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Conceptual Problems

1 • [SSM] True or false: (a) For Kepler’s law of equal areas to be valid, the force of gravity must vary inversely with the square of the distance between a given planet and the Sun. (b) The planet closest to the Sun has the shortest orbital period. (c) Venus’s orbital speed is larger than the orbital speed of Earth. (d) The orbital period of a planet allows accurate determination of that planet’s mass. (a) False. Kepler’s law of equal areas is a consequence of the fact that the gravitational force acts along the line joining two bodies but is independent of the manner in which the force varies with distance. (b) True. The periods of the planets vary with the three-halves power of their distances from the sun. So the shorter the distance from the sun, the shorter the period of the planet’s motion. (c) True. Setting up a proportion involving the orbital speeds of the two planets in terms of their orbital periods and mean distances from the Sun (see Table 11-1) shows that v Venus = 1.17v Earth . (d) False. The orbital period of a planet is independent of the planet’s mass. 2 • If the mass of a small Earth-orbiting satellite is doubled, the radius of its orbit can remain constant if the speed of the satellite (a) increases by a factor of 8, (b) increases by a factor of 2, (c) does not change, (d) is reduced by a factor of 8, (e) is reduced by a factor of 2. Determine the Concept We can apply Newton’s 2nd law and the law of gravity to the satellite to obtain an expression for its speed as a function of the radius of its orbit. Apply Newton’s 2nd law to the satellite to obtain: GMm v2 = m r r2 where M is the mass of the object the satellite is orbiting and m is the mass of the satellite.

∑ Fradial =

1091

**1092 Chapter 11 Solving for v yields:
**

v= GM r

Thus the speed of the satellite is independent of its mass and (c ) is correct. 3 • [SSM] During what season in the northern hemisphere does Earth attain its maximum orbital speed about the Sun? What season is related to its minimum orbital speed? HINT: The major factor determining the seasons on Earth is not the variation in distance from the Sun. Determine the Concept Earth is closest to the Sun during winter in the northern hemisphere. This is the time of fastest orbital speed. Summer would be the time for minimum orbital speed. 4 • Haley’s comet is in a highly elliptical orbit about the Sun with a period of about 76 y. Its last closest approach to the Sun occurred in 1987. In what years of the twentieth century was it traveling at its fastest or slowest orbital speed about the Sun? Determine the Concept Haley’s comet was traveling at its fastest orbital speed in 1987, and at its slowest orbital speed 38 years previously in 1949. 5 • Venus has no natural satellites. However artificial satellites have been placed in orbit around it. To use one of their orbits to determine the mass of Venus, what orbital parameters would you have to measure? How would you then use them to do the mass calculation? Determine the Concept To obtain the mass M of Venus you need to measure the period T and semi-major axis a of the orbit of one of the satellites, substitute the measured values into T 2 a 2 = 4π 2 (GM ) (Kepler’s 3rd law), and solve for M. 6 • A majority of the asteroids are in approximately circular orbits in a ″belt″ between Mars and Jupiter. Do they all have the same orbital period about the Sun? Explain. Determine the Concept No. As described by Kepler’s 3rd law, the asteroids closer to the Sun have a shorter ″year″ and are orbiting faster. 7 • [SSM] At the surface of the moon, the acceleration due to the gravity of the moon is a. At a distance from the center of the moon equal to four times the radius of the moon, the acceleration due to the gravity of the moon is (a) 16a, (b) a/4, (c) a/3, (d) a/16, (e) None of the above. Picture the Problem The acceleration due to gravity varies inversely with the square of the distance from the center of the moon.

Gravity 1093

Express the dependence of the acceleration due to the gravity of the moon on the distance from its center:

a' ∝

1 r2

Express the dependence of the acceleration due to the gravity of the moon at its surface on its radius:

Divide the first of these expressions by the second to obtain: Solving for a′ and simplifying yields:

a∝

1 2 RM

2 a' RM = 2 a r 2 2 RM RM 1 a a = 16 a = 2 r2 (4 RM )

a' =

and (d ) is correct.

8 • At a depth equal to half the radius of Earth, the acceleration due to gravity is about (a) g (b) 2g (c) g/2, (d) g/4, (e) g/8, (f) You cannot determine the answer based on the data given. Picture the Problem We can use Newton’s law of gravity and the assumption of uniform density to express the ratio of the acceleration due to gravity at a depth equal to half the radius of Earth to the acceleration due to gravity at the surface of Earth.

The acceleration due to gravity at a depth equal to half the radius of Earth is given by:

g1 r =

2

GM' 4GM' = 2 r2 (1 2 r)

where M′ is the mass of Earth between the location of interest and the center of Earth.

The acceleration due to gravity at the surface of Earth is given by: Dividing the first of these equations by the second and simplifying yields:

g=

GM r2

g 1r

4GM' 2 4M' 2 = r = GM g M 2 r

(1)

what would have to happen to the distance between them in order to maintain the same gravitational force? The distance would have to (a) remain the same (b) double (c) quadruple (d) be reduced by a factor of 2 (e) You cannot determine the answer based on the data given. The gravitational force acting on the stars before their masses are doubled is given by: The gravitational force acting on the stars after their masses are doubled is given by: Dividing the second of these equations by the first yields: Fg = GmM r2 G (2m )(2 M ) 4GmM = r' 2 r' 2 Fg' = Fg' 4GmM 2 4r 2 = 1 = r' = 2 GmM r' Fg r2 Solving for r′ yields: r' = 2r and (b ) is correct. truly weightless. [Consider only the moon. for an instant. Earth and the Apollo spaceship. 9 •• Two stars orbit their common center of mass as a binary star system. 10 •• If you had been working for NASA in the 1960’s and planning the trip to the moon. If each of their masses were doubled.1094 Chapter 11 Express M′ in terms of the average density of Earth ρ and the volume V′ of Earth between the location of interest and the center of Earth: Express M in terms of the average density of Earth ρ and the volume V of Earth: Substitute for M and M′ in equation (1) and simplify to obtain: 3 1 1 M' = ρV' = ρ 4 3 π ( 2 r ) = 6 πρ r 3 [ ] 3 3 M = ρV = ρ 4 =4 3 πr 3 πρ r ( ) g1r 2 g = and (c ) 3 41 6 πρ r = 3 4 3 πρ r ( ) 1 2 is correct. Picture the Problem We can use Newton’s law of gravity to express the ratio of the forces and then solve this proportion for the separation of the stars that would maintain the same gravitational force. where a spaceship is. you would have determined that there exists a unique location somewhere between Earth and the moon. and .

midway on the trip. (d) You cannot determine the answer based on the data given. Picture the Problem The densities of the planets are related to the escape speeds from their surfaces through v e = 2GM R . How would the planet’s (average) density compare to Earth’s (average) density? (a) It must be more dense. 11 •• [SSM] Suppose the escape speed from a planet was only slightly larger than the escape speed from Earth. a weightless condition) is considerably closer to the moon. yet it was considerably larger than Earth.Gravity 1095 neglect other gravitational forces. Because of the moon’s relatively small mass compared to the mass of Earth. (b) It must be less dense. The escape speed from the planet is given by: The escape speed from Earth is given by: Expressing the ratio of the escape speed from the planet to the escape speed from Earth and simplifying yields: Because vplanet ≈ vEarth: v planet = 2GM planet Rplanet 2GM Earth REarth v Earth = 2GM planet v planet v Earth = Rplanet 2GM Earth REarth = REarth M planet Rplanet M Earth 1≈ REarth M planet Rplanet M Earth Squaring both sides of the equation yields: 1≈ REarth M planet Rplanet M Earth . (c) It must be the same density. the location where the gravitational forces cancel (thus producing no net gravitational force. the gravitational pulls on the spaceship are oppositely directed.] Explain this phenomenon and explain whether this location is closer to the moon. Determine the Concept Between Earth and the moon. or closer to Earth.

How would you be able to predict whether the object will remain ″bound″ to the Solar System. turn around and escape. Assuming the satellite of interest has on-board propulsion. 13 •• [SSM] Near the end of their useful lives. it will return. Alternatively. the potential energy will decrease as the satellite gets closer to Earth. in what direction would you fire the rockets for a short burn time to start this downward spiral? What would happen to the kinetic energy. However. never to return? Determine the Concept You could take careful measurements of its position as a function of time in order to determine whether its trajectory is an ellipse. the total mechanical energy will decrease due to the frictional drag forces transforming mechanical energy into thermal energy. The kinetic energy will . or if it is an interstellar interloper and would come in.1096 Chapter 11 Express Mplanet and MEarth in terms of their densities and simplify to obtain: 1≈ 2 3 ρ planet Rplanet REarth ρ planetVplanet REarth ρ planetVplanet REarth ρ planet 4 3 πRplanet = = = 2 3 Rplanet ρ EarthVEarth Rplanet ρ EarthVEarth Rplanet ρ Earth 4 ρ Earth REarth 3 πREarth 2 ρ planet REarth ≈ 2 ρ Earth Rplanet Solving for the ratio of the densities yields: Because the planet is considerably larger than Earth: ρ planet << 1 ρ Earth and (b ) is correct. a hyperbola. it will likely swing once around the Sun and then leave the Solar System forever. and were able to determine both its distance from the Sun and its speed. if its path is hyperbolic or parabolic. several large Earth-orbiting satellites have been maneuvered so as to burn up as they enter Earth’s atmosphere. If the path is an ellipse. by measuring its distance from the Sun. the speed of the object can be determined. The sum of these two gives the comet’s total energy (per kg) and if it is positive. you discovered a distant object approaching the Sun. From this. As the satellite gets closer to Earth after the burn. and by determining its position on several successive nights. you can estimate the gravitational potential energy (per kg of its mass. and neglecting the planets) of the object. gravitational potential energy and total mechanical energy following the burn as the satellite came closer and closer to Earth? Determine the Concept You should fire the rocket in a direction to oppose the orbital motion of the satellite. using telescope in your backyard. These maneuvers have to be done carefully so large fragments do not impact populated land areas. or a parabola. You are in charge of such a project. its kinetic energy (per kg) can be determined. it will not return. 12 •• Suppose that.

16 •• In the movie 2001 A Space Odyssey. In what direction do you fire the rockets to initiate this return trip? Explain the changes in kinetic energy. The design is such that the radius of the sphere is much smaller than the length of the rod. and inversely proportional to the square of the distance r from the center. The spacecraft will enter Earth’s atmosphere with its maximum kinetic energy. survives a blazing re-entry and parachutes safely into the ocean. When you reach a certain point. and your potential energy will increase. the gravitational potential energy a minimum. The mass within a distance r from the center is proportional to the cube of r. your kinetic energy will initially decrease (the moon’s gravitational pull exceeds that of Earth). Determine the Concept At a point inside the sphere a distance r from its center. gravitational potential and total mechanical energy that occur to the spacecraft from the beginning to the end of this journey. assuming all other gravitational fields are negligible)? Explain your answer. Thus. what would be the dependence of its gravitational field on the distance from the ship? . 15 •• Explain why the gravitational field inside a solid sphere of uniform mass is directly proportional to r rather than inversely proportional to r. a spaceship containing two astronauts is on a long-term mission to Jupiter. landing in the ocean. the Apollo spacecraft fires its rockets to leave its lunar orbit. Earth’s gravitational attraction will begin accelerating the ship and its kinetic energy will increase at the expense of the gravitational potential energy of the spacecraftEarth-moon system. on the perpendicular bisector of the rod-like section. When the rockets have shut down. A model of their ship could be a uniform pencil-like rod (containing the propulsion systems) with a uniform sphere (the crew habitat and flight deck) attached to one end. At a large distance from the ship. as you leave the lunar orbit. the gravitational field strength is directly proportional to r. Then it coasts back to Earth where it enters the atmosphere at high speed.Gravity 1097 increase until the satellite enters the atmosphere where the drag forces slow its motion. Eventually. Determine the Concept Near the moon you would fire the rockets to accelerate the spacecraft with the thrust acting in the direction of your ship’s velocity at the time. 14 •• During a trip back from the moon. what would be the direction of the gravitational field due to the ship alone (that is. the gravitational field strength is directly proportional to the amount of mass within a distance r from the center. the kinetic energy will be zero. At a location a few meters away from the ship. and the total mechanical energy of the ship will have been dramatically reduced due to air drag forces producing heat and light during re-entry.

Express the mass in terms of multiples of the solar mass MS. At very large distances. and assume that the mass closer to the center than the Sun exerts the same force on the Sun as would a point particle of the same mass located at the center of the galaxy. Note that the net field (the sum of grod and gsphere ) points slightly toward the habitat end of the ship.000 c⋅y. Using Kepler’s 3rd law. relate the period of the sun T to its mean distance r from the center of the galaxy: T2 = 4π 2 r3 = GM galaxy G 4π 2 Ms r3 M galaxy Ms r3 Solve for 2 and simplify to obtain: T r = T2 3 G M galaxy 4π Ms Ms 2 M galaxy = Ms 4π 2 GM s If we measure distances in AU and times in years: 4π 2 y2 =1 GM s (AU )3 and 3 r 3 M galaxy (AU ) = T2 Ms y2 .) Picture the Problem To approximate the mass of the galaxy we’ll assume the galactic center to be a point mass with the sun in orbit about it and apply Kepler’s 3rd law.1098 Chapter 11 Determine the Concept The pictorial representation shows the point of interest P and the gravitational fields grod and gsphere due to the rod and the sphere as well as the resultant field gnet . (Neglect the mass farther from the center than the Sun. P r gsphere r g rod r gnet Estimation and Approximation 17 • [SSM] Estimate the mass of our galaxy (the Milky Way) if the Sun orbits the center of the galaxy with a period of 250 million years at a mean distance of 30. the rod-sphere mass distribution looks like a point mass and so the field’s distance dependence is an inverse square dependence.

cheese = 4π 6.39 m/s 2 . Apply Newton’s law of gravity to an object of mass m at the surface of the moon to obtain: Assuming the moon to be made of cheese.cheese = = 4π Gρ cheese rmoon 3 Substitute numerical values and evaluate ag: ag. Picture the Problem The density of a planet or other object determines the strength of the gravitational force it exerts on other objects. Estimating the density of cheese will then allow us to calculate what the acceleration due to gravity at the surface of the moon would be if the moon were made of cheese.00 10 c y × × ⋅ × 3 ⎜ c⋅y 1.cheese = Gρ cheeseVmoon 2 rmoon 3 Gρ cheese 4 3 π rmoon 2 rmoon ag.08 × 1011 ⎝ = 2 250 × 10 6 y 3 M galaxy Ms ( ) or M galaxy = 1. substitute for its mass to obtain: Substituting for the volume of the moon and simplifying yields: Fg = mag = GmM GM ⇒ ag = 2 2 rmoon rmoon ag.673 × 10 −11 N ⋅ m 2 / kg 2 3 ( g ⎜ )⎛ ⎜ 0.80 cm ⎝ × 3 1 kg 106 cm3 ⎞ ⎟ 1.50 × 1011 m ⎟ ⎠ (AU ) = 1. Among these ways are measurements of the gravitational acceleration at the lunar surface. We can use Newton’s law of gravity to express the acceleration due to gravity at the surface of the moon as a function of the density of the moon.738 × 106 m × 3 3 ⎟ 10 g m ⎠ ( ) = 0. Estimate the gravitational acceleration at the lunar surface if the moon were.08 × 1011 M s 18 •• Besides studying samples of the lunar surface.Gravity 1099 Substitute numerical values and evaluate Mgalaxy/Ms: ⎞ y2 ⎛ 9. Finally. a solid block of green cheese and compare it to the known value of the gravitational acceleration at the lunar surface.461× 1015 m 1 AU 4 ⎟ ⎜ 3.62 m/s2. in fact. we can compare this value to the measured value of 1. the Apollo astronauts had several ways of determining that the moon is not made of green cheese.

if you do not wish to use tethers.asteroid = = πGρ asteroid Rasteroid (1) Solving for Rasteroid yields: Using a constant-acceleration equation.cheese a g.asteroid = 2GM asteroid Rasteroid 3 2Gρ asteroid 4 3 πRasteroid Rasteroid 8 3 v e.24ag. We can use the equation for the escape speed from an asteroid of mass Masteroid and radius Rasteroid to derive an expression for the radius of an asteroid as a function of its escape speed and density. You are concerned that.moon or ag.moon 0.cheese ≈ 0. We can approximate the escape speed from the asteroid by determining one’s push-off speed for a jump at the surface of Earth. tethers might be required to bind the explorers to the surface of the asteroid. Assume spherical geometry and reasonable rock density.cheese to the measured value of ag. due to the weak gravitational field and resulting low escape speed. because v = 0. you have to be careful about which asteroids to choose to explore. Estimate the largest radius the asteroid can have that would still allow you to escape its surface by jumping. relate the height h to which you can jump on the surface of Earth to your push-off speed: Rasteroid = v e. ve.asteroid 8 3 πGρ asteroid 2 v 2 = v0 − 2 gh or.24 1.moon: a g.62 m/s 2 19 •• You are in charge of the first manned exploration of an asteroid.388 m/s 2 = = 0. 2 0 = v0 − 2 gh ⇒ v0 = 2 gh Letting v0 = ve.asteroid. Therefore. Picture the Problem The density of an asteroid determines the strength of the gravitational force it exerts on other objects.1100 Chapter 11 Express the ratio of ag.asteroid becomes: v e. substitute in equation (1) and simplify to obtain: Rasteroid = 2 gh 8 3 πGρ asteroid = 3 gh 4πGρ asteroid . The escape speed from an asteroid is given by: In terms of the density of the asteroid.

(a) Using Kepler’s 3rd law. distances in AU. (This is measured using the Doppler effect.Gravity 1101 Assuming that you can jump 0. The mass of Iota Draconis is 1. Iota Draconis is the 8th brightest star in the constellation Draco. with an orbital period of 1. Assume the orbit is circular. 100 planets have been detected orbiting stars other than the Sun. is orbiting this star. we are observing the orbit edge-on. telescopes can detect the small periodic motion of the star as the star and planet orbit around their common center of mass.0 km g 1 kg 10 6 cm 3 ⎞ 2 2 ⎛ N ⋅ m / kg ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 3. Express the mass as a multiple of the mass of Jupiter. relate the period of this planet T to the length r of its semi-major axis and simplify to obtain: 4π 2 Ms M G Iota Draconis Ms 4π 2 GM s M Iota Draconis Ms T2 = 4π 2 GM Iota Draconis r3 = r3 = r3 If we measure time in years.0 cm 3 × 10 3 g × m 3 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ( ) 4π 6. and no other planets orbit Iota Draconis.0 g/cm3.75 m ) ≈ 3. (a) Estimate the size (in AU) of the semimajor axis of this planet’s orbit.50 y.81 m/s 2 (0. Picture the Problem We can use Kepler’s 3rd law to find the size of the semimajor axis of the planet’s orbit and the conservation of momentum to find its mass. (b) The radial speed of the star is observed to vary by 592 m/s. and masses in terms of the mass of the sun: 1 4π 2 r3 = 1 and T 2 = M Iota Draconis MGs Ms r=3 M Iota Draconis 2 T Ms Solving for r yields: . which is discussed in Chapter 15.05MSun.75 m and that the average density of an asteroid is 3. substitute numerical values and evaluate Rasteroid : Rasteroid = 3 9.) Both the period of this motion and the variation in the speed of the star over the course of time can be determined observationally. While the planets themselves cannot be seen directly.673 × 10 −11 ( ) 20 ••• One of the great discoveries in astronomy in the past decade is the detection of planets outside the Solar System. Since 1996. The mass of the star is found from its observed luminance and from the theory of stellar structure. Use conservation of momentum to find the mass of the planet. Observations show that a planet.

while the mass of the Sun is 99.3M J Remarks: A more sophisticated analysis.50 y × × × y d h = 2. because the net angular momentum of this cloud is conserved.24 d 24 h 3600 s 1.9 percent of the total mass of the Solar System.336 × 10 kg 28 Express m as a fraction of the mass MJ of Jupiter: 2.7 Jovian masses.90 × 10 27 kg or m = 12.336 × 10 28 kg m = = 12.0112) ( ) = 2.99 × 10 kg (0.648 × 104 m/s ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 30 = (1.33 AU ⎠ mv = M Iota DraconisV m = M Iota Draconis v= V v (1) The speed v of the orbiting planet is given by: Substitute numerical values and evaluate v: Δd 2πr = T Δt ⎛ 1.50 y ) = 1. However. (Only a lower bound can be established. with most of the mass forming the Sun. as the plane of the orbit is not known. leads to a lower bound of 8.33 AU × ⎟ ⎜ AU ⎠ ⎝ v= 365.05) 1.3 MJ 1.648 × 104 m/s Substitute numerical values in equation (1) and evaluate m: ⎞ ⎛ 296 m/s m = (1. The most widely accepted theory of solar system formation has as its central hypothesis the collapse of a cloud of dust and gas under the force of gravity. a simple theory would indicate that the Sun .) 21 ••• One of the biggest unresolved problems in the theory of the formation of the solar system is that.50 × 1011 m ⎞ ⎟ 2π ⎜ 1. using the eccentricity of the orbit.05 M sun )⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2.05 M s r =3 ⎜ ⎜ M s ⎝ ⎞ 2 ⎟ ⎟(1. it carries only about 2 percent of the total angular momentum.1102 Chapter 11 Substitute numerical values and evaluate r: (b) Apply conservation of momentum to the planet (mass m and speed v) and the star (mass MIota Draconis and speed V) to obtain: Solve for m to obtain: ⎛ 1.

99 × 1030 kg 8 3 )( m) )= = 6. respectively). In this problem.Gravity 1103 should be rotating much more rapidly than it currently is.78 h 3600 s = 1. estimate the maximum angular speed that the Sun can have if it is to stay intact. (c) If we were to somehow transfer all of Jupiter’s and Saturn’s angular momentum to the Sun. gravity couldn’t hold it together. what would be the Sun’s new rotational period? The Sun is not a uniform sphere of gas.5 y. and the orbital angular momenta of Jupiter and Saturn.1 Earth masses. apply Newton’s law of gravity to an object of mass m on the surface of the Sun to obtain: mω 2 R < or GMm R2 GM GM 2 ⇒ω < R R3 where we’ve used the inequality because we’re estimating the maximum angular speed which the sun can have if it is to stay together. respectively).059MR2.00 ×10 4 s × . and its moment of inertia is given by the formula I = 0.99 × 1030 kg) and its radius (6.28 ×10 −4 rad/s 1h = 2.96 × 108 m). (a) Gravity must supply the centripetal force which keeps an element of the sun’s mass m rotating around it. and orbital periods (11. (a) The Sun is a cloud of gas held together by the force of gravity.96 ×10 N ⋅ m 2 /kg 2 1. mean distances from the Sun (778 and 1430 million km.28 × 10 −4 rad/s Calculate the maximum period of this motion from its angular speed: Tmax = 2π ω 2π 6. If the Sun were rotating too rapidly. Letting the radius of the sun be R. In Part (c) we can relate the final angular speed of the sun to its initial angular speed.91 × 1041 kg⋅m2/s.673 ×10 −11 (6. Compare them to the experimentally measured value of the Sun’s angular momentum of 1. What is the period of rotation corresponding to this rotation rate? (b) Calculate the orbital angular momentum of Jupiter and of Saturn from their masses (318 and 95. its moment of inertia. Using the known mass of the Sun (1.9 and 29. respectively). Compare this to the maximum rotational period of Part (a). Picture the Problem We can apply Newton’s law of gravity to estimate the maximum angular speed which the sun can have if it is to stay together and use the definition of angular momentum to find the orbital angular momenta of Jupiter and Saturn. you will show why it is important that most of the angular momentum was somehow transferred to the planets. ω 2R < Substitute numerical values and evaluate ω: ω< (6.

24 d 24 h 3600 s TJ 11.98 × 1024 kg 1430 × 109 m = LS = 365.1M E )rS2 2π (95.98 × 1024 kg 778 × 109 m LJ = = 365.85 × 1042 kg ⋅ m 2 /s ( )( ) 2 Express the angular momentum of the sun as a fraction of the sum of the angular momenta of Jupiter and Saturn: (c) The Sun’s rotational period depends on its rotational speed: Relate the final angular momentum of the sun to its initial angular momentum and the angular momenta of Jupiter and Saturn: Solve for ωf to obtain: Lsun 1.5 y × y d h = 7.24 d 24 h 3600 s TS × × 29.059M sun Rsun .1) 5.85)× 10 42 kg ⋅ m 2 /s = 0.91× 1041 kg ⋅ m 2 /s = LJ + LS (19.70 % TSun = 2π ωf (1) Lf = Li + LJ + LS or I Sun ω f = I Sun ωi + LJ + LS ω f = ωi + ωf = LJ + LS I sun Substitute for ωi and ISun: LJ + LS 2π + 2 TSun 0.93 ×10 43 kg ⋅ m 2 /s and ( )( ) 2 2π (95.1104 Chapter 11 (b) Express the orbital angular momenta of Jupiter and Saturn: Express the orbital speeds of Jupiter and Saturn in terms of their periods and distances from the sun: Substitute to obtain: LJ = mJ rJ vJ and LS = mS rSvS 2π rJ 2π rS and vS = TJ TS vJ = 2π mJ rJ2 2π mS rS2 and LS = LJ = TJ TS Substitute numerical values and evaluate LJ and LS: 2π (318 M E )rJ2 2π (318) 5.9 y × × × y d h = 1.3 + 7.

30Tmax Kepler’s Laws 22 • The new comet Alex-Casey has a very elliptical orbit with a period of 127.1 AU (1) 2 Apply Kepler’s 3rd law.96 × 10 8 m 30 d × × d h −4 = 4.798 × 10 − 4 × s h = 3. to find the greatest separation of Alex-Casey from the sun. and its semimajor axis R: R= x + 0.85) × 10 42 kg ⋅ m 2 /s ωf = + 24 h 3600 s 0. the distance of closest approach.30 Tmax 2.4 y. If the closest approach of Alex-Casey to the Sun is 0.Gravity 1105 Substitute numerical values and evaluate ωf: ( 2π 19.1 AU x = 23 (127.1 AU.64 h Compare this to the maximum rotational period of Part (a). TSun 3.3 + 7.78 h or TSun = 1.798 × 10 rad/s ( )( ) 2 Substitute numerical values in equation (1) and evaluate TSun: TSun = 2π rad 3600 s 4. Letting x represent the greatest distance from the sun.64 h = = 1. express the relationship between x.059 1. with the period T measured in years and R in AU to obtain: Substituting for R in equation (1) yields: Substitute numerical values and evaluate x: T 2 = R3 ⇒ R = 3 T 2 x = 23 T 2 − 0. what is its greatest distance from the Sun? Picture the Problem We can use the relationship between the semi-major axis and the distances of closest approach and greatest separation.5 AU 2 .1 AU = 50. together with Kepler’s 3rd law.99 × 10 30 kg 6.4 y ) − 0.1AU ⇒ x = 2 R − 0.

discovered in 1907. 2 3 TEarth = CrEarth 2 3 3 TUranus CrUranus rUranus = = 3 2 3 TEarth CrEarth rEarth TUranus = TEarth 3 rUranus 3 rEarth Substitute numerical values and evaluate TUranus: TUranus ⎛ 2.496 × 1011 m and that of Uranus is 2. is in a nearly circular orbit of radius 5. Using Kepler’s 3rd law.973 ×10 −19 s 2 /m 3 . What is the orbital period of Uranus? Picture the Problem We can use Kepler’s 3rd law to relate the orbital period of Uranus to the orbital period of Earth. Picture the Problem We can use Kepler’s 3rd law to relate the orbital period of Hektor to its mean distance from the sun.496 × 1011 m ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ = 84. GM s . relate the orbital period of Uranus to its mean distance from the sun: Using Kepler’s 3rd law.87 × 1012 m.1106 Chapter 11 23 • The radius of Earth’s orbit is 1.00 y ) ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 1.87 ×1012 m ⎞ = (1. relate the orbital period of Earth to its mean distance from the sun: Dividing the first of these equations by the second and simplifying yields: Solve for TUranus to obtain: 2 3 TUranus = CrUranus . Determine the period of this asteroid. relate the orbital period of Hektor to its mean distance from the sun: 2 3 3 THector = CrHector ⇒ THector = CrHector where C = 4π 2 = 2.16 AU about the Sun.0 y 3 24 • The asteroid Hektor. Using Kepler’s 3rd law.

Use Kepler’s 3rd law to relate Jupiter’s orbital period to its mean distance from the Sun: Use Kepler’s 3rd law to relate the orbital period of an asteroid in the Kirkwood gap to its mean distance from the Sun: Dividing the second of these equations by the first yields: Solving for rKirkwood yields: 2 3 TJupiter = CrJupiter 2 3 TKirkwood = CrKirkwood 3 3 2 TKirkwood CrKirkwood rKirkwood = = 3 3 2 TJupiter CrJupiter rJupiter rKirkwood ⎛T ⎞ = 3 ⎜ Kirkwood ⎟ rJupiter ⎜ T ⎟ ⎝ Jupiter ⎠ 2 .8 y 3600 s 24 h 365.16 AU × ⎟ AU ⎝ ⎠ 1h 1d 1y = 3.713 × 108 s × × × = 11. How far from the sun is this particular 2:1 ″Kirkwood″ gap? Picture the Problem The period of an orbit is related to its semi-major axis (for circular orbits this distance is the orbital radius). we can use Kepler’s 3rd law to set up a proportion relating the orbital periods and average distances of Jupiter and the asteroid from the Sun from which we can obtain an expression for the orbital radius of an asteroid in the Kirkwood gap.24 d THector ( −19 2 3 ) 3 25 •• [SSM] One of the so-called ″Kirkwood gaps″ in the asteroid belt occurs at an orbital radius at which the period of the orbit is half that of Jupiter’s.Gravity 1107 Substitute numerical values and evaluate THector: ⎛ 1. Because we know the orbital periods of Jupiter and a hypothetical asteroid in the Kirkwood gap.973 × 10 s /m ⎜ 5.50 × 1011 m ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = 2. Repeated tugs from Jupiter of this kind would eventually change the orbit of such an asteroid – therefore all asteroids that would otherwise have orbited at this radius have presumably been cleared away from the area due to this resonance phenomenon. The reason there is a gap for orbits of this radius is because of the periodic pulling (by Jupiter) that an asteroid experiences at the same place in its orbit every other orbit around the sun.

is locked into what is known as an orbital resonance with another moon. Atlas. Thus. Mimas. we can use Kepler’s 3rd law to set up a proportion relating the orbital periods and average distances from Saturn of Atlas and Mimas from which we can obtain an expression for the radius of Atlas’s orbit. where rp is the perihelion distance and a is the semimajor axis. Mimas and Saturn are aligned at intervals equal to two orbital periods of Atlas.42 × 10 5 km 27 •• The asteroid Icarus.1108 Chapter 11 Because the period of the orbit of an asteroid in the Kirkwood gap is half that of Jupiter’s: ⎛ 1T ⎞ = 3 ⎜ 2 Jupiter ⎟ 77.000 km. Because we know the orbital periods of Atlas and Mimas. . what is the radius of Atlas’s orbit? Picture the Problem The period of an orbit is related to its semi-major axis (for circular orbits this distance is the orbital radius). Mimas completes 2 orbits.8 × 1010 m ⎜ T ⎟ ⎝ Jupiter ⎠ 2 rKirkwood ( ) = 4. Mimas has completed 2: rAtlas ⎛2⎞ = ⎜ ⎟ 1. was so named because its highly eccentric elliptical orbit brings it close to the Sun at perihelion. Atlas. Icarus has an eccentricity of 0. Use Kepler’s 3rd law to relate Atlas’s orbital period to its mean distance from Saturn: Use Kepler’s 3rd law to relate the orbital period of Mimas to its mean distance from Saturn: Dividing the second of these equations by the first yields: Solving for rAtlas yields: 2 3 TAtlas = CrAtlas 2 3 TMimas = CrMimas 2 3 3 TMimas CrMimas rMimas = = 2 3 3 TAtlas CrAtlas rAtlas rAtlas ⎛ TAtlas ⎞ ⎟ =3 ⎜ ⎜T ⎟ rMimas ⎝ Mimas ⎠ 2 Because for every 3 orbits of Atlas.86 × 10 5 km ⎝3⎠ 3 2 ( ) = 1. discovered in 1949. (a) Determine the semimajor axis of the orbit of Icarus. The ratio between periods of these orbits is 3:2 – that means. The eccentricity e of an ellipse is defined by the relation rp = a(1 – e).83 and a period of 1. whose orbit lies outside of Atlas’s. If Mimas orbits Saturn at a radius of 186.1 y. for every 3 orbits of Atlas.90 ×1011 m 26 •• The tiny Saturnian moon.

71× 1010 m = 2.973 × 10−19 s 2 /m 3 . are there any health issues you should be aware of? .24 d 24 h 3600 s ⎞ ⎟ ⎜1.59 × 1011 m (1 − 0.″ This orbit consists of an elliptical orbit tangent to the orbit of Earth at its perihelion and tangent to the orbit of Mars at its aphelion.52 times the mean Sun–Earth distance. The aphelion distance ra is related to the perihelion distance rp and the semimajor axis by ra + rp = 2a. Picture the Problem Kepler’s 3rd law relates the period of Icarus to the length of its semimajor axis.973 × 10 −19 s 2 /m 3 = 1. etc. As the flight doctor. Given that Mars has a mean distance from the Sun of 1. (a) Using Kepler’s 3rd law. relate the period T of Icarus to the length a of its semimajor axis: T 2 = Ca 3 ⇒ a = 3 where C = T2 C 4π 2 = 2. consider one possible trajectory for the spacecraft: the ″Hohmann transfer orbit.9 ×1011 m ( ) 28 •• A manned mission to Mars and its attendant problems due to the extremely long time the astronauts would spend weightless and without supplies have been extensively discussed.) have been observed in astronauts returning from near-Earth orbit after only a few months in space.1y × × × 3 ⎜ y d h ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ a= 2. decreased bone density.Gravity 1109 (b) Find the perihelion and aphelion distances of the orbit of Icarus. To examine this issue in a simple way. calculate the time spent by the astronauts during the out-bound part of the trip to Mars.6 × 1011 m (b) Use the definition of the eccentricity of an ellipse to determine the perihelion distance of Icarus: Express the relationship between rp and ra for an ellipse: Substitute numerical values and evaluate ra : rp = a(1 − e ) = 1.71× 1010 m = 2. GM s 2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate a: ⎛ 365.59 × 1011 m − 2.7 × 1010 m ( ) ra + rp = 2a ⇒ ra = 2a − rp ra = 2 1. Many adverse biological effects (such as muscle atrophy.83) = 2.

24 d 1y = 0. Due to the long duration (well over a year) of the round trip. We can apply Kepler’s 3rd law to relate the time-in-orbit to the period of the spacecraft in its Hohmann Earth-to-Mars orbit. a function of its semi-major axis which we can find from the average of the lengths of the semi-major axes of Earth and Mars orbits.00 AU = 1. in turn.26 AU 2 t out -bound = 1 2 (1.26 AU)3 365. you would want to design an exercise program that would maintain the strength of their bones and muscles. The period of this orbit is. he found the relative distance from the Sun to Venus (as compared to the distance from the Sun to Earth) as follows.1110 Chapter 11 Picture the Problem The Hohmann transfer orbit is shown in the diagram. t out -bound = 1 2T = R= 1 2 R3 1. Venus is a morning or evening star—its position in the sky is never very far from the Sun (see Figure 11-24). For example. 29 •• [SSM] Kepler determined distances in the Solar System from his data.707 y × = 258 d In order for bones and muscles to maintain their health.52 AU + 1. Because Venus’s orbit is closer to the Sun than is Earth’s. relate the period T of the spacecraft to the semi-major axis of its orbit: Relate the out-bound transit time to the period of this orbit: Express the semi-major axis of the Hohmann transfer orbit in terms of the mean sun-Mars and sun-Earth distances: Substitute numerical values and evaluate tout-bound: T 2 = R3 ⇒ T = R3 where T is in years and R is in AU. Using Kepler’s 3rd law. If we . they need to be under compression as they are on Earth.

00 AU )sin 47° = 0.″ Picture the Problem We can use a property of lines tangent to a circle and radii drawn to the point of contact to show that b = 90°. what is the distance between Venus and the Sun in AU? (c) Use this result to estimate the length of a Venusian ″year. Hence b = 90° (b) Using trigonometry.00 AU ⎠ = 0.731 AU = 0. (a) The line from Earth to Venus' orbit is tangent to the orbit of Venus at the point of maximum extension. (b) If the maximum elongation angle a between Venus and the Sun is 47º. then consider the relative orientation of Venus. show that angle b in Figure 11-24 is 90º.73 AU 2 3 TVenus = CrVenus 2 3 TEarth = CrEarth 3 3 2 TVenus CrVenus rVenus = = 3 3 2 TEarth CrEarth rEarth TVenus ⎛ rVenus ⎞ ⎟ = ⎜ ⎜r ⎟ TEarth ⎝ Earth ⎠ 3 Using the result from part (b) yields: TVenus ⎛ 0.Gravity 1111 consider the orbit of Venus as a perfect circle. Once we’ve established that b is a right angle we can use the definition of the sine function to relate the distance from the Sun to Venus to the distance from the Sun to Earth.00 y ) ⎝ 1. Venus will appear closer to the sun in earth’s sky when it passes the line drawn from Earth and tangent to its orbit. Earth.731 AU ⎞ = ⎜ ⎟ (1. (a) Under this condition. and the Sun at maximum extension—when Venus is farthest from the Sun in the sky. relate the distance from the sun to Venus dSV to the angle a: sin a = d SV ⇒ d SV = d SE sin a d SE Substitute numerical values and evaluate dSV : (c) Use Kepler’s 3rd law to relate Venus’s orbital period to its mean distance from the Sun: Use Kepler’s 3rd law to relate Earth’s orbital period to its mean distance from the Sun: Dividing the first of these equations by the second yields: Solving for TVenus yields: d SV = (1.63 y 3 .

98 × 10 kg ⎜ 1 ⎟ = 1. Because energy is also conserved.3 d.1112 Chapter 11 Remarks: The correct distance from the sun to Venus is closer to 0.643 km. What is the orbital speed of the moon at perigee and at apogee? Its orbital period is 27.064 × 10 m ⎠ vp = ( −11 2 2 )( 24 ) . Letting m be the mass of the moon. 30 •• At apogee the moon is 406. apply conservation of angular momentum to the moon at apogee and perigee to obtain: Apply conservation of energy to the moon-Earth system to obtain: mv p rp = mva ra ⇒ va = rp ra vp 1 2 mv 2 p − GMm 1 2 GMm = 2 mva − rp ra or 1 2 v2 p − GM 1 2 GM = 2 va − rp ra 2 Substitute for va to obtain: 1 2 GM 1 ⎛ rp ⎞ GM = 2⎜ v − ⎟ − r ⎜ r vp ⎟ rp a ⎝ a ⎠ 2 p ⎛ rp = ⎜ ⎜r ⎝ a 1 2 ⎞ 2 GM ⎟ ⎟ vp − r a ⎠ 2 Solving for vp yields: vp = 2GM rp ⎛ ⎞ 1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜1+ r r ⎟ p a ⎝ ⎠ Substitute numerical values and evaluate vp: ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ 2 6.673 × 10 N ⋅ m /kg 5.723 AU. we can combine these two expressions to solve for either vp or va initially and then use conservation of angular momentum to find the other.576 × 10 m ⎜1+ ⎟ 8 ⎝ 4.09 km/s 8 8 ⎜ 3.576 × 10 m ⎟ 3. the net torque acting on the moon is zero and its angular momentum is conserved in its orbit about Earth.395 km from Earth and at perigee it is 357. Picture the Problem Because the gravitational force Earth exerts on the moon is along the line joining their centers.

7 d.71 × 10 8 m ) 3 2 24 h 3600 s ⎞ ⎛ N ⋅ m 2 /kg 2 )⎜ 3. Callisto. −11 (6. express the centripetal accelerations of Europa and Callisto: 4π 2 RE 4π 2 RC aE = and aC = TE2 TC2 . (b) Another satellite of Jupiter.8 × 108 m with an orbital period of 16. In Part (b) we can compare the ratio of the centripetal accelerations of Europa and Callisto to show that they are consistent with an inverse square law for gravity.55 d at an average orbital radius of 6.71 × 108 m.55 d × × ⎟ d h ⎠ ⎝ Note that this result is in excellent agreement with the accepted value of 1. Show that this data is consistent with an inverse square force law for gravity (Note: DO NOT use the value of G anywhere in Part (b)). we’ll use Kepler’s 3rd law (derived from these laws) to find the mass of Jupiter in Part (a). (a) Assuming that the orbit is circular.09 km/s) va = 4. apply Kepler’s 3rd law to the motion of Europa to obtain: TE2 = 4π 2 3 4π 2 3 RE ⇒ M J = RE GM J GTE2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate MJ: MJ = 4π 2 (6. Picture the Problem While we could apply Newton’s Law of Gravitation and 2nd Law of Motion to solve this problem from first principles.90 × 10 27 kg (b) Express the centripetal acceleration of both of the moons to obtain: ⎛ 2πR ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ 2 v 4π 2 R T ⎠ ⎝ acentripetal = = = R R T2 where R and T are the radii and periods of their motion.902×1027 kg. (a) Assuming a circular orbit.064 × 108 m = 959 m/s Newton’s Law of Gravity 31 • [SSM] Jupiter’s satellite Europa orbits Jupiter with a period of 3.576 × 108 m (1. orbits at an average radius of 18.Gravity 1113 Substitute numerical values in equation (1) and evaluate va: 3.673 × 10 = 1. 2 Using this result. determine the mass of Jupiter from the data given.

demonstrates that the gravitational force varies inversely with the square of the distance. (b) Given the answer in Part (a). it is the magnitude of the normal force acting on the object. is the reading of a scale from which the object is suspended or on which it rests.1114 Chapter 11 Divide the first of these equations by the second and simplify to obtain: 4π 2 RE TC2 RE aE TE2 = = aC 4π 2 RC TE2 RC TC2 2 3 aE CRC RE RC = = 2 3 aC CRE RC RE Substitute for the periods of Callisto and Europa using Kepler’s 3rd law to obtain: This result. on the other hand. this is completely untrue. (a) Apply Newton’s law of gravitation to an astronaut of mass m in a shuttle at a distance h above the surface of Earth: Solving for g shuttle yields: mg shuttle = GmM E (h + RE )2 g shuttle = GM E (h + RE )2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate g shuttle : g shuttle = (6. ″ In fact. then we say the object is ″weightless.71 m/s 2 2 (400 km + 6370 km ) −11 . That is. If the scale reads zero. 32 • Some people think that shuttle astronauts are ″weightless″ because they are ″beyond the pull of Earth’s gravity. depends on the local value of the acceleration of gravity and we can use Newton’s law of gravity to find this acceleration at the elevation of the shuttle. including astronauts. together with the fact that the gravitational force is directly proportional to the acceleration of the moons. explain why shuttle astronauts do suffer from adverse biological affects such as muscle atrophy even though they are actually not ″weightless″? Determine the Concept The weight of anything. (a) What is the magnitude of the gravitational field in the vicinity of a shuttle orbit? A shuttle orbit is about 400 km above the ground.673 × 10 N ⋅ m 2 /kg 2 )(5.″ The pull of Earth’s gravity.98 × 10 24 kg ) = 8.

the absence of an exercise program. (b) Find the mean orbital radius of its moon Titan.38 × 106 s. whose mean orbital radius is 1.69 × 1026 kg.22 × 109 m 34 • Calculate the mass of Earth from the period of the moon. they are normal-forceless. (a) Using Kepler’s 3rd law. 33 • [SSM] The mass of Saturn is 5.6726 × 10 N ⋅ m /kg 5. (a) Find the period of its moon Mimas. the astronauts experience only one (the gravitational force) of the two forces (the second being the normal force – a compressive force – exerted by Earth) that normally acts on them.6726 × 10 6 2 −11 4π N ⋅ m 2 /kg 2 )(5. its mean orbital radius. Lacking this compressive force. . T = 27.69 × 10 kg ( )( ) 3 ) (b) Using Kepler’s 3rd law.7 h −11 2 2 26 6.Gravity 1115 (b) In orbit.38 × 10 s ) (6. Picture the Problem While we could apply Newton’s law of gravitation and 2nd law of motion to solve this problem from first principles. we’ll use Kepler’s 3rd law (derived from these laws) to find the period of Mimas and to relate the periods of the moons of Saturn to their mean distances from its center. their bones and muscles.18 × 104 s ≈ 22.69 × 10 26 kg ) 2 = 1. relate the period of Mimas to its mean distance from the center of Saturn: 4π 2 3 4π 2 3 T = rM ⇒ TM = rM GM S GM S 2 M Substitute numerical values and evaluate TM: TM = ( 4π 2 1.3 d.84 × 108 m.86 × 108 m = 8. rm = 3. and the known value of G. whose period is 1. relate the period of Titan to its mean distance from the center of Saturn: TT2 = 4π 2 3 T 2GM rT ⇒ rT = 3 T 2 S 4π GM S Substitute numerical values and evaluate rT: rT = 3 (1.86 × 108 m. In orbit the astronauts are not weightless. we’ll use Kepler’s 3rd law (derived from these laws) to relate the period of the moon to the mass of Earth and the mean Earth-moon distance. Picture the Problem While we could apply Newton’s Law of Gravitation and 2nd Law of Motion to solve this problem from first principles. will weaken.

relate the mass of Earth to its radius: Relate the mass of the planet to its radius: Divide the second of these equations by the first to express MP in terms of ME: Letting w′ represent your weight on the planet. .02 × 1024 kg Remarks: This analysis neglects the mass of the moon.3 d × × ⎟ d h ⎠ ⎝ ) = 6. 35 • Suppose you leave the Solar System and arrive at a planet that has the same mass-to-volume ratio as Earth but has 10 times Earth’s radius. We can use the definition of density to relate the mass of the planet to the mass of Earth and the law of gravity to relate your weight on the planet to your weight on Earth. Using the definition of density.1116 Chapter 11 Using Kepler’s 3rd law. What would you weigh on this planet compared with what you weigh on Earth? Picture the Problem Your weight is the local gravitational force exerted on you.6726 ×10 −11 24 h 3600 s ⎞ ⎛ N ⋅ m 2 /kg 2 ⎜ 27. consequently the mass calculated here is slightly too large.84 × 108 m ( ) 3 2 (6. relate the period of the moon to its mean orbital radius: 2 Tm = 4π 2 3 4π 2 3 rm ⇒ M E = r 2 m GM E GTm Substitute numerical values and evaluate ME: ME = 4π 2 3. use the law of gravity to relate w′ to your weight on Earth: 3 M E = ρ VE = 4 3 ρ πRE 3 M P = ρ VP = 4 3 ρ πRP =4 10 RE ) 3 ρπ( 3 4 ρ π (10 RE ) MP =ρ3 4 ⇒ M P = 103 M E 3 ME 3 ρ πR E 3 w' = GmM P Gm 10 3 M E = 2 RP (10 RE )2 GmM E = 10w 2 RE ( ) = 10 Your weight would be ten times your weight on Earth.

0 × 1015 m 2.2 × 1015 m at aphelion. apply Newton’s 2nd law and the law of gravity to obtain: Simplify this expression to obtain: ∑F radial = GmM E (1 ) 2 RE 2 = ma ⇒ a = (1 )2 2 RE GM E ⎛ GM E a = 4⎜ ⎜ R2 ⎝ E ⎞ 2 ⎟ ⎟ = 4 g = 39.0 × 104 m/s and is 1. What is the planet’s speed at aphelion? Picture the Problem We can use conservation of angular momentum to relate the planet’s speeds at aphelion and perihelion. Using conservation of angular momentum.2 m/s ⎠ 37 • A planet orbits a massive star.5 km? Picture the Problem We can use Newton’s law of gravity to express the gravitational force acting on an object at the surface of the neutron star in terms of the weight of the object. When the planet is at perihelion.0 ×10 m/s 1.Gravity 1117 36 • Suppose that Earth retained its present mass but was somehow compressed to half its present radius. We can then simplify this expression be dividing out the mass of the object … leaving an expression for the magnitude of the gravitational field at the surface of the neutron star. relate the angular momenta of the planet at aphelion and perihelion: Substitute numerical values and evaluate va: La = Lp or mv p rp = mva ra ⇒ va = vp rp ra va = (5. What would be the value of g at the surface of this new.2 × 1015 m 4 )( ) = 2. . it has a speed of 5.0 × 1015 m from the star. The orbital radius increases to 2. compact planet? Picture the Problem We can relate the acceleration due to gravity of a test object at the surface of the new planet to the acceleration due to gravity at the surface of Earth through use of the law of gravity and Newton’s 2nd law of motion.3 × 104 m/s 38 • What is the magnitude of the gravitational field at the surface of a neutron star whose mass is 1. Letting a represent the acceleration due to gravity at the surface of this new planet and m the mass of a test object.60 times the mass of the Sun and whose radius is 10.

60M sun ) = 2 2 RNeutron RNeutron Star Star Solve for g and substitute for the mass of the neutron star: Substitute numerical values and evaluate g: g= 1. is approximately 30 km/s.60 6. 40 •• A satellite with a mass of 300 kg moves in a circular orbit 7 5. The average orbital speed of Earth. Kepler’s third law ( T 2 = Crav ) tells us that longer orbital periods together with larger orbital radii means slower orbital speeds. on average? Explain. (b) Is this asteroid farther from the Sun or closer to the Sun than Earth.1118 Chapter 11 Apply Newton’s law of gravity to an object of mass m at the surface of the neutron star to obtain: GM Neutron Star m = mg 2 RNeutron Star where g represents the magnitude of the gravitational field at the surface of the neutron star.99 × 1030 kg = 1. (a) What is the gravitational force on the satellite? (b) What is the speed of the satellite? (c) What is the period of the satellite? . given by v = 2πrES TES .93 × 1012 m/s 2 2 (10. (a) Determine the ratio of the aphelion to perihelion distances.00 × 10 m above Earth’s surface.5 km ) ( )( ) The speed of an asteroid is 20 km/s at perihelion and 14 km/s at 39 •• aphelion. Because the given maximum speed of the asteroid is only 20 km/s. (a) Using conservation of angular momentum. relate the angular momenta of the asteroid at aphelion and perihelion: Substitute numerical values and evaluate the ratio of the asteroid’s aphelion and perihelion distances: La − Lp = 0 or mva ra − mvp rp = 0 ⇒ ra 20 km/s = = 1.4 rp 14 km/s ra v p = rp v a 3 (b) It is farther from the Sun than Earth. so the speed of objects orbiting the Sun decreases with distance from the Sun. g= GM Neutron Star G (1. Picture the Problem We can use conservation of angular momentum to relate the asteroid’s aphelion and perihelion distances. the asteroid is further from the Sun.673 × 10−11 N ⋅ m 2 /kg 2 1.

0 h 3600 s ( ) .333 × 105 s × = 37.58 N ⎛ 5.00 ×107 m ) = 2.37 × 106 m + 5.6 N (b) Using Newton’s 2nd law.37 × 10 6 m ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 = 37.00 × 107 m T= 2.Gravity 1119 Picture the Problem We’ll use the law of gravity to find the gravitational force acting on the satellite.58 N )(6.657 km/s = 300 kg T= 2.37 ×106 m + 5. relate the gravitational force acting on the satellite to its centripetal acceleration: v2 Fg = m ⇒ v = r Fg r m Substitute numerical values and evaluate v: v= (37.81 N/kg ) = 37.657 × 103 m/s 1h = 1.66 km/s (c) The period of the satellite is given by: Substitute numerical values and evaluate T: 2π r v 2π 6. use the law of gravity to express the gravitational force acting on it: 2 Because GM E = gRE : Fg = GmM E (RE + h )2 2 mRE g Fg = (RE + h )2 Divide the numerator and denominator of this expression 2 by RE to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate Fg: Fg = mg ⎛ h ⎞ ⎜ ⎜1 + R ⎟ ⎟ E ⎠ ⎝ 2 Fg = (300 kg )(9. The application of Newton’s 2nd law will lead us to the speed of the satellite and its period can be found from its definition.00 × 10 7 m ⎞ ⎜ ⎜1 + 6. (a) Letting m represent the mass of the satellite and h its elevation.

37 ×10 m 5. (a) You are hiding behind a tree holding the meter. How close to you can your friend get before the meter detects a change in g due to his presence? (b) You are in a hot air balloon and are using the meter to determine the rate of ascent (assume the balloon has constant acceleration).00 × 10–11.98 × 10 24 kg ( ) = 7.00 ×1011 (80 kg ) r = 6.00 ×1011 m ME 6 Substitute numerical values and evaluate r: 1. Differentiating g(r) with respect to r.00 × 10 −11 g E 2 r GM E = 1.37 × 106 m 2 1. separating variables to obtain dg/g.9 μm .1120 Chapter 11 41 •• [SSM] A superconducting gravity meter can measure changes in gravity of the order Δg/g = 1. (a) Express the gravitational field of Earth: Express the gravitational field due to the mass m (assumed to be a point mass) of your friend and relate it to the resolution of the meter: Solving for r yields: gE = GM E 2 RE g (r ) = Gm = 1. and approximating Δr with dr will allow us to determine the vertical change in the position of the gravity meter in Earth’s gravitational field is detectable.00 × 10 Approximating dr with Δr.37 m (b) Differentiate g(r) and simplify to obtain: Separate variables to obtain: dg − 2Gm 2 ⎛ Gm ⎞ 2 = =− ⎜ 2 ⎟=− g 3 dr r r⎝ r ⎠ r dg dr = −2 = 10 −11 g r −11 Δr = − 1 6. and your 80-kg friend approaches the tree from the other side.00 × 10 −11 2 RE r = RE 1. What is the smallest change in altitude that results in a detectable change in the gravitational field of Earth? Picture the Problem We can determine the maximum range at which an object with a given mass can be detected by substituting the equation for the gravitational field in the expression for the resolution of the meter and solving for the distance. evaluate Δr with r = RE: ( )( ) = 31.

Gravity 1121 42 •• Suppose that the attractive interaction between a star of mass M and a planet of mass m << M is of the form F = KMm/r. The acceleration of gravity at the surface of the moon is 1.62 m/s2. What is the ratio of the average density of the moon to that of Earth? Picture the Problem We can use the definitions of the gravitational fields at the surfaces of Earth and the moon to express the accelerations due to gravity at these locations in terms of the average densities of Earth and the moon. The period of the planet is related to its orbital speed: Using the law of gravity and Newton’s 2nd law. where K is the gravitational constant. Expressing the ratio of these accelerations will lead us to the ratio of the densities. relate the force exerted on the planet by the star to its centripetal acceleration: Substitute for v in equation (1) to obtain: T= 2π r v (1) Fnet = KMm v2 = m ⇒ v = KM r r T= 2π r KM 43 •• [SSM] Earth’s radius is 6370 km and the moon’s radius is 1738 km. What would be the relation between the radius of the planet’s circular orbit and its period? Picture the Problem We can use the law of gravity and Newton’s 2nd law to relate the force exerted on the planet by the star to its orbital speed and the definition of the period to relate it to the radius of the orbit. Express the acceleration due to gravity at the surface of Earth in terms of Earth’s average density: The acceleration due to gravity at the surface of the moon in terms of the moon’s average density is: Divide the second of these equations by the first to obtain: 3 GM E Gρ EVE Gρ E 4 3 π RE gE = = = 2 2 2 RE RE RE =4 3 Gρ Eπ RE gM = 4 3 Gρ M π RM g M ρ M RM g R ρ = ⇒ M = M E gE ρ E RE ρ E g E RM .

81 N. .81 m/s 2 )(1. In the same laboratory.00 kg ) = 5.81 N m2 = (b) Because this result is determined by the effect on m2 of Earth’s gravitational field.81 m/s2 by one part in 1012. (a) What is the mass of the second object? (b) Is the mass you determined in Part (a) gravitational or inertial mass? Picture the Problem Newton’s 2nd law of motion relates the weights of these two objects to their masses and the acceleration due to gravity. most physicists believe that there is no difference in the accelerations.6 N. but how well does it hold up experimentally? The Roll-Krotkov-Dicke experiment performed in the 1960s indicates that the free-fall acceleration is independent of mass to at least 1 part in 1012.77 kg 9.00… kg is measured to be 9.00 mm farther than it has? Note that this estimate provides only an upper bound on the difference in the accelerations. suppose one of the objects falls with a constant acceleration of exactly 9. 45 • The Principle of Equivalence states that the free-fall acceleration of any object in a gravitational field is independent of the mass of the object. a second object weighs 56.81 m/s2 while the other falls with a constant acceleration that is greater than 9.37 × 106 m ) = ρ E (9.1122 Chapter 11 Substitute numerical values and evaluate ρM : ρE ρ M (1.6 N (1. This can be deduced from the law of universal gravitation. it is the gravitational mass of the second object.605 Gravitational and Inertial Mass 44 • The weight of a standard object defined as having a mass of exactly 1.62 m/s 2 )(6.738 ×106 m ) = 0. (a) Apply Newton’s 2nd law to the standard object: Apply Newton’s 2nd law to the object of unknown mass: Eliminate g between these two equations and solve for m2: Substitute numerical values and evaluate m2: Fnet = w1 = m1 g Fnet = w2 = m2 g m2 = w2 m1 w1 56. Suppose two objects are simultaneously released from rest in a uniform gravitational field. How far will the first object have fallen when the second object has fallen 1. Also.

express the gravitational potential energy of Earth-object system: U (r ) = − GM E m r (1) . and on the second be g2. Picture the Problem Choosing the zero of gravitational potential energy to be at infinite separation yields. Express the difference Δd in the distances fallen by the two objects in time t: Express the distances fallen by each of the objects in time t: Substitute for d1 and d2 to obtain: Relate the average distance d fallen by the two objects to their time of fall: Substitute for t2 to obtain: Δd = d1 − d 2 2 2 1 d1 = 1 2 g1t and d 2 = 2 g 2 t 2 2 1 Δd = 1 2 g1t − 2 g 2 t = 1 2 (g1 − g 2 ) t 2 2 2 d=1 2 gt ⇒ t = 2d g Δd ≈ 1 2 Δg g 2d Δg =d ⇒ d = Δd g g Δg Substitute numerical values and evaluate d: d = 10 −3 m 1012 = 109 m ( )( ) Gravitational Potential Energy 46 • (a) If we take the potential energy of a 100-kg and Earth to be zero when the two are separated by an infinite distance. (a) Letting U(∞) = 0. as the potential energy of a two-body system in which the objects are separated by a distance r. let the acceleration of gravity on the first object be g1. it must have enough kinetic energy so that its total energy is zero. what is the potential energy when the object is at the surface of Earth? (b) Find the potential energy of the same object at a height above Earth’s surface equal to Earth’s radius. (c) Find the escape speed for a body projected from this height.Gravity 1123 Picture the Problem Noting that g1 ~ g2 ~ g. We can use a constant-acceleration equation to express the difference in the distances fallen by each object and then relate the average distance fallen by the two objects to obtain an expression from which we can approximate the distance they would have to fall before we might measure a difference in their fall distances greater than 1 mm. U (r ) = − GMm r . where M and m are the masses of the two bodies. In order for an object to just escape a gravitational field from a particular location.

37 × 106 m = −3.124 × 109 J = − 3.m = 2GM m = 2 g m Rm Rm (1) .12 × 109 J 2( ( ) (c) Express the condition that an object must satisfy in order to escape from Earth’s gravitational field from a height RE above its surface: Solving for ve yields: K e (2 RE ) + U (2 RE ) = 0 or 2 1 2 mve + U (2 RE ) = 0 − 2U (2 RE ) m ve = Substitute numerical values and evaluate ve: ve = − 2(− 3.124 × 10 9 J ) = 7. Express the escape speed from the moon: ve.25 × 109 J ( ) (b) Evaluate equation (1) with r = 2RE: U (2 RE ) = − GM E m gR 2 m =− E 2 RE 2 RE =−1 2 mgRE Substitute numerical values and evaluate U(2RE): U (2 RE ) = − 1 100 kg )(9.1124 Chapter 11 Substitute for GME and simplify to obtain: 2 GM E m gRE m U (RE ) = − =− = −mgRE RE RE Substitute numerical values and evaluate U(RE): U (RE ) = −(100 kg )(9.166 times that on Earth and the moon’s radius is 0. where M and R represent the masses and radii of the moon or Earth.81 N / kg ) 6.37 × 106 m = − 6.273 RE. Picture the Problem The escape speed from the moon or Earth is given by ve = 2GM R .90 km/s 100 kg 47 • [SSM] Find the escape speed for a projectile leaving the surface of the moon.81 N / kg ) 6. The acceleration of gravity on the moon is 0.

because Uf = 0. and the subscript E refer to Earth.m = g m Rm g E RE = g m Rm g E RE g m Rm ve. the gravitational potential energy of the Earth-particle system is zero. or.m = ve. m represent the mass of the particle. Picture the Problem Let the zero of gravitational potential energy be at infinity.m: (0.38 km/s 48 •• What initial speed would a particle have to be given at the surface of Earth if it is to have a final speed that is equal to its escape speed when it is very far from Earth? Neglect any effects due to air resistance.Gravity 1125 Express the escape speed from Earth: ve.m = ve. Use conservation of energy to relate the initial energy of the system to its energy when the particle is very far away: Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: Kf − Ki + U f − U i = 0 or.273)(11.2 km/s ) = 2. K (∞ ) − K (RE ) − U (RE ) = 0 (1) 1 2 2 2 mv∞ −1 2 mvi + GM E m =0 RE 2 . because GM E = gRE 2 2 1 1 2 mv ∞ − 2 mvi + mgRE = 0 Solving for vi yields: 2 vi = v∞ + 2 gRE .E g E RE Substitute numerical values and evaluate ve.166)(0. When the particle is very far from Earth.m yields: ve.E ve.E = 2GM E = 2 g E RE RE (2) Divide equation (1) by equation (2) to obtain: Solving for ve. We’ll use conservation of energy to relate the initial potential and kinetic energies of the particle-Earth system to the final kinetic energy of the particle.

98 × 10 24 kg )(1.15/kW⋅h. the height of the object above the surface of Earth is much smaller than Earth’s radius. Take the orbital height to be 300 km.81 m/s 2 6.37 ×10 m ) 3.0-kg object in low-Earth orbit. Picture the Problem We can use the expression for the total energy of a satellite to find the energy required to place in a low-Earth orbit. (a) The total energy of a satellite in a low-Earth orbit is given by: Substituting for Ug yields: E = K +Ug = 1 2Ug GM Earth msatellite 2r where r is the orbital radius and the minus sign indicates the satellite is bound to Earth. (a) Determine the energy.31 MJ × 6 2(6.7 kW ⋅ h (b) Express the cost of this project in terms of the mass of the satellite: Cost = rate × required energy × msatellite kg . E=− E= GM Earth msatellite 2 REarth For a near-Earth orbit. r ≈ REarth and the amount of energy required to place the satellite in orbit becomes: Substitute numerical values and evaluate E: E=− (6. necessary to place 1. because you know physics and accounting.8 km/s ) 2 ( )( ) 49 •• While trying to work out its budget for the next fiscal years. You are chosen for this task.2 ×10 3 m/s + 2 9.1126 Chapter 11 Substitute numerical values and evaluate vi: vi = (11.0 kg ) 1 kW ⋅ h = 31. in kW⋅h. NASA would like to report to the nation a rough estimate of the cost (per kilogram) to launch a modern satellite into near-Earth orbit.6 MJ = 8. (b) If this energy can be obtained at a typical electrical energy rate of $0.37 × 106 m = 15.673 ×10 −11 N ⋅ m 2 / kg 2 )(5. In low-Earth orbit. what is the minimum cost of launching a 400-kg satellite into low-Earth orbit? Neglect any effects due to air resistance.

Solving for Ke yields: 51 •• [SSM] An object is dropped from rest from a height of 4. Picture the Problem We’ll consider a rocket of mass m which is initially on the surface of Earth (mass M and radius R) and compare the kinetic energy needed to get the rocket to its escape speed with its kinetic energy in a low circular orbit around Earth. We can use conservation of energy to find the escape kinetic energy and Newton’s law of gravity to derive an expression for the low-Earth orbit kinetic energy. what is its speed when it strikes Earth? .15 8. If there is no air resistance.7 kW ⋅ h (400 kg ) × kW ⋅ h kg ≈ $500 50 •• The science fiction writer Robert Heinlein once said.Gravity 1127 Substitute numerical values and find the cost: Cost = $0.″ Justify this statement by comparing the minimum energy needed to place a satellite into low Earth orbit (h = 400 km) to that needed to set it completely free from the bonds of Earth’s gravity. Neglect any effects of air resistance. then you’re halfway to anywhere. ″If you can get into orbit. Apply conservation of energy to relate the initial energy of the rocket to its escape kinetic energy: Letting the zero of gravitational potential energy be at infinity we have Uf = Kf = 0 and: Kf − Ki + U f − U i = 0 − Ki − U i = 0 or GMm K e = −U i = R Apply Newton’s law of gravity to the rocket in orbit at the surface of Earth to obtain: Rewrite this equation to express the low-Earth orbit kinetic energy Ko of the rocket: Express the ratio of Ko to Ke and simplify to obtain: GMm v2 = m R2 R 2 Ko = 1 2 mv = GMm 2R GMm Ko 1 = 2R = GMm 2 Ke R K e = 2 K o as asserted by Heinlein.0 × 106 m above the surface of Earth.

because Ki = 0.0 km/s.0 × 106 m ( )( )( ) 52 •• An object is projected upward from the surface of Earth with an initial speed of 4.37 × 106 m + 4. We’ll use conservation of energy to relate the initial potential energy of the object-Earth system to the final potential and kinetic energies.9 km/s 6.37 × 106 m 4. We’ll use conservation of energy to relate the initial potential and kinetic energies of the object-Earth system to the final potential energy. U (r ) = − GM E m r Express the potential energy of the object-Earth system when the object is at a distance r from the surface of Earth: Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: 1 2 mv 2 − GM E m GM E m + =0 RE RE + h Solving for v yields: ⎛ GM E GM E ⎞ v = 2⎜ ⎜ R − R +h⎟ ⎟ E ⎝ E ⎠ ⎛ h ⎞ = 2 gRE ⎜ ⎜R +h⎟ ⎟ ⎝ E ⎠ Substitute numerical values and evaluate v: v= 2 9. Find the maximum height it reaches.81 m/s 2 6. and h the maximum height reached by the object.0 × 106 m = 6. m represent the mass of the object. Picture the Problem Let the zero of gravitational potential energy be at infinity. . K (RE ) + U (RE ) − U (RE + h ) = 0 (1) where h is the initial height above Earth’s surface. Use conservation of energy to relate the initial potential energy of the system to its energy as the object is about to strike Earth: Kf − Ki + U f − U i = 0 or.1128 Chapter 11 Picture the Problem Let the zero of gravitational potential energy be at infinity and let m represent the mass of the object.

81 m/s 2 6. Use conservation of energy to relate the initial energy of the system to its energy when the particle is very far from Earth: Kf − Ki + U f − U i = 0 or. When the particle is very far from Earth. K (RE ) + U (RE ) − U (RE + h ) = 0 (1) where h is the maximum height above Earth’s surface. When it is very far from Earth. m represent the mass of the particle. U (r ) = − GM E m r Express the potential energy of the object-Earth system when the object is at a distance r from the surface of Earth: Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: 1 2 mv 2 − GM E m GM E m + =0 RE RE + h Solving for h yields: h= RE 2 gRE −1 v2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate h: h= 6. K (∞ ) − K (RE ) − U (RE ) = 0 (1) .0 ×10 )( 3 m/s ) 2 ) −1 = 9. because Kf = 0.37 × 106 m ( (4. We’ll use conservation of energy to relate the initial potential and kinetic energies of the particle-Earth system to the final kinetic energy of the particle. what is its speed? Picture the Problem Let the zero of gravitational potential energy be at infinity. the gravitational potential energy of Earth-particle system will be zero.Gravity 1129 Use conservation of energy to relate the initial potential energy of the system to its energy as the object is at its maximum height: Kf − Ki + U f − U i = 0 or. because Uf = 0.37 × 106 m 2 9.4 × 105 m 53 •• A particle is projected from the surface of Earth with a speed twice the escape speed. and the subscript E refer to Earth.

37 × 106 m = 19. is to escape. we usually do so with the assumption that the body from which we are calculating escape speed is isolated.81 m/s 2 6. Picture the Problem The pictorial representation shows the two massive objects from which the object (whose mass is m).1130 Chapter 11 Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: GM E m =0 RE 1 2 2 ( ) + −1 mv∞ 2 m 2v e 2 2 or. m r1 P r2 M2 M1 Express the total energy of the system consisting of the two massive objects and the object whose mass is m: When the object whose mass is m has escaped. Show that the escape speed at a point near a system that consists of two massive spherical bodies is equal to the square root of the sum of the squares of the escape speeds from each of the two bodies considered individually.2 × 103 m/s − 9.4 km/s [( ) ( 2 )( )] 54 ••• When we calculate escape speeds. because GM E = gRE . of course. 2 2 1 2 mv∞ − 2 mve + mgRE = 0 Solving for v∞ yields: v∞ = 2 2ve2 − gRE ( ) Substitute numerical values and evaluate v∞: v∞ = 2 2 11. This object will have escaped the gravitational fields of the two massive objects provided. when its gravitational potential energy has become zero. its kinetic energy will also be zero. located at point P. This is. E = 0 and: Solving for ve yields: 2 E=1 2 mv − GM 1m GM 2 m − r1 r2 2 0= 1 2 mve − GM 1m GM 2 m − r1 r2 ve2 = 2GM 1 2GM 2 + r1 r2 . generally not true in the Solar system.

Picture the Problem The pictorial representation summarizes the initial positions of the Sun. m rSun M Sun rEarth M Earth From Problem 54. the escape speed from the Earth-Sun system is given by: Solving for ve yields: ve2 = 2GM Earth 2GM Sun + rEarth rSun ⎛ M Earth M Sun + ve = 2G⎜ ⎜ r rSun ⎝ Earth ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ Substitute numerical values and evaluate ve: ⎛ 5.496 × 1011 m ⎟ ⎟ = 43. at Earth’s orbit. 2 2 ve2 = ve. zenith will be pointed directly along the direction of motion of Earth .1 + ve. If we launch at sunrise from the Equator. relative to Earth. Earth.99 × 1030 kg ⎞ ve = 2 6. Neglect Earth’s rotational motion and any effects due to air resistance.Gravity 1131 The terms on the right-hand side of the equation are the squares of the escape speeds from the objects whose masses are M1 and M2.6 km/s ⎝ ⎠ ( ) What we have just calculated is the escape speed from Earth’s surface. Explain the choice of direction you’d make for the direction of the launch in order to minimize the necessary launch speed relative to Earth. The answer will depend on the direction of the launch. Hence.98 × 10 24 kg 1.37 × 106 m + 1. Because the launch will take place from a moving Earth. for a projectile launched from the surface of Earth to escape the solar system. and rocket. we need to consider Earth’s motion and use it to our advantage.2 55 ••• Calculate the minimum necessary speed.673 × 10 −11 N ⋅ m 2 / kg 2 ⎜ ⎜ 6.

Show that the maximum height reached by the object is H = REH′/(RE – H′). We’ll begin by using conservation of energy under the assumption that the gravitational field is constant to determine H′. because Kf = Ui = 0. Picture the Problem Let m represent the mass of the body that is projected vertically from the surface of Earth. Assuming the gravitational field to be constant and letting the zero of potential energy be at the surface of Earth. apply conservation of mechanical energy to relate the initial kinetic energy and the final potential energy of the object-Earth system: Kf − Ki + U f − U i = 0 or. Neglect any effects due to air resistance. We’ll apply conservation of energy a second time.64 ×10 4 s 1y× × y d ( ) 56 ••• An object is projected vertically from the surface of Earth at less than the escape speed. to express H. with the zero of gravitational potential energy at infinity. we’ll solve these two equations simultaneously to express H in terms of H ′.1132 Chapter 11 and the required launch speed will be the minimum launch speed.24 d 8.6 km/s − = 13. − Ki + U f = 0 .496 × 1011 m = 43. Express the minimum launch speed in terms of the escape speed calculated above and Earth’s orbital speed: The orbital speed of Earth is given by: Substituting for vorbital yields: vmin = ve − vorbital v orbital = 2π rorbital Torbital 2π rorbital Torbital v min = v e − Substitute numerical values and evaluate vmin: v min 2π 1. where H′ is the height that it would reach if the gravitational field were constant.8 km/s 365. Finally.

Gravity 1133 Substitute for Ki and Uf to obtain: Letting the zero of gravitational potential energy be at infinity. . − Ki + U f − U i = 0 1 2 2 2 −1 2 mv − GMm GMm + =0 RE + H RE or 2 −1 2v − 2 gRE gR 2 + E =0 RE + H RE Solving for v2 yields: 1 ⎞ 2⎛ 1 ⎜ v 2 = 2 gRE ⎜R − R +H⎟ ⎟ E ⎝ E ⎠ ⎛ H ⎞ = 2 gRE ⎜ ⎜R +H⎟ ⎟ ⎝ E ⎠ Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: ⎛ H ⎞ H'RE H' = RE ⎜ ⎜R +H ⎟ ⎟ ⇒ H = R − H' E ⎝ E ⎠ Gravitational Orbits 57 •• A 100-kg spacecraft is in a circular orbit about Earth at a height h = 2RE. Uf. Picture the Problem We can use its definition to express the period of the spacecraft’s motion and apply Newton’s 2nd law to the spacecraft to determine its orbital speed. We can then use this orbital speed to calculate the kinetic energy of the spacecraft. We can relate the spacecraft’s angular momentum to its kinetic energy and moment of inertia. and Ui and simplify to obtain: v2 (1) − mv + mgH' = 0 ⇒ H' = 2g Kf − Ki + U f − U i = 0 or. use conservation of mechanical energy to relate the initial kinetic energy and the final potential energy of the object-earth system: Substitute for Ki. (a) What is the orbital period of the spacecraft? (b) What is the spacecraft’s kinetic energy? (c) Express the angular momentum L of the spacecraft about the center of Earth in terms of its kinetic energy K and find the numerical value of L. because Kf = 0.

31 h 3600 s T = 6 3π = 2.631× 10 4 s × (b) Using its definition.37 × 106 m 2(100 kg ) 1.37 × 106 m 9. the average center-to-center distance between the moon and Earth is 3.04 GJ (c) Express the kinetic energy of the spacecraft in terms of its angular momentum: Express the moment of inertia of the spacecraft with respect to an axis through the center of Earth: Substitute for I in the expression for L and simplify to obtain: K= L2 ⇒ L = 2 IK 2I 2 I = m(3RE ) = 9mRE 2 2 L = 2 9mRE K = 3RE 2mK ( ) Substitute numerical values and evaluate L: L = 3 6.1134 Chapter 11 (a) Express the period of the spacecraft’s orbit about Earth: 2π R 2π (3RE ) 6π RE = = v v v where v is the orbital speed of the spacecraft. T= Fradial = GM E m Use Newton’s 2nd law to relate the gravitational force acting on the spacecraft to its orbital speed: Substitute for v in our expression for T to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate T: (3RE ) 2 =m v2 ⇒v = 3RE gRE 3 T = 6 3π RE g 6.37 × 10 6 m ) = 1. the length of a year is ( ) ( ) .81 m/s 2 )(6.3 d.82 × 108 m.041× 109 J = 8.81 m/s 2 1h = 7.041 GJ = 1.72 × 1012 J ⋅ s 58 •• The orbital period of the moon is 27. express the spacecraft’s kinetic energy: Substitute numerical values and evaluate K: 2 1 1 K=1 2 mv = 2 m( 3 gRE ) K= 1 6 (100 kg ) (9.

We can solve these equations for the masses of the Sun and Earth and then divide one by the other to establish a value for the ratio of the mass of the Sun to the mass of Earth. and the average center-to-center distance between Earth and the Sun is 1.33×105: % diff = 3.3 d ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ 365.24 d. to their mean center-tocenter distances from the objects about which they orbit.38 × 105 3 ⎛ 27. relate the period of the moon to its mean distance from Earth: 4π 2 3 T = rm (1) GM E where rm is the distance between the centers of Earth and the moon. TE2 = ME = Solve equation (1) for ME: 4π 2 3 r 2 m GTm 4π 2 3 rE GTE2 3 (3) Solve equation (2) for Ms: Ms = (4) 2 Divide equation (4) by equation (3) and simplify to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate Ms/ME: M s ⎛ rE ⎞ =⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ME ⎜ ⎝ rm ⎠ ⎛ Tm ⎞ ⎜ ⎜T ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ E⎠ M s ⎛ 1.33 × 105 = 1.50 × 1011 m.33 × 105 3. . Picture the Problem We can use Kepler’s 3rd law to relate the periods of the moon and Earth. relate the period of Earth to its mean distance from the Sun: 4π 2 3 rE (2) GM s where rE is the distance between the centers of Earth and the Sun.Gravity 1135 365. in their orbits about Earth and the Sun.50 × 1011 m ⎞ ⎟ =⎜ 8 ⎟ ME ⎜ ⎝ 3.38 × 105 − 3. Using Kepler’s 3rd law. 2 m Using Kepler’s 3rd law.24 d ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 Express the difference between this value and the measured value of 3. Use this data to estimate the ratio of the mass of the Sun to the mass of Earth. Compare this to the measured ratio of 3. List some neglected factors that might account for any discrepancy.82 × 10 m ⎠ = 3.50 % In this analysis we’ve neglected gravitational forces exerted by other planets and the Sun.33 × 105.

Express the energy difference: Express the total energy of an orbiting satellite: ΔE = E geo − E1000 E tot = K + U (1) (2) GM E m R where R is the orbital radius. How much more energy is required to launch a 500-kg satellite into a geosynchronous orbit than into an orbit 1000 km above the surface of Earth? Picture the Problem We can express the energy difference between these two orbits in terms of the total energy of a satellite at each elevation. orbit at an altitude of 3579 km above Earth’s surface. 2 =1 2 mv − Apply Newton’s 2nd law to a satellite to relate the gravitational force to the orbital speed: Solving for v2 yields: Fradial = GM E m v2 m = R R2 v2 = 2 gRE R Substitute in equation (2) to obtain: E tot = 1 2 m 2 2 gRE gR 2 m mgRE − E =− R R 2R Substituting in equation (1) and simplifying yields: ΔE = − = 2 2 2 ⎛ ⎞ mgRE mgRE mgRE ⎜ 1 − 1 ⎟ + = ⎟ 2 Rgeo 2 R1000 2 ⎜ ⎝ R1000 Rgeo ⎠ 2 ⎞ ⎛ mgRE 1 1 ⎟ ⎜ − ⎜ 2 ⎝ RE + 1000 km RE + 3579 km ⎟ ⎠ Substitute numerical values and evaluate ΔE: ΔE = 1 2 (500 kg )(9. The application of Newton’s 2nd law to the force acting on a satellite will allow us to express the total energy of each satellite as function of its mass.50 GJ ⎝ 7.37 × 10 m 9. the radius of Earth. and its orbital radius. however.1136 Chapter 11 59 •• [SSM] Many satellites orbit Earth with maximum altitudes of 1000 km or less.81 N / kg )(6.95 × 10 m ⎠ .37 × 10 6 m ) 2 ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ ⎞ 1 1 ⎟ − 6 6 ⎟ = 3. Geosynchronous satellites.

to attain the desired orbit. In Part (b). (a) The kinetic energy of the orbiting platform equals half its gravitational potential energy: Substitute for K and U to obtain: 1 K = Ug 2 1 2 1 GM Earth m mv = 2 2 r where m is the mass of the platform and r is the distance from the center of Earth to the platform. first determine the orbital speed for the platform. the required launch speed is the difference between the speed of the probe at perigee and the orbital speed of the platform. Suppose such a ″platform″ has been constructed.450 ×106 m v rel to platform = v p − v (1) −11 )( ) (b) The required launch speed is the difference between the speed of the probe at perigee and the orbital speed of the platform: . Assume that any effects due to the gravitational pull of the moon on the probe are negligible. and its apogee at the moon’s orbital radius.98 × 10 24 kg = 7.37 × 106 m + 0.65 km/s 6. How long after launch should you expect to receive this signal from the probe (neglect the second or so delay for the transit time of the signal back to the platform)? Picture the Problem We can use the fact that the kinetic energy of the orbiting platform equals half its gravitational potential energy to find the orbital speed of the platform. In addition. Finally. v= GM Earth r Solving for v yields: Substitute numerical values and evaluate v: v= (6.Gravity 1137 60 ••• The idea of a spaceport orbiting Earth is an attractive proposition for launching probes and/or manned missions to the outer planets of the Solar System. we can use conservation of mechanical energy and Kepler’s law of equal areas. Your research team is launching a lunar probe in an orbit that has its perigee at the spaceport’s orbital radius. in Part (c). and orbits Earth at a distance of 450 km above Earth’s surface. for the probe’s launch. (b) Next you determine the necessary speed relative to the platform. (a) To launch the probe successfully. we can use Kepler’s 3rd law to find the time after launch that you would expect to receive a signal from the probe announcing that it had reached apogee.67 ×10 N ⋅ m 2 / kg 2 5. assume that the launch takes place in a negligible amount of time. (c) You have the probe designed to radio back when it has reached apogee. To find the speed of the probe at perigee.

84 × 105 km Because rp << ra.8 km/s − 7.98 × 1024 kg = 10.673 × 10−11 N ⋅ m 2 / kg 2 5.8 km/s 6820 km v rel to platform = 10. Neglecting everything in the universe but Earth and probe. the speed of launch will point in the direction the platform is moving at launch time.65 km/s = 3.1138 Chapter 11 Here the platform’s orbital radius will be the probe’s orbit’s perigee. apply conservation of energy from perigee to apogee to obtain: 1 2 2 2 mvp −1 2 mva − GmM Earth ⎛ GmM Earth −⎜ ⎜− rp ra ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟=0 ⎠ Simplify these expression to obtain: ⎡ ⎛ v ⎞⎤ ⎛1 1⎞ 2 a ⎟ = 2GM Earth ⎜ − ⎟ (2) vp ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎥ ⎟⎥ ⎜r r ⎟ ⎢ ⎜ ⎝ v p ⎠⎦ ⎝ p a⎠ ⎣ v p rp = va ra ⇒ v a = rp ra vp Applying Kepler’s law of equal areas between perigee and apogee yields: Substituting for va in equation (2) yields: ⎛1 1⎞ ⎡ ⎛ rp ⎞⎤ 2 ⎜ ⎟ vp ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟⎥ = 2GM Earth ⎜ r − r ⎟ (3) ⎜r ⎟ p a ⎣ ⎝ a ⎠⎦ ⎝ ⎠ where rp = REarth + h = 6370 km + 450 km = 6820 km and ra = 3. equation (3) becomes: Solving for vp yields: ⎛ 1 ⎞ 2GM Earth 2 ≈ 2GM Earth ⎜ ⎟ = vp ⎜r ⎟ rp ⎝ p⎠ vp ≈ 2GM Earth rp Substitute numerical values and evaluate vp: vp ≈ 2 6.2 km/s ( )( ) Substitute numerical values in equation (1) and evaluate vrel to platform: .

What is the gravitational field at point P? Picture the Problem The gravitational field at any point is defined by g = F m .0 kg (4.0 N/kg ) iˆ 62 • The gravitational field at some point is given by g = 2.673 ×10 −11 N ⋅ m / kg 2 2 )(5. express the gravitational field at a point in space: g= ˆ F (12 N ) i = = m 3. Using its definition.0040-kg object located at that point? Picture the Problem The gravitational force acting on an object of mass m where the gravitational field is g is given by F = m g .45) × 10 m )] 3 (6.0-kg space probe experiences a gravitational force of 12 N ˆ i as it passes through point P.Gravity 1139 (c) The time after launch that you should expect to receive this signal from the probe is half the period of the probe’s motion: Apply Kepler’s 3rd law to the probeEarth system to obtain: Δt = 1 2T (4) 4π 2 4π 2 a 3 3 T = a ⇒T = GM Earth GM Earth where a is the semi-major axis. The gravitational force acting on the object is the product of the mass of the object and the gravitational field: F = mg .37 + 0. 2 Substitute for T in equation (4) to obtain: Δt = π 2a3 GM Earth Substitute numerical values and evaluate Δt: Δt = 8 6 π 2 [1 2 (3.98 ×10 24 kg ) = 4.844 × 10 m + (6.5 ×10 −6 N/kg ˆ j.304 × 105 s ≈ 5. What is the gravitational force on a 0.0 d The Gravitational Field ( g ) 61 • A 3.

1140 Chapter 11 Substitute numerical values and evaluate g : F = (0.0040 kg ) 2.0 kg. (a) The gravitational field at the origin is the sum of its x and y components: Express the gravitational field due to the point mass at x = L: Express the gravitational field due to the point mass at y = L: Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: g = gx + gy (1) gx = Gm ˆ i L2 Gm ˆ j L2 Gm ˆ Gm ˆ i+ 2 j L2 L gy = g = gx + g y = 2 g = gx + g2 y (b) The magnitude of g is given by: Substitute for gx and gy and simplify to obtain: ⎛ Gm ⎞ ⎛ Gm ⎞ g = ⎜ 2 ⎟ +⎜ 2 ⎟ = ⎝ L ⎠ ⎝ L ⎠ 2 2 2 Gm L2 64 •• Five objects. we can find the gravitational field at the center of . m is 2. Once we have expressed the net force. each of mass M. We can find the magnitude of the field from its components using the Pythagorean theorem. (a) If M is 3. what is the gravitational force on the particle of mass m due to the five objects? (b) If the object whose mass is m is removed.5 × 10 −6 N/kg ˆ j = 1.0 kg. are equally spaced on the arc of a semicircle of radius R as in Figure 11-25. (a) What is the gravitational field at the origin? (b) What is the magnitude of this field? Picture the Problem We can use the definition of the gravitational field due to a point mass to find the x and y components of the field at the origin and then add these components to find the resultant field.0 × 10 −8 N ˆ j ( ( ) ) 63 •• [SSM] A point particle of mass m is on the x axis at x = L and an identical point particle is on the y axis at y = L. An object of mass m is located at the center of curvature of the arc. what is the gravitational field at the center of curvature of the arc? Picture the Problem We can find the net force acting on m by superposition of the forces due to each of the objects arrayed on the circular arc. and R is 10 cm.

8 × 10 −8 N/kg ˆ j ( ) 65 •• A point particle of mass m1 = 2.67 × 10 −8 N ˆ F 0i j = 2. (c) Find the point on the x axis for which g = 0.7 × 10 −8 N ˆ F = 0i j ˆ + 9.Gravity 1141 curvature from its definition. (a) Express the net force acting on the object whose mass is m: ˆ+F ˆ F = Fx i y j (1) Fx is given by: Fx = Fy is given by: Fy = GMm GMm GMm GMm (2 sin 45° + 1) + sin 45° + sin 45° = 2 2 2 R R R R2 GMm GMm GMm GMm − + cos 45° − cos 45° = 0 2 2 2 R R R R2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate Fy: Fy = (6.0 m and (b) x = 12 m. Picture the Problem The configuration of point masses is shown to the right.0 kg )(2 sin 45° + 1) = 9.0 kg m ) Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: (b) Using its definition.0 kg ) (2. The gravitational field at any point can be found by superimposing the fields due to each of the point masses.67 ×10−8 N 2 (0.0 kg is on the x axis at x = 6.10 m ) ˆ + 9.0 m. . Find the gravitational field g at (a) x = 2.673 ×10 −11 N ⋅ m 2 / kg 2 (3. express g at the center of curvature of the arc: ( ) g= ( ) = 4.0 kg is at the origin and a second point particle of mass m2 = 4. Choose a coordinate system in which the +x direction is to the right and the +y direction is upward.

0 m )2 g1 = − (− 1.0 kg ) + 4.0 kg )] i = (2.0 − =0 2 x (6.0 kg − 1 4 (4.673 × 10−11 N ⋅ m 2 /kg 2 1 [ 4 (2.7 ×10 −11 ˆ N/kg i ) (b) Express g1 and g 2 : Gm1 ˆ Gm ˆ i and g 2 = − 2 2 i 2 x1 x2 Substitute in equation (1) and simplify to obtain: g=− Gm1 ˆ Gm2 ˆ Gm1 ˆ Gm2 ˆ G i− 2 i =− i− 2 i =− 2 2 2 x1 x2 x2 x2 (2 x2 ) ˆ (1 4 m1 + m 2 ) i Substitute numerical values and evaluate g : g=− 6.0 m as the sum of the fields due to the point masses m1 and m2: Express g1 and g2 : g = g1 + g 2 (1) g1 = − Gm1 ˆ Gm ˆ i and g 2 = 2 2 i 2 x1 x2 Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: g=− Gm1 ˆ Gm 2 ˆ Gm ˆ Gm 2 ˆ G )ˆ i + 2 i = − 21 i + i = − 2 (m1 − 1 4 m2 i 2 2 x1 x2 x1 x1 (2 x1 ) Substitute numerical values and evaluate g : g=− 6.5 m .0 kg]iˆ = (6.48 m and x = −14.673 × 10−11 N ⋅ m 2 /kg 2 ˆ [2.0 m )2 (− 8.3 ×10 −12 ˆ N/kg i ) (c) Express the condition that g = 0: Gm1 Gm 2 − =0 2 x (6.1142 Chapter 11 (a) Express the gravitational field at x = 2.0 − x )2 or 2.0 − x )2 Solve this quadratic equation to obtain: x = 2.0 4.

(a) The total mass of the stick is given by: M = ∫ λ dx 0 L . where x0 > L.Gravity 1143 From the diagram it is clear that the physically meaningful root is the positive one at: x = 2. we can differentiate gx with respect to x and set the derivative equal to zero. where C is a constant. we need to either evaluate the second derivative of gx at x = ± a/ 2 or examine the graph of g x at x = ± a/ 2 for concavity downward.) (a) What is the total mass of the rod? (b) Find the gravitational field due to the rod on the x axis at x = x0. The rod’s mass per unit length λ varies as λ = Cx. Picture the Problem We can find the mass of the rod by integrating dm over its length. an element of the rod has mass dm = λ dx.5 m 66 •• Show that on the x axis the maximum value of g for the field of Example 11-7 occurs at points x = ± a 2 . and the other end is at x = L. (Thus. 67 ••• [SSM] A nonuniform thin rod of length L lies on the x axis. One end of the rod is at the origin. From Example 11-7: gx = − (x 2GMx 2 + a2 ) 3/ 2 Differentiate gx with respect to x and set the derivative equal to zero to find extreme values: dg x = −2GM x 2 + a 2 dx Solve for x to obtain: [( ) −3 / 2 − 3x 2 x 2 + a 2 ( ) −5 / 2 ] = 0 for extrema. Picture the Problem To show that the maximum value of g for the field of Example 11-7 occurs at the points x = ± a 2 . The gravitational field at x0 > L can be found by integrating dg at x0 over the length of the rod. x= ± a 2 Remarks: To establish that this value for x corresponds to a relative maximum.

(d) Show that for x0 >> L. We can calculate the total field by integrating the magnitude of the field due to dm from x = 0 to x = L. the field of the rod approximates the field of a point particle of mass M at x = 0. (a) Express the gravitational field at P due to the element dm: Relate dm to dx: dg x = − dm = Gdm ˆ i r2 M dx L Express the distance r between dm and point P in terms of x and x0: Substitute these results to express dg x in terms of x and x0: r = x0 − x ⎧ ⎫ˆ GM dg x = ⎨− dx ⎬i 2 ⎩ L(x0 − x ) ⎭ . (c) Find the gravitational force on a point particle of mass m0 at x0. Consider an element of the rod of length dx. Picture the Problem The elements of the rod of mass dm and length dx produce a gravitational field at any point P located a distance x0 > L from the origin. and mass dm. where 0 < x < L.1144 Chapter 11 Substitute for λ and evaluate the integral to obtain” (b) Express the gravitational field due to an element of the stick of mass dm: M = C ∫ xdx = 0 L 1 2 CL2 dg = − =− Gdm ˆ Gλ dx ˆ i =− i 2 ( x0 − x ) (x0 − x )2 GCxdx ˆ i (x0 − x )2 L Integrate this expression over the length of the stick to obtain: g = −GC ∫ xdx ˆ i 2 0 (x0 − x ) ⎡ ⎛ x0 ⎞ ⎛ L ⎞⎤ ˆ ⎢ln⎜ ⎜ x −L⎟ ⎟−⎜ ⎜ x −L⎟ ⎟⎥ i 0 0 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎦ ⎣ = 2GM L2 68 •• A uniform thin rod of mass M and length L lies on the positive x axis with one end at the origin. (a) Show that this element produces a gravitational field at a point x0 on the x axis in the region x0 > L given GM by dgx = − 2 dx . (b) Integrate this result over the length of the rod to find L (x 0 − x ) the total gravitational field at the point x0 due to the rod. at point x.

2 × 10 −9 N/kg 2 2 r (2.5 m ) ( ) .673 × 10 −11 N ⋅ m 2 /kg 2 (300 kg ) = = 3. (b) 1.5 m? Picture the Problem The gravitational field inside a spherical shell is zero and the field at the surface of and outside the shell is given by g = GM r 2 . (c) 2.9 m < R: (c) Because 2.50 m ) = 0 g (1.Gravity 1145 (b) Integrate from x = 0 to x = L to find the total gravitational field at point P: L GM gx = − L ∫ (x 0 dx ˆ i 2 ) − x 0 ⎧ ⎪ GM = ⎨− L ⎪ ⎩ = − L ⎡ 1 ⎤ ⎫ ⎪ˆ ⎢ ⎥ ⎬i ⎣ x0 − x ⎦ 0 ⎪ ⎭ GM ˆ i x0 ( x 0 − L ) GMm0 ˆ i x0 ( x0 − L ) (c) Use the definition of gravitational field and the result from Part (b) to express Fg at x = x0: (d) Factor x0 from the denominator of the expression for g x to obtain: Fg = m0 g = − gx = − GM ˆ i L⎞ 2⎛ ⎜ x0 ⎟ ⎜1 − x ⎟ 0 ⎠ ⎝ GM ˆ i 2 x0 For x0 >> L the second term in parentheses is very small and: gx ≈ − which is the gravitational field of a point mass M located at the origin.5 m > R: g (0. The Gravitational Field ( g ) due to Spherical Objects 69 • A uniform thin spherical shell has a radius of 2.9 m ) = 0 g (2. What is the gravitational field at the following distances from the center of the shell: (a) 0.50 m < R: (b) Because 1. (a) Because 0.5 m ) = GM 6.9 m.0 m and a mass of 300 kg.50 m.

Another uniform thin spherical shell with a radius of 1. and its center is located at the origin of a coordinate system. If the gravitational field strength at the surface of S1 is g1.1146 Chapter 11 70 • A uniform thin spherical shell has a radius of 2. and. what is the gravitational field strength at the surface of S2? Picture the Problem The gravitational field strength at the surface of a sphere is given by g = GM R 2 . it exerts no force on the 1. 71 •• [SSM] Two widely separated solid spheres.00 m shell due to that shell is zero. each have radius R and mass M. Express the gravitational field strength on the surface of S1: Express the gravitational field strength on the surface of S2: Divide the second of these equations by the first and simplify to obtain: g1 = GM R2 GM R2 g2 = GM 2 g2 = R = 1 ⇒ g1 = g 2 g1 GM R2 72 •• Two widely separated uniform solid spheres.00 m and a mass of 150 kg is inside the larger shell with its center at 0. What is the gravitational force of attraction between the two shells? Determine the Concept The gravitational force is zero. The gravitational field inside the 2. therefore. Sphere S1 is uniform. have equal masses but different radii. by Newton’s 3rd law. whereas the density of sphere S2 is given by ρ(r) = C/r.00 m-shell.600 m on the x axis. where R is the radius of the sphere and M is its mass. what is the gravitational field strength on the surface of S2? Picture the Problem The gravitational field strength at the surface of a sphere is given by g = GM R 2 . that shell exerts no force on the larger shell.00 m and a mass of 300 kg. where r is the distance from its center. S1 and S2. S1 and S2. If the gravitational field strength on the surface of S1 is g1. where R is the radius of the sphere and M is its mass. R1 and R2. Express the gravitational field strength on the surface of S1: Express the gravitational field strength on the surface of S2: g1 = GM R12 GM 2 R2 g2 = .

(a) The gravitational force on a particle of mass m is given by: At r = 3a.9a.9a? . g due to M2 is zero and: (c) At r = 0. as in Figure 11-26. g = 0 and: Fg (1.9a. 73 •• Two concentric uniform thin spherical shells have masses M1 and M2 and radii a and 2a. What is the magnitude of the gravitational force on a point particle of mass m (not shown) located (a) a distance 3a from the center of the shells? (b) a distance 1.9a.9a ) 2 Fg (0. (b) x = 1. What is the magnitude of the gravitational force on a particle of point mass m located on the x axis at (a) x = 3a.61a 2 (b) At r = 1. (c) x = 0.8a.9a ) = m (1.9a from the center of the shells? (c) a distance 0.Gravity 1147 Divide the second of these equations by the first and simplify to obtain: GM R2 g2 R2 R2 = 2 = 12 ⇒ g 2 = 12 g1 g1 GM R2 R2 R12 Remarks: The gravitational field strengths depend only on the masses and radii because the points of interest are outside spherically symmetric distributions of mass. the masses of both spheres contribute to g: Fg = mg G (M 1 + M 2 ) Fg (3a ) = m = (3a )2 Gm(M 1 + M 2 ) 9a 2 GM 1 = GmM 1 3.9a from the center of the shells? Picture the Problem The magnitude of the gravitational force is Fg = mg where g inside a spherical shell is zero and outside is given by g = GM r 2 .9a ) = 0 74 •• The inner spherical shell in Problem 73 is shifted so that its center is now on the x axis at x = 0.

9a: g 2 x (1.9a: Substitute for g1x (1.1148 Chapter 11 Picture the Problem The configuration is shown on the right. r (a) Express the gravitational force acting on the object whose mass is m: Find g1x at x = 3a: Fg = m(g1x + g 2 x ) (1) g1x (3a ) = g 2 x (3a ) = GM 1 GM 1 = (3a )2 9a 2 GM 2 GM 2 = 2 (3a − 0.9a ) and simplify to obtain: (c) At x = 0.21a 2 . and (c) are indicated along the x axis.9a ) = mg = F (0.84a 2 Find g2x at x = 3a: Substitute for g1x (3a ) and g 2 x (3a ) in equation (1) and simplify to obtain: ⎛ GM 1 GM 2 ⎞ + F (3a ) = m⎜ ⎟ 2 4.9a ) = 0 GmM 2 1.84 ⎠ GM 2 (b) Find g2x at x = 1.84a 2 ⎠ ⎝ 9a = Gm ⎛ M 1 M 2 ⎞ + ⎜ ⎟ a 2 ⎝ 9 4.21a 2 Find g1x at x = 1.9a ) and g 2 x (1.9a. The centers of the spheres are indicated by the centerlines. (b).9a − 0. g1x = g2x = 0 and: g1x (1.8a )2 GM 2 1.9a ) = = (1. The x coordinates of the mass m for Parts (a).8a ) 4. The magnitude of the gravitational force is Fg = mg where g inside a spherical shell is zero and GM outside is given by g = 2 .9a ) = 0 F (1.

an upward normal force (FN) exerted by the scale. Because you are in equilibrium (you are descending at constant speed) under the influence of these forces.Gravity 1149 75 •• [SSM] Suppose you are standing on a spring scale in an elevator that is descending at constant speed in a mine shaft located on the equator. and a downward gravitational force (mg) exerted by Earth. Show that the reading on the spring scale is proportional to your distance from the center of the planet. (a) Show that the force on you due to Earth’s gravity alone is proportional to your distance from the center of the planet. (b) Assume that the mine shaft located on the equator and is vertical. (a) Express the force of gravity acting on you when you are a distance r from the center of Earth: Using the definition of density. mg = 3 (2) Apply Newton’s law of gravity to yourself at the surface of Earth to obtain: . the normal force exerted by the scale is equal in magnitude to the gravitational force acting on you. express the density of Earth between you and the center of Earth and the density of Earth as a whole: The density of Earth is also given by: Fg = GM (r )m r2 (1) ρ= M (r ) M (r ) = 3 V (r ) 4 3π r ρ= ME M = 4 E3 VE 3π R 3 Equating these two expressions for ρ and solving for M(r) yields: Substitute for M(r) in equation (1) and simplify to obtain: ⎛r⎞ M (r ) = M E ⎜ ⎟ ⎝R⎠ ⎛r⎞ GM E ⎜ ⎟ m ⎝ R ⎠ = GM E m r Fg = r2 R2 R GM E m GM E ⇒g = 2 R R2 where g is the magnitude of the gravitational field at the surface of Earth. Do not neglect Earth’s rotational motion. Picture the Problem There are two forces acting on you as you descend in the elevator and are at a distance r from the center of Earth. We can use Newton’s law of gravity to express this gravitational force.

directed toward the center of Earth. who weighs 800 N at the surface of Earth. Before making the measurement. At this mine. The density of Earth’s crust actually increases with depth. As a reward for earning the highest lab grade. 76 •• Suppose Earth were a nonrotating uniform sphere. Is your answer higher or lower than the actual experimental result? Picture the Problem We can find the loss in weight at this depth by taking the difference between the weight of the student at the surface of Earth and her weight at a depth d = 15. (b) Apply Newton’s 2nd law to your body to obtain: r = − mrω 2 R where the net force − mr ω 2 . your physics professor chooses your laboratory team to participate in a gravitational experiment at a deep mine on the equator.0 km into Earth.0 km. we’ll use its definition and the mass of Earth that is between the bottom of the shaft and the center of Earth. To find the gravitational field at depth d. However. the force of gravity on you is proportional to your distance from the center of Earth. We’ll assume (incorrectly) that the density of Earth is constant. due just to the effect of rotation. doing so. The loss in weight of a team member is given by: The mass M inside R =RE – d is given by: Δw = w( RE ) − w(R ) M = ρV = 4 3 ρπ (RE − d ) (1) 3 .1150 Chapter 11 Substitute for g in equation (2) to obtain: ⎛ mg ⎞ Fg = ⎜ ⎟r ⎝ R ⎠ That is. when she is at the bottom of the shaft. as you approach the center the centripetal force decreases linearly and. increases your effective weight. there exists an elevator shaft going 15. FN − mg ( ) Solving for FN yields: ⎛ mg ⎞ 2 FN = ⎜ ⎟r − mrω R ⎝ ⎠ Note that this equation tells us that your effective weight increases linearly with distance from the center of Earth. is the centripetal force acting on your body. you are asked to predict the decrease in the weight of a team member.

Gravity 1151 Relate the mass of Earth to kits density and volume: Divide the first of these equations by the second to obtain: Solving for M yields: 3 M E = ρVE = 4 3 ρπRE 4 ρπ (R − d ) (RE − d M = 3 4 E 3 = 3 ME RE 3 ρπRE 3 )3 M = ME (RE − d )3 3 RE 3 Express the gravitational field at R =RE – d: Express the gravitational field at R =RE: Divide equation (2) by equation (3) to obtain: GM GM E (RE − d ) g= 2 = 3 R (RE − d )2 RE gE = GM E 2 RE 3 (2) (3) GM E (RE − d ) 3 (RE − d )2 RE R −d g = = E GM E gE RE 2 RE g= RE − d gE RE Solving for g yields: The weight of the student at R =RE – d is given by: w (R ) = mg (R ) = RE − d mg E RE ⎛ d ⎞ =⎜ ⎜1 − R ⎟ ⎟mg E E ⎠ ⎝ Substitute for w(R) in equation (1) and simplify to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate Δw: ⎛ d ⎞ mg E d 1 Δw = mg E − ⎜ − ⎜ R ⎟ ⎟mg E = R E ⎠ E ⎝ Δw = (800 N )(15.0 km ) = 6370 km 1.88 N .

y ) r1 r r g1 2 r g2 and negative density ρ0 centered at 1 2 R . Picture the Problem We can use the hint to find the gravitational field along the x axis. Picture the Problem The diagram shows the portion of the solid sphere in which the hollow sphere is embedded. θ ⎛R ⎞ ⎜ . g1 is the field due to the solid sphere of radius R and density ρ0 and g 2 is the field due to the sphere of radius 1 2 R y (x. show that the gravitational field is uniform throughout the cavity. Hint: The cavity may be thought of as a sphere of mass m = (4/3)π r3ρ0 plus a sphere of ″negative″ mass –m. We can find the resultant field by adding the x and y components of g1 and g 2 . It has a uniform mass density ρ0.0) x . Find the gravitational field at points on the x axis for x > R . with the result that the loss in weight would be lower than the actual experimental result. 77 •• [SSM] A solid sphere of radius R has its center at the origin. Using the hint.1152 Chapter 11 If Earth’s crustal density actually increased with depth. express g ( x ) : g ( x ) = g solid sphere + g hollow sphere Substitute for g solid sphere and g hollow sphere and simplify to obtain: g (x ) = GM solid sphere x 2 + GM hollow sphere (x − 1 2 R) 2 3 1 Gρ 0 ( 4 Gρ 0 − 4 3π R ) 3 π (2 R) = + 2 x2 (x − 1 2 R) [ 3 ] ⎤ ⎛ 4πρ 0 R 3 ⎞ ⎡ 1 1 ⎟ − = G⎜ ⎢ ⎜ 3 ⎟ x 2 8(x − 1 R )2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎠⎣ ⎝ 2 ⎦ 78 ••• For the sphere with the cavity in Problem 77. except that there is a spherical cavity in it of radius 1 r=1 2 R centered at x = 2 R as in Figure 11-27.0 ⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ (R. and find its magnitude and direction there. this increase with depth would partially compensate for the decrease in the fraction of Earth’s mass between a descending team member and the center of Earth.

Gravity 1153 Use its definition to express g1 : g1 =

Fg m

Substitute for the gravitational force to obtain:

GMm 2 GM g1 = r = 2 m r

g1 =

Substituting the product of its density and volume for the mass of the sphere and simplifying yields: Find the x and y components of g1 :

Gρ 0V 4πρ 0 r 3G 4πρ 0 rG = = 3r 2 3 r2

4πρ0Gx ⎛ x⎞ g1x = − g1 cos θ = − g1 ⎜ ⎟ = − 3 ⎝r⎠ and 4πρ0Gy ⎛ y⎞ g1 y = − g1 sin θ = − g1 ⎜ ⎟ = − 3 ⎝r⎠ where the negative signs indicate that the field points inward.

g2 =

Proceed similarly to express g 2 :

4πρ 0 r2 G 3

Express the x and y components of g2 :

4πρ 0 G (x − 1 ⎛x− 1 2 R⎞ 2 R) ⎟ = g 2x = g 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ r 3 2 ⎠ ⎝ and ⎛ y ⎞ 4πρ 0Gy g2 y = g2 ⎜ ⎟= ⎜r ⎟ 3 ⎝ 2⎠

Add the x components and simplify to obtain the x component of the resultant field:

4πρ 0Gx 4πρ 0G (x − 1 2 R) + 3 3 2πρ 0GR =− 3 where the negative sign indicates that the field points inward.

g x = g1x + g 2 x

=−

Add the y components and simplify to obtain the y component of the resultant field:

g y = g1 y + g 2 y

=−

4πρ 0Gy 4πρ 0Gy + =0 3 3

**1154 Chapter 11 Express g in vector form:
**

⎛ 2πρ 0 GR ⎞ ˆ ˆ+ g ˆ g = gxi j ⎟i + 0 ˆ y j = ⎜− 3 ⎠ ⎝

2 2 g = gx + gy =

The magnitude of g is:

2πρ 0 GR 3

79 ••• A straight, smooth tunnel is dug through a uniform spherical planet of mass density ρ0. The tunnel passes through the center of the planet and is perpendicular to the planet’s axis of rotation, which is fixed in space. The planet rotates with a constant angular speed ω so objects in the tunnel have no apparent weight. Find the required angular speed of the planet ω. Picture the Problem The gravitational field will exert an inward radial force on the objects in the tunnel. We can relate this force to the angular speed of the planet by using Newton’s 2nd law of motion.

Letting r be the distance from the objects to the center of the planet, use Newton’s 2nd law to relate the gravitational force acting on the objects to their angular speed: Use its definition to express g:

Fnet = Fg = mrω 2

or

mg = mrω 2 ⇒ ω =

g r

(1)

g=

Fg m Fg

Substitute for Fg to obtain:

GMm 2 GM = r = 2 g= m m r g= Gρ 0V 4πρ 0 r 3G 4πρ 0 rG = = 3r 2 3 r2

Substituting the product of its density and volume for the mass of planet and simplifying yields: Substituting for g in equation (1) and simplifying yields:

ω=

4πρ 0 rG 3 = r

4πρ 0 G 3

80 ••• The density of a sphere is given by ρ (r) = C/r. The sphere has a radius of 5.0 m and a mass of 1.0 × 1011 kg. (a) Determine the constant C. (b) Obtain expressions for the gravitational field for the regions (1) r > 5.0 m and (2) r < 5.0 m.

Gravity 1155

Picture the Problem Because we’re given the mass of the sphere, we can find C by expressing the mass of the sphere in terms of C. We can use its definition to find the gravitational field of the sphere both inside and outside its surface.

(a) Express the mass of a differential element of the sphere: Integrate to express the mass of the sphere in terms of C: Solving for C yields:

dm = ρ dV = ρ 4π r 2 dr

(

)

2

5.0 m

M = 4π C

∫ rdr = (50 m )π C

0

C=

(

M 50 m 2 π

)

Substitute numerical values and evaluate C:

C=

1.0 × 1011 kg = 6.37 × 108 kg/m 2 2 50 m π

(

)

= 6.4 × 108 kg/m 2

(b) Use its definition to express the gravitational field of the sphere at a distance from its center greater than its radius: (1) For r > 5.0 m:

g (r > 5.0 m ) = g= GM r2

(6.673 ×10

−11

N ⋅ m 2 /kg 2 1.0 × 1011 kg 6.7 N ⋅ m 2 /kg = r2 r2

)(

)

Use its definition to express the gravitational field of the sphere at a distance from its center less than its radius:

g =G

∫ 4π r

0

r

2

ρ dr

=G

∫ 4π r

0

r

2

C dr r

r

2

r2

=G

(2) For r < 5.0 m:

4π C ∫ r dr

0

r

r2

= 2π GC

g (r < 5.0 m ) = 2π (6.673 × 10 −11 N ⋅ m 2 /kg 2 )(6.37 × 10 8 kg/m 2 ) = 0.27 N/kg

Use conservation of energy to relate the work done by the gravitational field to the speed of the small object as it strikes the bottom of the hole: K f − K i + ΔU = 0 or.1156 Chapter 11 81 ••• [SSM] A small diameter hole is drilled into the sphere of Problem 80 toward the center of the sphere to a depth of 2. Determine the speed of the small mass as it strikes the bottom of the hole. A small mass is dropped from the surface into the hole. We can then use the definition of the gravitational field to find the gravitational field of the sphere inside its surface.37 × 108 kg/m 2 50 m 2 π ( ) Use its definition to express the gravitational field of the sphere at a distance from its center less than its radius: C 4π r ρ dr 4π r 4π C ∫ r dr dr ∫ ∫ Fg GM r 0 0 0 = 2 =G =G =G = 2π GC g= m r r2 r2 r2 2 2 r r r . 2W 2 W =1 (1) 2 mv ⇒ v = m where v is the speed with which the object strikes the bottom of the hole and W is the work done by the gravitational field. Picture the Problem We can use conservation of energy to relate the work done by the gravitational field to the speed of the small object as it strikes the bottom of the hole.0 m M = 4π C ∫ rdr = (50 m )π C 0 C= ( M 50 m 2 π ) Substitute numerical values and evaluate C: C= 1. Because we’re given the mass of the sphere. The work done by the field equals the negative of the change in the potential energy of the system as the small object falls in the hole. because Ki = 0 and W = −ΔU.0 × 1011 kg = 6. Express the mass of a differential element of the sphere: Integrate to express the mass of the sphere in terms of C: Solving for C yields: dm = ρ dV = ρ 4π r 2 dr ( ) 2 5.0 m below the sphere’s surface. we can find C by expressing the mass of the sphere in terms of C.

Find Δg/g at the surface directly above this deposit. We can express this increase in terms of the difference in densities of the deposit and Earth and then form the quotient Δg/g. Assume that where the company owns land the crust of Earth is 40.37 ×108 kg/m 2 ) = 1.0 km thick and has a density of about 3000 kg/m3.0 m/s 82 ••• As a geologist for a mining company.0 m )m(2π GC ) m (8.0 m ∫ mgdr = (2 m )mg v= = 2(2. Picture the Problem The spherical deposit of heavy metals will increase the gravitational field at the surface of Earth. you are working on a method for determining possible locations of underground ore deposits.0 m W =− 5.673 ×10−11 N ⋅ m 2 /kg 2 )(6.Gravity 1157 Express the work done on the small object by the gravitational force acting on it: Substitute in equation (1) and simplify to obtain: 3.0 m )π GC Substitute numerical values and evaluate v: v= (8. where Δg is the increase in the gravitational field due to the deposit. Express Δg due to the spherical deposit: Express the mass of the spherical deposit: Substitute in equation (1): Δg = GΔM r2 (1) 3 3 M = ΔρV = Δρ 4 =4 3 π Δρ R 3π R ( ) Δg = 4 3 Gπ Δρ R 3 r2 Express Δg/g: Gπ Δρ R 3 3 4 2 Δg 3 Gπ Δρ R r = = g g gr 2 4 3 . You propose to detect it by determining its affect on the local surface value of g.0 m )π (6. Suppose a spherical deposit of heavy metals with a density of 8000 kg/m3 and radius of 1000 m was centered 2000 m below the surface.

56 × 10 −5 2 g (9. use the law of gravity to express the force due to the two cavities: ⎛ 2 R ⎞ 8⎜ ⎜d + 4 ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ because. ⎡ ⎛ R ⎞3 ⎤ M' = − ρ V = − ρ ⎢ 4 ⎟ ⎥ 3π⎜ ⎥ ⎢ ⎝2⎠ ⎦ ⎣ 3 4 = −1 = −1 8 3 πρ R 8M Relate the negative mass of a cavity to the mass of the sphere before hollowing: ( ) Letting θ be the angle between the x axis and the line joining the center of the small sphere to the center of either cavity. Express the force of attraction: Use the law of gravity to express the force due to the solid sphere: Express the magnitude of the force acting on the small sphere due to one cavity: F = FS + FC (1) FS = − FC = GMm ˆ i d2 GM'm 2 2 ⎛R⎞ d +⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠ where M′ is the negative mass of a cavity.673 × 10 −11 N ⋅ m 2 /kg 2 ) (5000 kg/m 3 ) (1000 m ) Δg 4 = 3 = 3. by symmetry.1158 Chapter 11 Substitute numerical values and evaluate Δg/g: π (6. They touch the outside surface of the sphere and its center as in Figure 11-28. 2 FC = 2 GMm ˆ cosθ i . The cavities each have a radius R/2. the y components add to zero. The mass of a solid uniform lead sphere of radius R is M. Find the force of attraction on a point particle of mass m located at a distance d from the center of the lead sphere.81 N/kg )(2000 m ) 3 83 ••• [SSM] Two identical spherical cavities are made in a lead sphere of radius R. Picture the Problem The force of attraction of the small sphere of mass m to the lead sphere of mass M is the sum of the forces due to the solid sphere ( FS ) and the cavities ( FC ) of negative mass.

to find N(r) and. Astronomers can measure the velocities of stars in the cluster to study its composition and to get an idea of the mass distribution within the cluster. We can apply Newton’s law of gravity and the 2nd law of motion to relate the net force (which depends on the number of stars N(r) in a sphere whose radius is equal to the distance between the star of interest and the center of the cluster) acting on a star at a distance r from the center of the cluster to its speed. ultimately. We can use the definition of density. show that the mean speed of a star in a circular orbit around the center of the cluster should increase linearly with its distance from the center.Gravity 1159 Use the figure to express cosθ : cosθ = d d2 + Substitute for cosθ and simplify to obtain: GMm 2 R2 4 d ˆ i FC = ⎛ 2 R ⎞ R2 2 ⎟ + 4⎜ d + d ⎜ 4 ⎟ 4 ⎝ ⎠ GMmd ˆ = i 2 3/ 2 ⎛ 2 R ⎞ 4⎜ ⎜d + 4 ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Substitute in equation (1) and simplify: F =− GMm ˆ GMmd ˆ i+ i 2 3/ 2 2 d ⎛ 2 R ⎞ 4⎜ ⎜d + 4 ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎤ ⎡ d3 ⎥ ⎢ GMm ⎢ ⎥ˆ 4 1− = − 2 3 / 2 ⎥i ⎢ 2 d ⎧ ⎫ R ⎥ ⎢ d2 + ⎬ ⎥ ⎢ ⎨ 4 ⎭ ⎦ ⎣ ⎩ 84 ••• A globular cluster is a roughly spherical collection of up to millions of stars bound together by the force of gravity. Picture the Problem Let R be the size of the cluster. in conjunction with the assumption of uniform distribution of the starts within the cluster. . express the orbital speed v of a star in terms of the total mass of the cluster. and N the total number of stars in it. Assuming that all of the stars have about the same mass and are distributed uniformly within the cluster.

5 AU. GM s . Using the uniform distribution assumption and the definition of density.1160 Chapter 11 Using Newton’s law of gravity and 2nd law. General Problems 85 • of Pluto.973 × 10−19 s 2 /m 3 . The mean distance of Pluto from the Sun is 39. relate the number of stars N(r) within a distance r of the center of the cluster to the total number N of stars in the cluster: Substitute for N(r) in equation (1) to obtain: Solving for v yields: ρ= N (r )M NM r3 ( ) = ⇒ N r = N 3 3 4 4 R3 3 πr 3 πR GNM 2 r 3 v2 = M r 2 R3 r v=r GNM ⇒ v∝r R3 The mean speed v of a star in a circular orbit about the center of the cluster increases linearly with distance r from the center. Using Kepler’s 3rd law. relate the period of Pluto to its mean distance from the sun: 2 3 3 TPluto = CrPluto ⇒ TPluto = CrPluto 4π 2 where C = = 2. express the force acting on a star at a distance r from the center of the cluster: GN (r )M 2 v2 =M (1) F (r ) = r2 r where N(r) is the number of stars within a distance r of the center of the cluster and M is the mass of an individual star. Find the period Picture the Problem We can use Kepler’s 3rd law to relate Pluto’s period to its mean distance from the sun.

5 AU × ⎟ AU ⎝ ⎠ 1h 1d 1y = 7. the work is given approximately by W = mgh. Picture the Problem Consider an object of mass m at the surface of Earth.973 × 10 s /m ⎜ 39.864 × 10 9 s × × × = 249 y 3600 s 24 h 365. g. and RE. (c) Show that when h << RE. where 2 g = GME/ R E . (b) Show that when r1 = RE and r2 = RE + h. Using Newton’s 2nd law.97 × 10 24 kg 87 •• The force exerted by Earth on a particle of mass m a distance r 2 2 (r > RE) from the center of Earth has the magnitude mgRE /r .50 × 1011 m ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = 2.37 × 10 6 m ) = 6. relate the weight of an object at the surface of Earth to the gravitational force acting on it: Substitute numerical values and evaluate ME: w = mg = 2 gRE GM E m ⇒ = M E 2 RE G ME 2 ( 9.673 × 10 −11 N ⋅ m 2 /kg 2 = 5. (a) Relate the work you must do to the change in the gravitational potential energy of Earth-particle system: W = −ΔU = − ∫ Fg ⋅ dr r1 r2 = − ∫ Fg dr (cos180°) = ∫ Fg dr r1 r1 r2 r2 . Picture the Problem The work you must do against gravity to move the particle from a distance r1 to r2 is the negative of the change in the particle’s gravitational potential energy. the result 2 can be written as W = mgRE [(1/ R E )− 1/ (R E + h)]. We can relate the weight of this object to the gravitational field of Earth and to the mass of Earth. (a) Calculate the work you must do to move the particle from distance r1 to distance r2.81 N / kg ) (6.Gravity 1161 Substitute numerical values and evaluate TPluto: ⎛ 1.25 d TPluto ( −19 2 3 ) 3 86 • Calculate the mass of Earth using the known values of G.

Find the minimum possible period T of a spacecraft orbiting the moon. We’ll use Newton’s 2nd law to relate the angular speed of the spacecraft to the gravitational force acting on it. Picture the Problem Let m represent the mass of the spacecraft. ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ≈ mgh ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 88 •• The average density of the moon is ρ = 3340 kg/m3. RE for r1.1162 Chapter 11 Substitute for Fg and evaluate the integral to obtain: W = GM E m ∫ r2 ⎛1 1⎞ dr = −GM E m⎜ 2 ⎜r −r ⎟ ⎟ r ⎝ 2 1⎠ r1 ⎛1 1⎞ = GM E m⎜ ⎜r −r ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ 1 2⎠ 2 (b) Substitute gRE for GME. Relate the period of the spacecraft to its angular speed: Using Newton’s 2nd law of motion. and RE + h for r2 to obtain: 1 ⎞ 2⎛ 1 ⎜ W = mgRE ⎜R − R +h⎟ ⎟ E ⎝ E ⎠ (1) (c) Rewrite equation (1) with a common denominator and simplify to obtain: ⎛ ⎜ ⎛ RE ⎞ 2 ⎛ RE + h − RE ⎞ ⎜ 1 W = mgRE ⎜ ⎜ R (R + h ) ⎟ ⎟ = mgh⎜ ⎜ R +h⎟ ⎟ = mgh⎜ h ⎝ E E ⎠ ⎝ E ⎠ ⎜1+ RE ⎝ provided h << RE. From Kepler’s 3rd law we know that its period will be a minimum when it is in orbit just above the surface of the moon. relate the gravitational force acting on the spacecraft when it is in orbit at the surface of the moon to the angular speed of the spacecraft: Solving for ω and simplifying yields: T= 2π (1) GM M m = mRMω 2 2 RM ω = ∑F radial 3 G 4 GM M 3 π ρ RM ω= = 3 3 RM RM ( ) = 4 3 Gπ ρ .

(a) Calculate the ratio of the gravitational acceleration at the surface of the Sun following its collapse compared to its value at the surface of the Sun today.673 ×10 −11 3π = 6503 s = 1 h 48 min N ⋅ m 2 /kg 2 3340 kg/m 3 )( ) 89 •• [SSM] A neutron star is a highly condensed remnant of a massive star in the last phase of its evolution. (a) Express the gravitational force acting on an object of mass m at the surface of the Sun: Solving for ag yields: Fg = mag = GM Sun m 2 RSun ag = GM Sun 2 RSun GM neutron -Sun m 2 Rneutron -Sun (1) The gravitational force acting on an object of mass m at the surface of a neutron-Sun is: Solving for a 'g yields: Fg = ma'g = a'g = GM neutron-Sun 2 Rneutron -Sun (2) . Suppose at the end of its current phase. we can express the ratio of the corresponding expressions for the escape speeds from the two suns to determine their ratio.0 km. It is composed of neutrons (hence the name) because the star’s gravitational force causes electrons and protons to ″coalesce″ into the neutrons.Gravity 1163 Substitute for ω in equation (1) and simplify to obtain: Tmin = 2π = Gπ ρ 3π ρG 4 3 Substitute numerical values and evaluate Tmin: Tmin = (6. Picture the Problem We can apply Newton’s 2nd law and the law of gravity to an object of mass m at the surface of the Sun and the neutron-Sun to find the ratio of the gravitational accelerations at their surfaces. Similarly. (b) Calculate the ratio of the escape speed from the surface of the neutron-Sun to its value today. without losing any mass in the process. the Sun collapsed into a neutron star (it can’t in actuality because it does not have enough mass) of radius 12.

and the probe needs to end up in a circular orbit 4500 km from the neutron-Sun’s center.1164 Chapter 11 Divide equation (2) by equation (1) to obtain: GM neutron -Sun M neutron -Sun 2 2 a'g Rneutron-Sun Rneutron -Sun = = GM Sun M Sun ag 2 2 RSun RSun Because M neutron -Sun = M Sun : a 'g ag = 2 RSun 2 Rneutron -Sun Substitute numerical values and evaluate the ratio a 'g ag : (b) The escape speed from the neutron-Sun is given by: The escape speed from the Sun is given by: Dividing the first of these equations by the second and simplifying yields: Substitute numerical values and evaluate v'e ve : a'g ⎛ 6.96 ×10 8 m = 241 = ve 12. What is that speed and how does it compare to the escape speed at the surface of Earth? Picture the Problem We can apply Newton’s 2nd law to the probe orbiting the Sun to determine its orbital speed.0 × 10 m ⎠ GM neutron -Sun Rneutron-Sun GM Sun RSun RSun Rneutron-Sun 2 v 'e = ve = v'e = ve v 'e 6.96 × 108 m ⎞ ⎟ = 3. Your research team is in charge of sending a probe from Earth to study the transformed Sun. To transport equipment and supplies.0 km as in Problem 89. .36 × 10 9 =⎜ 3 ⎜ ⎟ ag ⎝ 12. (a) Apply Newton’s 2nd law to the probe of mass m in orbit about the Sun: 2 GmM Sun vorbital ∑ Fradial = r 2 = m r where r is the orbital radius. (b) Later on plans call for construction of a permanent spaceport in that same orbit to study the neutron-Sun in great detail. (a) Calculate the orbital speed of the probe. Using the escape-speed equation will allow us to find the escape speed for rockets launched from the spaceport.0 ×10 3 m 90 •• Suppose the Sun could collapse into a neutron star of radius 12. scientists on Earth need you to determine the escape speed for rockets launched from the spaceport (relative to the spaceport) in the direction of the spaceport’s orbital velocity at takeoff time.

99 × 1030 kg = 5. The application of Newton’s 2nd law will relate the orbital speed. A projectile is launched from the moon vertically up at the same initial speed v. How high will it rise? Picture the Problem We can use conservation of energy to establish a relationship between the height h to which the projectile will rise and its initial speed.Earth : vrel to spaceport ve.50 × 10 6 m )( ) = 5.673 × 10 −11 N ⋅ m 2 / kg 2 1.431 × 10 6 m/s 4.25 × 106 m/s )( ) Express the ratio of v rel to spaceport to ve.2 km/s 91 •• A satellite is circling the moon (radius 1700 km) close to the surface at a speed v.25 × 10 6 m/s ≈ 201 11. which is equal to the initial speed of the projectile.Earth = 2.43 × 10 6 m/s (b) The escape speed (relative to the spaceport) for rockets launched from the spaceport is given by: The escape speed at a distance r from the center of the neutron-Sun is given by: Substituting for ve in equation (1) yields: v rel to spaceport = ve − vorbital (1) ve = GM neutron-Sun 2GM neutron -Sun = 2 r r = 2vorbital vrel to spaceport = 2vorbital − vorbital = ( 2 − 1 vorbital ) Substitute numerical values and evaluate v rel to v rel to : spaceport = spaceport ( 2 − 1 5. .Gravity 1165 Solving for vorbital yields: vorbital = GM Sun r Substitute numerical values and evaluate vorbital : v orbital = (6. to the mass and radius of the moon.431× 106 m/s = 2.

(a) The escape speed at a distance r from the center of a spherical object of mass M is given by: Setting ve = c yields: ve = 2GM r c= 2GM 2GM ⇒ RS = RS c2 . Picture the Problem We can use the escape-speed equation. that is. because Kf = 0. One way of thinking about this is to consider a spherical object whose density is so large that the escape speed at its surface is greater than the speed of light c. GM moon m GM moon m 2 −1 + =0 2 mv − Rmoon + h Rmoon Solving for h yields: ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ 1 ⎜ ⎟ h = RM ⎜ − 1⎟ 2 v Rmoon ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 1 − 2GM ⎟ moon ⎝ ⎠ (1) Use Newton’s 2nd law to relate the orbital speed of the satellite to the gravitational force acting on it: Solve for v2 to obtain: ∑ Fradial = v2 = GM M RM GM M m v2 = m 2 RM RM Substitute for v2 in equation (1) and simplify to obtain: ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ 1 ⎟ h = RM ⎜ − 1⎟ = R = 1. the Schwarzchild radius depends only upon the mass of the black hole. calculate the value of the Schwarzchild radius. (a) For a non-rotating black hole.1166 Chapter 11 Use conservation of energy to relate the initial energies of the projectile to its final energy: Kf − Ki + U f − U i = 0 or. Show that it is related to that mass M by RS = 2GM/c2. It turns out that if a star’s radius is smaller than a value called the Schwarzchild radius RS. light originating from its surface cannot escape. then the star will be a black hole. (b) For a black hole whose mass is ten solar masses.70 Mm ⎜1− 1 ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 92 •• Black holes are objects whose gravitational field is so strong that not even light can escape. to derive the expression for the Schwarzchild radius of a non-rotating black hole. with ve = c.

The period of rotation is related to the angular speed of the star system and we can use Newton’s 2nd law of motion to relate this speed to the separation of the stars. show that the period of rotation is related to r by T 2 = G (m1 + m2 ) Picture the Problem Let the origin of our coordinate system be at the center of mass of the binary star system and let the distances of the stars from their center of mass be r1 and r2. Relate the square of the period of the motion of the stars to their angular speed: Using Newton’s 2nd law of motion.673 × 10 −11 N ⋅ m 2 / kg 2 )(1.998 ×10 8 m/s ) 2 = 29.5 km 93 •• In a binary star system. relate the gravitational force acting on the star whose mass is m2 to the angular speed of the system: Solving for ω2 yields: T2 = 4π 2 (1) ω2 Gm1 m2 ∑F radial = (r1 + r2 ) 2 = m2 r2ω 2 ω2 = r2 (r1 + r2 ) Gm1 2 (2) From the definition of the center of mass we have: Eliminate r1 from equations (3) and (4) and solve for r2 to obtain: Eliminate r2 from equations (3) and (4) and solve for r1 to obtain: m1 r1 = m2 r2 where r = r1 + r2 r2 = rm1 m1 + m2 rm2 m1 + m2 (3) (4) r1 = . If the stars have masses m1 and m2 and are separated by a 4π 2 r 3 . two stars follow circular orbits about their common center of mass. distance r.Gravity 1167 (b) For a black hole whose mass is ten solar masses: RS = 2G (10M Sun ) 20GM Sun = c2 c2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate RS: RS = 20(6.99 × 10 30 kg ) (2.

but large is a relative term. Relative to what distance is it large? Picture the Problem Because the two-particle system has zero initial energy and zero initial linear momentum. we can use energy and momentum conservation to obtain simultaneous equations in the variables r. Find their speeds v1 and v2 when their separation distance is r. was first observed in 1781 by William Herschel. the seventh planet in the Solar System. The initial separation distance is given as large. Use conservation of energy to relate the speeds of the particles when their separation distance is r: Ei = E f or 2 2 1 0= 1 2 m1 v1 + 2 m 2 v 2 − Gm1 m2 (1) r Use conservation of linear momentum to obtain a second relationship between the speeds of the particles and their masses: Solve equation (2) for v1 and substitute in equation (1) to obtain: Solve equation (3) for v2: pi = pf or 0 = m1v1 + m2 v 2 (2) 2 ⎞ 2Gm1 m2 m2 2⎛ ⎜ v2 m + ⎜ 2 m ⎟ ⎟= r 1 ⎠ ⎝ (3) v2 = 2Gm12 r (m1 + m2 ) 2 2Gm2 r (m1 + m2 ) Solve equation (2) for v1 and substitute for v2 to obtain: v1 = 95 •• [SSM] Uranus. substitute for ω2 in equation (1) and simplify: ω2 = G (m1 + m2 ) r3 4π 2 4π 2 r 3 T = = G (m1 + m2 ) G (m1 + m2 ) 3 r 2 94 •• Two particles of masses m1 and m2 are released from rest at a large separation distance. Its orbit was then analyzed in terms of .1168 Chapter 11 Substituting for r1 and r2 in equation (2) yields: Finally. v1 and v2. We’ll assume that initial separation distance of the particles and their final separation r is large compared to the size of the particles so that we can treat them as though they are point particles.

Picture the Problem We can use the law of gravity and Kepler’s 3rd law to express the ratio of the gravitational force between Neptune and Uranus to that between Uranus and the Sun.U-S 2 3 TU = CrU (2) 2 3 TN = CrN (3) 2 3 3 ⎛ TN TN CrN rN = = ⇒ rN = rU ⎜ 2 3 3 ⎜T TU CrU rU ⎝ U ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 23 Fg. respectively. The conclusion was that there must be another influence other than the Sun and the known planets lying inside Uranus’s orbit. when Neptune and Uranus are at their closest approach to one another is given by: Applying Kepler’s 3rd law to Uranus yields: Applying Kepler’s 3rd law to Neptune yields: Divide equation (3) by equation (2) to obtain: Substitute for rN in equation (1) to obtain: GM N M U 2 2 ( rN − rU ) M N rU = = (1) GM U M S M S (rN − rU )2 2 rU Fg.Gravity 1169 Kepler’s Laws.0 and 164. respectively.8 years. This influence was hypothesized to be due to an eighth planet. Uranus and Neptune are 333.e. By the 1840’s.1 times that of Earth. observations of Uranus clearly indicated that its true orbit was different from the Keplerian calculation by an amount that could not be accounted for by observational uncertainty. searching in the sky at the place predicted by Adams and LeVerrier. The ratio of the gravitational force between Neptune and Uranus to that between Uranus and the Sun. when aligned with the Sun).000. To see the effect that Neptune had on Uranus. The masses of the Sun. whose predicted orbit was described in 1845 independently by two astronomers: John Adams (no relation to our president) and Urbain LeVerrier. 14. N-U Fg. N-U Fg.U-S = 2 M N rU ⎛ ⎛T N M S ⎜ rU ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ T ⎝ ⎝ U ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 23 ⎞ − rU ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 . John Galle. Uranus and Neptune are in orbit about the Sun with periods of 84. when Neptune and Uranus are at their closest approach to one another (i. when Neptune and Uranus are at their closest approach to one another.5 and 17. made the first observation of Neptune. determine the ratio of the gravitational force between Neptune and Uranus to that between Uranus and the Sun. In September of 1846.

N-U Fg.1170 Chapter 11 Simplifying this expression yields: Fg.1 ⎛ ⎛ 164.8 y ⎞ ⎟ 3.33 × 10 5 M E ⎜ ⎜ ⎜⎜ T ⎝⎝ U ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 23 ⎞ − 1⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 = 17. 2 .5 days). 96 •• It is believed that.33 ×10 5 ⎜ ⎜ ⎜⎜ 84.000ME: Fg.33 × 10 5 ⎜ ⎜ ⎜⎜ T ⎝⎝ U : ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 23 ⎞ − 1⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate Fg.2 years and has a semi-major axis of 5.1 ⎛⎛ T N 3. what is the mass around which the star moves in its Keplerian orbit? Picture the Problem We can apply Kepler’s 3rd law to the orbital motion of the star to find the effective mass around which it is moving. N-U Fg. N-U Fg. at the center of our galaxy. the force exerted on Uranus by Neptune is much less than the force exerted on Uranus by the Sun. One datum that leads to this conclusion is the important recent observation of stellar motion in the vicinity of the galactic center. N-U Fg. during the time at which Neptune is closest to Uranus. is a ″super-massive″ black hole. relate the orbital period of the star to the semimajor axis of its orbit: 4π 2 3 4π 2 a 3 T = a ⇒M = GT 2 GM where M is the mass around which the star moves in its Keplerian orbit.U-S = 17.U-S Fg.1ME and MS = 333.5 light-days (the distance light travels in 5. Using Kepler’s 3rd law.1M E ⎛⎛ T N 3.0 y ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 23 ⎞ − 1⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ≈ 2 ×10 −4 Because this ratio is so small. If one such star moves in an elliptical orbit with a period of 15.U-S = 17.U-S = MN ⎛⎛ T N MS⎜⎜ ⎜⎜ T ⎝⎝ U ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 23 ⎞ − 1⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 Because MN = 17.

434 × 10 36 kg × 1 M Sun = 3. v= Apply Kepler’s 3rd law to express the period of the planets: 4π 2 3 R GM eff where Meff is the effective mass of the four planets. which we can find from its definition. If the mass of each planet is M and the edge length of the square is a.5 d × × 2.7 × 10 6 M Sun 1. what must be their speed if they are to orbit their common center under the influence of their mutual attraction? Picture the Problem We can find the orbital speeds of the planets from their distance from the center of mass of the system and the period of their motion. T= v= Substitute for T in equation (1) to obtain: 2πR 4π R3 GM eff 2 = GM eff R (2) The distance of each planet from the effective mass is: Find Meff from its definition: R= a 2 1 1 1 1 1 = + + + M eff M M M M and M eff = 1 4 M . Application of Kepler’s 3rd law will allow us to express the period of their motion T in terms of the effective mass of the system.434 × 10 36 kg = 7. 2 y × ⎜ y ⎝ 2 3 ( ) s⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 = 7.Gravity 1171 Substitute numerical values and evaluate M: 86400 s ⎛ ⎞ 4π ⎜ 5. Express the orbital speeds of the planets in terms of their period T: 2πR (1) T where R is the distance to the center of mass of the four-planet system.99 × 10 30 kg 97 •• [SSM] Four identical planets are arranged in a square as shown in Figure 11-29.673 × 10 −11 N ⋅ m 2 / kg 2 ⎜ 15 .998 × 10 8 m/s ⎟ d ⎝ ⎠ M= ⎛ 3.156 × 10 7 6.

The work required to lift the particle from the center of Earth to its surface is the line integral of the gravitational force function. will strike the center of Earth. when released from the surface of Earth. and model Earth as a uniform sphere. Ignore Earth’s rotation and any effects due to air resistance. Picture the Problem Let r represent the separation of the particle from the center of Earth and assume a uniform density for Earth. GmM (2) r2 where M is the mass of a sphere whose radius is r.1172 Chapter 11 Substitute for R and Meff in equation (2) and simplify to obtain: v= 2GM 4a 98 •• A hole is drilled from the surface of Earth to its center as in Figure 1130. Fg = 3 ρ 4 r3 M r3 3π r M M = 4 = ⇒ = E 3 3 3 M E ρ 3 π RE RE RE Using the law of gravity. (a) How much work is required to lift a particle of mass m from the center of Earth to Earth’s surface? (b) If the particle is dropped from rest at the surface of Earth. express the force acting on the particle as a function of its distance from the center of Earth: Express the ratio of M to ME and simplify to obtain: Substitute for M in equation (2) to obtain: Substitute for Fg in equation (1) and evaluate the integral: ( ( ) ) Fg = 2 GmM E mgRE mg r = r= r 3 3 RE RE RE W= mg E rdr = RE ∫ 0 R 1 2 gmRE . the energy required for the particle to escape Earth from the center of Earth is the sum of the energy required to get it to the surface of Earth and the kinetic energy it must have to escape from the surface of Earth. Finally. what is its speed when it reaches the center of Earth? (c) What is the escape speed for a particle projected from the center of Earth? Express your answers in terms of m. and RE. This function can be found from the law of gravity and by relating the mass of Earth between the particle and the center of Earth to Earth’s mass. (a) Express the work required to lift the particle from the center of Earth to Earth’s surface: W = ∫ F ⋅ dr = − ∫ Fg ⋅ dr = ∫ Fg dr (1) 0 0 0 R R RE where Fg is the gravitational force acting on the particle. g. We can use the work-kinetic energy theorem to find the speed with which the particle.

R1 < r < R2. Find the gravitational field gr as a function of r for 0 < r < ∞. Sketch a graph of gr versus r. and r > R2. 1 2 2 2 1 gmRE + 1 2 mve = 2 mvesc or.Gravity 1173 (b) Use the work-kinetic energy theorem to relate the kinetic energy of the particle as it reaches the center of Earth to the work done on it in moving it to the surface of Earth: Substituting for W yields: (c) Express the total energy required for the particle to escape when projected from the center of Earth: Substituting for W yields: 2 W = ΔK = 1 2 mv 1 2 2 gmRE = 1 2 mv ⇒ v = gRE 2 2 1 Eesc = W + 1 2 mve = 2 mvesc where ve is the escape speed from the surface of Earth. A thick spherical shell of mass M and uniform density has an inner 99 •• radius R1 and an outer radius R2. For r < R1: g (r < R1 ) = 0 . simplifying. Picture the Problem We need to find the gravitational field in three regions: r < R1. 2 gRE + ve2 = vesc Because ve2 = 2GM : RE gRE + 2GM 2 = vesc RE (3) Apply Newton’s 2nd law to an object of mass m at the surface of Earth to obtain: Substitute for GM/RE in equation (3) to obtain: mg = GMm GM ⇒ = gRE 2 RE RE 2 ⇒ vesc = gRE + 2 gRE = vesc 3 gRE Remarks: This escape speed is approximately 122% of the escape speed from the surface of Earth.

g(r) is determined by the mass within the shell of radius r: Express the density of the spherical shell: Substitute for ρ in equation (2) and simplify to obtain: Substitute for m in equation (1) to obtain: GM r2 g (r > R2 ) = Gm r2 3 3 where m = 4 3 πρ r − R1 g (R1 < r < R2 ) = (1) ( ) (2) ρ= M M = 4 3 3 V 3 π R2 − R1 ( ) M r 3 − R13 m= 3 R2 − R13 g (r ) = ( ) GM r 3 − R13 3 r 2 R2 − R13 ( ( ) ) A graph of gr with R1 = 2.08 g r 0.04 0. g(r) is the field due to the thick spherical shell of mass M centered at the origin: For R1 < r < R2.00 0 1 2 3 4 r 5 6 7 8 100 •• (a) A thin uniform ring of mass M and radius R lies in the x = 0 plane and is centered at the origin.1174 Chapter 11 For r > R2. on the axis is the magnitude of gx a maximum? .10 0.02 0. Sketch a plot of the gravitational field gx versus x for all points on the x axis. and GM = 1 follows: 0. (b) At what point.06 0. or points.12 0. R2 = 3.

dg = Gλ dL R2 + x2 Gλ dL cosθ R2 + x2 By symmetry. We can express the x component of dg and then integrate over the circumference of the ring to find the total field as a function of x. Choose a coordinate system in which the origin is at the center of the ring and x axis is as shown. The x component of dg is: Refer to the figure to obtain: dg x = dg cosθ = cosθ = x R2 + x2 Substituting for cosθ yields: dg x = Gλ dL R2 + x2 x R +x 2 2 = (R Gλ xdL 2 + x2 ) 3/ 2 Because λ = M : 2π R dg x = GM xdL 2π R R 2 + x 2 ( ) 3/ 2 . the y and z components of g vanish. An element of length dL and mass dm is responsible for the field dg at a distance x from the center of the ring.Gravity 1175 Picture the Problem A ring of radius R is shown to the right. (a) Express the differential gravitational field at a distance x from the center of the ring in terms of the mass of an elemental segment of length dL: Relate the mass of the element to its length: Substitute for dm to obtain: dg = Gdm R2 + x2 dm = λ dL where λ is the linear density of the ring.

**1176 Chapter 11 Integrate to find g(x):
**

g (x ) = =

2π R R 2 + x 2

(

GM x

dL ) ∫

3/ 2 0

2πR

(R

GM

2

+ x2

)

3/ 2

x

**A graph of gx follows. The curve is normalized with R = 1 and GM = 1.
**

0.40 0.35 0.30 0.25

g x 0.20

0.15 0.10 0.05 0.00 0 1 2 3 4

x

(b) Differentiate g(x) with respect to x and set the derivative equal to zero to identify extreme values: ⎡ x 2 + R 2 3 / 2 − x( 3 ) 2 dg 2 x + R2 = GM ⎢ 2 2 3 dx R +x ⎢ ⎣

(

(

)

)

(

) (2 x )⎥ = 0 for extrema

1/ 2

⎤ ⎥ ⎦

Simplify to obtain: Solving for x yields:

(x

2

+ R2

)

3/ 2

− 3x 2 x 2 + R 2

(

)

1/ 2

=0

x= ±

R

2

Because the curve is concave downward, we can conclude that this result corresponds to a maximum. Note that this result agrees with our graphical maximum.

101 ••• Find the magnitude of the gravitational field a distance r from an infinitely long uniform thin rod whose mass per unit length is λ. Picture the Problem The diagram shows a segment of the wire of length dx and mass dm = λdx at a distance x from the origin of our coordinate system. We can

Gravity 1177 find the magnitude of the gravitational field at a distance r from the wire from the resultant gravitational force acting on a particle of mass m′ located at point P and then integrating over the length of the wire.

0 x dx dm = λ dx

x

2

r

r dF

θ

P

+r

2

Express the gravitational force acting on a particle of mass m′ at a distance r from the wire due to the segment of the wire of length dx: Using Newton’s law of gravity, express dF:

dF = m'dg or dg =

dF m'

Gm'λdx R2 or, because R 2 = x 2 + r 2 , Gm'λdx dF = 2 2 x +r dF = dg = Gλdx x2 + r 2

Substitute and simplify to express the gravitational field due to the segment of the wire of length dx: By symmetry, the segment on the opposite side of the origin at the same distance from the origin will cancel out all but the radial component of the field, so the gravitational field will be given by:

dg =

Gλdx cos θ x2 + r 2 Gλdx r = 2 2 2 x +r x + r2 Gλr = dx 32 2 x + r2

(

)

**Integrate dg from x′ = −∞ to x′ = +∞ to obtain:
**

∞

g=

−∞

∫ (x' + r )

2

Gλr

2 3/ 2

dx' = 2Gλ ∫

0

∞

(

⎤ 2Gλ ⎡ 2Gλ x = dx' = ⎢ ⎥ 2 2 3/ 2 r ⎣ x'2 + r 2 ⎦ 0 r x' + r r

∞

)

102 ••• One question in early planetary science was whether each of the rings of Saturn was solid or was, instead, composed of individual chunks, each in its own orbit. There was a simple ring speed observation that resolved this issue. Here was the idea: astronomers would measure the speed of the inner and outer portion of the ring. If the inner portion of the ring moved more slowly than the outer portion, then the ring was solid; if the opposite was true, then it was actually

1178 Chapter 11 composed of separate chunks. Let’s see how this results from a theoretical viewpoint. Let the radial width of a given ring (there are many) be Δr, the average distance of that ring from the center of Saturn be represented by R, and designate the average speed of that ring by vavg . (a) If the ring is solid, show that the difference in speed between its outermost and innermost portions, Δv, is given by Δr the approximate expression Δv = v out − vin ≈ v avg . Here, vout is the speed of the R outermost portion of the ring, vin is the speed of the innermost portion. (b) If, however, the ring is composed of many small chunks, show that 1 Δr ⎞ Δv ≈ − ⎛ v . (Assume that Δr << R.) avg 2⎝ R⎠

Picture the Problem We can use the relationship between the angular speed of an orbiting object and its tangential velocity to express the speeds vin and vout of the innermost and outermost portions of the ring. In Part (b) we can use Newton’s law of gravity, in conjunction with the 2nd law of motion, to relate the tangential speed of a chunk of the ring to the gravitational force acting on it. As in Part (a), once we know vin and vout, we can express the difference between them to obtain the desired results.

(a) The difference between vout and vin is: The speed of a point in the ring at the average distance R from the center of Saturn under the assumption that the ring is solid and rotates with an angular speed ω is given by: Express the speeds vin and vout of the innermost and outermost portions of the ring: Substituting for vin and vout in equation (1) and simplifying yields: (b) Assume that a chunk of the ring is moving in a circular orbit around the center of Saturn under the force of gravity and apply Newton’s 2nd law to obtain:

**Δv = vout − vin
**

v(R ) = ωR

(1)

**vin = (R − 1 2 Δr )ω and vout = (R + 1 2 Δr )ω
**

1 Δv = (R + 1 2 Δr )ω − (R − 2 Δr )ω

= ω Δr =

vavg R

Δr = vavg

Δr R

GMm v2 GM ⇒v = = m radial 2 R' R' R' where M is the mass of Saturn and R' the distance from its center.

∑F

=

(b) Integrate your result for Part (a) over the length of the rod to find the total potential energy for the system. (a) Show that the potential energy shared by an element of the rod of mass dm (shown in Figure 11-14) and the point particle of mass m0 located at x0 ≥ 1 2 L is given by Gm0 dm GMm0 dU = − = dxs x 0 − xs L ( x 0 − xs ) where U = 0 at x0 = ∞. for vin: vin ≈ GM ⎛ 1 Δr ⎞ ⎜1 + ⎟ R ⎝ 4 R⎠ Express the difference between vout and vin and simplify to obtain: Δv = vout − vin ≈ GM : R GM ⎛ 1 Δr ⎞ GM ⎛ 1 Δr ⎞ GM ⎛ 1 Δr ⎞ ⎜1 − ⎟− ⎜1 + ⎟= ⎜− ⎟ R ⎝ 4 R⎠ R ⎝ 4 R⎠ R ⎝ 2 R⎠ 1⎛ Δr ⎞ Δv ≈ − ⎜ vavg ⎟ 2⎝ R⎠ Because vavg = 103 ••• [SSM] In this problem you are to find the gravitational potential energy of the thin rod in Example 11-8 and a point particle of mass m0 that is on the x axis at x = x0. (c) Compute the force on m0 at a general point x using Fx = –dU/dx and compare your result with m0g. Picture the Problem Let U = 0 at x = ∞. . discarding higher-order terms.Gravity 1179 Express vout by substituting for R+ 1 2 Δr for R' and simplifying: vout = GM = R+ 1 2 Δr GM ⎛ 1 Δr ⎞ R ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ 2 R⎠ −1 2 GM ⎛ 1 Δr ⎞ = ⎜1 + ⎟ R ⎝ 2 R⎠ ⎛ 1 Δr ⎞ Expanding ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ 2 R⎠ binomially. Generalize your function U(x0) to any place on the x axis in the region x > L/2 by replacing x0 by a general coordinate x and write it as U(x). where g is the field at x0 calculated in Example 11-8. The potential energy of an element of the stick dm and the point mass m0 is given by the definition of gravitational potential energy: dU = − Gm0 dm r where r is the separation of dm and m0. and simplifying yields: −1 2 vout = GM R ⎛ 1 ⎛ 1 Δr ⎞ ⎜ ⎜1 − 2 ⎜ 2 R ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ + higher order terms ) ≈ GM ⎛ 1 Δr ⎞ ⎜1 − ⎟ R ⎝ 4 R⎠ Proceed similarly to obtain.

. We can find the total gravitational force of attraction experienced by the rod by integrating dF from x = a to x = a + L. 104 ••• A uniform sphere of mass M is located near a thin. Find the gravitational force of attraction exerted by the sphere on the rod. uniform rod of mass m and length L as in Figure 11-31.1180 Chapter 11 (a) Express the potential energy of the masses m0 and dm: The mass dm is proportional to the size of the element dxs : dU = − Gm0 dm x 0 − xs dm = λ dxs where λ = M . L Substitute for dm and λ to express dU in terms of xs: dU = − Gm0 λ dxs GMm0 dxs = − x 0 − xs L ( x 0 − xs ) (b) Integrate dU to find the total potential energy of the system: U =− GMm0 L dxs GMm0 = x − xs L −L / 2 0 L/2 ∫ ⎡ ⎛ L⎞ L ⎞⎤ ⎛ ⎢ln⎜ x0 − 2 ⎟ − ln⎜ x0 + 2 ⎟⎥ ⎠⎦ ⎠ ⎝ ⎣ ⎝ = − GMm0 ⎛ x0 + L 2 ⎞ ln⎜ ⎟ ⎜ x −L 2⎟ L ⎠ ⎝ 0 (c) Because x0 is a general point along the x axis: ⎤ ⎡ dU GMm0 ⎢ 1 1 ⎥ F ( x0 ) = − = − ⎢ L L⎥ dx0 L ⎢ x0 + x0 − ⎥ 2 2⎦ ⎣ Further simplification yields: F ( x0 ) = − Gmm0 x 2 − L2 4 This answer and the answer given in Example 11-8 are the same. Picture the Problem Choose a mass element dm of the rod of thickness dx at a distance x from the origin. All such elements of the rod experience a gravitational force dF due to presence of the sphere centered at the origin.

We’ll first find dFx and then integrate over θ from −π/2 to π/2.10-kg point mass located at the center of curvature of the circular arc? Picture the Problem The semicircular rod is shown in the figure. We’ll use an element of length Rdθ = (L π )dθ whose mass dM is (M π )dθ . Fy = 0.673 × 10−11 N ⋅ m 2 /kg 2 (20 kg )(0.Gravity 1181 Express the gravitational force dF acting on the element of the rod of mass dm: Express dm in terms of the mass m and length L of the rod: Substitute for dm to obtain: dF = GMdm x2 dm = m dx L GMm dx L x2 a+ L dF = Integrate dF from x = a to x = a + L to find the total gravitational force acting on the rod: GMm F= L = GMm ⎡ 1 ⎤ x dx = − ∫ L ⎢ ⎣x⎥ ⎦a a −2 a+ L GMm a(a + L ) 105 ••• A thin uniform 20-kg rod with a length equal to 5. What is the gravitational force exerted by the rod on a 0.0 m is bent into a semicircle.0 m )2 ( ) .10 kg ) = 34 pN (5. Express dFx: dFx = GmdM GMm = dθ cosθ 2 2 R ⎛L⎞ π⎜ ⎟ ⎝π ⎠ Integrate dFx over θ from −π/2 to π/2: Fx = π GMm π / 2 2π GMm cos θ dθ = 2 ∫ L L2 −π / 2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate Fx: Fx = 2π 6. By symmetry.

the elongation of the liquid water of the oceans causing two opposite high and two opposite low spots) is caused by the difference in gravitational force on the oceans from one side of Earth to the other. (b) Even though the Sun exerts a much greater force on the oceans than does the moon. Calculate this ratio. is the main cause of the tidal stretching of the oceans on Earth? Picture the Problem We can begin by expressing the forces exerted by the Sun and the moon on a body of water of mass m and taking the ratio of these forces. Here Ms and Mm represent the masses of the Sun and moon and rs and rm are the distances of the particle from Earth to the Sun and Earth to the moon.50 × 1011 m = 177 ( ( )( )( ) ) 2 2 (b) Find dF : dr dF 2Gm1m2 F =− = −2 3 dr r r . Evaluate this ratio numerically.84 × 108 m = Fm 7. (a) Express the force exerted by the sun on a body of water of mass m: Express the force exerted by the moon on a body of water of mass m: Divide the first of these equations by the second and simplify to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate this ratio: FS = GM S m rS2 GM m m 2 rm Fm = 2 FS M S rm = Fm M m rS2 FS 1.36 × 1022 kg 1. the ratio of the differential gravitational force exerted by the Sun to the differential gravitational force exerted by the moon on Earth’s oceans is given by 3 3 ΔFs / Δ Fm ≈ (M s rm )/ (M m rs ). the moon or the Sun. causing tides.1182 Chapter 11 106 ••• Both the Sun and the moon exert gravitational forces on the oceans of Earth. respectively. Show that for a small difference in distance compared to the average distance. (a) Show that the ratio of the force exerted on a point particle on the surface of Earth by the Sun to that exerted by the moon is 2 2 M s rm / M m rs . In (b) we’ll simply follow the given directions and in (c) we can approximate differential quantities with finite quantities to establish the given ratio. Differentiate the expression F = G m1m2/r2 to calculate the change in F due to a small change in r.99 × 1030 kg 3. What is your conclusion? Which object. (c) The oceanic tidal bulge (that is. Show that dF/F = (–2 dr)/r. the moon has a greater effect on the tides because it is the difference in the force from one side of Earth to the other that is important.

one always above the other). (See Problems 105 and 106 for hints. you are concerned that the communication between the two probes. The robotic probes are linked together by a 1. (a) Outline your briefing session to the mission commander and explain the existence of a ″stretching force″ that will try to pull the robots apart as they fall toward the planet.50 × 1011 m = 0. but the star’s diameter is only 10 km. As the Chief of Materials Engineering on the ship. 107 ••• United Federation Starship Excelsior is dropping two small robotic probes towards the surface of a neutron star for exploration.0-m-long steel cord (which includes communication lines between the two probes).454 ( ( )( )( ) ) 3 3 Because the ratio of the forces is less than one. a crucial aspect of the mission. and are dropped vertically (that is.99 × 1030 kg 3.84 × 108 m = ΔFm 7. will not survive.Gravity 1183 Solve for the ratio dF : F dF dr = −2 F r (c) Express the change in force ΔF for a small change in distance Δr: Express ΔFS : ΔF = −2 F Δr r GmM S rS2 GmM S ΔFS = −2 ΔrS = −2 ΔrS rS rS3 ΔFm = −2 GmM m Δrm 3 rm Express ΔFm : Divide the first of these equations by the second and simplify: MS ΔrS M r 3 Δr ΔFS rS3 = = S m3 S M m rS Δrm ΔFm M m Δr m 3 rm 3 ΔFS M S rm = ΔFm M m rS3 Because ΔrS = 1: Δrm Substitute numerical values and evaluate this ratio: ΔFS 1. The mass of the star is the same as that of the Sun.) (b) Assume that the cord in use has a breaking tension of 25 kN and that the robots each have a mass . the moon is the main cause of the tidal stretching of the oceans on Earth.36 × 1022 kg 1. The ship hovers at rest above the star’s surface.

use Newton’s law of gravity to express the difference in the forces acting on the robots: Ftide = GM NS m GM NS m − r2 (r + Δr )2 ⎤ ⎡ ⎥ ⎢ 1 1 ⎥ ⎢ = GM NS m 2 − 2 ⎢r ⎛ Δr ⎞ ⎥ r 2 ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎥ ⎢ r ⎠ ⎦ ⎝ ⎣ = −2 GM NS m ⎡ ⎛ Δr ⎞ ⎤ − + 1 1 ⎟ ⎥ ⎢ ⎜ r2 ⎢ r ⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎝ ⎦ −2 Expand the expression in the square brackets binomially and simplify to obtain: ⎛ Δr ⎞ 1 − ⎜1 + ⎟ r ⎠ ⎝ Δr ⎞ ⎛ ≈ 1 − ⎜1 − 2 ⎟ r ⎠ ⎝ Δr =2 r Substituting yields: Ftide ≈ 2GM NS m Δr r3 Letting FB be the breaking tension of the cord. (b) Letting the separation of the two robots be Δr.0 m ) = 2.2 ×105 m r= 25 kN 3 ( )( ) . and the distance from the center of the star to the lower robot be r.0 kg.673 ×10 −11 N ⋅ m 2 /kg 2 1. so if it were not for the cable its acceleration would be greater than that of the upper robot and they would separate. In opposing this separation the cable is stressed. Expanding the expression for the force on the robot further from the neutron star binomially will lead us to an expression for the distance at which the breaking tension in the connecting cord will be exceeded. How close will the robots be to the surface of the star before the cord breaks? Picture the Problem Let MNS be the mass of the neutron star and m the mass of each robot.0 kg ) (1.99 × 1030 kg (1.1184 Chapter 11 of 1. substitute for Ftide and solve for the value of r corresponding to the breaking strain being exceeded: r=3 2GM NS m Δr FB Substitute numerical values and evaluate r: 2 6. (a) The gravitational force is greater on the lower robot. We can use Newton’s law of gravity to express the difference in the tidal-like forces acting on the coupled robots.

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