressibility. $minent scientists li/e -. at a particular time and in its own nature. it has also the negative qualities. These predications are considered as successive and not simultaneous. Again. because as we have pointed earlier. we can predicate the negation of the existence of the ob4ect. there should be no contradiction or ambiguity in the presentation of the composite predication of affirmation. there is not doubt or uncertainty in the seven-fold predications. we can affirm the existence of the pot in atliputra at a particular time. . which are possible to express in their various forms of affirmation. then we can predicate its existence. '+) place of existence '/setra) '0) time of its existence '/ala) and '1) its nature 'bhava)... the pot is a pot. the -aina conception of the seven-fold predication with reference to the four-fold expressions of the self-nature and the other nature is a coherent presentation of he analysis of the nature of the ob4ect. 5e may predicate its existence if it is constant with its nature.yadvadaman4ari present the four-fold expression of the aspects of a thing from the phenomenal or the practical point of view 'vyavaharanaya). in the four-fold expression of its aspects as mentioned above. The predications of the saptabhangi are dialectical presentations of the predications. . In these predications there should be no contradiction at all. ( <CATUSTAYA< 2E7PRESSION O# #OUR+#OL* ASPECTS3 A thing is complex in its nature with infinite number of attributes. time and its function.rom the point of view of the four-fold expression of the aspects other than its own. . &ut if the ob4ect is referred to the four-fold expressions of its aspects other than its real nature. if it is in a particular determined place.SE5ENTH PRE*ICATION 2SYA*+ASTI+NASTI+A5AKTAYA&3 The seventh predication is a composite predication of affirmation.or instance.

The proposition gives definite meaning of the existence of myself. the &uddhist expression of the negation of a permanent reality still leaves the possibility of the real as being inexpressible. It is &rahman. and there is not doubt about it. . because words cannot express the full nature of the ob4ect of experience. we find that the word EevaE is suffixed to the predicate. Acarya Hemacandra says that the use of the word EsyatE implies the expression of ane/anta attitude. the real nature of the categories cannot be expressed in language. These are the two terms. which are consistent and are related intrinsically to each other. Therefore. the two words are used. the word EevaE is not used. but it becomes necessary to predicate the different aspects of nature from different points of view. 0 SAPTABHAN. In this. the reality is one. as it clears doubts and discrepancies. the fundamental predications of the -aina theory of .aptabhangi have been implied in the systems of philosophy li/e the Advaitavedanta. in the proposition Jaham asmiJ 'I exist). negation and inexpressibility. but is relational. 5e find similar expressions in other schools of Indian philosophy li/e the >edanta. &ut for the sa/e of clarification and emphasis the word EsyatE is also used.( The expression of ane/anta would be also possible without the use of the word EsyatE. The word EsyatE. If the words had the capacity of a full expression of the entire nature of the ob4ects. It means that from a particular point of view of its self-nature the pot exists as a pot. &uddhism and >aisesi/a. The other nature of the predication 'anyadharma) is secondary. Esyat ghata asti evaE. as the two are independent categories. It is Eava/tavyaE. in the proposition--Jpartho dhanurdharahJ. in giving emphasis on the validity of ane/anta 'samya/ane/anta) C the validity C rightness of expression of one point of view 'samya/ e/anta). . It aims at distinguishing between the primary emphasis of the specific nature and the secondary emphasis of the other nature of the ob4ects. still it is. but for the sa/e of clarity and emphasis. According to the Advaitavedanta. However. The word EsyatE is used for the sa/e of giving emphasis on the distinction of the primary and secondary emphases of the self-nature and the other nature of the predications. the &uddhists and the >aisesi/a. In the &uddhist philosophy. $very thing is fleeting. the function of denial is not contradictory.( The proposition Jasti ghatahJ 'the pot exists) gives a full and determinate meaning about the existence of the pot. In this way. Danguage is an inadequate instrument for expression of the complex nature of the ob4ects and depth of the experience. and is inexpressible in words. does give importance to the analysis of the ob4ects in the form of language will possibly be different. there are two terms3 the sub4ect and the predicate. there is nothing permanent or real. then EsyatE would not be necessary.I IN OTHER *ARSANAS 5e have seen that the primary predications of saptabhangi are three-fold--affirmation.or example.chool posits the seven-fold category and samanya 'generality) and visesa 'particularity). 6enerality and particularity are independent categories though related to each other and though expressing the affirmation and negation as predications. therefore. THE USE O# THE .o he wished to use the word syat in naya and pramana both types of saptabhangi. In this proposition the use of one of the words would be sufficient to give full meaning of the proposition.+ A/alan/adeva says that the function of the EsyatE is two-fold. >aisesi/a .imilarly. Therefore. . . gives a clear meaning of the nature and the state of Ar4una. . but it is inexpressible 'ava/tavya). The word EsyatE is primarily concerned with emphasi!ing the specific nature of the ob4ects from a particular point of view.or instance. which are equally real.OR* SYAT $very predication of the seven-fold predications is characteri!ed by the primacy of the self-nature of predication svadharma. It is not necessary to use the word EevaE because the two words are self-explanatory. &rahman is real. Therefore. It is inexpressible. Therefore.particular point of view the predication is always certain and never in doubt.

especially when there is abundant diversity in the things of the worldF 5e can as/ what is the basis of the oneness the comprehensiveness and oneness 'ahedaF). its hardness etc. with reference to the aspect of time the other attributes alongwith the existence are non-different and can be comprehensively apprehended. It would require infinite time but life is short and it does not permit us in the short span of time to present the entire nature of an ob4ect. 5e analyse this with the reference to the eight aspects3 '() 4ala6 5hen we predicate the existence of a thing li/e a pot. the description of the ob4ects implies the description of the inherent qualities. by implication. It is comprehensive and all covering. The seven-fold predications from the saptabhangi are comprehensive if they are exhaustive C cover the different points of view. All these attributes exist in the same place and therefore there is no difference between existence and other attributes with the view of 'artha) meaning. $very thing is complex in its nature and is characteri!ed by infinite attributes. it would require presenting the predications in an infinite number of ways. its substance..imilarly. it is called Evi/aladesaE 'partial presentation). its function. In this way. The synthetic view of presentation 'abheda upacara) is necessary for the comprehensive predication of reality. 5hile a predication from a particular naya 'point of view) is the predication from a particular point.or this reason. If the partial presentation is there. its quality of hardness. relation. A question arises--what is the nature of Eabheda vrttiE 'the approach of unity) C non-dualityF 5hat do we mean by the presentation. The comprehensive presentation is called pramanava/ya. that the real nature of the ob4ect does not express unity alone of diversity alone. In predicating the real nature of the ob4ect. The predication of the unity does imply the expression of diversity though secondary C sometimes is mentioned as inexpressible. etc. Therefore. which uses the valid sources of /nowledge.I ramana saptabhangi can be interpreted as the dialectic of the seven-fold predications with reference to the valid source of /nowledge. This is possible by the comprehensive presentation of the nature of the ob4ect in a language. The synthetic and non-synthetic and non-dual presentation implies the diversity of expression also in giving the diverse nature of the ob4ect. This is Esa/aladesaE. '+) At2a-rupa6 It refers to the real nature of the ob4ects. the attributes of blac/ness and hardness are related to the ob4ects. This is Epramana saptabhangiE. its si!e. The unitary C synthetic approach to the understanding of the nature of a thing is expressed in the different predications as presenting the following aspects of the infinite nature of the ob4ect3 '() 7ala 'time) '+) atmarupa 'self-nature) '0) artha 'meaning) '1) sambandhah 'relation) '2) upa/ara 'function) 'G) gunidesa 'existence in a place) '@) samsarga 'association) and 'H) sabda 'expression in words). . . &ut such infinite number of predications is neither possible nor practicable. In predicating the nature of the ob4ects li/e 4iva. it is called Enayava/yaE. Therefore. . we have also to predicate the other attributes li/e itEs blac/ color. the time and the place in which it is to be found. because it comprehends to the various attributes of the ob4ect in a synoptic way. To give a comprehensive picture of the nature of a thing in all its aspects. it is complex and the predications have also to be complex. These attributes are inherent in the very nature of the ob4ects. causality etc.PRA&ANA SAPTABHAN. we get a comprehensive nature of the ob4ects. Therefore. we lay emphasis on the predication of existence 'astitva) C this predication implies the predications of the other aspects of the ob4ects li/e its nature. the answer to this would be. we also predicate the existence of the other attributes li/e its color. by presenting the synthetic and the synoptic picture of the ob4ects in its various aspects li/e its nature.. and it is called Esa/aladesaE. because it does not give a comprehensive presentation of reality from all aspects. its relation. it is necessary to use significant words pregnant with comprehensive meaning. as for instance of a pot 'ghata). '0) Artha6 $xistence is an attribute of the pot.

but it does not claim to say that it is the only and exclusive point of view. we give prominence to the diversifications and to the analysis of the attributes from different points of view. so also the other attributes imply the characteristics of that pot. 'G) 'unidesa6 The relation between the ob4ect and its attributes is intimate and inherent in a specific place and situation. NAYA SAPTABHAN. In this sense. The emphasis on modifications as different points of time is the primary consideration in the nayasaptabhangi. the relation of non-difference of the ob4ect with its essential attributes has to be considered in aspects of /ala. This is the characteristic of the pramana svarupa C pramana saptabhangi.aya saptabhangi gives prominence to the modes of a thing.unaya aims at presenting the picture of the ob4ect from a particular point of view. we find the effort at finding out the synthetic presentation in the diversified predications. In this sense. The relation of the ob4ect with its qualities with reference to the modes is not to be considered as primary in this connection. . It presents a partial picture of the ob4ect. This analysis may be considered from eight aspects li/e /ala 'time). from a particular point of view. . . '2) Upakara6 -ust as the attribute of existence implies the use and the function of the ob4ect li/e the pot. '@) $a2sar7a6 -ust as the attributes of existence with the ob4ect is intimately connected. &ut in the naya saptabhangi. There is no difference in their relation. then the attributes would be associated affirmatively with the ob4ects.aya can be considered from two points as E.unayaE. artha 'ob4ect) etc as in the description in the ramana saptabhangi. the other inherent attributes of the ob4ects are predicated by the word EisE. the association of the ob4ects with the inherent qualities can be considered to be one of nondifference. is blac/. If this connecting lin/ were not to be there.unayaE 'valid point of view) and E#urnayaE 'invalid point of view). It is essentially EbhedadrstiE to see the differentiated qualities of the thing. The presentation of the inherent characteristics of the substance in a synthetic way is secondary of the . without denying the predication of other aspects of the same ob4ect.'1) $a21andha6 -ust as the relation of the attributes of existence with the sub4ect is that of inherence.o is the relation of the ob4ect with other inherent characteristics. The ob4ects li/e the pot exists. The association of the ob4ect with its attributes is through the verb EIsE. This type of relation is the product of intellectual discrimination. . so also the relation of the other attributes with the ob4ects is that of inherence. there is the relation of non-difference 'abheda). Another consideration regarding the analysis of the naya would be that the predications of the naya imply the differentiations of predications and not the non-difference of presenting the attributes. is hard etc.aya is a point of view that one ta/es in loo/ing at an ob4ect. Thus it expresses the relation of non-difference. the verb EisE is the copula which connects the ob4ect with the attributes. #ro4 the Point o( 5ie$ o( Kala . . In this sense.imilarly. The distinction between the other attributes is not /nown through the senses. atmarupa 'self-nature).aya saptabhangi. Therefore. desa etc.I . 'H) $a1da6 The existence is predicated by the word EisE. so also the other attributes which are inherent. . In these prepositions. In the pramana-saptabhangi. It is as follows3 -'() 4ala 8ti2e96 The attributes of the ob4ects undergo constant modifications every moment.aya saptabhangi 'the seven-fold predications from the point of view of naya) is a valid presentation of the predications of the naya and hence it is E.

&ut in the seven-fold predications of naya. The different modes cannot be considered as identical and the distinction between attributes of an ob4ect cannot be eliminated. If it were not so. then.rom different points of view. It does not give a synthetic picture.'+) '0) '1) '2) 'G) '@) 'H) from the point of view of time. . =ne word cannot express the differentiated functions of the different ob4ects. the emphasis is on presenting one aspect of an ob4ect from a particular point of view and the predications analyse the different aspects of an ob4ect. Thus we find that . the experiences of pleasure and pain of one man would not have been different from the experiences of another man. in that case. . The relation between attributes and modes is one of the combinations of non-difference and difference. there would be no distinction between ob4ects. $a2sar7a6 The relation between the different ob4ects and their modes expresses the essential characteristics of differentiations and diversities. the ultimate experience of these will be a synthetic presentation of all the tastes together. while eating the different condiments.aya saptabhangi.aya is vi/aladesa 'partial) and analytic. while ramana saptabhangi gives emphasis on the non-difference 'abheda) of the predicational form.yadvada is pervasive while saptabhangi is pervading. $very ob4ect is a synthesis of attributes and their modes. as it is synthetic in nature. if they were to be considered as identical. we find that the characteristics of differentiation are primary.aya saptabhangi gives prominence to the differentiation of predicational aspect. then there would be do distinction between an ob4ect and another ob4ect and in the same ob4ect in different times. the substratum of the attributes will have to be considered different. . we loo/ at the ob4ect in a comprehensive way. The functions of the different ob4ects are different. Therefore from the point of view of the aspect of atmarupa also there is the expression of difference and non-difference. the nature of the ob4ect is analy!ed from different points of view with reference to its modes in different aspects of time. and the substratum will become one. 'unidesa6 The ob4ects with different characteristics express differentiations in different situations and places. Artha6 . the relation of 6urudatta with his son will be different from that of his relation with his wife or his brother. then all experiences and the characteristics of ob4ects would have been explained by one word only. In . when expressed in definite predicational .or instance. Therefore. At2arupa 8sel0-nature96 The attributes of an ob4ect express themselves in different modes. This is the essential characteristic of difference in the ob4ects having different attributes and modes.yadvada and saptabhangi is of the relation of pervasive and pervading characteristics.or instance. Upakara6 Bpa/ara refers to function or utility. $a1da6 The predications of the nature of different ob4ects will have to use different words. the beatle nut and cardamom. 5YAPYA AN* 5YAPAKA BHA5A 2PER5A*E* AN* PER5A*IN. while . then no distinction would be possible as for instance.yadvada. 5hen we study the ob4ect with reference to the different aspects of pramana. $a21andha6 5ith reference to the relation of the ob4ects and the attributes of the ob4ects. If there are differences in the attributes and modes. because if they were to be considered as one. the function of differentiation ( '&hedopacara pramana) is sa/aladesa 'comprehensive) and coherent. This also implies differentiation in the context of the seven-fold predications of the naya. dravya etc. as in the case of eating the beatle leaf. The differentiation is secondary. there is differentiation in the expression of modes and not the non-difference as in the case of pramana saptabhangi. =therwise. The difference in the artha is an important characteristic of the nayasaptabhangi with reference to the artha of the substratum. . CHARACTERISTICS3 The relation between the . It is concerned with the analytic function of the predicational forms regarding the nature of ob4ect. and the predications of pramana give the picture of the ob4ect in a synoptic way by emphasi!ing the different aspects as a coherent whole.

aya and the . &ut . but it has the characteristics of expressing itself in the forms of . &ut Bpadhyaya Lasovi4aya in his -aintar/abhasa says that all the seven predications of the .rom the point of view of the concept of non-difference 'abhedarupa) the three predications comprehend the nature of the ob4ect in a fuller way 'sa/aladesi). '1) anubhaya 'neither affirmation nor negation). negation and inexpressibility. but that is not so. The seers then presented the third view .I3 5e have seen that the nature of a thing is complex and it has infinite attributes. + .ome suggested that the primary cause of the universe is being. Therefore they are vi/aladesi. Thus there would be infinite or seven-fold predications.yadvada doctrines.iddhasena and Abhayadevasuri maintain that the primary predications of the seven-fold predications would be affirmation. and hence there would be infinite number of seven-fold predications. In the E. . then there would have been infinite predications for infinite attributes. while others said it is non-being. ( Acarya .I The Indian hilosophers in the past have presented four-fold aspects of the predications for comprehending an ob4ect. .aptabhangi are sa/aladesi as well as vi/aladesi. two contradictory hypotheses of expression as affirmation and negation have been presented ( It seems that before the seer of this su/ta. the /nowledge of the full nature of the ob4ect is possible without much difficulty. If each attribute were to express one predication only. They are Jvi/aladesiJ 'partial expressions). and from the point of view of non-difference in the case of the predication of negation.imilarly. The four-fold predications are '() sat 'affirmation). we may get the comprehensive picture of the ob4ect. asat and ava/tavya as Esa/aladesiE and the remaining Evi/aladesiE are of the opinion that the first predication is of identity or non-difference from the substantial point of view and we get a full /nowledge of the nature of the substance.ome other philosophers do not give prominence to this way of thin/ing regarding the comprehensive or the partial understanding of the nature of an ob4ect.aptabhangi. there were two opinions regarding the creation of the universe. The second predications refer to the paryayas. $ach attribute or characteristic has its seven-fold predications and its nature can be expressed in the sevenfold predications. The third predication of inexpressibility expresses the concept of difference 'bheda) in an implicit way 'aviva/sita). Bnderstanding of the nature of an ob4ect can be covered from the affirmative side by emphasi!ing the positive aspects of the ob4ect9 we can very well get a fuller comprehension. 1 Those Acaryas who have considered the primary predications of sat.yayavatara-sutravarti/a 0 has also suggested that the primary predications of asti.aya is not to be identified with . In this way. . . Acarya . all the seven predications of the saptabhangi can be considered as presenting fuller comprehension 'sa/aladesi) or partial comprehension 'vi/aladesi) according to the nature and the emphasis of the predications.asadiya su/taE of the Agveda. This is to be found as a characteristic in the . Therefore. becomes . A/alan/a and >idyananda have said that the seven-fold predications are all Esa/aladesi and vi/aladesiE. HISTORICAL PERSPECTI5E O# SAPTABHAN. but each attribute can be expressed in the seven-fold predications. NO IN#INITE PRE*ICATIONS 2ANANTABAN.aptabhangi may be considered to be a form of . '+) asat 'negation) and '0) ubhaya 'affirmation and negation). while the other four predications comprehend the nature of the ob4ects in partial aspects. a question has been as/ed that if the attributes of a thing are infinite why should there not be infinite predicationsF The answer to this is that it is true that there are infinite attributes of a thing.antisuri in his . The other four predications are permutations of the same.yadvada. Therefore. nasti and ava/tavya are Esa/aladesiE and the remaining four predications are vi/aladesi.yadvada or it may not be.aptabhangi.forms.

or avya/rtavada. who suffers. due to both or due to neither. non-being and being non-being 'ubhaya) are also found. the first being sat and the second asat. the final question was '1) does he neither exist nor non-existF ( He did not reply. the negation of being. At the time of *ahavira. They were indescribable in words. The &uddha was silent about the metaphysical problems. + . asat. The problem regarding the continuation or not of Tathagata after nirvana is a problem which is inexpressible and indescribable. asat and of both. as sape/sa 'relative) and nirape/sa 'absolute). . due to others. . The predication of ava/tavya can be considered as of two forms.) 1 The predication of ava/tavya has three meanings as '() it is a negation of being and non-being '+) it is a negation of being. '+) the fruit of good or bad action and '0) the concept of immortality.an4aya >elatthiputta gave answers to such problems neither in the affirmation nor in the negation and not in both. In the Bpanisads we get the four forms as expression as sat 'being). . as the nature of the ob4ect is incomprehensible.i. . neither being and non-being.( In this tradition three-fold forms of expression of being.an4aya >elatthiputta. The predication of ava/tavya is very important in the Bpanisadas. such problems were neither vya/rta nor avya/rta. and anubhaya. The four-fold expressions mentioned above are to be found in the &uddhaEs concept of >ibha4yavada. ubhaya.'() the existence of the other world. This presents inexpressibility as a category.irape/sa ava/tavyata 'nonrelative inexpressibility) is that which presents the concept of inexpressibility regarding the description of the nature of the ob4ect. It expresses. asat and sadasat.an4aya >elatthiputta.an4aya regarding some metaphysical problems li/e-. It is difficult to predicate anything about them. .'() does the Tathagata exists after nirvanaF The &uddha was silent. .or him. He was advocating the theory of doubt and uncertainty. non-being and neither being nor non-being were expressed in the Agveda. According to . 2 Ava/tavya has been given the third place of predication. It is s/epticism. these problems were avya/rta. Anubhaya may also be said to be ava/tavya 'inexpressible. second and third or all the four aspects. These predications may be simultaneous or successive. we find HumeEs position similar to that of . we find a similar four-fold approach to the problems in the A4nanavada 'theory of nescience) of . + asat 'non-being). In modern western philosophy. the predications have been given the fourth place and in that case it expresses that the negation of the three predications of sat. This is the expression of catus/oti. The concept of inexpressibility with reference to the predications is considered to be sape/sa ava/tavyata 'relative inexpressibility). we find the fourth predication of neither being nor non-being 'anubhaya). has presented the concept of inexpressibility of all the four predications of sat.imilarly. which are indescribable 'avya/rta). The questions regarding the man. '0) does he exist and not exist after deathF --the &uddha was again silent.ape/sa ava/tavyata expresses the concept of inexpressibility of the sat. but it is both neither being nor non-being 'anubhaya). In this sense. . reality as eternal or non-eternal is questions. 5hen the &uddha was as/ed-.--it is neither being nor non-being. the problems regarding the fact of misery 'du//ha) can be analy!ed in terms of catus/oti. non-being.agar4una. and there is the possibility of the presentation of both the points of view. we can say that his theory was primarily a theory of uncertainty and doubt. whether he suffers due to himself. In this way the sape/sa 'inexpressibility) predication is based on the negation of the first. The &uddha described the problems regarding reality as presenting an end 'or santata) or as endless.0 sadasat 'being and nonbeing) and neither both 'anubhaya).e. .or the &uddha.imilar view is also to be found in the Bpanisads. being and non-being and. non-being and both 'sadasat) and '0) sat and asat are to be considered as predicated simultaneously. where there is negation of both sat and asat. '+) does he not exist after nirvanaF He was silent. the &uddhist philosopher. In some places. the three forms of expression of being. In this way. In the view. The theory of uncertainty was expressed by . are all avya/rta problems.imilarly.

whether it does not exist. nor the theory of ignorance.ature of a thing need not be analy!ed from the four aspects only as in the case of the predications in catus/oti.him. the predication is certain and not in doubt.yadvada of the -ainas.an4aya tried to explain away the problems by referring to the >ibha4yavada and said that certain problems. and there is infinite number of predications. whether it does not does not exist and whether it neither exists nor does not exist. . Therefore. &ut the nature of a thing is complex. . while . the theory of inexpressibility as a final form of expression. .imilarly. He gave dialectic of the predications by the help of rigorous logical exercise and presented . The theory of doubt presents uncertainty in any predication. It is the theory of certainty of expression with certain /nowledge from a particular point of view. In the Bpanisadic period.an4ayaEs theory of doubt is quite different from the .yadvada does not advocate. as the &uddhists do. It is possible to predicate existence C non-existence simultaneously from a particular asceticism. . every aspect can be presented in the seven-fold predications. the problem regarding the aspects of existence and non-existence 'sat and asat) of the ob4ects and their nature were discussed. . but the discussion was not exhaustive.rom a particular point of view.yadvada theories.yadvada and . . which are metaphysical. &hagavana *ahavira presented the synoptic approach to the understanding of the problems in his Ane/anta and . but in the -aina concept of inexpressibility 'ava/tavya) there is not uncertainty9 it only says that the words cannot express the nature of the ob4ect in its different aspects. The implication of the catus/oti of the &uddhists is that the nature of the problem is inexpressible in its fundamental aspect. it has infinite aspects and each aspect can be predicated in infinite ways. There is no doubt in the predicational form regarding the nature of the ob4ect predicated from different points of view.aptabhangivada. . it is difficult to say whether the world exists.yadvada stands from the foundation of certainty of expression of different points of view. nor nihilism. are inexpressible 'avya/rta) but *ahavira was not satisfied with such partial solutions of the problems.

. it is described as nyaso ni/sepa.or the purpose of understanding the nature of a thing. UTILITY O# NIKSEPA In the Anuyogadvara it is stated that the main function of ni/sepa is to clear the meaning of the word and to find a definite meaning of the words. In the Tattvarthasutra.i/sepavada is to understand the exact content of the words in terms of meaning and its usage. The essence of the .+ In the Tattvarthara4avarti/a.ometimes language presents difficulties in understanding the connotation of a word. The ma/e a distinction between the primary and secondary meaning. ( Daghiyastraya describes the function of ni/sepa as to remove the inadequate meaning of a word and to present the exact meaning. + Bpadhyaya Lasovi4aya says that the function of ni/sepa is to present the correct meaning of the word by removing ambiguity and indeterminateness. The function of . The answer is that. . The utterance of a word expresses the meaning that is intended by the person using it in addition to the meaning that accuses to the word. A question has been raised regarding the necessity of ni/sepa in the logical analysis of the meaning of term. Danguage is the medium of communication. it is important to analy!e the linguistic function of ni/sepa. we have to depend upon the language that we use. because the real meaning and the intended meaning may differ. Danguage would be useful and it will serve its function properly if its words are replace with exact meaning. The primary function is to determine the exact meaning of the word used. specially when pramana and naya give us the /nowledge of the nature of ob4ect. This is its use. the word EnyasaE has been used. therefore.NIKSEPA5A*A0 A St"dy TER&INOLO. In fact. The distinction between the primary and the secondary . while animals cannot ma/e use of the language for expressing their experiences. doubt or perversity of meaning of a word.Y O# NIKSEPA *an uses language for expressing his ideas. 5ithout the use of language it is difficult to carry on the activities in this world. we have to consider two types of meanings of the word3 '() primary meaning and '+) the secondary. *an is different from animals in this that he has the power of expressing in a language. pramana and naya are concerned with presenting the /nowledge of the ob4ect fully or partially.i/sepavada is to study the implications of the meanings in the words and in their definiteness and to try to find out the implications of the words in the meanings. It is. he cannot express his thoughts. the function of ni/sepa is to define words with reference of their content or the meaning and the usage. ( The other sense in which ni/sepa is used to JnyasaJ it is implication and clarification. &ut ni/sepa is more concerned with linguistic use of the words and their meanings. The unintended meanings of the words are li/ely to create confusion and ambiguity in the use of words. necessary to have /nowledge of the words that we use. This is the theory of ni/sepa. $ach language uses different words for explaining things. There are numerous languages and millions of words in these languages. meaning the clarification and definitising of words. 5ithout the use of language. Therefore. 0 The function of ni/sepa is to remove ignorance.

Y .or instance. The special characteristic of ni/sepa is that it gives clarity of expression and thought in analy!ing the meaning of the word as it is expressed by the word.i/sepa presents a harmonious blending of the word and its expression. but it gives us the idea of form. It would be difficult to understand the significance of the meaning of the terms used without ni/sepa. Therefore. . although the words do not convey the presence of attributes of an ob4ect. the denotation of a thing and the connotation is implied and pro4ected in the ob4ect. THE NIKSEPA &ETHO*OLO.meanings is possible to be possible to be understood through the different varieties of ni/sepa li/e nama ni/sepa.or example.thapana and the dravya ni/sepas are expressions. .ama ni/sepa enables us to recogni!e an ob4ect. In this sense. but four of them are prominent.thapana ni/sepa. they are not primary. 5ords and their expressions convey the characteristics that the ob4ects have. which are primarily concerned with grammatical and linguistic analysis of the statements and not so much with the expositions of the nature of the ob4ect. . THE BASIS O# NIKSEPA The basis of ni/sepa can be analy!ed into four aspects as '() primary 'pradhana).thapana ni/sepa does not give us the qualities. ni/sepa does not only give us the /nowledge of the category. the intention of the spea/er is also important. ( &hatta/alan/a in his .or example. .ama ni/sepa refers to the name. It is therefore primary. In this sense. a stone image is referred to as 6od.iddhiviniscaya + has described the function of ni/sepa as the act of /nowing and determining the meaning of the word used for understanding the nature of the things through naya. Therefore. &hava is unimagined drsti. The other three ni/sepas are more concerned with the mental constructions.o one cannot have the /nowledge of ob4ect 'tattvartha) without the help of ni/sepa. more specially the proper name. arbitrarily given to an ob4ect without considering the presence or the qualities suggested by the name. . otherwise the language will lead us astray and serious fallacies will arise. '0) imagined '/alpita) and '1) un-imagined 'a/alpita). #ravya ni/sepa enables us to /now the meaning of the word with reference to its functions and also with reference to its prior and posterior characteristics. The words signify the meanings and meaningful words are the primary consideration of the use of language. they are not primary. . . '+) secondary 'apradhana). although it does not by itself have that connotation. but is removes doubts and indiscrepancies in the meaning. . . . A proper name has no connotation. There are numerous forms of ni/sepa. . It may be a false statement. we can understand the exact nature of the categories of 4iva and a4iva etc. the implication of the presence of attributes is to be found in the use of the words. Through dravyarthi/a 'from the point of view of substance) and paryayarthi/a 'from the point of view of modes) naya. This /ind of a distinction in the use of the words and the significance of the meanings of the words in different situations is an important function of ni/sepa. The primary importance of ni/sepa is to emphasi!e that we must use appropriate words mentioning the connotation of a term for explaining the nature of the ob4ects. The ob4ect of these different forms of ni/sepa is primarily to dispel errors and misunderstanding about the meaning of the words used for explaining the nature of a thing. the name of a very poor man may be Daxminarayana. the nama.ometimes. a person who was a 4udge some time in the past cannot be always considered to be a 4udge even at the present moment.

as they are given arbitrarily to an individual.ama ni/sepa refers to proper names. where there are modifications and developments. &ut the function of the . a pot.urya. . a girl may be called 7amala in her parentsE house and she may be called >imala in her husbandEs house. Alo/a etc.ama ni/sepa refers to a proper name. This would be asasvata 'temporary) namani/sepa. while ni/sepa is concerned with the expression of the contents of /nowledge through language.till he is called a lawyer. These names given to the two individuals are purely arbitrary and have no connotation. while bhava ni/sepa has reference to its modes. &ut a proper name given to an individual cannot be exchanged to anyone of these modes. The expression of the content of the meaning is not important in the . is even now called ghee-pot. which are permanent for things. . although the intention of the parents in giving these names to their children may be noble and filled with maudlin sentiments. then it would not be merely a meaningless name. The names. An unlettered man may be called >idyasagara. 5hen one who is called >idyasagara becomes a learned man.( NA&A NIKSEPA . etc.thapana and dravya ni/sepa are all concerned with the substance and its attributes. *ount *eru. In the cases.or example. .#ravya ni/sepa refers to the substance with its qualities implied in the word. which are eternal. . . is also called a ghee-pot. A poor man is named as Daxmipati. Indra is always called Indra.imilarly. urandara and .a/ra. The . It would acquire a connotation.ama ni/sepa is only to present a name without the content of the meaning.ama ni/sepa has two aspects3 one is permanent and the other is temporary. but some proper names have their various modes of expressions suggesting different meanings.aya is 4nanatma/a 'concerning /nowledge).or instance. He cannot be called as . The proper name may have connotation when it gets an acquired connotation or it may be a meaningless name.a/ra etc.ama and . :andra. This is a proper name without connotation and it is not a permanent name given to an individual. NAYA AN* NIKSEPA The relation between naya and ni/sepa is that of the relation between the ob4ect and expression of its qualities.or instance.urendra. In is logical and linguistic. but which does not at present contain ghee. . a pot purchased for /eeping ghee.urendra. Do/a.iddhasila. refer to sasvata 'permanent) namani/sepa. the practical way of expressing the nature of things through words in order to present adequate meanings is called ni/sepa methodology. A person who was an eminent lawyer gives up his practice as a lawyer and starts a business. Indra is also called #evendra. . refer to Esasvata-nama-ni/sepaE. . . &ut if the names given to the individuals do acquire the connotations suggested by the name. A person of wealth in this world is called Indra and a person who possesses spiritual wealth of self-/nowledge is called Indra in the spiritual sphere. the name may not remain appropriate for the ob4ect after sometime. In this sense. It is epistemological. . . . in some cases we give a name to an ob4ect or an animal without consideration regarding its nature or qualities. The names li/e . The names li/e >idyasagara and Daxmipati do suggest the connotation of learning and possession of wealth9 but a proper name need not imply these characteristics. It is a name given to an ob4ect arbitrarily for the sa/e of recogni!ing it for practical purposes. 5ith reference to time. It has no connotation. it would be bhave ni/sepa. .ama ni/sepa. which used to contain ghee in the past.or example.

In the first two types of ni/sepa. the body. '+) 7upravacani/a. .riphalaJ is auspicious. The future /ing is also called /ing. In this. we see the dead body of a learned man. li/e. . if a pot is purchased for /eeping ghee in future.imilarly. expressed or implied.thapana ni/sepa is of two types3 '() Tada/ara 'of the same form) and '+) Atada/ara 'of different form).imilarly. Therefore it is called dravya ni/sepa. It only refers to the medium of /nowledge i. may still be called the ghee-pot. for example. In these sadbhava sthapana and asadbhava sthapana may also be distinguished. A person who was a 4udge in the past.thapana ni/sepa refers to the identification of the meaning of the word. . It may cover the expressions relating to the past or the future as pro4ected into the present tense. for instance. .. of the future state. This is of three types3 '() Dau/i/a. and then we say that he was a learned man. Agama dravya ni/sepa refers to the implication of the meanings and the cognition content of the meaning.uch identification of signets as elephants and horses is called atada/ara sthapana. And when the /ing is dead.or example. Therefore. . These gestures are tad-vyatiri/ta no-agama dravya ni/sepa. . to identify the picture of #evadatta as #evadatta is called tada/ara sthapana. . it is called dravya ni/sepa. darsana 'faith) and earitra 'conduct) is auspicious. In the third. sometimes we use the description in the present context of the state although it may refer to the past state.STHAPANA NIKSEPA . . according to the common parlance of language J. The scope of dravya ni/sepa is very wide. The Atman /nows through a body and this is called 4na-sarira or 4naya/a sarira. his body is also referred to the /ing. . the emphasis is on the body. when an ascetic is preaching. A pot. no-agama dravya ni/sepa.e. which is only the medium. elephantEs etc. '0) Do/ottara3 . it is called tada/ara sthapana. *RA5YA NIKSEPA #ravya ni/sepa does not refer to the mental.or example. li/e the intention as to the nature of the ob4ect9 and its state in the past. but has since retired.o-agama dravya ni/sepa is of three types3 '() 4na-sarira. the pot may still be called the ghee-pot. religion with 4nana '/nowledge). he may ma/e gestures with the hands. If the meaning of an ob4ect is fixed on the ob4ect of the same form. we ta/e a word and identify the meaning of the word with one ob4ect. '+) bhavya sarira and '0) tad-vyatiri/ta. .or example. although a meaning may not be identical. . In the no-agama dravya ni/sepa there is the absence of both types of /nowledge.o-agama tadvyatiri/ta dravya ni/sepa does not possess any content of /nowledge. because it expresses the state of the ob4ect in one of the transferable forms.ama and sthapana ni/sepa are not very much significant with reference to the meaning of the ob4ects in the practical life. may still be called a 4udge9 or a person who is to be a /ing in future may be addressed as a /ing. &ut the signets of chess are also called as elephant or horse etc. li/e--movement of the hands etc. #ravya ni/sepa is of two types3 '() EAgama dravya ni/sepaE and '+) Eno-agama dravya ni/sepaE. according to this J>inaya/aJ 'god 6anesa) is called auspicious. but it is on the bodily activities. This is 4na-sarira. but they are not identical with the shape of horses. which contained ghee in the past. we may refer in the present state. the physical element.imilarly. the emphasis is not so much on the body. present and the future does not depend on our intention and idea. rather than the exact expressed form of the /nowledge. . past as used in the present etc.rom the ultimate point of view.

( The scope of dravya tadvyatiri/ta is primarily activity and not cognitive function. The learned man who is a teacher and who is useful as a teacher may be said to be a teacher. The word EnoE in the dravya ni/sepa implies the absence of the cognitive functions 'agama). &ut in the bhava ni/sepa there is a partial absence of cognitive functions. It is referred to with reference to its material.e. there is the absence of the distinction of activity of the body as a medium of cognition.oagama3 'a) -na-.In this way. '+) 7upravacani/a and '0) Do/ottara. the word has no reference to the aspect or the function in partial form.. . 5hile the scope of bhave tadvyatiri/ta is two-fold3 i. It is the linguistic expression9 there is infinite number of expressions. This is the difference between the two types of ni/sepa.oagama3 'c) Tadvyatiri/ta3 '() Dau/i/a '+) 7upravacani/a '0) Do/ottara &hava3 '&) . $very thing is expressed through ni/sepa.oagama3 'a) Dau/i/a 'b) 7upravacani/a 'c) Do/ottara The concept of .or example.oagama #ravya3 '&) .thapana3 'A) Tada/ara '&) Atada/ara ! #ravya3 'A) Agama '&) . The function of the bhava ni/sepa is primarily concerned with the expression of the present state and the mode of the ob4ect. These activities do not refer to the cognition.oagama ! &hava3 'A) Agama '&) . he is a real teacher. the word EnoE in the bhava ni/sepa refers to the partial negation. . and also bereft of the present state of the ob4ect. BHA5A NIKSEPA &hava ni/sepa refers to the grasping of the meaning of the nature of the ob4ect through the word. In this expression of ni/sepa.. This is Agama bhava ni/sepa. It is bhava ni/sepa. $very ob4ect has its name. &ut every thing has to be expressed in the form of four expressions of ni/sepa. the expression of activity and also the cognition implied in the activity. In these cases. bereft of the content of the meaning. This is dravya ni/sepa. In this sense. 5e have seen that there are similar distinctions in the no-agama tadvyatiri/ta dravya ni/sepa. It has three forms3 '() Dau/i/a. It is . we recogni!e the other states as the present and we impose the present state and consider to be always there. 5e give below the classification of ni/sepa as discussed in the earlier pages.thapana '0) #ravya '1) &hava . a teacher ma/es some gestures by the hand and turns over the pages. In this sense.i/sepa is primarily linguistic in nature. =nly one ni/sepa will not give a full picture of the state of the ob4ect.arira 'b) &havya-sarira 'c) Tadvyatiri/ta #ravya3 '&) . It is aimed at giving the exact meaning of a term.ama ni/sepa. A teacher who is engaged in the activities of teaching may be considered to be a teacher in activity from the point of view of J. It is sthapana ni/sepa. -:4$EPA '() . It has its state.o-agama bhava ni/sepaJ. but there is a primary difference in the emphasis of the two forms of ni/sepa. it is dravya ni/sepa and there is the expression of the nature and its attributes.ama '+) .

7sani/avada of the &uddhists is an expression of r4usutranaya.ayavada. Its primary emphasis is on getting the . . A4usutranaya aims at presenting the aspect of reality from the point of view of the momentary present. the unity becomes primary and the diversity is secondary. >yavahara and r4usutra nayas are arthasrayis as they primarily refer to the ob4ects and there modifications. It would be necessary to understand the foundational processes of thought for the sa/e of our /nowledge of the . . . are called sabdasrayi. The process of thought. :oncerned with the language and the use of the word. THE BASIS OF DISTINCTIONS OF NAYA The primary consideration of sangrahanaya is the emphasis on unity.amabhirudha and $vambhuta nayas are pertaining to the words. :oncerned with the ob4ects and its modifications. . while that of vyavaharanaya is on diversity. there is the analysis of the varied aspects and distinctions of ob4ects. @. It does not find any relevance for the past or the future modifications. an ob4ect. &ut the basis of naigamanaya is the synthesis of the diversity and unity. 2. The . it is 4nanasrayi.aigamanaya is of this type. The nayas.yaya and >aisesi/a system of philosophy are based upon vyavahara naya.abdanaya studies the meaning and function of the word.NAYA5A*A0 A St"dy THOUGHT AND ITS BASIS . while in some others diversity becomes primary and the unity is secondary. based on the /nowledge.aigamanaya refers to the purpose or the ob4ect in view that is in the mind of the person who is responding. It is the basis of the principal Ane/anta. .ayavada is a significant contribution of the -aina logic and epistemology. 0.abdanaya analyses the function of the word and its meaning. If helps to understand the nature of an ob4ect in a comprehensive way. ( sometimes. becomes important but sometimes the modifications. A4usutranaya is based on the principle of diversity only. which are concerned with the analysis of words and the linguistic study.angrahanaya is primarily concerned wit finding out the unity in the diversity of the modes of the ob4ects. In these nayas. are prominent. which are diverse. which has the diverse modifications. That which is based upon the ob4ect arthasrayi.abda. . $vambhutanaya analyses the specific situations and the contexts in which a particular meaning is referred to the word. 0.amabhirudhanaya refers to the etymological meaning of the word. in which there is the predominance of the purpose or a will. :oncerned with /nowledge and its effects. In some cases. .angrahanaya refers to the tendency to find unity among diversity. =n the basis of the considerations mentioned above we may analyse the characteristics of the nayas as3 (. 1.angraha. . The empirical activities are of three types3 (. These nayas are primarily concerned with the linguistic study and the persons who study these give importance to the science of language. . +. The varied emphasis on unity and diversity is primarily mental and is based upon the purpose and the predilection of the individual. It is concerned with the analysis of the nature of the ob4ect from the point of view momentary present. . >yavaharanaya is very much concerned with particularity and the study of diversity. G. . but the emphasis may be on one or the other according to the purpose of the analysis. +.angrahanaya does not accept diversity as the basis and vyavahara ignores unity in its search for diversity. It asserts that unity and diversity are equally present in an ob4ect.

it will contradict the statement in the Anuyogadvara. samabhiruddha and evambhuta nayas refer tot he paryayas. &ut the logical tradition maintains that the statement in the Anuyogadvara has reference to the modifications of an ob4ect at a particular point of time and reference to substance or ob4ect 'dravya) is only formal. while the logical tradition loo/s at it from the point of view of paryaya. According to him. the first three nayas are dravyarthi/a nayas and the remaining are paryayarthi/a nayas.amabhirudhanaya has reference to etymological meaning of the word. In these nayas. The principles of unity and diversity are operative in these nayas in different forms as shown below3 (. These nayas are based upon the concepts of unity and diversity. 0 Therefore.+ According to this view. Those. Therefore. &ut really spea/ing.( The metaphysical tradition considers r4usutranaya as dravyarthi/a as it refers to the substance. .aigamanaya emphasi!es that the unity and diversity both are important. reference to the substance 'dravya) is only secondary. in this with reference to this naya an individual without the upayoga 'harmonic energy) is to be considered as from the point of view of substance as an individual. are five in number and naigamanaya gives importance to both difference and unity.amabhirudha and $vambhuta are also concerned with difference. both are complementary. . . which give emphasis on difference or diversity. .abdanaya similarly gives importance to difference. but there is fundamental difference in their analysis. $vambhutanaya is more specific and it aims at finding out the exact meaning of the word in a particular situation and in a particular context with reference to the present. =ne without the other is not possible. NAIGAMANAYA . =ne is the metaphysical tradition and the other is the logical tradition. There cannot be any diversity without unity and there cannot be any unity without diversity.rom the metaphysical point of view. according to the logical tradition. they are paryayarthi/a nayas. -inabhadragani 7samasramana outlined the metaphysical tradition. vyavahara and r4usutranaya are dravyarthi/a nayas. =ne presents the ob4ect from the point of view of substance and the other presents the ob4ect from the point of view of view of modes. 0. if r4usutranaya is not ta/en with reference to substance. sangraha. 2.exact meaning of the word. Therefore. The metaphysical tradition gives importance to dravya as primary. . According to him. . The -ainas have said that unity and diversity. THE TWO TRADITIONS 5e have seen that the nayas can be classified into two types as 'a) dravyarthi/a--those concerned with the understanding of substance and 'b) paryayarthi/a--those concerned with the understanding of the modes. There are two traditions in understanding these nayas. 1. 5hile sabda. .iddhasena #iva/ara has given the logical tradition. sangrahanaya emphasis non-difference or unity.angrahanaya gives prominence to unity and in that 'a) parasangraha emphasis absolute unity while 'b) apara-sangraha gives prominence to relative unity or oneness. oneness and manyness. Ai4usutranaya gives importance to diversity and difference. The metaphysical tradition has given importance to the substance 'dravya) which is secondary. These two are only distinctions in the approaches to the problems. G. +. there should be no contradiction in reading the statement of the Anuyogadvara with reference to the analysis of the modes of a thing. therefore. while the modes are primary. >yavaharanaya is concerned primarily with the diversity and difference of both absolute and relative types. naigama. &oth are real. r4usutranaya is primarily paryayarthi/a. and substantiality and modifications are equally important and real. they considered it as dravyarthi/anaya. This view is based on the (1th sutra of the Anuyogadvara.

for the particular and general are interdependent. the relational activity and the agent of the activity. This is the cardinal aspect of . we give importance to the generality particularity. we consider them in particular.aigamanaya.or instance. if a hundred wristwatches were considered to be wristwatches. we emphasi!e the particularity and the difference although the generality is secondary. The two aspects li/e the substance and activity. A thing can be loo/ed at from the points of view of generality or of the speciality of an ob4ect. In the phenomenal approach to the understanding of the nature of a thing.e. . . identity is considered as secondary. the ob4ect and its qualities are intimately related to each other. the emphasis is on particularity or differentia.or instance. as secondary. . In the sa/aladesa. It may also be noted that if the emphasis is given on oneness. when we loo/ at ob4ects from the point of view of generality as belonging to a class.rom a particular point of view. It gives importance to the aspect of generality and particularity of an ob4ect and ta/es a synoptic view of the relative importance of generality and particularity.yaya->aisesi/a+ darsanas maintain that generality and particularity are independent categories. from the point of view of loo/ing at ob4ects on the basis of distinctions and particularity.aigamanaya. then the diversity or manyness is secondary in its importance. ( .. the relation and the ob4ects of relation and activity and the ob4ects of activity have both the aspects of identity and difference.aigamanaya is concerned with the synthetic approach to the problem of understanding the nature of the ob4ect and its qualities. when the identity is emphasi!ed differences are loo/ed as secondary and while the differences are emphasi!ed. Thus both the aspects are present. all the attributes are considered equally important and it gives a synthetic approach.ometimes. its special characteristics or differentia remain secondary. we ma/e the distinguishing feature of the two men. . sometimes there is the primacy of the identity of 4iva and happiness. but the -ainas do not accept this view. when we distinguish one man from the other. articularity is loo/ed at from the relative point of view and the distinctions and entity are emphasi!ed with the relative prominence. identity is considered to be secondary. . 5hen we consider two different men as man.imilarly. because there is not absolute difference between the substance and its qualities etc. There is not particular without reference to the general and there is nothing general without reference to the particular. The emphasis is mental and it depends upon the point of view that we ta/e at a particular time. i. This is the main presumption of . in this the generality is primary..aigamanaya is the point of view by which the generality and particularity of the ob4ect is synthesi!ed. . A/alan/a says that when one considers identity 'abheda) as primary. -iva has its attributes and happiness is one of its attributes. The generality is a unifying characteristic while particularity presents the differentia. the differences are emphasi!ed. although they are there in the ob4ects. They cannot be considered as apart. although it has general nature in relation to other similar ob4ects. &ut if we consider the two individual men as men essentially. To comprehend both the aspects in their primary and secondary. prominence is given to substance sometimes. while emphasi!ing difference.or instance. and at other times its attributes gain secondary importance. but happiness here becomes secondary.( . particularity or its differentia or the special characteristics of the ob4ect as an individual ob4ect is emphasi!ed. There is a distinction between .imilarly. naigamanaya gives importance to a relative appreciation of generality and particularity. The difference between the 4iva and happiness is also emphasi!ed. &ut if individuals recogni!ing it as his here ta/e each wristwatch own. difference 'bheda) is considered to be secondary. . 5e give secondary importance to general characteristics or the universality. In these cases. identity gains primary importance and sometimes difference is emphasi!ed upon.aigamanaya. =ne cannot exist without the other. called sa/aladesa. . they can be considered as identical. but the general nature of man as such remains secondary. which may be. 5hen we want to distinguish one ob4ect from another. &ut in . 5hen we again ta/e up two individual men as distinct with their personality. To comprehend both the aspects in their primary and secondary forms is the function of .aigamanaya and the synthetic comprehensive approach of loo/ing a thing.aigamanaya. &ut from another point of view. 5hen we say 4iva is happy.

. the -ainas said.aigama '0) >artamana . NAIGAMABHASA (FALLACY OF NAIGAMANAYA) . he would say.If one is as/ed where he stays.rom the point of view of loo/ing at the universe as cetana the universe may be considered as one. although the bread is yet to be prepared and it is in the process of being prepared. If a person is to attain /evala4nana.imilarly. The previous statements are more general than the succeeding statements. The >artamana . Though +2MM years ago. $ach refers to the other. To impose the characteristic of the present tense to the past incident or a thing is called bhuta naigama. he goes on particulari!ing the place of residence. naigamanaya presents the specific characteristic in light of generality.aigama. existence is the one concept. EI have prepared breadE. which refers to all that exists. many cannot exist. he might go on particulari!ing by starting that he stays in -ambudvipa. .aigamabhasa consists in giving primary emphasis on the distinctions between the substance and its qualities. The universe exists with its rich diversity. the diversity has one common element. but considered from the points of view of substantiality and inter activity. the one and the many are equally real.ome philosophers have referred the function of naigamanaya to the purpose or the end which an action or an ob4ect implies.aigamabhasa is a fallacy. if one starts preparing bread and if he was as/ed3 what have you preparedF . which may express contrary qualities.aigama '+) &havisya . The function of these three is '() to apprehend two ob4ects '+) to apprehend two conditions and '0) to apprehend one thing and one condition respectively. . If they were absolutely different then the relation of inference between the . The emphasis on the one or the many is a matter. . but which has yet to be completed. . with reference to the habitation or residence.rom the point of view of consciousness and the unconsciousness there would be distinctions. in &haratavarsa.or instance. and the many have reference to the one. we say that he attains nirvana after a specific period. the concept of the animal is common to the cows and other animals. ( . . If he is further as/ed to specify. in a particular lane in Bdaipur and or in a particular room in a house in a lane in the Bdaipur city. This statement has a reference to the ob4ect or the purpose for which an action is being done. all animals and inanimate ob4ects have reference to that one concept. which has relation to the concept or is the intellectual construction.aigama. .aigama and '0) #ravya.aigamanaya is of three types. the one and the many are relational terms. . Therefore. the one and many are equally real.aigamanaya is expressed in three forms3 '() &huta . 5ithout the one. .aigamanaya expresses the Ane/anta point of view. to day &hagavana *ahavira attained salvation.aryaya . 0 This is the point of the naigama. According to the -ainas. JI live in my bodyJ. we say.he would say.imilarly.+ It has reference to the purpose of action. .imilarly. considered from different points of view. he might reply that he stays in the world. A man who is going to a forest with an axe to cut the wood is as/ed what he is doing and he would reply he is coo/ing. rogressively. activities and the ob4ect of activities as absolute distinctions. The diversity as considered from the point of multiplicity is a fact of life. The concept of cow 'cowness) is the one referring to the many individual cows.aigamanaya. in Aa4asthan.( '() #ravya .aigama refers to the imposition of the present tense to an activity which has been started. &havisya naigama imposes the present tense to a future incident. although there are many forms of consciousness. If he is still as/ed to further specify the particular location. The universe is constituted of the living and the non-living. Here we are imposing present perfect tense on the action that is yet to be completed. =n the #ewali festival day.rom the point of view of the concept of the substance. In this way. The unity and diversity are facts of life.aigama. '+) aryaya . . &ut the ob4ect and its qualities and the action and the agent of activities cannot be distinguished in the absolute sense. which arises out of the mis-interpretation of .

yaya->aisesi/a considers the ob4ect and its attribute as denoting essentially difference. JIt is the phenomenal generalityJ. happiness and the self as distinct. which is one and the multiplicity as an appearance. which are qualities of the self as different from the self.ob4ect and its qualities cannot be real.an/hya philosophers have considered /nowledge and happiness. . amidst the many individual men. And to find out the unity in the diversity is the function of . It expresses the common characteristics of dravyatva in the six substances.angrahanaya see/s to find reality as one without distinction. @ This leads to the conception of substance 'dravya). . . /nowledge '4nana) and happiness 'su/ha) are inherently related to the tri-attributal 'tri-gunatma/a pra/rti).angrahanaya.aigamabhasa. &ut parasangrahanayabhasa denies the reality of the diversity of the phenomenal ob4ect. . G The limit of the aparasangrahanaya is up to the attainment of the unity in this world amidst diversity. That would be naigamabhasa. . SANGRAHABHASA (FALLACY OF SANGRAHANAYA) arasangrahanaya refers to the concept of the oneness as the ultimate reality and parasangrahanayabhasa also refers the ultimate oneness of the reality. the concept of the man in general is presented. They come out of ra/rti and also submerge in it. It finds out the EcownessE from the all the cows.an/hya darsanas loo/ at reality from the synthetic point of view 'sangrahanaya). Therefore. It emphasi!es the reality of the absolute. + . It is the synthesis of the unity and the diversity.an/hya philosophers. because really there is no difference between the self and the /nowledge. there is /nowledge. 2 arasangraha aims at finding out the oneness of the reality from its diversity in the world. And aparasangraha see/s to find the unity and the oneness in an ob4ect from its numerous modes. In this way.angrahanaya is the synthetic point of view. According to the .imilarly.angrahanaya see/s to establish the common point between ob4ects and bring them together as belonging to one category.angrahanaya finds unity and oneness in numerous modes of an ob4ect. the .imilarly. Hence it is called the nayabhasa. $very ob4ect is the synthesis of many qualities--generality and the particularity.rom the point of view of attributes it see/s to find out the common element among the many attributes. To see/ the general among the particulars is the ob4ect of sangrahanaya. ( >edanta and the . This common point between the six dravyas has a reference to the aparasangrahanaya and the common point is referred to as apara-samanya. it finds the one common point in the many ob4ects due to the similarities. the relation between the ob4ect and its qualities have to be considered a relational and equally real. . ( SANGRAHANAYA (SYNTHETIC POINT OF VIEW) . The self 'purusa) due to contact with the pra/rti believes that he experiences /nowledge and happiness. The . &ut these experiences belong to the buddhi 'intellect) which reflects the states due to its contact with pra/rti and its attributes. 1 The sangrahanaya is of two types3 '() EparasangrahaE and '+) Eaparasangraha. The . which see/s to find unity in diversity. &ut the difference between the two is parasangrahanaya does not deny the diversity and distinction in the phenomenal ob4ects. although they have many differences excepting the one characteristic of existence. the substance is real and the modes cannot exist without the substance. Intellect is also not the inherent essence of the self.an/hya philosophers consider /nowledge. 5herever there is self. 0 According to the sangrahanaya the one is real. This is . + It aims at finding out the common element in many ob4ects.

general and the particular and also to the empirical significance of understanding the ob4ect. This naya aims at analy!ing the nature of the ob4ect for practical purpose. . .imilarly. The general is comprehended through its specific nature. VYAVAHARANAYA (PRACTICAL POINT OF VIEW) >yavaharanaya is the practical point of view. In this sense. The main use of this naya is to understand the phenomenal world in its details. This /ind of distinction on the basis of specific nature of the ob4ect continues to be made till we reach the minimal point of where we get the individual only and not a type of species. The sangrahanaya grasps the generality.. we are more concerned with understanding the nature of the ob4ect in its modifications and attributes rather than in its generality i. Aparasangrahanaya accepts the reality of the general concepts li/e substance etc. sangraha and vyavahara nayas are forms of dravyarthi/a nayas. it has its forms li/e the matter 'pudgala). ( A thing can be understood in respect of its substance and its modifications. we can say although its function is analytic. + 5hen we /now an ob4ect li/e a pot 'ghata). there would be no distinction possible. it is not restricted to the analysis of modes only. 5ithout its pragmatic nature for the empirical world vyavaharanaya has no value.>edanta darsana is the example of parasangrahanayabhasa because it posits the reality of the absolute &rahman and considers the phenomenal world of diversity as an appearance. It can be considered to be an empirical approach to the problems of grasping the ob4ect from thee synthetic point. >yavaharanaya is practical in outloo/. 5ith reference to the substance. li/e the siddha 4ivas and the samsari 4ivas. These classifications may be based on difference principles li/e the presence of the attributes in different degrees at a particular time or the evolutionary process wherein the attributes are presented in a chronological order. In other words vyavaharanaya comprehends reality from the practical and the commonsense point of view. It is the analytic point of view. adharma 'principle of rest). . potness or the pot in general 'ghatatva). a/asa 'space) and /ala 'time). but we specify a particular medicine. dharma 'principle of motion). we find various classifications of the 4iva substances. Therefore. if a patient is to be given medicine. it is referred to as dravyarthi/a naya 'concerning dravya). samsari 4ivas are classified into nara/i 'living in hell). this is called the practical point of view or the empirical point of view. ( . but it also presents the particular distinctions of the ob4ect for the sa/e of understanding the nature of the ob4ect. 0 It is consistent with the practical outloo/ of life. manusya 'human beings) and deva 'heavenly beings). >yavaharanaya is of two types3 '() samanya bheda/a wherein we are concerned with presenting the general nature of the ob4ect. tirya/ 'lower animals). ( >yavaharanaya analyses the different aspects of the ob4ects in a scientific way and it helps in understanding the phenomenal world. 5ith reference to the modifications as substance. we do not merely say that the medicine should be given. It is more concerned with the presentation of a thing with its specific attributes and modes. >yavahara drsti 'practical point of view) does not merely grasp the substance. And it does not deny the distinctions between the substances li/e dharmadravya etc. &elow this point.e. the r4usutranaya loo/s at the moments and not to the continuum while the vyavaharanaya attempts to understand the coherent relation between the substance and its attributes. Therefore.or example. &ut aparasangrahanayabhasa denies the reality of the distinctions between the substances. in describing the dravya we try to present the distinction between the 4iva dravya and a4iva dravya '+) visesa bheda/a9 gives the analysis of the specific nature of a thing and ma/es distinctions in the various types of the thing on the basis of differentia. .or example.aigama.

The moment the wood burns. According to the r4usutranaya. Again all wood is not burning9 some of it is still unburnt. fire and air and nothing else. as burning it is not wood and as wood it is not burning. It only gives primary importance although the past and the future states are considered as secondary.ext moment we /eep it in the mouth. but the moment he is engaged in preparing the pot. and each moment presents a particular action. :arva/a darsana does not ma/e a distinction between substance and its modifications. flesh. The r4usutranaya does not accept the . It is only a state. the pleasure of the present moment and the possession of the wealth of the present moment are important and not their past and the future states. :onsciousness also is a product of the modes of these elements i. 1 The past modifications are destroyed. The wood can be described as burning and as not burning. 5e cannot say that the wood is burning. it is different. It only says that they have no practical value. . it is difficult to say that the wood is burning. 0 RJUSUTRANAYA A4usutranaya is restricted to the understanding of the modes and the states of the momentary present.( The ob4ect is merely an aggregate of the states in the present moment.or instance. as a modification of the momentary present. then how can we say that the crow is of blac/ color only. If the distinction were to be considered as absolute and not relative then it becomes inconsistent with the presentation of the ob4ect as it is. because it has other states present at the moment. due to the metabolic changes of the body. And that is vyavaharanayabhasa. the ob4ect is from the real point of view not an ob4ect at all.. water. The r4usutranaya in its subtle form would also maintain that in the act of eating.VYAVAHARANAYABHASA (FALLACY OF VYAVAHARANAYA) The point of view which is not consistent with the practical point of view and which presents a picture contrary the existing nature of the ob4ect is called vyavaharanayabhasa. This does not mean that r4usutranaya gives absolute emphasis on the present moment only. In analy!ing the statement Jthe crow is blac/J r4usutranaya states that the crow is a crow and blac/ness is blac/ness. bone etc. According to this naya a potter '/umbha/ara) would not be considered as a potter as long as he is engaged in preparing some other articles li/e the umbrella or a palanquin. It is not an ob4ect. some is burning and still some of it is not burning. he may be called the potter. It posits reality as consisting of the modes of the four elements--earth. &ecause the act of eating involves the series of moment. it is only the state of the ob4ect in a particular moment. which are of different colors. we are not eating at all. The state of an ob4ect at a particular moment lasts only for that moment. + >yavaharanaya ma/es a distinction between substance 'dravya) and its modifications 'paryayas). 5hen I say--I am happy. The first and second states and others are distinguishable. it would have been destroyed as the wood and turned into coal. it is also an act in a particular moment and when we gulp the food it is not eating at all. li/e--its possession of blood. it is no longer wood. . According to the r4usutranaya every state of an ob4ect is different. it only expresses the present state of my being A4usutranaya gives importance to such modifications of the present moment. 5hen we ta/e food in the hand in a particular moment. =ne can easily see that in the process of burning some portion of firewood is burnt. It loo/s at the ob4ect. The blac/ness of the crow does not exhaust the states of the crow. Therefore. because the act of burning requires a series of numerous moments. Attempt to /now the past modes or the future ones would be futile li/e seeing the s/y-flower. Innumerable moments are necessary in the process of burning.e. . This is vyavaharanayabhasa. They are two cuc/oo and other blac/ animals would be crow. it is not eating.. 5hat we can get to /now is the momentary present and the states and events in the present moment. It is a fallacy concerning vyavaharanaya. &ut this distinction is not absolute. and considers that what is real is to be found in the present. the future modifications is yet to come9 the two cannot be comprehended.ext moment. and not as a continuum.

It incorporates all the traditions. refixes EaE. vihara is wal/ing about. etc. but the sthula r4usutranaya loo/s at the state of the ob4ect as it is presented in the series of moments constituting the present. past and future time. A4usutranaya two forms '() .e. 5ith reference to the prefixes the words will have different meanings also. Three genders of the word give different meanings. but the r4usutranayabhasa 'fallacy of r4usutranaya) totally neglects the substance and considers the modifications the only redity. the meaning of the word changes. which are responsible for the development of linguistic science. SABDANAYA . the past.abdanaya is the root cause of this development. the present and future and accordingly in the ob4ect as well. ( A/alan/a has given copious examples of r4usutranaya. The su/sma r4usutranaya comprehends the state of the ob4ect at a particular moment only. gender and the prefixes etc. . and the function of the pot.continuum of the actions in different moments. 5hen we say the mountain *eru was. ( because according to &uddhists. of present.+ RJUSUTRANAYABHASA (FALLACY OF RJUSUTRANAYA) A4usutranaya gives primary importance tot he modifications 'paryaya) considering the substance 'dravya) secondary. And according to their view the substance of consciousness finally comes to an end. #ue to the different prefixes. although there is the implicit acceptance off the substance which has modifications. the use in the various contexts with reference to the number. The aim of this naya is to determine the exact meaning of the word. &ut the difference in each expression emphasi!es the difference in the contexts of time. only the modifications remain. In the r4usutra naya primary emphasis is given on modifications and that too of the moments. tati and tatam have different meanings. words will have different meanings. According to this naya. It is not very much relevant for understanding the nature of the ob4ect from the practical point. case and prefixes that are attached to the word.abdanaya has a reference to the word and its meaning. there is no existence of substance. It recogni!es the difference in the state of mountain *eru.u/sma r4usutranaya and '+) sthula r4usutranaya. is and will remain. gender. The linguistics is a developing science and the .. EviE. it has a reference to the time element in the expression of the word. Thus it totally exhausts. It analyses the meaning of the word in the context of time. &ut this is secondary. The comprehension of the nature of ob4ects from the practical point is possible from naigama and vyavahara nayas.cience of language presents innumerable details regarding the meaning and function of the word.+ This naya is primarily concerned with the linguistic part of the expression of thought. number. EpraE and EsamE for the word hara will give different meanings. gender. number.. the meaning of the word is determined by its function. According to various contexts of time. A word used in a masculine gender will have a different meaning from the same word used in feminine gender. 0 5e may determine the meaning of the word with reference to the modifications of the word.0 The &uddhistic /sani/avada is a clear example of the fallacy of r4usutranaya. Ahara means food. It loo/s at the ob4ect at a particular moment. The word tatah. . prahara is stri/ing and samhara is destruction. $ven in the state of salvation the continuance of consciousness extinguishes li/e a lamp. potter. 5hen we say that he prepares the pot and the pot a contains water9 in these statements the meanings emphasi!e different contexts with reference to the agent i.

amabhirudhanaya accepts this difference among the synonyms of the same word. but these different meanings are only expressions of different senses due to the different contexts of the origin.a/ra.e. =n the basis of the roots of the word. which consists in maintaining that the meaning of the word is not affected by the contextual situations and the different prefixes. . Avoiding the confusion and specifying accuracy is the speciality of this naya. 0 In the -aina literature we tal/ of the universal spheres which have their galaxies. . &oth the words are etymologically different. the gender and the prefix.rpa is one who rules. . In the varied modifications of the word it would be necessary to understand the stages of the modifications.a/ra. To emphasi!es and retain the same meaning even if the contextual emphasis and references are changed is called sabdanayabhasa. /uta or /umbha refer to the same ob4ect i. =therwise. In this way. They have different shades of meanings due to the contexts of the origin of the word. The words Indra and . do not signify the same meaning. Aeference to different points of time may bring different modifications and these modifications have to be recogni!ed as facts. samabhirudhanaya refers to the distinctions in the meaning of the word with reference to its varied modifications. It goes to understand the meaning of the word with reference to its origin.amabhirudhanaya has given importance to the etymological sense of the word. &ut in the scientific language we say that the universe consists of numerous stellar systems.abdanayabhasa does not recogni!e this important fact that there is the possibility of changes in the meaning due to contextual changes. It is necessary to have a scientific study of the etymological function of the word. /uta refers to that which has uneven form. ( 5ords li/e Indra. words are applicable to the same ob4ect.amabhirudhanaya refers to the meaning of the word. Aa4a is one who shines and .amabhirudhanaya gives definite meaning of the term with reference to its roots although the different. is the function of samabhirudhanaya. within the contexts of its etymological analysis.rpa may apply to the same man. &ut samabhirudhanaya is concerned with analy!ing the etymology of the word and on the basis of this analysis it distinguishes the meanings of the same word due to its varied modifications in different contexts. + . and the modifications will show different meanings. but samabhirudhanaya finds differences in the meaning of the same word with reference to its roots and its variations in modifications. gender etc.o this naya is very much useful in the scientific analysis of any ob4ect. &ut they have different meanings. In this sense the word has the force of meaning with reference to the agent as the meaning can be considered as potency of the word. ghata refers to that which contains.or example.SABDANAYABHASA (FALLACY OF SABDANAYA) . However. . although applicable to the same person.( SAMABHIRUDHANAYA . etc. but really spea/ing the same meanings of the different equivalents of the word about an ob4ect do not mean the same thing. . To show this. the word cow 'go) has eleven of different meanings. and urandara are referred to the same person Indra. .abdanayabhasa is a fallacy. &ut the . The evolution of the word may lead to various changes in the meaning. the pot. ambiguity in the meaning will create confusion. the origin of the word needs to be considered for understanding the exact meaning of the word. but they have different meanings with reference to the etymology of the words. &ut each word has different meanings. The dictionary gives different meanings of the same word. + 5ords li/e Aa4a and . ( 5ith a view to avoiding confusion in the words it would be necessary to study the etymological sense of the words and to emphasi!e upon the definiteness and its truthfulness for fixing up the meaning. + In the sabdnaya we try to understand the meaning of the word with reference to its function in context of the number. In a general sense the words li/e ghata. may there be no difference of number. In the sabdanaya we do not ma/e a distinction in the meaning of the word in the same gender. its meaning differs. with reference to its roots.

. + $vambhutanaya has reference to the meaning traceable to the etymological sense.ometimes particularity is comprehended with greater emphasis and generality becomes less important. in the present context. is determined by its relevance to the present context. 0 EVAMBHUTANAYA $vambhutanaya is more specific and its meaning is narrowed down to the present context. because the etymological sense of the pot 'ghata) would be that which holds or which contains. 1 The functional meaning of the word based on its etymological content may be operative or may not be operative. ( 5e call Indra as Indra only when he is sitting on the throne. A pu4ari 'priest) would be called a priest and the name of the priest would be relevant to him actually at the time of worshipping the deity. The vyavaharanaya is less extensive and narrower than sangrahanaya. in the case. A4usutranaya is restricted to a still narrower field. as in the case of the cloth that is destroyed. In this naya sometimes generality is given primary importance and particularity becomes secondary.angrahanaya is less comprehensive than naigamanaya because it grasps only the general. cannot contain or hold anything. as it is bro/en. =therwise it loses its potency. THE INTER-RELATIONSHIP OF NAYAS 5e have considered the nayas in their different aspects from the . 5hen he is not sitting on the throne he need not be called Indra.amabhirudhanayabhasa is a fallacy is a fallacy which arises in ignoring the distinctions arising due to functional sense and giving exclusive emphasis on the etymological distinction of the word. Eva21hutanaya1hasa6 80alla%y o0 eva21hutanaya9 $vambhutanayabhasa is a fallacy. Therefore. =therwise. it is necessary to restrict the meaning of the word to its function in the present context. the unity and not the diversity. but applicable to the present function. because it limits its . The name urandara would be meaningful when Indra is in the act of destroying the town. &ut to negate the present function only and tract it to the etymological sense and to apply to the individual is the fallacy called $vambhutanayabhasa. If the word has its meaning without reference to its function then any name would be appropriate to any ob4ect with any function.$a2a1hirudhanaya1hasa . but the name is applicable and is relevant in the present context of its function of meaning. because it refers to the particularity and it is analytic only.aigamanaya to $vambhutanaya. The meaning of the evambhutanaya has reference not so much to the individual as a name. As we proceed from . similar meaning will have to be applied to the ob4ects which have ceased to function. This naya visuali!es the expression of powers and qualities at the present moment. . would lead to this fallacy. but in the case of evambhutanaya the emphasis is given on the present use and the content of the meaning operative at the time of expressing the word. In this sense.( . The meaning of a word. If a word were to be used in its etymological sense only sometimes the meaning may be relevant and sometimes the meaning may not be relevant. 0 To call a bro/en pot a pot. Therefore.aigamanaya to $vambhutanaya the scope of the meaning becomes restricted and narrower at every stage. to connote the general meaning fallacy of evambhutanaya. 5e can call him sa/ra when he exhibits his powers. The etymological sense is secondary although it may have remote relevance. it should not be called ghata. 2 Indicating the present meaning of the word when the word is actually expressed is the significant factor in evambhutanaya. because its present function of the word may not connote the etymological sense. This naya relevant to him actually at the time of worshipping the deity.aigamanaya is wider in its content because it embraces the generality and particularity and unity and diversity. but the bro/en pot. which consists in negating the relevance of the present function and its etymological meaning of a word.

with reference to its substance and not so much with reference to the distinctions and paryayas. That vyavahara naya which grasps the nature of the ob4ects with reference to its substance and its attributes in the relational and conditional form is called upacarita sadbhutavyavahara naya. the -ainas call it the bhutarthanaya or the niscayanaya. while vyavaharanaya is practical in its approach. which tries to understand the relation between substance and its attributes without their being essentially related. In the -aina Agamic literature.amabhirudhanaya narrows down its scope still further. It refers to meaning of the word in the present context and does not loo/ before and after. >yavaharanaya is sometimes considered to be secondary to the niscayanaya is JabhutarthaJ 'the relational thought) and niscayanaya refers to the bhutartha in the sense it is ultimate and pure 'suddha). . .iscayanaya 'the ultimate point of view) and '+) vyavaharanaya 'the phenomenal point of view). as do the >edantins in considering the external world as an appearance. 5e may call it the noumenal point of view. we have studied the logical and epistemological interpretations or the concept of naya. &ut there is difference between the -aina approach to the problems and the approaches of the other absolutistic philosophies. is called Anupcarita sadbhuta vyavaharanaya. There is a gradual narrowing down of the scope and the content of the naya from the naigama to the evambhuta.understanding to the momentary present. It is more concerned with the modifications and not with the substance which has modifications. it is analytical in nature and it presents the picture of the ob4ect in its relation to other ob4ects.iscayanaya presents the picture of the ob4ect and its meaning from the ultimate point of view. . . >yavaharanaya has been distinguished into two types3 '() sadbhuta vyavaharanaya and '+) asadbhutavyavaharanaya.iscayanaya. a distinction has been made between paramartha satya 'ultimate truth) and lo/asamvrtti satya 'the practical truth). grasps reality in its ultimate aspect. The noumenal point of view goes to the source of the reality and finds out the ultimate meaning of reality. we have the ultimate and the practical points of view which are referred to as J aramarthi/a and >yavahari/a drstiJ. *ati4nana and sruta4nana are attributes of 4iva from the practical . naya can be distinguished into two types3 '() . In the &uddhistic literature. . &ut they do not deny reality of the distinctions and the paryayas.o far. The Bpanisads mention the sthula and the su/smadrsti.adbhutavyavaharanaya refers to the analysis of substance and its qualities while describing a thing. The &uddhist mentions the paramartha and samvrtta points of view. Then we come to the limited field of application of the point of view in the evambhutanaya. being suddhanaya.( 5hat the &uddhistic in the >i4nanavada and the .unyavada call the parmartha satya and the >edantins call the paramarthi/a drsti. And the naya or a point of view.. ( . &ecause of this. >yavaharanaya is the phenomenal point of view. from the ultimate and the practical points of view. METAPHYSICAL INTERPRETATION OF NAYA . the nayas in their various aspects have reference to each other and are related to each other in presenting the varied picture of the ob4ect in its content and meaning.e.ow. . 4ust as in the advaita philosophy. It is relational in its aspect.abdanaya is still narrower than r4usutranaya in the sense that it is concerned with the understanding of the meaning of the word of the moment. because reality can be loo/ed at from the phenomenal and noumenal point of view. we may now try to understand the metaphysical implications and content of the concept or naya. i.rom the metaphysical point of view. and tries to understand the phenomenal nature of reality. This naya has two forms3 'a) upacarita sadbhuta and 'b) anupacarita sadbhuta. -ainas loo/ at reality from the niscayanaya in order to find out the real nature of the ob4ect. there is distinction of the niscaya and vyavaharanaya whose functions are to loo/ at reality from who points of view. because it refers to the root of the word and presents the etymological sense.

&ut when we say that /nowledge is the quality of the soul. feeling and connotation. Anupacarita asadhuta vyavaharanaya tries to understand the relation between the substance and its attributes as in the case of the body and the 4iva. Asabhutavyavaharanaya can also be distinguished into two forms as '() upacarita and '+) anupacarita. in the case of #evadatta and his wealth.or example. &ut this con4unction is inseparable as long as the empirical life lasts. It is called upacarita. The vyavaharanaya is analytical and tries to find out the distinctions. pure nature. The relation is not inherent in the 4iva. The self is /nown in its pure form and its qualities are considered to be distinct.point of view. although consciousness is the essence of the soul. The mind. we are using the practical point of view. The 4iva and the /armic particles are to . &ut from the niscaya point of view the self is pure and perfect and is uncontaminated. and the fundamental aspect of the ob4ect. Aelation between the #evadatta and his wealth is only accidental and also separable. body and the sense organs are considered as separate although they are related to the embodied soul. but it is accidental due to con4unction. 7evala4nana is free from impurities and passions. >yavaharanaya is the point of distinction. In this. In this. In order to understand the distinction between niscaya and the vyavaharanaya. &ut upacarita asadbhuta vyavaharanaya understands the distinction between the substance and its attributes in the relation of accidents. In the case of mati4nana conditioned by empirical ad4uncts due to the encrustations of /arma is the 4iva. the Atman is considered to be the substance having attributes and /nowledge is the attribute possessed by the Atman. which are primarily separable as. In the case of anupacarita sadbhuta vyavaharanaya there is the awareness of the distinction between the ob4ect and attributes. with the /armic matter. This type of comprehending the relation is upacarita asadbhuta vyavaharanaya. which are mainly loo/ed at from the practical point of view. This understanding is due to sadbhutavyavaharanaya. It is considered to be a phenomenal approach to the understanding of the 4nana. there is the fuller understanding of the distinction between the substance and its attributes. It is the relation comprising of difference and identity.iscaya naya is the pure point of view. They are not the essence of the soul. but as of inherence. The self is seen as pure and perfect without the impurities of the /armic particles. while niscayanaya aims at getting the pure point of view of non-distinctions. we are aware of the distinction between the substance and its attributes. Therefore it is anupacarita. 5hen we say that /nowledge is the essence of the Atman. we are saying this from the noumenal point of view. the relation is of con4unction because the two ob4ects are separable. .rom the noumenal point of view. According to -ainas. . the effective and connotive states are the modifications. which arise out of /nowledge. . &ut when we consider the relation of 4nana '/nowledge) and the self there is the relation of inherence. This relation of the Atman and /nowledge as substance and attributes is to be considered not as a relation of dependence. This type of an attitude gives a clear and a synoptic view of the relation of the soul and its attributes. In these expressions. self is seen not these and it is also apprehended that the bondage of the self is not eternal. It is the ultimate point of view. because it is not pure and free 4nana. These are not inherently related to the soul. . it i necessary to analyse the spatial concept of relation as in the case of 4iva and the /armic particles. The soul and its attribute of 4nana are considered to be distinct and without any conditioning due to freedom from /arma. though accidentally related. the relation between the substance and quality is neither that of exclusive difference nor of exclusive identity.rom the practical point of view the self appears to be bound and as having a shape. And there is a clear awareness that the self is not these attributes. 5hen we consider the relation of the ghee that is in the pot and the pot. &ut this relation is not eternal. 7evala4nana is the pure 4nana of the soul and it is unconditioned. .iscayanaya comprehends the pure nature of the self as distinguished from its attributes and modifications. It is the noumenal point of view. The attribute of /nowledge cannot exist without the Atman.

from the world to the reali!ation of mo/sa. . This is the practical point of view. They are distinct.iddhasena says that in the teachings of *ahavira we find a synthesis of dravyarthi/a and paryayarthi/a points of view. as also their nature is distinct. All other points of view are forms of these two points of view. ( It apprehends one specific feature of the ob4ect. 5e can say that pramana is sa/aladesa 'comprehensive and full).aya being vi/aladesa need not however be considered as purely practical and incomplete /nowledge. ramana comprehends the nature of the pot 'ghata) in all its aspects. . . it is partial comprehension.rom the noumenal point of view each ob4ect lives in its spatial position and not in the spatial position of others.a/aladesa grasps the ob4ects with all its attributes while in vi/aladesa it is restricted to the apprehension of one particular quality. In this sense. . 5e do not ma/e a distinction between water and mil/ from the point of view of spatial position. while vi/aladesa expresses naya. &ut naya grasps its nature in one of its aspects. &oth the sa/aladesa and the vi/aladesa approaches to the understanding of nature of the ob4ect are equally important and complementary to each other. water is water and mil/ is mil/.aya loo/s at the ob4ect from a particular point of view and gives emphasis on a particular aspect of the ob4ect. the Atman and the /armic particles are considered to be together from the practical point of view. &oth of them are to be found in the same space. + 5hen eternal. because here we loo/ at the ob4ect from the points of view of changing modes. It grasps the generality without ignoring the particularity of the modes.imilarly. The comprehensive understanding of the ob4ect gives a synthetic picture of the ob4ect in all its aspects of substance in relation of its attributes. we say that the bound soul is to be fund in con4unction with the /armic particles in the same spatial position.rom the point of view of the modes the ob4ect is impermanent.rom the point of view of substance 'dravyarthi/a) every substance is permanent with its modes.aigama and other nayas are meant to analyse the nature of the ob4ect and to understand their implications in the empirical world. they are distinct. PRAMANA AND NAYA It was considered in the previous stages that naya is the point of view that a person ta/es in /nowing the ob4ects.a/aladesa may be considered to be the expression of the . The Atman is in itself. #ravyarthi/a drsti is comprehensive point of view. It comprehends the ob4ect in its fullness.be found in space. &ut both naya and pramana are forms of /nowledge. .0 #ravyarthi/a drsti is also called avyucchitti naya. but from the point of view of its modes existing in this world 'paryayarthi/a or vyucchitti naya) the 4iva is non-eternal. when we mix water and mil/. &ut in reality. ramana does not ma/e a distinction between substance and its attributes but its grasps the ob4ect in its entirety. . Acarya . The . 7arma has its own spatial position. It aims at leading us from the facts to reality. ( DRAVYARTHIKA AND PARYAYARTHIKA POINTS OF VIEW #ravyarthi/a and paryayarthi/a drsti refers to the point of view of substance and that of modes. &ut from the real point of view. ramana comprehends the nature of the pot 'ghata) in its fullness. &ut the purpose of distinction between vyavahara and niscaya is to lead one to the spiritual world in understanding the real nature of the self. aryayarthi/a drsti is analytic and is mainly concerned with the distinctions of the modes of an ob4ect. that it is mil/. It should be noted that the distinction made between the naigama and the other nayas and vyavahara and niscayanaya has been made with the purpose of emphasi!ing the practical and the spiritual point of view. he said from the dravyarthi/a point of view 4iva is eternal. &ut .yadvada. &oth of them are concerned with grasping the nature of the ob4ect in relation to its attributes. but pramana has no such distinction of partial understanding of the ob4ects in relation to its other aspects. . It is a comprehensive /nowledge. although the awareness of other aspects is in the bac/ground and is not ignored. but naya is vi/aladesa 'partial). . because it loo/s at the ob4ect from a particular point of view and presents the picture of the ob4ect in some aspects. 4ust as from the practical point of view we say. &ut from the practical point of view.

*ahavira gave the analysis of substance from the point of view of spatial positions also. The materialists maintain that matter alone is real. I am permanent and is indestructible. while from the pradesarthi/a drsti it is many because of these numberless space points. The :chandogya Bpanishad presents the view that /nowledge. 4ust as the dharma. it is incomparable. &ut the other substance li/e. The :arva/a holds that whether is /nown to the sense experience is real and all the rest is unreal. the ob4ect is one. The ob4ect which is comparable to other ob4ects from the point of view of substance is not comparable from the point of pradesarthi/adrsti. &ut a/asa being anantapradesi. In the ra4napana. &ut in the case of matter there are variations according to the nature of the aggregates of the atoms coming together. dharmasti/aya is considered to be understood from the dravyadrsti as one. They have faced the question regarding the reality and have as/ed whether the sense-ob4ect is real or that which is beyond the sense experience and which can be gasped only by the intuition ' ra4na) is real. In this way. &ut from the point of view of paryaya. which is /nown through sense experience. while pradesarthi/a drsti loo/s at the ob4ects in its different modes and its analysis in its spatial distinctions. He said from the point of vie of substance. adharma. and a/asa asti/ayas are considered to be comparable 'tulya) from the point of view of pradesarthi/a as they occupy numberless pradesas. adharma. According to -ainas. aryaya refers to the different modes of an ob4ect. &ut many philosophers held different views. This is no variation in the Atma pradesa 'the spatial point of Atman). is real and that which we get through sense experience is only an appearance. ( In this he has used the pradesa drsti for expressing the permanence and indestructibility of the Atman. which is through intuition. . pradesa and from the points of view of qualities. #ifferent philosophers have emphasi!ed the effusive reality of either things /nown to sense experience or reality apprehended through reason or intuition. while paryayarthi/a naya emphasi!es and non-difference. ( VYAVAHARIKA AND NAISCAYIKA DRSTI hilosophers have discussed about the problem of the reality of the ob4ects. 1 DRAVYARTHIKA AND PRADESARTHIKA DRSTI #ravyarthi/a drsti refers to the point of view of substance.rom the point of upayoga I am changing 'asthira) because I express myself into different mental states. and bringing all these points of view in a synthetic sense JI am oneJ. The diversity that we find in the phenomenal world. lo/a/asa and 4iva occupy determined space points. .imilarly. I am E4nana and darsana as two modes. the ob4ects may be considered from the points of view of dravya and pradesa.dravyarthi/anaya presents an outloo/ of comprehension and non-difference. dharma. .+ The ultimate reality is one and non-dual. The -ainas ta/e the stand on the basis of the nayas and on the methodology of syadvada.rom the point of view of pradesa. Aeality is complex and it can be loo/ed at from different . is an appearance. while pradesa refers to the different arts of an ob4ect occupying the different spatial positions. radesarthi/a drsti is useful in another way.rom the point of view of substance. .rom the point of view of pudgala pradesa the self is not changeable and is eternal. while paryayarthi/a naya emphasi!es distinction and difference. . A pradesa is the point of space occupied by the smallest point of pudgala 'matter). The distinction between paryaya and pradesa can be considered in respect the modes and the spatial points. They may also be considered as comparable and incomparable with reference to the point of space occupied by the ob4ects. &u the -aina does not find any contradiction in the assertions made by these philosophers. This gives a comprehensive picture of the ob4ects. matter occupies different points of space and there is not definiteness about this. but from the point of view of pradesarthi/a the ob4ect maybe loo/ed as many. In the &hagavati sutra the word bhavarthi/a has been used in place of paryayarthi/a. because it occupies many space points. I express modes in the past and the present. modes.

ARTHANAYA AND SABDANAYA Anuyogadvara. TYPES OF NAYAS Acarya .abdanaya has three forms3 samprata. five types of tastes and eight types of touch. which is the subtle essence of the phenomenal world. vyavahara and r4usutra nayas have reference to the ob4ects. If it were a pramana why are they differently mentionedF And if it were not a pramana then it would be false /nowledge and there is no scope of false /nowledge in the philosophical world.aigama. In the agama literature. two types of small. And there are as many views and theories as there are statements. 0 NAYA AS PRAMANA OR APARAMANA . samabhirudha and evambhuta are the seven primary nayas. taste and touch in treacle. Acarya . In this way.aigama naya has been distinguished into two forms3 despari/sepi and sarvapari/sepi. two types of smell. smell. sabda. The dravyanaya and paryayanaya include numerous forms of expressing the nature of a thing and the numerous points of view. that *ahavira understood that both the practical and the real points of view present the picture of reality which are equally real and valid.points of view. . which are the bases of their description. &ut from the real or ultimate point of view it has five colors. The real is /nown through intuition and reason. The noumenal point of view gives us the ultimate thing of the world. and could be grasped.ayavada is a comprehensive and a special from of thought in the -aina logic.thananga0 and ra4napana 1 mention seven nayas. from the practical point of view it is sweet. G In this sense there are numerous nayas and they been variously described. 6autama as/ed the question regarding the qualities of a blac/-bee. 6autama as/ed *ahavira. sangraha. However. + .1 -aina logicians were faced with a question regarding the validity of the nayavada. &oth of them are equally real. Therefore. 2 . samabhirudha and evambhuta. it has five colors. sabda. . five types of tastes and eight types of touch. the -ainas have attempted the primary ways of the describing thing and main points of view. which are nayas. sangraha. there are how may colors. They do not contradict each other nor is one less real than the other. &ut from the practical point of view of the phenomenal point of view.+ . as well as according to the #igambara tradition. sangraha. ( seven prominent nayas have been mentioned. Is the naya a pramana or not was the primary question. and evambhutanayas belong to the category of sabdanayas. vyavahara. Bmasvati has in the earlier part mentioned five nayas3 naigama. . vyavahara r4usutra and sabda are the five primary nayas. samabhirudha. $very ob4ect is loo/ed from the points of view. *ahavira said.iddhasena #iva/ara does not consider naigamanaya as an independent naya and he mentioned six nayas. the things of the world are as much real as the ultimate things /nown through intuition.aigama. *ahavira gave answers to many questions from the practical and the real points of view. Among these seven nayas. although in theory there would be infinite ways of expression. There is no contradiction in maintaining realities of both spheres from the different points of view. The ultimate point of view 'niscaya naya) leads us to the comprehension of reality. In the &hagavati there is a dialogue between &hagavana *ahavira and 6autama 6anadhara regarding the different aspects of reality. ( It is clear from this. which is sensible. The practical point of view gives us the picture of reality. *ahavira said that from the practical point of view the bee is blac/. r4usutra. &ut from the real point of view 'niscayanaya). .imilarly.iddhasena maintains that there are as many nayas as there are statements. -inabhadra 7samasramana says that the naya theory pervades the entire -aina philosophy and thought. they are called dravyarthi/anaya.

The -aina logicians say that naya is neither pramana nor apramana 'not pramana). It is part of the pramana. A drop of water of the ocean can not be considered to be the ocean and also not the non-ocean, but a part of the ocean.2 ,imilarly, a soldier is neither an army, nor a non-army9 but the part of army. The same argument is true in the case of describing the nayas. ramana comprehends the nature of the ob4ects in the different aspects, while naya loo/s at it from a particular point of view. It grasps one aspect of the ob4ect. In this sense, naya is the partial presentation of the nature of the ob4ect, while pramana is comprehensive in its presentation. &ut naya does not give false /nowledge nor does it deny that the other aspects of /nowledge of the nature of the ob4ect are true. In this sense it is outloo/ and it is not invalid. SUNYA AND DURNAYA: RIGHT NAYA AND WRONG NAYA 5e have seen that pramana comprehends ob4ects in its various aspects and it is exhaustive in its presentation. &ut naya loo/s at the ob4ect from a particular point of view. However naya does not deny the possibility of loo/ing at the ob4ect from other points of view and it accepts that the nature of the ob4ect is complex and the presentation from other points of view may also be valid. This is presentation is only valid and all other presentations from different nayas, are invalid, this is durnaya. 5e may also say that pramana comprehends the tat, 'that) and the atat, while naya grasps only the tat.( .aya is concerned with the presentation of EtatE only. #urnaya has a negative function also. In aims at negating and denying the other aspects of presentation. Bmasvati says that #urnaya is one-sided in its approach because it emphasi!es that the point of view ta/en by the naya is the only correct point of view and the other points of view are wrong. Acarya ,iddhasena #iva/ara has also stated that #urnaya is a mithya drsti 'perversity of attitude) because it is dogmatic in outloo/. It asserts the truth of its point of view and re4ects the other points of view. + &ut in order to understand the nature of the ob4ect in all its aspects9 it is necessary to accept the presentation of the ob4ect in different points of view also. =therwise, the picture would be one-sided, 4ust as a garland of diamond can be called a garland only when the different individual diamonds are arranged and attached in a systematic way. ( -ust as the garland of diamonds depends on its cohesion on the thread that weaves out the diamonds, so also nayavada weaves out the right attitude and right /nowledge 'samyagdrsti) and samyag4nana. Acarya 7unda/unda says that the one who ta/es the stand of loo/ing at the things from two different nayas understands the truth of the presentation of the two nayas. He does not re4ect the other point of view, because he /nown that the other point of view has also its value. + $verything is complex in its nature, presenting the many facets of its qualities. 5e cannot describe the entire nature of the ob4ects from one point of view9 that would give a partial and inadequate picture of the ob4ect. To understand the ob4ect in its various facts from different points of view, does not mean that we are presenting different vies about the reality. There is no difference of opinion in presenting the different aspects of the ob4ects from different points of view. ,uch a presentation would give a comprehensive picture of reality and not onesided picture of reality.0 $verything can be loo/ed at from the point of view of the /nowledge about it, expression in words and the nature of the ob4ect itself. ;rom the point of view of /nowledge, we get different facets of understanding. ;rom the point of view of the ob4ects of /nowledge, we can present different variations of the view. ;or instance, as the universe it is one. =n the basis of the distinction of substances, there are six substances. Doo/ed at from the point of view of asti/aya, there are five asti/ayas. &ut these distinctions do not present different views, they only present different facets and variations of loo/ing at the reality. (

UNFORMITY AND CONTINUITY IN THE JAINA DARSANA The study of different systems of Indian philosophy ma/es it clear that the >edic tradition and the &uddhist philosophy present varied, and sometimes conflicting metaphysical theories among themselves. The >edic tradition gives the monistic, the dualistic and also the pluralistic theories of reality. ,imilarly, the &uddhist philosophy has been presented in various theories often conflicting with each other in their ultimate metaphysical standpoints. ;or instance, in the &uddhist philosophical systems there are divergent theories of realities li/e realism, sub4ective idealism, idealism and even nihilism. The Hinayana schools of thought li/e >aibhasi/a and ,autantri/a presents the realistic approach to the understanding of the universe by positing the dharmas 'elements). *ahayana schools of philosophy li/e vi4nana vada 'Logacara) and *adhyami/a present the idealistic stand. The *adhyami/a ,chool is said to be nihilistic because according to this school everything is unreal9 there is nothing real. The real is the sunya 'void), although sunya has been interpreted by some as the absolute, which is inexpressible. However, the &uddhistic philosophy have a common current of thought expressed in the prtha/ada 'doctrine of momentariness) and madhyamavada 'the doctrine of middle path). Thus we find that the >edic tradition and the &uddhist thought present a variety of philosophical school, very often diverting from each other, even to the point of being conflicting in the case of the realist and idealist schools of Hinayana and *ahayana sects. ,imilarly the >edic tradition also presents the realistic thought in the .yaya >aisesi/a and the idealistic stream in the vedanta. ,eeing the vast differences in the various sects of vedic and &uddhistic traditions, it is hard to believe that these are the off-shots of one current. &ut if we survey the development of the -aina thought, we find there is uniformity and continuity in the -aina tradition. There is consistency in their approach to philosophical problem. -ainism realistic in its approach ad empiricist in its methodology. The distinction between the svetambara and digambara tradition have shown certain differences which are only superficial pertaining primarily to religious practices. The fundamentals of -aina philosophy have been accepted by both traditions. ;or instance, there is unanimity of thought in their acceptance of the doctrines li/e six substances 'saddravya), nine categories 'nava padartha) and seven tattvas 'principles) and pancasti/aya 'five dimensional substances). This unanimity and consistency in the -aina tradition has been possible due to the fundamental outloo/ of the -ainas expressed in the nayavada and syadvada. The nayavada gives scope for catholicity of outloo/. It asserts that others may also be right and the rightness of each point of view is partial and it adds to the comprehensive picture of reality. In this sense, the -ainas have been tolerant in accepting the various points of view in order to present a coherent picture of reality. The nayavada and syadvada express the spirit of tolerance. They symbolic intellectual non-violence.

JNANA5A*A0 A St"dy 2THEORY O# KNO.LE*,E3
THE RELATION BETWEEN THE SELF AND THE KNOWLEDGE The self and the /nowledge are related to each other, not in any external way, but the relation is inherent. It is samavayi 'inherent relation) and not con4unction, 'samyoga) as external elements. -nana is not external to self9 it is the essential characteristic of the self. ,elf has -nana and self cannot exist without -nana, but this relation need not be construed as a relation of a thing and its quality in the senses that the .yaya->aisesi/a maintain. Therefore, /nowledge is inherently related to the self. ;rom the practical point of view we may distinguish /nowledge and self. &ut from the pure and noumenal point of view, there is no distinction between /nowledge and self.( Although 4nana is the essential characteristic of the self, it cannot be considered to be externally related. 7nowledge and self are very intimately connected as even to say that they are identical. 7nowledge is self-illuminative and it also illumines the ob4ect of /nowledge 'sva-para-pra/asa/a). :ognition illumines the ob4ect it cogni!es and also it illumines itself, cogni!es itself and this fact of self-cognition can be understood by an analogy. -ust as the lamp illumines the ob4ect around it and it illumines itself, similarly the self has cognition the ob4ect of cognition. It is, therefore, necessary to understand the nature of /nowledge. In the Agama literature, the characteristics of /nowledge have been presented from the points of view of identity and of difference. ;rom the point of view of identity 'abheda), it has been said that self and /nowledge are one and there are no differences. ;rom the point of view of difference, /nowledge is the quality of the soul. ;rom the point of view of identity and difference 'bhedabheda), self can be said to be neither completely different from /nowledge, nor completely identical with /nowledge. ( 7nowledge is identical with the self. Therefore, it is not different. 7nowledge is the quality of the atman. Therefore, it is different also. THE NATURE OF KNOWLEDGE 7nowledge and the ob4ect of /nowledge are independent of each other. 7nowledge is the quality of the self. ,ubstance, quality and the modes are the ob4ects of /nowledge. 7nowledge and its ob4ect do not produce each other. The ob4ect of /nowledge may give us /nowledge but it is not inherent with the act of cognition. It is related to the ob4ect when it is produced from the ob4ect, then it has the characteristics of the ob4ect. In that case, the identity of /nowledge with the self would be remote. 5hen we cogni!e and ob4ect the process of cognition involves the activity of the self. However, cognition depends on the ob4ect of cognition. The media through which we have to cogni!e an ob4ect are the body, sense organs and the mind. &ut they are not conscious. 5hen the senses come in contact with the ob4ect through the stimulations, then the process of /nowledge starts. The act of cognition is not some new creation. It is the process of the activity of the self to the media of the sense organs and the mind in contact with the ob4ect. The process of cognition and the extent of /nowledge depend upon the capacity of the /nower. 5e have seen that /nowledge is possible by the self through the sense organs and the mind, but the function is limited. The mind also has a limited capacity. The mind comes in contact with a particular sense organ at a time. Therefore, we can cogni!e an ob4ect through the operation of the sense organs and through their limitation. &ut we also get /nowledge without the media of the sense organs. This /nowledge need not be limited. &ecause the limitations of the sense organs are not operative in the complete or uneneveloped /nowledge. Through the complete /nowledge all the ob4ects can be cogni!ed at a time moment.

KNOWLEDGE AND THE OBJECT OF KNOWLEDGE The relation between the /nowledge and the ob4ect of /nowledge is li/e the ob4ect and its quality. The sub4ect of /nowledge is characteri!ed by the possession of cognition. The ob4ect has a characteristic as the ob4ect of /nowledge. &oth these are independent. &ut both are intimately related in the sense that the ob4ect enters into relation with the cognition as the ob4ect of cognition and cognition has the relation of /nowing the ob4ect. In this sense, we may say that there is no difference between the ob4ect and cognition. KNOWLEDGE AND INTUITION The psychic energy that the soul possesses is expressed in cognition, perception, and experience. The eyes perceive. The other experiences are possible through the other sense organs including the manas. According to the agamas the experience through the eyes as well the experience through the other organs may be considered as darsana. Avadhi 'clairvoyance) and /evala 'omniscience) may also be considered as darsana. In this analysis darsana does not mean only perception. &ut it means the experience of the universe and the nondifference. 7nowledge '4nana) is analytic and it presents the varied characteristics of the ob4ect. -nana is of five types, while darsana is of four types. *anahparyaya 4nana 'telepathy) is not considered as darsana, because it cogni!es difference only. The universe has diversity when considered with reference to attributes, modes, but considered from the point of substance, it is one and undifferentiated. Therefore, we cannot say that the universe is one only or diverse only. The capacity of empirical /nowledge is limited. Therefore, we first /now the generality of the substance and then we cogni!e the diversity to be founded in the attributes and modes. The /evala4nana 'omniscience) is not limited. Its capacity is infinite. It cogni!es everything including the substance and its modes. The omniscient /nows everything in the moment of its experience, in the aspect of its universality. Then he cogni!es the diversity. This is the procedure of /evala4nana and /evaladarsana. The :hadmastha who has reached the tenth gunasthana does not grasp everything in one moment of experience. He cogni!es the subtle nature of the cognition and after numerous moments he grasps the universality that is in the substance. The universality and the diversity of the ob4ect are progressively experienced. -nana cogni!es particularities and is analytic, while darsana experience the universality diversity would involve the process of darsana and 4nana. KNOWLEDGE AND THE AFFECTIVE STATES (VEDANA) =f the five sense organs, the sense organs of touch, taste and smell are sensory. They cogni!e the ob4ects and experience the senses of touch, taste and smell, but the sense-organs of sight and hearing are instruments of cognition only, because they cogni!e the ob4ects, but do not experience the ob4ects as there is no direct contact with them. 5e experience the external ob4ects through the sense organs, but the process of experience is not the same in all the sense organs. The sense organ of sight has a greater capacity of cognity of cognition. &ut it cogni!es the ob4ect without touching it. The sense organ of hearing is less in its capacity to experience, because it can cogni!e the sounds which touch it, or come in contact. The sense organs of touch, taste and sound are less in their capacity of experience as compared with the other two. &ecause they can experience the ob4ect when they

come in direct contact with the ob4ect and therefore they can cogni!e the ob4ects and experience the experiences. &ut in the case of the eyes and the ears there is no direct contact with the ob4ects of experience. Therefore, they can only get /nowledge, but they do not directly get the experience. In the case of the mind it can have both /nowledge and experience, although it does not come in direct contact with the ob4ect. This is because the mind transforms itself into the self of the ob4ect to be cogni!ed. The mind can also have the higher type of experiences in the manahparyaya4nana 'telepathic /nowledge). The cognition that we get without the contact with the ob4ect through the sense organs is not sense-cognition, but it is extra-sensory experience. It is neither completely free from the sense organs and the mind nor is dependent on them. It is the state, which happens between these two.( AFFECTIVE STATES--PLEASURE AND PAIN 5e experience the external world through the sense organs and mind exaggerates it. The qualities of touch, taste, smell and forms are original characteristics of an ob4ect and the sound is the modification of the ob4ect. The sense organs receive the stimulations and the mind organi!es and interprets the sense stimulation. The feelings of pleasure and pain are due to the con4unction and separation of the external ob4ects in relation to the sense organs. These affective states are not pure cognition. Its experiences cannot be had through the unconscious sense organs. .or can these feelings be considered to be ignorance or a4nana. The feelings of pleasure and pain are created due to the con4unction of cognition and the external ob4ects. The pleasure and pain are experienced through the sense organs and mind. The animals without the possession of mind experience organic sensation and not feelings, while animals that have minds experience sensations as well as feelings. leasure and pain cannot be experienced simultaneously. The self-experiencing these feelings is not in its pure state and the experience of pure bliss is not to be considered as the experience of feeling. &liss is the pure state of experience9 the soul gets in its pure form. The self-experience cannot be named as selffeeling9 it is called as self-reali!ation. THEORY OF KNOWLEDGE IN THE AGAMAS The theory of /nowledge in the agamas is very ancient. In the Aa4aprasniyasutra, 7esi/umara sramana explains to Aa4a radesi the theory of /nowledge as presented in the agamas. The agama classify /nowledge into five types3 (. Abhinibodhi/a 4nana 'sense experience) +. ,ruta4nana 'indirect /nowledge) 0. Avadhi4nana 'clairvoyance) 1. *anahparyaya4nana 'telepathy) 2. 7evala4nana 'omniscience) ( 7esi/umara ,ramana belonged to the arsvanatha tradition. The five types of /nowledge mentioned in the arsvanatha tradition have also been presented by *ahavira. + In the Bttaradhyayana sutra there is a dialogue between 7esi and 6autama. 0 ;rom this, it is clear that there was no difference of opinion between them regarding the theory of /nowledge and metaphysics although there were sight differences regarding the practice. If there were difference regarding metaphysics these would have been mentioned in this discourse. The #igambara and ,vetambara traditions have the same theory of five types of /nowledge, although there is some differences regarding the nature of /evala4nana and /evaladarsana.

;rom the point of view of the development of the theory of /nowledge and on the basis of the agamic theory of /nowledge we get three stages. 1 The first stage describes the five types of /nowledge. It also mentions the distinctions in the abhinibodhi/a 4nana 'sense-experience) into four stages li/e avagraha, iha, avaya and dharana. The first stage gives the following classification of /nowledge. JNANA= abhinibodhi/a '+) sruta '0) avadhi '1) manahparyaya '2) /evala abhinibodhi/a '() avagraha 'b) iha 'c) avaya) 'd) dharana The second stage ma/es a distinction in the /nowledge as pratya/sa 'direct and paro/sa 'indirect) with its subdivisions. There is no place in this for sense-experience as direct /nowledge because according to this view direct /nowledge is that which is obtained by the soul without the help of sense organs. The sense organs are obstructive to the acquisition of /nowledge by the soul directly. The /nowledge obtained through sense organs and by other means li/e reason is considered to be indirect /nowledge. The other systems of philosophy considered sense-experience as direct /nowledge, but ,thananga has made a clear distinction between the direct /nowledge, but ,thananga has made a clear distinction between the direct /nowledge obtained by the soul without the medium of the sense-organs and indirect /nowledge which is through the sense-organs and other indirect /nowledge which is through the sense-organs and other means. ( &hagavati sutra presents the classification of /nowledge which is slightly different from the two traditions that we discussed. In this 4nana has been distinguished into two types and not the five types. And these two types are pratya/sa and paro/sa. It evidently shows that it is the first stage of the theory of /nowledge. &hagavati sutra gives the classification of /nowledge as shown in the table-JNANA ratya/sa '+) aro/sa ratya/sa3 'A) 7evala '&) .o-7evala aro/sa3 'A) Abhinibodhi/a '&) ,rut4nana ratya/sa3 '&) .o-7evala3 '() Avadhi '+) *anahparyaya ratya/sa3 '&) .o-/evala3 '() Avadhi3 'a) &havapratyayi/a 'b) 7sayopasami/a ratya/sa3 '&) .o-7evala3 '+) *anahparyaya 'a) A4umati 'b) >ipulmati aro/sa3 'A) Abhinibodhi/a3 '() ,rutanihsrta '+) Asrutanishrta aro/sa3 '&) ,rut4nana3 '() Angapravista '+) Angabahya aro/sa3 '&) ,rut4nana3 '+) Angabahya 'a) Avasya/a 'b) Avasya/avyatiri/ta aro/sa3 '&) ,rut4nana3 '+) Angabahya 'b) Avasya/avyatiri/ta '-) 7ali/a '-) Bt/ali/a aro/sa3 'A) Abhinibodhi/a3 '() ,rutanihsrta 'a) Arthavagraha 'b) >yan4anavagraha aro/sa3 'A) Abhinibodhi/a3 '+) Asrutanishrta 'a) Arthavagraha 'b) >yan4anavagraha In the third stage there is a slight modifications in the classification of the types of /nowledge. This classification distinguishes the mati4nana 'sense-experience) into two types as pratya/sa and paro/sa. This is considered to be 'a) due to sense organs and 'b) due to quasi-sense organs 'no-indriya). 5e give below the classifications of 'a) the sense organs and 'b) due to quasi-sense organs as discussed. According to .andi sutra, ( the gist of third stage of /nowledge is as following3

The first stage has no metaphysical basis.o-indriya pratya/sa '() Avadhi '+) *anahparyaya '0) 7evala Abhinibodhi/a '&) Abhinibodhi/a3 '&) Abhinibodhi/a3 '&) Abhinibodhi/a3 '&) arinami/i &uddhi aro/sa3 'a) Abhinibodhi/a 'b) . Avadhi. .rutnihstra '+) Asrutanishrta aro/sa3 'a) Abhinibodhi/a3 '() . ratya/sa is the /nowledge that the soul gets directly.rom the point of view of the certainty and purity of /nowledge there is the graduated excellence in the three types of /nowledge. It distinguishes the /nowledge into two types as pratya/sa 'direct) and paro/sa 'indirect). Abhinibodhi/a is also called mati4nana. *ati.ruta4nana is arrived at through the functions of the mind. &ut they called it samvyavahari/a pratya/sa 'direct /nowledge from the practical point of view). The later philosophers have followed this distinction. Abhinibodhi/a 4nana and .ruta '0) Avadhi '1) *anahparyaya '2) 7evala Abinibodhi/a3 'A) ratya/sa '&) aro/sa Abhinibodhi/a3 'A) ratya/sa3 'a) Indriya ratya/sa 'b) . which is acquired through the sense organs and other indirect media. Avadhi. *ati4nana is /nowledge acquired through the contact of the senseMorgans and the mind by the soul.rotrendriya pratya/sa '+) :a/surindriya pratya/sa '0) 6haranendriya pratya/sa '1) Aasanendriya pratya/sa '2) .JNANA Abinibodhi/a '+) . . The &hagavati sutra carries the tradition of this stage. aro/sa is the /nowledge.parsendriya pratya/sa Abinibodhi/a3 'A) ratya/sa3 'b) .o-indriya pratya/sa Abhinibodhi/a3 'A) ratya/sa3 'a) Indriya ratya/sa '() .ruta 4nana are paro/sa 'indirect) /nowledge. avadhi and manahparyaya have distinctions regarding the nature and the degree of certainty. 7evala4nana 'omniscience). -inabhadragani 7samasramana has elaborated this point in the >isesavasya/abhasya. sruta. . .ruta aro/sa3 'a) Abhinibodhi/a3 '() . The basis for the distinction between direct and indirect /nowledge is to be found in the clarity and certainty on the side and indefiniteness and relative /nowledge on the other side. manahparyaya and /evala would be ni4apratya/sa according to the -ainas. This is the earliest presentation of the theory of /nowledge. It has five divisions of /nowledge and mati4nana has been distinguished into four different states as avagraha. manahparyaya and /evala is paramarthi/a pratya/sa.i4a-pratya/sa or paramarthi/a pratya/sa is the /nowledge which is arrived at not through the sense organs.rutnihstra3 '-) Avagraha '-) Iha '-) Avaya '-) #harana aro/sa3 'a) Abhinibodhi/a3 '+) Asrutanishrta '-) Autpati/i '-) >ainayi/i '-) 7arma4a '-) Abhinibodhi/a3 '&) aro/sa3 'a) Abhinibodhi/a3 '() . 5ith a view to avoiding ambiguity in the use of the terms the -ainas also adopted the term pratya/sa for sense-experience. The third stage ta/es into consideration the viewpoints of other systems of Indian philosophy and attempts to correlate the -aina standpoint with that of the other. The other systems of Indian philosophy consider sense experience as pratya/sa but the -ainas considered it as paro/sa. Avadhi 'clairvoyance) +. ratya/sa 4nana has been distinguished into three types as (. avaya and dharana.rutnihstra3 '-) Avagraha 'Q) Arthavagraha 'Q) >yan4anavagraha The analysis of the theory of /nowledge as presented in the three stages gives a picture of /nowledge as developed from first to the third stage and graduality imply metaphysical consideration. iha. . The second stage introduced metaphysical consideration with reference to the nature of the self. 7evala4nana is a pure and pro4ect /nowledge par excellence. but which the self gets directly. *anahparyaya 'telepathic cognition) and 0.rom this standpoint the schematisism of the classification of the /nowledge would be as follows3 (.

. The etymological meaning of the word would be one who has power and wealth--indratiti indrah. the sense organ of touch 'sparsa). + In the agamic literature mati4nana has also been called abhinibodhi/a 4nana. as '() indriya4anya 'sense contact experience) and anindriya4anya or mano4anya 'i.enses of touch. the sense organ of smell. vimarsa. The mental states li/e memory 'smarana) and recognition 'pratyabhi4na) have been defined with reference to their metaphysical implication by the later acaryas.. Acarya A/alan/a and some other acaryas have distinguished pratya/sa into paramarthi/a and samvyavahari/a. the sense organ of hearing. Therefore.imilarly. /nowledge born of the contact with the mind alone). Therefore. it requires a medium and that medium is the sense organ. the word Indra has a reference to activity. . avaya and dharana.andisutra also uses the same words.+.e. The distinction has its basis in the . 7nowledge is possible through the means of indriya. taste. anindriya4anya 'mano4anya) and indriyanindriya4anya 'born of the contact of the sense-organs and the manas both).( It means that the atman has the natural characteristic of activity. smell. smrti. ( Tattvartha sutra+ mentioned equivalent names li/e mati. These stages have been scientifically analy!ed and discussed by the -aina acaryas. MATIJNANA *ati4nana is sense-experience. &ut there is not many bases for definition of the concepts li/e smarana and pratyabhi4na in the agamic literature.iddhasenagani mentions three forms of samvyavahari/a pratya/sa as indriya4anya.0 . smrti. The main cause of this is that there was not much of logical and metaphysical disputation at the time of agamic literature. gavesana. . It is arrived at with the help of the sense-organs and the manas 'mind). These words are used synonymously. the sense organs of sight. 2 .ruta4nana is paro/sa. into two types. while in the case of indriyanindriya4anya the mind and the sense organs function 4ointly. that through the medium or which the self gets the /nowledge is called indriya. That /nowledge which arises out of the contact with the mind alone is anindriya4anya. . &ut here the word Indra refers to the atman. sam4na. G INDRIYA (SENSE-ORGANS) The sense organ is the distinguishing mar/ between the living organism and the non-living ob4ects. There are five sense organs. According to this the meaning would be /nowledge of the essence of the atman through the medium of the Indriya.andisutra and >isesavasya/abhasya. 0. mati. ( The Abhinibodhi/a. from the point of view of pramana and also from the metaphysical implication. Indriya-pratya/sa 'sense-experience) is paro/sa from the paramarthi/a point of view and pratya/sa from the practical point of view. 5e may now consider the nature of five types of /nowledge and also of memory 'smarana). apoha. and pra4na etc. The five sense organs have the five senses3 . In the avasya/abhasya the following terms are mentioned as equivalents-Iha. 1. iha. 1 In the Tattvartha sutra svopa4nabhasya. 4nana has been distinguished into the four different stages li/e avagraha. pratyabhi4na 'recognition) and anumana 'inference) etc. but due to the accretion of /arma the self cannot get direct /nowledge. the sense organ of taste. margana. cinta and abhinibhodha. &ut later logicians have to complete with the scholars of other darsanas in interpreting their logical and psychological concepts.ome acaryas li/e u4yapada has used the terminology and aliases the meaning of the word Indriya. 7nowledge arrived at by the mind only is paro/sa. a distinction has been made in the samvyavahari/amati4nana.

The physical part of the sense organs is created by the rise of the corresponding nama/arma9 the destruction and subsidence of /nowledge obscuring /arma '-nanavaraniya /arma) cause the psychical part of the sense organ. we find that it is possible to have upa/arana in the absence of upayoga. -ainas have given a detailed analysis of the structure of the sense organ.irvrtti is the organ itself. is called #ravyendriya and the psychic part of the sense is bhavendriya.0 The dravyendriya is expressed in the form of a sense-organ with its basic materiel form li/e the retina in the eyes or the ear for hearing. the si!e of the sense organs and its capacity to experience may also vary with different animals. The sense organ of smell has the sense of smell. '+) upa/arana. (.form and hearing. &ut it is not possible to have the functions. The capacity of sense-experience determines the different gradations of animals. Therefore.ext to Dabdhi comes nirvrtti as an important factor in the function of the sense organs. and five-sensed organisms according to the number of sense organ they possess. The physical part of the sense organs. $ach of these two is again subdivided into antaranga and bahiranga. The sense-organ of form has 'rupa) the sense of sight 'eyes). + $very sense organ has two forms '() physical sense-organ 'dravyendriya) and '+) psychic sense organs 'bhavendriya). Bpayoga is the psychic force determining the specific sense-experience coming out of the contact of the specific sense organs with the ob4ect of stimulation. and upa/arana is the protective physical cover li/e the eyelid in the case of the eye. as it is not possible to have nirvrtti without labdhi and upa/arana without nirvrtti and upayoga without upa/ana. 5ithout labdhi. There are gradations in the animals according to the number of sense organs possessed by them. . therefore. upa/arana and upayoga cannot exist. which have to be eliminated if senseexperience is to be made possible. It may be referred to as the removal of psychic impediment. 1. four-sensed. Thus. The sense organ receiving the stimulation of touch-the sense of touch. . 0. The sense organ of receiving sound has the sense of hearing.+ Dabdhi is the manifestation of the specific sense-experience due to the destruction and subsidence of the specific sense-experience due to the destruction and subsidence of the /nowledge obscuring /arma.( . +. 2.imilarly. &havendriya is a psychic part of the organ9 it is also divided into two parts labdhi and upayoga. three-sensed. 5e have one-sensed organism two-sensed organisms. 5e give below the table of the functions of the sense organs3 INDRIYA audgali/a 'dravyendriya) '+) Atmi/a 'bhavendriya) audgali/a 'A) nirvrtti '&) upa/arana Atmi/a 'A) Dabdhi '&) upayoga . #ravyendriya is again sub-divided into '() nirvrtti. these sense organs have been considered as receptive of the stimulation. nirvrtti. PROCESS OF SENSE EXPERIENCE The development of the sense organs is not uniform in all the animals. it can be said that labdhi 'the capacity) is the basic factors for the distinction between different sense organs and their function. Thus the -ainas ma/e a distinction between the physical structure and the psychical element involved in the sense organs. They are the means through which experiences are the possible. The sense organ of taste has sense of taste. nirvrtti in the absence of upa/arana and labdhi in the absence of nirvrtti. Therefore.

It is sometimes called anindriya because of its subtlety and not because the absence of the sense organ. because it is a thin/ing self.e. The -aina theory of mind. These constitute the characteristics of sam4na and the organism. Therefore. Therefore.( The mind also. li/e the indriyas has a reference to the material aspect in connection with the psychic force. *ind grasps the sense stimulation of all the sense organs. In this sense. The dravya manas are the result of the operation of certain forms of nama/arma. ( as we said earlier. The function of mind.irst is the mental set and the second is the activity of the mind. It is expressed in mental processes li/e thin/ing. The sense organs are substances with form and they grasp the present stimulations only.'() . It requires a subtle sense organ which is called. fine and coherent particles of the mind meant for the function of the mind. The material mind may be called the mental structure. as developed by the -aina acaryas. it is very subtle. '+) Apohadetermination. 1 The bhava manas are the psychic function of the mind. '1) gavesana--discrimination and distinctions. It is composed of infinite. mind. it is referred to as belonging to the activity of the self. *ind is a substance without form. have been called sam4ni. #havala refers to the mind quasi-active 'no/arma). we get a description of the two phases of the mind. + In the 6ommatasara -iva/anda there is a description of the material mind as produced in the heart from the coming together of mind molecules li/e a full blown lotus with eight petals. is called .ubstances without form. The bhavamanas is not therefore entirely distinct from the activity of the self. it is different from the atman and the a4iva 'non-living substance). is a theory in which mind and nature are regarded as different in /ind and as sharply separated and opposed. which is inner-organ is /nowing and thin/ing.'() the physical mind and the '+) psychic mind 'dravya manas and bhava manas). grasps the present simulations and imagines the future.am4ni. which are meant for exciting thought-processes due to the yoga arising out of the contact with the 4iva with the body. in the sense it is a thin/ing self and the psychic function is a quality of the self. present and the future. In the >isesavasya/a bhasya. . bhavamanas is sometimes identified with self. is mind. -aina agamic literature mentions the word sam4na with reference tot he mans and the animals. while bhavamanas is due to the destruction and subsidence of the antaraya/arma and the .. recollects the past impressions and imagines of the future ideas. which possesses the characteristics. 0 The material composition of the mind consists of the subtle particles of matter which are called manovarganas. It is predominantly a realistic approach. 'G) >imarsa--analysis and appreciation. It is the result of the activities of the dravya manas. i. Therefore. =ne sense organ can not receive the stimulation connected with other sense organs. The mind and its state are analy!ed at empirical level.ubstances having form and '+) . having mind. bhavamanas has two functions-labdhi and upayoga. 5e may distinguish two types of substances in this world-. Therefore. ( It is a quasi-sense-organ because. Therefore. the self is both manas and not-manas. it is also referred to apprehending impressions of the long periods 'dirgha/ali/a sam4na). which possess mind. it has a reference to the past. The analysis of the -aina theory of mind shows there has been a conflict between the metaphysical and psychological approaches to the problems. '0) margana-analysis and discrimination. '2) cinta--obstructions and thin/ing about the how and the why. It is further described as a collection of fine particles.MIND (MANAS) $ach organ is different. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MIND That through which we thin/.+ The mind recollects the past impressions. it is called sarvarthagrahi. and it grasps the present impressions. Therefore. The functions of the mind can be analy!ed as '() analysis of the meaning of the impression--iha. mind is distinguished into two phases-.

is /nowing and thin/ing.yaya. dharana 'retention). which are yet to cohere. According to the .0 The mind grasps the sense-impressions received through the sense-organs.yaya->aisesi/a and the &uddhist systems consider that the mana is in the heart. EXISTENCE OF THE MANAS #ifferent philosophers have given arguments for the existence of the manas. Therefore. . while svetambara tradition does not give any specific inclination about this. andit . The function of the sense organs depends on the subsidence and destruction of the /armic matter. it is madhyama parimana. It may be located partly in the brain and functioning through the sense organs. Loga and >edanta darsana consider mind to be produce of pra/rti and aham/ara and is atomic in nature. 2 According to -ainism. it is not necessary to have the instrument of sense organs. According to the -ainas and the &uddhists the mind is neither pervasive nor atomic in nature. manas can be considered pervasive of the body.no-indriya-/arma.( . anumana 'inference) and agama '/nowledge from testimony).( . 0 Annambhatta says that mental states li/e pleasure are possible through .yayasutra says that we can infer the existence of the manas because without manas. &ut from the point of view of psychic energy the sense organs function in the pervasive way. The #igambara tradition maintains that the place of the dravya manas is in the heart. The mind in its undeveloped form 'aparyapta) consists of the material particles. 1 It is due to avidya. It is finite in its extension. bhavamanas is in the atman. tar/a 'implication). They are /nowledge through the mind only. Therefore. in its causes. but regarding the place of the dravyamanas. This is all pervasive in the body. /nowledge is not possible. smrti 'memory). . >aisesi/a and the &uddhist philosophers consider mind as emanating from the heart. It is also referred to as cittamanovi4nana. + FUNCTIONS OF MIND The function of mind. which gives rise to the removal of the obstructions connected with the point of sense-experience. &ut in all forms of /nowledge. at-least there must be some centers of mind through which the mental function ta/es place. It is mano4anya. >isesavasya/abhasya defines mans in terms of mental processes. PLACE OF MIND The >aisesi/as. 1 The mind gets /nowledge for us through the sense organs.am/hya.u/halal says that the svetambara traditions maintains that the dravya manas is all-pervasive in the body. The .aiyyayi/as + and *imamsa/as 0 have considered mind as atomic in nature. + >atsyayana says that the manas can be proved because certain mental functions li/e memory and cognition are not possible to be obtained through the sense-organs only. . . The sense-/nowledge is through the sense organs and it is limited to the stimulations coming through the ob4ects in this empirical world. because these are receptive and they are functioning in particular part of the body. in this state the developed psychic functions are absent. The sense organs are functioning in one direction only.uch psychic functions of the mind can be mentioned as iha 'integration). pratyabhi4na 'recognition).rom the point of view of grasping and understanding the sub4ect. avaya 'association). G Although it is difficult to determine the exact location of the manas in the body. there is no agreement.thananga describes it a sam/alpa vyaparavati.am/hyaLoga and >edanta the place of the heart is all pervasive in the body because it is in the su/sma sarira 'gross). . which is the inner organ. &ut mind can also have its own function without the stimulation received through the sense organs. mind is not considered to be eternal.

Innumerable instances have to occur before the ear becomes conscious of the sound. This has been further distinguished into two stages3 '() vyan4ana avagraha and '+) artha vagraha. but only the awareness of the ob4ect that we get. The stage when the water begins to be visible in the threshold of saturation.andisutra has beautifully explained this point in the example given above.1 -ainas2 maintain that mental states li/e doubt. the sate of first awareness. Then the water begins to accumulate. It is only the relation of the sense organs and the ob4ect in the form of sense stimulations. It is a physiological stimulus condition of the sensation. A clay pot is to be filled with water. . 0 In the . a person who is asleep receives the sound stimulation continuously for sometime. and avaya as states of sense perception. upadharanata. That stage is arthavagraha. This is the stage. The soud atoms reach the ear. . 5e may now analyse the different stages of avagraha. Avagraha is a species of 4nana. it would be different to ma/e avagraha as determinate cognition coming after darsana.o far we has not aware of the sound although the auditory stimulations were pouring in. we get the description of the vyan4anavagraha. STAGES IN THE AVAGRAHA Avagraha has been considered to be the stage of consideration. 1 Tattvarthabhasya mentions the following synonymous terms li/e avagraha. In the avagraha we do not really get the general characteristics of the ob4ect. /now the specific details about the nature of the ob4ect. which may be considered to be the stage of sensation following the stage of darsana in the sense of the threshold of consciousness. + >yan4anavagraha is the earlier stage. Avagraha has been described with some equivalent expressing its modes li/e avagrahanata. 0 Avagraha has also been distinguished from the logical point of view as vyavahari/a avagraha and naisargi/a avagraha. AVAGRAHA Avagraha is a sensational stage where there is an awareness of the ob4ect without cogni!ing the specific nature of the ob4ect. dream-cognition. 5e cannot. which is the stage of sensation. The higher forms of darsana li/e the /evaladarsana would be meaningless. It is immediate experience. pleasure and pain and connotive activity are not possible without the medium of manas.andisutra9 we get the example of the earthen pot and the drops of water. + The presence of vyan4anavagraha may be admitted as a condition of arthavagraha although it is explicit not because of its undeveloped existence. The sound sensation begins to be experienced the moment the threshold is crossed. at a certain stage the water will be visible.G It only presents the general characteristic of the ob4ect in cognition. while vyan4anavagraha is the earlier stage of physiological stimulus condition. 5e may call this. sravanata. In the >isesavasya/abhasya. The . In the beginning when water is poured. in this. The drops of water below the threshold get absorbed in the pot. It gives a description of the stage of vyan4anavagraha. grahana.imilarly. alocana and . iha. a portion of the water is absorbed by the pot. In that case darsana will become mere species of the 4nana and it would be reduced to mere sensation. it does not involve the stage of darsana which is qualitatively different from 4nana.the medium of manas. ( >yan4anavagraha is a condition of arthavagraha. &ut vyavahari/a avagraha experiences the generality with the distinctions implicit. It is the first stage of experience. dharana. graha. Avagraha is therefore the stage of sensation. ( In this sense. If we go on pouring the water again. avalambanata and medha. And there is not sign of the existence of the water. Arthavagraha is the experience of sensation. Jthe threshold of awarenessJ.aisargi/a avagraha grasps as the generality without distinction. . It is the given. The illustration is called malla/a drstanta.

which lasts only for only one instance..+ >yan4anavagraha is the potential condition of awareness. It immediately transforms itself into more specific cognition.or instance. our empirical experience will not complete with avagraha. avadhana. avaya and dharana. Iha is the mental state in which there is striving for the ascertainment of truth. apaviddha. This type of ascertainment of the existing specific features of the ob4ect is called avaya and it involves perceptual 4udgement. i. still it is non-verbal. Iha is the tendency towards cogni!ing the specific features of the ob4ect. it is possible to confuse it with doubt 'samsaya). &ut iha should not be confused with doubt 'samsaya) although it does involve a striving towards the determinate /nowledge. a person determines that the sound must be of a conch and not of a horn. buddhi.rom the stage of associated integration 'iha) we come to the stage of interpretation. pratyavartanata. . on receiving a sense impression of sound. even when the ob4ect is the matter of habitual perception but the existence of the state of doubt is not easily detected owing to the rapidity of succession of mental event.+ In the .arvarthasiddhi. cinta and vimarsa. there arises a doubt. The -ainas thought that.iddhasena #iva/ara also draws the same line of distinction between iha and samsaya. because it is sweet and not hard. In it one cogni!es the nature of the sensation li/e the sound. &ut is would be more appropriate to use the word associative integration. which is to be accented. In this we come to the 4udgement about the nature of the ob4ect.2. The sound is perceived as a sweet and an agreeable. The complete psychosis of perceptual cognition would be possible when we experience the other three stages of perceptual process than iha. The mind is driven to consider the specific points of agreement and difference. . as Iha is striving for determinate and specific cognition. Arthavagraha is the dawning of the awareness. apavyadha.G Avagraha is the sensational stage and that does not give the /nowledge of the nature of the ob4ect. we get the description of avaya as cognition of the true notion of the ob4ect through cognition of particular characteristics. This is therefore called perceptual 4udgement.avdharana. Avagraha is not self-sufficient. It only gives awareness of that and does not explain the EwhatE. Arthavagraha is mere sensation. 2 AVAYA The third factor in mati4nana is avaya. Iha is integration of the sensations9 avaya interprets and determines the meaning of the sensation. gavesanata. apeta.andisutra gives avartanata. It leads to the acceptance of the true and the avoidance of the untrue. sana. . In this sense. apanuta and apagata are synonyms of avaya. G . They mean the determinate cognition. whether the sound comes from the conch or horn. 1 . 2 Tattvartha bhasya describes avaya as the stage of ascertainment of right and exclusion of wrong. vicarana and 4inasa. Iha has been very often translated as speculation.or example. avagraha.andisutra gives synonyms of iha3 abhoganata. vi4nana as synonyms. IHA Iha is the second stage of *ati4nana.e. the alternatives are equally pressing and they are not certain. The sensations of interpreted and the meaning is assigned to the organi!ation of sensation. ( Bmasvati gives the synonyms as iha.at/handagana mentions the following as the equivalents. on hearing sound. In the case of doubt. This quality is attributed to the sound of the conch and not at the horn. tar/a. &ut in iha there is a tendency to determinate cognition. In the ramanamimamsa it is said that doubt crops up in the interval between sensation 'avagraha) and associative integration 'iha).0 . ( In avaya there is a definite determination about the meaning of the perception. . marganata. and iha. Avasya/aniryu/ti defines avaya as determinate cognition. 0 Bmasvati says that upagma upanoda. avalambana and medha.

'+) >asana--It is the psychic condition of dharana after it ceases to function as dharana. This may be compared to the engram complexes described in modern psychology.ome -aina logicians say that avaya has only a negative function. And therefore. Avasya/aniryu/ti defined dharana as retention.andisutra gives the following synonyms of dharana--dharana. &ut avaya need not be the final determination of the specific feature of the ob4ects as it is the perceptual 4udgement. Hemacandra reconciles his views of retention and the condition of recall with the view of retention as the absence of the lapse mentioned in >isesavasya/abhasya. retention of the cognition thus formed. Thus we find that some logicians ma/e dharana merely retention of perceptual experience. pratistha and /ostha. This may be compared to the disposition that modern psychology uses. The concrete psychosis does involve all these four stages of perceptual experience. and recognition of the ob4ect on future occasions. '0) Anusmarana is a mental condition which arises out of dharana and which retains the effects of dharana. He says that retention is the absence of the lapse of perception. u4yapada says those avaya cogni!es specific features of the ob4ect cogni!ed in the stage of iha. iha. They ascribe the cognition of the existing quality to a later stage of experience called dharana. '+) the cognition so formed is retained. Therefore.( DHARANA #harana is retention. It gives sthapana and pratistha as synonyms of dharana. Bmasvati mentions pratipatti. >yan4anavagraha is implicit awareness or apter to say that it is the threshold of awareness. -inabhadra says that retention is the absence of the lapse of perceptual cognition. sthapana. the contact between the ob4ect and sense organs. vyan4anavagraha is not possible in these cases to experiences. avaya. 1 . >yan4anavagraha is of four types. taste. and '0) the ob4ect is recogni!ed on future occasions. . . Avaya can be used to be perceptual 4udgement and it can be compared to the apperception involved in the perceptual experience. . dharana. u4yapada #evanandi defines dharana as condition of the absence of forgetting the what has been cogni!ed by perceptual 4udgement. while some others ma/e it also the condition of recall. According to Bmasvati retention develops through three stages3 '() nature of the ob4ect is finally cogni!ed. The sense organ of sights 'the eyes) and the quasi-sense organ of mind is aprapya/ari as there is no contact with the ob4ect and these sense organs. Bmasvati agrees with this view. It will facilitate recollection. but it is included in the perceptual 4udgement. of that experience on a future occasion.. pudgala dravya. niscaya. + Bmasvati defines dharana as the final determination of the ob4ect. The analysis of the perceptual experience shows that it involves the four stages of the development of the perceptual experience. #ispositions are responsible for giving recollection.andisutra defines retention as the act of retaining a perceptual 4udgement for the number of instances or innumerable instances.. the sense of touch. In this stage of experience there is only the exclusion of non-existing qualities. smell and hearing. 0 A/alan/a says that it is the absence of forgetting what has been cogni!ed by perceptual 4udgement. + 5e have so far seen that mati4nana is experienced through the stages of four factors li/e avagraha. avasthana. and dharana. &ut -inabhadra says that the view is not correct. #harana has been distinguished into three types3 '() avichuti in which there is the retention for a long time and it is not washed away. in the final determination of the ob4ects. in this characteristic of the describing the avaya the two traditions concerning the negative or the positive function of avaya are in agreement. avadharana. '+) upa/arana indriya 'accessory material) and '0) visaya and upa/arana con4unction i. It is essential of the perceptual experience. by avaya. Avagraha has been distinguished into two types3 vyan4anavagraha and arthavagraha. avagama and avabodha as synonyms. >yan4ana has three different meaning '() sabda etc. &ecause avaya does not merely perform the negative function of excluding non-existing qualities.e. &ut it also determines the existing characteristics.ome logicians li/e >adideva do not accept dharana as a condition of recall on a future occasion.

The cognition. According to the #igambara tradition niscita and aniscita cognition have been considered and named anihsrta and nihsrta. there is the awareness of the ob4ect. In this sense the #igambara tradition also used the forms anu/ta 'unexpressed) and u/ta 'expressed) in place of asandigdha and sandigdha.ighra 'quic/ cognition) is called /sipra and that /nowledge.yaya->aisesi/a does not consider the eyes and the manas as aprapya/ari. Therefore. The four distinctions in mati4nana as mentioned above are avagraha 'with its division vyan4anavagraha and arthavagraha) iha. The cognition of many types of ob4ect is bahuvidhagrahi. In the case of mati the hearing of words is implicit. &ut the specific nature is not determined. through the rays of light. is certain 'dhruva). . Anihsrta cognition apprehends the stimulations partly and in the nihsrta cognition. It is necessary to have use of language for the sruta4nana.+ These are 00G /inds of mati4nana. the 1 have reference to the ob4ect and the remaining have a reference to the sub4ect cogni!ing the aspect. &ut that cognition which arises casually undefined stimulations is uncertain 'adhruva). Avagraha and iha can also be distinguished on the basis of the criterian of indefiniteness. And that cognition which has been obtained due to certain motives and based on the previous cognition is called niscita. The cognition. The relation between bahu and alpa has a reference to the number and the reference between the bahuvidha and alpavidha has reference to the types. The anu/ta implies cognition through opinion and u/ta implies cognition through the words. which arises out of the definite stimulations 'avasyambhavi). These six have the four stages of mati4nana. i.vetambara tradition. SRUTAJNANA . The sense organs except the eyes and manas have vyan4anavagraha. which receives stimulations sent by the ob4ects.The &uddhist considers the sense organ of hearing also as aprapya/ari. which has been obtained without any motive. we have the apprehension of the stimulations truly. The #igambara tradition gives the classification of the mati4nana with slight variation. is called aniscita. *ati4nana in this sense expresses the potentiality of the meaning as implied in the stimulations of the word.iscita 'definite) cognition is certain 'asandigdha) and the indefinite /nowledge is sandigdha. The cognition of one type of ob4ect is alpavidhagrahi. is considered to be a/sipra.rom the scientific point of view the eyes and manas do not come into contact by physical contact with the ob4ect of stimulation. The eye is considered to be a sensitive lense. ( =ut of the (+ types of cognition that we have seen.. they are +1. .vetambara tradition also. Therefore. i. avaya and dharana. +H x (+ S 00G. that the -aina views that the mind and the sense organs of eye are aprapya/ari is consistent with the modern scientific analysis. which is not quic/. These are obtained by multiplying +H 'as previously described) /inds with these (+ types. &ut in the case of sruta4nana ac/nowledge arises due to the .e. They have been further divided into different types3 five sense organs plus the manas. The bahu means many and alpa means one.e. The cognition of many ob4ects is bahugrahi and the cognition of one ob4ect is alpagrahi. The image of the ob4ect is formed on the retina and the mind consolidates it by interpreting the stimulations so received. There is light difference regarding the names of these in .ruta4nana is /nowledge obtained through discursive reasoning subsequent to mati4nana. of the visual perception. they are 1 so the total would be +1R1S +H. but when the words are uttered the meaning of the two words are remembered. each type of cognitive experience is further sub-divided into (+ types li/e '() bahu 'many) '+) bahubidha 'different types) '0) alpa 'less) '1) alpavidha 'lesintense) '2) /sipra 'quic/) 'G) a/sipra 'slow) '@) aniscita 'interminate) 'H) niscita 'determinate) '?) asandigdha 'definite) '(M) sandigdha 'indefinite) '(() dhruva 'certain) '(+) adhruva 'uncertain). In these cognitions. . According to the . The .

am4na is of three types9 therefore those possessing sam4a are also classified into three types. present and the future ideal. This is angabahyasruta. because the /armic encrustations obscuring the sruta4nana are still operative. because it is psychological is nature.am4na/sara and vyan4ana/sara are considered to be dravya sutra.explicit expression of the meaning signified by the word. '?) saparyavasita. 'G) mithya. In this sense sruta4nana would not be possible without mati4nana. It is called sam4ni sruta and is of three types3 '() dirgha/ali/a-it covers the past. In the early agamic literature sruta4nana has been considered to be /nowledge through the scriptures. '2) samya/. '+) ana/sara. . Asam4nis are of three types3 '() those who cannot thin/ of the future and cannot have the perspective regarding the long duration of time are the first type of asam4ni. '(M) aparyavasita. The detailed description about this have been given in our wor/ entitled -aina . '+) those who possess slight mental activity. . Those who have these sam4nas are called sam4ni and those who do not possess these sam4nas are called asam4nis. :oughing. '(+) agami/a. It is not possible to give the elaborate description of the permutations of the words. 5hile the garnadharas have codified and presented in the form of sastras. '(0) angapravista and '(1) angabahya. respiration and snee!ing are ana/sara sruta because they do not involve the expression of any letter. '1) asam4ni. while labdhya/sara is considered to be bhavasruta. It is /nowledge obtained through the scriptures given by the authorities 'Aptapurusa) and also the /nowledge obtained through the words of omniscient. The external condition of sruta4nana is mati4nana. #ue to the deduction in age and the ability to grasp. The fourteen types of sruta4nana can be classified into different parts on the basis of the nature of the sruta4nana 'i) a/sara sruta--it has three sub-divisions-. '+) hetupadesi/i--in this we are primarily concerned with the thin/ing about the present circumstances with its consequences. 'H) anadi/a. '0) sam4ni. Acarya &hadrabahu has stated that there are various distinctions in the sruta4nana based on the words and their permutations. The sruta4nana is primarily concerned with /nowledge and the literature is called sruta because it gives /nowledge. This is arthasruti. Angapravista is of (+ types and angabahya has many types.ahitya aur . the Tirthan/aras gave original meaning.ams/rti. '0) those who are possessed of perversity of attitude are the third types of asam4ni. '(() gami/a. although they are having mind are called amanas/asam4ni and they are of the second type. the acaryas in a later stage wrote boo/s explaining the /nowledge contained in the agamas on various sub4ects. In this. '0) drstivadopadesi/i-in this there is a right understanding and also the comprehension of the various aspects of the being. This is arthasruta. it is pertaining to phoneticism 'iii) labdhya/sara--referring to the psychological maturation or the mental set of expressing the word. The sruta4nana would be possible when the /armic matter obscuring the sruta4nana is removed. we can mention (1 types of sruta4nana9 '() a/sara. This is angapravista. This may be interpreted as that unless the mental set is formed and psychic impediments are removed sruta4nana is not possible. Tirthan/aras have taught the doctrines.'i) sam4na/sara referring to the form of the letter 'word) 'ii) vyan4ana/sara--sound of the letter. There are two types of sruta4nana--angapravista and angabahya. Angapravista sruta4nana may be referred to as /nowledge obtained through the scriptures given to us in a codified form by the ganadharas of tirthan/ara. . This is because even if we have sense /nowledge it may be not possible to have /nowledge through discursive reasoning as in the case of sruta4nana. The angabahya literature has various divisions li/e /ali/a and ut/ali/a etc. because they are concerned with the expression of the sruta. Dater the meanings are elaborated by the elder acaryas it is called Angabhaya. '@) sadi/a. However. This is the internal cause of the sruta4nana.

because '() mati and sruta4nana are obtained due to partial destruction and subsidence of the 4nanavaraniya/arma. It is used for explaining to others by means of language. the effect of the mati4nana and the sruta4nana are not discernible in the light of the /evala4nana. A question has been raised whether on the attainment of the /evala4nana. but it is not meant for the sa/e of others and it does not serve the purpose of communicating to others.ome -aina scholars say that on the attainment of the /evala4nana 'omniscience). there is no place for mati and sruta4nana. And that which cannot be destroyed and which is eternal is called aparyavasita sruta4nana. the light of the stars and the planet is not clearly visible and is dim because it is merged in the light of the sun. In this distinction also the criteria of points of view of substance and modes is operative. cannot be considered as sruta4nana. + The /nowledge which used words is meant for others 'parartha) and it is meant to communicate the /nowledge to the other individuals. That /nowledge which comes to an end is called saparyavasita. . . ( . Therefore. /nowledge. which used words.ruta4nana is sabhilapa but it should be noted that only sabhilapa 4nana is not sruta4nana. which comprises of the /nowledge of the twelve angas as presented by the Tirthan/ara and is called samya/sruta. there is a controversy. The function of sruta4nana is to comprehend the meaning of these experiences to the use of words and sentences and to communicate to others. &ut some other scholars maintain that on the attainment of the /evala4nana the mati4nana and sruta4nana are not obliterated. &ut the question is regarding the upper limit of the possession of these two forms of /nowledge in an individual. and similarity is called agami/a sruta. They are still present and operative although the effect is negligible and unascertainable. That /nowledge which has the beginning and which starts at a particular time are called sadi/a sruta. 5e have already explained the distinction between the angapravista and the angabahya sruta. . &ut sruta4nana is only of sabhilapa type. taste. *ati4nana is /nowledge with generally precedes sruta4nana and is not accompanied by sruta4nana. &ecause. . there still remains mati4nana and does sruta4nana operative.ruta4nana on the contrary is sa/sara and also it is primarily concerned with use of language for expressing the thoughts and experiences. MATIJNANA AND SRUTAJNANA It is necessary to understand the relation between mati4nana and sruta4nana in certain respects. =n this question. form and sound and also to give meaning to these experiences. And that /nowledge which has no beginning and which are eternal truths is called anadi/a sruta. And that /nowledge which is contrary and which does not contain the /nowledge presented by the Tirthan/aras is called mithyasruta.ruta4nana is described as the /nowledge accompanied by the expression in words and significant with meaning.o also. 0 The function of mati4nana is to experience the sensory experiences li/e touch. and '+) in the case of the /evala4nana all the four /armas have been destroyed. That sruta4nana which is comprised of the similarity of teaching is called gami/asruta. mati is considered as artha4nana and sruta as sabdartha4nana. The second view appears to be consistent with -aina stand point. *ati4nana can also be sa/sara as it used certain expressions. The sruta4nana may be considered to be anadi/a from the point of view of substance of /nowledge and sadi/a from the point of view of its modes. ( Arthavagraha is not sabhilapa while all other forms of mati4nana are sabhilapa. . $very empirical individual 'samsari 4ivas) has mati and sruta4nanas. -ust as in the bright sunshine. smell. *ati4nana is of two types3 sabhilapa and anabhilapa.The sruta4nana. that in which there is not harmony.

which is expressed through the language for the sa/e of understanding and also for communication is. This is because. .+ AVADHIJNANA Avadhi4nana is a from of extra-sensory perception. because it based on the previous information and the sams/aras that we have already obtained. . In the case of mati4nana. 0 It cannot apprehend the things which have no shape and form. . there are limitations in the avadhi4nana with reference to the substance 'dravya). past and the future. 5ith reference to space one can get avadhi4nana from the smallest part of the finger to the /nowledge of the entire cosmos.( *ati4nana is primarily concerned with the cognition of the ob4ect in the present while sruta4nana comprehends the ob4ects with reference to the present. Therefore.irst. (. It is pratya/sa or direct perception. with reference to the presentation. .The relation of mati and sruta is that of the cause and the effect. the /nowledge that we get about the word EcowE or the /nowledge to the understanding of the nature of the cow on the perception of the animal is srutanihsrita mati4nana.rom another point of view dravya sruta is not the consequence of the sense of hearing but it becomes the sub4ect. 5ith reference to time avadhi4nana can cogni!e to the minutest part of the period called avali/a. /nowledge is obtained through language9 but language itself is not the essence of /nowledge. sruta4nana is considered to be different from mati4nana. time '/ala) and nature 'bhava) of the ob4ects. called sruta4nana. which are beyond the reach of the sense organs and the mind. +. *ati4nana is the cause and sruta4nana is the effect. . Avadhi is that /ind of extra-sensory perception which grasps the ob4ects with reference to its substance. However avadhi has limits. 0. there is mati4nana through the stages of avagraha. because the other dravyas do not have form. etc.ruta4nana. It is possible to get avadhi4nana on the basis of the /nowledge of the cosmos and imagine similar stellar universes. it can apprehend only such things which have form and shape. place. And for the duration of the entire innumerable avasarpini and utsarpini periods.ruta4nana is that /nowledge which gives meaning through the use of the language and based on the memory. time and nature and beyond the capacity of the normal sense-organs. time and nature.ruta4nana gives the possibility of acquiring meaning to the word and that meaning is retained after the /nowledge is obtained. 7nowledge obtained through previous /nowledge or convention in tradition can be considered as srutanihsrita mati4nana. and then we get . The /nowledge. we apprehend ob4ects.( OBJECT OF AVADHIJNANA The avadhi4nana has limitations with reference to its ob4ects in the light of the substance. place '/setra). for instance. place. pudgala becomes the ob4ect of avadhi4nana. #ravyasruta becomes the effect of the mati4nana 'pertaining to the hearing sense organ) but bhava sruta cannot be the effect of mati4nana and therefore according to this viewpoint sruta4nana is considered the effect of mati4nana. In that case the sruta4nana is primarily based on the use of language. expression in the from the language is not primary. In this. 5ith reference to the substance it can apprehend the minutest particle and also it can extend its /nowledge to the cosmos.imilarly. . Danguage is the medium through which /nowledge is presented. =f the six dravyas.

those beings in whom destruction and the subsidence ta/es place at the time of birth. In the case of the beings in heaven and hell avadhi4nana is to be found in them by birth. /setra. 0. 6unapratyaya avadhi4nana has been classified into six types-(. ratipati--This avadhi does not last long. >ardhamana--In this avadhi increases in intensity as it goes on developing. then is it not necessary that there should be destruction and subsidence of the relevant /armas in the case of these beings. ( &ut sarvavadhi is of one type. Therefore. Therefore. ELIGIBLE BEING FOR AVADHIJNANA The living beings in the four states of existence are eligible for getting avadhi4nana.imilarly. if the individual goes to another place.ometimes a question is as/ed that if these beings possess avadhi as bhavapratyaya. otherwise the possession would not be possible.1. bhava. 5ith reference to the spatial extension of the ob4ect cogni!ed in avadhi Tattvarthara4avarti/a distinguishes three types '() desavadhi. paramavadhi also can be distinguished into three different types. *en have to practice vratas. we can say that one can have clairvoyance cognition with reference to the mildest psychic mode to the entire cluster of modes. #esavadhi is possible to be obtained by the beings in the four states of existence. &ut this is not the case with human beings and the animals. . The avadhi of the human beings as well as the five-sensed animals is due to the destruction and subsidence of the relevant /armic veil. bhava. They need not do any mental and moral practice for obtaining it. + -inabhadragani /samasramana says that it is possible to study avadhi4nana with reference tot he seven ni/sepas--dravya. . The scope of this is the entire universe. + *en and the animals get avadhi4nana due to efforts. from the place where avadhi was acquired. 6ods 'residents in heaven) and hellish beings get avadhi4nana by birth. Anugami--It is that type of avadhi. Hiyamana--In this the avadhi goes on decreasing in intensity as the time passes. Apratipati--This avadhi lasts up to the life or until one attains /evala4nana. 0 . 'b) ut/rsta desavadhi the scope of the /nowledge of the avadhi in this is the entire universe and 'c) a4aghanya ut/rsta desavadhi intuites the ob4ects of the medium si!e neither of the highest nor of the minutest part. as there is nothing outside the universe. &ut in the case of those who have to acquire merit for the sa/e of obtaining avadhi4nana it would be gunapratyaya. and they get avadhi4nana through the acquisition of merit. Therefore it is bhavapratyaya. #esavadhi has been distinguished further into three types 'a) 4aghanya desavadhi in which one can /now only the smallest part of the finger. 2. it is called gunapratyaya avadhi4nana. In the case of human beings avadhi4nana is possible through mental and moral discipline. +. '+) paramavadhi '0) sarvavadhi. The answer to this is that in the case of heavenly and the hellish beings the destruction and subsidence of the relevant /armas would have ta/en place at the time of their birth. it is gunapratyaya. It vanishes after sometimes. /ala. The uppermost limit of the intuition in this is the innumerable place-points beyond the scope of paramavadhi. 5ith reference to the nature of the ob4ect /nown through avadhi4nana. And it cannot intuite anything outside the universe. sthapana and nama. 1. but paramavadhi and sarvavadhi are possible only for the munis. G. A question arises regarding the destruction and subsidence of the relevant /armas in the case of the birth of the heavenly and the hellish beings. the will have avadhi and so it would be bhavapratyaya. which continues to be present with the individual wherever he goes. Ananugami--In this case the avadhi ceases to function.

MANAHPARYAYA JNANA *anahparyaya 4nana is possible for human beings only9 and only the human beings who are self-controlled and who acquire merits get the manahparyaya4nana. then this /ind of intuition would have grasped the formed and the formless ob4ect. In this one experiences and cogni!es the mental states of others.+ According to this tradition. 0 . 0 Therefore. The mind undergoes the process of change while thin/ing and the ob4ects content of this process are intuited in manahparyaya. >ipulamati intuites subtle forms of mental states. because in manahparyaya it is not easy to get the intuition of the ob4ect thought of by the mind. The human beings that are without self-control cannot possess manahparyaya4nana. THE TWO TRADITIONS OF THOUGHT There are two traditions for explaining the nature of manahparyaya4nana. while r4umati is not able to grasp the subtle forms. In this case of the avadhi4nana. ob4ect thought of by others only by way of inference. it is direct experience. but the soul gets it directly and mind and the mental states are the ob4ects of /nowledge of manahparyaya. we intuite the mental states. the ob4ects which have form and also formless can be /nown through manahparyaya by means of inference. 1 *anahparyaya experience is not inferential /nowledge. The ob4ects of the mental states are /nown through inference and then because of this. + A4umati is temporary and it may last for sometime and vanish but vipulamati once obtained will continue at least till the attainment of /evalan4ana. It is the material ob4ects and the state of thought by the mind of others that are intuited in the manahparyaya. This is not through the instrument of mind.1 If manahparyaya4nana were to intuite the mental states and ob4ects. The ob4ects of thought are secondary and are not the main content of the thought. The ob4ects are /nown by inference. The second tradition is given by acarya -inabhadragani. There is no distinction between the thought and the content of thought. This view of manahparyaya based on the -aina conception of the nature of the mind as material in content consisting minute and fine particles of matter called manovarganas. but this does not happen. According to -inabhadra. but /nows the external ob4ects of thought by the mind only by inference. only . ( TWO TYPES OF MANAHPARYAYA *anahparyaya4nana has been distinguished into two types3 '() r4umati and '+) vipulamati. but in the case of manahparyaya. #ue to the infinite modes of the formation of the mind one understands the mental states operating in the minds of others. *anahparyaya is telepathic expression. In other words. The first tradition is mentioned by acarya u4yapada ( and A/alan/a. one possessed of manahparyaya4nana intuites the states of the mind-substance directly. we can say according to -inabhadra that one possessed of manahparyaya /nowledge.ramanas can acquire manahparyaya 4nana. *anahparyaya implies that we /now the modes of the mental states and not the ob4ects that are thought of by these mental states. we can intuite ob4ects having forms. It seems that the second tradition propounded by -inabhadragani is more consistent. manahparyaya cognition reveals the meaning of thoughts expressed in others minds.

/ala and bhava. &ut manahparyaya is restricted to the human being of self-controlled character. dravya. It is omniscience. Ethe omniscient /nows the limited and the limitless. 5hen the 4nanavaraniya /arma is removed one gets full or complete /nowledge. According to the -ainas the soul in its pure form is pure consciousness and /nowledge. He is the doctor. The scope of Avadhi4nana is to intuite the ob4ects having form and not all of its modes. which are based on the finest particles of matter. /setra. avadhi and manahparyaya have the distinction of subtlety. through the manovarganas 'fine particles of atoms constituting mind). 7evala also means full or complete. &ut there are doctors who are specialists as of eye. constituting mind. '1) . &ut the manahparyaya 4nana intuites mental states. it is sa/alapratya/sa. It is obscured by the /armas and the veil of /arma is removed as omniscience dawns. and un-subtlety of perception.+ 5hen the 4nanavaraniya is removed. . The criterian of clarity 'visuddha) is. AVADHI AND MANAHPARYAYA Avadhi and manahparyaya4nana are both extra-sensory perceptions.rom the point of view of substance 'dravya) manahparyaya intuites mental stage and events. '0) . &ut it has reference to the intensity of experience.imilarly.rom the point of view of place '/setra) the scope of the manahparyaya 4nana is restricted to the region. where the human beings live. &ut /evala 4nana is the complete and perfect. &ut both these forms of intuition are restricted to the cognition of ob4ects having form. avadhi4nana can intuite the ob4ects from the minutest part of the finger in the entire cosmos. In the >ya/hyapra4napti 6anadhara 6autama as/ed &hagavana *ahavira. These cannot become ob4ects of sense organsE. which cures the diseases of whole body.e. Jdoes the /evali 'omniscient) /nows through the indriyas or the manasFJ *ahavira replied.THE OBJECT OF KNOWLEDGE OF MANAHPARYAYA *anahparyaya4nana intuites different aspects of the /nowledge from the points of view. heart etc. 5hile avadhi4nana gets a less subtle cognition of the ob4ects. *anahparyaya intuites the mental states and events of other individuals.. Avadhi4nana is possible for obtaining in all the four states of existence. '() . It has a reference to the /nowledge which cogni!es without the help of sense organs and the mind. Therefore. The distinction between the two forms of direct cognition can be presented in the form of an analogy. not concerned with any inadequacy. and the subtlety of cognitive forms. *anahparyaya intuites the ob4ects in its subtlety.( 5ith the destruction of the -nanavaraniya /arma '/nowledge obscuring /arma) all distinctions disappear. Therefore. it is /evala. how does he /nowF *ahavira replied. A physician /nows and treats the patient in general. '+) . . Then 6autama as/ed. In both types of the physicians there is a difference of generality C speciality. ( 7evala also means pure. Avadhi and manahparyaya can be distinguished from each other on the basis of the clarity 'visuddhi). And it is not necessary to have mind and sensory-organs as instruments for gaining the /nowledge. they are incomplete and not perfect forms of cognition. KEVALAJNANA (OMNISCIENCE) 7evala4nana is direct cognition of everything in the universe. The self-intuites everything without the help of the sense organs and the mind. I. which the self can get directly without the help of the sense organs and the mind. it can intuite the infinite states of manovarganas. 5ith reference to the /setra. 5hile manahparyaya is restricted to the human abode only. here. all impurities are removed and therefore it is called /evala 'pure /nowledge). They are vi/ala pratya/sa. ear. Therefore.rom the point of view of nature ?bhava).rom the point of view of time '/ala) it intuites mental states for innumerable moments of time and it can extend upto past and future. the different parts of the whole body. Jhe does not /now the ob4ects through the indriyas and mindJ.

The function of darsana is introverted and is mainly concerned with intuiting and gasping through intuition. the /nowledge that we get is superior and nothing is comparable to the /nowledge. All substances and modes are intuited by /evala4nana G. 0 5hen the 4nanavaraniya /arma is removed. is called darsanavaraniya /arma. According to the -ainas the universal and the particular are equally important and both of them are the essential characteristics of the ob4ect. in his commentary called #havala on . 5hile 4nana gives the cognition based on the analysis of the specific features. there would be no deficiency or defect in that /nowledge.a/ara upayoga is specific cognition and cogni!es the specific qualities of the ob4ects. in this sense /evala4nana may be called perfect and pure /nowledge and omniscience. that cognition which grasps only the universal without understanding the specific features would not be a valid cognition. 0 The distinction between darsana and 4nana has been made on the basis of the nature of cognition. introverted. Acarya >irasena.1 5hen the 4nanavaraniya /arma is removed9 /nowledge that we get has no end. 5hile sa/ara upayoga is determinate cognition. The -ainas are agreed on the nature of the omniscience. 5hen the relevant /arma is removed. present and future. ( . Therefore. According to this view darsana intuite the general features of an ob4ect without analy!ing the particulars. There is nothing to be /nown and nothing un/nown. especially from the logical and metaphysical point of view. the other cannot exit. where 4nanavaraniya /arma or darsanavaraniya /arma has been removed. 7evala would mean omniscience 'sarva4nata). which obscures /nowledge. . normal and perfect /nowledge. . we get 4nana or darsana according to the intuition. which obscures darsana.( resenting this view point &rahmadeva. It is the /nowledge of all substances and modes of the past. Therefore. The fullest reali!ation of the capacity of the self when all the impediments are removed is to be found in the /evala4nana.The other meaning of the word /evala is extraordinary or superior. we get pure. super. =mniscience intuites all substances with all their modes of the world and the beyond2. it is darsana. #igambara acaryas contend that the function of 4nana is external and is meant to grasp the external ob4ects. In the agama literature 4nana has been referred as 4anai and darsana has been referred to as pasallJ. It is intuitive in nature. in his commentary on #ravyasangraha has suggested that the distinction between darsana and 4nana also be studied from the points of view of naya. 5hen the impurities and obscurations of /nowledge are removed. It is extroverted 'bahirmu/ha). .rom the practical point of view darsana . although sarva4nana has to be ta/en in the right sense. Therefore. 5ithout the one. all imperfect /nowledge is washed away. whether the cognition is general or particular. The /armic matter. Again /evala would also mean ananta 'endless). 5hen the /evala4nana is attained. It is antarmu/ha. it should be better to say tat darsana grasps the universal features of the ob4ect. THREE VIEWS ABOUT DARSANA AND JNANA The -ainas ma/e a distinction between ana/ara and sa/ara upayoga. >irasena says that the only difference between them is that 4nana /nows the external reality while the darsana intuites the internal self.a/ara C ana/ara are the distinctions made on the basis of determinate and indeterminate cognition. because the entire veils that cover the /nowledge have been removed.at/handagama of uspadanta says Jwhat comprehends an external ob4ect of the nature of the universal-cum-particular is 4nana and comprehension of the self of the same nature is darsana. They say that ana/ara upayoga is indeterminate cognition. + . the cognition which analyses the specific features of an ob4ect without grasping the universal aspect would also be not a true cognition. + The distinction between 4nana and darsana in the -aina epistemology has been very ancient. is 4nanavaraniya /arma C that /armic matter. &ut from the metaphysical point of view the self is to comprehend the general and the specific features of the ob4ect or the inner or the outer aspects.imilarly. all in one. it is 4nana in nature.rom the logical point of view.

he does not cogni!e. The second view gives importance to the simultaneous cognition of darsana and 4nana. when we intuites 'darsana).audharma/alpa to Isatpagbhara prthvi. G The third tradition is presented by acarya . &ut one who has understood the -aina philosophy properly has grasped the agamic view of darsana and 4nana.. that the cognition of the /evalin is sa/ara and his intuition is nira/ara. in the fourth century A. -aina philosophers are agreed that in the case of :hadmastha 'one who has reached upto the (M th gunasthana). @ -nanavaraniya and darsanavaraniya /armas are destroyed simultaneously. The first view says that the /evalin experiences darsana and 4nana successively. 5e may now consider the relation of darsana and 4nana from the point of view of /ala 'time). 2 Acarya 7unda/unda. The agamic point of view emphasi!es that the atman is distinct from the other ob4ects. *any -aina philosophers do accept the distinction between the sa/ara and ana/ara upayoga. They are successively possible.anmatitar/a ra/arana. In this way up to the adhahsaptamiprthvi. It is said that this distinction has been made with a view to adopting the phraseology and falling in line of the other systems for the sa/e of logical distinctions. he does not intuite. but in the case of the /evaladarsana and /evala4nana it is difficult to distinguish between the two. there is the successive presentation of 4nana and darsana. 6autama as/ed &hagavana3 :an we say that a /evalin who grasps the nature of the Aatnaprabha prthvi through forms. The . 0 The #igambara tradition however contends that in the case of the /evalin it is possible to have /evaladarsana and /evala4nana simultaneously. In his . its color and area etc. &ut when he gets cognition. does the /evalin not simultaneously grasp the general nature of the prthvi C understand the nature through various categories of cognition.vetambara agamic tradition supports this view and maintains that 4nana and darsana upayoga cannot be had simultaneously even in the case of the /evalin. In the ra4napana. he experiences darsana and 4nana successively. &ut here there is no distinction of generality and particularity in the ob4ect. Their contention is that darsana is an expression of ana/ara upayoga which grasps the general features of the ob4ect. example. wile in the case of the /evalin the intuition and cognition are simultaneous. All the #igambara acaryas are agreed on this point. at the same time he intuites the ob4ect. #. &ut in the case of the /evalin regarding the experience of darsana and 4nana there are different views. 1 A few philosophers have however held this type of the view of the non-distinction between darsana C 4nana. They are identical. 6autama as/ed. there is no distinction between darsana and 4nana. According to the third view there is not difference between darsana and 4nana. Therefore. *ahavira said. 1 Acarya Bmasvati also says in the case of mati and sruta4nana etc. 5hile 4nana is an expression of the sa/ara upayoga which analyses the specific features because it is the expression of upayoga in its ana/ara form. 5hat is the reason for thisF *ahavira said. expressions upayoga as a result of the . but darsana and 4nana are aspects of the same upayoga of the soul. in the . there is a dialogue between &hagavana *ahavira C 6anadhara 6autama. this interpretation is not correct. ( The Avasya/aniryu/ti( and >Isesavasya/aniryu/ti+ maintain that in the case of the /evalin the darsana C 4nana upayoga cannot be present simultaneously. The distinction between darsana and 4nana made on the basis of the principles of generality ad particularity has been refuted by the -ainas from another point of view.iddhasena #iva/ara. from the paramanu 'atom) to the innumerable pradesa s/andhas. Therefore. Bpayoga has these two-form sa/ara and ana/ara.and 4nana0 can be distinguished but from the noumenal point of view. Three views have been mentioned. you should understand this order of cognition and intuition. he has stated that distinction between 4nana and darsana could be made upto manahparyaya.iyamsara says 4ust as the light and heat of the sun are simultaneously experienced. so also the /evalin experiences darsana and 4nana simultaneously.. from .

rom the point of view of sangrahanaya the emphasis is on non-difference between 4nana and darsana. the successive cognition of darsana and 4nana in the case of the perfect /nowledge would not be possible.( . They have to be presented simultaneously. 5hen there is no succession of time in the destruction of 4nanavaraniya and darsanavaraniya /armas there is not possibility of the successive presentation of the /evala4nana and /evaladarsana. In the case of the /evalin state there is not distinction between darsana and 4nana and to consider darsana and 4nana as distinct would raise some other difficulties. It is a synthesis of bheda 'difference) and abheda 'non-distinct) and bhedabheda. However. This /ind of distinction between the determinate and indeterminate cognition is not be found when the /armic matter obscuring /nowledge and intuition are destroyed.rom the point of view of vyavahara naya.0 In the case of the /evalin when he gets omniscient /nowledge. how can it be omniscient. the element of darsana is involved. cannot be distinguished between 4nana and darsana as successively experienced. It is natural that in the first moment we experience the particulars as distinct and then we cogni!e the general among the particulars. H In the case of the /evalin when he attains /aivalya. there would be no distinction of this type. &ut in the case of 4nana. It appears to be from the point of view of rational consideration that the non-difference point of view is more adequate. -nana and darsana in these moments can be considered as the cause and the effect. =ne more difficulty would be that darsana 'intuition) would be without the element of 4nana. 'b) simultaneous cognition and 'c) nondifference of darsana and 4nana in the case of the /evalin. . In that case. There is the agamic point of view. If the /evalin is to /now everything at one moment of experience. then darsana again would not be possible because darsana is not involved with 4nana although 4nana involves darsana. -nana is determinate 'savi/alpa) and darsana is indeterminate 'nirvi/alpa). darsanavaraniya and antaraya /armas are destroyed simultaneously.( &ut in the case of omniscience. not but imperfect expression of upayoga there would be distinction between determinate and indeterminate cognition. /nowledge and experience are perfect and one. And there would we no distinction between 4nana and darsana. And also because there is no distinction in the upayoga. . + As long as there is perfect. #etailed discussion on these problems would be beyond the scope of this small boo/. which is based on the natural process of cognition and intuition.rom the point of view r4usutranaya. /nowledge with its emphasis on distinction and darsana with its emphasis on non-distinction cannot occur simultaneously. successive presentation of darsana and 4nana in the case of /evalin is acceptable. although upayoga expresses itself in the ana/ara and sa/ara forms. Thus we have studied the problems of /nowledge and intuition from the agama yuga to the darsani/ayuga. the relation of the cause and effect would be the viewpoint presented by r4usutranaya.simultaneous destruction of 4nanavaraniya and darsanavaraniya /armas. These three streams of thought have been coordinated from the point of view of 'naya) by the famous logician Lasovi4aya in the vi/rama (@ th century. The characteristic of cognition '4nana) is of this type. &ut in the . Therefore. his /nowledge would not be perfect because he would go on /nowing and experiencing. the distinction between 4nana and darsana is accepted so the simultaneous cognition of both would be the acceptable view. then for all times he will /now everything. because the view-point is to loo/ at the particular moment the present. &ut when upayoga is perfectly and fully expressed. mohaniya /arma is first destroyed and then the 4nanavaraniya. However.vetambara tradition there are three streams of thought3 'a) successive cognition of the two. In that case. . The digambara tradition accepts the simultaneous cognition of darsana and 4nana.

upamana 'comparison) and agama 'testimony) has been presented. In the &hagavati sutra ( there is a dialogue between 6autama 6anadhara and &hagavana *ahavira.thananga. The description of the four pramanas has been given in the Anuyogadvara.rom the point of view of ni/sepa pramana has been distinguished into3 dravya pramana. pratyayi/a and anugami/a. pratya/sa. . the term pramana.am/hya philosophy mentions three pramanas and . + In the . some have mentioned three pramanas and some other four pramanas. In the . PRATYAKSA (DIRECT) ratya/sa has been distinguished into two types as '() indriya pratya/sa 'sense-pratya/sa) and '+) no-indriya pratya/sa '/nowledge without the help of the sense organs). In that case the word vyavasaya is used.imilarly. >yavasaya is of three types. /nowledge is not spontaneously.yaya mentions four pramanas. in the case of the :hadmastha. 6autama as/ed *ahavira.. and hetu has been used. A good deal of discussion has been carried out on regarding the nature and types of pramana. In the Anuyogadvara there is an elaborate discussion of the pramana.thananga where the word hetu is used the four-fold distinction of pramana as pratya/sa 'direct). 6autama as/ed a question on the basis of hearingF *ahavira replied. /setra pramana. Therefore. /ala pramana and bhava pramana.thananga. + There are different traditions regarding the distinctions in the types of pramana. anumana. &oth these traditions are mentioned in . . /nowledge is possible through four pramanas3 pratya/sa.. The later philosophers have given a separate status for the cognition through mind.. can we say how a :hadmastha.rotrendriya pratya/sa) '+) visual perception 'ca/surindriya pratya/sa) '0) alfactory experience 'ghranendriya pratya/sa) '1) experience of taste '4ivhendriya pratya/sa) and touch experience 'sparsanenendriya pratya/sa). . upamana and agama. which is mentioned below. his cognition and intuition are perfect.PRA&ANA0 A St"dy PRAMANA IN THE AGAMIC LITERATURE In the agamic literature. gets /nowledgeF *ahavira said. there is not separate mention of manasa pratya/sa. E&hagavan8 In the case of the /evalin who is to relinquish the body for the last time. . as '() auditory perception '. meaning determined cognition. . it is through the valid sources of /nowledge li/e sravana 'hearing) and other pramanas. ( In some place three-fold distinction of pramanas has been mentioned. anumana 'inference). The cognition through mind 'manasa pratya/sa) has been included in the sense-experience 'indriya pratya/sa). =n this.o-indriya pratya/sa is of three types3 '() avadhi pratya/sa 'clairvoyance) '+) manahparyaya pratya/sa 'telepathy) and '0) /evala pratya/sa 'omniscience). 6autama again as/ed by what pramana does the :hadmastha get /nowledgeF *ahavira replied. from the point of view of /evalin. Indriya pratya/sa is of five types. we get elaborate discussion of pramana 'valid source of /nowledge).

or instance. 5e infer the nature of the substance having qualities on the basis of the qualities.yaya 0 &auddha( and .ANUMANA (INFERENCE) Anumana 'inference) has been distinguished into three types as '() purvavat 'from cause to effect) '+) sesavat 'from effect to cause) and '0) drstasadharmyavat 'from universal to particular). we say it will rain. we infer the existence of water and from the good nature of a man we infer his family bac/ground. There is a form of inference called visesa drasta anumana.or instance.. from the ivory the elephant. This is purvavat anumana. Anuyogadvara has made a distinction in anumana as of three types on the basis of the consideration of time3 '() atita /ala grahana--5hen we see the greenery all-round and the overflowing ponds. . we say it is a sound of particular instruments.or example. In this. when we distinguish one man and recogni!e him from among the large crowd. . In the case of inference from the constituents to its ob4ects. '0) anagata /ala grahana--It is from antecedent even to the .or instance. from the taste. a mother seeing her son after several years.imilarly. . from the particular ob4ect we go to the species and gunas. the inference is from the general to the particular.amanya drsta inference is li/e upamana 'comparison) while visesa drsta upamana is analogue to pratyabhi4na 'recognition). . then he infers that there is plenty in this part.rom effect to the cause. These are the five types of sesavat anumanas. we infer that there has been good rain in that part. we distinguish one ob4ect from a large collection of ob4ects and we infer the specific nature of that ob4ect. although the causes may be remote causes. for example. we use this inference. . we infer. . on the basis of common points and similarity. from the hood we infer the existence a horse and from mane we infer the existence of lion. when there are clouds. urvavat-. . we infer the salt of any other ob4ect. if an ascetic who goes for begging food. we infer the presence of fire from the smo/e9 from the presence of a collection of swans. we infer the nature of similar ob4ects. from the ob4ect of dependence. if he gets sufficient food.urvavat proceeds from the cause of the effect. In this. .esavat anumana is from effect to the cause from cause to effect. from the sound of particular thing. we infer the causes from the effect.esavat--. #rstasadharmyavat--In this.an/hya+ darsana have accepted these three forms of inference. 5hen we infer the dependence of an ob4ect. we infer the nature of the type of the flower. when he returns from abroad. which is the substratum of quality from constituent forms to the agent of constituent forms and the source of dependence to the dependent. 0 . but she see a sign on his body and instantly she recogni!es him as her son. '+) pratyutpanna /ala grahana--In this also. on the perception of particular ob4ect with its quality. as for example we infer the standard of gold by rubbing it9 from the smell. there is no such distinction. &ut in the case of avayava and avayavi etc. 5e also proceed from cause to effect as in the case of9 we infer the quality of a pot from the clay. In the first few moments she could not recogni!e. we move from /nowing the effect C we infer the cause. from the antecedent event to the consequent. . when we see a person we infer the existence of similar persons in that land.or example. from the horns the type of buffalo. from quality to the substance.or instance. . 5e infer from the cause to the effect in two types.

Accordingly. pratisedha. In the case of syllogism with only two propositions.consequent event. when we see thunder and lightning and when the s/y is full of dar/ clouds.or instance. A syllogism with ten propositions has been elaborated as follows prati4na. . 0 &ut &hadrabahu alone has given an analysis of the ten-membered syllogism. hetu. drstantavisuddhi upasamhara. 5e give below a schemata of the number of propositions involved in the various types of syllogisms based on the number of propositions3 '() a syllogism with three propositions mentions prati4na and udaharana '+) a syllogism with three constituent propositions mentions prati4na. hetu. we infer that there has been famine. asan/a. drstanta. we infer that it would rain heavily. .or instance. .or example. The terms apply to the similar ob4ects on the basis of similarity of functions denoted by the similar ob4ects on the basis of similarity of functions denoted by the words. THE CONSTITUENT PROPOSITIONS OF INFERENCE (Syll !"#$) . &ecause there is sufficient similarity between the two. .or instance. if we see the land very dry. the ob4ect or the individual is unique because the qualities that one possesses cannot be applied to others. hetu. hetuvisuddhi. which resembles the cow. The ten membered syllogisms have also been mentioned in the following way3 prati4na. The syllogism is meant for the communication of oneEs thoughts to others. we say that this animal is li/e the cow. three-membered and fivemembered syllogism in the other darsanas. vipa/sa. upasamharavisuddhi and nigamana. hetu. + It may be noted that there are sufficient discussions about the two membered. he infers that there has been famine in that area.or instance. 'c) . It presents the methodology and the procedure of expressing oneEs thoughts to others so as to it effective and valid. Apart from these three types of anumana based on the criterian of time we may infer wherein contrary situations might give negative inference. prati4navisuddhi. which are called avayavas. It is nearer to analogy in the western logic. candra and /umuda. upamana is distinguished into two types3 sadharmya upamana and vaidharmya upamana. Indra is Indra only9 Tirthan/ara is tirthan/ara only and :ha/ravartin as cha/ravartin only. #asavai/ali/aniryu/ti has a distinction about this problem and it mentions various forms of syllogism from the syllogism with two propositions to the syllogism with ten propositions. . nigamanavisuddhi. ( The syllogism with two propositions has been mentioned with two specific functions.1 UPAMANA Bpamana is comparison. when we see an animal in the forest. It consists of the similarity in terminology li/e aditya and /hadyota. udaharana. It is based on the points of similarity 'sadharmya) and points of difference 'vaidharmya). '0) a syllogism with five propositions mentions prati4na. 5hen the ascetic odes not get sufficient food during his begging round.adharmya upamana is further distinguished into three types3 -'a) 7incit sadharmyopanita. . tatpratisedha and nigamana. hetu is not mentioned only udaharana is mentioned along with prati4na. There is not much discussion about this problem in the original agamas. upasamhara and nigamana. . drstanta. hetuvibha/ti.arvasadhrmyopanita--In this there is complete similarity so as to deny the same quality to the other individuals and other ob4ects. prati4navibha/ti.yllogism refers to the constituent propositions. 'b) rayah sadharmyopanita--This is based on the points of similarity perceived in two ob4ects. drstanta.

arvavaidharmyopanita--In this. &ut on the basis of this ganadharas is anantaragama for themselves. -nana is pervasion 'vyapa/a) and pramana is vyapya. i. 6anadharas receive the teaching of the tirthan/ara directly. artharupa agama. It is atmagama for tirthan/ara because it comes from the omniscient only and not received from any other person. is certain. The /nowledge. #r. 5e may give examples of good and the bad.or example. &ut on the basis of this arthagama. 0 Agamas have also been distinguished into two forms as artharupa and sutrarupa.>aidharmyopanita upamana is based on the points of difference. atthagama and tadubhayagama. The disciples of the 6anadhara receive the teaching directly and there is no third person involved. 'c) . and well defined. ganadharas present it to the others in the forms of sutra 'aphorisms). the teachings received by the ganadharas cannot also be considered as atmagama because it was received from the tirthan/ara. Dau/i/a agama refers to the expression regarding the empirical events and Do/ottara agama refers to the philosophical and spiritual discussions as given in the sastras. the servant and the master etc. + Agamas have also been distinguished into three types from another point of view3 atmagama. ganadharas for themselves. . *ohanlal *ehta says these examples are not adequate to explain this type of analogy.. ( Do/ottaragama has been distinguished into three types as suttagama.amavayanga. Therefore. . we can mention *ahabharata and Aamayana as lau/i/a agamas while the angas li/e Acaranga. . a good man did actions. There is not third person in between them. In this. -nana is of two types3 Latharatha 'valid) and ayathartha 'invalid). It is also of three types3 'a) 7incit vaidharmyopanita--In it we express the distinction between the cow and the horse 'b) rayovaidharmyopanita--In this. .e. &ut from the point of view of the content of the teaching it is paramparagama.or instance.1 therefore this sutragama for the ganadharas is atmagama. and bad man very often does action consistence with his character. there is emphasis on the distinctions on the contrary qualities. the blac/ is not white. because it comes from the master tot he teacher in succession. It is of two-type '() Dau/i/a agama and '+) Do/ottara agama.utra/rtanga. is free from doubt.or instance.o far. etc. Therefore this arthagama received by the ganadharas is anantaragama for themselves. >alid /nowledge is that which is consistent with the previous /nowledge and is definite and certain. &hagavati. &ut on the basis of this arthagama.. which is valid. The validity of the pramanas have been discussed in the agamas and on the basis of that discussion. the later acaryas have made a significant contribution to the development of Indian logic. That /nowledge which is expressed by doubt 'samsaya) and perversity 'viparyaya) is invalid /nowledge. coming from the omniscient tirthan/ara are lo/ottara agama. . It is the acceptance of an authority. which are good only. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF PRAMANA ramana is characteri!ed by valid /nowledge. the later acaryas have developed a system of logic presented in the methodology of the polemic 'purva pa/sa) and the construction of the theory of logic on the basis of the polemic. anantaragama and paramparagama. . we have discussed the nature of pramanas. The tirthan/ara preaches the doctrines to his disciples. 2 . the specific and peculiar qualities have been specifically distinguished. In this sense. The relation between 4nana and pramana is one of pervaded and the pervasion. . agama teaching received by the disciples from the 6anadharas directly is called anataragama for the disciples.or the disciples of the ganadharas and their disciples in succession sutragama and arthagama are to be considered as paramparagama only. ( AGAMA Agama is testimony.

5e cogni!e the ob4ect and therefore. According to them. DEVELOPMENT OF THE TERMINOLOGY OF PRAMANA The acaryas have used different terminology for explaining pramana. Acarya . The hand would be a condition no doubt9 it is the less essential condition than the blade. . This is the characteristic of pramana. independent of the cognition of the ob4ect. (M. but 4nana is much more important for understanding the meaning. . Its characteristic is cognition. In the &uddhist literature consistency and adequacy 'yogyata) are the criteria or /arana. @@) says that pramana is that which establishes the correct and well-defined /nowledge. ( In the case of the . Acarya . 7nowledge is the characteristic of the soul. acetana 'unconscious).iddhasena in his .iddhasena has refuted this argument and has used the word sva-abhasi. but all of them cannot be called /arana 'instrument of /nowledge). + Although . Therefore it is unconscious..+ The &uddhists0 consider cognition as real and the world of physical ob4ect as an appearance. Acarya >idyananda in his Tattvarthaslo/avarti/a '(. all /nowledge except the divine /nowledge is cogni!ed by the other cognition. 7arana is that which is the instrument of /nowledge and by which /nowledge is cogni!ed. '+) to refute the description of other characteristics of pramana mentioned by other schools of thought and '0) to refute the discrepancies and errors in the description of nature of pramana. ( . . ( According to -ainism. called prama. JTadbhavati tatpra/aranubhavah pramaJ that ob4ect. It is the ob4ect of valid cognition. He has shown that the ob4ects have an independent existence and reality. According to the -ainas the essence of pramana is well-defined /nowledge 'nirnaya/a 4nana). cognition is the mode of pra/rti9 it is sometimes a perverse expression of the mode of pra/rti. According to them.aiyayayi/as sanni/arsa 'contact) C 4nana 'cognition) are the criteria or /arana of pramana. Acarya . as in the case of the cognition of Isvara. The cognition is not the ob4ect of cognition for is it the pramana. The use of other characteristics mentions are due to three reasons3 '() to differentiate between the description given by the others. &ut in the -aina darsana 4nana is considered to be /arana. :ognition is not unconscious and not the mode of pra/rti. -nana established the intimate contact between itself and the ob4ect.an/hya philosophers consider cognition as a product of pra/rti and therefore. we are the sub4ect of cognition and cognition is the /nowledge. but there are differences of opinion regarding the sources of the instruments '/arana) of valid cognition. This is the characteristic of /nowledge.or the cognition of an ob4ect several factors contribute. are useful for grasping the meaning of the cognition.yaya->aisesi/a considers cognition and the ob4ect of cognition as distinct. This is the Eparo/sa 4nanavadaE.yayavatara says that the function of pramana is to illumine the self and also the ob4ect. which is /nown as it is. The philosophers are agreed on the general nature of pramana. it is self and the other illumination. The conditions for using an axe would be the hand and the blade. According to them pramana is to cogni!e the ob4ect in a definite way. ramana determines the exact meaning of a thing. The other characteristics mentioned about pramana are only variations of the descriptions of the determinateness of the meaning of the thing.iddhasena has refuted this stand by using the word Jpara abhasiJ.anni/arsa and adequacy etc. Therefore.CAUSATION OF PRAMANA The general characteristic of pramana is--Jpramayah /aranam pramanamJ It is the instrument of the prama. he says 4nana is sva-abhasi.

He has suggested tat pramana determine the exact nature and the real nature of the ob4ect. THE CRITERION OF THE VALIDITY OF KNOWLEDGE (PRAMANA) ramana is truth.+ The #igambara and the .vetambara tradition have used the different terminologies. 1 .everal words have been used to describe the nature of pramana3 yathartha. similarly /nowledge reveals itself and cogni!es the other ob4ects. There is no doubt about. -nana means samyag4nana 'right /nowledge). two schools of thought were developed.anmati ti/a. ramana cannot be valid cognition if it is not determined and determinate. The -ainas hold the nature of cognition as sva-par-pra/asa/a. The development of the controversy regarding the nature of the pramana reflects the prevailing logical tendency and disputation of the time.0 >adideva . ( Acarya Abhayadeva has refuted this stand in the .) ( In this. artha/hyapana. G Acarya *ani/yanandi has followed the footsteps of A/alan/a.iddhasena and developed by A/alan/a. @ >adidevasuri says that pramana is sva-para-vyavasayi 4nana 'cognition of the self-natured cognition and of the ob4ect. abadhitattva. -ust as a lamp reveals the ob4ects and also reveals itself. 7nowledge reveals itself and cogni!es the ob4ect. >idyanandi has made it clear that the cognition that determines the self-natured cognition and of the nature of the ob4ect as pramana. he has not given important to the word apurva used by *ani/yanandi. while . . The -ainas have said that pramana is /nowledge which is fruitful. whether it is received and comprehended or not comprehended. it.amantabhadra and . #igambara acarya did not accept the /nowledge which is received by stimulations and which is continuous 'dharavahi) as pramana. In this.yayabindu nirvi/alpa/a4nana 'indeterminate /nowledge) has been considered to be a pramana 1 &ut the -aina logicians refute this view and they say that nirvi/alpa cognition cannot be a pramana nor even as apramana because if there is nothing determinate we cannot say whether it is pramana or not. A/alan/a has used the term Janadhigatartha/aJ and JavisamvadiJ for explaining the characteristic of pramana. In the . + Acarya A/alan/a. although different words have been used for describing the word pramana.uri and Hemacandra have refuted this stand. 2 And he has 4ustified the use of the word Jsva-paravabhasa/aJ as the characteristic of pramana. the term Jbadhavivar4itaJ has been used.The -ainas maintain that /nowledge and the ob4ect of /nowledge both are real. . KNOWLEDGE AND PRAMANA The analysis of the nature of pramana shows that there is no difference between the /nowledge and pramana. he has followed the tradition established by acarya . 1 >iparyaya 'fallacious /nowledge) is not a pramana. Acarya >idyanandi explains the characteristics of abadhitattva as that wherein we find the absence of the badhita 'discrepancies).irvi/alpa can be attributed to darsana. arthaprapana etc. #uring this time. In characteristics of pramana as described by the -ainas from 4nana given by other schools of thought. Therefore. but really there is not much of difference in the content of the meaning of the interpretations given by the two traditions. The criterion of abadhitattva is its being incoherent and consistent. These words have been accepted by some schools and re4ected by others.vetambara acaryas has considered the cognition also as pramana. apurva. the &uddhists and the *imamsa/as maintain that the function of pramana is to ma/e explicit the meaning of the word and to ma/e the /nowledge from the /nown to un/nown. determinate and certain.

In the ramanamimamsa '(. there has been a long controversy on the nature and function of pramana and the relation of pramana and 4nana. . a man is thirsty. It is not necessary to have any external criteria for determining the validity of /nowledge. ( &ut they say the validity or otherwise of cognition are determined by the situation.In this way. There is no necessity of an external condition to determine the validity or otherwise of /nowledge. According to them validity of /nowledge can be determined by circumstances. It may be noted that the pramana has to point has to point to the pragmatic test. This is the effect of all forms of pramanas. In this cognition. and if we do not /now from what source the light comes. 5e cannot get a correct nature of the ob4ect unless we have the /nowledge of the distinction between pramana and apramana. Bnless the valid cognition leads to the successful /nowledge. THE VALIDITY OF COGNITION 5e have seen that pramana refers to samyag4nana 'correct /nowledge). one gets full comprehension. He develops and attitude of non-detachment for the things of the world. Again. That which is contrary to the fact is invalid /nowledge. ramana enables to comprehend the two ob4ects of the nature of the ob4ect. the validity of /nowledge can be determined by the self or by the external circumstances according to the situation. If cognition is self-valid. . the validity is determined by external circumstance. 5ith this /nowledge. the words svatah and paratah are used. if we see light coming out from a closed room. The omniscient person wards away ignorance and en4oys eternal bliss. It is to illumine the ob4ect. The *imamsa/as maintain the view of the self-validity of /nowledge. This is the criterion of correspondence to determining the truth or the falsity of /nowledge.( RESULT OF PRAMANA . it is not necessary to have external circumstances for determining the validity of /nowledge.aiyayi/as do not accept the validity of /nowledge. Therefore.aiyayi/as do not accept the svatah pramanyavada 'selfvalidity of /nowledge). 01) it has been suggested that the aim of pramana is to ma/e the ob4ect clear. &ut in some cases. for instance. it is praratah pramanya. . In this case. the cognition cannot be considered to be valid.ow the question has been as/ed3 what is the result of the effect of pramana. The direct result of pramana is to remove ignorance. They accept both the theories of svatah pramanya and paratah pramanya of the validity of cognition. in this situation it is paratah. (.an/ha darsana is of the opinion that the validity and invalidity of /nowledge are both determined by self. At the same time it should be noted that cognition and truth must be consistent and mutually related.ometime cognition becomes valid by itself and sometime it has to be verified by means of some other cognition. The -aina logicians have given the criterion of validity of /nowledge on the basis of the two-fold function 'i) the self-cognition of the cognition and the cognition of the ob4ect. cognition has to be verified through some other means. whether it is from candle or an electric light. The invalid /nowledge is due to external circumstances and differences. The . That /nowledge is valid which corresponds to the facts or the external ob4ects. Therefore. we find that in the case of /evala4nana it leads to happiness and bliss. The -ainas are against the three vies mentioned above. he drin/s water and he /nows that the water has quenched his thirst. The . If we consider the effect of pramana in various degrees. Therefore. According to the -ainas. This is the svatah pramanyavada. which are eternal to /nowledge. it is true to itself and it is a pramana. 4ust as the rays of the sunEs light ma/e everything clear. According to them the validity or other wise of cognition has to be determined by some other criteria outside cognition. &ut it is necessary to distinguish between the correct /nowledge samyag4nana and mithya4nana. we have to open the door and see.

. in this. A/alan/a in the .imilarly. anumana. we perceive the absence of the boo/ on the table. rabha/ara school of *imamsa has given five pramanas3 pratya/sa. >aisesi/as recogni!e pratya/sa and anumana as pramana. The contention of he :arva/a school that indriya pratya/sa is the only pramana is not correct because it ignores other forms of pratya/sa. Bmasvati in his Tattvarthasutra. 5e may state that without anumana it is difficult to establish oneEs own position on the basis of the refutation of the opposite position and also to establish the truth for otherwise of the existence of the other world. The &hatta . we perceive the table and in perceiving the table without the boo/ which was there in the past.chool maintains that sense perception is the only valid source of /nowledge 'pramana). The :arva/a . + This criterion can be understood when we /now the distinction between pratya/sa and paro/sa. they develop tendency towards good action and disgust towards evilactions. .or those who have other forms /nowledge except the /evala4nana they develop the capacity of comprehension and discrimination. It implies anumana. Therefore. anumana. + THE NUMBER OF PRAMANAS In Indian philosophy. &uddhists have mentioned only two pramanas3 pratya/sa and anumana.yaya darsana accepts four pramanas3 pratya/sa. in this. .. which we can get without the help of the sense organs directly by the soul. The ob4ect has its nature of existence or non-existence.an/hya darsana mentions three pramanas3 pratya/sa. >adidevasuri in mimamsa have recogni!ed two pramanas3 pratya/sa and paro/sa. ( . anumana. . 0 He has used the terms Jsa/araJ and an4asa to explain the criteria of clearness and distinctness for pratya/sa. -aina darsana does not accept sanni/arsa as a criterion as having . there is no agreement between the different schools of Indian thought on the question of the number of pramanas. because it does not mention agama etc.or all the forms of pramana.iddhasena #iva/ara maintains that pratya/sa apprehends the meaning of the nature of the ob4ect directly without the medium of any other form of source of /nowledge. sabda and arthapatti 'implication). This is a form of perception..imilarly. Acarya . The -ainas maintain that the &uddhist classification of pramana is not exhaustive. ( The &uddhists have recogni!ed pratya/sa and anumana. it is not necessary to enumerate abhava or anupalabdhi as a separate pramana. 5e can apprehend the existence and non-existence and both these states are directly apprehended. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF PRATYAKSA The -ainas contend that clearness and distinctness 'vaisadya) as the characteristic of ratya/sa. =ur /nowledge of the mental states of others on the basis of the observation of external behaviors cannot be considered to be pratya/sa4nana.chool of *imamsa gives six pramanas by adding abhava or anupalabdhi 'cognition of absence). we perceive the absence of the boo/. Arthapatti is the form of anumana9 abhava or anupalabdhi is a form of pratya/sa. upamana and agama are considered to be paro/sa4nana. anumana and sabda. In the Anuyogadvara sutra four pramanas3 pratya/sa. upamana and agama have been mentioned. anumana C agama. as a pramana. this is the primary criterion. upamana and sabda. there are three different views regarding the number of pramanas. Therefore abhava cannot be different from pratya/sa. The pramanas can be classified into pratya/sa and paro/sa. + The -ainas have mentioned that anumana is a form of paro/sa pramana and there are agama etc. .yayaviniscaya states that clearness and distinctness 'spasta4nana) is a criterion of pratya/sa. In the -aina epistemology. without anumana it is difficult to get the /nowledge of the relation of the cause and effect. we perceive the table and in perceiving the table on the table. upamana. The anumana. .iddhasena #iva/ara mentions three pramanas3 pratya/sa. many forms of paro/sa pramana.or example.0 The criterion of the validity of /nowledge is that cognition should be valid and it must correspond to the facts.

In this analysis of the samvyavahara pratya/sa the words Japaro/satayaJ and JarthagrahanaJ do not figure in as the criteria of pratya/sa. The meaning of the samvyavahara pratya/sa and anumana would be clear with the use of visada. without the help of the middle term or the process of reasoning. 0 According to them pratya/sa has been distinguished into two types as mu/hya and samvyavahara.rom the practical point of view the use of this terminology has been mentioned and has the support of . >i/alapratya/sa which is no /evala4nana it is partial /nowledge short of omniscience. The mu/hya pratya/sa is the /nowledge that the soul gets directly without the help of the sense organs. In this analysis. The samvyavahara pratya/sa is that /nowledge which one gets through the sense organs and the manas. and other pramanas. the word aparo/sa is nearer to the concept of the >edantic analysis of pratya/sa. This contention of . &ut considering the content of the meaning in the two verses there are some fundamental distinctions. . cogni!es the ob4ect directly and fully without any other media.iddhasena #iva/ara has the support in the &hagavati ( C . &ut while in the case of anumana.andisutra. vyapti 'universal concomitance of the middle ma4or term) and smarana 'memory etc). Indriya-anindriya pratya/sa has four stages '() avagraha '+) iha. This is paramarthi/a pratya/sa or no-indriyapratya/sa.thananga+ on the analysis of pramana. &ecause . However.been used in the >aisesi/as and not do the -ainas accept J/alpanapodhattvaJ as the criterion of pratya/sa. the manas. the word visada has been used. That /nowledge. A/alan/a and *ani/yanandi have elaborated the nature of pratya/sa. TWO TYPES OF PRATYAKSA The -ainas have classified pratya/sa into '() atmapratya/sa and '+) indriyanindriya pratya/sa. which is based on the previous /nowledge. Atmapratya/sa is the /nowledge that the soul gets directly without the help of sense organs. The >edantins maintain that . The word visada is meant to clear the meaning of the cognition with reference to clarity and perceptual 4udgement. is paro/sa 4nana. . it is. in the place of Japaro/saJ. Therefore. The indriyanindriya pratya/sa is empirical /nowledge. They have used the word JvisadaJ as a characteristic of /nowledge. Atmapratya/sa is the direct /nowledge that the soul gets without the help of indriyas. In the indriya pratya/sa one gets direct cognition through the medium of sense organs and the manas.aiyayayi/as consider pratya/sa 4nana to be the /nowledge which i obtained through the contact of sense organs and the ob4ect.iddhasena #iva/ara( says that direct /nowledge is that /nowledge which is obtained through the sense organs without the medium of reasoning procedure C and the analysis of the meaning. ratya/sa. They do not use the word aparo/sa because it would convey negative meaning for them. which does not require any other form of cognition to ma/e the meaning clear. Atmapratya/sa has been classified into two types3 (. Acarya Hemacandra. as given by the &uddhists. therefore. &ut the /nowledge obtained through the contact of the sense organs and the ob4ect is not /nowledge that the soul or the cogniser gets directly. +. it is not direct.a/ala pratya/sa which is /evala4nana. or /nowledge obtained through other sources li/e reason and testimony. . therefore.o/evala 4nana is of two types3 '() avadhi4nana and '+) manahparyaya 4nana. In the case of anumana and other forms of paro/sa 4nana there are intermediary cognition and media li/e linga4nana 'the /nowledge of the middle term). not pratya/sa. and the word visada has similarity with the description of the nature of pratya/sa. '0) avaya and '1) dharana. which is obtained through the sense organs through the mind. he used the word aparo/sa and that is a significant word. >aisadya would mean that type of cognition. . we proceed from previous /nowledge to some other /nowledge based on the previous /nowledge. This is the differentiating term and the characteristics of pratya/sa.

therefore. there is no other medium between the ob4ect and the cognition to the -ainas9 there is no other medium between the ob4ect and the cognition in the case of the pratya/sa 4nana. .marana is the cause of pratyabhi4na and pratyabhi4na is the cause of tar/a. &ut according to the -ainas. the inference regarding the fruit as bitter would not be adequate. there is absence of clearness and distinctness 'vaisadya and spastata). . Hence these three are the instruments in the formation of anumana. a sour and bitter fruit may be transformed into a sweet fruit through the passage of time and in a different place due to some material transformations also. And there would be distinctions and differentiations in the strength of probability on the basis of the time element and the element of form.. '+) pratyabhi4na 'recognition) '0) tar/a 'logical discussion). more appropriate to maintain that suddhacaitanya directly cogni!es the ob4ect without the help of any modifications or reflections.0 aro/sa is opposite of pratya/sa.imilarly. and other pramanas have been included as form of anumana. it is neither pratya/sa nor even pramana. to ma/e a . Anumana and other pramanas are based on probability. Therefore. The criterion for determining the pramana suggested by :arva/a is avisamvada 'non-contradiction with fact).imilarly. It is indeterminate cognition. The antah/arana ta/es the modification of the ob4ect i. because even to affirm the sweetness or otherwise of the fruit in the first instant would involve the process of inference and other forms of pramanas. It is. avaya and dharana. Therefore he has considered these as gauna. there is not other pramana.yayaviniscaya. seen C is reflected through the intellect to the soul and that is a pratya/sa 4nana. According to the &uddhists pratya/sa is nirvi/alpa 4nana. PAROKSA That /nowledge which is yathartha 'adequate) and yet which has the characteristic of being unclear and distinct is called paro/sa pramana. &ut -ainas maintain that nirvi/alpa/a bodha cognition 'darsana) is not determinate cognition. To consider that antah/arana is illumined by the suddhacaitanya 'pure consciousness) and also to maintain that antah/arana gets modified to the si!e of the ob4ect is not very adequate explanation. Anumana is of two types3 '() primary 'mu/hya) and '+) secondary 'gauna). 1 *ost of the -aina logicians have made these five distinctions in the paro/sa pramana. 2 that paro/sa can be classified into two types3 '() anumana and 'ii) agama. .or example. There is another reason mentioned in the . in that wor/ pratya/sa. And vyavahari/a pratya/sa has been distinguished into four stages3 avagraha. .pratya/sa 4nana is possible through the medium of antah/arana 'inner sense organs). iha. the case is with smarana and other pramanas. REFUTATION OF CARVAKA VIEW The :arva/a maintains that sense perception is the only valid source of /nowledge. Therefore. &ut this contention of the :arva/a is not satisfactory. And the other pramanas except the indriya pratya/sa are based or do not possess these characteristics.yayaviniscaya called ramana nirnaya. '1) anumana 'inference) and '2) agama 'testimony).( 5e have already seen that pratya/sa according to the -ainas have been distinguished from two points of views3 '() paramarthi/a 'the ultimate point of view) and vyavahari/a 'phenomenal point of view). In this. 6auna anumana is of three types '() smarana '+) pratyabhi4na and tar/a. &ut >adira4a in his commentary on .a/ala and vi/ala. + In the paramarthi/a pratya/sa we have mentioned two types3 . it would be difficult to find the characteristic of avinabhava and avyabhicara 'unerring). In these cases.e. aro/sa is of five types '() smarana-smrti 'memory). anumana and agama have been mentioned as pramanas.

At most this is a form of revival of perceptual experience. physical and the mental. ( In this. =therwise the /nowledge and the life would not be possible on surer foundation. /nowledge obtained through other means than the direct cognition through sense organs. &ecause through the indriyas we cannot /now the mind of others. PRATYABHIJNA (RECOGNITION) ratyabhi4nana is the valid cognition that we get through the synthesis of pratya/sa and smarana 'memory). the thing can become the ob4ect of cognition. Human /nowledge has not limits. It would be necessary to correlate the cause-effect relation for the sa/e of becoming valid conclusions in inference. The :arva/a maintains that the other world is unreal. Therefore. 5e can /now the mental states of others by inference on the basis of the behavior and their speech. the cognition of the ma4or term is not possible without the memory of the universal relation of the ma4or term and the middle term. we say this is #evadatta. If this application is inconsistent and incoherent.imilarly. If we do not accept smrti as a pramana. it is not possible to /now the mind of the others without the help of the inference. Therefore. =ther darsanas in Indian philosophy do not give the status of pramana to memory. 7nowledge received through memory is consistent and has a reference to the past event. Therefore. life would be difficult and /nowledge impossible. The recollection of the impressions received in the past is due to various causes. + *emory depends on recollection of the mental states retained in the mind of past experience. The relation between the cognition and the ob4ect is not to be considered as a relation between the effect and cause. *emory presents the valid cognition of the past event through recollection. the -ainas have rightly contended smrti 'memory) as a pramana. li/e inference and testimony would not become inconsistent and invalid. The mental states of interest would be an important condition of memory. &ecause anumana depends on the linga 'middle term) which is not based on pratya/saF . According to them memory cannot become a pramana because it has reference to the past events and the past events were perceived in the past and are not longer present the mind. -ainas consider memory as a form of pra4na. *emory therefore is an essential condition of inference. 5e recogni!e that the cow at the cow at home is the animal that we see. 5e also say that the buffalo is different from the cow. valid inference would not be possible.distinction between pratya/sa pramana and other forms of pramanas as invalid source of /nowledge on the basis of the criterion of avisamvada 'non-contradiction) would involve the process of inference. it is pramana. then anumana cannot be considered as a pramana. The -ainas content that the ob4ect is not the cause of cognition and cognition is possible through its own conditions of cognition. :ognition has its own capacity of expressing itself and revealing the ob4ect. This conclusion of :arva/a is also based on inference. &ecause the criterion of pramana would be correctness 'yatharthata) and correspondence to the fact of life. The process of . If we do not ma/e use of the inference for getting /nowledge. in practical life we have to depend on the testimony of others for the sa/e of /nowledge. . The other #arsanas maintain that the past experience is no longer present and therefore how can it generate a valid cognition. ( The inference is based on the universal relation between the middle term and ma4or term and the application of that universal relation to specific instance. . The relation between the ob4ect and the cognition of the ob4ect can be expressed as the relation between the illumination and the illuminator. These statements are expressions of recognition.imilarly. present or the future may be considered to be a pramana. &ut -ainas maintain that the correct /nowledge of ob4ect with reference to the past.imilarly. . ( MEMORY (SMRTI) The revival of the mental traces due to retention could be memory.imilarly.

yaya. It is conditioned reasoning. we recollect that we have seen him in the past and we recogni!e that #evadatta that we see. $verything is fleeting. there cannot be cognition of the past in the present. if there is fire.imilarly. The /nowledge that we get through tar/a strengthens the validity of /nowledge. It can be stated as Jif EaE is EbE then EcE is EdE. all relation cognition li/e the statements3 this is near. &ut as a thing is not possible and there is no continuity of thing. &ut -ainas have recogni!ed it as a paro/sa pramana. It is a paro/sa pramana. It has two constituent conditional propositions as the ma4or premise. Dogicians li/e Bdayana and >ardhamana have considered that tar/a have function of supporting the valid conclusion by presenting the universality of condition.cognition in this would be. it is said to be cognition which proceeds from the past to the present. Therefore. >yapti is the universal relation between the middle term and the ma4or term. and because EaE is EbE therefore EcE is EdE. C the other cognition refers Jthis which is actually experienced nowJ. therefore not a pramana. 7nowledge of vyapti is strengthened by tar/a.or instance. It is an auxiliary pramana and is based on conditioned relation between the antecedent and the pramana. The . it is Jvaisadrsa pratyabhi4nanaJ. This is called sadrsa pratyabhi4nana as it is based on similarity. recognition cannot present the past cognition into the present. The other systems of Indian philosophy li/e . say that pratyabhi4nana is a valid cognition.J . the . According to the -ainas the /nowledge of vyapti in its positive and negative aspect is possible through tar/a. &ut the . nothing continues to remain from the past. 5e remember the cow at home. ratyabhi4nana would include two cognitions.yaya does not accept tar/a as an independent pramana. It would be recognition based on the point of dissimilarity. &ecause. Therefore. there is smo/e and if there is no fire there is no smo/e. we see #evadatta. TARKA (HYPOTHETICAL REASONING) Tar/a is hypothetical reasoning. >aisesi/a and *imamsa/as. ratyabhi4nana is recognition arrived at through the process of perceptional memory. but it is a form of perception and it can be included in the pratya/sa. ( It is also called uha. The &uddhists have accepted that tar/a is useful in the establishment or vyapti. ratyabhi4nana cannot be considered as a pramana. =ne refers to Jthat which was experienced in the pastJ. which is similar to this animal. 6enerally all schools of Indian philosophy have accepted tar/a as a pramana. Tar/a is inference based on the positive and negative conditions of the universality of relation between the middle term and the ma4or term. *emory refers to the cognition of the past event. The present cognition has no reference to the past. It is inference based on the previous condition. The past cognition has been destroyed. Therefore. ratya/sa has a reference to cognition of the present.aiyayi/as has considered tar/a as secondary pramana. &ut the -ainas contend that the &uddhist view of pratyabhi4nana as two separate cognitions. These two cannot become one cognition. 5e see an animal in the forest called gavaya. &ut we can recogni!e the distinction between the buffalo and the cow. but still they do not give the tar/a the status of a pramana. the &uddhists do not consider recognition as a pramana. it is a pramana and is a valid source of /nowledge. and we say we recogni!e that this animal is li/e the cow at home. are all forms of recognition. is the same #evadatta that we have seen earlier.aiyayi/as maintain that tar/a is a from of inference and not an independent pramana. . . Therefore. Therefore. and the view of other systems of philosophy ma/ing pratyabhi4nana as a form of perception are both inadequate. he is taller and the elderer etc. It has also been referred to as cinta in the -aina sastras. this is far. but pratyabhi4nana gives a synthesis of the cognition of the present with the recollection of the past incident.. Therefore. The &uddhists maintain that nothing is permanent in the world. ramana is valid cognition and tar/a strengthens and supports this cognition by hypothetical reasoning.

It is called . &y the absence of smo/e we cannot infer the absence of fire. acarya Hemacandra mentions five forms of sadhana3 '() . except the :arva/a. The universal relation may refer to co-existence of succession. SADHANA In the ramanamimamsa.adhana or linga is called hetu. because it is based on tar/a. because it is based on vyapti.vabhava sadhana is the essential characteristics of the ob4ect. The absence of fire will also be the absence of smo/e9 the relation is also universal considered form the negative sense. &ut the converse is not true. It is the means through which inference is possible. &ut this is not expressed in the verbal proposition. . The two are different pramanas. Therefore. '1) e/arthasamavayi and '2) virodhi. A/alan/a terms this relation as Jsadhyavinabhavabhinibodhai/ala/sanaJ. This type of relation is the basis of valid inference. accept anumana as a pramana.adhya or lingi. -ust as we can infer the existence of fire through the perception of smo/e. The inference from effect and not the contingent relation. In the inference between cause and effect there must be necessary relation between cause and effect and not the contingent relation.Anumana 'inference) cannot ta/e the place of tar/a. &ut in the case of the presence of clouds and the consequent rain there would be succession.varthanumana is inference for oneself in which we get valid inference on the basis of the vyapti. In the sense that the presence of the middle term will bring the presence of the ma4or term. '0) /arya. As for instance. . Therefore. there is the universality of co-existence. the absence of that cause should bring the absence of the effect.mo/e is the linga.vabhava. SVARTHANUMANA (INFERENCE FOR ONESELF) . and man. . . anumana is possible because of tar/a. The :arva/a does not accept the phenomenon and extra-sense organs. in the case of the invariable concomitance of morality. And vyapti cannot be grasped by direct perception through perception. The /nowledge of vyapti is possible through tar/a and inference is based on /nowledge of vyapti. 5hen we see the collection of dar/ clouds in the s/y. both positively and negatively. *oreover. The inference from effect to . *oreover.or instance. And anumana cannot ta/e place of the tar/a. . heat is the characteristic of the fire. as it presents the universality of relation of the negative sense. we infer the possibility of rain and in this. the relation is between cause and effect '/arana-/arya). #huma 'smo/e) is the attribute to fire. All the systems of Indian philosophy. This type of relation is also called anyathanupapatti.abda 'sound) is non-eternal because it is not the cause '/arana)9 it is the effect '/arya). 5ithout fire the existence of smo/e is not possible. the absence of that cause should bring the absence of the effect. + Dinga is the middle term which connects the ma4or and minor terms. It is meant for oneself and the moment it is expressed in the form of proposition it becomes pararthanumana.varthanumana 'inference for oneself) and '+) ararthanumana 'inference for the sa/e of others). but through other means. because there may be fire without smo/e. And the absence of the middle term will bring the absence of the ma4or term. '+) /arana. The other systems of philosophy have distinguished it into two types3 '() . :arva/a darsana does not give anumana the status of pramana. ( . ANUMANA (INFERENCE) Anumana is /nowledge which is arrived at through the means of other /nowledge. but there cannot be smo/e without fire. ( It is possible through the middle term and therefore it is said that anumana is possible through linga. the relation between fire and smile is of avinabhavi 'universal positive relation).ire is the ma4or term about which we infer. The relation between the ma4or term and the middle term will have to be universal.

The negative form of communication of universality of relation gives the relation between the cause and the effect and the thing and its attributes in a negative way. the relation between the cause and the effect or the attribute and the ob4ect of attribute ahs to be adequate 'samya/). In the case of pararthanumana. and while it is communicated to others through the medium of communication in propositional forms. therefore. then we infer that it must have rained. . &ut a small portion of fire cannot remove cold. we see the open space outside wet. the absence of the essential attribute will entail the absence of the thing. . The . . '0) udaharana and '1) upanaya. '+) hetu and '0) udaharana. '+) hetu '0) udaharana '1) upanaya and '2) nigamana. In pararthanumana /nowledge is obtained by the self 'svayam4nanatma/a). the other cannot exist. 5e have already discussed about the number of constituent propositions that the -ainas present. The absence of the cause will entail the absence of the effect9 similarly. ten propositions would be required for explaining the process of inference. there would be no cold. To infer the nature of the 4uice from the fruit is the inference from cause to effect. the nature of the fruit would be from effect to cause. . fire and cold are contrary to each other. This /nowledge and inference is not meant for one who already /nows and has the /nowledge of the methodology or reasoning. + The conceptional content of pararthanumana has to be communicated in the propositional form for the sa/e of giving /nowledge to others.varthanumana is meant for self-expression. The question arises regarding the number of constituent propositions forming pararthanumana. '+) hetu. The absence of fire on the hill will entail the inference of the absence of smo/e. It is communicated for the sa/e of others. 6enerally five constituent propositions are accepted.an/hya philosophers say that there are three constituent propositions 'avayava)3 '() pa/sa. *imamsa/as mention four constituent propositions9 '() pa/sa. This type of inference is called e/arthasamavayi inference. In this. . &ut to men of dull intellect. In some cases it is possible to have a con4unction of effect as in the case of 4uice of many fruits. In the affirmative form of communication the universal relation of the presence of the effect or the thing having attribute. the minor premise are sufficient for inferring the conclusion. Inference from the negative relation of universality would be virodhi sadhana. when we get up early in the morning. the presence of smo/e on the hill entails the inference of the presence of fire. two propositions mentioning the ma4or term and middle term in one proposition and the second. &ut to infer from the 4uice. If one exists.or instance.or instance.or instance. 6enerally for an intelligent man. a person communicates his reasoning or the methods of reasoning for the sa/e of coming to the conclusion to other person who does not /now. It is communicated through the propositional form 'avayava). PARARTHANUMANA (INFERENCE FOR OTHERS) ararthanumana is inference meant for others. we proceed from effect to the cause. Dogicians are not agreed on this point.the cause of that event. because there is the co-existence of the cause and the effect or the attribute and the ob4ect. ( . This type of communication in pararthanumana may be considered in two forms3 '() affirmative and '+) negative. In the presence of the fire. AVAYAVA (CONSTITUENT PROPOSITION OF INFERENCE) ararthanumana has to be communicated in propositional forms for the sa/e of giving /nowledge to others. &oth of them are based on the universal relation between the sadhya and sadhana.yaya mentions five constituent propositions li/e3 '() pa/sa.

Therefore. there is smo/e in this hill. Bdaharana is. the presence of the smo/e is a symptom for the presence of the fire. and also the examples.+ It. It expresses the middle and minor term and says that this particular situation falls under the category of the ma4or premise. The inference based on five constituent propositions may be summari!ed as follows3 '() rati4na--there is fire on the hill. '2) .( . It is the restatement in a final form what was intended to be proved in the prati4na. '1) Bpanaya--this hill has smo/e. 5hile Aristotelian ma4or premise impurely deductive and formal.or instance. which examples the universal proposition and in which there is the universal relation between the ma4or and the middle term. In the Aristotelian tense it is a ma4or premise. This form of inference is based on the universality or relation between the middle term and the ma4or term in the positive sense of the existence of the relation.or example. &ut in the udaharana. It is the result of the application of the vyapti and pa/sa dharmata.or instance. the statement would be Jwhere there is smo/e there is fire as for example in the /itchenJ. ( UPANAYA Bpanaya is the application of the universal proposition to a particular situation. we say therefore9 there is fire on the hill. which shows the universal relation in the absence as in the case of the absence of fire in the water. although we can say the presence of the smo/e does not entail the presence of fire. AGAMA . therefore.PRATIJNA rati4na is the first proposition. '+) Hetu--because there is smo/e.igamana refers to the conclusion. .igamana--therefore this hill has fire. NIGAMANA . '0) Bdaharana--where there is smo/e there is fire. 0 . a combination of the deductive and inductive process. It is the statement of what is to be proved. UDAHARANA Bdaharana is the statement of the ma4or premise containing the universal relation between the ma4or and middle term. for example in the /itchen. It expresses the statement regarding the ma4or term. + . it is called sadharana drstanta. there is also the example.or example. which mentions the presence of the middle term. HETU Hetu is the statement of reason. and this is the application of a particular situation to the general proposition. which we arrive at finally on the basis of the combination of minor and ma4or premises. we state there is fire on the hill. states--because there is smo/e.

He is not afflicted by mithyatva. present and the future. ( It is the aptavacana.Agama is testimony. He is free from hatred and attachment. . Aptapurusa is the man of authority. The statements of an aptapurusa 'the authority) are valid for all the time--past.rom the practical point of view statement of such an aptapurusa is important. It is the acceptance of the truthful statements of worthy man. 5e have already discussed about the agama as a pramana in the earlier chapter. . In the pararthanumana aptatva is not necessary while in the agama it would be necessary. He is the expert in the sub4ect and he /nows how to present his /nowledge in a sub4ect in a proper form. Tirthan/aras are considered to be the aptapurusa par-excellence. He is ob4ective in his approach and has no pre4udices or bias.

>ery often the virtuous lead miserable life. '+) urvoddhrta /arma sastra which is based on the purvas and elaborated on the basis of the doctrines given in the purvas.ata/a. The /arma theory is elaborated in the purvoddhrta literature coming after the purvas and based upon original discussion in the purvas. '0) ra/arani/a /arma sutra. #igambara tradition gives importance to .aptati/a.at/handagama and 7asayaprabhrta as the two important wor/s dealing with /arma theory. They have infact built a science of /arma theory. LITERATURE ON KARMA THEORY -aina Diterature on /arma theory is very vast C thought provo/ing. a part of the second purva is also called 7arma rabhrta. The Indian philosophers presented the theory of /arma as a possible solution to the inequality in life. we have numerous wor/s and they are based on the purvoddhrta /arma literature. except the :arva/a accept the doctrine of /arma. 7arma . we find abundant material scattered in various philosophical literatures both agamic and non-agamic on the doctrine of /arma. anca sangraha and .ome are happy while others are miserable. &ad men are happy. In the ra/arani/a /arma sastras. Dater literature of the /arma literature is the elaboration of the /arma theory. If we study the -aina literature on this sub4ect.Part . as much of the purva literature is lost. . we can ma/e three divisions of the /arma literature3 '() purvatma/a /arma sastras. All the systems of Indian philosophy. we find that -ainas have made substantial contributions to the literature of the /arma theory. This form of literature was given during the periods from >i/rama H th century to the (Gth and (@th century.vetambara tradition we have 7arma ra/tri. They are called as /arma sastras or /arma granthas.imilarly. . origination from the sources of the purvas. there is evident inequality in the status and the experiences of individual men. These are the purvoddhrta granthas. It we study the -aina canonical literature. KAR&A5A*A KAR&A5A*A0 A Syno!sis THE IMPORTANCE OF KARMA THEORY The doctrine of /arma is the most important doctrine in Indian thought. In the literature dealing with the theory of /arma. In this world. Though some purvoddhrta /arma sastras are available to us but there are slight variations in the presentation of the theory of /arma in the two traditions. The nature of the development cannot be easily explained. A part of the fifth purva is called 7asaya rabhrta. The -ainas have given a systematic study of /arma theory based on rational considerations. There is a discussion on the /arma theory in these wor/s. 7arma is the basic pre-supposition of Indian thought.everal attempts have been made in the different philosophies of the world to find out an adequate solution to the problems of inequality in life. In the . according to both the traditions of the -ainas. we find that H th purva out of the (1 purvas relate to the discussion about the theory of /arma and it is called 7arma ravada. it is an elaborate discussion about the development of the theory of /arma as discussed in /arma literature. . . In addition to the specific writings on /arma theory.

Ladrchchavada. there is the description of the importance of the /ala as a first cause of the universe and is the basis of life and death and happiness and misery of all beings. . san/ramana/arana. There is also a #igambara wor/ called ra/rt ancasangraha. There are svopa4nabhasya also on these wor/s. which attempt to explain the inevitable equality among man. There are other commentaries 'ti/a) written on this wor/ acaryas li/e *alayagiri and Lasovi4aya. It appears that the #igambara wor/ was not found to be consistent with the agamic version. urvatma/a and purvoddhrta literature is to be mainly found in ra/rt language. There is a good deal of literature on the /arma theory in the regional languages li/e--7annada. apavartana/arana. which creates and destroys. =n the whole.vetambara tradition. In the Atharvaveda. the earliest independent wor/ on the /arma theory is the 7arma ra/rti of . The ra/arani/a /arma literature is also to be found in ra/rt literature along with its commentaries. . 5or/s in 7annada and Hindi mainly belong to the #igambara tradition and wor/s in 6u4arati refer to . They are in sams/rt. it would be necessary to examine the other theories. Dater writings on /arma theories are generally in . . It has 1@2 gathas. 0 . In this way. udirana/arana. In the . There is a commentary ':urni) on this boo/. 7ala is the determining principle. 7arma-stava. 7ala has created the earth 'prthvi). udvartana/arana. we find there is abundant literature in the -aina sastras on the theories of /arma. In the *ahabharata.vetambara literature comes to about two la/hs of slo/as. which is earlier than this wor/.iyativada. There is also a description of the concepts of udaya and satta of /armic matter.ivasarma . upasamna/arana. 5e mention a few of them li/e 7alavada. There are other wor/s li/e 7armavipa/a.vabhavavada. urusavada. KARMA THEORY AND THE OTHER DOCTRINES &efore we study the nature of the theory of /arma.+ there is an independent su/ta for describing the importance of /ala 'time). the literature on /arma theory is very vast and we may estimate that the #igambara writing constitute about 2 la/hs of slo/as and . Therefore. a disciple of arsvarsi has written pancasangraha and svopa4navrtti on the /arma theory. Acarya . #aivavada C urusarthavada. &hutavada. Acarya ahs discussed in his wor/ the eight processes of the /armic mechanism li/e bandhana/arana.. Hindi and 6u4arati. :andrarsi *ahattara. All the beings of the world depend on /ala. The eyes perceive things due to /ala. In this su/ta. . :andrarsi *ahattara wrote this 'new) ancasangraha. There is nothing more powerful than /ala. &andha-svamitva.rom the point of language in which the /arma theory has been presented we find there is abundant literature in pra/rt sams/rt and regional languages.uri.ata/a. /ala has been described as the first cause of the universe. It is the lord of ra4apati.( There is a brief discussion about these theories in the wor/s mentioned below.vetambara tradition.aptati/a and .ams/rt. 7ala is the Isvara.everal theories have been presented.ivasarma has also written a sata/a on /arma theory and *alayagiri as written a commentary on this. it is the basis of the sun and the heat of the sun. ( KALAVADA (THEORY OF TIME) According to the theory of 7alavada the various states of existence and happiness and misery of individual beings are determined by /ala. 7ala is the first of the gods. #evendrasuri has written five wor/s on /arma theory based on the early wor/s on this sub4ect. let alone the human beings. It determines the good and bad of actions. Acarya *alayagiri has written a sams/rt commentary on this. nidhatti/arana and ni/acana/arana.

even pulses and rice can be coo/ed due to their very nature. The beings in this world experience the pain and sufferings through six types of resistance. living being entering into the womb of the mother.vabhavavada and it has been stated that according to this theory. we get beautiful description of niyativada and a/riyavada. the nature of the event or the ob4ect is the determining factor. 1 Acarya Haribhadra in his .astravartasamuccaya.othing happens contrary to its nature. . ( The &hagavadgita+ and *ahabharata have given a description of svabhavavada. and urana 7asyapa advocated niyativada.imilarly.vabhava plays an important part in the lie incident and experiences of individual beings. In the &uddhist literature. Having gone through the H1 la/hs of maha/alpa and wheel of life.vetasvatara Bpanisad mentions svabhavada. &ut the &uddhist tripita/as and the -aina agamas have given exhaustive discussion about this theory of niyativada. Lesterday is dean and tomorrow is unborn. In the #igghani/aya samannaphala sutta. &ut later the disciples urana 7asyapa 4oined the fold of the disciples of a4ivi/as.reedom of will has no place in the niyativada. the childhood and all other incidents connected with life and experience.vetasvatara Bpanisad. 5e do not /now the future and it is not desirable to swing from hopes and fears. . The western philosopher . 5e cannot change the past because the past has already gone. + >ya/hyapra4napati0 and Bpasa/adasanga 1 have given adequate description of niyativada. . 5hat is to happen must happen. . 5e cannot say that we change our destiny and that by our efforts we can build up our personality. -iyati-vada 8&heory o0 ne%essity--e%essarianis29 According to this theory. In fact.or example. 7ala is awa/e when everyone is asleep. we get the description of . everything ta/es place according to its nature. 7ala is the destroyer of everyone. the wise and ignorant are li/e to become free from misery.aiyayi/as gave time very important status equal to the creation of the universe. .pino!a says that it is due to ignorance that we say that we are free and that freedom of the will is an important factor.2 SVABHAVAVADA (THEORY OF NATURE) According to this theory. has no other reason except its very necessity. There is not external force. $verything is determined and there is nothing left to chance. are determined by time. the various stages of life li/e the childhood and old age are determined by the nature of the individual.2 . must happen. everything happens out of necessity. It is not possible to transgress the limits of /ala and it is not possible to have any events or experiences in the absence of /ala. 2 There is not much of a difference between niyativada and a/riyavada.0 In the &uddhacarita. It is therefore not proper to blame anyone neither for the failure nor to offer praises for the success. G . the good is necessary and has no other external reason. there is not change in that. The first mention of the niyativada is to be found in the .utra/rtanga.( In the -aina agamic literature also. This theory of svabhavavada does not recogni!e the creator or the controller of the universe except the very nature of the ob4ects and events. the pointedness of the thorns and the variety in the birds and animals is due to the very nature of these things.vabhavavada does not recogni!e the will or efforts of the individual. there is a description of niyativada as given by *an/hali 6osala/a.In the .or every action. .astravarta--samuccaya. . 5hatever happens. They agree in their fundamental principles. $verything is determined. 1 The concept of ETimeE is so important in philosophy that the . says that according to svabhavavada the events and experiences are determined by the very nature of the ob4ects. it has been stated that time determines everything. it has been suggested that a/udha 7atyayana. . According to *an/hali 6osala/a the evil that living beings do.

is not real. therefore. . the reasons and ground of the reasons. ahetuvada and yadrchhavada. It has been referred to by various names li/e a/asmatvada. it is not necessary to explain the causal relation between the different things. water. say that the yadrchhavada is a very ancient theory. prthvi 'earth). In the . whatever is amenable to sense is alone real. ma/e a machine running in order.( YADRCHHAVADA (ACCIDENTALISM) According to Ladrchhavada. whatever happens. . it is difficult to refute its theory because refutation would be a form of niyati according to them. there is no relation between the cause and the effect. animittavada.antiparva of *ahabharata2 and . -ust as the assembly of small parts of a machine. the states of a thing and its destruction are all determined. + According to the . happens accidentally without any reason. *aterial and mental phenomena are due to these four elements.ome philosophers identify svabhavavada with yadrchhavada but it would be apt to say that there are some differences in the sense that svabhavavada ma/es svabhava 'nature).o also the combination of different forms of the four elements gives rise to consciousness. Therefore. 4ala 'water). Ladrchha means accident and without any reason. Bnder these circumstances. beatle leaves and lime we get red color.imilarly. but expressing the materialistic approach of the atman in the sense that the atman is the product of the elements.ecessity devours everything. There is neither the cause nor reason for happening of the event. ( :onsciousness is a by-product of the metabolic changes in the organism. It has been suggested that body and mind are not separated. the soul and god are unreal. Ladrchhavada refers to animittavada and according to this theory. fire and air. 5hen the body is destroyed. if the body is destroyed. It is in this sense materialistic and pragmatic in its approach. the other world. There is no atman that is different from this element. The #arwinian theory of evolution is an expression of this . vayu 'air) and a/asa 'space). there is the mention of tat4iva-tatsariravada and pancabhutavada. &ut yadrchhavada altogether denies the causal relation.Acarya Haribhadra while describing the nature of the niyativada states that everything is determined by the origination of a thing in a particular way. Those philosophers who advocate the theory of atman are doing nothing. no explanation can be given for any phenomenon. . ratya/sa is the only pramana. 1 . In this sense. This theory is also called anatmavada or nasti/avada. by mixing beatle nut. a/aranavada.yayasutraG 5e can.@ BHUTAVADA (THEORY OF ELEMENTS) The &hutavada maintains that everything in the universe is due to primary elements li/e earth.utra/rtanga. heaven and hell. the cause of the event. There is nothing li/e a spiritual substance. In this theory. . The theory of pancabhutavada says that 4iva is the product of the combination of the five bhutas 'elements).0 5e can find the mention of yadrchhavada in the . 5hatever is not verifiable to sense-experience. . There is a difference between tat4iva and tatsariravada and pancabhutavada in that the former maintains that the soul and body are identical while the later maintains that soul and consciousness are products of the combination of the five bhutas. There is nothing outside these elements. the soul is also destroyed. consciousness is also destroyed. because it denies the consciousness of mind or 6od.vetasvatara upanisad. agni 'fire). The function utility is the only criterion or activity of reality.aiyayi/as. According to the theory of elements. the body is found due to the combination of the elements and when the body is destroyed the elements are separated and there is no trace of the atman at all.o also the organism disintegrates if the limbs are destroyed.

There is nothing as fate or destiny which i supreme. of /ala. 5e are children of fate. THE JAINA VIEW The -aina view of /arma presents a synthesis of determinism and free will. 5e have to suffer the onslaughts of destiny and experience the fruits of /arma. . Isvara is the creator. #estiny shapes our end and we have to experience the /arma determined by fate. Isvara is the efficient cause. PURUSARTHAVADA (THEORY OF SELF EFFORT) According to the theory of self-effort. sustainer and the destroyer of the universe. niyati. in its creation. consciousness is a form of matter and evolute of matter. 5e have to find out the causes and the predominance of one or the other in the complexity of things. ( urusavada can be distinguished into two forms. The interaction between matter and space and their association is due to Isvara. therefore. therefore. sustenance and the destruction of the universe. urusavada is. so also purusabrahma is the efficient cause of the entire universe. #aivavada accepts the authority of /arma as a determining factor in the prevalent inequality of status. The intelligence and the power of Isvara remain intact even at the time or pralaya 'dissolution) of the universe. which is theistic. in a sense. Isvaravadins maintain that matter and spirit are primordial and original substances. Isvara is the person who is responsible for the origination. protection and the destruction of the universe. individual 4iva is responsible for shaping its destiny. theistic in approach. PURUSAVADA (THE THEORY OF CREATOR) According to this theory. DAIVAVADA (THEORY OF FATE) #aivavada emphasi!es the predominance of fate. it is necessary to introspect and find out the causes of happiness and misery . It is the upadana /arana. *en are masters of their own destinies. as brahmavada and Isvaravada. and the &anyan tree is the cause of the numerous roots branching downwards. 5ithout Isvara. In this sense. the primary or the material cause. as it may be. The -ainas maintain that the thing of this world and the activities are complex and as they are complex and we cannot explain the causes of the things and activities with reference to one or the other cause li/e3 /ala.+ There is a distinction between daivavada and niyativada although they appear to be identical.&hauti/avada. the basic principle of the universe. . svabhava and purusartha. *an is a slave of fate. of the creation. which is the determining factor in the activity of man. It advocates the possibility of the development of the mind through the evolution from matter. nothing is possible and nothing moves. unexplainable. The moving finger writes and has written moves on9 not a word can be changed of it. maintenance and destruction. niyati. The principle of freedom of the will is the basis of this theory. &ut in the niyativada. He is the controller of the universe and he determines the nature of things and the movement of things. purusarthavada etc. it is necessary to introspect and find out the causes and the predominance of one or the other in the complexity of things. In this sense. fatalism and determinism are absolute. &rahmavada maintains that 4ust as the spider is the efficient cause of the web.ate or destiny predetermines everything. and inexplicable.elf-effort is the main cause of the success of our wor/ or the failure. &rahman is.

+ 5e have to ta/e a synoptic view of things and loo/ at these problems from the point of view of ane/anta 'many sided approach).ome others maintain that ra4apati &rahman is the ultimate source of this variety in this world. La4na were performed and oblations li/e material ob4ects and the living animals were offered in the ya4nas. . which cannot be ignored in explaining the inequality of the beings of the universe. The emphasis on /arma causally gains ground.ome accepted /ala and other prarabaha. . #hiyaspatih 'the protector of good /armas). and some others mentioned the view of svabhava and niyativada. ( Acarya Haribhadra also has supported this view. The question arises3 5hether the >edic seers were aware of the /arma theory or notF This has raised a controversy. vicarsanih and visvacarsanih 'the seer of the good and bad /armas) and visvasya /armano dharta 'the basis of all /armas). ( 5e have to consider the purusartha and daiva as playing their dual roles in the explanation of things. Therefore. it would not be an adequate explanation to maintain the cause of the phenomena of the universe and also the states of the 4ivas. there is no mention of the /arma theory. The -ainas do not accept the predominance of Isvara for explaining the living and the non-living substances of the universe. &ut self-effort and conscious effort ma/e towards attaining goal ma/es us give importance to purusa for understanding the result in activities. These mantras show that there is mention of the /armic theory although in a brief way.( &ut in the age of Aranya/as and Bpanisads there is a shift in the emphasis in the philosophical speculation. The second view emphasi!ed that although there is no specific and detailed discussion about the /arma theory in the >edic samhitas. it is necessary to postulate the reality of the material and the immaterial principle li/e matter and spirit for explaining the phenomena of the universe and giving an adequate explanation of the fruits of the /arma. A phenomenon or an event is complex and all the cause may operate in various degree. Acarya . in the >edic literature. This stream of thought could be traced in the age of the samhita and the &rahmanas. The >edas are the earliest records of the world. >edic philosophers explained the variety and the unique value is the state of individual being with reference to external reality.amantabhadra says that we have to see/ the causes for the effect born without any individual efforts in fate or destiny. Acarya . The first view maintains that the >edic seers were not aware of the /arma theory.ubhaspatih 'the protector of the subha /armas). there are mentions of the /arma theory in the >edas. &ut all of them loo/ed outward to see/ the causes of the complexity in the universe.ome said that the elements are the root causes of the diversity in the world. In this way. monotheism and monism. &ut it is also true that the upanisads were not agreeing regarding the diversity in the world. maintenance and destruction of the universe. The invocation to gods and the performance in the ya4na become secondary. *any gods li/e *itra. . KARMAVADA (A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE) The study of /armavada in the historical perspective would require us to loo/ at the theory and its development from the >edic times C onwards. >aruna were worshiped and involved giving them happiness in this world.iddhasena #iva/ara says that it is not proper to give importance to one of the other.imilarly. It is not possible to accept that a material substance becomes a cause of the immaterial or the mental. If that were to be soul.within oneself. It is true that there is less discussion of /armavada in the >edic literature before upanisads. is to be found in some material source li/e the elements or the matter. The /arma theory in its . 7arma is an important factor. the cause has been referred as some divine destiny and we find the development of the thought in the Agveda has been from polytheism. There are two views on this sub4ect. In some cases daiva 'destiny) plays an important part and in some other way purusartha also play an equally important role. the very causal principle will have to be given out. It is necessary to posit a non-material substance li/e the pure consciousness for explaining the activities of the living beings. In the Agveda we get the following mantras3 . It would be fruit-less to believe that Isvara or &rahman is the primary cause of the origination. . According to this view.

The performance of ya4na has also been referred to as /arma. -iva continually ta/es birth and it dies in this world. =nce. *imamsa darsana introduced the concept of apurva for the purpose of distribution of fruits of /armas with the help of which the gods dispense /arma. under the guidance of adrsta. It is non-permanent and it exhausts itself the moment the fruits of ya4na are dispensed with. There is also the description that those who have sadharana /arma go to candralo/a through pitryana. and produces li/e attachment and hatred. + It goes moving upto infinite times. The &uddhistic say that the variety and inequality among living beings is due to /arma. it has also been suggested that one can reep the fruits of /arma gained by others through their activities. This current of thought is also to be found in the philosophical systems li/e . This we find in the urvamimamsa.an/hya and >edanta. ma vo eno anya/rtam bhu4emaJ etc. the 4iva acts through the body. Adrsta is the attribute of soul and it remains with the soul as long as the effect of the /arma is not dispensed. there is a description of sancita and prarabdha /arma. *en worship gods and pray to them for the sa/e of getting themselves away from the evil effects of /arma and rebirth. In the &rahmana we find a gradual substitution of ra4apati in the place of many gods and there is suggestion that the dispensation of /arma is done through ra4apati.an/hya considers /arma as a product of pra/rti. where the /arma resides. rimarily.agasena3 5hat is the effect of /arma according to the activity of the 4ivaF Acarya said. Therefore.yaya . speech and mind. these mantras have been recited.yaya. In this way. It has also been described that the 4iva due to its /arma ta/es different forms in the following mantras Jma vo bhu4emanya 4atamenoJ. ra4apati dispenses fruits according to different /armas acquired by individual beings. &ut the concepts li/e theory of . In the >edic literature. In the Agveda it has also been suggested that one who does auspicious /arma attain immortality 'amaratva). The >edic tradition gives importance to the /arma and its effects on the individual soul. 4ust li/e a 4udge dispenses 4udgement.rom the discussion of the two views regarding the development of the /arma theory in the >edic literature. In the >edic samhitas. The soul is affected by sams/ara through the effect of good and bad /armas. ( .esvara . a 4iva experiences the fruits of /arma due to the activities performed by oneself. In >aisesi/a thought adrsta has been mentioned as an attribute and it has two forms of dharma and adharma. >amadeva has given a description of many of his previous births. .( It is beginningless and endless.ams/ara is a disposition to the /armic effect. there is emphasis on ya4na /arma and gradually gods have been involved for the sa/e of equitable distribution of /arma. The &uddhists have given elaborate discussion on the invisible effects of /arma. /ing *ilinda as/ed . The . &ut this dispensation needed an agency.ate and ya4na have gained prominence and /arma theory becomes secondary. ( If Isvara were not be dispense the fruits of /arma to the 4iva the fruits of /arma would be meaningless. 0 .real form can be traced to Agveda. although there is mention of the concept of /arma. + The good and evil tendencies are influenced by sams/ara. >aisesi/a. wheel of samsara moves on eternal. The .chool considers dharma and adharma as sams/aras. it may be noted that there has not been a full fledged discussion of the developed theory of /arma in the >edic literature. . but sometimes through a peculiar influence of a peculiar power. 0 #ue to the infatuation and the effect of emotion. one 4iva can experience the fruits of the /arma of the other 4iva. BUDDHIST CONCEPTION OF KARMA The &uddhist and -aina philosophies belong to the sramana current of thought which give emphasis on /arma. 5e do not get adequate discussion about the nature of /arma and the mechanism of the wor/ing of the /arma. Attempts have also been made to integrate /arma theory with the theory of ya4na. 5e also find that the development of the ya4na theory has also led to the development of the devavada 'theory of deities). although the development of the theory is to be fund later. it cannot be shown.

avidya. it is needed for postulating vasana for explaining variety in the universe. According to the .e.In the >isuddhimaggo. In the &uddhist terminology.unyavadins. pra/rti. asaya. G The sautranti/as have considered /arma as arupa 'having no form). apurva.+ The . According to the >aisesi/as. considered. /arma and of Isvara is due to vasana. activity that is primarily of Isvara also or of pradhana-all these are the streams of vasana. adrsta. In the smarta tradition. The -aina analysis of /arma is scientific and they have developed the science of /arma. There is enormous literature in the study of -aina theory of /arma. for explaining the phenomenal reality in the world and the consequent inequality in the world. sams/ara. The &uddhists have used the word vasana and avi4napti for explaining the varieties in the universe.2 This type of description can be considered sapratigha and not apratigha. /arma or activity is an inherent category of the substance. And they do not accept the avi4napta nature of /arma. which does not believe in the theory of /arma and does not accept soul as a substanceF :arva/a does not also believe in the concepts li/e the past life. says in other words. The -ainas have made a special contribution to the study of /arma theory. therefore.an/hya used the word asaya in a specific sense and we find the use of the words adrsta sams/ara and dharmadharma in the . we find the use of the concepts li/e maya. The &uddhists have traced the variety and the inequalities of the 4ivas to the /arma. vasana. the other world and the other transcendental concepts. punya and papa have been freely used. In Indian thought it is only the :arva/a darsana. and pra/rti. movement upwards and movement downwards as forms of /arma. bhagya. engrossment in action. &hava/arma is psychic in nature. The other systems of Indian philosophy have used different concepts li/e maya. /arma means activity. /arma is described as formless 'arupi). that the /arma. 1 The . In the >edanta darsana. They considered mental sams/aras as vasana and bodily and speech sams/aras as avi4napti. which merge into the ocean of vasana only. The grammarian anini has defined /arma as that which is palatable to the doer is /arma. daiva. bhagya etc. $tymologically. it is described as vasana and avi4napti. KAMRA IN DIFFERENT TRADITIONS The -ainas have given the specific content for the conception of /arma. therefore. @ The &uddhists have considered /arma as 'subtle) su/sma. &odily.an/hya school described /arma as the expression of disposition 'sams/ara) 0 The &hagavadgita mentions /arma as J/armasilataJ.. dharmadharma.H The vi4nanavadins have described /arma as vasana. The *imamsa uses the term apurva. the due itEs of the four stages of life 'asrama) and the four >arnas are referred to as /arma. 1 Abhidharma/osa describes /arma as avi4napti 'inexpressible). movement in general. mental and speech activities are described with reference to /arma and they are considered to be vi4napta and pratya/sa. The -ainas have mentioned two forms of /arma 'bhava /arma and dravya /arma).yaya >aisesi/a. ra4na/ara says that all activities whether it is of pra/rti 'pradhana). it refers to the psychic states responsible for the activities and dravya /arma refers to the material particle /arma accruing to the soul and vitiating the pure nature of the soul. It is /riya/anda. 2 7arma is material in nature according to the -ainas and it obscures the pure nature of the soul. it refers to any activity in this life. ( To the *imamsa/as. ( . the neissance 'avidya) which is beginningless is to be considered as vasana.yayasastra refers to the activities li/e expansion and contraction. . $ven if we consider Isvara to be the 4udge dispensing /arma. avidya. i. 5e can. It is that which is not a quality nor con4unction or dis4unction of ob4ects. In many of the schools of Indian philosophy the term daiva. Acarya Amrtcandra says that the influx of /arma is due to the activities 'yoga) that the soul has in contact with the pudgala. /arma is considered to be the performance of the ya4na.

+1 gunas and adrsta is one of the gunas. Aaga and dvesa 'attachment and hatred) give rise to sams/ara9 sams/ara give rise to birth and 4anma is again responsible for raga and dvesa. mental and speech) are affected by the passions and the emotional upsets li/e attachment and hatred etc. Isvara is maya4anya 'the product of maya).. /lesa and sams/ara are the root causes of the wheel of life and they are beginningless. &ut it the >aisesi/a darsana. This is the wheel of life. -iva gets engaged in activities in bodily. they have been included in adrsta. /arma and apurva.According to the . which is beginningless. dvesa and abhinivesa.+ The >edantins have used the concept of avidya and maya for explaining the variety in the universe. Therefore. Apurva is the potency born of the performance of duties mentioned in the in4unction of the >edas. complexity. the three-fold activity of the 4iva 'body. These complexities create sams/ara. . The relation between the two is samavayi 'inherent).0 The &uddhists maintain that the dispositions born out of mental crisis are vasana and the dispositions arising out of the speech and bodily activities are avi4napti. The body is also material. >aisesi/as have given. The two are the finest particles of matter and we can say that the atoms constituting /arma are the material ob4ects. The /armic particles affecting the soul are called /arma-varganas. . The lobha 'greed) dvesa 'hatred) and moha 'infatuation) produce /arma. they affect the different paryayas of the soul. The bondage by chain is material. In the way.ams/ara has also been referred to as asaya. which are responsible for constituting the body. The earth particles are physical in nature. *an is in bondage due to handcuffs. It is different from dharma-dharma and sams/ara. the soul gets obscured and its pure nature is obscured and not destroyed due to the influx of /arma. he gets intoxicated by liquor and becomes unconscious by chloroform.yaya + school of thought. the root-cause of sams/ara is beginningless.an/hya Loga darsana. yet material in nature. and also resulting in inequality are due to the five /lesas3 li/e avidya. In this sense. The /armic bondage is subtle. #harma and adharma can be considered to be sams/ara. The particles of matter. These are material ob4ects.o/arma-varganasE. According to . dvesa and moha in turn.imilarly. . the experience of the fruits of /arma is due to the agency of Iswara. ( The *imamsa/as say that the various activities of men li/e the performance of ya4na gives rise to apurva and apurva gives rise and gives the fruits of all the activities li/e the performance of ya4na. the variety. 0 #harma and adharma have been included in sams/ara. The /armic particles enter the soul and vitiate its purity. The effect is very subtle and strong. mental and speech due to these emotional disturbances. In this form of description. These two are audgali/a 'physical) and so are the experiences of /armas audgali/a. and it consequently gives rise to dharma and adharma. 5hile in4ury by sastra 'weapons) brings du//ha. are called E. It is of lesser strain that the bondage of 4iva by /arma. He dispenses the fruits of /arma. so also these disturbances and activities produce the lobha. 1 THE NATURE OF KARMA ACCORDING TO JAINISM The -ainas have considered /arma as material in nature. raga. The /armic particles envelop the soul but do not destroy the real nature of the soul. alatable food brings the experience of pleasure. The other forms of activities are not considered to be apurva. so also ob4ects formed out of earth particles. 7arma is material in nature. They have an obscuring function. vasana.

It has no element of 4adatva. . body and mind and the EfusionE of the /armic particles with the soul ta/es place 4ust as water mixes with mil/. In the &hava/arma there is the atmic aspect which is predominant. we should note that the impact of /arma on the soul.rom the point of view of bondage 'bandha). &ut the -ainas use the word /arma in the sense of the after-effect of activities. -iva is amurta but it gives occasions for the bondage of /arma. 4iva becomes occasion 'ava/asarupa) of the bondage of /arma. 5hile pudgala is material and is unconsciousness 'acetana). ( The murta experiences murta only. + -iva attracts the /arma-varganas by the activity. Therefore. which is immaterial. speech and mind. The ob4ects of sense organs are the experiences of touch. #ravya/arma or the &hava/arma are both to be considered in material nature.. bodily. murta binds the murta. If both have the same forms of combination. In this way. . which is threefold i. if &hava/arma ahs the atmic aspect as predominant what is the difference between the soul and &hava/armaF The answers to these questions can be found in the analysis of the nature of the soul as the doer '/arta) and the en4oyer of the fruits of /arma 'bho/ta). . 4iva and in4ury by sastra 'weapons) brings du//ha. It is not possible to say that the 4ivatva and the . The question has been as/ed that if /arma were considered to be material particles. These two are correlative. interaction of #ravya/arma and &hava/arma has been from beginningless time. The soul that it is bondage in this wheel of transmigration attracts the particles through the activities of speech. . smell. taste.imilarly. It is pure consciousness. + 5hile discussing the /arma theory. And also has the characteristic of consciousness as synthesis.e. the auspicious and inauspicious activities have been referred to as /arma. -iva is immaterial and formless and is characteri!ed by cetana. but same 4iva with reference to the conscious aspects is consciousness. A further question rises regarding such synthesis of the material and the consciousness elements in the empirical 4iva and also in the /arma.imilarly. This has been the process for beginningless time. but the question of the presence or the absence of material or immaterial nature is not very important. The mu/ta 4iva is free from this bondage. the experience of pleasure and pain are murta and so are /armic particles. which are the causes of this experiences. 7arma and the tendency to activity are intimately related with each other with the mutually casual relation. There is not possibility of pointing out the extent to which the 4ivatva and the /armatva could be distinguished in measurable distinctions. #ravya/arma affects the &hava/arma and &hava/arma affects the #ravya/arma. The interaction of the material and the immaterial and the process of interaction have to be considered. -ust as the seed becomes the tree and the tree gives the seeds. what is the difference in between the /arma C 4ivaF The empirical 4iva with reference to /arma as 4adatva. They are mutually interactive. The /armic encrustations with the 4iva are due to these activities and the activities are in turn specificated by the /armic encrustations. There is the mixture of the :aitanya 'consciousness) and the 4adatva 'material in nature).o are the indriyas 'sense organs) which are the medium of experiences and expressions. it is primarily psychological9 while in the #ravya/arma the aspect of the material particles is prominent. The mundane souls are in bondage of the /arma. ( In this way. .rom the point of view of their nature they are different. They are murta 'having form). #ravya and bhava /arma have the elements of the material nature and the element of consciousness is an aspect of soul are prominent. /arma is of two forms3 'i) #ravya/arma and 'ii) &hava/arma. *oreover. form and sound. In this way. the /armic particles of encrustations and the yoga of the 4iva are mutually interactive. it is necessary to understand the distinction between the samsari 4iva 'mundane souls) and the mu/ta 4ivas.. has been studied in this perspective. there is the synthesis of the consciousness elements and the materiality of the body.imilarly. In the Bpanisads C the &hagavadgita. what would be the distinction between the pudgala and /arma.

i. between the pure 4iva and pure /arma as matter. ( 6autama as/ed *ahavira. In such cases. we can point out that there is absolute distinction. J= 6autama8 the 4iva that suffers misery is involved to suffer more misery. There is this distinction. &ut the fusion as apparent. while empirical soul has form. The souls that are bound by the /arma get themselves further bound by the /arma. The empirical soul is involved in the wheel of transmigration from the beginningless time. we can mention the three stages of the soul and pudgala /arma3 one. 6autama as/ed *ahavira3 &hagavan8 Is the 4iva that is in misery. asamyata 'non-selfcontrolled) samyata-samyata 'partially self-controlled)F . &ut the soul that is free has no bondage. affected by miseryF =r the 4iva that is not in misery affected by miseryF *ahavira said. Therefore. through passion and the increase of misery. The sorrows afflict those 4ivas. They give to the influx of asubha /arma 'inauspicious /arma). having no form. &hagavan8 5ho binds the /arma samyata 'self-controlled). it sheds off the /armic particles accruing to it. In the mundane soul and in the phenomenal existence these absolute distinctions are not amenable to empirical investigations. The relation between the /arma and the 4iva has neither beginning and is neither prior nor the posterior. &ut in the highest stage of perfection. -ust as the material ob4ects li/e the 4aggery and the flowers when mixed and collected give rise to the intoxicating quality. . are not in bondage. It is bound by the /arma from the beginningless time and has been affected thereby. the absolute distinction between /armic matter and the pure soul and consciousness. have no /armic bond. + The 4ivas which are free from attachment 'moha) are called vitaragi and in their activity there is subha/arma. And the souls.e. 5e can say that the soul that is bound gets itself involved in bondage. the material aspects of /arma is encrusted with the immaterial self. The liberated 4iva is arupi. but the 4iva that is free from attachment and misery does not experience misery. The souls that are free from misery do not attract sorrow. In this sense.( #ue to the rise of mohaniya /arma9 passions li/e ragadvesa 'attachment and hatred) are produced. two. the amurta 4iva being involved in the wheel of life due to /arma is murta and therefore the 4iva has both the affects the rupi and the arupi aspects. WHO BINDS THE KARMA% The /armic bondage is possible only to those who are in bondage.uddha atman 'pure soul) in the state of perfection and 0. How can there be relation between themF This is a natural question that has been as/ed. .uddha pudgala 'pure /armic matter).. which are free from bondage. which suffer from sorrow. The answer to this question lies in the phenomenal nature of the 4iva in the samsara. 0 The new bondage of the soul by the /arma is not dependent of the earlier bondage. -ivas who are in bondage get the encrustation of /arma more and more. which are free from the /armic matter. The empirical soul is always engaged in activity and when it is free from empirical activity. The 4iva that has been in bondage due to /arma is considered to be having form.4adatva are to be distinguished separately in the empirical existence. The commingling of the /armic matter and the atomic element in the samsari 4iva. so also. The empirical nature of the individual soul has been referred to as having the characteri!ation of /artrtva and bho/trtva. The souls. The distinction is not primary. RELATION BETWEEN ATMAN AND THE KARMAN Atman or soul is immaterial while /arma is material in nature.

which is active. *ahavira replied.amavayanga 2th .thananga0. that the perversity which is the cause of the bondage of /arma is developed by attachment and hatred. + Aaga and dvesa bring about the bondage of the eightfold of /arma. #ue to darsanamoha /arma arises mithyatva-perversity of attitude and from the mithyatva /armic influx arises. *ithyatva 'perversity) +. CAUSE OF KARMIC BONDAGE The bondage of the soul with the /arma is from the beginningless time. 0@).( The bondage based on pra/rti and pradesa is possible due to yoga.amavaya and Bmasvati have pointed out the five types of /armic bondage3 (. 0 Aaga-dvesa are considered to be bhava/arma.2 The /armic bondage is of four parts depending on the processes of the /armic influx. 7asaya is of four types3 7rodha 'anger). 2 5e should remember.e. still the /armic flow may ta/e place. They are pra/rti--the nature of /arma. *oha is not only responsible for deluding /nowledge. In the development of the stages of selfreali!ation.+ assions are a primary force for the bondage of /arma. sthiti--the relation or duration.rom the darsanavaraniya /arma comes the darsanamoha /arma.o also the /armic particles get glued to the soul due to raga-dvesa. iryapathi/a bandha 'bondage without passions) 1 and have been described to be of two samayas in the Bttaradhyayana sutra '+?. passions can be considered of two types.. Loga 'activity). 0 In the case of the souls that are free from passions. The intensity of attachment and hatred crowds the understanding and brings the perversity of outloo/. It is temporary and it is called. It clouds the capacity of discrimination. but there is the absence of passions. the bondage having the force of passions. moha 'delusion factor) as causes of the /armic bondage. + The . 7asaya 'passion) and 2. In brief.1 In short. and greed and in dvesa. Avirati 'lac/ of self-control). the /armic bondage due to passion would not be possible. we find the anger and egoity included.aiyayi/as say that mithya4nana is a cause of moha.thananga and ra4napana have mentioned four causes of /armic bondage. G . the two causes of passion and yoga wor/ upto the (M th gunasthana and the bondage due to these two causes is considered to . The &uddhists also. but it is only due to the activity 'yoga). but the question arises what are the causes of this bondage and 6autama as/ed *ahavira. The empirical 4iva. mana 'egoity) maya 'deceitfulness) and lobha 'greed). assions bring the intensity and duration of /arma. 0. and it is affected by /arma.u/halal4i says that according to #igambara tradition the duration of the bondage of the iryapathi/a /arma is one samaya. pradesa 'the extension of /armic particles). Aaga and dvesa include all the four forms of passions. gets itself bound by the /arma. J6autama8 The self-controlled. the not self-controlled and the partial self-controlled. andit . .&hagavana replied. Acarya Haribhadra says that 4ust as if a man anoints oil on his body and the anointed body attracts the particles of dust deposited on the anointed body. . li/e the -ainas consider mithya4nana 'perverse /nowledge). while the sthiti and anubhaga are due to passions. ( In raga 'attachment) deceitfulness. anubhaga 'the intensity of the experience of /arma). @() and ra4napana '+0.G The . J6autama8 the rise of the 4nanavaraniya /arma brings the intensity of the darsanavaraniya /arma. ramada 'negligence). the /armic bondage is possible due to two prominent causes3 '() 7asaya 'passions) and '+) Loga 'activity). 2 There is yoga 'activity) in this stage. (0. Therefore. '() raga and '+) dvesa. 1.amparayi/a bandha i. to explain the cause of the bondage. 1 The root-cause of ragadvesa is moha 'infatuation). . all of them attract the /armic particles. but for creating a false identification of the self with the external ob4ect and .

&ut we should reali!e that empirical soul is associated with the material /arma and the material /arma is the modification of the pure pudgala. we can say that the /arma is associated with the empirical 4iva from the phenomenal point of view and not from the noumenal point of view. -iva 'spiritual substance) cannot be intimately connected with /arma. Therefore. NISCAYA AND VYAVAHARA NAYA The -ainas have studied the /arma theory from both niscaya naya and the vyavahara naya. we can distinguish between the pure self 'suddha atman) and the pure matter 'suddha pudgala) and we cannot analyse the nature of the 4iva which is embodied and which is mixed with the /armic particles. . This association of the 4iva with the /armic particles is due to its activity 'yoga) in body. 4iva is not the doer of the /arma and the en4oyer of the fruits of /arma. The atman deludes itself to be all these. According to this view. they say the relation is farfetched. manas.ome philosophers have ignored this distinction and have analy!ed the nature of the /arma with reference to /artrtva and bho/trtva from the noumenal point of view.iscaya naya presents the pure nature of the self and the /arma so it cannot describe the /artrtva and bho/trtva of /arma by the soul.1 &hagavadgita2 and &rahmasutra have traced avidya to be the primary cause of bondage. because the conscious 4iva cannot be related to the un-conscious /arma. because in this. . whether /arma can be described in terms of /artrtva 'activity) and bho/trtva 'en4oyment) from the points of view of niscaya and vyavahara nayas. .with body. The /armic particles get associated with and they enter into the self who is the empirical individual and not the pure self. Therefore. does not transform itself into /armic particles on its own but this transformation is possible due to the soulEs activity. which is unconscious and material. This has created several problems. there would not be a question of the inter-mingling of the 4iva and the /armic particles.iscaya naya presents the real nature of the ob4ects in its intrinsic value without reference to any other ob4ect. this view has also ignored the /arma and the pure matter. because /arma is essentially material in nature and is not very much concerned with the immaterial 4iva. and the soul cannot act upon it. In this way. 0 Bpanisads. which is pure. .+ The Loga darsana mentions that /lesa 'mental disturbances) are the causes of the /armic bondage and /lesa is caused by avidya. . . This inter-mingling of the /arma with the soul is very often compared with the mixing of water and mil/. G The question arises. there is contradiction to say that the two descriptions vary without conflict. feelings. ( In this analysis.rom the noumenal point of view. etc. the other Indian systems of thought are in broad agreement with the conceptual content of the -aina theory of bondage although there is wide variation in the use of terminology. there is confusion in the nature and the function of the suddha 4iva and samsari 4iva 'empirical individual). In this sense. the 4iva is not considered to be related with the material /arma with reference and en4oyment.@ >aisesi/as support this view. mind and speech. >yavaharanaya is the practical point of view which loo/s at the ob4ects in relation to other ob4ects. They as/ a question regarding the relation between the immaterial 4iva and the material /arma.imilarly. Their 4urisdiction is limited and distinct.H According to the . If the self and the matter were to be in their pure state only. the /armic particles are due to the matter as origination from matter. How can the immaterial 4iva be related to the material /armaF Therefore. the self is described in its pure state and /arma in its pure state. KARTRTVA (ACTIVITY) AND BHOKTRITVA OF THE KARMAN .an/hya philosophers perversity of outloo/ is the mithya4nana( and it is the cause of bondage. The sub4ect matter of both are different.iscaya naya is the noumenal point of view in which we loo/ at the ultimate nature of the ob4ects in its inherent quality. sense-organs. This is the cause of the /armic bondage. vyavahara naya can present a description of the nature of the empirical individual ego in relation to the /armic encrustation. Again matter. In this sense.

imitta) for her activity. In this sense. These terms of bondage and release are not relevant. what is the cause of the bhava/armaF The answer is.. the potter is not the cause of the pot although he prepares the pot. are free from the dravya/arma and therefore the bhava/arma does not affect them. we can say that 4iva which is empirical. In this sense. -iva also has been intimately associated with the /armic particles can be considered as 4ada and /arma because of its association with the 4iva can be described as having consciousness. who consider the relation of /arma with the soul from the noumenal point of view.imitta). 5hen the 4iva attains the siddhahood it is free from the certain material /arma. the individual 4iva in this world is the /arta of the /armic particles and the bho/ta of the fruits of /arma. Those. we can spea/ of the bondage and release of the soul from the shac/les of /arma and the /arma description with reference to the /artrtva and bho/trtva are not possible. The passions li/e raga-dvesa are produced due to the association of the /armic particles with the conscious 4iva through the activity of the 4iva in the form of bodily. The perfect souls. we cannot ma/e a statement from the absolute point of view that 4iva is pure cetana and /arma is pure 4ada 'unconscious). #ravya/arma generated bhava/arma. the individual ego is neither the pure atman. mental and speech. then how can the bhava/arma be born and who would be responsible for theseF The bhava/arma are neither purely due to the self nor due to the pure pudgala. this type of activity is not possible for the 4iva alone without the association of pudgala in the form of /armic particles and similarly. This is due to the activity of the 4iva. 5hen the 4iva and /arma becomes separated completely in the highest state of perfection. The samsari 4iva 'empirical individual) get associated with the /armic particles and due to the association. i. In this. nor the en4oyer of the fruits of /arma. darsana and caritra and the expressions of the essential nature are due to be found in the emotional set up li/e raga-dvesa. pudgala in its isolated state cannot get attracted to the soul. The /armic particles and the self get mixed up and on proper occasions the /armic particles produce their effects and get separated again. nor the pure pudgala. Activity is attributed to the pudgala. the soul is not the /arta of the /armic encrustations nor the bho/ta. All this is due to the diversity and variety of the encrustations of the /armic particles in the soul. The girl gets attracted to the boy and runs after him. A question arises that if 4iva in its pure form and pudgala in its pure form are active in their own pure nature. Those who do not accept the /artrtva and bho/trtva of the 4iva give the analogy of handsome boy who attracts a beautiful girl. &ut the analogy of the boy and the girl with reference to the /arma and soul is not adequate. which are modifications or expressions in the empirical sense of the /armic particles. the pudgala gets attracted to the 4iva and gets transformed into /armic particles. And therefore.Again we have to determine the relation between the dravya/arma and bhava/arma.e. And due to this. ( In this way. It is only from the phenomenal point of view.or instance. the girl is active and the boy is merely an occasion '. 5e can say that it is an organism and not a pure soul. If atman were neither the doer. say that atman has its essential nature in 4nana. Therefore. Therefore. li/e the siddhas. the bhava/arma in the form of raga-dvesa 'attachment and hatred) are born. In this case. It is a mixture of the atman with the /armic particles. In common sense of language. then we can say that 4iva is pure consciousness and pudgala is pure matter and unconsciousness. . the potter is considered to be efficient cause of the . then he would neither be in bondage nor would be released from the bondage of /arma. the 4iva is not responsible for the activity and the 4iva is the only occasion '. The facts are different. the /armic particles pollute the soul. &ut this relation of the bho/trtva and /artrtva can also be attributed to /arma. The co-mingling of the 4iva and pudgala is responsible for the association of 4iva reference /armic particles. The relation between the two is considered to be mutual. The pudgala that is matter becomes active then the pudgala at once get attracted towards the soul and they are transformed into /armic particles.

of the individual. . then the /arma would be all-pervasive li/e the a/asa. the association of the /arman with the self cannot be compared with the causal relation of the potter and the pot. LIMITS OF KARMA According to the -aina theory of the /arma. *ohaniya and Antaraya /armas are considered as ghati/arma because they effect the essential characteristics of the soul li/e 4nana. due to its activity. the -aina theory of /arma mentions eight types of /armas. speech and mind /armic particles enter the soul. the function of punya is to give the experience to pleasure and punya is possible through subha /arma. And because the atman in its empirical sense has the experience of the fruits of the /arma. #ue to /arma. If the /armic particles are intimately associated with the body and the self. it can be said that /arma can be somehow connected to the other ob4ect external to the body and the self. In fact. the en4oyer of the fruits of the /arma. /arma is intimately associated with the body. associated with the /armic particles within that limitation. the possession of wealth and having relations who give happiness and other pleasant experience are due to the rise of /arma. In such cases can we say that the /arman is responsible for such type of association in bondage. therefore. mind and the atman 'psychy). /arma brings punya and punya gives rise to experience of pleasure and bliss. . which are intimately connected in some form or the other with the 4iva. #arsanavarana. The answer is. the atman gets involved and associated with the body that it occupies in its full pervasion. &ut in the real sense of the relation.ama and 6otra /armas are intimately associated with 4iva and the body and not directly associated with other external ob4ects. it is possible to say in such cases. the potter is only an occasion but the clay is the material cause of the pot. that these are the upa-punya. . Therefore. atman is considered to be the /arta.rom the point of view of the usage of the term 'parampara) of the word.or such things also. It is also true that the external ob4ects and . which give happiness due to merit 'punya4anya)F The answer is. i. Ayu. Another question arises and has been as/ed3 The /arma associated with the body wor/ing in the limitation of the body--can it transcend the limitation and bear its fruitsF Is it responsible for the various types of the effects of /arma expressed in the possessions li/e wealth and other external ob4ects that a man gets which are not intimately associated with the bodyF . then the question arises how can we explain the possession of wealth and richness. the /armic particles have attracted and they become intimately associated with the soul. the /arma that is intimately associated with the individual self has to operate within these limitations. it is also bho/ta. &ut the relation between the self and /arman is intimate li/e the mixing of the mil/ and the water. If we do not accept the limitations of the /arma. This does not happen in the case of the relation between the potter and the pot. in body. 5hen the soul gets freed from the body it also gets freed from the /armas. is the /arma responsibleF It is also possible that the self may not be directly or these ob4ects have their impact of the experiences of the 4iva. Therefore.( &ut this analogical example is not adequate because the relation between the pot and the potter is neither inherent relation nor very intimate relation. The atman is not only an occasion or the efficient cause of the /armic particles enters the soul. >edaniya. The intimate combination of the /armic particles with the soul has an effect of synthesis and one necessarily affects the other. if such a connection is proved. atman is the bho/ta. 5e may also say that the self has the characteristics of pervading the body that it occupies and this is due to /arma.imilarly.imilarly. happiness and virya 'energy).e. These have their defined limitations and they function within these limitations. darsana. but also it is the /arta in the sense.pot. . #ue to the various activities of the atman in its empirical form. -nanavarana. &ut the samsari atman is somehow associated with one or the other body and.

various natural calamities li/e the earth-qua/e etc. The possession of wealth and other relatives may become occasions for creating pleasure in our mind. it requires a definite time to nature itself and till that time. that man gets because these are primarily mental states. the rise. it is in the potential stage. The rise of the /arma is not possible beyond this. the udaya of the /arma. Abadha means the period of potency. mental and atmic experiences are due to the internal causes. nor is loss of the son is due to the papa of the father. The experience of pleasure and pain and all bodily. in its potential form. The external ob4ects have nothing to do with /arma. . the son is not born due to the punya of the father. i. The experiences of pleasure and pain on the occasion of birth of son or loss are due to the punya or papa of the father occasioned by the birth or the death of the son. nor the death of a relative is due to the papa of the individual soul. on common parlance. It refers to the span of time of the operation of /arma. famine or bumper crops. &ut when the abadha/ala is mature enough to express itself.or instance. the /arma. the suppression 'upasama) and destruction of the /arma '/arma-/asaya) are all determined by the limits of the individual self or the body due to the activity of the organism through body. The loss of wealth may bring pain. nor the death of a relative is due to the punya of the father. It is in the avasthana /ala. The longer duration of the /arma can be due to the intensity of the experience of /arma. It may be true that we get pleasure by the birth of a son. The association of /arma is seen with the internal causes and not with the external ob4ects. This is called abadha/ala. These are due to the /armas of these individuals affected and /arma in their cases also is occasion by the external ob4ects. 5hen the /arma gets matured and fit to express itself it becomes prapta/ala udaya. In this sense. 7arma is associated with the embodied individual soul and the 4iva attracts the /armic particles in varying degrees according to its activities. It is in the potential form. the relation of the individual self with other ob4ects can be explained on the basis of personal experiences. #uring this period.. it is called aprapta/ala udaya. ( The /armic particles bound to the soul get matured enough to express themselves 'nise/a)--and then they express themselves.creations are the cause of experiences of pleasure. not yet expressed. If it expresses itself prematurely. These are only the occasions. + +. This can be reduced in the duration and intensity of experience through the tapas. The various physical and mental states of an individual are due to /arma. it does not get the potency of getting expressed immediately. sense organs. In the abadha/ala. or the anger of the /ing--all these are not the effect of the /arma. If we exclude from consideration the concept of the abadha/ala we can say that nise/a and anubhava are of equal duration. it is said that the external ob4ects are the results of punya and papa. which do the events and individuals in the environment due to punya or papa occasionF The operation of the /arma. This experience of pleasure is due to the *ohaniya 7arma. It is true that some of them do affect the mental states. The body. The period of potentiality of /arma 'abadha/ala) can be divided into two forms of durations 'sthiti)3 '() Avasthana/ala and '+) anubhava or nise/a /ala. The external ob4ects are only occasions by which the self gets experiences of pleasure and pain and therefore. 5hen the /arma gets bound to the soul. but the birth of a son is not due to *ohaniya 7arma. The crux of the problem is that external ob4ect and events are due to their own causes and not due to the rise of the /arma to the individual soul.e. The abadha/ala and the anubhava /ala have their own specific duration. the experiences. the /armic effect is not yet expressed. but these external things are not themselves due to /arma. RISE OF KARMA (UDAYA) Bdaya refers to the rise of the /arma. . the functions of mind and body are all due to /arma. In this way. The soul can become free from the /arma in a shorter time. &ut the possession of external ob4ects li/e wife or the husband or the relation or the loss of these. we get the experiences of /arma. the birth of a son is not due to the punya of the father. The rise of the /arma is possible from two ways3 (. mind and speech.

The rise of the /arma is possible after the completion of the duration of the time of potentiality and when the problem of actuali!ation comes. These are sahetu/a vipa/a udaya. Again. . that the /armic bondage arises due to some particular causes the bondage of the /armic particles due to the consequence of the material cause 'pudgala parinama). This is to asatavedaniya /arma. tapas and other sadhanas would not be possible. if a stone is thrown or if some one hits us. in the state in the hell 'nara/a gati) there is the rise of asatavedaniya /arma 'pain producing /arma). Though all the samsari 4ivas have rise of #arsanavaraniya /arma and this /arma is the cause of sleep but manusya and lower animals are affected by sleep. giving rise to the bondage of /armic particles of the soul. while heavenly beings and the hellish beings do not get sleep. The rise and fruition of /arma may be sahetu/a 'by means of willed effort) or nirhetu/a 'without willed effort). ( In the same way9 experiences of laughter.or instance. we get pain. at the time of the rise of the mohaniya-/arma in its intense form. without any external cause one may get angry and >edaniya /armic particles may effect the soul. These may be considered as due to two causes as3 '() pudgala hetu/a udaya. . THE RISE OF THE KARMA DUE TO EXTERNAL CAUSES The /armic rise may be due to external causes also.(*) The /armic particles that develop the soul may be due to some natural causes without any effort 'conscious or unconscious). It is indistinct. intoxicating liquor affects the clarity of mental states.or example. . In this way. '+) In the sense. In this. and is affected extraneous forces li/e ascetic practices. This is nirhetu/a udaya. . These three types of /armic influx and bondage are due to svatah vipa/a udaya 'rising out of their own internal causes). . arising out of material causes.imilarly. +. ( If these causes are not operative the fruition of the /arma is not possible. In the normal course when the time of /arma arises. This is bhavahetu/a udaya. This is also 'hetu/a udaya) rising out of the consequences of the material causes. &ut due to apavartana the /armic variation through udirana would be possible.thitihetu/a--This refers to the state of an individual at a particular time. the rise and fruition of the /armic particles into the soul is due to various causes. This is also pudgala parinamana hetu/a. . ta/ing heavy meals or due to some diseases organic disturbances ta/e place.+ fear and other forms of emotional upset may give rise to /armic particles to flow in. This is due to the /armic particles rising out of some material causes. It is called pradesodaya vipa/a. 0. .or example. However. . for example. then tapas and sadhanas would be useful for the premature reali!ation of the /armic effect. 6atihetu/a udaya--It refers to the /armic matter due to the state of the self 'gati) at the particular time. The rise and the fruition may ta/e place naturally without any external pressure or due to some pressures li/e internal or the external pressure.or example. which give rise to anger. the /armic bondage has to be experienced and exhausted. 0 THE KARMA THAT ENTERS WITHOUT EFFORT (S&'(') *+'y' ). &havahetua/a udaya--This refers to the rise of different types of /arma in a particular life span. &ut if the /arma-rise were yet to ta/e place. it is possible to have perversity of outloo/ 'mithyatva moha) and attachment. the experience of /armic effect is not very clear. It is of different types3 (.or example. experience of pain is possible due to some form of unpleasant exchange of words.

( PURUSARTHA (SELF EFFORT) AS DETERMINING FACTOR 5hat we call purusartha 'self-effort of an individual 4iva) does play an important part in the intensity and experience of the /armic bondage. *ahavira said9 ELes. . That /arma whose arise in inauspicious. There are other states of impact of /arma. radesasan/ramana. it is subha-asubha vipa/a. In some cases both the rise of the /arma and its fruition are inauspicious. made in the present time.imilarly. advartana. etc. In this. The difference in duration between the /armic bondage and its rise is called san/ramana. it is rasaghata or mandi/arana.an/ramana is of four types3 (. the transformation ta/es place between the substance of the same /arma. . ra/rti san/ramana is a transformation of the /armic bondage already collected into the /armic experiences are at present being received.or instance. radesa /arma has to be exhausted9 some may be exhausted through the experiences of the intensity and some without experience in the intensity of the /armic particles. 1. That type of /arma which it binds inauspicious way and rises auspiciously it is called asubha-subha vipa/a. The /armic particles and the /armic experiences can be attributed and modified to particular processes li/e apavartana. 6autama as/ed *ahavira to explain the process. . . . then the present efforts will have less impact on the manner of experience of /arma. . but arises in an inauspicious way. *ahavira said. . experience and the exhaustion of /arma may be mentioned as follows3 (. Anubhaga /arma 'experience of the /armic effect). some part of /arma is auspicious /arma 'subha /arma) and its fruition 'vipa/a) is also auspicious. If the efforts.an/ramana is the transformation of the /arma-pra/rti. the /armic intensity may be decreased in experience.an/ramana--It is the transformation of /arma in its different intensities of experiences. radesa /arma 'extension of the /armic particles) and +. 0. . . but its fruition is auspicious. it is true that we have to experience the papa /armaE. we can say that it is both important and not an important factor in shaping the experiences of /arma. sthiti 'duration) and anubhaga 'intensity of experience) also get transformed. 7arma need not be considered only in two parts as bandha 'bondage) and udaya rise of /arma.thiti san/ramana.6autama as/ed *ahavira3 E&hagavan8 :an we say that one cannot be free from the experiences of the /arma. but fruition is inauspicious 'asubha).rom the point of view of the past /armic bondage. but fruition is auspicious is called asubha-subha vipa/a.ome part of /arma is auspicious. .ome forms of /arma is inauspicious. or it is also called tivri/arana. These processes of the rise. are less than the efforts made in the past. which are inauspiciousE.or instance. 0. Bdvartana--The intensity of the /armic experience may be increased. And that /arma whose rise and fruition is both auspicious has been referred to subha-subhavipa/a. &ut the /arma which is in the form of auspicious bondage. E= 6autama8 I have described two types of /arma3 (. ra/rti san/ramana +. Apavartana--In this. Bdirana--In this the /armic states which is to fructified at a later date more intensely can be made to fructified and experienced in a less intense way. If the present impact is greater. +. This is udvartana. in the darsanavaraniya-/arma transformation between the ca/su and aca/su darsanavaraniya is possible. it is possible that it may modify the intensity and experience of the past bondage of the /arma. . Anubhava san/ramana and 1.

in which the maturation of the /armic process will ta/e its determined course. 'b) . The same can be put in the different forms-. +. &ut if the /arma becomes stronger the soulEs activity becomes sub4ected to /armic particles. the question of the dependence of the 4iva and /arma is difficult to be determined.i/acita. . he is not free.OR IS IT BOUND BY KARMA% 5e have seen that the individual states and its position are determined by the bondage of /arma that the individual has acquired. =ne of them is that some /armas can be exhausted without fruition by the moral practices li/e prayascitta 'confession). + . In other words. udirana and san/ramana refer to the rise 'udaya) of the /armic matter. IS THE ATMAN FREE. As long as the 4iva does not ma/e effort to thwart or to deviate the fruition of the /armic activity.or instance. he has no choice.( The /armic process has primarily two forms3 bondage and the other rise and fruition. in the case of rise and fruition of /arma that has already &en bound to him. Ani/acita.imilarly. one is free to ta/e opium. in which the individual effort may deviate the /armic process.'a) . udvartana. it has been suggested that the vedaniya /arma born out of adrsta have three different forms of expression. &ut if the /armic process has to be channeli!ed either in the direction of suppression or the destruction of the /armic process the 4iva has to ma/e consistent moral effort and observe tapasya 'ascetic practice). the opium produces its effects on his organism. we can say that the individual 4iva is responsible for its own /arma and for the exhaustion of the /arma. he has to experience the effects of the /arma that he has accumulated. there is no transformation. &y this. he can reduce the intensity.or example. &ut the /armic bondage that he has already acquired due to his own activity has to be experienced and exhausted by him. The mechanism of the operation of the /arma may be considered as two types3 (. In this sense. . If this freedom of the will in the process of the transformation of /arma were not to be accepted. the activity of soul becomes predominant. &ut the /armic matter that is yet to rise can be transformed by the individual efforts li/e sadhana. He can transform the /armic effect in its intensity of experience by reducing the intensity or increasing the intensity. The 4iva is sub4ect to the /armic activity in the process of ni/acita process of the rise of the /arma. In this sense. /arma predominates.opa/rama. In this rise and at the time of rising. then we land ourselves in niyativada 'the theory of necessity). and the /arma is subordinated. He has no choice in it. he is free because he acts and gets the bondage. . of the experience of the /armic effect by means of certain processes and practices. Auspicious /arma brings auspicious results and inauspicious /arma gives inauspicious results. in some cases soul predominates and in some others. And therefore in the fruition of /arma and experiences. The individual 4iva is free in the sense that it can do the /arma and bondage that he gets is due to his own activity. This does not mean that he completely dislaids of the fruition of the /arma that he has already acquired. 5hether he wills it or not. because if the soul gets sufficient strength due to the maturity of its activity and duration of /arma. in which the maturation of the /armic process may ta/e different terms and may fructify in different ways. as we have seen. ( In the -aina terminology it is called pradesodaya. In the atan4ala Logabhasya. Therefore. but once he ta/es the opium he cannot escape the effects of opium. after having ta/en the opium he may try to reduce the effect of the same by ta/ing the counter affecting medicine.irupa/rama where the process of the operation of /arma ta/es its determined course and there would be no resistance from the individual moral activities. 4iva will be in the hands of /arma.Apavartana. he can reduce the intensity of the opium. . In this sense.

it is inauspicious. the rise of the /armic process ta/es place by itself. but where there is potentiality and capacity for the increase of the /armic intensity. because if the increase of intensity is further increased. speech and mental. . but which has not yet risen and which is capable of rising 'udirana yogya) and increase. #ue to the individual efforts the 4iva effects certain processes in the /armic particles. The increase in the intensity of /armic experience would not be possible in the cases where the increase in the intensity will ta/e palace in future date.ometimes. It does not increase the intensity when it has not risen. If the activity is auspicious. 5hen the duration of /armic bondage is over. if the /armic particles are wea/ after its rise. 6autama as/ed *ahavira. The intensity of /arma is not increased when the /arma has not already risen or expressed itself.ubhayoga brings auspicious tendency and asubhayoga brings inauspicious tendency. *ahavira said. in such cases the 4iva assists the increase in the intensity of the /armic experience. This is possible to the yoga 'activity) of the 4iva. it is not possible to increase the intensity of experience. It is ripe for the rise and therefore no special efforts on the part of the 4iva are necessary for effecting the rise. that is subhayoga. E&hagavan8 5hen the /armic process is about to rise. the strength of the individual 4iva in these efforts and the capacity 'bala) and the near energy 'virya) are necessary to operate or are not necessary. there would be no increase of intensity of /armic experience and there would be no end to the process of increase. (. 0. The two tendencies sat and asat bring about the process the udirana. the oneEs destiny and the efforts of the individual 4iva are both necessary. The rise of the /armic particles will not give occasions to intensities. 5ould it be correct to say thatFJ . avrata 'lac/ of self-control). after the rise of the /arma. +. . pramada 'negligence) are all-instrumental to yoga. 1.ome say that the 4iva experiences vedana according to the type of bondage that it ta/es place. &ut the activity without the /asayas is subha while the activity that is accompanied or motivated by /asaya is asubha. =nly when the rise of the /arma is possible because of the capacity of the rise of the /arma although at the moment it is not expressed itself. + In this process. ( VEDANA 6autama said to *ahavira3 J&hagavan8 . which is of three types3 body.imilarly. THE CAUSATION OF UDIRANA . The rise and the intensity of /armic particles will be possible only in such cases where there is not yet the rise and increase of the intensity of /arma. if the activity is inauspicious which lead towards the obstruction of the self-reali!ation.UDIRANA 6autama as/ed *ahavira3 E&hagavan8 #oes the 4iva increase the intensity of /arma when it has risen or does the 4iva increase the intensity of /arma when it has not risenF #oes the /arma increase the intensity when the /arma has risen and expressed itself in the form of /armic particlesF *ahavira replied. the rise of the /armic process ta/es place by itself and in such cases there is no need to do selfeffort. that 4iva helps the process of rise and increase of the /armic process which are not yet risen cannot be made to rise and increase in intensity. *ithyatva 'perversity). in such cases when the increase in the intensity of /armic process ta/es place and we say that individual effort. ( The increase in the intensity of /arma would not be possible if it is already increased.

There is not a single moment in an empirical 4iva when the /arma does not enter in. If the fructification of /arma ta/es its natural process. NIRJARA Atman and the atomic particles of matter are distinct and as long as they are distinct. Therefore. And this is dharma. The fructification of /arma is very auspicious also. and they become mere pudgala or matter. after the period of maturity is over or they may be made ripe by pluc/ing them from the tree and using artificial methods. In the same way. The /armic particles flowing in into the soul at the present moment do not produce vedana. this is called /arma paripa/a. The fruits may become ripe on the tree only. . nir4ara would be avipa/i nir4ara. then they are considered to be the /arma. . &ut if the /arma is made to fructify prematurely by means of certain moral and spiritual practices. there is the /arma flow into the soul and new /arma enters into the soul every moment. both of them are pure. This process of extraction of the /armic particles from the soul is called nir4ara. In this specific sense. but it has an end.*ahavira said3 J6autama8 The explanation given by these persons is one-sided and is not the whole truth. then we call it /arma nir4ara. They become a/arma and are separated from soul. /arma becomes mature for expression of its effects either in its natural process or it may made to fructify prematurely by certain moral and spiritual process. &ut when there is contact between the atman and the particles of matter. it may ta/e lesser time for the fruits to be ripened.ir4ara is a process of fructification of /armic effect much earlier than it would have been possible for the /arma to fructify in normal course. which is earlierF The answer is. In the common parlance it is said that nir4ara is a process where the /arma is separated from the soul. &ut some other 4ivas experiences different vedanas also. The fruits on the tree become ripe in two ways.ome 4ivas experience the vedana 'emotional states) according to their deserts earned through the type of /arma acquired. we can say that the influx of the /arma has a beginning and in the general sense of the relation of the /arma to the soul. 5hen the /armic effect gets exhausted the particles of /arma are separated.ubha nir4ara is dharma. However. 5hen sense /armic particles get glued to the soul. 6autama said3 Ehow is itFE *ahavira replied3 Ethat 4iva which experiences the vedana or affective states according to the type and intensity of /arma can be said to experience evambhuta vedana and those 4ivas which experience different emotional experience from the desserts are said to experience unevambhuta vedana. 7arma-paripa/a is neither dharma nor adharma. which have the capacity of producing effect. . *ahavira replied to another question stating that vedana 'feeling) rises out of the /armic particles accrued in the past. both the /arman and atman are anadi 'beginningless) and the relation between them is also beginningless. It is also considered as sahetu/a nir4ara. by the exhaustion of the effect of /arma. PRIORITY OF THE ATMAN OR THE KARMA A question has been as/ed regarding the priority of the /arma or the atman. How can that which is beginningless can have an endF . ( A question has been pertinently as/ed regarding the adequacy of explanation of the usual statement that the /armic influx is anadi 'beginningless). In the later case. atman is considered to be rupi 'having form) and atomic particles are converted into /arma-varganas.

we reali!e the inner strength of the atman. in this sense9 the relation has an end. And there is new bondage.an/hya0. it has beginning and also an end.rom the point of view of loo/ing at ob4ects as an external reality. &ut once he reali!ed his real strength.G The fruits of the /arma which are conducive to the spiritual reali!ation give rise to punya and those which are not conducive to self-reali!ation are inauspicious and they give rise to papa. it had a beginning. However. &auddha+. the atman has infinite strength and energy and we do not /now it. which may also be considered as punya 'merit) or /usala 'auspicious and good)9 and '+) asubha /arma. tapas and other moral and spiritual activities can exhaust the /arma that is flowing into the soul from the beginningless time. and 4iva has to suffer the effects of the /arma and be under its control. the /armic bondage can be cut off. &ut with reference to particulars this fact of relation need not be true. . &ut sometimes /arma becomes predominant. and the new /arma enters. . &oth have infinite energy. The self-control. the 4iva is more powerful than the /arma. This distinction has been mentioned in various schools of Indian philosophy li/e -aina (. specifically with reference to the generic relation. which is hard. As long as we do not /now it. it can be said that however.ometimes 4iva gets opportunate moments for the fruition of /arma and by its activity in the righteous direction. -ust as a spider weaves its web and gets into it. the /arma that has accumulated in the soul can also be washed away at a particular time. It drives out the /armic bondage. he suffered indignities from Aavana and from the .yaya->aisesi/a2 and Bpanisads. powerful the /arma is. The flowing waters of the river cut through the hard and solid roc/s.agupasa. Loga1.ubha /arma. &ut the flow of /arma as such into the soul in its generic aspect is beginningless. . 0 THE SUPREMACY OF THE KARMA OR OF THE ATMAN A question has been as/ed regarding the supremacy of the atman or of the /arma. As long as Hanumana did not /now his real strength. which is supreme. is very often cut by the liquid water that flows over it.imilarly.or instance. &ut the moment. between mil/ and ghee is anadi because gold is in the ore and ghee is in the mil/.The answer is in general sense that which has no beginning has no end. &ut they can be separated. we suffer the bondage of the /arma. &ut from the point of view of the relation of the specific /arma to the soul. THE FRUITS OF KARMA The empirical 4iva experiences the fruits of /arma. the relation between the gold and ore of the gold. the fruition has been distinguished into two types3 '() . no body could control him. so also the 4iva acquires /arma and gets involved in the /armic bondage. we find an experience that the stone. The accumulated /arma gets destroyed and the atman becomes free from the /armic encrustation. &ut if we introspect on ourselves we find the atman is equally important and powerful.imilarly. one cannot escape the effects of punya and papa. the /arma appears to be more prominent. the atman is more powerful than /arma if it wills. Therefore. . auspicious fruits of /arma.( . . All desire punya and do not want papa.rom the commonsense point of view. the fruits are inauspicious. . which is more powerfulF The answer is that both are supreme and both are powerful. it may be referred papa. the shac/les of the /arma fall down one by one. .rom the point of view of en4oyment of fruits of /arma. which is also a/usala 'inauspicious and evil). + Although from the point of view of specific /arma. . . In the same way. If the 4iva will. we can say that the association of /arma with the 4iva has a particular point of time and therefore.

you may enter the sea. The sramana 7alodayi as/ed &hagavana *ahavira.@ There is no escape for the atman from experiencing the fruits of the /arma good or bad arising out of the /armic bondage. All this must have been due to the effect of /arma that he had acquired in the previous lives. &ecause Isvara has no place in the system of /arma. + .imilarly. yet mixed with poison.yaya 2 conception of Isvara as the dispenser of /arma. the time. or fall in the valley.imilarly. G The /armic effect is determined by the /armic matter.imilar views has been expressed by the great poet . he may experience the taste of the food as good and tasteful. ( The &uddha had his foot pric/ed by a thorn once. 5e get pleasure or pain accordingly. &hagavana *ahavira had to suffer great physical and mental tortures during his period of sadhana. whether you want to avoid it by various means. If we have to experience the fruits of /arma from other sources. the /arma that we have acquired would be meaningless.+ . &ut as long as they are mixed together. (M According to acarya Amitagati. JLesJ. the sthiti. He said to his disciples that Jin my ninety one previous life. a man was murdered by my sharp weapon therefore. wherever you go /arma cannot be escaped and the effects of papa have to be experienced.H The &uddha said to his disciples that one cannot escape the fruits of the /arma at any cost. All these determine the total /armic dispensations and shape the personality of the individual.The /armic bondage that the 4iva has already acquired has to be experienced and exhausted in this life or in the succeeding life. the /arma continues to give its effects either auspicious or inauspicious way. the thorn has pric/ed meJ. Then *ahavira was as/ed to explain the process of experience the fruits of inauspicious /arma. we experience the fruits of good and bad /armas that we have acquired. E4ust as if one were to eat the food well and cleanly prepared. but these experiences come because of its association with the cogniser and the psychic effects and the individual consciousness. The food that we ta/e may be sweet or bitter. . 'duration) H etc.ihalana *isra belonging to the >edic tradition. 1 He does not accept . J&hagavan8 :an we say that 4iva experiences the bitter fruits of papa /arma as bitterFJ ( &hagavana *ahavira said. *ahavira said. The individual self experiences these different types of food according to the variation in physical and psychic condition. It envelops the 4iva and produces the effect. palatable or not. you may fly in the s/ies. but they do show inauspicious effect. the food itself has not these characteristics. 7arma is associated with 4iva.@ the extensity of /arma. 0 ISVARA AND KARMAVADA The -ainas maintain that every individual 4iva experiences the fruits of /arma according to his deserts. but the effect of the food. ? .(( Acarya 7unda/unda says that 4iva and the /armic particles are mixed together and at appropriate occasions they get separated. the /armic effect due to the activities actuated by various /asayas and the eighteen types of inauspicious deeds from violence upto mithyadarsana may be pleasant in the beginning. as it contains poison will be gradually harmful to the body. the bhava/arma and other factors li/e the birth.

This would not be an adequate explanation for the distribution of /arma. regarding the distribution and the transform of /arma. He is not free from distribute /arma as he wants. 0 The -aina theory of /arma maintains that the fruits of /arma expressing in happiness and misery are the results of the activity of the soul. 1 The >edic tradition and the &uddhist view are refuted by the -ainas. which gets involved in the wheel. which in the case of a human being would require good deal of intelligence.+ The individual soul is the doer of its own /arma and the en4oyer of the fruits of /arma. wor/s out the schemata of the effects of /arma. It would then the possible in such cases that one does actions and someone else would en4oy the fruits of that /arma. one who does not in4ure any living being and is free from all the (H sinful acts from violence upto the *ithyadarsana 'perversity of attitude) will earn punya 'auspicious fruits of /arma). still ma/es complicated calculations. J&hagavan8 if the 4ivas perform good /armas. so also /arma. The individual soul is free.7alodayi as/ed further question. though material in nature consisting of /armic particles. 5ithout the grace of Isvara the atman cannot do anything. There is no possibility of dispensation of /arma by any external agency li/e Isvara. 2 =ne manEs /arma cannot be transformed to another. The soul that follows the righteous path is its own friend. 0 -ust as a machine li/e the electronic calculator having no intelligence. =ne manEs /arma cannot be transformed to another. gets the fruits of perception. the soul gets involved in this wheel and is not free. is li/e the river vetarani or the tree /utasalmali. The soul gets the fruits according to its desert. Isvara has no place in the /arma theory. will the fruits of those /arma be goodFJ *ahavira said ELesE. while the soul that goes astray and follows un-righteous path is its own friend. Then 7alodayi as/ed him the process of the fruition of auspicious /arma into merit. Isvara is the one who dispenses /arma to different individuals. while the soul that goes astray and follows un-righteous path is its own enemy. ( THE FUNCTION OF KARMA The function of /arma is to get the soul involved in this wheel of life and death. If that were so. the individual atman is at the mercy of the all-powerful Isvara. then freedom of the will have no meaning and the Isvara would have been powerful and /arma would be some commodity to be distributed at his will. 7arma cannot be distributed li/e pieces of money. which wor/s their own course. It is not necessary to postulate the presence of Isvara for the dispensing of /arma. The soul expresses its two nature. As long as the flow of /armic bondage continues. The atman. This is the general function of /armic . The auspicious wor/ brings auspicious fruits of /arma. *ahavira saidJ E4ust as actions performed due to auspicious merit. =ne manEs /arma cannot be transformed into other. $ach individual soul is responsible for its rise or fall. There is a regulated mathematical and determined effect of /arma. If this were possible. ( The -aina theory of /arma does not accept this view. who sends one to the hell or heaven. In this sense. TRANSFERENCE OF KARMA According to the >edic tradition. It is by its own activity that it earns the /armic bondage in this empirical world. &ut we find that /arma wor/s his own way. the efforts of the 4iva would be futile because the 4iva would not /now that its good actions would give him good results.

#arsanavarana /arma covers the darsana. Ayu. Therefore the atman will be bereft of the ananta su/ha. he ghati /armas or obscuring /armas are basically responsible for the different states of the /arma. the 4iva. 0 >edaniya. the atman attains omniscient /nowledge '/evala4nana) and omniscient intuition '/evala darsana) and becomes Arihanta. infinite intuition 'ananta darsana). + =ut of these eight /armas--4nanavaraniya. will be considered as murta. darsanavaraniya. &uddha and mu/ta. and the inherent characteristics of 4iva li/e infinite 4nana. 5hen the ghati /armas are removed. nama and gotra /armas are aghati /armas because they do not affect the original capacity of the soul nor do they obscure the capacity. the attribute. &ecause of this. And the gotra /arma thwarts the expression of agurulaghutva. 1 The consciousness is the characteri!ation of the soul. T. 7alghatgi in his boo/. Ayu /arma obscures and obstructs the eternity of the soul. The rise of the aghati /armas mixes the soul mixed with the paudgali/a dravya 'material particles of /arma).0 . . TYPES OF KARMA -aina /arma theory has distinguished /arma into eight types9 (. In this way. -nanavaraniya /arma. Antaraya. +. + Bpayoga has been variously interpreted. -ust as a piece of cloth tied round the eyes so as to obstruct the perception will obscure the sense perception through the eyes. because they obscure the inherent nature and capacity of the soul. and becomes siddha. The soul has infinite energy. 6.imilarly. &y nama /arma. li/e 4nana and darsana. mohaniya and antaraya are ghati /armas. action and other forms of distinguishing of the empirical 4iva. 0 -nanavarana obscures such discriminative /nowledge. Antaraya /arma obscures the infinite energy of the soul. @.action. in creating the bondage. ayu. to the individual soul. they are called aghati /armas. 6otra and H.ome roblems in -aina sychologyJ has interpreted upayoga in psychological term stating that upayoga may be referred to as the /armic energy which is primarily responsible for expression of 4nana and darsana. amurta/atva 'formlessness) and agurulaghutva 'neither small nor big) do not get occasions to get express themselves. and the atman is freed from the material existence. infinite bliss 'ananta su/ha) and infinite energy 'ananta virya) characteri!e it. Those types of /arana which do not affect the original nature of the 4iva but which affect the fruits and the determining effect of the original nature of the 4ivas are called aghati /armas.ama. He has used the world upayoga on the pattern of the *acdugallian sense with certain modifications. the body is case away. >edaniya /arma obscures the infinite happiness or bliss of the soul. The 4iva is bound with the sarira 'body). which is amurta. ( &ut when the aghati /armas are also removed. 2.a/ara upayoga expresses 4nana and nira/ara upayoga expresses darsana. by which the soul will be temporarily incapacitated for expressing the energy which is inherent in the soul. 1. Jnanavarana kar2a -iva is characteri!ed by pure consciousness. infinite su/ha. G. J. ( #r. *ohaniya. infinite /nowledge 'ananta4nana). -nanavaraniya /arma obscures the intellectual /nowledge of the soul. #arsanavarana. mohaniya /arma obscures the right attitude and faith and right conduct also. In the specific sense different types of /arma have their different functions. 1 The consequential expression of -nanavarana /arma will be to . + -nanopayoga is the expression of conscious energy which is associated with discriminative /nowledge by which the self distinguishing between species. Therefore. >edaniya. 0. sometimes as an expression of 4nana and darsana and sometimes as the resultant of consciousness. Aghati /armas are directly connected with the /armic particles of matter and not directly with the 4iva. . #arsanopayoga apprehends the generality of the ob4ect in a concrete psychosis. Bpayoga is the essential characteristic of the 4iva. the 4iva is limited in its expression of the status.

.idra-nidra 'deep sleep) @. the light of the sun percolates through the clouds and enables us to distinguish between the night and the day. udgala. ( #arsanavarana /arma is of nine varieties3 (. Analogical example in this connection may be mentioned in that the darsanavarana may be compared to the watchman 'dvarapala) at the door of a /ing.( . we cannot get easily the 4nana 'discriminative /nowledge). . which is responsible for the obscuration of darsanavaraniya /arma.+ :a/su darsanavaraniya obscures the visual experience.imilarly. :a/su darsanavarana +. The maximum duration of this /arma is 0M-/ota/oti sagaropama and minimum JantarmuhurtaJ 'less than 1H minutes). .2 *ati4nanavarana /arma obscures sense experience. . which is considered light sleep. Aca/su darsanavaraniya obscures the forms of experience obtained through the sense organs other than the eyes. It is sleep.ruta 4nana 'inferential /nowledge) 0. 5hen the dar/ clouds cover the s/y. and the mind. *anahparyaya -nanavarana /arma obscures the telepathic cognition.idra is a form of activity.idra 'sleep) G. while desaghati 4nanavarana /arma obscures partial /nowledge obtained through the mati4nana and other forms of 4nanavarana. 5e may consider this as somnambulistic. obtained through the contact of sense organs and the manas.o also the 4nanavaraniya /arma obscuring mati4nana illumines various things with different intensities. while 7evala4nanavarana is sarvaghati. racala H. The consequential expression of the 4nanavarana /arma may be either sarvaghati 'complete) or desaghati which is partial. . because the sarvaghati 4nanavarana /arma is concerned with the total obscuration of /nowledge. However although sarvaghati 7evala4nanavarana /arma obscures omniscience but the 4nana of the atman is not wiped out of the essential. Avadhi4nanavarana /arma obscures /nowledge which may be considered as clairvoyance /nowledge and which is mainly concerned with the perception of ob4ects having form. . . It may be referred to hypnotic form of sleep. 7evala4nana 'omniscient cognition). racala is a form of stupor.racala is a heavy sleep. .idra-nidra is heavy sleep. *ati. Avadhi4nana 'clairvoyance perception) 1. which one gets while wal/ing.tyanardhi. which includes the simultaneity of /nowledge--the substance and modes. 7evala darsanavarana 2.obscure /nowledge of the five types3 (. 7evala4nanavarana /arma covers the omniscient /nowledge. 4iva would be considered to be a4iva. if the darsanavarana /arma obscures intuitive experience.0 +arsanavarana kar2a6 #arsanavarana /arma obscures the intuitive experience. Aca/su darsanavarana 0. #ue to the obscuration of the darsanavarana the avenues for /nowledge are generally closed. Avadhi darsanavarana and 1. sruta.tyanardhi is a very deep sleep where even activity is possible during sleep. . avadhi and manahparyaya 4nanavarana are desaghati. It obscures and inhibits he possibility of the cognition in which we apprehend the generality of an ob4ect without the discriminative /nowledge of the particulars. Avadhi darsanavaraniya obscures the clairvoyance intuition and /evala darsanavaraniya veils the omniscience experience. racalapracala and ?. The sruta4nanavarana /arma obscures /nowledge obtained through inference and discriminative /nowledge which is defective. *ati4nana 'sense perception) +. 4ust as the light of the sun piercing through thic/ dar/ clouds obscuring the vision of the sun illumines different parts in the surroundings and the buildings according to the natures and the type of construction and color pattern. There is no complete destruction of mati4nana. . + Again. 5ithout whose permission we cannot see the /ing himself.arvaghati 4nanavaraniya /arma obscures the /nowledge which is complete and which arises from the obscuration of /nowledge. *anahparyaya4nana 'telepathic cognition) and 2. by which one gets sleep even sitting or standing. If that were to ta/e place.

@ The shortest duration of the vedaniya /arma has been mentioned as antarmuhurta in Bttaradhyayana sutra ( and ra4napana. 0 There is no contradiction between these different statements. rupa. thereby bringing misery to the being. + These two experiences are concerned with the body and the mind. which can be described as having the duration of the samayas. avadhi darsanavaraniya are desaghati while the remaining are sarvaghati. we may say it causes JdelusionsJ. aca/su. &y this /arma. Mohaniya kar2a *ohaniya /arma is deluding /arma. one ordinarily loses the power of discrimination.G *ohaniya /arma is of two types3 '() #arsanamohaniya which affects the intuitive experience and '+) :aritramohaniya9 it affects good conduct. 2 In this sense the real nature of the atman. The minimum duration of darsanavarana /arma is one EantarmuhurtaE while the maximum duration will be 0M crores of crores sagaropama. then ca/su darsana and aca/su darsana and avadhi darsana experience would be possible.atavedaniya is li/e the honey on the sword. ( #arsana in this sense refers to the state of intuition of right tattvas and the real nature of the atman. . mana. :a/su. su/hita mana 'mind which is pleased). In this sense.edaniya kar2a >edaniya /arma causes experience of the pleasure and pain. ( . mano4na sparsa 'pleasant touch). The maximum duration would be 0M crores of crores sagara. while asatavedaniya is li/e cutting oneEs tongue while lic/ing. This is the most powerful of the eight /armas. so also mohaniya /arma causes stupefaction of the mind by which he looses the power of discrimination between right and wrong. 2 Asatavedaniya is similarly of eight types associated with unpleasant experiences of sabda. G Asatavedaniya /arma causes painful feelings through the senses and the mind. vani and unpleasant body 'du/hita /aya). which is pure and non-attached. one . sparsa. su/hita vani 'pleasing speech) and su/hita /aya 'pleasing body).atavedaniya /arma is of eight types li/e3 mano4na sabda 'pleasant words).#arsanavarana /arma may be partially affecting 'desaghati) or totally affecting 'sarvaghati). mano4na rupa 'pleasant form). The effects of this /arma can be compared to the effects of alcoholic drin/s in which one loses the power of thought and discrimination and the sense of discrimination good from bad. In this. mano4na rasa 'pleasant taste). 0 7evaladarsanavaraniya /arma. rasa. &ut Tattvarthasutra and 7armagrantha have mentioned twelve muhurtas 1 as the minimum duration of this /arma. because muhurta includes antarmuhurta. 0 >edaniya /arma can be compared to a drawn out sword besmeared with honey. 1 . free from the passions. partial '/sayopasama). This discrepancy may be explained with reference to the . gandha. li/e /evala4nanavaraniya /arma is sarvaghati. 5hen darsanavaraniya /arma is completely removed the 4iva experience infinite intuition.amparayi/a asrava and iryapathi/a asrava. *ohaniya /arma is the primary form of /arma which is responsible for the wheel of samsara.+ &hagavati mentions two samayas as the minimum duration. ma/ing him believe that this world is very much real and one clings strongly to the experiences of this world. It is of the two forms 'i) satavedaniya which is responsible for the experiences of pleasure concerning senses and the mind9 while 'ii) asatavedaniya brings about painful experiences. mano4na gandha 'pleasant smell). is very much affected by the perversions of the emotional disturbances. It causes emotional disturbances and leads one astray. If the darsanavaraniya /arma undergoes suppression and destruction.+ -ust as the consuming of liquor stupefies.

0 . while samya/tva mohaniya is desaghati as it partially affects discrimination. disturbs the individualEs mental activity. Apratya/hyanavarana. @ 6ommatasara also mentions these points. but it is a quasi-passion in which there is the intensity of passion without the qualitative differences. there are sixteen variations of expression of emotional excitement. in this.e. ( 7asaya refers to the passions and emotional upset. +.econd distinction in the mohaniya /arma is the caritra mohaniya /arma. 2. Daughter 'hasya). . cannot be obstructed. has seven or nine types. *isra mohaniya. in this one develops the mixed attitude in which righteous is also present along with wrong attitude.o/asaya refers to quasi-passions which arise due to the operation of /asayas. but it is slowed down and vitiated with numerous faults. &haya 'fear). 2 ratya/hyanavarana obstructs the atman to become a mon/ or sramana. 7asaya mohaniya is of (G types while no/asaya. .amya/tva mohaniya.o/a 'grief) G. Aati 'li/ing towards the other living or non-living things or disli/e towards the samyama).o-/asaya *ohaniya--5e now describe the intensity and duration of no/asaya mohaniya /arma. *ithyatva mohaniya.o/asaya mohaniya. G There are nine types of no/asaya3 (. ratya/hyanavarana and 1. Anantanubandhi. 0 7rodha 'anger). + 7asaya mohaniya has reference to the emotional upsets. 0 And without discriminating the righteous from the unrighteousness9 one identifies himself with the unrighteous activity. #arsana mohaniya /arma is of three 1 types3 (. @ :aritra mohaniya is of two types3 (.o/asaya does not mean absence of /asaya.am4valana /asaya it is difficult to get the opportunities for practicing right conduct for a sramana. Arati 'disli/ing towards the worldly affairs and interest towards self-control samyama) 1. maya 'deceitfulness) and lobha 'greed)--these are four types of passions. i. 1 They are also called as a/asayas. It thwarts activity leading to right conduct. the expression of samya/tva. 0. Apratya/hyana has its effects for one year. which is /asa. . . +. $ach of them has four different levels of intensity3 (. 0. mana 'egoity). ratya/hyana /asaya produces its effects and continues its operation for four months. 5hile . G &ut misra mohaniya is sarvaghati with reference to the relation of relative emphasis of the mithyatva and samya/tva. in this the faith in the righteous item is lost. . This is responsible for the destruction of samya/tva. Anantanubandhi is of longer duration and because of this. .identifies himself with all that is external to him. -ugupsa 'disgust) @ @. In this way.triveda . The rise of these mohaniya /armas. 2 *ithyatva mohaniya is sarvaghati. . 1 Apratya/hyanavaraniya has the effect of partial destruction and due to this atman cannot accept the srava/a vratas or anuvratas and follow the righteous path. which refers to the quasi-passions or quasi-emotional upsets. G #ue to the . +. These emotional upsets lead us to the attachment to the worldly things and empirical experiences and the consequent involvement in the wheel of life. 0. if it is to come. the soul wanders into worldly life for endless time 'ananta/ala). /asayas or emotional upsets li/e anger. It etymologically comes from /asa and aya meaning attachment or attraction towards samsara. 7asaya mohaniya and +.am4valana has its effects for (2 days. ( Anantanubandhi /asaya operates for the whole of life.am4valana. It affects the right conduct of the soul. 2 . It is also called samya/mithyatva mohaniya.+ In the 6ommatasara /arma/anda there is a description of the duration of the effects of /asayas with reference to the emotional experiences.

0 &hagavati mentions the highest duration as a third part of the purva/oti and 00 sagaropana. It would be worthwhile considering on the basis of psychological analysis.'sensual desire with a man) H. The life spans determining /arma in the case of human being 'manusya ayu) and 1. In only means that one can hasten the experience of the ayu /arma which would have ta/en a longer time.. tirthan/aras and even human beings and lower animals of &hogabhumi i. =ne that determines li/e the lie span in the hell 'nara/a ayu). 2 The consequential distinctions of ayus/arma is of 1 types3 (.imilarly. The udge sentences a prisoner to undergo punishment for a specific period and as soon as that period is over.+ Ayuskar2a 8A7e +eter2inin7 4ar2a9 7arma that determines the age of an individual 4iva is called ayus/arma. 0 This /arma has been compared to the prison house. In other words. by the single word veda all the three vedas have been denoted. That which determines the age of the residents of heaven 'devayu). thirteen varieties are the disturbances. which affect partially. :aritramohaniya /arma has twenty-five varieties and among them four . the soul cannot be free from the bodily existence in that particular body.) Therefore. ?.e. This needs further psychological study. . Ayu/arma extends in its duration to one antarmuhurta at the lowest and 00 crores of sagaropama at the highest.e. This experience of /arma can be reduced in antarmuhurta. Apavartaniya refers the decrease in the age due to external condition. he is released from the prison. 1 This includes the period of time required for formation of the new life after the /armabandha in the previous life is out off. 1 The ayus/arma is not concerned with giving pleasure or pain..( The duration of the mohaniya /arma is for one antarmuhurta at the minimum and for @M crores of crores sagara at the maximum. In other words this includes also the period of potentiality 'abadha/ala) of ayus/arma. it is called premature death. In the common sense parlance. Anapavartaniya. There are three types of vedas have been considered as one. &ut we should remember that in the case of the human being and the lower animals residing in 7armabhumi it is possible to have such reduction in the experiences of the exhaustion of /arma bringing about premature death. +.or the determined period of time. the individual 4iva gets embodied in a particular body in a particular life for a specified period of time. Apavartaniya and +.e. ( The age determination may be considered in two ways3 (. to be associated with somehow with instincts or the better word propensities in the sense that *c#onnell has used. Anapavartaniya refers to the non-decrease under any circumstance of the duration of the ayu. &ut there cannot be such reduction of age in the hellish beings. In this way. the land of en4oyment. while the others 'i.am4valana /asaya and nine-no/asaya i. 5hen the age determined by the /arma is over the individual 4iva embraces death. . Therefore.apumsa/aveda 'desire of sexual intercourse both with the man and woman). . urusaveda 'desire of intercourse with a woman). + Apavartaniya ayu does not however mean that it is possible to terminate the life of an individual 4iva without exhausting the duration of the age as determined by the age determining /arma. -a2a kar2a . but its function is to determine the age limit of a specific individual 4iva. In the Bttaradhyayana seven distinctions have been mentioned. gods. The one determines the life span in the lower animals 'tiryanca ayu) 0. to the time when the germination of the new life starts. they are called desaghati. they are called sarvaghati. remaining twelve varieties have their effects totally.

7armana-/armana bandhananama . 'c) in the human states and 'd) in the stage for the heavenly brings. It has five forms3 (. . which associates the /armic particles. 1 . 1. 7armana sarira bandhana namo. 0 .ama /arma primarily is of two types3 '() . 'c) ahara/a 'd) tai4asa and 'e) /armana sarira '/armic body).arira bandhana nama /arma is that body of the /armic particles.ama /arma has been very often compared to a painter who paints various pictures of men and animals. It is of three forms3 '() audari/a sarira angopanga '+) vai/riya/a sarira angopanga and '0) ahara/a sarira angopanga.imilarly. >ai/riya-tai4asa-/armana bandhananama (+.our-sensed and 2. 2. These are determined by the nama /arma. +. 5e give below the same distinctions in their original form3 (. 1. A good painter presents varieties of forms of animals and birds. fifteen distinctions have been made regarding the sarira bandhana nama /arma. Ahara/a sarira bandhana nama. 0. Audari/a-audari/a bandhananama +.2 They are3 (. ( According to this theory. Audari/a sarira bandhana nama. 1..ama /arma is that type of /arma. Tai4asa sarira bandhana nama. and 2. sense organs and the general stature of the individual body.ama /arma expresses itself into forty-two types of consequential forms. Audari/a-/armana bandhananama 1. +. Ahara/a-/armana bandhananama (M. which were accrued previously and are being accrued in present. -ati nama--The nama /arma that determines the form of the individual with reference to sense organs and the species of the animals is called the 4ati nama.arira angopanga nama--It determines the different parts of the bodies and also the limbs of the bodies. 0. It has five forms3 (. In the 7armagrantha. the different limbs of the body. +. which determines the status. + The . Tai4asa-/armana bandhananama (2. nama/arma presents the determined the life of individual soul in different stages li/e nara/. . 6ati nama--It determines the status of the individual soul in 'a) hell. >ai/riya-/armana bandhananama @. =ne-sensed organism. . Tai4asa and /armana sariras 'bodies) have no limbs.ive-sensed organisms. 0. . which gives inauspicious presentation. >ai/riya-vai/riya bandhananama 2. Two-sensed organism.ubhanama /arma that gives auspicious presentations and '+) asubhanama /arma. Ahara/a-ahara/a bandhananama H. Audari/a-tai4asa bandhananama 0. 'b) lower animal states. The first is the consequence of punya 'merit) and the second is determined by demerit 'papa). Audari/a-tai4asa-/armana bandhananama ((. Three-sensed. . This /arma determines the bodily form. >ai/riya sarira bandhana nama. Ahara/a-tai4asa-/armana bandhananama (0. Ahara/a-tai4asa bandhananama ?. . It has five forms3 'a) audari/a sarira 'b) vai/riya/a. >ai/riya-tai4asa bandhananama G.ama /arma determines the different formulations of the bodily forms of the different individual status and the determining experiences. and other conditions of the individual 4iva. Tai4asa-tai4asa bandhananama (1.arira nama/arma--It determines the type and the form of the sarira that the 4iva gets as the fruits of its /arma. manava 'human) or heavenly status. .

amhanana nama /arma is concerned with the formation and structure of the bone in the body. expedites cool light. manusya anupurvi nama 'leading to the human existence) 1. Therefore. ti/tarasa nama 'pungent) +. These are of eight types3 (. their interconnected bondage has not been mentioned here. Bcchvasa nama3 &y this /arma. ((. It is also possible that due to this /arma.g. which have been accumulated due to various factors and the /armic particles. ( =r. being himself cool. an individual organism can get warm for the sa/e of life. It is of two types3 (. The sparsa nama /arma determines them. Atapa nama3 &y this /arma. tirya/ anupurvinama 'it has the capacity of leading the soul to a point which to enter the lower stage of animals) 0. . Anupurvi nama3 This type of /arma enables an individual 4iva to traverse a particular distance after it leaves its first body at the time of death and before it enters the other state of existence. 'b) vrsabha nara/a samhanana nama /arma 'c) naraca samhanana nama /arma 'flexible and not brittle bones). (@. can expedite warm-light. etc. >ihayogati . 'd) ardha naraca samhanana nama /arma 'e) /ili/a samhanana nama/arma '4oint bones). '1) haridravarnanama 'yellow) and '2) svetavarnanama 'white) determining /arma.imilarly. It has two types3 prasasta 'auspicious gati) and aprasasta 'uncomfortable or inauspicious gati). vai/riya and ahara/a /arma particles are not directly connected with each other. amlarasa nama 'acidic) and 2. surabhigandhanama 'pleasant smell) and +. (0. It is of five types3 (. @. ru/sa sparsa 'hard and dry) @. Aasa nama/arma is connected with determination of the taste of the individual experiencing it. which are accruing due to the influx of /armas. so as to determines the form of the body. laghu sparsa 'unextended and light) 2. 6andha nama/arma3 This nama /arma determines the smell of the individual organism.. 'd) vamana samsthana 'formation of short bodies. H.arira sanghata nama/arma is concerned with the association and arrangement of the different /armas. the functions of other four allied /armas can be mentioned.The audari/a. where the /armic particles of similar nature accrued and accruing are arranged in a proper way. Agurulaghu nama3 This /arma determines the extent of the intensity neither too little nor too much in its intensity and duration. There are six forms in this3 'a) va4ra vrsabha naraca samhanana nama-/arma 'formation of hard and strong bones). (+. mrdu sparsa 'soft) 0. and 'c) sadi samsthana 'formation of the ends of the body. It enables to cover some space so as to reach the next stage of existence. the individual 4iva would be able to harm other 4ivas. It has five forms3 'a) audari/a sarira sanghata nama /arma. araghata nama3 &y the rise of this /arma one can influence others even through his tal/ or appearance. '0) lohitavarnanama 'grey). the light of gross an/aratna fixed below the sun. e. etc.parsanama /arma determines the nature of the touch of the individual organism. which is responsible for determining the color of the individual organism. (H. It is of five types3 '() /rsnavarnanama 'blac/). /aturasanama 'bitter) 0. /asayarasanama 'astringent) 1. sita sparsa 'cool touch) and H. 'f) sevarta samhanana nama /arma 'auxiliary bones). '+) nilavarnanama 'indigo). . G. It has also six forms li/e3 'a) samacaturasra 'even form). (M. >arna nama/arma is that type of nama/arma. one can breath properly. 'b) nyagrodha parimandala samsthana 'globular and round forms). (?. . (G. Bpaghata nama3 5ith the rise of this /arma the individual 4iva suffers hardships and physical tortures due to physical deformation li/e prati4ivha 'defects in tongue or defects in teeth. nara/a anupurvi nama 'leading towards hell) +. (1. durabhigandhanama 'unpleasant smell). . usna sparsa 'warm). It has four types3 (. guru sparsa 'weighty) 1. li/e 'b) tai4asa sarira and 'c) /armana sarira sanghata nama/arma. an organism.) (2. snigdha 'greasy and smooth) G. Bdyotanama /arma3 &y this /arma the organism becomes cool and gets sufficient energy and light ( or. 'e) /ub4a samsthana 'formation of dwarfish bodies and 'f) hunda samsthana 'unequal bodies) ?. . .amsthana nama /arma is concerned with the determination of the si!e of the different parts of the body.ama3 &y this /arma the individual 4iva gets either the good or the bad gati 'wal/). devanupurvi nama 'leads to the next type of heavenly being). +M. /ar/asa sparsa 'hard) +. madhura rasa nama 'sweet).

Bmasvati mentions some sections. Ayasah/irti nama /arma3 &y this /arma one is unluc/y and does not get success. aryapta nama3 &y this. Adeya nama /arma ma/es an individual 4iva respected by this words. is called gotra /arma. the teeth and flesh that a body gets in the proper form and proper place. . +@. 02. . And also from the point of view of four-fold distinctions of varna. In the case of the individual in the lower state of society.u/sma nama3 This /arma determines the subtle body of the individual 4iva.adharana sariranama3 &y this /arma the infinite 4ivas get a common and normal body. ++. sthana 'status). 1M. $lsewhere also. pra4napana( and 6ommatasara. #uhsvara nama /arma3 &y this one gets an unpleasant voice. Asubha nama /arma is responsible for the acquisition of ugly body and limbs. 1 Acarya Bmasvati has given a description of the concept of gotra in terms of the higher and the lower status with reference to the desa 'country). +?. Bccagotra /arma which determines the higher status and the place of the individual in the family and in society. Tirthan/ara nama /arma3 &y this /arma one gets the opportunity and the capacity of establishing right path 'dharma tirtha). into thirty seven(9 and thirty-four types+ of asubhanama /arma. &adara nama /arma determines the individual to have a sthula sarira 'gross body). +0.thiranama /arma3 It determines the type of the bones. ratye/asarira nama3 It determines the specific body of the 4iva. . 0H. by which .thavara nama /arma3 &y this /arma individual 4iva cannot move at his will. the flesh etc.ubhaga nama /arma3 &y this /arma one becomes popular and the impression on the others would be pleasant. he becomes saubhagyasali i. 0(.ubhanama /arma has been distinguished. 0 The distinctions in the nama/arma on the basis of G@ pra/rti are to be considered from the point of view of distinctions of auspicious and inauspicious /arma. +1. . /ula 'sub-section of the community). 0+. +2. 4ati 'community). sat/ara 'the type of honor in society) aisvarya 'the extent of prosperity of otherwise).+(. . The duration of the nama/arma is H muhurta in its lowest and 0M crores of crores sagaropama in the highest 0. he acquires good things of life. This is a brief analysis of the different types of nama/arma.e. 0M. 0G. Trasanama /arma3 It enables an individual organism to get the capacity of motion. 2 6otra/arma is primarily of two types3 (. This has reference to the higher status or the lower status of the family in society. Anadeya nama /arma3 this does not respect even the rule words of the individual 4iva. He gets disfame.ubhanama3 &y this /arma one acquires a beautiful body and limbs. . and 7armavipa/a mentions fifteen types of bandhananama and (M0 types of nama/arma distinctions.G . .irmana . Aparyaptanama3 In this the individual soul may not get all the necessary and fitting functions of the organism. +G.ama /arma3 this properly arranges the limbs of the body. which determines the status of the individual in the family and the society. the individual soul gets appropriate functions 'paryaptis) suitable for its status. Asthira nama is responsible for the disharmony and discordant arrangement of the bones. 0?. . 1(. 1+. +H. . 00. Lasah nama /arma3 This brings fame to the individual soul.usvara nama /arma3 This type of /arma is responsible for the melodious voice one get. even if he does nothing for the good of others.+ have given ?0 types of nama /arma. 01.icagotra /arma which determines the lower status of individual in the family and the society. mana 'respect in society). 0@. @( distinctions have been made in the consequential effects 'pra/rti) in the same nama /arma. #urbhaga nama /arma is responsible for the unpleasant experiences of life and he becomes unpopular. +. 'otrakar2a That type of /arma. This analysis has no ideological difference.

A second question arises of the form and the status of the individual bodies and the family status. the high or the lower status of the individual is determined by the gotra/arma. @. nama and gotra /armas are related to each other in the sense they are associated with the forms and the state of the body and the mental states. it connotes the lower status of the family with reference to the strength and power. +. high status of the family from the paternal side.( 6otra/arma is of H muhurta in the minimum and +M crores of crores sagaropama as the maximum. 7ula uccagotra. Tapa uccagotra. In the same way.. 0.ruta uccagotra with reference to the /nowledge and learning for the family and the individual.Bccagotra /arma is of eight types3 (. the quality of virtues etc. beauty etc. @. +. Aupa nicagotra.ome are poor9 some are rich. 0. This /arma has been compared to a potter '/umbha/ara). with reference to the family. Aupa uccagotra concerning the form of his body with reference to the heredity of the family.ruta nicagotra. &ut some others are used for /eeping wines and alcoholic drin/s. Aisvarya nicagotra. where to be determined by the heredity and the heritage of the parent status. as they are closely associated with the same functioning regarding the form and the status and body and the mind. 1. -ati nicagotra associated with the maternal side. it concerns the power and strength of the individual with reference to his family also. it connotes the lower status of the family and individual with reference to the form. &ala nicagotra. we will have to refer to the distinction connected with the association of the nama /arma of the individual body while gotra /arma with reference to the status of the individuals and their family status.ome are born in rich families and some in poor families. ( . G. Aisvarya uccagotra is concerned with the prosperity of the individual and the family. Tapa nicagotra. The potter ma/es a variety of pots out of the same clay. H. . &ala uccagotra. refers to the lac/ of self-control and higher virtues in the individual and with reference to the family. 1. The subha 'auspicious) sarira brings pleasure and asubha sarira 'inauspicious body) brings pain.icagotra /arma is also of eight types +3 (. why should it be necessary to have two types of /arma as nama /arma and gotra /arma. They are aquatinted with fragrant ointment li/e candana etc. it is absence of prosperity of the individual and family. it refers to the loss of gains and profits for an individual with reference tot he family. 2. .imilarly. 7ula nicagotra the lower state of the family from the paternal side. . *oreover. &ut some are used for the sa/e of ma/ing /umbha or /alasa for the worship of gods. . if the form and the status of the individual in the family are to be determined by heredity family circumstances. 2. . A question arises whether it would be necessary to distinguish between the nama and gotra /arma as separate.ama/arma determines the possession of subha and asubha sarira 'body). -ati uccagotra associated with the high status of the family with reference to the mother side. . . individual /arma will have very little place.or answer to this. And gotra/arma is considered for determining the status of the individual organism with reference to the high or low status. it refers to the lac/ of learning and intelligence. some are virtuous and some re vicious. The various forms and mental states are due to these /arma. Dabha nicagotra. Dabha uccagotra refers to the gains of the individual with reference to his family. H. In general. G. individual 4ivas according to the type of /arma get various types of existences with reference to their /armic deserts. .

Bpabhogantaraya /arma--This prevents the en4oyment of pleasures frequently available as for instance. The individual is himself responsible for these9 and he has earned it. It obstructs the energy of atman regarding the act of giving dana 'donation) and other forms of generous act. but this is possible with the /arma that individual has earned in this respect. 1.or instance. &y the rise of this /arma. also is the function of antaraya /arma. 2.ama/arma determines the individual concerning his birth as man or gods in the heaven or in the animal /ingdom. + Antaraya /arma is of five types3 (. ihita agamipatha antaraya /arma--This refers to the obstructions created in the en4oyment of the forthcoming experiences and ob4ects. &ecause the higher or the lower gotra of an individual is not relevant for the possession of a particular body. a man who is born in a lower family may be handsome and healthy. It is concerned with the status of the individuals with reference to his family and mental ma/e up. The /ing orders to give money to a person but the finance minister very often withholds and delays the disbursement. in different status in society and family by his own /arma. Antaraya kar2a Antaraya /arma obscures and also obstructs the inherent energy of the soul. #ana antaraya /arma--It creates obstructions in the giving of gifts and charity. He creates difficulty in the implementation of the /ingEs order. He does not get the profits that he earns.&ut in may please be noted that the determination of the individual status in the family and society is not only determined by the parents or the family. a man born in the higher family may have deformities in the body. of what is given. &ut gotra/arma is not directly connected in the formation of the individual bodies and the sense-organs etc. &hogantaraya /arma--It prevents the en4oyment of normal pleasures of life although the pleasures are at hand. nama/arma and gotra /arma are closely associated with each other regarding the formation of the individual personalities.o. ratyutpanna vinasa antaraya /arma--&y the rise of this /arma the ob4ects. Antaraya a/arma can also be considered of two types3 (. which are acquired. . particular colors-blac/ or brown. +. >iryantaraya /arma--It prevents an individual from performing actions and duties which require strength and drive. 0. Therefore. . 5e find that physical and mental poise of an individual as determined in society in a dignified way is largely due to the family upbringing. short or tall. one cannot eat delicious food /ept on the table for dinner due to ill health. gotra /arma has nothing to do with the determination of the bodily forms in their various aspects. Therefore. particular types of sense organs li/e healthy sense organs or deformities. wearing good clothes and ornaments. The answer to this will have to refer to the biological and social heredity. Dabhantaraya /arma--#ue to the rise of this /arma. However. It is also connected in the formation of the types of sense organs that he possesses and the types of bodies that he inherits li/e audari/a. -ust as a beautiful body is due to the biological heredity. +. one is prevented from en4oying the fruits of his labors. constructions would be created for the en4oyment of the normal pleasures of life and the experience of an individual. ( .( This /arma has been compared to the finance minister of the /ing. The family and the society are only occasion and the environmental factors which enable the individual to be placed in good or bad comfort. . =n the other hand.or instance. similarly the status of the individual and upright behavior and his character and personality re to a great extent influenced by the biological heredity and family up-bringing. one is prevented from getting good house. vai/riya etc. may be of dar/ color and may be also ugly. are either lost or destroyed. . Another question has been raised regarding the criteria of determining the lower and the higher status of an individual in the family and in society due to the operation of the gotra/arma. again a question is as/ed whether gotra/arma has anything to do with the determination of the types of sarira etc. 6otra /arma is also concerned with the status of the individual.

which has reached the stage of maturity of experience. in some situations all the three factors. by an individual or an institution. &ut if the gourd is smeared with clay it becomes heavy and it does not flow. Antaraya /arma obstructs the energy to operate in the direction of getting experiences are external. . . 4ust as a gourd 'tumba) has the capacity of floating on the surface of water. it goes doen. It has a reference to the internal urge. may be referred to the capacity. the psychic factor that is responsible for the act of giving charity. still we do not get the ob4ects.imilarly. In this sense. the gains. but if there is no internal urge on the part of one who gives charity is not yet aroused. 0 Antaraya /arma is concerned with the obstructions of the possibility of getting en4oyment of the possession and the fruits of activity. The circumstances play an important part in the determination of the act of possession of an important part in the determination of the act of possession of the . 5e may call this labdhi. while even with the best of intentions the desired charity9 we may not give it. 5hen he is willing to it becomes sadbhava. It is the inner urge. The possibilities of /nowledge and other experiences and possessions depend upon the neutrality and appropriateness of occasion. but the acts connected with charity and experiences of their individual in experiencing the fruits of /arma are internal in the sense that they are directly connected with the expression of soul energy. This is due to the opposition of labhantaraya /arma. even when there is a donor to give charity and also when there is the preparedness of accepting charity. The soul has the inherent characteristics of moving upward 'Brdhvagati). the conditions for giving charity may also be favorable. which are indirectly responsible for the rise. Antaraya /arma refers to the inherent energy of the soul for /nowledge experienced and action. &ut the external circumstances are not directly related to danantaraya /arma. 5e also find that sometimes the circumstances are favorable. for example the act of charity. therefore. the act of charity would not be possible. the desire to give. the en4oyment of the ob4ects and the ob4ects connected with the inherent energy of the soul are external. but circumstances may not be favorable.imilarly. but still we do not get the ob4ect due to some unfavorable and accidental circumstances. The question arises whether antaraya /arma is directly related to the external ob4ects and the possession of en4oyment of external ob4ectsF . + . which is the expression of anantavirya 'the infinite and inherent energy of the soul). This is asadbhava. Dabdhi is the appropriateness of fructification.ometimes.Antaraya /arma is of one antarmuhurta duration in the least and at the maximum it is of thirty crores of crores sagaropama. the ob4ects are there. the person who wants to give dana is not mentally ready. the potency and the fructification of reali!ation. due to the encrustations of /armic particles the soul is prevented from going upwards and from purification9 so it gets involved in the wheel of empirical existence. &ut when all the forces are favorable for actuali!ation then charity is given. in the possibility of giving charity etc. The real cause is psychological. suppression and destruction '/sayopasamana) of the antaraya/arma. This is the labdhi with reference to time and other circumstances. &ut sometimes we find occasions when even in the absence of the desire to give charity is given. it may not be possible that the act of charity may materiali!e due to some other external forces. There may be external ob4ects ready to be given as charity.or instance. Dabdhi. we may have a desire to have the ob4ect. which does not permit the rise of the desire of for getting the ob4ects. In these circumstances danantaraya /arma operates in different ways. the desire to ta/e and the ob4ect that is desired are all present. if there are obstructions these obstructions are due to antaraya /arma.or instance. #ue to the rise of danantaraya /arma. The external circumstances are only occasions. we find that the operation of the antaraya /arma is directly connected with the internal factors of the individual and not with the ob4ects which are external. . -ust as 4nanavaraniya /arma obscured valid /nowledge so also other forms of /arma prevents the relevant experience.

it would give rise to punya /arma. ( 5ith reference to the /setra 'space). &u if there are obstructions it would have influxes from three. the 4iva can attract the /armic particles from the area where it exists itself but the /armic particles outside this sphere of extension would not be attracted.ob4ects. =n each pradesa. speech and body. the /armic experiences will also be intense. . The ayu /arma receives the least of the amount of the /armic particles among those.ama /arma and gotra /arma has a little more shares than that of ayu /arma. KARMA-PRADESA An empirical individual '4iva) is constantly engaged in activity through body. . -nanavaraniya. the influx of /armic particles also would be slow. This is called in the agamic language. If the activity is slow. KARMA-BANDHA 5e have already seen that the /armic particles '/arma varganas) pervade every point in the universe. The extent of the enveloping of obscuration of the /armic particles into the soul is referred to as /arma-pradesa. In other words. ( 6autama as/ed *ahavira. J&hagavan8 :an we say that 4iva and pudgala are intimately associated with each other in the form of bondage. there would be glued infinite number of /armic particles and pradesa. we may get the ob4ects. *ohaniya /arma gets more quantity and the vedaniya /arma has still more. &ut in the case of all other 4ivas the influx of /arma is from all directions. darsanavaraniya and antaraya have a little more quantity of /armic particles that flow in9 but they have equal share. which are glued to the soul. in other words vedaniya /arma gets the greatest share. There is bondage. #ue to these activities /armic particles flow into the soul and envelop the soul. The bhogantaraya and upbhogantarya /armas are also directly related to the inherent energy of atman and not with external things. it would give rise to papa /arma and if the /asayas are not intense the /armic experience would not be intense. + 5e should reali!e that the variation in the quantity of the influx of /arma depends on the variations in the types of activity. mind and speech. Individual soul is constantly in activity through the mind. The same position in true about >iryantaraya. the labhantaraya /arma may not have origin to express itself9 even then it is possible that we may not get the ob4ects. In some situations even with the operation with the rise of the labhantaraya /arma. but equal share of the /armic flow. pradesabandha. The influx of the /armic particle into the soul is distributed into eight types of /armic particles and they envelop the soul in their own way. The bondage and the association of /armic particles to the soul pradesas is called pradesa bandha. If the /asayas 'emotional set) is intense. In the case of the e/endriyas 'one-sensed organisms) influx of six directions. Therefore what is primarily important is that the antaraya /arma obstructs the infinite energy of atman 'ananta virya) and is not directly related to get or not get the external things. there would be glued infinite number of /armic particles and this /arma pradesa in the space point of a soul is called pradesa bandha. THE INTENSITY OF KARMIC EXPERIENCE The intensity of the experiences of /armic fruition is primarily dependent upon the emotional set and the operation of /asayas. four or five directions. the atman has numberless pradesas 'space points).ometimes. These pradesas are again distinguished on the basis of consequential effects 'uttarapra/rti) and these varying degrees of pradesa/arma depend on the corresponding varying degrees of the influx of /armic particles of their nature. #ue to these activities motivated and accompanied by /asayas attract infinite number of particles of /arma varganas into the soul. close /nit association as if they are one li/e the water and mil/FJ .

the ayu/arma of a . This is called pra/rtibandha. he said. The rise of the /armic particles for fruition gives rise to the experiences of /arma and the exhaustion of /arma. but there is the total absence of the passions and emotional upsets '/asaya). . In other words. the other types of /armic particles create obscuration li/e the mohaniya and vedaniya and caritra /arma according to the strength of the /armic particles and their original nature. They do not affect the wall and they can be blown away. and he explained the process of pradesa bandha. there is no bondage worth the name. so also the soul is bound with /armic particles and becomes one with each other.uch types of /armic bondage ta/e place in the ((th and (+th and (0th stages of gunasthanas. ( The soul is by its activity and /asayas attracts /armic particles both of auspicious and inauspicious nature. &y this. In other words. &ut this type of consequential transformation is possible in the case of similar types of /armic particles 'sa4atiya). which leads to the furtherance of samsara. they experience the fruition of the /armic bondage may be in various intensities and duration according to the nature of the /armic particles. The experiences of /arma depend on the nature of the /armic particles. experiences of pleasure and pain and other types of experiences on the basis of the different capacities and original nature of the /armic particles. mati4nanavaraniya /arma may express itself in the obscuration of sruta4nana. After the rise of the /arma. Les they are very closely bound together. 0 The bondage of the /armic particles to the soul arising out of the yoga only and its forms of activity can be compared to the depositing of dust particles on a wall which is dry. . If the occasion is not appropriate the /armic particles may rise. This is called anubhagabandha. as for instance. J= 6autamaJ. As long as the appropriate occasions for fruition does not arise. and not of dissimilar types of /armic particles. J4ust as a la/e is full of water overflowing with the waves dashing against the ban/s and suppose a boat with innumerable holes at the bottom and the sides is left in the water.or instance. and the duration the /armic bondage in the atma pradesa is called sthitibandha. intuition. samya/tva vedaniya 'right form of feeling /arma) and mithyatva vedaniya. the boat sin/s. darsana mohaniya cannot be transformed into caritramohaniya and vice-versa. the experience would not be possible. And also the consequential effect of 'uttarapra/rti) of ayu/arma cannot also be transformed.+ The /armic encrustations of the soul due to the activities of the soul creates avarana 'veil) and it obscures the /nowledge. + The /armic bondage expresses itself on appropriate occasions and at that time there is the udaya or the rise of the /armic experiences with various intensities.imilarly. consequential effects cannot be transformed. If /armic particles give rise to auspicious results it is called auspicious /arma 'subha/arma)9 and the /armic particles giving rise to inauspicious results is called asubha/arma. 4nanavaraniya /arma obscures the /nowledge and darsanavaraniya /arma obscures intuition and faith according to their nature of the /armic particles and the strength. This type of variations is determined at the time of /armic bondage. the water perforates into the boat and is full of water. . the /armic bondage that the soul gets through 4nanavarana etc. Loga and /asaya operating together would create bondage which is more endurable and whose effects have to experience before their freedom. There can be no alterations in the original nature of the /armic particles. This type of bondage arising out of the yoga and passions '/asayas) is called sthitibandha. As for instance.imilarly. .&hagavana replied. but without giving any fruition may disintegrate themselves as material particles. &ecause the normal human activity is in existence.or instance. they form themselves into different types. ra/rtibandha and pradesabandha are due to yoga and the different forms of activity. &ut in the case of the consequential effects of the experiences of the one /arma may be changed to the experiences and the consequential effects of the same original /arma. . 5hen the /armic particles which are material in nature get bound to the soul. the /armic consequential effects 'uttarapra/rti) may be transferred and transformed.

This is called Junevambhuta vedana. These have been called avastha 'position) and there are eleven avastha. of the relation between the nature of the /arma and the nature of the fruition of /arma in varied forms. the period of potentiality before actuali!ation. bandha 'bondage) +. .ome 4ivas do experience the /armic experiences exactly according to the nature and the intensity of the bondage. which has lower intensity. -ainas have wor/ed out a complicated scheme of transformation of sthiti and anubhaga of /arma. fruition. '0) /arma may be asubha while the consequential effects may be subha and '1) /arma may be asubha and the consequential effects also may be asubha. J= 6autama8 this is not completely true. with celestial and infernal beings and the human beings in their last existence. Apavartana--This refers to the process of decreased reali!ation and decrease in the intensity experienced with reference to the transformation of sthiti 'duration) and anubhaga 'intensity of fruition) of /arma. so also there is possibility of transformation of the various /armic bondage.thananga mentions four types of consequential effects of /arma with reference to its /armic particles '7armavipa/a)3 '() the /armic particles may be of subha /arma 'auspicious) and the consequential effects may also be subha 'auspicious). evambhutavedana. which is of higher intensity and vice-versa. (. 6autama as/ed *ahavira. 1.aturally a curiosity arises as to the causes of such consequential effects--why is it that the original /armic particles may be auspicious while the consequential effects may be differentF -ainas have attempted to give a solution to this problem by the processes of transformation. udaya 'rise) @. satta 'potential states) 0. may be transformed into the /arma. suppression and destruction of /armic particles. upasamana 'suppression) ?. &andha--&andha is bondage in which the /armic particles envelopes the soul and become almost one with the soul 4ust as the mixture of water and mil/ is indistinguishable. ( . abadha/ala. ( The increase and the decrease in the reali!ation of the /arma is based on the nature of suppression or the expression of /arma.+ . &ut in some cases there are possibilities of variation of experiences due to the activity of the 4iva and due to the transformation of the bondage intensities. 5e have already seen the four types of bandha. because all the 4ivas do not experience the /armic experiences exactly the same way according to the nature of the intensity of their /armic bondage.( -ust as there is transformation of the /armic effect on the basis of the nature of the /armic particles. san/ramana 'transformation) G. nidhatti 'in which there is possibility of increasing and decreasing the intensity of the fruition of /arma but cannot be transformation and premature reali!ation of /armas) (M. 0 These states are3 (. Is it trueFJ *ahavira said. .atta is a state of the nature of the /armic particles attached to the soul and they are in the state of potentiality not yet expressed. This I say. J&hagavan8 it is said by some that all the 4ivas experience the /armas according to the /armic bondage that has been earned by them.atta--. . udirana 'premature actuali!ation) H. The /arma. The increased reali!ation of ayu/arma is however not possible with all the beings.lower animal cannot be transformed into the ayu/arma of the human being. udvartana 'increase in the intensity) 1. The same is the case with other forms of ayu/arma. :ha/ravarti and tirthan/aras. apavartana 'decrease in the intensity of fruition) 2. ni/acita 'absence of increase or decrease or transformation or premature reali!ation) ((.( +.or instance. It is a state of the soul with reference to the /arma after the bondage and before the reali!ation of the 7arman. 0. Bdvartana--It refers to the increase in the intensity of the experience in the fruits of /arma this variation and increase in the intensity of the fruits of /arma depends upon the variation in the intensity of the emotional states. '+) the /arma may be subha but its consequential effects 'vipa/a) may be asubha. .

this refers to the process of the transformation of . . in this the /arma gets expression at a determined time. the /arma gets disintegrated into particles of matter. maximum duration of the 4nanavaraniya /arma is thirty crores of crores sagaropama. H. Bpasamana--This is the process of the suppression of /arma.( In the . However. which is in operation. Bpasamana is possible where there is possibility of udvartana and apavartana and transformation 'san/ramana).imilarly. sometimes asubha/arma may be accompanied by actions which are subha or subha/arma may be followed by the actions which are inauspicious and the consequential effects of these /armic processes are therefore. And the abadha/ala will be measured as three thousand years. the ratio is one hundred years to one sagaropama period of time of its fruition as the original /arma. as3 '() niyatavipa/i. 6enerally. we get the calculations about the periods of abadha/ala of the H types of /arma. Loga darsana mentions three such types. &ut sometimes without giving fruits.+ The -ainas have made a systematic study of the theory of /arma. '0) anubhaga san/ramana and '1) pradesa san/ramana. '+) sthiti san/ramana. .i/acita even these processes are impossible. asatavedaniya /arma can be transformed into satavedaniya/arma. It is phalodaya. Bnder certain conditions the /armic particles are so intensely glued that it becomes impossible to affect them in any way except by increase or decreased realisation. And it continues to operate till it fructifies fully. . &ut any /arma cannot be transformed into any other /arma. so also the suppressed /arma has to get itself exhausted and produce its effects in varying degrees after the process of suppression no longer operates. @. intensity and strength of the /arma are determined by the very time of the bondage of /arma. . It arises after the period of potentiality or the period of non-production. -iva is bound to suffer the fruition of this type of /arma. Bdirana--It is a premature reali!ation of the /arma. Abadha/ala--Abadha/ala is the duration of the /armic state form the time of its bondage to the time of fruition.or example. 5hen the /arma rises and after giving its fruits become transformed into mere particles of matter. and it is destroyed. In the &hagavati. &ut it is not possible to ma/e a defined predicational rule about udirana. (M. It is called pradesodaya. A person having wrong belief 'mithyatva) cannot easily transform the mithyatva into the mixed or samya/tva as it requires greater energy. ((. + The four types of san/ramana mentioned above are3 '() pra/rti san/ramana. ( In the ra4napana also there is the calculation about the extent of the abadha/ala with reference to the consequential effects of the original /arma. In the Logasutra of atan4ali. The extent of the abadha/ala has been measured with reference to the extent of the duration of the type of /arma. In this case the duration. 7arma does not immediately bear fruit as soon as it is bound. gives fruit and exhausts.an/ramana--.imilarly. The -aina contribution to the theory of /arma is unique. a person having right faith 'samyagdrsti) transforms the mithyatva /arma into samya/-mithyatva /arma and samya/tva. 0 Bdaya--It is the rise of the /arma in the process of fruition.idhatti--It is the process by which /arma is made incapable of all processes except udvartana and apavartana--increased and decreased reali!ation. Bpasamana is only suppression and not destruction of the /arma in producing its effects. ?. G. &ut as soon as the ashes covering the embers of fire are removed the effect of fire is felt in its intensity. nor between any two of the four sub-types of the particular type of /arma except in the cases mentioned above. there is the mention of the consequential effects of the fruition of the different /arma. *utual transformation is not possible in the case of darsana mohaniya and caritramohaniya /arma.an/ramana is transformation of one type of /arma into another in respect of '() its nature '+) duration '0) intensity and '1) the strength of /armic matter. a person of right belief is pure and it is not easy for him to fall bac/ into the /armic state of wrong belief. which is called abadha/ala. in the normal course of thing udirana is possible in the case of the same type of /arma. . '+) aniyatavipa/i. before it bears effect.or example.2. . affected by the nature of the /arma and the later actions bring in different types of /arma. 4ust as the burning embers of fire produced by coal are covered by ashes and they are prevented from giving their full effects of the fire.

rebirth cannot be explained and rebirth can be explained only on the basis of the principle of /arma. mana 'egoity). This process of . The /arma that we have accumulated in the past gives rise to various births. It is a cycle of existence and rebirth. 0 In the &hagavadgita we get an analogical description about rebirth and the chain of birth. ? The new born in fact experiences pleasure and pain and expresses various emotions. In the antara/ala the gross physical body has already been left.( 7arma of the present life will be responsible for the future life. These are due to the sams/aras dragged on from previous life. fear and sorrow. the series of births will come to an end9 but it is not possible to exhaust all the /arma that has been accumulated in one single life. to three or four samayas. H As the young boy grows into a youth similarly the 4iva enters a new life and the body. similarly the soul casts away the worn out body and ta/es on a new body. These three concepts of Logadarsana may be compared to the -aina concept ni/acita. starts suc/ing the mil/ from the motherEs breast. the racial-unconscious as -ung has said as equivalent to /arma. They are postulates of Indian thoughts. after death. As we said earlier. This duration of time varies from one. into full stature. which will hold out and is born many times. lato said that the soul always weaves new garment. the Indian philosophers have adduced arguments and have tried to show that the rebirth is a fact of life. as /armic particles of ayu /arma enter the soul which is responsible in various ways for determining the states of existence in the succeeding life. The soul has a natural strength. These are primarily due to its memories in the past life. and the infernal world. The soul gets involved in the wheel of life. Aebirth is a corollary of the principle of /arma. ythogoras was aware of the principle of the rebirth. The /arma of the past life is responsible for the present life. maya 'deceit) and lobha 'greed) are the root cause of the cycle of births. 1 This is possible through the process of JavartanaJ 'transference). The accretion of /arma. KARMA AND REBIRTH The sub4ect of rebirth is very closely associated with the doctrine of /arma.@ The new infants. 4iva is without the gross physical body and is see/ing to get into the new body. The /arma that it has accumulated determines its existence and status in the next life. G The newborn infant expresses various emotions li/e 4oy.chopenhaur explicitly mentions the doctrine of rebirth and said that the doctrine has relevance for explaining the concept of distribution. 2 The Tathagata &uddha once explained that the pric/s of the thorn that he suffered were due to the violence and in4uries caused to a human being in his ninety-one previous life. The soul moves one to the other according to its desserts. it would be difficult to explain the prevalent inequality in this world and the experiences of various types of existences in this life and in this world without reference to /arma. This is due to its learning and habits that it had acquired in the past life. The -ainas have given an elaborate study of the doctrine of rebirth as based on the /arma theory. the /arma and rebirth are basal pre-suppositions. All these can be traced to the disposition 'sams/aras) acquired by the infant from its previous lie due to the heritage of its /armas may call it collective unconscious. the heavenly being. the lower animal. The two are basal pre-supposition of Indian thought. and grows. the length of life and the status of the individual in all its different lives. There re four states of existence3 the human. pradesodaya and san/ramana.0 Aebirth is very closely associated with the /arma and 4iva. The time gap between the death in a particular life and rebirth in the next life is called antara/ala. If we do not accept the theory of /arma. . If rebirth were not to be accepted as a fact principle of life. As a man ta/es out the old clothes and wears the new one.one type of /arma with the similar type of /arma or the sub-type of /arma.+ &hagavana *ahavira said that passion li/e /rodha 'anger). the moment it is born. 'samsara) and is born and reborn in different existences. In this way. The western philosophers also were not unaware of doctrine of rebirth although this doctrine was largely ignored in the western thought. If /arma is fully exhausted. He said that it is at once obvious to everyone who hears of the rebirth for the first time.

If the direction of the movement is uneven and indirect. =ne is northeastern direction and the other southwest direction. in the second samaya it ta/es a turn towards the western and in the third samaya there is turn to the north-western side. The time required for traversing the distance from one birth to another birth in the next body depends on the number of curves in the direction of the next body. This type of /arma is li/e the row that controls the movement of the bulloc/. The soul requires two samayas in its movement generally from the direction of the upper world to the lower world. In the case of the curved direction it has to ma/e certain efforts. In the upper world 'Brdhvalo/a). then the 4iva has to depend on the energy of the su/sma 'subtle) /armic body. This may be Jr4uJ 'short and direct) and va/ra 'curved and indirect). there may not be the physical sense organs. However. 4ust as the modern machines li/e the aeroplane are controlled by electric motivations through the computers. 5hen the soul departs from the previous body it acquires the speed of that body and it darts of to its next destination li/e an arrow. &ut the functions of the sense organs are not altogether lost. downward and crosswise in the case of tirya/ gati 'lower animals). A pertinent question has been raised regarding the absence of the sense organs during the movement of the 4iva from the previous body towards the formation of the new life.movement from the old body to the new body is called Jantarala gatiJ. there would be no cognition or sensing of the direction. it moves towards the lower world. therefore. &hagavana *ahavira says it is true that there are no physical sense organs 'dravyendriya). then turns towards the southwestern side. 5hen the soul reaches the point of curve the previous body is to some extent arrested. in the case of the movement from the earlier to the next body in the straight direction 'r4ugati).irst. If the direction is straight and direct it is r4ugati. if the gross body is not there. but there is the presence of the psychic sense organs. In the first samaya it moves in the direction of the lower world. If there is only one curve it will require two samayas. They are expressed through tai4asa and /armana sarira. say during the movement of the 4iva from one body to the other. According to the /arma there when the 4iva casts off one body and moves towards the direction of assuming the next body it is guided and directed by anupurvinama /arma. it ta/es the direction of the eastern side and the lower world it turns to the direction of the western world. 6enerally. If there are two curves it requires three samayas and if there are three curves. there would be no sense organs and if the sense organs are not there. This movement in different directions is called Jtri-va/ra catuh samayi/iJ. &ut the gross body will be created in the next life with sams/ara and with the help of the subtle body and the energy available. as the gross body is no longer. In that case how can the 4iva proceed its 4ourney in proper wayF The answer to this question has been given from the point of view of ane/anta. then towards the western side and lastly northwestern side. it is called va/ragati. Audari/a and vai/riya bodies are created freshly for the new life on the basis of its sams/aras. it requires four samayas. THE PATH TOWARDS MOKSA . #uring the movement only the tai4asa 'electria) and /armana '/armic) body accompany. . The direction of the movement depends upon its previous performance. 5e can. the universe is extended in three directions li/e3 upward. In the case of the duration of the time in the movement upto four samaya there would be three turns. there is no need for any guiding anupurvinama/arma. The direct movement 'r4ugati) requires one samaya and the least effort on the part of the 4iva to enter from the previous to the next life. In all these cases the movement of the 4iva is with the help of the su/smasarira 'subtle body). In the case of the duration of the three samayas for the movement there are two turns. The question is as/ed.

right /nowledge and right conduct. we become more conscious of the distinctions between the virtue and vice and we face the difficulties of life with equanimity of mind. 0 5hen all the /armas are removed the atman reaches perfection 1 and the liberated. There should be a synthesis of both these. >edanta and *ahayana &uddhism. so also activities of the 4iva bring about /armic particles. 2 There are only terminological differences in the expression regarding the pathway to perfection. gave importance to the stoppage of /armic bondage 'samvara) as the first step to . through samvara. . &ut the -ainas have not given only exclusive importance to the 4nana-marga as is done in the case of . but caritra were to be emphasi!ed. -ainas also give importance to samvara. in the way to attain to mo/sa. &ut the -ainas say that 4nana and /riya 'caritra) are both necessary for the mo/samarga. This is. ( -nana with caritra would be necessary. will not lead to the highest end of perfection. all are agreed that the /arma has to be removed and the soul to be purified in order to attain mo/sa. 0 The -ainas contend that the pathway to perfection lies in the synthesis and the harmony of the triple path of right intuition. ( =nce the influx of /arma is stopped through the stoppage of the influx i. + and the removal of /arma from the 4iva pradesa is called . . &ut /nowledge without caritra.2 SIGNIFICANT CONTRIBUTION The -aina contribution of the theory of /arma is significant. so that the fresh inflow of water is not possible. However. :aritra is also given importance. The path to mo/sa given by different Indian philosophers may give different emphasis on one or the other aspect of the cognitive. the pathway through activity and ritualism. G Acarya Hemacandra says that 4ust as a house with many windows and doors /ept open attracts dust from all the directions. as we have already seen. except the :arva/a. samyagcaritra and tapas. li/e--heating etc.irvana. right intuition and right conduct would be necessary as mo/samarga. =ne who see/s to attain mo/sa had also to clean the accumulated /arma..an/hya. + Acarya &hadrabahu says that /nowledge without good conduct may be compared to a don/ey carrying sandal wood. . $ven if the -nana were less. 5hen we /now that our present actions are due to the effects performed in the past and that our present actions will be responsible for the future life. ( . then it would be a way to mo/sa. we find that the pathway to perfection is through samyag4nana.or instance. 6autama.or the sa/e of cleaning the tan/ we have first to stop the water. next step would be to remove the /arma that is already collected into the soul and that is process of nir4ara. the &uddha. The perfection and the general contention is that right /nowledge. as is emphasi!ed by the urvamimamsa. as the ore of the gold has to be purified through various processes. . =nce the /armas are removed and the atman reaches perfection. The first step therefore is to close these doors and windows so that the fresh /armic particles do not enter the 4iva. fresh /arma would not enter into the soul. 5e strive to become good. 1 In the agamas. while Aamanu4a and others emphasi!e the bha/ti-marga.e. It has developed a scientific theory of /arma with its emphasis on the atomic nature of /arma as /armavargana and with its elaborate scientific description of the processes of /arma. accept the mo/sa as the highest ideal and they have shown the way to mo/sa. however great it may be. This process may be compared to the cleaning of the accumulated water in a tan/.an/hya darsana and the Advaita >edanta give emphasis on 4nana marga. the process of samvara. *axmuller says that /arma theory has influenced man/ind to a great extent.The Indian philosophers. 5e have also seen that the process of samvara can be compared to the stoppage of the inflow of water into the tan/ through the different inlets.ir4ara. The soul can be purified by penance and meditation etc. the affective and he creative functions.amvara is such a process of the stoppage of the influx of /arma through varied channels. 4ust as the fried seeds do not sprout. nor it does emphasi!e exclusively the /riya/anda. samyagdarsana..

0 . we may say that from the real point of view 'niscaya naya) logical 4ustification of the doctrine of /arma is neither possible nor necessary. and it appeals to the overpowering strength of the necessity of 4ustice.7arma is infact a stri/ing answer to the Efathomless in4ustice to the nature of things. + Having discussed the arguments and counter-arguments of the logical 4ustification of the doctrine of /arma. It is the expression of the highest /nowledge and experience of the seers. The conception of an all controlling law of natural distribution which lin/s together successive earth lives of each individual soul both satisfied by sense of 4ustice and through light on the problem of seemingly unmerited suffering.

or instance. *axmuller mentions little intermediate stage of henotheistic tendency. >aruna was the s/y 6od.aturalistic polytheism was the first current of philosophical thought.orld Philoso!hies o( the .e.urya is the sun 6od. Their outloo/ was to live a happy life in this world. Loga9 urvamimamsa and >edanta belong to the >edic tradition. . The >eda-darsana and the teachings of the Bpanisads belong to the >edic tradition. . . It is a cosmic principle.rom the naturalistic polytheism. The Agveda is the earliest document. &uddhism.ramana tradition does not accept the authority of the >edas. naturalistic polytheism to +. . The phenomena of nature were symboli!ed as 6ods and they were worshipped.PA*& 5 Jaina *arsana and the Philoso!hies o( the .an/hya. and 0.. In these discussions. It is traditionalistic and rationalistic and approaches. The . by which one 6od became . we may however trace the philosophical development in the Agveda in the direction of thought from (. primarily because they accept the authority of the >edas and also because they believe in the creator 6od. The main problems of >edic aryans were concerned with the worldly problems. . The >edas contain hymns addressed to the gods for getting the benefits of the world. A pertinent question was as/ed3 E5hat is the source of this BniverseFE This was presented with reference to the many 6ods who were personali!ed forces of nature. =ccasionally. monism. It is based upon the experiences of the seers for its fundamental truths and the empirical experiences for the understanding of the phenomenal world. the >edic seers have expressed flashes of philosophical insights. VEDIC THOUGHT The earliest presentation of Indian thought can be traced to the >edas. There was the idea of Ata.avitra is the solar 6od and there were a host of many other 6ods-about three hundred and thirty three was worshipped. *itra his companion. monotheism in which the conception of henotheism as suggested by *axmuller may also be included.orld0 A St"dy INDIAN PHILOSOPHY Indian philosophy is a synthesis of the two traditions. which is supposed to be philosophical in content. It is empiricist in outloo/ and analytic in its methodology. The -aina tradition advocates authority of the teachings of the Tirthan/aras as presented through the agamas not because it is the final word of the Tirthan/ara but because of their omniscient experiences which have been transmitted to the disciples and which has been codified through the sutragama. The >edic tradition advocates the authority of the >edas.ramana traditions. . and therefore atheistic. >aisesi/a. The main problem connected with philosophical study in the >edic speculation was cosmic. Dater systems of philosophy li/e the . It was the conception of the order in the universe. The philosophy of the >edic tradition is also considered to be orthodox systems of philosophy and are called Jasti/a darsanaJ. As we have seen earlier. >aruna is considered to be the custodian of this principal and it has been suggested that the doctrine of /arma developed from the principle of Ata. -ainism and :arva/a darsanas belong to the sramanic tradition or avedic tradition 'non-vedic).yaya. the >edic and the . evolved the monotheistic tendency. i.

which is its real nature. The idea of one 6od.imilarly. It is empiricist in its methodology. Its fundamental approach is secular. *onotheism developed out of the tendency of the philosophic mood of the >edic seers. This stage can be attained by .ense experience is the only source of /nowledge. It refutes the arguments for the existence of 6od and of the authority of the >edas.imilar idea is to be found in latoEs conception of the soul. eleven are important on which . The highest position was granted to >isva/arman in the Agveda at a later stage. The &hagavadgita also gives the encyclopedic information about the duty and responsibilities of the secular life. what is available through the sense organs and what can be verified through the sense experience is alone real. which may be considered metaphysic-spiritual category. in the 7atha Bpanisad we find the description of the self as the charioteer and the body as the chariot. It is. performance of duty '/arma marga) and devotion 'bha/ti-marga) for the attainment of the highest and self-reali!ation. The 4iva and a4iva constitute the universe. as the description of this school of thought is mainly found in other schools of Indian philosophy.prominent for sometime.imilarly.an/aracarya has written commentaries.( The Bpanisads developed contemplative philosophy.ri . In the &hagavadgita. Therefore. the mo/sa stage. if today be sweetJ. the /armic particles enter into the soul and obscure right /nowledge. This obscuration and association of /arma with the 4iva is beginningless. as this is worldly. The idea of self has been discussed in different Bpanisads in different aspects. presented rich. . and varied philosophic theories. These questions lead to the philosophic development of monotheism. but it has an end. . it gains its purity and perfection. =f them. That stage is the stage of perfection. All other sources of /nowledge are not valid. In the contemplative mood. Therefore. right intuition and right conduct. the cardinal in4unction of the :arva/a is Jto see/ pleasure. The Bpanisads state the divine and mystic contemplation about the ultimate principle of life. we should see/ pleasure as long as we liveJ. J5hen the body is destroyed nothing remains. The fundamental philosophical concept of the Bpanisads is the identity with the atman and the &rahman9 all else is the appearance. It is materialistic in approach. therefore. This is the cardinal principle of the Bpanisads. ( JAINA DARSANA The -aina philosophy is realistic and pluralistic. JThere is neither a permanent soul nor heaven nor hell9 why fret about them. It is difficult to give a list of authentic documents of the :arva/a darsana. 5hen the 4iva gets free from /armic matter. There are (MH Bpanisads. . The fundamental epistemological stand of the :arva/a is3 ratya/sa is the only pramana. a compendium of the harmony of the secular and the spiritual. for tomorrow we dieJ. we find the progressive development of the definition of the self. -aina presents the seven categories. ra4apati attained the highest ran/. we get a beautiful synthesis of the triple path of /nowledge '4nana). a supreme and the principle of Ata were helpful in the development of philosophic thought in the monistic and absolutist direction. the seers as/ed some pertinent questions3 E5hat is the source of this universeF and who has been the first bornFE. The philosophers and the Agveda presented the monistic thought in their one famous statement3 The ultimate reality is one and the wise calls it by many names. -iva is active and due to the activity of the 4iva. All else is illusion. In the dialogues between La4naval/ya and -ana/a and between ra4apati and Indra. . CARVAKA DARSANA :arva/a darsana is non->edic in its tradition. Therefore.

nayavada. :ittavrttinirodha is the cardinal principle of Loga. niyama are the ethical bac/ground and 0. aham/ara. the &uddha presented his philosophy to his five disciples. This is the astanga marga. 4nana and caritra. ra/rti is the primordial matter and purusa is the self. physical and psychical. 0 SANKHYA . The highest end is the attainment of the state of nirvana. vi4nana. .an/hya metaphysics is accepted by Loga and . The Loga gives eight-fold practical path in which (. yama and +. ra/rti is active. G.an/hya presents the metaphysical side while the Loga according to atan4ali is the methodical effort to attain perfection. There is nothing more than this. The self. through the control of different elements of human nature. #u/ha is the first noble truth9 du/ha samudayah is the second noble truth. pratyahara are the physicopsycholoical preparation. activity starts. H. vedana. which is freedom from the state of misery.an/hya theory of the evolution of the universe is presented in the light of the association of pra/rti with purusa. . The . it is pure consciousness.an/hya is dualistic. #u/hanirodha marga is the fourth noble truth9 it gives a transcendental self. ( Thus we find the foundational principle of &uddhism is du/ha. This he calls the namarupa. pra/rti. Then there are disturbances in the equilibrium of the three gunas--sattva and ra4as and tamas. NYAYA-VAISESIKA DARSANA The . #u/hanirodha is the nirvana and this is the third noble truth. sam4na 1. ni/sepavada. rupa. asana 1. He said that we should follow the madhyama marga 'the middle path).+ $very thing is in a flux and nothing is permanent. These disturbances give rise to the various principles of the universe li/e mahat. The doctrine of ane/anta and ahimsa are the fundamental principles of metaphysics and ethics.an/hya philosophers largely accept the Loga methodology.amadhi is the culmination and the psychic process of the highest reali!ation. dhyana and @. The . That is called dharmaca/ra paravartana. and the ultimate aim is du/ha nirodha or nirvana. pramanyavada.triple path. It is the s/andha of these states3 (. /armavada.an/hya postulates the plurality of self. The .yaya is also called pramanasastra. dharana are psychic exercises. although it has very often been interpreted as a state of nothingness. It is the cause of suffering and explains this with reference to the theory of causation of pratityasamutpada. The Loga presents the practical path for this reali!ation of purusa to attain its own pure nature. It is difficult to say what he meant by nirvana. urusa is passive. but unconscious. Thus evolution consists of the twenty-five principles including the purusa. manas.iddhartha 6autama. +. 5hen the pra/rti is in the proximity or in contact with purusa. The origin of suffering arises out of our attachment to the various things of life. 0. The fundamental philosophy of the &uddha can be presented in two principles3 the four noble truths and the eightfold path. because it . It posits the two ultimate principles3 (. BAUDDHA DARSANA &uddhism also belongs to the sramana current of thought. . The . as samyagdarsana. YOGA DARSANA . In his first sermon at >aranasi. The ultimate ideal for the purusa is to reali!e. It is all a temporary and in a flux. purusa and +. what we call the atman is not real and what we call the atman is only a collection or an aggregate of five states9 physical and mental. craving for the things of life. pranayama and 2. saptabhangi and ane/anta are the foundation pillars of -aina philosophy. sams/ara and 2.an/hya and Loga philosophy are complementary to each other.yaya gives logic and epistemology9 while >aisesi/a presents metaphysics. the five-senseorgans and five motor-organs9 the five elements 'panca tanmatras).yaya and >aisesi/a darsanas are also complementary to each other. . The . &uddhism is a religion preached by the &uddha. The principle of atman.

5hen *ahavira and the &uddha were preaching in India. 5e may consider the development of 6ree/ philosophy from the seventh century &. which developed after the Ionic philosophers. while >edanto is concerned with the /nowledge of the &rahman. except the :arva/a and in a sense of the nihilistic aspect of &uddhism. The concept of atman is one of the cardinal principles of all Indian thought. . and does not accept the trans-empirical reality.an/ara is the identity of the &rahman and atman and the ultimate ideal is the merger of the &rahman and atman. This can be very clearly evidenced by the fact that :arva/a was the status of a darsana.yaya->aisesi/a and other are arthapatti 'postulation) and anupalabdhi.:. sabda pramana. samanya 'generality) 2.the fact of misery and +. dravya 'substance). 0. There were two currents of thought. upamana and 1. They sought to find out in some ultimate substance of this universe. Thus we find that there is much common ground between the various systems of Indian philosophy. It prepares the ground for the performance of the >edic in4unction. GREEK PHILOSOPHY $arly 6ree/ philosophy is also sufficiently ancient. It is practical in the sense. The >aisesi/a gives the theory of atomism and the fundamental self-category li/e (. there are four pramanas3 (. It is being . MIMAMSA . The cardinal principle of Advaita >edanta of . Aamanu4a emphasi!es the merger of the atman with the &rahman and not the identity. The earliest philosophers Thales said that water is the source of the universe. Thus. to the 1th century &.yaya->aisesi/a ideal is also to attain mo/sa. visesa 'particularity G. The dualistic >edanta 'dvaita) advocates the reality of the atman and &rahman even in the highest stage of mo/sa. Aleximander traced it to the unlimited and Aleximander said that air is the source of the universe. The early 6ree/ philosophers were primarily concerned with the inquiry regarding the ultimate source of the universe. The . The :arva/a system alone is phenomenalistic in its approach. +. romenades said that reality JisJ.presents the theory of pramanas. They are the $lecticus and the later philosophers who preached the doctrine of flux li/e Heraclitus. The >edanta darsana emphasi!es the identity of the &rahman and the self. abhava 'nonexistence). which is called apavarga. The ob4ect of the urvamimamsa is to help and support the situations for the attainment of salvation in two ways3 (. 5e should also reali!e that the ancient Indian thought was catholic in outloo/. *imamsa is considered to be /arma/anda. VEDANTA DARSANA *imamsa and >edanta darsanas are also related to each other very closely. by giving methodology of interpretation with the help of which complicated >edic in4unctions regarding the rituals may be understood and +. +. It accepts the creator 6od. 0.the ideal of attainment of the state of freedom from misery and attainment of perfection. This is possible by the highest /nowledge of the padarthas and by removing ignorance. we find the cardinal and the foundational principle of all Indian thoughts is (. guna 'attribute).:. pratya/sa. 6ree/ philosophy was in its infancy. anumana. /arma 'activity) 1. This is based on the urvamimamsa epistemology wherein six pramana have been mentioned3 the four as given by the . Aadha/rishnan says that the aim of the urvamimamsa is to examine the nature of dharma.yaya is theistic in its approach. According to 6autama. samavaya 'inherence) and @. by giving philosophical 4ustifications of the beliefs on which ritualism depend. The early beginning of 6ree/ philosophers were still groping to find out the ultimate source of the universe in some physical phenomenon.

latoEs political and social philosophy was based on metaphysical structure of the decrease of reality. to which ideas participate.ocrates onwards the search for the ultimate reality was inwards. the wor/ers class. . Aevival of philosophical speculation was to be found in the rationalist and empiricist schools in modern philosophy beginning with #escartes as a great rationalist and Doc/e as great empiricist. He tal/ed of the rebirth and the influences of our action on the future life. *atter.ocrates said /nowledge is virtue and virtues are /nowledge. but in the /nowledge of the self. The Indian mystics perhaps influenced him. . >arious theories. He did not write any boo/ but he discussed philosophy with the intellectual of his time sitting in the mar/et of the Athens. He had many great disciples and one of them was lato. It is perfect. He made a distinction between the different classes on the basis of the function. J7now thyselfJ was the cardinal principle of the . The authority of Aristotle was so great that he was referred to as the only greatest authority and no development in philosophy too/ place till the end of the middle age. sometimes conflicting. 7ant is considered to have brought a :opernican revolution in philosophy and later philosophers li/e &radley built a structure of the idealistic philosophy. lato was an aristocrat. etc. ythogoras was a mystic. who made /nowledge relative and sub4ective. Astronomy. . . 7nowledge and virtue are convertible terms. .orm is potentiality and matter is actuality. The sophists brought philosophy to the brin/ of extinction when they said that nothing can be /nown and anything can be /nown. The phenomenal world is the expression of form and matter. The *iddle Ages were the dar/ ages. The things of the world are the imitations of the ob4ects in the physical world. it is eternal and it is simple. It can be said that Aristotle gave the first lessons of rationalistic philosophy.and changes is the appearance while Heraclitus advocated that change alone is real. philosophy in the west declined. This was a stage of naturalist philosophy. li/e-the guardian class.orm and +. they are real. the soldier class and that function was to obey i. . This was the stage of intellectual chaos when .ocrates was convinced that philosophy consists not in the /nowledge of the external world. The idea is real. Then came the philosophers li/e #emocrats to preach the doctrine of elements and also the atomists. Aristotle was a genius and he wrote boo/s on many sub4ects li/e hilosophy. This was reflected in the philosophy of the sophists. After Aristotle. Heraclitus was called JHeraclitus the dar/J. Ideas participate in the physical ob4ect and to the extent. we get a synthesis again. The ideal state is the JAepublicE in which the philosophers should be the /ing. &ut intellectualists at that time were aware to see/ the ultimate reality in some phenomenal source. .ocrates was a simple man. In 7ant. created confusion in the minds of the thin/ers. Aristotle said that there are two fundamental principles of the universe3 (. Aristotle was latoEs disciple.Jman is the measure of all thinsJ.. Aecent philosophy has gone off the tangent with logical positives and the analytical schools.ocratic teaching.rom the period of . He hated democracy. 5e cannot get ob4ective criteria of reality. It is said all the later philosophies are nothing but footnotes to the philosophy of Aristotle. rotogroras said JHomo mensuraJ. &oth of them are abstract principles. He said we couldnEt step into the same water again. because his sayings were obscure. it cannot be communicated. which synthesi!e the idealism and rationalism to some extent. and the being or permanence is unreal.ocrates came on the screen. *athematics.e. There was intellectual chaos. The philosopher-/ing should have very simple and virtuous life and guide the destinies of the nation entirely for the good of the people.

THE SUFI TRADITION The term E. There was trade with other countries. 0. It comes nearer to the vedantic conception.ARABIAN PHILOSOPHY Arabic philosophy can be considered to have started with prophet *ohamed. It need not be considered to be a slave of any other higher beings.ufi philosophers were those who renounced everything for the sa/e of reali!ing the 6od. . 6od is omnipotent and great and the world has good and evil ali/e. 5hen the people of Arabia came in contact with other countries because of their trade. In this way. it has a beginning. 1. &ecause of that.ufi philosophy. In the H th century A. it does not accept the beginningless nature of the 7uran. All the Arabic current of thought former of *ota4ala tradition was based on faith and does not permit differences of opinion and philosophic speculation. 6od is the symbol of the good and not of the evil. man is a part of 6od or an aspect of 6od. They worshipped different deities in *a//a. The *uslim philosophers have used the term .ufi philosophers were same and they spend their life for the practice of the selfreali!ation. different traditions developed li/e3 (. It means E5isdomE. To believe that the activities of living beings are determined by other higher being and to punish them would be in4ustice. There are three religious currents as that time.or the first time. The . According to the . &efore the birth of Ha!arat *ohamed. The *ota4ala tradition considers 7uran as the sacred boo/ written as a particular time. The cardinal principles of the Islamic philosophy can be mentioned in five principles3 (. In this sense. It also did not accept certain orthodox beliefs.ufi philosophers presented the practical path of self-reali!ation. They . which was carried through the seas from their ports. The self '4iva) is free to do activity '/arma). It has been said that the .. 2. The Arabs were neither united for affluent at that time. +. 6od does not elevate his creatures to heaven or punish them to hell. Dat +.ufiE comes from the 6ree/ word J. These religions were not indigenous to the Arabic world. Asari tradition. The *ota4ala tradition brought about a synthesis between the orthodoxy as presented in the authority of the sacred texts and the function of reason. The Arabs had their own religious practices. . the Arabic world was full of many religious currents and men were practicing various faiths.ufi tradition developed in the Arabia on the basis of the 6ree/ philosophy concerning mysticism. $ven an uneducated man can understand and practice righteousness.#. the wor/s in 6ree/ philosophy were translated into Arabic and the . Bnli/e the orthodox *uslims. which contains elements of atan4ala Loga. J*ota4ala traditionJ. At the time of aigambar and other philosophers who were preaching at that time were considered to be as phiasts 'sahava or companion) and even after aigambar these were remembered by this name. The . The creation is out of nothing 'abhava). It is simple but very significant.ophiJ. Ha!arat *ohamed gave the Holy 7uran. The :hristians were the followers of -esus. there was the interaction of philosophical and religious thoughts. it is against the Aristotelian conception of creation. The -ews were the followers of *oses. -ewish people were /nown for their trade and the use of horses and camels and Arabia was famous for dates. These two religious were infact outside religions influencing the Arabic world. &ut later the devotees of *ota4ala tradition introduced philosophical discussion and so *ota4ala tradition in Islam is the first philosophic tradition built on the basis of this new light. The highest reali!ation consists in the merger of the self with 6od. the . Di/e other *uslims the *ota4ala tradition considers this world as a creation of 6od. Da44a and 0. In this connection.o this may be considered to be a religious tradition. Therefore. 7arami tradition and 0. *anat. It has also been said that life and death are all dependent on 6od. especially of Aamanu4a.#. where he advocates the merger of the self in the &rahman in the highest state of self-reali!ation.uri epithet was given to Abu Hasim who died in @@M A. there were three different deities3 (.ufi in different senses. +. following its teachings.

His critique of ure Aeason led to his critique of practical reason and 4udgement. sum he went on toe heaven and loo/ed at the physical world with compliments. states that ideas first introduced for explaining the operation of the human understanding. Hegel gave dialectic of reason and for him the real was the . $mpiricism faced the blind wall of s/epticism and phenomenalism wile rationalistic philosophy built up a philosophical fantasy in the theory of spiritual monds.ufi mystics practiced asceticism by standing and concentrating with other practices li/e pranayama. the great 6erman philosopher. The empiricist philosopher used a posteriori and inductive methods. However. He wanted to examine the instrument of understanding. his s/epticism was only a means to an end and not an end in itself.ufism. Immanuel 7ant.pino!aEs tas/ was to establish a connection between the 6od and the world on the basis of mathematical deduction. in presenting his theory of monds. The other meaning which is popular is Jstanding in lineJ.rom the :o!ito. As we have seen earlier.ocrates explains the protogoran doctrine that /nowledge is through sense-experience. MODERN WESTERN PHILOSOPHY 5e have seen that after Aristotle. Jset adrift without a rag to cover themJ. ( 7nowledge became impossible and philosophy could go no further without a radical reconsideration of its fundamental position. and Jstanding in lineJ. we find the revival of the spirit of inquiry. philosophical inquiry started with the scientific spirit became prominent. #escartes and . &ut in modern western philosophy.pino!aEs substances became a lionEs dens to which all the trac/s lead and from which none returned. #escartes split the world into two substances and postulated a 6od separate from each of them.say.ufi has its 6ree/ origin and it also meals JwoolJ. away from that of the common sense. Aeid. In the modern age. In the *iddle Ages. This spirit expressed itself in two directions3 (.ufi mystic. everything by themselves. Deibnit! continued the rationalistic tradition and arrived at metaphysical fantasy. . And he came to the conclusion that categories of understanding can at best explain the phenomenal world.pino!a built systems of rationalism. This concept is analogous to the Advaitic concept of the identity of the atman and the &rahman 'aham brahmasmi). . The noumenal can be understood by practical reason. The . . and +.ufism is more a philosophy than a religion. 6od was for him. empiricist inquiry which is founded on experience and analysis of common sense. . ergo. dharana and samadhi of the atan4ala Loga. The . philosophy was stagnant for sometime. . under mind. The ancient mystics practiced the ascetic practices using wool directly touching the body. He doubted everything but he could not doubt himself. philosophy was sustaining itself under the shadow of theology and AristotleEs deductive methods.ince they were using suff 'wool) they were /nown as . the word . . $nglish empiricism repeats the logical movement. 7antEs was a critical philosophy. deductive rationalistic inquiry based on deductive and mathematical methods. the monadus-monadum. *ali/ *ohammed -ayasi has given his famous discourse on the aspect of love in his admavata which is described as divine and is primarily spiritual. pitifully na/ed and destitute. 5e can see the empiricistEs method steadily marching from Doc/e. The result was . summing up the $nglish $mpiricist movement. &er/eley denied matter and Hume denied everything except impressions and ideas. &er/eley to Hume. that the reali!ation is possible through the practice of dhyana 'contemplation) and absorption in the 6od. He arrived at the conception of the self on the basis of his method of JdoubtJ. He is to pronounce and repeat the prayer JAnalhuqJ meaning9 EI am the 6odE.ubsequently. which is indeed. It is analogous to the stages in dhyana. In the Theavatatus. The *iddle Ages were dar/ ages and whatever philosophy developed was merely theological.ufis. but does not save itself from its own conclusion of s/epticism. claimed to have brought :opernican revolution in philosophy. *ansur is supposed to the founder and propagator of .

as he does not understand Jthe logic of our languageJ. To save philosophy from this impose we have to adopt a synoptic view towards the problem of philosophy. hilosophy classes are converted into super-grammar classes.wami >ive/ananda gave a new interpretation to the absolute idealism of >edanta. The 5hiteheadEs fundamental attitude of philosophy is essentially the same as the -aina ane/anta view when he presented the theory of coherence. The influence of the *uslim conquest of India brought a cultural impact on the philosophical traditions in India. logical classification of concepts. Intellectual tolerance is the foundation of the doctrine. . Idealism was unable to see the trees in the wood while realism could not see the wood in the tree. . Aadha/rishnan adopts a synoptic interpretation of the universal application of the vedantic conception to the problems of philosophy. but the bha/ti-marga. ( &ertrand Aussell writes that the influence the Tractatus made on him Jwas not wholly goodJ. *ahatma 6andha spirituali!ed politics.ri Aurobindo built a super structure of mystic philosophy presenting the concept of superannuated consciousness and the evolution of the matter into spirit from men to supermen. #r. to the brin/ of extinction have recently revised the Human tendency. The idol worship was gradually replaced by contemplation and devotional song. . *athematics consists of equation and the proposition of *athematics is without sense.#. which can be called the absolutist philosophy. Dogical positivists explain that they have completely overthrown speculative philosophy. In . witnessed a renaissance in the &rahmasama4 and rarthanasama4. He states that all the truths of logic are tautologies and logical proofs are only mechanical devises for recogni!ing the categories. Thus a survey of philosophy in the past shows that philosophy faced continually in past of the conflict between the consequences of the priori methods and empiricists faverish denial of metaphysics. &ut the :ambridge philosophers. nor the 4nana-marga.aurastra. Dater philosophy emphasi!es not so much the /arma-marga. The -aina view asserts that the truth is many-sided and it can be loo/ed at different angles. and the philosophy of the Jphilosophical investigationsJ remains to him completely unintelligible. with reference to the social and political problems. 5e are told that he made no essential change in his attitude towards the aim of philosophy.. The metaphysician tal/s non-sense in the fullest sense of the word.u/halal4i and #alsu/ha *alavania giving new interpretation of the -aina philosophy. the nature of logic. which resulted in the philosophical fantasies of absolutism. 7abirdas was against the idol worship. proposition and theories proper to empirical science. Dater philosophers li/e &radley and &osanquet built a structure of philosophy. Thus philosophy was identified with the logical syntax9 the higher level discussion of language and it is important non-sense. &ala 6angadhara Tila/ presented the /armayoga in his interpretation of the &hagavadgita. which resulted in the metaphysical impossibility and of rationalism. in the 6itarahasya. 5e find fresh scholars li/e t.+ Dogical positivism is the philosophical movement emanating from the J>ieana :ircleJ.rational.( These two ways of approaching the problems were exclusive and absolute ways and to reali!e this point that both these ways are partially view of the synoptic outloo/. #ayanand . *etaphysical suggestion is li/e a composition of a new song. but an activity.arasvati was against the worship of idol and it developed into Arya . In the (2 th century A. facts and proposition and the tas/ of philosophy. They rested in the absolute. 0 hilosophy to them is only logical analysis9 not a theory. The influence of this tendency could be traced in the -aina tradition also in the thought and practices of the . 5ittgensteinEs Tractatus discusses the problem of meaning. THE NEW AGE IN THE INDIAN THOUGHT The culmination of the vedantic philosophy is to be found in the age of *adhva.ama4. In &engal.+ The -aina view of ane/anta steers clear of the conflicting existence of extremes of empiricism.thana/vasi tradition. 5e should reali!e that reality is complex and life is a many-colored door. philosophy is to see life steadily and to see the solution of the problems. Its function is analysis. . In this sense.

The >edic tradition is to believe that these distinctions were primarily concerned with the birth of the individuals into different classes. They say that the &uddhist approach is from the phenomenal point of view especially with reference to the momentary existence. METAPHYSICAL DISTINCTIONS The &uddhists are phenomenalists and nihilists in their outloo/. They say everything is in a flux and nothing is permanent. vyaya 'destruction) and dhrauvya 'permanence) characteri!e reality. says >aibhasi/a through perception while . They advocate the transitoriness of the things of the world. negatively as the white. but Tathagata &uddha and .. . which posited the reality of external world and ultimate substances 'elements) 'dharma). They belong to the sramana current of thought. but -ainas and the &uddhists gave the status of pauruseya to the authority as apauruseya. The -ainas