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Glossary of Maritime Law en-fr-De-sp

Glossary of Maritime Law en-fr-De-sp

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Glossary of Maritime Law Terms, 2nd Ed.

, 2004
Glossary of Maritime Law Terms, 2nd Ed., 2004 McGill University

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A.A.A. - The American Arbitration Association. Corporate Headquarters and Customer Service Centre, Email: Websitemail@adr.or . !nternational Center "or #ispute $esolution, Email: mailto:Appel%@adr.or Website: http:&&'''.adr.or & A.A.A. - See Association of Average Adj sters (infra). A!andonment *+r.: ,délaissement,- *Span.: ,abandono,- *!tal.: ,abbandono,- *.r.: ,Abandonnierung,/ ,Aufgabe eines Rechtsanspruches,- - Abandonment is the ivin up b0 the insured o" the proprietar0 ri hts in insured propert0 to the under'riter in consideration "or pa0ment o" a constr ctive total loss (infra) or an act al total loss (infra). See Marine "ns rance Act, #$0% (1.2.) sects. 34-35/ see also &otice of a!andonment (infra). See Tetle0, !nt6l %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at p.349. Abandonment (,abandon,) is also the ancient principle o" a shipo'ner havin responsibilit0 onl0 up to the value o" the ship and freig't (infra) (but calculated a"ter the collision (infra)). The principle 'as "ound in the 4;9< Shipo'ners6 8imitation Convention and is still "ound in the 1.S. Shipowners' Limitation of Liability Act, 4=>4, <3 1.S. Code 5:>:>(a) ("ormerl0 <3 1.S. Code App?. 4=5). See Tetle0, !nt6l. C. o" 8., 4;;< at pp. >4:->44, >4@->4=/ Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. 4:;-44:/ Tetle0, Int'l. M A. L., 9::5 at pp. 9:-94. A!!ott, ('arles )Lord Tenterden* - A !reatise on the Law relati"e to Merchant Ships and Seamen, 4 Ed., 4=:9, 8ondon and 4< Ed.(A. Aspinall 7 H.S. %oore, eds.), 4;:4, Sha', 8ondon. A!ecassis, +.,. - Marine #il $ollution% the International Legal Regime relating to the $re"ention of Marine&based #il $ollution, 4;@3, 1niversit0 o" Cambrid e #epartment o" 8and Econom0, Cambrid e. -A! s de droit- - *Span.: ,abuso de derecho,- *!tal.: ,abuso di diritto,- *.r.: ,Rechtsmi'brauch,-A civil law principle o" abuse o" ri ht due to a "la rant act o" a creditor or the possessor o" a thin . See Tetle0, !nt6l. C. o" 8., 4;;< at p. 3@>/ Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at Chap. 9=, pp. 4:>5-4:=;/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at p. ><. Acevedo, (... / +0as, A.+. - #erecho del Transporte (9 vols.), 9::9, Editorial 8ibromar 8tda., Balparaiso, Chile. "Acta jure gestionis" - ,Acts b0 ri ht o" mana ement,. Activities o" a commercial nature carried out b0 a "orei n State or one o" its subdivisions or a encies, 'hich acts are not immune "rom the j risdiction (infra) and process o" local courts under the modern doctrine o" restrictive foreign sovereign imm nity (infra). See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. 4435 and 44=</ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at p. <<4. 4

"Acta jure imperii" - ,Acts b0 ri ht o" dominion,. Activities o" a overnmental or public nature carried out b0 a "orei n State or one o" its subdivisions, 'hich quali"0 "or State immunit0 under the modern doctrine o" restrictive foreign sovereign imm nity (infra). See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. 4435 and 44=</ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at p. <<4. Action in personam - See ,rit in personam, infra. Action in rem - See ,rit in rem, infra. Act al fa lt or 1rivity *+r.: ,faute ou complicité réelle,- *Span.:,falta o complicidad real,- *!tal.: ,colpa o conni"en(a reale,- *.r.: ,tats)chliches *erschulden,- - A "ault0 act or omission o" a part0, or his Cno'led e o" or complicit0 'ith the "ault0 act or omission o" another "or 'hose conduct he is responsible. 1nder the 2ag e and 2ag e34is!y 5 les (infra), the carrier (infra) 'ishin to avail himsel" o" the e?ception "rom liabilit0 provided b0 art. <(9)(q) must prove that the loss or dama e has occurred 'ithout his actual "ault or privit0 or the "ault or ne lect o" his servants or a ents. See also (6G7A (see infra) s. <(9)(q) (<3 1.S. Code App?. 45:<). (Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at pp. >4>->9<.) Similarl0, under the !nternational Convention $elatin to the 8imitation o" the 8iabilit0 o" D'ners o" Sea oin Ships o" Dct. 9:, 4;>@ (the Limitation (onvention #$89, infra) art. 4(4), and national le islation based on that Convention, the o'ner o" a sea oin ship ma0 limit his liabilit0 in respect o" certain claims, ,unless the occurrence ivin rise to the claim resulted "rom *his- actual "ault or privit0,. The equivalent term in the American Shipo'ners6 8imitation o" 8iabilit0 Act o" 4=>4 is , 1rivity or :nowledge, (infra). See <3 1.S. Code 5:>:>(b) ("ormerl0 <3 1.S. Code 4=5(a). See Tetle0, !nt6l C. o" 8., 4;;< at pp. >44, >4@/ Tetle0, !nt6l. %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at pp. 9=<-9=3. Act al Total Loss *+r.: ,perte totale réelle, or ,perte totale et réelle,- *Span.: ,pérdida total real,*!tal.: ,perdita totale reale,- *.r.: ,tats)chlicher !otalschaden,- - An actual total loss occurs 'hen: (4) the insured propert0 is completel0 destro0ed/ or (9) the assured is irretrievabl0 deprived o" the insured propert0/ or (5) car o chan es in character so that it is no lon er the thin that 'as insured (e. . cement becomes concrete)/ or (<) a ship is posted ,missin , at 8lo0d6s, in 'hich case both the ship and its car o are deemed to be an actual total loss. See Marine "ns rance Act, #$0% (1.2.) sect. >@. See Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. 3:33:3. -Ad 4alorem- - ,accordin to value,. +or e?ample, an ad "alorem "rei ht rate is one based on the value o" the car o, rather than on its 'ei ht or its cubic measurement. Admiralty and Maritime Law G ide - An American 'ebsite "eaturin annotated linCs to 1.S. admiralt0 case di ests, opinions and international maritime conventions. Websit: http:&&'''.admiralt0la' uide.com& AdmiraltyLaw.com- A Canadian maritime and admiralt0 la' 'ebsite, 'ith man0 linCs to other sites, maintained b0 Chris .iaschi o" .iaschi 7 %ar olis, Bancouver, Aritish Columbia, Canada. Website: http:&&'''.admiralt0la'.com&. -A+M"5ALT;<56=7- - An Email subscription list "or pro"essors o" admiralt0 and maritime la' and others interested in the discipline, includin practicin la'0ers and those stud0in or participatin in shipborne transportation and commerce, the la' o" the sea, the e?ploitation or conservation o" marine resources, and marine archaeolo 0. Contact: Eohn Faul Eones, The T.C. Williams School o" 8a', 1niversit0 o" $ichmond, $ichmond, Bir inia 954@5, 1.S.A. Tel.: (=:<) 9=;-=944/ "a?: (=:<) 9=;-=3=5. Email: GGones@richmond.edu.

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Admiralty 7olicitors Gro 1 - The Cit0 o" 8ondon Admiralt0 Solicitors .roup ( enerall0 Cno'n as the ,Admiralt0 Solicitors .roup,) is an or aniHation devoted to promotin hi h standards in the practice o" maritime la' in 8ondon and to promotin the arbitration and mediation o" maritime la' disputes there. !t also publishes various standard-"orm documents used b0 maritime la' practitioners, particularl0 in collision and salva e cases. Website: http:&&'''.admiralt0solicitors roup.com&main.htm. Affreig'tment *+r.: ,affr+tement,*Span.: ,fletamento,*!tal.: ,noleggio,*.r.:,Seefrachtgesch)ft,- - !n civil law j risdictions, ,a""rei htment, re"ers to a contract "or the charterin o" a ship or some principal part o" it. !n En land, the term is used to re"er to the contract "or the carria e o" oods in a ship, either under a !ill of lading (infra) or a c'arter1arty (infra). (Tetle0, Int'l C. of L., 4;;< at p. 9<= note @/ Tetle0, !nt6l %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at p. 49= note 9=). Allision - Allision is a primaril0 American term "or collision (infra) o" a ship 'ith a "i?ed obGect, not a ship. See In re Superior Constr. Co., <<> +.5d 455< at 4553, note 4, 9::3 A%C 4:5= at p. 4:5;, note 4 (44 Cir. 9::3). AMA( - See Association of Maritime Ar!itrators of (anada (infra). AM( - American %aritime Cases, Aaltimore, %ar0land. %aritime la' decisions o" American "ederal and state courts since 4;95. An e?ample o" a citation "or a #istrict Court is 4;@: A%C 495 (S.#. +la. 4;3;), "or the Court o" Appeals is 4;=3 A%C 445: (9 Cir. 4;=>) and "or the 1.S. Supreme Court is 4;>5 A%C 494: (1.S.). Address: %r. %art0 2appert, American %aritime Cases, !nc., 53:: Clipper %ill $oad, Suite 9:=, Aaltimore, %#, 94944, 1.S.A. Tel: (<4:)-9<5-9<93/ +a?: (<4:)-9<5-9<9@. Email: amcrptr@mindsprin .com. Website: http:&&'''.americanmaritimecases.com&. Am!rose, (. / Ma>well, ?., London Maritime Arbitration, 9 Ed., 9::9, 88F, 8ondon. American Maritime (ases - See AM( (supra). American 5 le - The eneral rule o" American practice 'hich precludes inclusion o" attorne06s "ees in court costs. The American $ule dates bacC to the American $evolution, 'hen, in the name o" basic "reedom, the revolutionaries reacted a ainst the Aritish practice o" includin enerous barrister6s and solicitor6s "ees in court costs. See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. 95<-95>. -Amia!les com1osite rs- *Span.: ,amigables componedores,- *!tal.: ,compositori amiche"oli,*.r.: ,Schiedsrichter,- - Clauses in ar!itration (infra) a reements allo'in the arbitrators to act as ,amiables compositeurs, permit the arbitrators to decide the dispute accordin to the le al principles the0 believe to be Gust, 'ithout bein limited to an0 particular national la'. The resultin ar!itral awards are "requentl0 based on e@ ity (infra) or on the le> mercatoria (infra), the arbitrators bein authoriHed, as ,amiables compositeurs,, to disre ard le al technicalities and strict constructions 'hich the0 'ould be required to appl0 in their decisions i" the arbitration a reement contained no ,amiable compositeur, clause. ,Amiable compositeur, clauses in arbitration a reements are e?pressl0 permitted b0 art. 9=(5) o" the U&("T5AL Model Law on "nternational (ommercial Ar!itration #$A8 (infra), as 'ell as in both domestic and international arbitration b0 the Ie' Code o" Civil Frocedure (+rance), arts. 4<@< and 4<;>, and the JuKbec Code o" Civil Frocedure, art. ;<<.4:. !n common law j risdictions, conversel0, ,equit0 clauses, o" an0 sort are o"ten re arded as suspect. See Tetle0, Int'l. C. of L., 4;;< at pp. 43:, <4</ Tetle0, ,The .eneral %aritime 8a' - The 8e? %aritima, (4;;<) 9: S0racuse E. !nt. 8. 7 Comm. 4:>-4<> at pp. 45@-45=/ reprinted in *4;;3- ET8 <3;->:3 at pp. <;;->::. Anand, 5.<. - #rigin and ,e"elopment of the Law of the Sea, 4;=9, IiGho"", The Ha ue and Aoston. 5

Anderson, <'ili1 - ISM Code% A -uide to the Legal and Insurance Implications , 9nd edition, 9::>, !n"orma Fublishin , 8ondon. AntiBfo ling 7ystems )A=7* (onvention 200# - The !nternational Convention on the Control o" Harm"ul Anti-"oulin S0stems on Ships, adopted b0 the "M6 (infra) on Dctober >, 9::4, not 0et in "orce. AntiBs it inj nction - An e?traordinar0 procedure 'here a court issues an order to the e""ect that proceedin s in a second j risdiction should not proceed. The inGunction is usuall0 4) based on the principle o" forum non conveniens (infra)/ and requires 9) that the "irst court is more convenient to the parties/ 5) a motion o" forum non con"eniens has been made in the second j risdiction and has "ailed/ and <) that the complainant 'ill not be undul0 disadvanta ed b0 proceedin in the "irst j risdiction. E?amples o" the inGunction are cases 'here real (immoveable) propert0 in the "irst j risdiction is involved or 'here there is a j risdiction cla se or ar!itration cla se callin "or proceedin s in the "irst j risdiction or 'here a la' o" the "irst j risdiction speci"icall0 "orbids suit on a certain subGect, e. . claims "or dama es caused b0 asbestos produced in the "irst j risdiction. See Amchem $roducts v. ..C. /or0ers Compensation .oard *4;;5- 4 S.C.$. =;@, (4;;5) 4:9 #.8.$. (<th) ;3/ #pron Inc. v. Aero Systems 1ngineering, *4;;;- $.E.J. @>@ (Juebec Superior Court)/ ,onohue v. Armco Inc. *9::9- 4 8lo0d6s $ep. <9> (H.8.). See Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. <4<-<4>. The Court o" Eustice o" the European Communities, in !urner v. -ro"it *9::<- 9 8lo0d6s 43; (E.C.E.), Case Io. C4>;&:9, held that the .r ssels (onvention #$%A on Eurisdiction and the En"orcement o" Eud ments in Civil and Commercial %atters is to be interpreted as precludin the rant o" an inGunction 'hereb0 a court o" a Contractin State o" that Convention prohibits a part0 to proceedin s pendin be"ore it "rom commencin or continuin le al proceedin s be"ore a court o" another Contractin State, even 'here that part0 is actin in bad "aith 'ith a vie' to "rustratin the e?istin proceedin s. I.A.: !n consequence, En lish courts ma0 no lon er issue anti-suit inGunctions to prohibit proceedin s in courts o" other %ember States o" the E ro1ean Union. Anton <iller 6rder - (Also re"erred to as Anton Fillar Drder) An e? parte inGunction used in 1.2. and Aritish Common'ealth j risdictions, 'hereb0 the court authoriHes a part0 to a civil action to enter and search premises and to inspect, photo raph and&or remove propert0 speci"ied in the order 'hich ma0 be the subGect-matter o", or be evidence in, the action. The order is onl0 ranted in e?ceptional circumstances. The name is derived "rom the En lish Court o" Appeal6s decision in Anton $iller 2- v. Manufacturing $rocesses Ltd. *4;@3- Ch. >>. See %artin #ocCra0, Anton $iller #rders, Watson Hill, 8ondon, 4;;9/ Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. 4:99-4:9>. Statutor0 authorit0 "or the Anton Filler order 'as provided in the United ?ingdom b0 the Ci"il $rocedure Act 3445, 1.2. 4;;@, c.49, sect. @, and the order is no' re"erred to in the U.?. as a ,searc' order,. The speci"ic rules on the issuance, service and e?ecution o" ,search orders, are provided in the U.?. b0 the Civil Frocedure $ules 4;;= (S.!. 4;;=&5459), in "orce April 93, 4;;;, Fart 9> (!nterim $emedies and Securit0 "or Costs) at $ule 9>.4(4)(h) and Fractice #irection Fart 9> (!nterim !nGunctions) at paras. @.4 to @.>(45). +or a Canadian e?ample o" an Anton Filler Drder, see 6intendo of America7 Inc. v. Coine8 *ideo -ames Inc. *4;=5- 9 +.C. 4=; (+ed. Ct. o" App.). See also $ule 5@@ o" the +ederal Court $ules, 4;;=, SD$ ;=&4:3, on motions "or the preservation o" propert0. See also Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at p. <43. An ario de +erec'o Mar0timo - An annual Spanish-lan ua e periodical dealin 'ith maritime la' and the la' o" the sea since 4;=4, edited b0 !. Arro0o %artLneH. Email: ramos0arro0o@bcn.servicom.es. The periodical has been published since 4;=5 b0 8ibrerLa Aosch in Aarcelona, Spain. Website: http:&&'''.libreriabosch.com&. Email: in"o@libreriabosch.es. A11raisement - The evaluation o" a ship b0 a quali"ied, court-appointed evaluator be"ore its Gudicial sale. This practice permits the court to maCe an in"ormed Gud ment as to 'hether the Gudicial sale price is "air and proper. See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. 44:>-44:3. <

Ar!itral award - The decision reached b0 arbitrators in an ar!itration (infra). Ar!itral tri! nal - The panel o" arbitrators or the sin le arbitrator char ed 'ith hearin and renderin an ar!itral award (supra) in order to decide an ar!itration (infra). Ar!itration - The settlin o" disputes bet'een parties 'ho a ree not to o be"ore courts, but rather to accept as "inal the decision o" e?perts o" their choice, in a place o" their choice, usuall0 subGect to la's a reed upon in advance and usuall0 under rules 'hich avoid much o" the "ormalit0, niceties, proo" and procedure required b0 the courts. See Tetle0, Int'l. C. of L., 4;;< at pp. 5=;-<4;/ !nt6l %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at pp. <<4-<<5. Ar!itration agreement - The a reement concluded bet'een parties to an ar!itration (supra), providin "or the submission o" their dispute to arbitration, the appointment o" arbitrators and the rules o" procedure overnin the arbitration. Ar!itration cla se - A clause in a !ill of lading (infra), a way!ill (infra) or a c'arter1arty (infra), providin that an0 dispute arisin under the contract evidenced b0 that document shall be submitted to ar!itration (supra) be"ore one or more arbitrators, in the place and accordin to the la's and rules speci"ied in the clause. See Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at pp. >=;-34;. +or a su ested ar!itration cla se, see Tetle0, Int'l. C. of L., 4;;< at p. <44/ Tetle0, !nt6l. %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at pp. 4:=-4:;. Ar!itration E>ce1tion - An e?ception to the principle o" foreign sovereign imm nity in the 9oreign So"ereign Immunities Act o" the 1nited States (9= 1.S. Code 455:, 4559(a), 45;4("), 4<<4(d), 43:9-4344 (4;@3)), 'hereb0 a "orei n soverei n is not immune "rom Gurisdiction in an0 case in 'hich an action is brou ht to con"irm an ar!itral award i" the ar!itration agreement or the ar!itral award is or ma0 be overned b0 a treat0 or other international a reement in "orce "or the 1nited States callin "or the reco nition and en"orcement o" ar!itral awards. See 9= 1.S. Code 43:>(a)(3)(A)). Arno ldCs Law of Marine "ns rance and Average - Editors: %ustill, .ilman, 43 Ed., 4;=4, Stevens 7 Sons, 8ondon, 'ith Supplement and vol. 5, 4;;3, S'eet 7 %a?'ell, 8ondon. Arrest - The procedure 'hereb0, in common law j risdictions, a ship (and sometimes car o and&or freig't) ma0 be seiHed b0 an admiralt0 court at the institution o" or durin an action in rem (infra) to provide pre-Gud ment securit0 "or the plainti""6s maritime claim. Arrest is overned in the United ?ingdom b0 paras. >.4 to >.@ o" Fractice #irection 34 (Admiralt0 Claims), promul ated under Fart 34 (Admiralt0 Claims) at $ule 34.> o" the 1.2. Civil Frocedure $ules 4;;= (S.!. 4;;=&5459) as amended 'ith e""ect "rom %arch 9>, 9::9/ in the 1nited States b0 Supplemental $ule C o" the 7 11lemental 5 les for (ertain Admiralty and Maritime (laims (infra)/ and in Canada b0 $ule <=4 et se:. o" the +ederal Court $ules, 4;;=, SD$ ;=&4:3. See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. ;>=-;=>. !n the Feople6s $epublic o" China, althou h the action in rem does not e?ist, arrest o" ships is nevertheless provided "or b0 arts. 94 to <5 o" the ('inese Maritime <roced re (ode 2000 (infra), 'hich came into "orce Eul0 4, 9:::, 'hich provisions lar el0 re"lect the Arrest (onvention #$$$ (infra). See Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. <9;-<5:. See also 7isterBs'i1 arrest. Arrest (onvention #$82 *+r.: ,Con"ention de .ru8elles de 34;<,- - !nternational Convention "or the 1ni"ication o" Certain $ules $elatin to the Arrest o" Sea oin Ships, adopted at Arussels on %a0 4:, 4;>9 and in "orce as o" +ebruar0 9<, 4;>3 (see (M" infra). See te?t in Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. ;>=-;39, Appendi? # at pp. 4<5;-4<<=/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. <4=<4;.

>

Arrest (onvention #$$$ - !nternational Convention on Arrest o" Ships, 4;;;, adopted at .eneva, %arch 49, 4;;; (not in "orce) (#oc. no. A&CDI+. 4==.3). See Tetle0, !nt6l %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at pp. <4;-<94. Artificial General Average - is a term coined b0 Leslie D. . glass to re"er to eneral avera e claimed under the ;or:3Antwer1 5 les, despite the absence o" one o" the basic historic characteristics o" general average, e. . ,peril,. (Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at pp. @9;-@53/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. 5@=-5=5.) As'! rner, ,alter - !he Rhodian Sea&Law, 4;:;, reprinted b0 Scientia Berla , Aalen, 4;@3 and b0 8a'booC E?chan e 8td., 9::4. Assignment - The trans"er b0 a creditor (the ,assi nor,) to another part0 (the ,assi nee,) o" a debt or ri ht o" action 'hich the ceditor has a ainst a third part0(the ,debtor,). The assi nment o" debts and ri hts o" action is enerall0 permitted in both civil law and common law j risdictions, subGect to certain "ormalities. The assi nment o" maritime liens (infra) is permitted e?pressl0 b0 the Maritime Liens and Mortgages (onventions #$%9 (infra) (art. ;) and #$$E (infra) (art. 4:), as 'ell as in +rance and the 1nited States. !n En land and Canada, ho'ever, the assi nment o" maritime liens notabl0 "or seamen6s 'a es, is more complicated. (See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. 4944-49<:/ Tetle0, !nt6l. %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at p. >:>). -Assistance- *Span.: ,sal"amento,- *!tal.: ,assisten(a e sal"ataggio,- *.r.: ,=ilfsleistung,-- A +rench term, re"lectin the civilian equivalent o" salvage (infra), based on the 5oman law concept o" negotiorum gestio (infra) (mana ement o" the business o" another), 'hereb0 the , assistant, is remunerated "or his e""orts to save ship and car o, re ardless o" 'hether or not those e""orts are success"ul. !n +rench internal la', ,assistance,, re"errin to salvage o" a ship, car o, and&or persons in peril at sea, is distin uished "rom , sau"etage,, re"errin to the salva e o" 'recC (,sau"etage des épa"es,) *!tal.: ,ricupero,-. 1nder the 7alvage (onvention #$#0 (infra) (art. 4), ho'ever, no distinction is to be made bet'een ,assistance, and ,salva e,, althou h both terms 'ere used in the title o" the Convention. The 7alvage (onvention #$A$ (infra) re"ers onl0 to ,salva e, (in +rench, ,assistance,) in respect o" the ship and car o, usin the +rench 'ord ,sau"etage, onl0 in respect o" li"e salva e (art. 43). See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. 555-553/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. 599-59<. Association =ranFaise d +roit Maritime )A.=.+.M.* - The +rench %aritime 8a' Association. Website: http:&&'''.comitemaritime.or &memass&europe&"rance.html. Email: %adame +ranMoise %oussu-Ddier, Fresident- ".odier@noos."r Association "nternationale de +is1ac'e rs E ro1Gens - Secretariat: c&o +edero'icH 7 Fartners, 4@:, $ue d6Ano rune, A-45=:, 8asne, Ael ium. Tel.: (:5) 59 9 355 <4 4</ +a?: (:5) 59 9 355 >> >=. Website: http:&&'''.aideadGusters.or &/ Email: in"o@aideadGusters.or . Association of Average Adj sters - The or aniHation o" avera e adGusters in the 1nited 2in dom. Secretar0: #avid Ta0lor. Website: http:&&'''.avera e-adGusters.com Email: aaa@baltice?chan e.com. Association of Average Adj sters of (anada - Secretar0: $ui %. +ernandes. Website: http:&&'''.avera eadGusterscanada.com&. Email: rui@"ernandeshearn.com. Association of Average Adj sters of t'e United 7tates - Secretar0: Eileen %. +ellin. Website: http:&&'''.usavera eadGusters.or & Email: avera eadGusters@aol.com. Association of Maritime Ar!itrators of (anada )AMA(* - 'ebsite: http:&&'''.amac.ca&. %embers o" the E?ecutive: <resident: Eohn Weale, +ednav 8imited, 4::: rue de la .auchetiNre 3

ouest, Suite 5>::, %ontreal, Juebec H5A <W>, Canada. Tel.: (>4<) =@=-33@3/ "a?: (>4<) =@=3>:=/ e-mail: G'eale@"ednav.com. 7ecretaryBTreas rer: #onald FinCerton, c&o +ednav 8imited, 4::: rue de la .auchetiNre ouest, Suite 5>::, %ontreal, Juebec H5A <W>, Canada.. Tel.: (>4<) =@=-3<5;/ "a?: (>4<) =@=-@3@:/ e-mail: dpinCerton@"ednav.com. Association of 7'i1 .ro:ers and Agests )U.7.A.* "nc. - Website: http:&&'''.asba.or &. Email: asba@asba.or . As1. M.L.C. - Aspinall6s %aritime 8a' Cases. En lish maritime cases "rom 4=@:-4;<:. An e?ample o" a citation is (4=@9) 4 Asp. M.L.C. 495. At'anassio , Garifalia, Aspects >uridi:ues de la concurrence maritime% étude comparati"e ? partir du droit communautaire, 4;;3, Oditions A. Fedone, Faris. At'ens <assenger (onvention #$94 - The Convention $elatin to the Carria e o" Fassen ers and Their 8u a e b0 Sea, adopted b0 the (M" and "M6 at Athens on #ecember 45, 4;@< and in "orce as o" April 9=, 4;=@, 'ith Frotocol, adopted at 8ondon on Iovember 4;, 4;@3 and in "orce as o" April 4:, 4;=;, a Frotocol, adopted at 8ondon on %arch 9;, 4;;: (not 0et in "orce) and a Frotocol adopted at 8ondon, Iovember 4, 9::9 (not in "orce). See te?t in Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. @:5-@4<. Attac'ment *Span.: ,detenci@n, or ,inmo"ili(aci@n,- *!tal.: ,se:uestro,- *.r.: ,.eschlagnahme,- The term used in the 1nited States "or the procedure Cno'n in +rench in civil law j risdictions as the ,saisie conservatoire, (infra). See "or e?ample, Swift Co. $ac0ers ". Compania Colombiana ,el Caribe S. A., 55; 1.S. 3=<, 4;>: A%C 4:=; (4;>:). See Supplemental $ule A o" the 7 11lemental 5 les for (ertain Admiralty and Maritime (laims (infra)and the ,general maritime law, (infra) o" the 1nited States. !n the 1.S., $ule A attachment, Goined to an action in personam, permits speci"ied assets o" the de"endant (real or personal, moveable or immoveable) to be seiHed b0 the court at the be innin o" the saisie conservatoire or durin a suit, as securit0 "or the plainti""6s claim, in cases 'here the de"endant cannot be "ound in the Gudicial district concerned. See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. ;5=-;<4/ Tetle0, !nt6l. %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at pp. <:=-<:;. The attachment has also e?isted under $oman-#utch la' in South A"rica since Iovember 4, 4;=5. See Shipping Corp. of India ". 1"domon Corp. 4;;< (4) SA >>: (App. #iv.). -Audi alteram partem- - ,Hear the other part0,, the principle o" natural Gustice requirin that the parties to a dispute be iven adequate notice and an opportunit0 to be heard. See $orto Seguro Companhia de Seguros -erais ". .elcan S.A. *4;;@- 5 S.C.$. 49@=, (4;;@) 4>5 #.8.$.(<th) >@@, (4;;@) 99: I.$. 594 (Supr. Ct. o" Can.). Avoidance of t'e law - !n the conflict of laws, the intentional arran ement o" connecting factors (contacts) (see infra) in an a reement, usuall0 b0 equal bar ainin parties, "or a legitimate 1 r1ose, in order to ensure the applicabilit0 to the a reement o" a particular la' or j risdiction. The opposite o" evasion of t'e law (,fraude ? la loi,), infra. See Tetle0, Int'l C. of L., 4;;< at pp. 4<3, 4@9. Award -The ar!itral award (supra) 'hich embodies the decision o" an ar!itral tri! nal (supra). See the U&("T5AL Model Law on "nternational (ommercial Ar!itration #$A8 (infra), arts. 9=-53. See also the 1IC!T$A8 Arbitration $ules (see U&("T5AL, infra), art. 54, and the &ew ;or: (onvention #$8A (infra), art. !(9). The term ,a'ard, is also used to desi nate the decision o" arbitrators determinin the quantum o" a salvage reward (infra) and orderin the pa0ment o" that re'ard to the salvor(s). See the 7alvage (onvention #$A$ (infra), art. 93. See also Tetle0, !nt6l %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at pp. 5<@-5>9.

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.aena, <.D..., - $ri"ilegios7 =ipotecas y 1mbargos $re"enti"os sobre el .u:ue y la Aerona"e, 9::9, %arcial Fons, Ediciones EurLdicas 0 Sociales, S.A., %adrid. .aer, 2er!ert 5. - Admiralty Law of the Supreme Court, 5 Ed., 4;@; ('ith 4;=> Supplement), %ichie Co., Charlottesville, Bir inia. .ail - Fersonal securit0 provided b0 a de"endant to the court to prevent the arrest o" a ship or to secure its release "rom arrest. The securit0 taCes the "orm o" a bail bond, in 'hich the sureties submit to the j risdiction o" the court and undertaCe that i" the de"endants does not pa0 'hat ma0 be adGud ed a ainst them or 'hat is a reed b0 settlement, e?ecution ma0 issue a ainst them as sureties "or the amount due. Aail is ordinaril0 set at 'hatever sum is su""icient to cover the plainti""6s reasonabl0 ar uable best case, 'ith interest and costs, but not e?ceedin the value o" the ship or other res. See !he Moschanthy *4;@4- 4 8lo0d6s $ep. 5@ at p. <</ !he !ribels *4;=>- 4 8lo0d6s $ep. 49= at p. 45:. The bail represents the ship and, once released upon bail, the ship is released "rom the action. A banC uarantee is "requentl0 substituted "or a bail bond toda0. %oreover, securit0 is toda0 usuall0 provided b0 a letter of nderta:ing (L6U), infra, 'hich is a "orm o" securit0 provided to the seiHin creditor, rather than to the court. See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. 4444-444=/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. <55, >44. .ail !ond - See ,!ail, (supra). .altic and "nternational Maritime (o ncil - See ."M(6 (infra). .altic E>c'ange B Established in 4@<<, the Aaltic E?chan e is the 'orld6s oldest shippin marCet. A lar e part o" the 'orld6s open marCet bulC car o charterin is ne otiated b0 some members o" the Aaltic E?chan e and much o" the 'orld6s sale and purchase business is transacted throu h its broCers. !t publishes a dail0 dr0 car o inde? that is the basis o" the "rei ht "utures marCet and is used in order to hed e a ainst movements in "rei ht rates. The Aaltic E?chan e also publishes a monthl0 ma aHine. Address: St. %ar0 A?e, 8ondon, EC5A =AH. Website: http:&&'''.baltice?chan e.com&. The present Chie" E?ecutive and Secretar0 o" the Aaltic E?chan e is Eerem0 Fenn. Email: enquiries@baltice?chan e.com. .altime #$E$ - See time c'arter1arty, (infraA. .an: g arantee - See !ail (supra). .are!oat c'arter1arty - See c'arter1arty !y demise, infra. .arecon CA$3.arecon 200# - See c'arter1arty !y demise, infra. .arratry *+r.: ,baraterie,- *Span.: ,baraterBa,- *!tal.: ,baratteria,- *.r.: ,.arraterie,- - 8oss or dama e caused to the ship or car o b0 the 'il"ul act o" the master or seamen. See Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at pp. >95, >>9/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at p. >;5. Basilica - A ninth centur0 A.#. codi"ication o" A0Hantine la', compiled under the direction o" Emperor Aasil !, the %acedonian. The .asilica 'as intended to be a recodi"ication o" the #i est o" Eustinian. AooC >5 contains considerable maritime la'. See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at p. 44. .a g'en, 7imon - Shippin Fortland, Dre on. 8a', 5 Ed., 9::<, Cavendish Fublishin 8imited, 8ondon and

.earer !ill of lading - See ,.ills of Lading / 5elated +oc ments, (infra). =

.ea fort ,ind =orce 7cale - A table describin 'ind "orces in numbers ("rom 4 to 4@), ran in "rom calm to hurricane conditions and providin speci"ications "or each such 'ind "orce at sea and on land, ivin equivalent mean speeds in :nots, statute miles per hour, meters per second and mean 'ind "orce in pounds per square "oot at standard densit0. (Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at p. 493=.) .egines, D.L. < lido - Los Contratos de Remol:ue MarBtimo , 4;;3, EosK %aria Aosch Editor, Aarcelona. Ae ines, E.8. Fulido, Seguro de MercancBas y Seguro de Responsabilidad del $orteador !errestre , 9::4, EosK %aria Aosch Editor, Aarcelona. .enedict on Admiralty - @ Ed. (rev.), in 55 volumes updated re ularl0, %atthe' Aender, Ie' PorC: The leadin compilation o" American and international la's and conventions on maritime la', 'ith commentar0. .eneficial owner *+r.: ,"éritable propriétaire,-- A term usuall0 re"errin to the re istered shipo'ner, but 'hich ma0 also desi nate another part0 havin the equitable o'nership o" the vessel 'here it is operated under the cloaC o" a trust. See !he I Congreso del $artido *4;@@- 4 8lo0d6s $ep. >53, *4;@=- J.A. >::. The term ma0 desi nate some part0 behind the re istered o'ner, such as a parent corporation or holdin compan0, havin some le al or equitable interest in the vessel, includin a ri ht to dispose o" it. Aut it does not encompass a demise charterer, despite the latter6s "ull possession and control o" the ship durin the term o" the demise charterpart0. See Mount RoyalC/alsh Inc. v. !he Densen Star *4;;:- 4 +.C. 4;; (+ed. Ct. o" App.). The bene"icial o'ner 'ho is personall0 liable on certain t0pes o" maritime claims at the time the0 arise ma0 render the ship liable in rem in En land and Canada. See the Supreme Court Act 34E3, 1.2. 4;=4, c. ><, sects. 9:(<)(b)(i) and the 9ederal Court Act, $.S.C. 4;=>, c. +-@, sect. <5(5). See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. >@5->@>, >=4->=9, >=3->=@, 4:55-4:53, 4:5;-4:<4, 4:<5-4:<>/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. <59, <53, <;9-<;5. .ennett, 2oward &. - !he Law of Marine Insurance, 9 Ed., 9::3, Clarendon Fress, D?"ord. .ennett, ,.<. - !he =istory and $resent $osition of the .ill of Lading as a ,ocument of !itle , 4;4<, Cambrid e 1niversit0 Fress, Cambrid e. .erlingieri, =rancesco - Arrest of Ships% A Commentary on the 34;< and 3444 Arrest Con"entions , < Ed., 9::3, 88F 8imited, 8ondon. See also "l +iritto Marittimo (infra). .ig'am cla se - A clause inserted into most nonBse1aration agreements (infra), 'hereb0 the car o o'ner6s share o" an0 general average contri! tion (infra) pa0able under such an a reement ma0 not e?ceed the cost that the car o o'ner 'ould have incurred had his car o been delivered to him at the port o" re"u e and then been "or'arded to destination at his e?pense. .ills of Lading / 5elated +oc ments a* .ill of lading *+r.:,connaissement,- *Span.: ,conocimiento de embar:ue,- *!tal.: ,poli((a di carico,- *.r.: ,2onnossement,- - Dri inall0 called a ,bill o" loadin ,, a bill o" ladin is not necessaril0 the complete contract o" carria e o" oods but is usuall0 the best evidence o" the contract. !t is, as 'ell, a receipt si ned b0 the master or on his behal" indicatin in 'hat apparent order and condition the oods have been received on board. +inall0, it is also a document o" title and thus a document o" trans"er, but not a ne otiable instrument. !t is usuall0 a standard "orm contract, prepared and issued b0 the carrier (infra) or his a ent. (Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at pp. 94>-999, 99@-99=/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. 3>-3=, @4-@@). There are man0 standard "orms o" bill o" ladin , includin , "or e?ample, the ,A!%CD 8iner Aill o" 8adin , (Code Iame:

;

,Conlinebill 9:::,) o" ."M(6 infra, 'hich is reproduced in Tetle0, Int'l M. Appendi? ,F, at pp. =34-=39.

A. L, 9::5,

i) .earer !ill of lading *+r.: ,connaissement au porteur,- *Span.: ,conocimiento al portador,*!tal.: ,poli((a di carico al portatore,- *.r.: ,Inhaber0onnossement,- - A !ill of lading (supra) providin "or the deliver0 o" the oods to 'homever holds the bill. The bill is a bearer bill o" ladin i": i) it is e?plicitl0 identi"ied as such/ ii) it names the consignee (infra) as ,bearer,/ iii) it is an order !ill of lading (infra) 'hich "ails to mention to 'hose order it is/ or iv) it is an order bill o" ladin endorsed in blanC. A bearer bill is ne otiable b0 its mere deliver0. (Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at p. 4=5/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at p. 3@). ii) (lean !ill of lading *+r.: ,connaissement sans réser"es, or ,connaissement net,- *Span.: ,conocimiento sin reser"as,, ,conocimiento limpio, or ,conocimiento neto,- *!tal.: ,poli((a di carico netta,- *.r.: ,reines 2onnossement,- - The "ace o" a clean bill o" ladin bears no notation o" the bad or questionable order o" the oods. !t means that the oods have been received on board in apparent ood order and condition and sto'ed under decC. (Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at pp. 3>43>9/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. @>-@@). iii) Long form !ill of lading *+r.: ,connaissement intégral,- *Span.: ,conocimiento completo,*!tal.: ,poli((a di carico integrale,- - A "orm o" !ill of lading (supra) issued b0 the carrier (infra) settin "orth all the terms o" the contract o" carria e. The lon "orm bill o" ladin can usuall0 be obtained at the carrier6s head o""ice, and its terms are incorporated b0 re"erence in the carrier6s s'ort form !ill of lading (infra). (Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at p. 99;/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. 3@-3=). iv) M ltimodal or com!ined trans1ort !ill of lading *+r.: ,connaissement de transport multimodal,, ,connaissement de transport combiné,- *Span.: ,conocimiento Fde transporteA multimodal,, ,conocimiento Fde transporteA combinado,- *!tal.: ,poli((a di carico per trasporto multimodale o combinato,- *.r.: ,Multimodales oder 2ombiniertes !ransport 2onnossement,-- A t'ro g' !ill of lading (infra) 'hich involves at least t'o di""erent modes o" transport - road, rail, air and sea. (Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at pp. ;9@-;9=.) v) &amed )nominate* !ill of lading *+r.: ,connaissement ? personne dénommée, or ,connaissement nominatif,- *Span.: ,conocimiento nominati"o,- *!tal.: ,poli((a di carico nominati"a,- *.r.: ,6amens0onnossement,- - A !ill of lading (supra) providin "or the deliver0 o" the oods to a named person, wit'o t also speci"0in ,to order or assi ns,. The named consignee (infra) obtains deliver0 o" the oods b0 surrenderin one o" the ori inals o" the bill to the carrier (infra) or his a ent. Althou h a document o" title, the nominate bill o" ladin is not ne otiable. (Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at p. 4=5/ Tetle0, !nt6l. %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at pp. 33-3@). vi) 6cean t'ro g' !ill of lading *+r.: ,connaissement de bout en bout,- *Span.: ,conocimiento directo,- *!tal.: ,poli((a di carico diretta,- *.r.: ,,urch0onnossement,- - A !ill of lading (supra) invoCin a series o" contracts to carr0 oods to a "inal destination b0 t'o or more successive ocean carriers (infra). A ,pure, ocean throu h bill o" ladin is a bill o" ladin 'hereb0 the issuer undertaCes to be responsible "or the carria e o" oods b0 successive ocean carriers "rom the point o" reception to "inal destination. (Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at pp. ;93-;9@). vii) 6rder !ill of lading *+r.: ,connaissement ? ordre,- *Span.: ,conocimiento a la orden,- *!tal.: ,poli((a di carico all'ordine,- *.r.: ,#rder0onnossement,- - A !ill of lading (supra) providin "or deliver0 o" the oods to the order o" a speci"ied person, b0 'ords such as ,consi ned to QPR Co. 8td. or to order or assi ns,. An order bill is ne otiable b0 endorsement and deliver0 o" the document to the endorsee (infra) ((Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at p. 4=5). !n the 1nited States, under the <omerene Act o" 4;43, recodi"ied in 4;;< (<; 1.S. Code =:4:4-=:443)) (infra), an order bill o" ladin ma0 be ne otiated b0 endorsement (<; 1.S. Code =:4:<(a)) or b0 trans"er (i.e. b0 its 4:

deliver0, accompanied b0 an a reement speci"0in that title to the oods is bein trans"erred thereb0) (<; 1.S. Code =:4:3(a)). (Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at p. 4;4). Iote: The 4;;< recodi"ication o" the <omerene Act chan ed the term ,order bill o" ladin , to ,ne otiable bill o" ladin ,. See <; 1.S. Code sect. =:4:5(a). viii) 5eceived for s'i1ment !ill of lading *+r.: ,connaissement reGu pour embar:uement,- *Span.: ,conocimiento recibido para embar:ue,- *!tal.: ,poli((a di carico rice"uto per l'imbarco,- *.r.: ,Hbernahme0onnossement,-- A !ill of lading (supra) issued 'hen oods have been received "or shipment b0 a carrier (infra) or his a ent but have not 0et been loaded aboard the ship. (Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at pp. 99=, ;9;/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at p. 3@.) i?) 7'i11ed !ill of lading *+r.: ,connaissement embar:ué,- *Span.: ,conocimiento embarcado,*!tal.: ,poli((a di carico a bordo,- *.r.: ,.ord0onnossement,- - A !ill of lading (supra) issued 'hen oods have been loaded aboard the ship. (Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at p. 99=/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at p. 3@/ 2ag e and 2ag e34is!y 5 les (infra) art. 5(@)/ 2am! rg 5 les (infra) art. 4>(9)). ?) 7'ort form !ill of lading *+r.: ,connaissement abrégé, *Span.: ,conocimiento abre"iado,- *!tal.: ,poli((a di carico abbre"iata,- - A "orm o" !ill of lading (supra) issued b0 the carrier (infra) incorporatin b0 re"erence the terms o" the contract o" carria e set "orth in the carrier6s lon "orm !ill of lading (supra). (Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at p. 99;/ Tetle0, !nt6l. %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at pp. 3@-3=). ?i) 7traig't !ill of lading B A non-ne otiable !ill of lading (supra) as described in the 1nited States <omerene Acto" 4;43 (<; 1.S. Code App?. =4-49<, recodi"ied in 4;;< as <; 1.S. Code =:4:4-=:443) (infra). A ,strai ht bill, states that the oods are consi ned or destined to a speci"ied person. !t is marCed ,nonne otiable, or ,not ne otiable, on its "ace. !t ma0 be trans"erred b0 its holder b0 deliver0, accompanied 'ith an a reement (e?press or implied) to trans"er the title to the bill or to the oods it represents. A strai ht bill cannot be ne otiated "ree "rom e?istin equities/ its endorsement con"ers no additional ri hts on the trans"eree. (Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at pp. 4;:4;4, ;>:-;>4, ;;>-;;@). Iote: The 4;;< recodi"ication o" the <omerene Act chan ed the term ,strai ht bill o" ladin , to ,nonne otiable bill o" ladin ,. See <; 1.S. Code =:4:5(b). See Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at p. 49;. The term ,strai ht bill is also sometimes used outside the 1nited States. See !he .ri> *9::4- 4 8lo0d6s $ep. <54 at p. <5< (Hon 2on Hi h Ct.). !t has been held that a ,strai ht, (also sometimes called a ,strai ht consi ned,) bill o" ladin is a document o" title subGect to the 2ag e 5 les and the 2ag e34is!y 5 les. See !he Rafaela S. *9::>- 4 8lo0d6s $ep. 5<@, 9::> A%C ;45 (H.8.). ?ii) T'ro g' !ill of lading B A !ill of lading (supra) providin "or the carria e o" oods b0 'ater, "rom their point o" ori in to their "inal destination, either b0 successive ocean carriers (see ocean t'ro g' !ill of lading (supra)) or b0 more than one mode o" transportation (see m ltimodal or com!ined trans1ort !ill of lading (supra)). (Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at pp. ;93-;9=). b) ,ay!ill )7ea way!ill* *+r.: ,lettre de transport maritime,- *Span.: ,carta de porte marBtima,*!tal.: ,lettera di trasporto marittima,- *.r.: ,Seefrachtbrief,- - A 'a0bill is a non-ne otiable receipt issued a"ter receipt o" the oods b0 the carrier (infra). !t is clearl0 marCed ,non-ne otiable,. !t is usuall0 emplo0ed in the container trade "or normal shipments 'ith consent o" the s'i11er (infra) 'ho does not insist on bein issued a ne otiable !ill of lading (supra). !t is not a document o" title, so that deliver0 o" the oods shipped is made, not b0 presentation o" a document, but b0 the consignee (infra) nominated on the 'a0bill identi"0in himsel". Dnl0 one ori inal 'a0bill is usuall0 issued to the shipper. Althou h it is not a document o" title, it is a contract o" carria e. The 2ag e or 2ag e34is!y 5 les (infra) do appl0 to a 'a0bill in virtue o" the 'a0bill6s terms and conditions and also because, 'hen it is used in ordinar0 commercial shipments, art. 3 o" the 2ag e

44

or 2ag e34is!y 5 les does not e?clude it "rom the application o" the $ules. (Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at pp. ;<<-;>>/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. 3=, =:.) A 'a0bill is use"ul in these times o" speed0 carria e 'here car o o"ten arrives be"ore the documents. !t is also use"ul "or transactions 'here the s'i11er (infra) and consignee (infra) are related or are subsidiaries o" one another and 'here the ri id production o" banCin documents is unnecessar0. Wa0bills are also used in lar e, lon -term transactions in 'hich the shipment is onl0 part o" a maGor, 'ell-secured, lon -term a reement bet'een the shipper and consi nee. .enerall0 'a0bills are use"ul 'herever "inancin is not provided in e?chan e "or documents, e. . open account sales. (Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at pp. ;<4-4::9). There are man0 standard "orms o" 'a0bill, includin , "or e?ample, the ,Ion-Ie otiable 8iner Sea Wa0bill, (Code Iame: ,8ine'a0bill,) o" ."M(6 (infra), 'hich is reproduced in Tetle0, Int'l M. A. L., 9::5, Appendi? ,J, at pp. =35-=3<. c) 7'i1Cs delivery order B The 1.2. Carriage of -oods by Sea Act 344< (1.2. 4;;9 c. >:) at sect. 4(<) provides "or ship6s deliver0 orders as "ollo's: ,$e"erences in this Act to a ship6s deliver0 order are re"erences to an0 document 'hich is neither a bill o" ladin nor a sea 'a0bill but contains an undertaCin 'hich: a) is iven under or "or the purposes o" a contract "or the carria e b0 sea o" the oods to 'hich the document relates, or o" oods 'hich include those oods/ and b) is an undertaCin b0 the carrier to a person identi"ied in the document to deliver the oods to 'hich the document relates to that person., d) Electronic doc ment : an electronic carria e o" oods b0 sea document proposed but not adopted in the 1nited 2in dom. See the 1.2. Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1 !, 1.2. 4;;9, c. >:, sects. 4(>) and (3) and >(4), (infra). Australia, ho'ever, has enacted le islation contemplatin the use o" electronic documents as ,sea carria e documents,. See Australia6s Carriage of -oods by Sea Act 3443, Io. 43: o" 4;;4 (Cth.) as amended, at Schedule 4A (Schedule o" %odi"ications) enacted b0 the Carriage of -oods by Sea Regulations 344E , Statutor0 $ules 4;;=, Io. 4@<, at art. 4(4)(ba) and 4(4)(h) and art. 4A. .ills of Lading Act, #A88, #A / #$ 4ict., c. ### B The United ?ingdom statute 'hich, amon st other stipulations, con"erred upon consignees (infra) and endorsees (infra) o" !ills of lading (supra) the ri ht to sue the carrier (infra) in contract "or loss or dama e to the oods covered b0 such bills, provided that the o'nership o" the oods concerned passed to the consi nee or endorsee o" the bill upon or b0 reason o" its consi nment or endorsement. The .ills of Lading Act7 3E;; 'as repealed and replaced b0 the Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1 !, 1.2. 4;;9 c. >: (infra). .ills of Lading Act, 5.7.(. #$A8, c. .B4 B The Canadian statute, virtuall0 identical to the 1.2.6s Bills of Lading Act" 1#$$ (supra), similarl0 con"errin ri hts o" suit in contract upon consignees (infra) and endorsees (infra) o" !ills of lading (supra) to 'hom o'nership in the oods pass upon or b0 reason o" such consi nment or endorsement. ."M(6 B The Aaltic and !nternational %aritime Council (A!%CD) is based in Copenha en and has been in operation since 4;:>. !t is a roup o" shipo'ners, broCers, a ents, clubs and others interested in carria e b0 sea and unites them in promotin proper shippin practices and in opposin obGectionable and un"air import char es, claims, etc. A!%CD prepares and distributes e?cellent b&l and c&p "orms. !ts address is: 434 Aa svaerdveG, #2-9==: Aa svaerd, #enmarC. Tel.: S<> << 53 3= ::/ "a?: S<> << 53 3= 3=/ Email: mailbo?@bimco.dC/ 'eb site: http:&&'''.bimco.dC&. Secretar0-.eneral: %r. Truls W. 86oran e.

49

.lac: .oo: of t'e Admiralty B A collection o" medieval and earl0 modern maritime la' compilations, published in "our volumes b0 7ir Travers Twiss bet'een 4=@4 and 4=@3. See the contents listed in Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. 54-59. Blac%e Boo%e of t&e Admiralty B The name iven b0 7ir Travers Twiss to the "irst volume o" his "our-volume collection (see .lac: .oo: of t'e Admiralty, supra), containin a variet0 o" medieval maritime la' materials, probabl0 "irst compiled in the mid-"i"teenth centur0 durin the rei n o" 2in Henr0 B!. !n particular, the .lac0e .oo0e of the Admiralty contains a version o" the 5Hles of 6lGron (infra). See T'iss, vol. 4 at pp. ==-454. See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. 54-59. .lac:ing B A practice used b0 certain sea"arers6 trades union a ainst "la -o"-convenience shipo'ners to compel them, b0 measures causin economic duress (e. . re"usin to load or dischar e ships or to allo' them to set sail), to si n collective labour a reements 'ith unions 'ith the trade union doin the ,blacCin ,. See Tetle0, Int'l C. of L., 4;;< at pp. 95<-953. .onassies, <ierre, Itudes de droit maritime ? l'aube du JJIe si+cle FMélanges offerts ? $ierre .onassiesA, 9::4, Oditions %oreu? S.A., Faris. .onassies, <ierre, and 7ca1el, ('ristian - ,roit Maritime, 9::3, 8ibrairie .KnKrale de #roit et de Eurisprudence, Faris. .oo:ing note *+r.: ,note d'engagement de fretK or ,arrLté de fret,- *Span.: ,nota de reser"a,- *!tal.: ,nota impegnati"a di prenota(ione,- *.r.: ,.uchungsnote,- - An undertaCin 'hereb0 a carrier (infra) noti"ies a s'i11er (infra) that space has been reserved "or the carria e o" the shipper6s oods aboard a particular vessel. See Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at p. 3;. .olanca, +ragan - $ra"ni Status Mors0ih Lu0a 2ao $omors0og ,obra M Republici =r"ats0o> , 9::5, Split, Croatia. .ools, Mic'ael +. - !he .ill of Lading% A ,ocument of !itle to -oods & An Anglo&American Comparison, 4;;@, 88F 8imited, 8ondon. -.ot' to !lame- cla se B A clause inserted into some 1.S. !ills of lading (supra), 'hich required that in the event o" a ship collision (infra) "or 'hich both vessels 'ere at "ault, car o indemni"0 its carr0in vessel "or an0 amount 'hich that vessel had had to pa0 to the collidin vessel in respect o" an0 claim made b0 car o a ainst the collidin vessel. The clause 'as declared invalid under (6G7A b0 the 1.S. Supreme Court in Mnited States ". Atlantic Mutual Insurance Co. F1sso .elgium && 6athaniel .aconA 5<5 1.S. 953, 4;>9 A%C 3>; (4;>9), althou h it has been upheld in 1rivate carriage (infra) contracts and some other cases. See Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at pp. 354359, 3@@, =<9, =>4-=>9/ Tetle0, Int'l. C. of L., 4;;< at pp. <=>-<=3/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. 9<;-9>:. .ottomry *+r.: ,prLt ? la grosse,- *Span.: ,préstamo a la gruesa,- *!tal.: ,prestito con na"e a garan(ia,- *.r.: ,.odmerei,- - A primitive "orm o" s'i1 mortgage (infra), 'hereb0 the master, 'hile a'a0 "rom the ship6s home port, b0 si nin a ,bottomr0 bond,, borro'ed mone0 on the credit o" the vessel to pa0 "or oods or services needed to preserve the ship or complete the vo0a e. The creditor6s securit0 'as e?tin uished, ho'ever, i" the ship 'as lost or destro0ed. Althou h a maritime lien (infra) still e?ists "or bottomr0 in 1.2. and Aritish Common'ealth maritime la', modern means o" communications have made bottomr0 virtuall0 obsolete. See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. <4;, <99-<95, <@5, >4@/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at p. <=9 "ootnote 3:.. .ow ,ave - A WeeCl0 Ie's and Bie's $eport on Trade, Transport, !nsurance and $isC. Website: http:&&'''.'av0line.com&.

45

.owtle, G. / McG iness, ?. - !he Law of Ship Mortgages, 9::4, 88F, 8ondon. .raIn, AndrG B 8e droit maritime au JuKbec, 4;;9, Wilson 7 8a"leur 8tKe, %ontreal, JuKbec, Canada/ and ,#e l6e""et relati" du contrat maritime ou de la relative uni"ormitK du droit maritime canadien, (9::4) 54 $evue .KnKrale de #roit <@5->45. .rea: . l: B Carria e o" oods other than b0 container, infra. .rice, Geoffrey - Maritime Law of Sal"age, < Ed. (E. $eeder, ed.), S'eet 7 %a?'ell, 8ondon, 9::5. .ritis' "nternational =reig't Association )."=A* -Website: http:&&'''.bi"a.or &. Email: bi"a@bi"a.or . See also ".=.=., infra. .ritis' Maritime Law Association ).MLA* B Website: http:&&'''.bmla.or .uC&. .ritis' 7'i11ing Laws B A 4<-volume compilation o" Aritish and international shippin la's b0 %c.u""ie, Carver, %ardsen, Sassoon, Colinvau?, Steel and $icCs, 8o'ndes and $udol", Sin h, Arnould, Temperle0, 2enned0, Sin h and Colinvau?, and Thomas, Stevens 7 Sons, 8ondon. .rodie, <eter - ,ictionary of Shipping !erms, < Ed., 9::5, 88F 8imited, 8ondon. .rowne, Art' r - A Compendious *iew of the Ci"il Law and the Law of Admiralty , vol. !!, 4=:9, #ublin/ 4=<:, Ie' PorC. $eprinted b0 The 8a'booC E?chan e, 8td., 9:::. .r ssels (onvention #$%A B The Convention on Eurisdiction and the En"orcement o" Eud ments in Civil and Commercial %atters, adopted at Arussels on September 9@, 4;3= and in "orce as o" +ebruar0 4, 4;@5. This Convention provides uni"orm rules on j risdiction and the recognition and enforcement Gud ments "or all States o" the E ro1ean Union (infra). The o""icial te?t o" the Convention, o" its Frotocol o" !nterpretation o" Eune 5, 4;@4 (in "orce as o" September 4, 4;@>) and o" the 4;@= Accession Convention, adopted at 8u?embour on Dctober ;, 4;@= ('hereb0 the United ?ingdom, #enmarC and !reland became parties to the Convention) ma0 be "ound in D.E.E.C. 4;@= 8 5:<&@@ o" Dctober 5:, 4;@=. The Arussels Convention 4;3= 'as also amended b0 the .reeC Accession Convention o" Dctober 9>, 4;=9 (D.E.E.C. 4;=5 8 5==&4 o" #ecember 54, 4;=9) and b0 the Spanish and Fortu uese Accession Convention (the San Sebastian Convention) o" %a0 93, 4;=; (D.E.E.C. 4;=; 8 9=>&4 o" Dctober 5, 4;=;). See Tetle0, Int'l C. of L., 4;;< at pp. =:>-=:= and =<=-=>3. As o" %arch 4, 9::9, the Arussels Convention 4;3= 'as replaced, "or all %ember States o" the E ro1ean Union e?cept #enmarC, b0 E.(. 5eg lation 443200# on j risdiction and the recognition and enforcement o" Gud ments in civil and commercial matters, infra. . c:nill, 7ir Alfred T. - !he Law relating to !ug and !ow, 9 Ed., 4;9@, Stevens 7 Sons, 8td., 8ondon. . glass, Leslie D. B Marine Insurance and -eneral A"erage in the Mnited States , 5 Ed., 4;;4, Cornell %aritime Fress, Centreville, %ar0land. . lloc: order - A discretionar0 order o" a court re ardin costs, ranted in a case 'here a plainti"" has acted reasonabl0 in suin more than one de"endant but has not been success"ul a ainst all o" them. The order requires the plainti"" to pa0 the costs o" the success"ul de"endant(s) but also permits him to include those costs in the costs he recovers "rom the unsuccess"ul de"endant(s). The AullocC order derives its name "rom the decision in .ulloc0 ". London -eneral #mnibus Co. *4;:@- 4 2.A. 93< (C.A.). +or an e?ample in Canadian maritime la', see Canadian 2loc0ner Ltd. ". ,CS ACS 9lint F!he MicaA *4;@5- 9 8lo0d6s $ep. <@= at p. <=< (+ed. C. Can.). 4<

The AullocC order is similar to the ,Sanderson order,, 'hereb0 the court, in its discretion, ma0 order the unsucces"ul de"endant(s) to pa0 the costs o" the success"ul de"endant(s) directl0. The Sanderson order derives its name "rom the decision in Sanderson ". .lyth !heatre Co. *4;:5- 9 2.A. >55 (C.A.). . ndoc:, Mic'ael - Shipping Law =andboo0, 5 Ed., 9::5, 88F, 8ondon. . n:er <oll tion (onvention 200# - The !nternational Convention on Civil 8iabilit0 "or AunCer Dil Follution #ama e, adopted b0 the "M6 (infra) at 8ondon on %arch 95, 9::4, not 0et in "orce. .yJantine35'odian 7eaBLaw B A maritime code derived "rom custom, prepared at A0Hantium (Constantinople) in the seventh or ei hth centur0 A.#., re"erred to as the ,$hodian Sea-8a', b0 As'! rner, !he Rhodian Sea&Law (4;:;), but better termed the ,A0Hantine&$hodian Sea-8a', to avoid con"usion 'ith the 5'odian Law (infra) o" c. =:: A.C. !t contained provisions on maritime liens (infra) and s'i1 mortgages (infra) and in"luenced the compilation o" the Basilica. See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. 4:-44/ Tetle0, ,The .eneral %aritime 8a' - The 8e? %aritima, (4;;<) 9: S0racuse E. !nt6l. 8a' 4:>-4<> at p. 4:;/ reprinted *4;;3- ET8 <3;->:3 at p. <@5/ Tetle0, !nt6l. %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at p. 4:. See also -5'odian Law(infra).

(
(a!otage *Span.: ,cabota>e,- *!tal.: ,cabotaggio,- *.r.: ,2abotage,- - A +rench term, also used in En lish, to re"er to the coastin trade. Cabota e is o"ten overned b0 statutes, requirin , "or e?ample, that onl0 ships "l0in the "la o" the coastal state concerned ma0 en a e in the coastin trade bet'een ports o" that state, unless ,'aivers, are obtained "rom the overnment o" the state. (anadian .oard of Marine Underwriters )(.MU* B Website: http:&&'''.cbmu.com&. Email: cbmu@cbmu.com (anadian "nternational =reig't =orwarders http:&&'''.ci""a.com&. Email: admin@ci""a.com. Association )("==A* B Website:

-(anadian maritime law- B The Supreme Court o" Canada, in !he .uenos Aires Maru FI!# &International !erminal #perators ". Miida 1lectronicsA *4;=3- 4 S.C.$. @>9, de"ined ,Canadian maritime la', as havin t'o maGor components: 4) the admiralt0 la' o" En land received into Canada in 4;5<, upon the adoption o" Canada6s Admiralty Act, S.C. 4;5< c. 54, as subsequentl0 developed b0 Canadian statutes and Gurisprudence/ and 9) that bod0 o" la' 'hich 'ould have been administered b0 the "ormer E?chequer Court o" Canada (no' the +ederal Court o" Canada) on its admiralt0 side, i" that Court had had an ,unlimited j risdiction in relation to admiralt0 and maritime matters, (ibid. at p. @@<). The "irst branch o" ,Canadian maritime la', 'as held to be ,a bod0 o" "ederal la' encompassin the common la' principles o" tort, contract and bailment, ( ibid. at p. @@;) and to be ,uni"orm throu hout Canada, (ibid. at p. @@;) and ,... not the la' o" an0 province o" Canada, (ibid. at p. @@;). The second branch o" ,Canadian maritime la', 'as to be interpreted as includin matters "allin ,'ithin the modern conte?t o" commerce and shippin , and to be ,... limited onl0 b0 the constitutional division o" po'er in the Constitution Act7 3EN5, (ibid. at p. @@<). The above de"inition has led to a maGor e?pansion o" the scope o" both ,Canadian maritime la', and the admiralt0 j risdiction o" the +ederal Court o" Canada under sect. 9(4) and 99 o" the 9ederal Court Act, $.S.C. 4;=> c. +-@. See Tetle0, ,A #e"inition o" Canadian %aritime 8a', (4;;3) 5: 1. Aritish Columbia 8. $ev. 45@-43</ Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. <<->5/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L. 9::5 at pp. <5<-<5>. See also #rdon 1state v. -rail *4;;=- 5 S.C.$. <5@ / (4;;=) 433 #.8.$. (<th) 4;5 / (4;;=) 959 I.$. 9:4 / (4;;=) 44> D.A.C. 4 / (4;;=) <: D.$. (5d) 35;. (Supr. Ct. o" Can.). See also AndrG .raIn, Le droit maritime au Ouébec, Wilson 7 8a"leur 8tKe,

4>

%ontreal, 4;;9/ AndrG .raIn, ,,e l'effet relatif du contrat maritime ou de la relati"e uniformité du droit maritime canadien, (9::4) 54 $evue .KnKrale de #roit <@5->45. (anadian Maritime Law Association )(MLA* B Website: http:&&'''.cmla.or &. Email: cmla@cmla.or . (anadian 7ailings subscription@canadiansailin s.ca. Website: http:&&canadiansailin s.com&. Email:

(anadian 7'i1ownersC Association3Association des armate rs canadiens B Website: http:&&'''.shipo'ners.ca&. Email: csa@shipo'ners.ca. (ar!one, 7ergio - Il ,iritto Marittimo, 9::9, .. .iappichelli Editore, Turin. (ar!onnea , T'omas E. - Alternati"e ,ispute Resolution, 4;=;, 1niversit0 o" !llinois Fress, Chica o. Carbonneau, Thomas E. - Cases and Materials on Commercial Arbitration, 4;;@, Euris Fublishin , PonCers, Ie' PorC. Carbonneau, Thomas E., ed. - Le8 Mercatoria and Arbitration% A ,iscussion of the 6ew Law Merchant, $ev. Ed., 4;;=, Euris Fublishin , PonCers, Ie' PorC/ 2lu'er 8a' !nternational, Cambrid e, %ass. Carbonneau, Thomas E. - !he Law and $ractice of Arbitration , 9::<, Euris Fublishin , Huntin ton, Ie' PorC. Carbonneau, Thomas E., ed. - Cases and Materials on International Litigation and Arbitration , 9::>, West .roup, St. Faul., %innesota. (armac: Amendment - An amendment to the American Interstate Commerce Act of 3EE5 made b0 the Act o" Eune 9;, 4;:3, ch. 5>;4, 5< Stat. >=<, and no' "ound at <; 1.S. Code 44@:3 and at <; 1.S. Code 4<@:3, 'hich establishes a uni"orm re ime "or the liabilit0 o" interstate common carriers b0 rail and road, as 'ell as "or "rei ht "or'arders, 'ho are subGect to the j risdiction o" the 1.S. Sur"ace Transportation Aoard ("ormerl0 the !nterstate Commerce Commission), "or loss or dama e occurrin 'ithin the 1nited States to car o carried under their o'n bills o" ladin or receipts in interstate or international trade. The CarmacC Amendment permits shippers to recover "or the ,actual, losses to their propert0 (i.e. the loss o" "air marCet value) caused b0 carriers involved 'ith the shipment (includin the ,receivin carrier,, the ,deliverin carrier, and an0 other carrier over 'hose line or route the propert0 is transported in the 1nited States). See -ordon ". Mnited *an Lines7 Inc. 45: +.5d 9=9 at p. 9=3 (@ Cir. 4;;@). The plainti"" must "irst establish a prima facie case, b0 provin that: 4) the oods 'ere delivered to the carrier in ood condition/ 9) the oods arrived at their "inal destination in a dama ed or diminished condition/ and 5) the amount o" the dama es. See Missouri $acific R.R. Co. v. 1lmore Stahl 5@@ 1.S. 45< at pp. 45@-45= (4;3<)/ Camar Corp. v. $reston !ruc0ing Co. 994 +.5d 9@4 at p. 9@< (4 Cir. 9:::). Dnce that prima facie case is made, the carrier is then liable, unless it can sho' that it is "ree "rom ne li ence and that the loss or dama e 'as caused b0 an act o" .od, the public enem0, the act o" the shipper himsel", public authorit0, or the inherent vice or nature o" the oods. See Missouri $acific R.R. Co v. 1lmore Stahl 5@@ 1.S. 45< at p. 45@ (4;3<)/ Allied !ube Conduit Corp. v. Southern $ac. !ransp. Co. 944 +.5d 53@ at p. 53;, note 9 (9 Cir. 9:::)/ $ro>ect =ope v. MC*. I.6 SI6A 9::4 A%C 4;4: at p. 4;43, note 3 (9 Cir. 9::4).The carrier6s liabilit0 ma0 be limited to the value o" the oods declared in 'ritin b0 the shipper or speci"ied under a 'ritten a reement bet'een the shipper and the carrier, in accordance 'ith the rates "or transportation o" propert0 established b0 the carrier. The CarmacC Amendment does not appl0 to the land le in the 1.S. o" a combined transport b0 sea and land, unless a separate bill o" ladin or receipt is issued b0 the 1.S. common carrier "or the land le o" the Gourne0. See Dessica =oward v. MC* S0y Light 9::9 A%C @;= at pp. =:9-=:< (S.#. I.P. 9::9).

43

(arriage of Goods !y 7ea Act, #$24 (1.2. 4< 7 4> .eo. >, c. 99) - The Act ivin e""ect in the United ?ingdom to the 2ag e 5 les 4;9< (infra). !t 'as repealed e""ective Eune 95, 4;@@ 'ith the comin into "orce o" the Carriage of -oods by Sea Act 3453, infra. (arriage of Goods !y 7ea Act #$9# (1.2. 4;@4 c. 4;) - The 1nited 2in dom statute ivin e""ect to the 2ag e 5 les 4;9<(infra) as amended b0 the Bisb0 Frotocol 4;3= (see 4is!y 5 les, infra). The Act came into "orce Eune 95, 4;@@. The 4is!y 7.+.5. <rotocol 4;@; (see 4is!y 5 les, infra) 'as iven the "orce o" la' in the 1.2. b0 the Merchant Shipping Act 34E3 (1.2. 4;=4 c. 4:), in "orce +eb. 4<, 4;=<. (See te?t in Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at pp. 4995 et se:.). (arriage of Goods !y 7ea Act #$$2 (1.2. 4;;9 c. >:) - The curiousl0 named 1.2. Aills o" 8adin Act. !t is a statute 'hich covers !ills of lading, sea way!ills, s'i1Cs delivery orders and, in the "uture, electronic doc ments (supra). !t replaced the 1.2. Bills of Lading Act" 1#$$, 4= 7 4; Bict. c. 444 (supra) and came into "orce September 43, 4;;9. (See te?t at *4;;<- E%8C 4<5). !t mi ht have been better titled the ,Carria e o" .oods b0 Sea #ocuments Act., (arriage of Goods !y ,ater Act )7.(. #$$E, c. 2#* (,Loi sur le transport des marchandises par eau,) - The Canadian statute implementin the 2ag e34is!y 5 les (infra) (e""ective %a0 3, 4;;5). !t also adopts the 2am! rg 5 les (infra), 'hich could o into "orce at some "uture time, replacin the 2ag e34is!y 5 les (infra). The Carria e o" .oods b0 Water Act o" 4;;5 'as repealed and replaced b0 the Marine Lia!ility Act, S.C. 9::4, c. 3, (infra) in "orce Au ust =, 9::4, 'hich also ave the "orce o" la' to the 2ag e34is!y 5 les and provides "or the eventual comin into "orce in Canada o" the 2am! rg 5 les. (arrier B A part0 'ho contracts to carr0 oods or passen ers b0 'ater (the ,contractin carrier,), or the part0 'ho actuall0 per"orms such carria e in 'hole or part (the ,actual carrier,). See Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at pp. 955-935, and particularl0 at pp. 95<-95>/ Tetle0, !nt6l. %. 7 A. 8., 9:55 at pp. 4:<-4:>. (arver, T.G . B Car"er on .ills of Lading (Sir ..H. Treitel 7 +.%.A. $e0nolds, eds.), 9 Ed., S'eet 7 %a?'ell, 8ondon, 9::>. (.A.M.<. B Chambre Arbitrale %aritime de Faris. Website: http:&&'''.arbitra e-maritime.or &. Email: contact@arbitra e-maritime.or . See F. $a0mond, ,The Chambre Arbitrale %aritime de Faris,, #%+ 4;;3, >=4. (entre de +roit Maritime et des Trans1orts de la =ac ltG de +roit dCAi>BenB<rovence Website: http:&&'''.cdmt.droit.u-5mrs."r&. Email: in"o@scuio.u-5mrs."r. (entre de +roit Maritime et 6cGani@ e )Maritime and 6ceanic Law (enter* - A research institution o" the 1niversit0 o" Iantes, +rance, +acult0 o" 8a'. !t o""ers courses to'ards obtainin a post- raduate diploma in maritime la'. !t has also published since 4;@< a +rench-lan ua e maritime la' Gournal - l'Annuaire de ,roit Maritime et #céani:ue. Website: http:&&'''.droit.univnantes."r&ieG&inde?.htm Email: cdmo<<@0ahoo."r. (entre &ational de la Mer - Aoulo ne-sur-%er, +rance. Website: http:&&'''.nausicaa."r&. Email: documentation@nausicaa."r. (E5(LA - The Comprehensive Environmental $esponse, Compensation and 8iabilit0 Act o" 4;=:, Act o" 44 #ecember 4;=:, Fublic 8a' Io. ;3->4:, ;< Stat. 9@3@, <9 1.S. Code ;3:4-;3@>. An American "ederal statute providin "or environmental clean-up, compensation and liabilit0 in respect o" pollution caused b0 haHardous substances other than petroleum, natural as or related products. See Tetle0, Int'l M. A. L., 9::5 at p. <39.

4@

,Cessante ratione legis" cessat ipsa le'" - A 8atin ma?im, meanin ,When the reason "or the la' ends, the la' itsel" lapses,. See Schorsch&Meier -mb= v. =ennin *4;@>- J.A. <43 at p. <9> (C.A. per 8ord #ennin , %.$.). (esser cla se B A clause in a c'arter1arty (infra) 'hich releases the charterer "rom his personal liabilit0 to the shipo'ner and substitutes the !ill of lading (supra) holder as the debtor. The substituted bill o" ladin holder thus becomes personall0 liable "or the char es and the shipo'ner 'aives his ri hts a ainst the charterer. See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;== at pp. @>@, @@</ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at p. 4<9. ('am!er of Maritime (ommerce Website: http:&&'''.cmc-ccm.com&. Email: in"o@cmcccm.com ('am!er of 7'i11ing - Website: http:&&'''.british-shippin .or &. Email: postmaster@britishshippin .or . +ormerl0 the General (o ncil of .ritis' 7'i11ing. ('am!er of 7'i11ing of .ritis' (ol m!ia Website:http:&&'''.chamber-o"-shippin .com&. Email: csbc@chamber-o"-shippin .com. ('aracteristic 1erformance - The essential contact o" the rebuttable 1res m1tion (infra) in art. <(9) o" the 5ome (onvention, #$A0 (infra), to the e""ect that the most closel0 connected countr0 is the one in 'hich the part0 'ho is to carr0 out the characteristic per"ormance has his habitual residence or its central administration and, in some cases, its principal place o" business. See also art. 5445 JuKbec Civil Code and Tetle0, !nt6l C . o" 8., 4;;< at pp. 9;;-5:4/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at p. 4@@. ('arter1arty *+r.:,charte&partie,- *Span.: ,fletamento,- *!tal.: ,noleggio,- *.r.: ,Charter"ertrag,- A charterpart0 is a contract o" lease o" a ship in 'hole or in part "or a lon or short period o" time or "or a particular vo0a e. !t has been said that its ori in lies in the mediaeval 8atin , carta partita, or ,charta partita, or ,charta di"isa,, 'here an a reement 'as torn into t'o pieces and one hal" 'as iven to each part0. Froo" o" the 'hole contract 'as no doubt di""icult i" one part0 'as obstinate - modern methods o" photocop0in the contract "or each part0 seem pre"erable. A charterpart0 is part contract o" hire (affreig'tment (supra)) and part contract o" transport (carria e). The proportion o" ,affreig'tment, decreases as one moves "rom a demise charter, to a time charter and then to a vo0a e charter, 'hile the proportion o" ,carria e, increases "rom a demise charter throu h a time charter to a vo0a e charter. Affreig'tment is essentiall0 placin a ship at the disposal o" another part0, 'hile transport is essentiall0 the carrier (supra) taCin char e o" oods. 2ire (infra) is the consideration paid under demise and time charterparties/ freig't (infra) is the consideration paid under vo0a e charterparties and !ills of lading (supra). a* ('arter1arty !y demise *+r.: ,contrat d'affr+tement co:ue&nue,- *Span.: ,fletamento FarrendamientoA con cesi@n de la gesti@n nPutica ,- *!tal.: ,noleggio con cessione della gestione nautica,- *.r.: ,Charter"ertrag fQr ein Schiff ohne .esat(ung ,- - A charterpart0 b0 demise is a contract b0 'hich the lessor (shipo'ner) places a ship in the hands o" the lessee (the demise charterer) 'ho assumes possession and control. The consideration paid b0 the charterer is -'ire(infra), 'hich is pa0able at speci"ied intervals durin the term o" the charter. 1nder a demise charterpart0, the shipo'ner appoints the master and the cre', althou h the0 are paid and controlled b0 the demise charterer. See Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. 43:-4@9. A bareboat charter (also sometimes called a ,net charter,) is a demise charter 'hereb0 the bareboat charterer names, pa0s and controls the master and the cre'. See Tetle0, !nt6l C. o" 8., 4;;< at pp. 9<;-9>:.

4=

Amon the most common "orms o" demise charter are the ,Aaltic and !nternational %aritime Council Standard Aareboat Charter, (Code Iame: ,Aarecon 6=;,)/ and the ,A!%CD Standard Charter, (Code Iame: ,Aarecon 9::4,) "orms o" ."M(6 and the SHE88#E%!SE "orm o" demise charterpart0. Aarecon 9::4 is reproduced in Tetle0, Int'l M. A. L., 9::5, Appendi? ,1, at pp. ==@-=;=. !* (onsec tive voyage c'arter *+r.: ,contrat d'affr+tement pour "oyages successifs,- *Span.: ,fletamento por "ia>es consecuti"os,- *!tal.: ,noleggio per "iaggi consecuti"i,- *.r.: ,9ortlaufende Reisecharter,- - A consecutive vo0a e charter part0 is a vo0a e charterpart0 "or a determined number o" consecutive vo0a es. c* 7lot c'arter - A charterpart0 'hereb0 the s'i11er (infra) leases one or more ,slots,, each capable o" holdin a 9:-"oot container, aboard a container s'i1. d* 71ace c'arter *+r.: ,contrat de tonnage,- *Span.: ,C#A,- *!tal.: ,contratto di trasporto di carico par(iale,- *.r.: ,Raumcharter"ertrag,- - A space charter, or a , contrat de tonnage, as it is Cno'n in +rench (sometimes con"usin l0 called a ,contract o" a""rei htment, (CDA) in En lish), depends, liCe an0 contract, on its terms. !t can resemble a charterpart0 (i.e. a lease o" a ship or ships) or a contract o" carria e. !t is a contract 'hereb0 a capacit0 o" carria e is put at the disposal o" the s'i11er (infra) "or the carria e o" his oods durin a period o" time under particular terms and conditions. Whether it is a contract o" hire or a contract o" carria e or even a contract o" a enc0 liCe a freig't forwarder6s (infra) contract, depends on its terms. (+or charterparties under la', Tetle0, Int'l. C. of L., 4;;< at pp. 9<@-9>9). e* Time c'arter1arty *+r.: ,contrat d'affr+tement ? temps,- *Span.: ,contrato de fletamento por tiempo,- *!tal.: ,noleggio a tempo,- *.r.: ,Reitcharter"ertrag,- - A time charterpart0 is a contract 'hereb0 the lessor (the shipo'ner or demise charterer) places a "ull0 equipped and manned ship at the disposal o" the lessee (the time charterer) "or a period o" time "or a consideration called -'ire(infra) pa0able at speci"ied intervals durin the term o" the charter. Amon the most common "orms o" time charterpart0 are the Ie' PorC Froduce E?chan e (IPFE) and IPFE 6;5 "orms, issued b0 the Association of 7'i1 .ro:ers and Agents )U.7.A.* "nc. , the ,A!%CD 1ni"orm Time-Charter (As $evised 9::4), (Code Iame: ,Aaltime 4;5;,) "orm o" ."M(6 and SHE88T!%E. See IPFE 6;5 reproduced in Tetle0, Int'l M. A. L, 9::5 Appendi? ,T,, at pp. =@>-==3, and Aaltime 4;5; ($evised 9::4), reproduced (ibid.), Appendi? ,S,, at pp. =3;-=@5. A ,time charter "or a trip, is a time charter "or a particular vo0a e or vo0a es, rather than "or a period o" 0ears, da0s or months, 'ith 'ire (infra) pa0ments made at periodic intervals (as under a time charterpart0), rather than ,freig't, (infra) bein pa0able, at the completion o" the vo0a e, on the quantit0 o" car o carried (as under a vo0a e charterpart0). See Tetle0, !nt6l. %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at pp. 4<>-4>;. f* 4oyage c'arter1arty *+r.: ,contrat d'affr+tement au "oyage,- *Span.: ,contrato de fletamento por "ia>e,- *!tal.: ,noleggio a "iaggio,- *.r.: ,Reisecharter"ertrag,- - A vo0a e charterpart0 is a contract 'hereb0 the lessor (the shipo'ner or demise or time charterer) places all or part o" the carr0in capacit0 o" a ship at the disposal o" the lessee (the vo0a e charterer) "or the transport o" oods a reed upon, on one or more vo0a es, "or a consideration called , freig't, (infra), based on the quantit0 o" car o carried and is pa0able as provided "or in the charterpart0. Amon the most commonl0 used "orms o" vo0a e charterpart0 are the ,AsbatanCvo0, "orm o" tanCer charter o" the Association of 7'i1 .ro:ers and Agents )U.7.A.* "nc. , and the ,Aaltic and !nternational %aritime Council 1ni"orm .eneral Charter (As $evised 4;99, 4;@3 and 4;;<), (Code Iame: ,.encon,) "orm o" ."M(6. See Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. 45<-4<< and the .encon "orm, reproduced (ibid.), Appendi? ,$, at pp. =3>-=3=. . ('inese Maritime (ode, #$$E (adopted Iov. @, 4;;9) - !t entered into "orce Eul0 4, 4;;5. En lish translations b0: (4) The 8e islative A""airs Commission o" the Standin Committee o" the Iational Feople6s Con ress o" the Feople6s $epublic o" China, and (9) Sharpe and 8iu (4;;5). 4;

('inese Maritime <roced re (ode, 2000 (adopted #ecember 9>, 4;;;) - !t entered into "orce Eul0 4, 9:::. ('irogra1'ic creditor - An unsecured creditor. See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. >>@, >@@, =;3, 449;, 4453, 44>< and 44>>. ('oice of j risdiction - !n the conflict of laws, the rules and principles applied b0 courts in order to determine the proper j risdiction "or institutin le al proceedin s. ('oice of law - !n the conflict of laws, the rules and principles applied b0 courts in order to determine la' applicable to one or more o" the le al issues. ('ristodo lo , +imitrios <'. - !he Single Ship Company% !he Legal Conse:uences from its Mse and the $rotection of its Creditors, 9:::, Ant. I. SaCCoulas Fublishers, Athens. (.".=. )named 1ort of destination* *+r.: ,C.A.9. - coSt7 assurance7 fret,- *Span.: ,coste7 seguro7 flete,- *!tal.: ,costo&assicura(ione&nolo,- *.r.: ,2osten7 *ersicherung und 9racht Fbenannter .estimmungshafenA,- - C.!.+., or cost, insurance, "rei ht, is a term o" the contract o" sale 'hereb0 the seller undertaCes to pa0 the cost o" the insurance and transport o" the oods to the named port o" destination. 8e al deliver0 occurs 'hen the oods cross the ship6s rail in the port o" shipment. The purchaser taCes actual deliver0 (possession) o" the oods at the qua0 or other place named in the contract, as the place o" destination. (The insurance premium and freig't (infra) char es are included in the price o" the oods.) The risC is 'ith the purchaser and his insurance under'riters "rom the moment the transportation be ins (e. . "rom the time the oods pass the ship6s rail in the port o" shipment). A C.!.+. sale has sometimes been understood as a sale o" documents, rather than as a sale o" oods, but the prevalent vie' toda0 is that both oods and documents con"ormin to the contract must be delivered under a C.!.+. sale. "ncoterms 2000 (infra) ives the "ollo'in description (in part) o" C.!.+.: ,Cost, !nsurance and +rei ht, means that the seller delivers 'hen the oods pass the ship6s rail in the port o" shipment. The seller must pa0 the costs and "rei ht necessar0 to brin the oods to the named port o" destination A1T the risC o" loss o" or dama e to the oods, as 'ell as an0 additional costs due to events occurrin a"ter the time o" deliver0, are trans"erred "rom the seller to the bu0er. Ho'ever, in C!+ the seller also has to procure marine ins rance a ainst the bu0er6s risC o" loss o" or dama e to the oods durin the carria e. Consequentl0, the seller contracts "or insurance and pa0s the insurance premium. The bu0er should note tht under the C!+ term the seller is required to obtain insurance onl0 on minimum cover. Should the bu0er 'ish to have the protection o" reater cover, he 'ould either need to a ree as much e?pressl0 'ith the seller or to maCe his o'n e?tra insurance arran ements. The C!+ term requires the seller to clear the oods "or e?port. This term can be used onl0 "or sea and inland 'ater'a0 transport. !" the parties do not intend to deliver the oods across the ship6s rail, the C!F *carria e and insurance paid to- term should be used., (.=.5.K (ost / =reig't )named 1ort of destination* *+r.: ,CoSt et fret,- *Span.: ,coste y flete,*!tal.: ,costo e nolo,- *.r.: ,2osten und 9racht Fbenannter .estimmungshafenA,-. "ncoterms 2000 (infra) ives the "ollo'in description (in part) o" C.+.$.:

9:

,Cost and +rei ht, means that the seller delivers 'hen the oods pass the ship6s rail in the port o" shipment. The seller must pa0 the costs and "rei ht necessar0 to brin the oods to the named port o" destination A1T the risC o" loss o" or dama e to the oods, as 'ell as an0 additional costs due to events occurrin a"ter the time o" deliver0, are trans"erred "rom the seller to the bu0er. The C+$ term requires the seller to clear the oods "or e?port. This term can be used onl0 "or sea and inland 'ater'a0 transport. !" the parties do not intend to deliver the oods acrtoss the ship6s rail, the CFT *carria e paid to- term should be used., (' rc'ill, 5.5. / Lowe, A.4. - !he Law of the Sea, 5 Ed., 4;;;, Euris Fublishin , PonCers, Ie' PorC and %anchester 1niversit0 Fress, %anchester, En land. (irc lar "ndemnity (la se - !n such a clause, the car o o'ner stipulates that no claim 'ill be made a ainst the carrier6s (supra) a ents, servants, stevedores, terminal operators and subcontractors and that i" a claim is made, the car o o'ner 'ill indemni"0 the carrier a ainst all consequences. (See Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at pp. @@9-@@<.) The circular indemnit0 clause is sometimes combined 'ith a ,2imalaya cla se, (see infra). (ity of London Admiralty 7olicitors Gro 1 - See Admiralty 7olicitors Gro 1 (supra). (ivil D risdiction (onvention #$82 - The !nternational Convention on Certain $ules Concernin Civil Eurisdiction in %atters o" Collision, adopted at Arussels on %a0 4:, 4;>9 and in "orce as o" September 4<, 4;>>. See (M" (infra). (ivil law - Civil la' ma0 be de"ined as that le al tradition 'hich has its ori in in 5oman law, as codi"ied in the Corpus Duris Ci"ilis o" Eustinian (>9= to >5< A.#.), and as subsequentl0 developed in Continental Europe and around the 'orld. Civil la' eventuall0 divided into t'o streams: the codi"ied 5oman law (as seen in the +rench Civil Code o" 4=:< and its pro en0 and imitators Continental Europe, JuKbec, and 8ouisiana bein e?amples) - and uncodi"ied 5oman law (as seen in the 7cots law o" Scotland and the 5omanB+ tc' law o" South A"rica). Civil la' is hi hl0 s0stematised and structured and relies on declarations o" broad, eneral principles, o"ten i norin the details. Fro"essor $enK #avid has said that the civil la' ,... consists essentiall0 o" a 6st0le6: it is a particular mode o" conception, e?pression and application o" the la', and transcends le islative policies that chan e 'ith the times in the various periods o" the histor0 o" a people., See Tetle0, ,%i?ed Eurisdictions: Common 8a' vs Civil 8a' (Codi"ied and 1ncodi"ied) (Fart !), (4;;;-<) 1ni"orm 8a' $evie' >;4-34; at p. >;3/ Tetle0, !nt6l. %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at p. =. See also common law (infra). (ivil Lia!ility (onvention #$%$ )(L( #$%$* - The !nternational Convention on Civil 8iabilit0 "or Dil Follution #ama e, adopted b0 "M6 at Arussels on Iovember 9;, 4;3; and in "orce Eune 4;, 4;@>, 'ith its 4;@3 Frotocol, adopted at 8ondon, Iovember 4;, 4;@3, in "orce April =, 4;=4/ its 4;=< Frotocol, adopted at 8ondon, %a0 9>, 4;=< 'hich never came into "orce/ and its 4;;9 Frotocol, adopted at 8ondon, Iovember 9@, 4;;9, in "orce %a0 5:, 4;;3. See (L( #$$2 (infra). (ivil Lia!ility (onvention #$$2 )(L( #$$2* - The !nternational 8iabilit0 Convention on Civil 8iabilit0 "or Dil Follution #ama e, 4;;9, bein arts. ! to Q!! ter o" the Civil 8iabilit0 Convention 4;3; ((L( #$%$), as amended b0 the 4;;9 Frotocol to that Convention. (lar:e, Malcolm Alistair - Aspects of the =ague Rules% A Comparati"e Study in 1nglish and 9rench Law, 4;@3, IiGho"", The Ha ue. ClarCe, %alcolm Alistair - Shipbuilding Contracts% A Comparati"e Analysis of Contracts in the 94

Ma>or Maritime Durisdictions, 9 Ed., 4;;9, 8lo0d6s, 8ondon. ClarCe, %alcolm Alistair - !he Law of Insurance Contracts, < Ed., 9::9, 88F, 8ondon. ClarCe, %alcolm Alistair - International 1ncyclopedia of Comparati"e Law, Bol. !!! (Frivate !nternational 8a'), Chapter 93 (!ransport by Sea and Inland /aterways), 4;;3. (lassification societies - Classi"ication societies are institutions (o"ten non-pro"it) 'hich inspect, stud0 and report on the sea'orthiness and the eneral and particular condition o" individual ships. The0 also o"ten per"orm 1ort state control inspections. +inall0, the0 ma0 provide surve0in services to national maritime administrations b0 contract 'ith the overnments o" those countries. The0 issue a certi"icate o" TclassU o" the ship. The leadin societies and members o" the "nternational Association of (lassification 7ocieties )"A(7* are: American Aureau o" Shippin (AAS) ('ebsite: http:&&'''.ea le.or &/ Email: abs-'orldhq@ea le.or )/ Aureau Beristar (AB) ('ebsite: http:&&'''.veristar.com&/ Email: veristarin"o@ bureauveritas.com)/ China Classi"ication Societ0 (CCS) ('ebsite: http:&&'''.ccs.or .cn&en&inde?.htm/ Email: ccs@ccs.or .cn)/ #et IorsCe Beritas (#IB) ('ebsite: http:&&'''.dnv.com&/ Email: iacs@dnv.com)/ .ermanischer 8lo0d (.8) ('ebsite: http:&&'''. l- roup.com&/ Email: heado""ice@ l- roup.com)/ 2orean $e ister o" Shippin (2$) ('ebsite: http:&&'''.Crs.co.Cr&/ Email: Crsiacs@Crs.co.Cr/ 8lo0dVs $e ister 'ebsite: http:&&'''.lr.or &/ Email: 8lo0dsre @lr.or )/ Iippon 2aiGi 20oCai (I2) ('ebsite: http:&&'''.classnC.or.Gp&/ Email: mpd@classnC.or.Gp)/ $e istro !taliano Iavale ($!IA) ('ebsite: http:&&'''.rina.or &/ Email: in"o@rina.or )/ and $ussian %aritime $e ister o" Shippin ($S) ('ebsite: http:&&'''.rs-head.spb.ru&/ Email: ::<@rs-head.spb.ru). There are also t'o ,associates,, namel0, the Croatian $e ister o" Shippin (C$S) ('ebsite: http:&&'''.crs.hr&/ Email: tech.coord@crs.hr)/ and the !ndian $e ister o" Shippin (!$S) ('ebsite: http:&&'''.irclass.or &/ Email: ho@irclass.or ). . There are man0 other deemed TlesserU classi"ication societies. The (omitG Maritime "nternational (C%!) has attempted to brin about an international convention on the responsibilit0 o" classi"ication societies 'ithout success so "ar. !n 4;;9 the C%! set up a Eoint WorCin .roup on Class Societies (CSEW.) to consider le al ri hts, duties, and liabilities o" classi"ication societies. !n %a0 4;;=, the C%! Assembl0 adopted ,Frinciples o" Conduct "or Classi"ication Societies,. These principles imposed certain duties and procedures and outlined standards o" practice and per"ormance "or societies 'hich adopt them. A 0ear later, the C%! Assembl0 adopted ,%odel Contractual Clauses "or 1se in A reements bet'een Classi"ication Societies and .overnments and Classi"ication Societies and Shipo'ners,, 'hich de"ine and clari"0, subGect to national la', the circumstances under 'hich civil liabilit0 o" the classi"ication societies and their emplo0ees and a ents should be re ulated or limited. The %odel Clauses are su ested "or (!) inclusion in a reements bet'een societies and overnments and (!!) inclusion in the rules o" the societies ('hich contain the terms o" a reements bet'een societies and shipo'ners). As to the latter, the clauses impose certain duties on both the societies and shipo'ners. The limits o" liabilit0, ho'ever, have not 0et been a reed upon. The classi"ication societies have been in serious ne otiation 'ith E ro1ean Union (E1) authorities to produce, i" possible, a mutuall0 acceptable directive on liabilit0 o" classi"ication societies. As o" 9::5, no a reement has been reached. The !nternational Sa"et0 %ana ement Code or "7M (ode (The !nternational %ana ement Code "or the Sa"e Dperation o" Ships and "or Follution Frevention, 'hich is Anne? !Q to the 7afety of Life at 7ea )76LA7* (onvention #$94 as amended) obli es shipo'ners and ship operators to maintain a hi h standard o" mana ement o" their ships and this has increased the e?tent o" classi"ication societ0 duties and reports. <ort state control is the procedure 'hereb0 overnments e?amine a percenta e o" ships, 'hich visit their shores, in order to ensure that those ships meet international sa"et0 and environmental standards. Such e?amination is o"ten conducted b0 classi"ication societies under contract 'ith the state concerned. Dther states, ho'ever, have overnment inspection a encies 'hich inspect visitin ships. %an0 states taCe note o" the number o" detentions b0 them o" ships alread0 inspected and classed b0 each classi"ication societ0. +or e?ample see the tabulations o" the Australian %aritime 99

Sa"et0 Authorit0 'hich carries out port state control in Australia and the <aris M6U )Memorand m of Understanding*. (See <ort 7tate (ontrol) (lean !ill of lading - See ,.ills of Lading / 5elated +oc ments, (supra). (lean 'ands - A principle o" the court o" equit0, 'hereb0 a claimant ma0 not seeC equitable relie", i" he himsel" has acted improperl0 in respect o" the same matter. The principle has, on occasion, been adopted b0 other courts. (l ! letter - See ,Letter of nderta:ing, (infra). (M" - The ComitK %aritime !nternational (C%!) 'as established in 4=;@ in Ant'erp as a committee o" the "nternational Law Association (infra). !t is a private or aniHation o" over <: national maritime la' associations and has been instrumental in the adoption o" man0 important international conventions includin : 4) (ollisions !etween 4essels, #$#0. 9) Assistance and 7alvage at 7ea, #$#0. 5) 8imitation o" the 8iabilit0 o" D'ners o" Sea- oin Bessels, 4;9<. <) The 2ag e 5 les 4;9<, (Aills o" 8adin ). >) Maritime Liens and Mortgages, #$2%. 3) "mm nity of 7tateBowned 7'i1s, #$2% and the Additional Frotocol, 4;5<. @) <enal D risdiction in Matters of (ollision or ot'er "ncidents of &avigation, #$82. =) (ivil D risdiction in Matters of (ollision, #$82. ;) Arrest of 7eaBgoing 7'i1s, #$82. 4:) Limitation of t'e Lia!ility of 6wners of 7eaBgoing 4essels, #$89 . (This Convention is desi ned to replace the 4;9< Convention.) 44) Sto'a'a0s, 4;>@ (not 0et in "orce). 49) Carria e o" Fassen ers b0 Sea, 4;34. 45) 8iabilit0 o" Dperators o" Iuclear Ships, 4;39. 4<) Carria e o" Fassen ers6 8u a e b0 Sea, 4;3@ (not 0et in "orce).

4>) The 4;3@ Frotocol amendin the Assistance and 7alvage at 7ea (onvention of #$#0. 43) Maritime Liens and Mortgages, #$%9 (not 0et in "orce). 4@) Bessels under Construction, 4;3@ (not 0et in "orce). 4=) Frotocol to the 2ag e 5 les (The 4is!y 5 les) 4;3=.

95

4;) !nternational Carria e o" .oods, 4;3; (The To:yo 5 les. This is the C%! proposed multimodal convention (not 0et in "orce). 9:) Frotocol to the 2ag e 5 les, 4;@; (The 4is!y 7.+.5. <rotocol). 94) ;or:3Antwer1 5 les 4;@<, 4;;:, 4;;< (Iot an international convention). I.A. %an0 o" these conventions are also re"erred to as ,Arussels Conventions,, because the diplomatic con"erences at 'hich the0 'ere adopted 'ere held in Arussels and the Ael ian .overnment acted as depositar0 o" the Conventions and o" the related instruments o" rati"ication, accession and denunciation. The C%! has also produced the "ollo'in documents: 4) C%! Uniform 5 les for 7ea ,ay!ills (4;;:) (see te?t at (4;;4) 99 E%8C 34@-34;)/ 9) C%! 5 les for Electronic .ills of Lading (4;;:) (see te?t at (4;;4) 99 E%8C 39:-39>)/ 5) Charterpart0 8a0time #e"initions 4;=: (prepared Gointl0 'ith ."M(6, =6&A7.A and the G(.7 (see te?t at (4;=4) 49 E%8C <94-<93). <) 4oyage ('arter1arty Laytime "nter1retation 5 les #$$E )L4oylayr les $EM ) (prepared Gointl0 'ith ."M(6, =6&A7.A and "ntercargo) (see te?t in Eohn 7c'ofield, 8a0time and #emurra e, > Ed., 88F, 8ondon, 9::>, infra, Appendi?. Bo0la0rules ;5 superseded the Charterpart0 8a0time #e"initions 4;=: (supra). Dther Conventions dra"ted b0 the C%! adopted or in the process o" adoption b0 "M6, U&("T5AL, etc, include: a) !nternational Convention "or the 1ni"ication o" Certain $ules $e ardin the $eco nition and En"orcement o" Eud ments in %atters o" Collision/ b) A Convention on D""-Shore %obile Cra"t/ c) A Convention relatin to the !nternational Carria e o" Fassen ers and their 8u b0 !nland Water-Wa0 in Air-Cushion Behicles/ a e b0 Sea and

d) A Convention on Salva e - %ontreal, 4;=4 (no' the 7alvage (onvention #$A$, adopted under the auspices o" "M6). Dn the basis o" the C%! dra"t the 8e al Committee o" !%D prepared a dra"t convention on salva e. As a result o" these preparator0 'orCs, an !nternational Convention on Salva e 'as adopted in 4;=; under the auspices o" "M6 (see re"erence to "M6). e) A Convention on %aritime 8iens and %ort a es - 8isbon, 4;=> (no' the 1I& "M6 Convention on %aritime 8iens and %ort a es 4;;5). Dn the basis o" the C%! dra"t, an "M6 -U&(TA+ Eoint !nter overnmental .roup prepared a dra"t convention on maritime liens and mort a es. As a result o" these preparator0 'orCs, an !nternational Convention on %aritime 8iens and %ort a es 'as adopted in 4;;5 b0 a Con"erence convened under the auspices o" the 1I and "M6 (see re"erence to "M6). ") A Convention on Arrest o" Ships - 8isbon, 4;=>. The "M6-U&(TA+ Eoint !nter overnmental .roup o" E?perts on %aritime 8iens and %ort a es and $elated subGects is at present considerin a dra"t arrest convention prepared on the basis o" the C%! dra"t. Website: http:&&'''.comitemaritime.or &. Email: admini@cmi-imc.or . 9<

(M"3U&("T5AL +raft "nstr ment on Trans1ort Law - A proposed convention on maritime carria e o" oods and a host o" related matters, prepared b0 the (M" and U&("T5AL in 9::9, but not 0et adopted. +or the te?t, see http:&&'''.mc ill.ca&maritimela'&maritime-admiralt0&cmiuncitral&. +or commentar0, see Tetle0, ,$e"orm o" Carria e o" .oods - The 1IC!T$A8 #ra"t and Senate CD.SA 6;;, (9::5) 9= Tul. %ar. 8.E. 4-<</ also available on-line at $e"orm o" Carria e o" .oods -- The 1IC!T$A8 #ra"t and Senate CD.SA 6;; *.pd"-. See also the commentaries b0 U&(TA+, dated %arch >, 9::9, on-line at http:&&'''.mc ill.ca&maritimela'&maritimeadmiralt0&unctad&, and b0 U&E(E, the 1nited Iations Economic Commission "or Europe, dated +ebruar0 3, 9::9, on-line at http:&&'''.mc ill.ca&maritimela'&maritime-admiralt0&unece&. (MLA - See (anadian Maritime Law Association (supra). (.M.5. - *+r.: ,Con"ention relati"e au contrat de transport international des marchandises par route,-. (The Convention on the Contract "or the !nternational Carria e o" .oods b0 $oad, .eneva, 4;>3). (oasting Trade - Trade carried on bet'een nei hbourin ports o" the same countr0 b0 'a0 o" 'ater. This is contrar0 to "orei n trade. (ode de (ommerce - The +rench Commercial Code, promul ated b0 Emperor IapolKon Aonaparte in 4=:@. AooC !! dealt 'ith maritime la'. See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at p. 9>. A ne' Code de commerce 'as enacted in +rance as a schedule to #rdonnance no <TTT&43< du 3E septembre <TTT relati"e ? la partie Législati"e du code de commerce (E.D. September 94, 9:::, p. 4<,@=5). Drdonnance 9:::-;49 'as adopted pursuant to 8a' Io. ;;-4:@4 o" #ecember 43, 4;;; (E.D. #ecember 99, 4;;;, p. 4:,:;:), 'hich authoriHed the +rench .overnment to adopt the le islative parts o" certain codes b0 ordonnance. The ne' Code de commerce 'as amon the codes contemplated b0 that enablin le islation (see art. 4(<) o" 8a' Io. ;;-4:@4). +or the te?t o" the ne' Code o" Commerce on-line, see http:&&http:&&'''.le i"rance. ouv."r&WAspad&1nCodeW communX7codeXCCD%%E$8.rcv. The Code de commerce <TTT does not overn maritime la', althou h certain o" its provisions (e. . the provisions on commissionnaires de transport (arts. 8459-< to 8.459-3) are relevant to the carria e o" oods b0 'ater involvin freig't forwarders. (6G7A - Carriage of -oods by Sea Act7 34UN, <3 1.S. Code 45:4 et se:. The American statute enactin the 2ag e 5 les (infra). See te?t: Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at pp. 44;;-494:. See also 7enate (6G7A C$$, (infraA). (oles, 5ic'ard - Ship Registration% Law and $ractice, 9::9, 88F, 8ondon. (ollision *+r.: ,abordage,- *Span.: ,aborda>e,- *!tal.: ,urto, or ,collisione,- *.r.: ,2ollision,- ,an0 accident involvin t'o or more vessels 'hich causes loss or dama e even i" no actual contact has taCen place, (see Lis!on 5 les #$A9, infra). Contact bet'een a vessel and an obGect other than another vessel is an ,allision, (supra). See Tetle0, !nt6l %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at pp. 94>-93>. (ollision (onvention #$#0 - The !nternational Convention "or the 1ni"ication o" Certain $ules o" 8a' 'ith $espect to Collision Aet'een Bessels, adopted at Arussels, September 95, 4;4: and in "orce as o" %arch 4, 4;45. See (M" (supra). (ollision 5eg lations #$92 )(6L5EG7* - The !nternational $e ulations "or the Frevention o" Collisions at Sea, anne?ed to the Convention on the !nternational $e ulations "or the Frevention o" Collisions at Sea, adopted b0 the "M6 (infra) at 8ondon, Dctober 9:, 4;@9. %ost countries o" the 'orld are part0 to the ,CD8$E.S,, 'hich are also o"ten re"erred to as the , 5 les of t'e 5oad, (infra). See (M" (supra). (omitG Maritime "nternational - See (M" (supra). 9>

(omity - The doctrine requirin courts o" one state to reco niHe the la's o" "orei n states and Gud ments o" competent courts o" such states, in order to secure the reciprocal reco nition b0 that "orei n state o" the la's o" the "irst state and the Gud ments o" its courts. See "or e?ample, =ilton ". -uyot, 4>; 1.S. 445 at pp. 435-43< (4=;>)/ Morguard In"estments Ltd. ". ,e Sa"oye , *4;;:- 5 S.C.$. 4:@@, (4;;:) @3 #.8.$. (<th) 9>3/ .eals ". Saldanha, *9::5- 5 S.C.$. <43, (9::5) 95< #.8.$. (<th) 4. See also Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. 4:;>-4:;@/ Tetle0, Int'l C. of L., 4;;< at pp. ; and 59:/ Tetle0, !nt6l %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at p. <4<. (ommon )1 !lic* carriage - Carria e per"ormed b0 a ,common carrier,, 'ho undertaCes to transport the public6s oods "rom and to places advertised and at times advertised, usuall0 on re ular, ,liner, (infra) routes and under ,liner, !ills of lading, in consideration o" the pa0ment o" freig't (infra) b0 the s'i11er (infra). Common carria e is the opposite o" 1rivate carriage (infra). See Tetle0, ,Tu and To', (4;;4) !l #iritto %arittimo =;5 at p. =;=/ Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at pp. ;-4:, 5>/ Tetle0, !nt6l. %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at pp. 3>- 443. (ommon law - Common la' is the le al tradition 'hich evolved in En land "rom the 44th centur0 on'ards. !ts principles appear "or the most part in reported Gud ments, usuall0 o" the hi her courts, in relation to speci"ic "act situations arisin in disputes 'hich courts have adGudicated. The common la' is usuall0 much more detailed in its prescriptions than the civil law (supra). See See Tetle0, ,%i?ed Eurisdictions: Common 8a' vs Civil 8a' (Codi"ied and 1ncodi"ied) (Fart !), (4;;;-<) 1ni"orm 8a' $evie' >;4-34; at p. >;@/ Tetle0, !nt6l. %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at pp. @-=. (ommon vent re - A basic theme in maritime la', re"lectin the understandin o" maritime commerce as a Goint undertaCin on the part o" s'i11ers (infra), carriers (supra) and consignees (infra)/ shipo'ners and charterers/ and their respective insurers, 'ho (directl0 or indirectl0) con"ront the perils o" the sea to ether, and 'ho should there"ore share both the pro"its and the risCs attendant upon their combined operation. The common venture principle is evident in "ields such as the carria e o" oods (the 2ag e, 2ag e34is!y and 2am! rg 5 les (infra) all providin "or the sharin o" risCs o" sea oin transportation as bet'een shippers and consi nees, on the one hand, and carriers on the other), as 'ell as in general average (infra) and marine ins rance. The old Admiralt0 rule requirin dama es to be divided equall0 in the event o" a ship collision (supra), 'as also "ounded upon the common venture concept. See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. <<:, <@5/ Int'l C. of L., 4;;< at p. <@=/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. >5-><. (om1any of Master Mariners of (anada )T'e* - Website: http:&&'''.mastermariners.ca&. Email: shipmaster@sha'.ca. (om1arative fa lt B See 1ro1ortionate fa lt (infra). (om1re'ensive Environmental 5es1onse, (om1ensation and Lia!ility Act - See (E5(LA, supra (onc rs s - The rule that a"ter a shipo'ner6s limitation f nd (infra) has been dul0 constituted, other le al proceedin s in respect o" the casualt0 concerned must be sta0ed and all claims resultin "rom the casualt0 must be "iled a ainst the limitation "und and disposed o" in a sin le ,limitation proceedin ,. See the Limitation (onvention #$89 (infra) art. 9(<)/ the Limitation (onvention #$9% (infra) art. 45(4)/ the Merchant Shipping Act 344;, 1.2. 4;;> c. 94, Schedule @ Fart !!, para. =(5)/ 8a' no. 3@-> o" Eanuar0 5, 4;3@, art. 39 third para. (+rance)/ Supplemental $ule +(5) o" the 7 11lemental 5 les for (ertain Admiralty and Maritime (laims (infra) (1.S.)/ Marine Lia!ility Act, S.C. 9::4, c. 3, sect. 55(4)(c) (Canada). See Tetle0, Int'l. C. of L., 4;;< at pp. >4= and >9=.

93

(ondition - A term o" a contract, the breach o" 'hich 'ill allo' the o""ended part0 to demand rescission o" the contract (alon 'ith dama es). See also indeterminate term (infra) and warranty (infra). (onflict of Laws , also Cno'n as ,Frivate !nternational 8a',, 'as a term "irst coined b0 Dose1' 7tory in his 4st Edition, 4=5< o" that name. (See Tetle0, !ntl. C. o" 8., 4;;< at p. ;). There are three classic cate ories o" con"licts: 4) c'oice of law/ 9) c'oice of j risdiction, and 5) recognition and enforcement of foreign j dgments. Histociall0 con"lict theories have been based on "our approaches: 4) sin le concepts/ 9) multiple numbered rules/ 5) eneral te?ts/ <) national la's and international conventions (see Tetle0, Int'l C. of L., 4;;< at p. @). ! have proposed a "i"th approach a methodolo 0 to solve ever0 con"lict problem (Tetle0, ibid. at p. 5@ et se:.). (online!ill 2000 - See !ill of lading (supra). (onnecting factors )contacts* - !n a conflict of laws case, connectin "actors, or contacts, are "acts 'hich tend to connect a transaction or occurrence 'ith a particular la' or j risdiction (e. . the domicile, residence, nationalit0 or place o" incorporation o" the parties/ the place(s) o" conclusion or per"ormance o" the contract/ the place(s) 'here the tort or delict 'as committed or 'here its harm 'as "elt/ the "la or countr0 o" re istr0 o" the ship/ the shipo'ner6s base o" operations, etc.). Connectin "actors are o"ten taCen into consideration and 'ei hed b0 courts and arbitrators, in determinin the 1ro1er law (see infra) to appl0 to decide the case. See "or e?ample, Spar Aerospace Ltd. ". American Mobile Satellite Corp. *9::9- S.C.E. Io. >4 and Morguard In"estments Ltd. ". ,e Sa"oye *4;;:- 5 S.C.$. 4:@@. See Tetle0, Int'l. C. of L., 4;;< at pp. <4, 4;>-4;3. (onsignee - The part0 to 'hom deliver0 o" the oods is to be made under a contract "or the carria e o" oods b0 'ater. -Consolato del Mare- - A compilation o" maritime la' customs applied b0 consuls in the Western %editerranean (e. . Aarcelona, Balencia, %arseilles) in the late medieval and earl0 modern period. The Consolato is contained in the AooC o" the Consulate, the earliest printed edition o" 'hich, datin "rom 4<;<, is in Catalan. See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. 94-95/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at p. 45. Earlier manuscript editions o" the AooC e?ist, ho'ever. (onstr ctive total loss *+r.: ,perte réputée totale, or ,perte totale et implicite,- *Span.: ,pérdida reputada total,- *!tal.: ,perdita totale da abbandono,- *.r.: ,9ingierter !otalschaden,- - A constructive total loss occurs 'hen: 4) the insured propert0 is reasonabl0 abandoned on account o" its actual total loss appearin to be unavoidable, or because it could not be preserved "rom actual total loss 'ithout an e?penditure 'hich 'ould e?ceed its value/ 9) 'here the insured is deprived o" the possession o" the insured propert0 b0 a peril insured a ainst and it is either unliCel0 that he can recover it or too costl0 to attempt to do so/ or 5) 'here repairin the dama e to the insured propert0 'ould be too costl0. See Marine "ns rance Act, #$0% (1.2.) sect. 3:. See Tetle0, Int'l. M. 3:;. A. L., 9::5 at pp. 3:@-

(ontainers - Steel bo?es, usuall0 9: "eet or <: "eet in len th, used to carr0 car o aboard speciall0desi ned container s'i1s, as 'ell as on trucCs and rail cars. Containers can be "illed, sealed, transported b0 trucC or rail and loaded onto container s'i1s quicCl0, securel0 and much more cheapl0 than b0 the traditional !rea: ! l:, supra, method. Containers 'ere invented b0 an American, %alcom %c8ean (4;4<-9::4), o'ner o" Fan Atlantic Steamship Co. ('hich later became Sea-8and Service). The0 'ere "irst used aboard a converted tanCer, the SS !#EA8-Q, 'hose maiden vo0a e, "rom Ie'arC, Ie' Eerse0, to Houston, Te?as, occurred in April 4;>3. See 9@

Eim Wilson, TWhat i" there 'ere no bo?esWU, +airpla0 ma aHine, April 9@, 9::3 at p. <:. The use o" containers in intermodal carria e soon spread, touchin o"" the container revol tion in the transportation o" oods around the 'orld. (ontainer revol tion - See containers, supra. +or "urther in"ormation on the Tcontainer revolutionU, see %arc 8evinson, !he .o87 =ow the Shipping Container Made the /orld Smaller and the /orld 1conomy .igger, Frinceton 1niversit0 Fress, 9::3/ Arian E. Cudah0, .o8 .oats% =ow Container Ships Changed the /orld , +ordham 1niversit0 Fress, 9::3. See also #r. Salvatore $. %erco liano, TThe Container $evolutionU, on-line at: http:&&'''.sname.or &ne'sletter&SeaHistor0ContnrShps.pd". (ontainer s'i1 - A ship speciall0 desi ned "or the carria e o" containers. -contra proferentem- - ,a ainst the stipulator,. (A contract is interpreted a ainst the stipulator.) See #ntario .us Industries v. !he 9ederal Calumet *4;;9- 4 +.C. 9<> at p. 9>> (+ed. Ct. o" Canada), upheld (4;;5) 4>: I.$. 4<; (+ed. Ct. o" App. o" Canada). (ontract of affreig'tment )(6A* - A term used in En lish-speaCin countries to re"er to a tonnage contract (infra), also Cno'n as a ,volume contract,, bein a contract comprisin an undertaCin to ship a certain quantit0 "o" oods, durin a iven period o" time, b0 ships or other means, usuall0 to be desi nated later. The CDA must not be con"used 'ith the contract o" affreig'tment , (supra), 'hich is a c'arter1arty. (ontri! tory negligence - The "ormer method o" apportionment o" dama es under En lish common law, 'hich prohibited a plainti"" "rom recoverin an0 dama es "rom a de"endant in tort i" the plainti""6s o'n "ault or ne li ence had contributed to his o'n loss or dama e in even the sli htest de ree. !n traditional En lish admiralt0 la', the common law ,contributor0 ne li ence bar, to recover0 b0 ne li ent plainti""s did not appl0 to ship collisions, but rather dama es in cases 'here both vessels 'ere to blame "or the collision 'ere apportioned accordin to the divided damages (infra) rule, 'hich 'as later replaced b0 1ro1ortionate fa lt (infra) in the United ?ingdom, Canada and other Aritish Common'ealth j risdictions under national statutes ivin e""ect to the (ollision (onvention #$#0 (supra). Contributor0 ne li ence 'as replaced b0 proportionate "ault in En lish common law b0 the Law Reform FContributory 6egligenceA Act7 34V;, = 7 ; .eo. 3, c. 9=, althou h several Canadian common law provinces had enacted such le islation some t'ent0 0ears earlier. !n (anadian maritime law, the contributor0 ne li ence bar 'as replaced b0 proportionate "ault "or maritime torts other than ship collisions b0 the Supreme Court o" Canada6s decision in .ow *alley =us0y F.ermudaA Ltd. v. Saint Dohn Shipbuilding Ltd. *4;;@- 5 S.C.$. 494:, (4;;@) 4>5 #.8.$.(<th) 5=>. See Tetle0, Int'l C. of L., 4;;< at pp. <@3-<@@, <@;-<=4, <==/ Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. <;->:, =3, ;5, 4>; and 44;:/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. 94;-999, 95>. (oo:e, D.2.7.N ;o ng, T.N Taylor, A.N ?im!all, D.+.N Martows:i, +.N and Lam!ert, L. Bo0a e Charters, 9 Ed., 9::4, 88F 8imited, 8ondon. (or!ier, "sa!elle - La notion >uridi:ue d'armateur, 4;;;, Fresses 1niversitaires de +rance, Faris. See also #r. Corbier6s 'ebsite at: http:&&'''.isabellecorbier.com&. (or1orate veil - Althou h a corporation, 'ith its separate le al personalit0, ordinaril0 has ri hts and obli ations totall0 distinct "rom those o" its shareholders, courts sometimes , 1ierce the corporate veil, so as to hold the shareholders personall0 liable "or the liabilities o" the corporation. Courts ma0 also ,lift the corporate veil,, in order to determine 'ho actuall0 controls the corporation or, in the conflict of laws, to ascertain the corporation6s true contacts. See Tetle0, Int'l C. of L., 4;;< at pp. 4>;, 94;-99<.

9=

(o ntry +amage - #ama e to baled or ba ed oods (e. . cotton) caused b0 e?cessive moisture "rom damp round or e?posure to 'eather, or b0 rit, dust or sand ashore. (o rt of A11eal - The Court o" Appeal o" the United ?ingdom. An e?ample o" the approved citation is *4;=4- 9 J.A. 45@ (C.A.). (o rt of A11eals - The 1nited States Court o" Appeals 'hich is divided into thirteen circuits. An e?ample o" the citation is: 4:: +. 9d =@4 (> Cir. 4;5;). (5"7TAL - Contract $e ardin an !nterim Supplement to TanCer 8iabilit0 "or Dil Follution. This contract 'as in e""ect until +ebruar0 9:, 4;;@ and 'as not rene'ed a"ter that date. See also the re"erences to <LAT6 (infra) and T64AL6< (infra). -cumul- - A +rench civil law term re"errin to the combinin o" contractual and delictual (i.e. tortious) recourses in a sin le la'suit. %an0 modern civil codes prohibit ,cumul,, b0 providin that neither part0 to a contract ma0 avoid the rules overnin contractual liabilit0 b0 optin "or rules more "avourable to him (i.e. rules o" delictual, or ,e?tra-contractual,, liabilit0). See, "or e?ample, the JuKbec Civil Code 4;;4 at art. 4<>=, second para. See also art. 455(5) o" the S'iss 9ederal Statute on $ri"ate International Law, 4;=@ and art. <(9) o" the Ietherlands Conflict of Maritime Laws Act, 4;;5. See Tetle0, !nt6l. C. o" 8., 4;;< at pp. <>5-<></ Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. @4=-@4;/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at p. 4:3. ( rtis, 7imon - - !he Law of Shipbuilding Contracts, 5 Ed., 9::9, 88F, 8ondon. -custodia legis- - (,custod0 o" the la',) - E?penses in custodia legis are incurred, in the common interest o" the creditors, to preserve the ship durin the period o" its arrest or attac'ment. Such e?penses, to ether 'ith costs o" arrest and sale o" the ship, are ordinaril0 ranCed immediatel0 a"ter ,s1ecial legislative rig'ts, (infra) and ahead o" all other maritime claims. See enerall0 Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at Chap. @, pp. 995-939/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. <@;-<=4.

+
+.L.5. - #ominion 8a' $eports. $eports o" Canadian decisions dra'n "rom all Canadian courts and published b0 Canada 8a' AooC 8td. Email (Customer Service #epartment, Toronto): 'ebsupport@canadala'booC.ca/ Website: http:&&canadala'booC.ca&. An e?ample o" the citation is (4;=<) = #.8.$. (<th) 495. +M= - #roit %aritime +ranMais. The leadin maritime la' reports o" +rance, published monthl0 in consecutivel0 numbered issues, 'ith an annual inde?, published in a supplement called ,#%+ Hors SKrie,. An e?ample o" the citation o" a Gud ment is Cour de Cassation, Eanuar0 @, 4;@:, #%+ 4;@:, 495. The publisher is Oditeur S.A. 8am0. The Editor is StKphane %iribel. +al'o sie University Marine and Environmental Law "nstit te - #alhousie 1niversit0 School o" 8a', Hali"a?, Iova Scotia, Canada. Website: http:&&la'.dal.ca&%E8AW. Email: mela'@dal.ca. +alian Maritime University - #alian, Feople6s $epublic o" China. http:&&'''.chinate"l.com&liaonin &teach&dlhs.html Email: "aodmu@0ahoo.com.cn. Website:

+arling, G. / 7mit', (. - L#9 344T and the 6ew Sal"age Con"ention, 4;;4, 8lo0d6s, 8ondon. +avid, 5enG / Da ffretB71inosi, (amille - Les grands syst+mes de droit contemporains, 44 Ed., 9::9, #alloH, Faris.

9;

+avies, M. / +ic:ey, A. - Shipping Law, 5 Ed., 9::<, Thomson 8a'booC Co., S0dne0. +avis, Mar: - .areboat Charters, 9 Ed., 88F 8imited, 8ondon, 9::>. +e la 5 e, (olin / Anderson, ('arles .. - Shipping and the 1n"ironment% Law and $ractice, 88F 8imited, 8ondon, 4;;=. -(e minimis non curat le'- - (,The la' does not concern itsel" 'ith tri"les,) - e. ., trivial diver ences "rom contractual terms do not constitute actionable breaches o" the contract. +or the application o" this ma?im to a c'arter1arty !y demise (supra), see Sail Labrador Ltd. ". !he Challenge #ne *4;;3- 5 +.C. =94 at pp. =<@-=<= (+ed. Ct. o" Can.), reversed *4;;@- 5 +.C. 4><, (4;;@) 949 I.$. 9>3 (+ed. Ct. o" App.), reversed (4;;=) 95> I.$. 9:4 at pp. 9<9-9<> (Supr. Ct. o" Can.), upholdin the trial Gud e6s interpretation o" the de minimis principle, but holdin the doctrine inapplicable to the "acts o" the case at bar. +eadfreig't *+r.: ,fau8 fret,- - A sum o" dama es pa0able b0 the charterer to the shipo'ner or intermediate charterer 'here the charterer loads less car o than promised in the charterpart0. See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. @>>-@>3/ Tetle0, !nt6l. %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at p. 4<4. +eadweig't cargo ca1acity - See ,Tons / Tonnage, (infra). +eadweig't tonnage - See ,Tons / Tonnage, (infra). +e!attista, ('arles, Sale of -oods Carried by Sea, 9 Ed., 4;;=, Autter'orths, 8ondon. -(elegatus non potest delegare- - A dele ate ma0 not in turn dele ate to someone else. +emise c'arter1arty - See c'arter1arty (supra). +emise cla se *+r.: ,clause de dé"olution,- *Span.: ,clPusula de cesi@n,- *!tal.: ,clausola di cessione,- *.r.: ,,emise&2lausel,- - A clause in a !ill of lading (supra) providin that, unless the ship is o'ned b0 or chartered b0 demise to the part0 'ho issues the bill, the shipo'ner or demise charterer is the carrier (supra). See Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at pp. 9<=-9>=/ Tetle0, !nt6l. %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at p. 4:<. See also "dentity of carrier cla se (infra). +em rrage *+r.: ,surestaries,- *Span.: ,demora, or ,sobrestadBas,- *.r.: ,Liegegeld,- - !n a voyage c'arter1arty (supra), an a reed amount pa0able to the shipo'ner b0 the charterer in respect o" dela0 in loadin or dischar in the vessel be0ond the laytime (infra), "or 'hich the o'ner is not responsible. !n the United ?ingdom, demurra e is re arded as liquidated dama es, 'hile in the 1nited States, it is seen as e?tended freig't (infra). See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. @>3-@>@, @@:-@@4/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at p. 4<4 "ootnote ;=. -()pe*age- *Span.: ,dépeGage, or ,fragmentaci@n,- *!tal.: ,frammenta(ione,- - A +rench conflict of laws (supra) term re"errin to the application o" t'o or more 1ro1er laws (infra), each o" 'hich is properl0 applicable to a di""erent le al issue arisin in the problem. +or e?ample, in a ship collision (supra) at sea, dépeGage could permit the application o" di""erent la's, includin : a) the la' o" responsibilit0 as bet'een the ships involved/ b) the la' o" dama es (includin the recoverabilit0 pure economic loss)/ c) the la' o" contract applicable as bet'een passen ers on one ship and that ship/ d) the la' applicable to car o on one ship and that ship/ e) the la' applicable as bet'een car o and passen ers on one ship and the other ship/ ") the la' overnin the ri ht to limit liabilit0 o" each shipo'ner/ ) the la' applicable to the constitution and calculation o" the limitation f nd (infra) o" each ship and h) the la' o" the distribution and mars'alling (infra) o" such limitation "unds. The 5ome (onvention #$A0 (infra) at art. 5(4) permits dépeGage b0

5:

providin : ,A0 their choice the parties can select the la' applicable to the 'hole or a 1art only o" the contract, (emphasis added). See Tetle0, !nt6l C. o" 8, 4;;< at pp. <9-<5. +erec'o Mar0timo - A 'ebsite o" linCs to Spanish-lan ua e versions o" various international maritime la' conventions and Spanish maritime le islation, and related linCs to various maritime la' or aniHations, maintained b0 the 1niversidad d6Alicante, Spain. Website: http:&&'''.ua.es&es&servicios&Guridico&derechomarit.htm. +eviation *+r.: ,déroutement,- *Span.: ,des"iaci@n,- *!tal.: ,de"ia(ione,- *.r.: ,2ursabweichung,- A departure b0 the carrier (supra) o" oods b0 sea "rom the a reed or customar0 eo raphic route, done 'ithout the consent o" the car o interests. At common law, a deviation deprived car o o" its insurance covera e, so that the carrier 'as treated as the insurer o" the oods. 1nder the 2ag e and 2ag e34is!y 5 les (infra), art. < par. <, an0 deviation in savin or attemptin to save li"e or propert0 at sea, or an0 ,reasonable deviation,, is not deemed to be a breach o" the convention or o" the contract o" carria e. An unreasonable eo raphic deviation, ho'ever, ma0 be considered as a ,f ndamental !reac', o" the contract 'hich causes the carrier to lose the bene"it o" the pacCa e or pacCa e&Cilo limitation, and should also result in loss o" his other de"ences under the convention and the contract. (Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at pp. 4::-454/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. =;-;:.) !n the 1nited States, unGusti"ied decC carria e is also o"ten re"erred to as a ,deviation,. +irect action - The ri ht o" a third part0 'ho has a liabilit0 claim a ainst an insured to proceed directl0 b0 suit a ainst the insurer, usuall0 because the insured has been declared banCrupt or has become insolvent. !n most j risdictions, direct action is permitted onl0 b0 statute. See, "or e?ample, the JuKbec Civil Code 4;;<, arts. 9>:: to 9>:9 and 939=, and the 1nited 2in dom6s !hird $arties FRights Against InsurersA Act 34UT, 9: 7 94 .eo. >, c. 9>. See Tetle0, Int'l C. of L., 4;;< at pp. 539-5=4/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. 34@-34;. See also .re or0 +ossion, ,An eternal trian le at sea: 8oss o" insurance cover under a direct action in marine liabilit0 insurance,, %asters o" 8a's thesis, published in (9::5) Dura 9alconis, no. 9 o" the 2atholieCe 1niversiteit 8euven, Ael ium. +ireito Mar0timo e +ireito do Mar- A 'ebsite o" Fortu uese maritime la' and le islation, 'ith man0 linCs to other maritime la' sites, maintained b0 the !nstituto FolitKcnico in AeGa, Fortu al. Website: http:&&'''.esti &ipbeGa.pt&YacZdireito&dmar.html. +is1atc' *+r.: ,dispatch&money, or ,prime de célérité,- *Span.:,premio por despacho adelantado,*!tal.: ,riscatto di stallia,- *.r.: ,1ilgeld,- - !n a voyage c'arter1arty (supra), an a reed amount pa0able b0 the shipo'ner i" the vessel completes loadin or dischar in be"ore the laytime (infra) has e?pired. +is1lacement tonnage - See ,Tons / Tonnage, (infra). +is1onent owner - A person, such as a bareboat or time charterer, 'ho, 'hile not bein the re istered o'ner o" a ship, nevertheless has the ri ht to ,dispose o" it, (i.e. to control its commercial operation), notabl0 b0 sub-charterin it to a third part0. Althou h lacCin title to the vessel, the disponent o'ner ma0 have man0 o" the ri hts and responsibilities o" the o'ner. See Somareff v. A.S 4;=; A%C 955: at p. 955= (#. I.E. 4;=;)/ Arb. of Andros Compania v. Marc Rich 4;@= A%C 94:= at p. 94:;, note 4 (9 Cir. 4;@=). The disponent o'ner ma0 be an a ent o" the shipo'ner: !he 6ortuna 4;>> A%C 4>@3 at p. 4>@= (S.#. I.P. 4;>>). He ma0 also be the ship6s mana er: Asty Maritime v. Rocco -iuseppe *4;=>- 9 8lo0d6s $ep. 4:; (C.A.). +iversity j risdiction - See ,Erie doctrine, (infra).

54

+ivided damages - The "ormer method o" apportionin dama es "rom a ship collision under the general maritime law o" civil law countries, as 'ell as under En lish and American admiralt0 la', 'hereb0 such dama es 'ere e@ ally divided bet'een the ships involved in the collision, re ardless o" the de ree to 'hich each o" them 'as to blame. #ivided dama es di""ered "rom the traditional contri! tory negligence (supra) rule o" apportionment o" dama es, 'hich precluded a plainti"" "rom recoverin an0 dama es "rom a ne li ent de"endant i" the plainti"" himsel" 'as at "ault in even the sli htest de ree. The divided dama es method 'as eventuall0 replaced b0 the 1ro1ortionate fa lt (infra) method o" apportionment under the (ollision (onvention #$#0 (supra) and national le islation ivin e""ect to that Convention, and in the 1nited States, b0 the Supreme Court6s decision in Mnited States v. Reliable !ransfer Co. <94 1.S. 5;@, 4;@> A%C ><4, *4;@>- 9 8lo0d6s $ep. 9=3 (4;@>). See Tetle0, !nt6l C. o" 8., 4;;< at pp. <@4-<=5, <=;, <;@/ Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at p. >:/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. 995-99=. +oc: recei1t - A receipt issued b0 the carrier (supra) attestin to the deliver0 o" the oods to the docC prior to their loadin aboard the ship. +oc:ray - Cases and Materials on the Carriage of -oods by Sea , Fro"essional AooCs, Abin don, 4;=@. +octorsC (ommons - %aritime la' in En land "ell 'ithin the e?clusive j risdiction o" the Hi h Court o" Admiralt0 'hich sat at #octors6 Commons in 8ondon "rom shortl0 a"ter the .reat +ire o" 4333 until its dissolution. Civil la' 'as pleaded in the court. !n 4=>=, #octors6 Commons 'as abolished. See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. 55-5>/ Tetle0, !nt6l. %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at p. 533. See also 2ortonCs ?ey (infra). +oc mentary credit *+r.: ,crédit documentaire,- *Span.: ,crédito documentario,- *!tal.: ,credito documentario,- *.r.: ,,o0umentena00rediti",- - A documentar0 credit is de"ined as "ollo's in the Uniform ( stoms and <ractice for +oc mentary (redits , 9::@ $evision (1CF 3::) (infra), o" the "nternational ('am!er of (ommerce, Faris (see !.C.C. Fublication Io. 3::), at art. 9: ,an0 arran ement, ho'ever named or described, 'hereb0 a banC (the ,!ssuin AanC,) actin at the request and on the instructions o" a customer (the ,Applicant,) or on its o'n behal", i. is to maCe a pa0ment to or to the order o" a third part0 (the ,Aene"iciar0,), or is to accept and pa0 bills o" e?chan e (#ra"t(s)) dra'n b0 the Aene"iciar0, or ii. authorises another banC to e""ect such pa0ment or to accept and pa0 such bills o" e?chan e (#ra"t(s)), or iii. authorises another banC to ne otiate, a ainst stipulated document(s), provided that the terms and conditions o" the Credit are complied 'ith., #ocumentar0 credits, also Cno'n as ,banCer6s commercial credits, and ,commercial letters o" credit,, provide the seller in an international sale o" oods 'ith securit0 that he 'ill be paid "or his oods a"ter the0 are shipped, even i" the bu0er "ails to pa0 "or them or i" his pa0ment is dishonoured. An international sale o" oods involvin a documentar0 credit t0picall0 involves the "ollo'in steps: The bu0er o" the oods applies in his o'n countr0 to his banC (the !ssuin AanC), on the banC6s standard "orm, to open a credit in "avour o" the seller in the other countr0. The openin o" the credit involves an undertaCin b0 the !ssuin AanC to pa0 the contract price o" the oods or to accept or pa0 a bill o" e?chan e (e. . a dra"t) dra'n b0 the seller "or that sum. The !ssuin AanC ma0 require the bu0er to provide "unds to cover its prospective liabilit0 to the seller, or ma0 rel0 on the bu0er6s credit'orthiness. The standard conditions o" openin the credit ma0 also provide the !ssuin AanC 'ith a char e on the oods and the shippin documents relatin to them. Dnce the !ssuin AanC approves the openin o" the credit, it asCs the ,Advisin AanC, in the seller6s countr0 to advise the 59

seller o" the openin o" the credit in his "avour. The Advisin AanC ma0 also undertaCe to pa0 the seller, in 'hich case the credit is re"erred to as a ,con"irmed, (as opposed to an ,uncon"irmed,) credit. The seller then provides the Advisin AanC 'ith the ,shippin documents, (includin , amon others, the invoice "or the oods, the !ill of lading (supra) or sea way!ill (supra) and, in C!+ sales, the marine ins rance polic0). !" the documents are in order, the Advisin AanC pa0s, accepts or ne otiates the bill o" e?chan e dra'n b0 the bu0er, thus pa0in the seller "or the oods and claims reimbursement "rom the !ssuin AanC. The Advisin AanC then sends the shippin documents to the !ssuin AanC 'hich releases them to the bu0er, to permit him to taCe deliver0 o" the oods at the port o" dischar e. The ,!ssuin AanC, maCes a char e "or issuin the credit, 'hich is passed on to the bu0er. See enerall0, $o0 .oode, Commercial 8a', 9 Ed., Fen uin AooCs, 8ondon, 4;;> at pp. ;3:-4:9>. "(omaine national" (,national domain,) - A +rench civil law term re"errin to all propert0 and ri hts, moveable and immoveable, belon in to the +rench State, includin both propert0 "ormin part o" the ,domaine 1rivG, (infra) and propert0 "ormin part o" the ,domaine 1 !lic, (infra) o" the State. See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at p. 49:3. "(omaine priv)" - (,private domain,) - A +rench civil law term re"errin to all propert0 o" the +rench State 'hich is capable o" bein o'ned, includin vessels. Such propert0 is unseiHable, ma0 be used onl0 "or its stated purpose, ma0 never be e?chan ed or leased "or another person6s use and must be sold 'hen it can no lon er be used "or the stipulated service or use. See Tetle0, M.L.C.., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. 49:3-49:=. "(omaine public" - (,public domain,) - A +rench civil la' term re"errin to all propert0 o" the +rench State 'hich is incapable o" o'nership b0 virtue o" its nature or the purpose "or 'hich the propert0 is destined. Such propert0 is unseiHable, inalienable and imprescriptible. See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. 49:3-49:@. -+ominant mind- - The dominant mind test permits the Gud e to determine 'hether the tu or the to' controls the to'a e operation and aids in determinin 'hether the contract is ,o", services (controlled b0 the to') or ,"or, services (controlled b0 the tu ). !n this 'a0, liabilities "or loss or dama e arisin out o" to'a e ma0 be allocated. (!n particular, the Gud e is the dominant mind.). See Tetle0, ,Tu and To' (A Comparative Stud0 - Common 8a'&Civil 8a' - 1.S., 1.2., Canada and +rance), Il ,iritto Marittimo 4;;4, =;5-;95/ Tetle0, !nt6l %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at pp. 4=5-4=<. See also towage (infra). +o !le actiona!ility - The "ormer En lish common law rule o" conflict of laws in tort, 'hereb0 a suit could onl0 be maintained in En land "or an alle ed 'ron committed abroad i" the 'ron 'ould have been actionable had it been committed in En land and i" it 'as also civill0 actionable in the place 'here it 'as committed. See Chaplin v. .oys *4;@4- A.C. 5>3 (H.8.). The double actionabilit0 rule has been lar el0 repealed in En land b0 Fart !!! o" the $ri"ate International Law FMiscellaneous $ro"isionsA Act 344;, 1.2. 4;;>, c. <9. !n Canada, the ver0 similar ,actionable and not Gusti"iable, common law rule o" tort con"licts, adopted b0 the Supreme Court o" Canada in McLean v. $ettigrew *4;<>- S.C.$. 39, 'as abandoned b0 the Supreme Court, in "avour o" the rule o" le8 loci delicti (subGect to a "le?ibilit0 e?ception) in !olofson v. Densen and -agnon v. Lucas *4;;<- 5 S.C.$. 4:99. See Tetle0, Int'l C. of L., 4;;< at pp. <5:-<5>, <5@-<5=/ Tetle0, ,Ie' #evelopments in Frivate !nternational 8a': !olofson v. Densen and -agnon v. Lucas, (4;;3) <9 Am. E. Comp. 8. 3<@. +o glas / Geen on t'e Law of 2ar!o rs, (oasts and <ilotage - > Ed., 4;;@ ($. #ou las, F. 8ane 7 %. Feto, eds.), 88F, 8ondon. +raft "nstr ment on Trans1ort Law - See (M"3U&("T5AL +raft "nstr ment on Trans1ort Law (supra). 55

+roit Maritime =ranFais - See +M=, (supra). d <ontavice B Le statut des na"ires7 Librairies techni:ues, Faris, 4;@3. d <ontavice - !ransport et Affr+tement Maritimes, 9e Ed., #elmas, Faris, 4;;: d <ontavice / <. (ordier - La Mer et le ,roit, F1+, Faris, 4;=<. + nnage - %aterial (usuall0 lumber) used to secure car o in containers and ships6 holds in order to prevent shi"tin and resultin dama e durin the vo0a e. See !he Milly -regos, S.%.A. Io. 94;: (Arb. I.P. 4;=3)/ M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at p. ><>.

E
E.(. 5eg lation 443200# - The $e ulation o" the Council o" the E ro1ean Union on Eurisdiction and the $eco nition and En"orcement o" Eud ments in Civil and Commercial %atters, adopted #ecember 99, 9::: (D.E.E.C. 8 49&4 to 8 49&95, Eanuar0 43, 9::4) and in "orce %arch 4, 9::9 "or all E.1. countries e?cept #enmarC. The $e ulation is ver0 similar to the .r ssels (onvention #$%A, supra, 'hich it replaces. #enmarC continues to be bound b0 that Convention. See Tetle0, !nt6l. %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at pp. <94-<99. E.5. - The En lish $eports. $eprint o" ei hteenth and nineteenth centur0 la' reports. An e?ample o" a citation ('ith the citation o" the ori inal report included) is (4=5;) 4 W. $ob. 444, 433 E.$. >4<. Economic loss - Economic loss is "inancial dama es sustained as a result o" a tort or delict. .enerall0, the claimant ma0 not recover loss o" pro"it unless there is ph0sical dama e under the common law, but ma0 do so under the civil law. See Murphy v. .rentwood ,istrict Council *4;;44 A.C. 5;=, *4;;:- 9 All E.$. ;4=, *4;;:- 5 W.8.$. <4< (H.8.)/ Robins ,ry ,oc0 Co. v. +lint 9@> 1.S. 5:5, 4;9= A%C 34 (4;9@)/ C6R v. 6ors0 $acific Steamship Co. F!he Der"is CrownA *4;;9- 4 S.C.$. 4:94, (4;;9) ;4 #.8.$.(<th) 9=;/ .ow *alley =us0y F.ermudaA Ltd. v. Saint Dohn Shipbuilding Ltd. *4;;@- 5 S.C.$. 494:, (4;;@) 4>5 #.8.$.(<th) 5=>. See also Tetle0, Int'l. C. of L., 4;;< at pp. @4;-@9@/ Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. 454-45>/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. 9>>-9>;. -ejusdem generis- - ,o" the same Cind,. See 9oscolo Mango ". Stag Line *4;54- 9 2.A. <= at pp. >@->;, 3>-3=, @9-@3, (4;54) 5; 8l. 8. $ep. 4:4 at pp. 4:3-4:@, 4:;-44:, 445-44<. (C.A.). See Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at pp. >4>->43. Omerigon, ..BM. - !raité des assurances et des contrats ? la grosse , 4@=5, Faris (translated as An Essa0 on %aritime 8oans, 4=44 (E.E. Hall, trans.), IicClin, Aaltimore. Endorsee - A part0 to 'hom an order !ill of lading (supra) is endorsed b0 the ori inal consignee (supra) or a previous endorsee o" that same bill o" ladin . See Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at p. 4=5. -Englis' law- )-Law of England-* : All la' applicable in En land. The maGor sources o" En lish la' are: 4) the common law o" En land/ 9) the rules o" e@ ity/ and 5) statutes and re ulations o" the United ?ingdom applicable to En land. Dther sources o" En lish la' include En lish admiralt0 (i.e. maritime) la', the Law Merc'ant, the ecclesiastical la' (o" the Church o" En land) and custom. I.A.: 4) Sometimes, the term ,En lish la', has been used in a more restrictive sense, as re"errin to En lish common law, as opposed to the stat tory law applicable to En land. 9) En lish common law applies not onl0 in En land, but also in Wales and Iorthern !reland. 5) The rules o" e@ ity, althou h still distinct "rom those o" En lish common law, are considered to have 5<

been ,"used, 'ith the common law and are no' administered b0 the same courts. <) !n Scotland, 7cots law (an uncodi"ied civil law) prevails, rather than En lish common law. 7cots law, nevertheless, has been stron l0 in"luenced b0 En lish common law and b0 1.2. statutes. (e. . En lish and Scottish la' o" marine pollution are the same, as per Steel, E. in !he Sea 1mpress *9::5- 4 8lo0d6s $ep. 495 at p. 49@.) See also United ?ingdom and Law of t'e United ?ingdom, infra. Environmental Lia!ility +irective - See E.U. Environmental Lia!ility +irective, infra. E@ asis - European Jualit0 Shippin !n"ormation S0stem. An or aniHation estabished in Iovember 4;;@ b0 the European Commission, in conGunction 'ith the 1nited 2in dom .overnment, to promote sa"et0 in international shippin , b0 developin an in"ormation s0stem collatin e?istin sa"et0-related in"ormation on ships "rom both public and private sources in various countries and maCin it available on the !nternet. EJ1AS!S is mana ed "rom Faris. Website: http:&&'''.equasis.or &/ email: secretariat@equasis.or &. E@ ity *+r.: ,é:uité, *Span.: ,e:uidad,- *!tal.: ,e:uit?,- *.r.: ,.illig0eitsrecht,- - A principle o" "undamental "airness and Gustice applied b0 admiralt0 courts and arbitrators in maritime disputes 'here the circumstances o" the case 'arrant doin so (e. . alterin the normal order o" ranCin o" maritime claims, reco niHin ,equitable, liens, dismissin claims on rounds o" lac'es (infra), mars'alling (infra), a'ardin certain post-arrest e?penses as custodia legis e?penses (supra) 'here the0 have been incurred in the common interest o" all the creditors even thou h the0 have not been previousl0 authoriHed b0 the court). As used in maritime la', the term ,equit0, must not be con"used 'ith ,Equit0,, bein that bod0 o" la' administered b0 a court o" Equit0 such as the Court o" Chancer0 in En land, be"ore the consolidation o" the courts in the 1.2. in 4=@5. See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. 95>-953, =>>-=>3 and =>;-=35/ Tetle0, !nt6l. %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at pp. ><>3/ +rench Civil Code art. 445>/ JuKbec Civil Code art. 4<5</ 8ouisiana Civil Code arts. 94 and 9:>>. Erie doctrine - The American rule that a 1.S. "ederal district court e?ercisin ,diversit0 Gurisdiction, (i.e. j risdiction in a case in 'hich the parties are "rom di""erent 1.S. states or 'here a "orei ner sues an American citiHen), must appl0 the la' o" the 1.S. state in 'hich it is sittin . See 1rie Railroad Co. v. !omp0ins 5:< 1.S. 3< (4;5=)/ 2la8on v. Stentor 1lectric 545 1.S. <=@ (4;<4). See also Tetle0, !nt6l C. o" 8., 4;;< at pp. 3:=-3:;. E7(A< - Economic and Social Commission "or Asia and the Faci"ic, Aan CoC, Thailand. Email: 'ebmaster@unescap.or / 'ebsite: http:&&'''.unescap.or &. Esto11el - Estoppel is a common law bar to den0in , in some cases, a "act 'hich a part0 has alread0 acCno'led ed, e. ., the issuer o" a clean !ill of lading (supra) is estopped "rom contradictin it as a ainst a third part0 'ho has relied on it. (Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at pp. 9@59=:/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at p. @>.) ,9ins de non&rece"oir,, or ,irrece"abilité, (,inadmissibilit0,), is not the civil law equivalent o" estoppel, but is a eneric term re"errin to various e?ceptions to ri hts or procedures that prevent a claim or de"ence. ( 6ational .an0 of Canada v. Soucisse, *4;=4- 9 S.C.$. 55; at p. 53:). ETL - European Transport 8a'. A revie' containin articles and Gud ments on air, land and sea transport la'. An e?ample o" the citation o" a Gud ment is =of *an .eroep te Antwerpen, Ean. @, 4;@4, *4;@4- ET8 495. The Editor is 5o!ert ,ijffels (infra), abl0 assisted b0 %arie-Faule SercC as #irector. E.U. Environmental Lia!ility +irective 20043E8 - #irective 9::<&5> o" the European Farliament and o" the Council o" 94 April 9::< on environmental liabilit0 'ith re ard to the prevention and remed0in o" environmental dama e, *9::<- DE 84<5&>3, in "orce April 94, 9::<. All %ember 5>

States o" the E ro1ean Union (infra) must brin their la's, re ulations and administrative provisions into compliance 'ith the #irective b0 April 5:, 9::@. The #irective provides a re ime "or the prevention and remedin o" environmental dama e, at the e?pense o" the polluter, 'hich 'ill cover pollution caused b0 haHardous and no?ious substances and b0 bunCer oil "rom ships in the E.1., until the 2&7 (onvention #$$% (infra) and the . n:er <oll tion (onvention 200# (supra) come into "orce "or E.1. countries. See %al orHata A. Iestero'icH, ,The application o" the Environmental 8iabilit0 #irective to dama e caused b0 pollution "rom ships, *9::@- 8%C8J 4:@445. E ro - The currenc0 o" the E ro1ean Union (infra). This currenc0 is no' used in all E.1. countries e?cept #enmarC, S'eden, the 1nited 2in dom and the ten ne' countries 'hich Goin the E.1. on %a0 4, 9::<, but it is anticipated that it 'ill eventuall0 be the currenc0 o" all E.1. countries. As at %arch 9::@, one Euro ([) 'as 'orth appro?. \4.>< Cdn, or \4.54 1.S., or ]:.3= (pound sterlin ), or 4.54 7.+.5.Cs (infra). E ro1ean =ree Trade Association )E.=.T.A.* - The association o" !celand, 8iechtenstein, Ior'a0 and S'itHerland in a "ree trade Hone, as provided "or b0 the E.+.T.A. Convention o" 4;3:. 6...: Austria, +inland and S'eden are no lon er members o" E.+.T.A., havin Goined the E ro1ean Union. Website: http:&&'''.e"ta.int&. Email: mail. va@e"ta.int. E ro1ean Maritime Law 6rganisation - (E%8D) - Website: http:&&'''.emlo.or & E ro1ean Trans1ort Law - See ETL (supra). E ro1ean Union *+r.: ,Mnion européenne,- *Span.: ,Mni@n europea,- *!tal:, Mnione europea,*.r.: ,1urop)ische Mnion,- - The present name "or the "ormer ,European Economic Communit0, (E.E.C.), consistin o" Austria, Ael ium, #enmarC, +inland, +rance, .erman0, .reece, !reland, !tal0, 8u?embour , the Ietherlands, Fortu al, Spain, S'eden and the United ?ingdom. As o" %a0 4, 9::<, the European 1nion includes ten additional countries, namel0, the CHech $epublic, C0prus, Estonia, 8atvia, 8ithuania, Hun ar0, %alta, Foland, Slovenia and SlovaCia, thus brin in the total number o" E.1. %ember States to 9>, and Aul aria $omania Goined the E.1. as o" 4 Eanuar0 9::@, brin in the total number o" %ember States to 9@. Website: http:&&'''.europa.eu.int&. Email: europa@cec.eu.int. Evasion of t'e law - A principle o" the conflict of laws, better Cno'n in civilian j risdictions (under the +rench name ,fraude ? la loi,) *Span.: ,fraude de ley,- *!tal.: ,"iola(ione di norme di legge,- *.r.: ,Rechtswidrige Mmgehung eines -eset(es,- than in common law j risdictions, 'hich consists o" the intentional and improper manipulation o" contacts (connectin "actors), in order to avoid invalidit0 under the principle o" 1 !lic order31 !lic 1olicy (infra), to avoid a compulsoril0 applicable la' or to avoid the most appropriate j risdiction. Evasion o" the la' must be contrasted 'ith ,avoidance of t'e law, (supraA, 'hich is the acceptable arran ement o" connectin "actors "or a le itimate purpose in an a reement, usuall0 bet'een t'o equal bar ainin parties, in order to select an applicable la' or j risdiction. (Tetle0, Int'l C. of L., 4;;< at pp. 45>-4@9.) E>. (.5. - E?chequer Courts $eports. Canadian Admiralt0 court reports o" "irst instance and in appeal in Canada be innin in 4=@> and endin in 4;@: upon bein replaced b0 +ederal Court $eports (+.C.). An e?ample o" the citation is *4;@:- E?. C.$. 495. -E> t r1i ca sa- - An abbreviation o" the 8atin ma?im , e8 turpi causa non oritur actioK , meanin ,"rom a base cause no action arises,. The le al principle thus e?pressed is that, on rounds o" public polic0, no court 'ill lend its aid to a part0 'ho "ounds his cause o" action on an ille al or an immoral act. See SC. v. $6SC *9:::- 4 8lo0d6s $ep. 94= at p. 954 (C.A.), citin 8ord %ans"ield in =olman v. Dohnson (4@@>) 4 Co'p. 5<4 at p. 5<5, ;= E.$. 449: at p. 4494. +or an application o" the principle, see Clunis v. Camden and Islington =ealth Authority *4;;=- 9 W.8.$. ;:9 at p. ;:= 53

(C.A.): ,... 'hether a claim brou ht is "ounded in contract or in tort, public polic0 onl0 requires the court to den0 its assistance to a plainti"" seeCin to en"orce a cause o" action i" he 'as implicated in the ille alit0 and in puttin "or'ard his case he seeCs to rel0 upon the ille al acts., E>ec tory contract doctrine - The American general maritime law (infra) principle that no maritime lien (infra) arises "rom the breach o" an une?ecuted contract. Such a contract ives rise onl0 to an action in personam, and not to an action in rem. +or e?ample, no maritime lien arises "or breach o" a seaman6s emplo0ment contract unless the seaman has per"ormed some 'orC on board/ nor does a lien e?ist "or the suppl0 o" necessaries (infra)'hich have not been "urnished to the ship. See .an0 #ne Louisiana ". ,ean, 9;5 +.5d =5:, 9::9 A%C 434@ (> Cir. 9::9), citin !he 2eo0u0 @3 1.S. (; Wall.) >4@ (4=@:). See also Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. 9;=, >;3 and @99. E>e@ at r - A "ormalit0 required b0 +rench civil law in order "or a "orei n Gud ment to be reco niHed and en"orced in +rance. E?equatur proceedin s are taCen be"ore the ,Tribunal de rande instance, o" the de"endant6s domicile, in most cases. See Tetle0, !nt6l C. o" 8., 4;;< at pp. =<<-=<@/ Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at p. 44>3.

=
=. - +ederal $eporter bein circuit and district court decisions "rom 4==: to Dctober 4;9<. An e?ample o" a citation is @ +. 4:= (S.#.I.P. 4==4). =. 2d or =. Ed - +ederal $eporter (second or third series) bein 1.S. #istrict Court and 1.S. Circuit Court o" Appeals decisions "rom Iovember 4;9< to Eanuar0 4;55 and 1.S. Circuit Court o" Appeals decisions "rom Iovember 4;9< to the present. An e?ample o" a citation is >=< +.9d =<4 (= Cir. 4;@=) or 5 +.5d =<4 (= Cir. 4;;:). =acilitation )=AL* (onvention #$%8 - The Convention on the +acilitation o" !nternational %aritime Tra""ic, adopted b0 the "M6 (infra) on April ;, 4;3>, 'hich came into "orce %arch >, 4;3@, as amended. =air1lay - The leadin international shippin and maritime ma aHine, published 'eeCl0. Website: http:&&'''."airpla0.co.uC&. Email: in"o@"airpla0.co.uC/ Email (editorials): ma aHine@"airpla0.co.uC. "+alsa demonstratio non nocet" - An abbreviation o" the 8atin ma?im ,falsa demonstratio non nocet cum de corpore constat,, meanin that a mere "alse description does no harm i" there be su""icient certaint0 as to the obGect concerned. See Matthews v. -illespie 49: S.E. 59< at p. 59@ (Ba. 4;95): ,!t is one o" the ma?ims o" the la' that a "alse description does not render a deed or other 'ritin inoperative, i", a"ter reGectin so much o" the description as is "alse, there remains a su""icient description to ascertain 'ith le al certaint0 the subGect matter to 'hich the instrument applies. This rule o" construction is said to be derived "rom the civil la'., See in particular Adamastos Shipping Co. Ltd. v. Anglo&Sa8on $etroleum Co. Ltd. *4;>;- A.C. 455 at p. 4><, *4;>=4 8lo0d6s $ep. @5 at p. =4 (H.8.), 'here a charterpart0 incorporated a Faramount Clause 'hich provided: ,This bill o" ladin shall have e""ect subGect to the provisions o" the Carria e o" .oods b0 Sea Act o" the 1nited States...., Appl0in the ma?im, Biscount Simonds held: ,6This bill o" ladin 6 is a conspicuous e?ample o" the ma?im 6falsa demonstratio non nocet cum de corpore constat6. There can be no doubt 'hat is the corpus. !t is the charterpart0 to 'hich the clause is attached., Accordin l0, the charterpart0 'as held to have been intended b0 the parties to incorporate 1.S. CD.SA 4;53. =.A.7. )named 1ort of s'i1ment* *+r.: , 9.L... & 9ranco Long du .ord, or ,franco le long du na"ire,- *Span.: ,franco al costado del bu:ue,- *!tal.: ,franco lungo bordo,- *.r.: ,9reie 5@

L)ngsseite See& oder .innenschiff Fbenannter *erschiffungshafenA ,-- +ree Alon side Ship is a term o" the contract o" sale. "ncoterms 2000 (infra) ives the "ollo'in abbreviated description o" +.A.S.: ,+ree Alon side Ship, means that the seller delivers 'hen the oods are placed alon side the vessel at the named port o" shipment. This means that the bu0er has to bear all costs and risCs o" loss o" or dama e to the oods "rom that moment. The +AS term requires the seller to clear the oods "or e?port. TH!S !S A $EBE$SA8 +$D% F$EB!D1S !ICDTE$%S BE$S!DIS WH!CH $EJ1!$E# THE A1PE$ TD A$$AI.E +D$ EQFD$T C8EA$AICE. Ho'ever, i" the parties 'ish the bu0er to clear the oods "or e?port, this should be made clear b0 addin e?plicit 'ordin to this e""ect in the contract o" sale. This term can be used onl0 "or sea or inland 'ater'a0 transport., "+aute lourde" ( ross ne li ence) - The t0pe o" "ault described b0 Fotheir as: ,...le soin :ue les personnes les moins soigneuses et les plus stupides ne man:uent pas d'apporter ? leurs affaires , (translation: the care 'hich the least care"ul and most stupid persons do not "ail to devote to their o'n a""airs). This de"inition 'as adopted b0 $in"ret, Chie" Eustice o" Canada, in !he 2ing v.Canada Steamship Lines Ltd. *4;>:- S.C.$. >59 at pp. >5@ and >5;. =.(. - +ederal Court $eports. The o""icial bilin ual reports o" the +ederal Court and the +ederal Court o" Appeal in Canada (includin Admiralt0) 'hich replaced the E?chequer Court $eports (E?. C.$.) in 4;@4. Fublished b0 the D""ice o" the Commissioner "or +ederal Eudicial A""airs. An e?ample o" the citation is *9:::- 5 +.C. 495. Website: http:&&reports."Ga. c.ca&inde?Zen.html =.(.L. - (+ull container load). Here the s'i11er (infra) usuall0 pacCs its oods in the container and seals it. =.(. / 7. (la se - A standard clause in a marine ins rance polic0 b0 'hich the insurer e?cludes covera e o" loss due to ,capture, and ,seiHure, as 'ell as ,arrest, restraint or detriment, and the consequence thereo" or o" an0 attempt thereat (pirac0 e?cepted), and also "rom all consequences o" hostilities or 'arliCe operations, 'hether be"ore or a"ter declaration o" 'ar., =ed. (as. - +ederal Cases listed alphabeticall0 and assi ned a sequence o" numbers. 1nited States Circuit and #istrict Court decisions "rom 4@=; to 4==:. An e?ample o" a citation is = +ed. Cas. <;4 (Io. <53<) (#. Dre. 4=@>). =ederal D dicial (irc its The thirteen "ederal Gudicial circuits o" the 1nited States are as "ollo's: (irc it #istrict Columbia +irst Second Third +ourth o" (om1osition #istrict o" Columbia %aine, %assachusetts, Ie' Hampshire, Fuerto $ico, $hode !sland Connecticut, Ie' PorC, Bermont #ela'are, Ie' Eerse0, Fenns0lvania, Bir in !slands %ar0land, Iorth Carolina, South Carolina, Bir inia, West Bir inia 5=

+i"th Si?th Seventh Ei hth Iinth Tenth Eleventh +ederal (See 9= 1.S. Code sect. <4)

#istrict o" the Canal Rone, 8ouisiana, %ississippi, Te?as 2entucC0, %ichi an, Dhio, Tennessee !llinois, !ndiana, Wisconsin ArCansas, !o'a, %innesota, %issouri, IebrasCa, Iorth #aCota, South #aCota AlasCa, AriHona, Cali"ornia, !daho, %ontana, Ievada, Dre on, Washin ton, .uam, Ha'aii Colorado, 2ansas, Ie' %e?ico, DClahoma, 1tah, W0omin Alabama, +lorida, .eor ia All +ederal Gudicial districts

=.".A.T.A. - !nternational +ederation o" http:&&'''."iata.com&. Email: in"o@"iata.com.

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=.".6., =.".L.6., =.".6.7., =.".6.7.T. - Terms o" a c'arter1arty 'hich obli e the charterer, rather than the shipo'ner (or dis1onent owner), to pa0 "or certain car o handlin operations. =.".6. (,"ree in and out,) means that the charterer controls and pa0s "or loadin and dischar e o" the car o ('hich is there"ore ,"ree, o" char e to the shipo'ner). =.".L.6. (,"ree in, liner out,) means that the charterer controls and pa0s "or the loadin o" the car o, and the shipo'ner pa0s "or dischar e (the dischar e bein on liner terms. =.".6.7. (,"ree in and out sto'ed,) means that the charterer controls and pa0s "or loadin , dischar e and sto'a e o" the car o. =.".6.7.T. means that the charterer controls and pa0s "or loadin , dischar e, sto'a e and trimmin o" the car o. While these terms are unquestionabl0 valid in charterin , their validit0 in !ills of lading under the 2ag e 5 les and the 2ag e34is!y 5 les remains controversial. !n the United ?ingdom, it has been held that the s'i11er and the carrier are "ree to allocate as bet'een themselves the responsibilit0 "or these car o handlin operations. See $yrene Co. Ltd. v. Scindia Steam 6a"igation Co.7 Ltd. *4;><- 9 J.A. <:9 at pp. <4@-<4=, *4;><- 4 8lo0d6s $ep. 594 at pp. 59=-59;/ -.=. Renton Co. Ltd. v. $almyra !rading Corp. of $anama *4;>@- A.C. 4<; at pp. 43;-4@: and 4@<, *4;>3- 9 8lo0d6s $ep. 5@; at pp. 5;:-5;4 and 5;5 (H.8.)/ and !he Dordan II *9::>- 4 8lo0d6s $ep. >@, 9::> A%C ;45 (H.8.). !n the 1nited States, there is a division o" opinion. Some courts have a reed 'ith the Aritish position. See, "or e?ample, Atlas Assurance Co. v. =arper7 Robinson Shipping Co. >:= +.9d 45=4 at pp. 45=;-45;:, 4;@> A%C 95>= at p. 953; (; Cir. 4;@>) (re the ,+.!.D., term)/ Sumimoto Corp. of America v. MC* Sie 2im 359 +. Supp. =9< at pp. =5< and =53=5@, 4;=@ A%C 43: at pp. 4@: and 4@<-4@> (S.#. I.P. 4;=>) (re the ,+.!.8.D., term)/ and Sigri Carbon Corp. v. Ly0es .ros. Steamship Co. 3>> +. Supp. 4<5> at p. 4<5=, 4;== A%C 4@=@ at p. 4@;4 (W.#. 20. 4;=@) (re the ,+.!.D., term). Dn the other hand, the Second and Iinth Circuits have taCen the position that such terms in are invalid under sect. 5(=) o" (6G7A (<3 1.S. Code App?. 45:5(=)), because the duties o" the carrier under (6G7A are ,non-dele able, and because such terms in a !ill of lading, in e""ect, ,relieve or lessen, the liabilit0 o" the carrier "or car o loss or dama e other'ise than as permitted b0 the statute. See Associated Metals and Minerals v. !he Ar0tis S0y ;@= +.9d <@ at p. >:, 4;;5 A%C >:; at p. >45 (9 Cir. 4;;9) (re the ,+.!.D.S., term) and !ubace87 Inc. v. MC* Risan <> +.5d ;>4 at p. ;>3, 4;;> A%C 45:> at p. 454: (> Cir. 4;;>). See also =6, infra and liner terms (infra). =irst 5estatement of t'e (onflict of Laws B T'e =irst 5estatement of t'e (onflict of Laws, ado1ted !y t'e American Law "nstit te at ,as'ington, +.(. on May ##, #$E4. B "t was feared !y (ardoJo, (.D. t'at to grant damages for PstrongQPa 'refR-Qeconomic loss (supra) 'ould open the "lood ates to ,liabilit0 in an indeterminate amount "or an indeterminate time, to an 5;

indeterminate class,. See Mltramares Corp. v. !ouche7 6i"en Co., 9>> I.P. 4@: at p. 4@< (I.P. C.A. 4;54). See also Tetle0, Int'l C. of L., 4;;< at pp. @4;-@9:. =lotilla 1rinci1le - The principle 'hereb0 the tonna e o" both the tu and the to' 'ere taCen into consideration in calculatin the shipo'ner6s limitation o" liabilit0 arisin out o" collisions bet'een the to' and another vessel or a stationar0 obGect. The principle ori inall0 applied in En land 'here the tu and to' belon ed to the same shipo'ner, and even i" the "ault or ne li ence 'hich caused the collision 'as committed onl0 aboard the tu . Toda0, ho'ever, the combined tonna e o" tu and to' are taCen into consideration in calculatin the shipo'ner6s limitation in En land, 'hether or not those vessels are commonl0 o'ned, but onl0 i" the "ault or ne li ence that caused the collision 'as committed aboard !ot' those vessels. See !he .ramley Moore *4;35- 9 8lo0d6s $ep. <9; (C.A.) and !he Sir Doseph Rawlinson *4;@9- 9 8lo0d6s $ep. <5@. !n Canada, on the other hand, the traditional "lotilla principle still applies, so that the combined tonna e o" the tu and the to' 'ill be taCen into account in calculatin the shipo'ner6s limitation, provided that both the tu and the to' 'ere commonl0 o'ned 'hen the collision occurred, and provided that both the tu and the to' caused or contributed to the collision, even i" the causal "ault or ne li ence 'as committed onl0 aboard the tu . See !he Rhone v. !he $eter A... /idener *4;;5- 4 S.C.$. <;@. This position remains unchan ed no' that Canada is part0 to the Limitation (onvention #$9% (infra). See .ayside !owing Ltd. v. C.$.R. *9::4- 9 +.C. 9>= (+ed. C. o" Can.). The 1nited States applies the same "lotilla doctrine, requirin both the tu and to' to be surrendered in the limitation proceedin s, i" the0 'ere under common o'nership and en a ed in a ,sin le enterprise, (as a unit) 'hen the ne li entl0-caused collision happened. See Cenac !owing Co. Inc. v. !erra Resources7 Inc. @5< +.9d 9>4 at p. 9>< and note < (> Cir. 4;=<)/ *alley Line Co. v. Ryan @@4 +.9d 533 at p. 5@3 (= Cir. 4;=>). See also Seaspan7 Lim. $rocs. 9::4 A%C 9533 at pp. 953=-953; (W.#. Wash. 9::4). See Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. 5:<-5:3. =lotsam, jetsam, ligan )lagan* and wrec: - Farticular cate ories o" propert0 'hich ma0 be salved. +lotsam re"ers to thin s "ound "loatin a"ter a ship has perished. Eetsam re"ers to thin s thro'n overboard to li hten a ship. 8i an (la an) re"ers to thin s thro'n overboard 'ith a buo0 to marC 'here the0 are. WrecC re"ers to an abandoned vessel or part o" a vessel 'hich is still a"loat, stranded or a round. See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. 5>3-5>@, 5>;-53:/ Tetle0, !nt6l. %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at pp. 599 "ootnote @, 59=. =.6. )free o t* - A term o" a c'arter1arty 'hich obli es the charterer to control and pa0 "or dischar in the car o. The term is sometimes also "ound in contracts o" sale o" oods, o"ten in combination 'ith one o" the "ncoterms. See, "or e?ample, Mon0 Corp. v. Island 9ertili(er Ltd. *4;;4- 4 S.C.$. @@;, (4;;4) =: #.8.$. (<th) >=, 'here the Supreme Court o" Canada held that a contract o" sale speci"0in ,C!+-+D, meant that the price o" the oods included car o insurance and "rei ht (see ,C!+,, supra) and also made the consi nee&purchaser responsible "or the costs o" dischar in the car o (as indicated b0 the abbreviation ,+D,, standin "or ,"ree out,). =.6... )named 1ort of s'i1ment* *+r.: ,9ranco .ord,- *Span.: ,franco a bordo,- *!tal.: ,franco a bordo,- *.r.: ,9rei an .ord Fbenannter *erschiffungshafen,-- +.D.A. (+ree on Aoard) is a term o" the contract o" sale. "ncoterms 2000 (infra) ives the "ollo'in abbreviated de"inition o" +.D.A.: ,+ree on Aoard, means that the seller delivers 'hen the oods pass the ship6s rail at the named port o" shipment. This means that the bu0er has to bear all costs and risCs o" loss o" or dama e to the oods "rom that point. The +DA term requires the seller to clear the oods "or e?port. This term can be used onl0 "or sea or inland 'ater'a0 transport. !" the parties do not intend to deliver the oods across the ship6s rail, the +CA term *"ree carrier- should be used., !n the port o" Ant'erp, Ael ium, the term ,+.D.A.,, in eneral, means that the seller "ul"ills his obli ation to deliver the oods 'hen he delivers them to the ocean carrier (supra) in the port o" shipment, the bu0er bearin all costs and risCs "rom that moment on'ards. There are certain <:

variations in this rule, dependin on 'hether eneral car o, heav0 car o, bulC car o or containeriHed car o is involved. See 5o!ert ,ijffels, ,8es FroblNmes de la vente +.D.A., *4;@=ET8 >54-><;. =.<.A. - ,+ree o" particular avera e,. A "ormerl0 standard clause in a marine ins rance polic0, meanin that the insurance covers onl0 a total loss and not a partial or percenta e loss. +.F.A. is obsolete, no' that ,A,, ,A, and ,C, car o clauses are used. See Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L. , 9::5 at p. 3:;. =. 7 11. - +ederal Supplement. 1nited States #istrict Court decisions "rom Dctober 4;59 to the present. An e?ample o" a citation is 54; +. Supp. 495 (E.#. 8a. 4;@:). =ederation of E ro1ean Maritime Associations of 7 rveyors and (ons ltants Website: http:&&'''."emas.or . =6&A7.A - +ederation o" Iational Associations o" Ship AroCers and A ents. Website: http:&&'''."onasba.com&. Email: eneralmana er@"onasba.com. =lac', 5.D.(. - Scheeps"oorrechten, 9::4, #eventer, The Ietherlands. =orce, 5o!ert - Admiralty and Maritime Law, 9::<, +ederal Eudicial Center, Washin ton, #.C. =orce, 5o!ert - International 1ncyclopedia of Law & !ransport Law & Mnited States ($. Alanpain, en.ed.), 9::4, 2lu'er 8a' !nternational, Supplement 49, The Ha ue, 8ondon 7 Aoston. =orce, 5. / ;ianno1o los, A.&. - Admiralty and Maritime Law% Cases7 6otes and !e8t , 5 vols., 9:::, 8upus Fublications, 8td., 8ansin , %ich. =oreign sovereign imm nity - See the State Immunity Act 345E (1.2. 4;@= c. 55)/ 9oreign So"ereign Immunities Act (9= 1.S. Code App?. 455:, 4559a, 45;4("), 4<<4(d), 43:4-4344 (4;@3))/ State Immunity Act ($.S.C. 4;=> c. S-4=). All these statutes are published in .enedict on Admiralty, vol. 3A. See enerall0 Chap. 54 in Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. 4434-44=3. -+orum conveniens- - (,appropriate (convenient) court,), re"errin to the principle 'hereb0 a court 'hich does not have j risdiction over a claim nevertheless accepts j risdiction, because there is no other appropriate j risdiction to hear the claim, in order to ensure that Gustice is done. (Tetle0, Int'l C. of L., 4;;< at p. =:5./ !he Rosalie (4=>5) 4 Sp. 4== at p. 4;9, 43< E.$. 4:; at p. 449 (Hi h Ct. o" Adm.)/ JuKbec Civil Code art. 5453). -+orum non conveniens- - (,inappropriate (inconvenient) court,), re"errin to the principle 'hereb0 a court 'hich has j risdiction over a claim nevertheless sta0s conditionall0 or dismisses unconditionall0 the suit, in order to send the claim to be tried in another j risdiction to 'hich the de"endant is amenable and 'hich the court believes is more appropriate or convenient "or the liti ation, in the interests o" Gustice. See "or e?ample, Amchem $roducts Inc. ". .ritish Columbia F/or0ers' Compensation .oardA *4;;5- 4 S.C.$. =;@, (4;;5) 4:9 #.8.$. (<th) ;3. (Tetle0, Int'l C. of L., 4;;< at pp. @;=-=::/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. <49-<45/ Tetle0, ,Eurisdiction Clauses and +orum Ion Conveniens in the Carria e o" .oods b0 Sea *.pd"-, (publisbed in Durisdiction and 9orum Selection in International Maritime Law. 1ssays in =onor of Robert 9orce (%artin #avies, ed.), 2lu'er 8a' !nternational, The Ha ue, 9::>, Chapter 3 at pp. 4=5-935).) =orwarderlaw.com - A 'ebsite o" le al in"ormation related to "rei ht "or'ardin . The .eneral Editor is <eter Dones (infra) o" Faterson %ac#ou all, Toronto, Dntario, Canada. Website: http:&&'''."or'arderla'.com&. Email: p"mGones@s0mpatico.ca.

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=ree 1rati@ e (,libre prati:ue,) - Fermission iven to a ship to use a port a"ter it has been certi"ied "ree o" disease b0 competent health authorities. =reeJing inj nction (or ,"reeHin order,)- See ,Mareva inj nction, (infra). =reig't *+r.: ,fret,- *Span.: ,flete,- *!tal.: ,nolo,- *.r.: ,9racht,- - ,the remuneration pa0able "or the carria e b0 the vessel o" propert0 or passen ers or "or the use o" the vessel, ( Lis!on 5 les #$A9, infra). The consideration "or the carria e o" oods under !ills of lading (supra), sea way!ills (supra) and voyage c'arter1arties (supra). =reig't forwarder - A part0 'ho arran es "or the carria e o" other people6s oods b0 sea, "or a "ee, usuall0 calculated as a percenta e o" the freig't (supra) char e plus e?penses. At times, the "rei ht "or'arder acts as a principal contractor in respect o" the s'i11er (infra) and bears the responsibilities o" a common carrier. At other times, the "rei ht "or'arder acts merel0 as an a ent o" the shipper, 'ith the obli ation to e?ercise reasonable care and sCill. !n +rance, the "rei ht "or'arder as principal contractor is Cno'n as a ,commissionnaire de transport,, and the "rei ht "or'arder a ent is Cno'n as a , transitaire,. See Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at pp. 3;4-@44. See also &46(( (infra), ocean freig't forwarder (infra) and ocean trans1ortation intermediary (infra). -+reinte de route- *Span.: ,mermas,- *!tal.: ,calo,- *.r.: ,Schwund an Raumgehalt oder -ewicht,- - A +rench term, re"errin to the normal, minor shrinCa e, evaporation or deterioration o" certain car oes 'hile in transit, "or 'hich no dama es are ordinaril0 a'arded in a car o claim. (Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at pp. 59@-59=/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at p. 4::.). = ll fait' and credit *+r.: ,reconnaissance totale,- - !n the conflict of laws, the principle o" ,"ull "aith and credit, requires courts in one j risdiction in a "ederal State to reco niHe and en"orce the la's and court Gud ments o" other j risdictions 'ithin the same State. The principle is enshrined in Art. !B sect. 4 o" the Constitution o" the 1nited States o" America and at art. 44= o" the Australian Constitution. !n Canada, the "ull "aith and credit doctrine has emer ed in the case la' o" the Supreme Court o" Canada in decisions such as Morguard In"estments Ltd. v. ,eSa"oye *4;;:- 5 S.C.$. 4:@@ at pp. 44::-44:4 and =unt v. !. 6. plc. *4;;5- < S.C.$. 9=; at pp. 594-59>. See Tetle0, !nt. 8. o" C., 4;;< at pp. @:3-@:@ and =93. = nd (onvention #$9# - The !nternational Convention on the Establishment o" an !nternational +und "or Compensation "or Dil Follution #ama e, adopted b0 "M6 (infra) at Arussels on #ecember 4=, 4;@4 and in "orce as o" Dctober 43, 4;@=, and its 4;@3 Frotocol, adopted at 8ondon Iovember 4;, 4;@3 and in "orce Iovember 99, 4;;</ its 4;=< Frotocol, adopted at 8ondon %a0 9>, 4;=<, 'hich never came into "orce/ and its 4;;9 Frotocol, adopted at 8ondon, Iovember 9@, 4;;9, in "orce %a0 5:, 4;;3. The +und Convention 4;@4 ceased to be in "orce on %a0 9<, 9::9, pursuant to a Frotocol amendin its art. <5.4, adopted at 8ondon, on September 9@, 9:::, 'hich came into "orce on Eune 9@, 9::4. %ost Contractin States to the +und Convention 4;@4 are no' parties to the = nd (onvention #$$2 (in"ra). = nd (onvention #$$2 - The !nternational Convention on the Establishment o" an !nternational +und "or Compensation "or Dil Follution #ama e, 4;;9, consistin o" Arts. 4 to 53 quinquies o" the = nd (onvention #$9#, as amended b0 its 4;;9 Frotocol. The +und Convention 4;;9 has replaced the = nd (onvention #$9#, 'hich ceased to be in "orce on %a0 9<, 9::9. = ndamental !reac' - A common law principle "irst developed in En lish decisions in the 4;5:6s, 'hich became ver0 popular in the 1.2. and Aritish Common'ealth j risdictions in the 4;3:6s, prior to the enactment o" consumer protection le islation. A0 virtue o" this doctrine, a part0 'ho had committed an intentional breach o" contract so serious as to , o to the root o" the contract,, deprivin the other contractin part0 o" substantiall0 the 'hole bene"it o" the contract, 'as held to <9

have "undamentall0 breached the contract and 'as consequentl0 deprived o" the protection o" limitation and e?ception clauses in the contract. Since the House o" 8ords6 decisions in Suisse Atlanti:ue Société d'Armement S.A. ". 6.*. Rotterdamsche 2olen Centrale *4;3@- 4 A.C. 534 and $hoto $roduction ". Securicor !ransport *4;=:- A.C. =9@, ho'ever, "undamental breach has ceased to be a doctrine o" substantive la', and has become purel0 a question o" construction o" the contract. !n maritime la', ho'ever, "undamental breach is still evident in three areas o" the la' on carria e o" oods b0 sea: Cno'in misrepresentation b0 the s'i11er (infra) o" the nature or value o" the oods (2ag e and 2ag e34is!y 5 les (infra) art <, par. > "ourth par.), unreasonable eo raphic deviation (2ag e and 2ag e34is!y 5 les art. < par. <) and unGusti"ied decC carria e (2ag e and 2ag e34is!y 5 les art. 4(c)). (Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at pp. 4::-45>.) ,+undamental breach, has been translated into +rench in di""erent 'a0s, includin ,"iolation d'une clause essentielleK in R.I. $ompey v. 1cu&Line 6.*. *4;;;- A.C.+. Io. 9:4@ (+ed. C. o" Can. per Alais E.))/ ,rupture fondamentale, in Armada Shipping Lines v. Chaleur 9ertili(er *4;;>- 4 +.C. 5 (+ed. C. A. o" Can.)/ and ,ine8écution fondamentale, in =unter 1ngineering v. Syncrude Canada *4;=;- 4 S.C.$. <93 (Supr. C. o" Can.) and R.I. $ompey v. 1cu&Line 6.*., *9::5- 4 S.C.$. <>: (Supr. C. o" Can.).

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Gas:ell, &ic'olas - Limitation of Shipowners' Liability% !he 6ew Law, 4;=3, S'eet 7 %a?'ell, 8ondon. Gas:ell, &. / +e!attista, (. - Shipping Law, ; Ed., 9::3, +T Frentice Hall, Harro', En land. Gas:ell, &., Asariotis, 5. / .aatJ, ;. - .ills of Lading% Law and Contracts, 9:::, 88F 8imited, 8ondon. Ga ci, Gott'ard - #il $ollution at Sea% Ci"il Liability and Compensation for ,amage , 4;;@, Chichester, En land and Wile0, Ie' PorC. Gencon - See voyage c'arter1arty (supra). General Average act *+r.,acte d'a"arie commune,- *Span.: ,acto de a"erBa comWn,- *!tal.: ,atto di a"aria comune,- *.r.: ,-emeinschaftlicher =a"ariea0t,- - ,There is a eneral avera e act 'hen, and onl0 'hen, an0 e?traordinar0 sacri"ice or e?penditure is intentionall0 and reasonabl0 made or incurred "or the common sa"et0 "or the purpose o" preservin "rom peril the propert0 involved in a common maritime adventure., (;or:3Antwer1 5 les #$$4, $ule A "irst para./ Marine "ns rance Act, #$0% (1.2.) sect. 33(9)/ Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at pp. @45-@53/ see enerall0 Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 Chap. ;, pp. 534-5;3). General Average contri! tion *+r.: ,contribution d'a"arie commune,- *Span.: ,contribuci@n a la a"erBa comWn,- *!tal.: ,contribu(ione in a"aria comune,- *.r.: ,-emeinschaftlicher =a"ariebeitrag,- - The monetar0 contribution required o" shipo'ners and car o o'ners (or their respective insurers) in respect o" general average e>1endit res and general average sacrifices. Car o6s claim "or eneral avera e contributions a ainst the ship is secured b0 either a maritime lien (infra) or a stat tory rig't in rem (infra), dependin on the j risdiction concerned. The shipo'ner6s claim "or eneral avera e contribution is secured b0 a 1ossessory lien (infra) on the car o. Aoth claims ma0 also be asserted b0 an action in personam. See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. <5;-<>:/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. 5=<-5==. General Average e>1endit re *+r.: ,dépense d'a"arie commune, or ,a"arie&frais,- *Span.: ,gasto Fcontribuci@nA de a"erBa comWn,- *!tal.: ,spese d'a"aria comune,- *.r.: ,-emeinschaftliche =a"arie0osten,- - An e?traordinar0 e?penditures incurred b0 the shipo'ner intentionall0 and <5

reasonabl0 to preserve "rom peril the propert0 involved in a common maritime adventure (e. . port o" re"u e e?penses, salva e remuneration, etc.). General Average loss *+r.: ,perte d'a"arie commune,- *Span.: ,pérdida de a"erBa comWn,- *!tal.: ,perdita d'a"aria comune,- *.r.: ,-emeinschaftlicher =a"arieschaden,- - ,A eneral avera e loss is a loss caused b0 or directl0 consequential on a general average act. !t includes a general average e>1endit re as 'ell as a general average sacrifice, (Marine "ns rance Act, #$0%, sect. 33(4)). See Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at p. 34:. General Average sacrifice *+r.: ,sacrifice d'a"arie commune,- *Span.: ,sacrificio de a"erBa comWn,- *!tal.: ,sacrificio d'a"aria comune,- *.r.: ,-emeinschaftliche =a"arieaufopferung,- - An e?traordinar0 sacri"ice intentionall0 and reasonabl0 made to preserve "rom peril the propert0 involved in a common maritime adventure (e. . Gettison o" car o, cuttin a'a0 the mast or anchor). General (o ncil of .ritis' 7'i11ing )G(.7* - See ('am!er of 7'i11ing, supra. -General maritime law- - A term used particularl0 in the 1nited States to re"er to the nonstatutor0 sources o" American admiralt0 la'. The eneral maritime la' o" the 1nited States is derived "rom the historic le> maritima (infra) common to all Western European nations, 'ith its "undamentall0 civilian nature and ori in. The eneral maritime la' includes such concepts and institutions as the maritime attac'ment/ the theor0 o" a!andonment (supra) in shipo'ners6 limitation o" liabilit0/ the le islative treatment o" maritime liens (infra) as substantive ri hts, rather than as procedural remedies dependent upon j risdiction/ remedies "or 'ron "ul death/ the ocean carrier6s 1ossessory lien (infra) "or bill o" ladin freig't (supra), charter 'ire (infra) and dem rrage (supra)/ maintenance and c re (infra) ri hts o" the sicC or inGured seaman/ the role o" equit0 in admiralt0 la'/ general average (supra)/ marine ins rance and pre-Gud ment interest. See Tetle0, ,The .eneral %aritime 8a' - The 8e? %aritima, (4;;<) 9: S0racuse E. !nt. 8. 7 Comm. 4:>-4<> at pp. 494-49=/ reprinted in *4;;3- ET8 <3;->:3 at pp. <=<-<;4/ Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at p. >>. See also RMS !itanic v. =a"er 4@4 +.5d ;<5 at p. ;3:, 4;;; A%C 455: at p. 45<< (< Cir. 4;;;). ,generalia specialibus non derogant, - A 8atin ma?im meanin , eneral thin s do not dero ate "rom special thin s,. The ma?im e?presses a rule o" construction o" statutes and international conventions, 'hereb0 their eneral provisions are held not to quali"0 their particular provisions. See, "or e?ample, 1ffort Shipping Co. ". Linden Management S.A. *4;;=- A.C. 3:> at p. 34= (H.8.)/ !he Rhi Diang 2ou *4;;4- 4 8lo0d6s $ep. <;5 (I.S.W. C.A.)/ Morales ". !rans /orld Airlines7 Inc. >:< 1.S. 5@< at p. 5=9 (4;;9) (,*!-t is a commonplace o" statutor0 construction that the speci"ic *provision- overns the eneral.,)/ and Senator Linie -mb= ". Sunway Line7 Inc. 9;4 +.5d 4<> at p. 4>@, 9::9 A%C 494@ at p. 495: (9 Cir. 9::9). Geneva (onventions #$8A - The .eneva Conventions on the Hi h Seas, on the Territorial Sea and Conti uous Rone, on the Continental Shel" and on +ishin and Conservation o" the 8ivin $esources o" the Hi h Seas, adopted at .eneva on April 9;, 4;>=. Giermann, 2ei:o A. - ,ie =aftung des *erfrachters fQr 2onnossementsangaben , 9:::, 8!T Berla , Hambur . Gilmore, Grant / .lac:, ('arles 5. - !he Law of Admiralty, 9 Ed., 4;@>, +oundation Fress, %ineola, I.P. Gold, Edgar - -ard =andboo0 on Marine $ollution, 9 Ed., 4;;@, Assurance"orenin en .ard, Arendal, Ior'a0. .old, Ed ar - -ard =andboo0 on $ I Insurance, > Ed., 9::9, Assurance"orenin en .ard, Arendal, Ior'a0. <<

Gold E., ('irco1, A. / ?indred, 2. - Maritime Law, 9::5, !r'in 8a', !nc., Toronto. Gold (la se Agreement - An a reement dra'n up b0 the Aritish %aritime 8a' Association, si ned Au ust 4, 4;>: and amended Eul0 4, 4;@@, substitutin "or the 4:: old value o" the carrierCs (supra) pacCa e limitation under the 2ag e 5 les 4;9< (infra) (arts. < (>) and ;), a value o" 9:: (4;>:), increased in 4;@@ to <:: En lish currenc0, 'here suit or ar!itration (supra) 'as taCen in the 1.2. The A reement ceased to have e""ect as at midni ht on %a0 54, 4;==. See te?t o" the A reement as amended in 4;@@ in Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;==, Appendi? ,C, at pp. 495>-495;, 'ith commentar0 at pp. 495;-49<4. Goldrein, ". / T rner, <. - Ship Sale and $urchase, < Ed., 9::5, 88F, 8ondon. Good fait' *+r.: ,bonne foi,- *Sp.: ,buena fe,- *!t.: ,buona fede,- *.r.: ,guter -laube,-- A principle "ound throu hout the civil law, to the e""ect that parties must ne otiate and carr0 out a contract honestl0 and "airl0. The common law, in recent 0ears, has adopted the principle to some e?tent, especiall0 in the ne otiations, prior to reachin a "inal a reement. .ood "aith is a basic principle o" such modern conventions, rules and codes as the Bienna Sales Convention, 4;=:/ the 1I!#$D!T Frinciples o" !nternational Commercial Contracts 4;;<&9::< and the 1ni"orm Commercial Code. See Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. 4@<-4@>/ Tetle0, ,.ood +aith in Contract: Farticularl0 in the Contracts o" Arbitration and Charterin , (9::<) 5> E%8C >34-343 and on-line at .ood +aith in Contract, Farticularl0 in the Contracts o" Arbitration and Charterin (Corrective vs. #istributive Eustice) *.pd"-. -Good 7amaritan doctrine- - A common law doctrine 'hereb0: ,A person 'ho voluntaril0 assumes a dut0 o'ed b0 another and then breaches that dut0 beomes liable to one 'ho is inGured as a result o" the breach., See !idewater v. Sanco 9::4 A%C 954; at p. 955> (E.#. 8a. 9:::), citin Indian !owing Co. v. M.S. 5>: 1.S. 34, 4;>3 A%C 9@ (4;>>). See also sect. 59<A, Restatement FSecondA of !orts. The general maritime law, ho'ever, requires that the voluntar0 conduct be recCless and 'anton. See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. 553-55@/ Tetle0, !nt6l. %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at p. 59<. Goode, 7ir 5oy M. - Commercial Law, 5 Ed., 9::<, 8e?isIe?is 12, 8ondon. .oode, Sir $o0 %. - Commercial Law in the 6e8t Millennium, 4;;=, S'eet 7 %a?'ell, 8ondon. Gorton, L., "'re, 5. / 7andevarn, A. - Shipbro0ing and Chartering $ractice, 3 Ed., 9::<, !n"orma, 8ondon. -Governmental interest analysis- - The principle o" the conflict of laws accordin to 'hich the la' applicable is to be determined b0 the identi"ication o" the la' o" the state havin the reatest interest in havin its la' applied to the particular case. The application o" the theor0 requires the court to ascertain 'hich o" the states concerned has a more le itimate interest in havin its social, economic or administrative policies applied to the le al problem at hand. The term and concept 'ere developed b0 Arainerd Currie in the 1nited States in his booC, Selected 1ssays on the Conflict of Laws, 4;35. The principle is applied in certain American states, but has not been enerall0 accepted outside the 1.S. (Tetle0, Int'l. C. of L., 4;;< at p. 49.) Great La:es 7eaway harbor@harborhouse.com. 5eview http:&&'''. reatlaCes-sea'a0revie'.com. Email:

Griggs <. / ,illiams, 5. - Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims, < Ed., 9::>, 88F 8imited, 8ondon. Grime, 5o!ert - Shipping Law, 5 $ev. Ed., 9::3, S'eet 7 %a?'ell, 8ondon.

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Gross negligence - See ,faute lourde, (supra). Gross register tonnage )g.r.t.* - See ,Tons / Tonnage, (infra). Gross tonnage See ,Tons / Tonnage, (infra).

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2ag e (onference on <rivate "nternational Law - An inter overnmental or aniHation "ounded in 4=;5 to promote uni"ormit0 o" private international la'. The Con"erence has dra"ted over 5: conventions on diverse subGects o" private international la', over 9: o" 'hich conventions are in "orce in di""erent countries, includin , amon others, the Ha ue Conventions on !nternational Sales o" .oods (4;>> and 4;=3), the Service o" #ocuments Abroad (4;3>), the TaCin o" Evidence Abroad (4;@:) and A enc0 (4;@=). See Tetle0, Int'l C. of L., 4;;< at p. 5: and the list o" Ha ue Conventions in "orce at Appendi? ,2,, pp. 4:=:-4:=4. 2ag e 5 les *+r.: ,Con"ention de .ru8elles de 34<V, or ,R+gles de La =aye,- *Span.: ,Con"enci@n de .ruselas de 34<V, or ,Reglas de La =aya,- *!tal.: ,Con"en(ione di .ru8elles del 34<V, or ,Regole dell'A>a,- *.r.: ,=aager Regeln,- - ,The !nternational Convention "or the 1ni"ication o" Certain $ules o" 8a' relatin to Aills o" 8adin , - Arussels, Au ust 9>, 4;9< (adopted at the insti ation o" the C%! and in "orce as o" Eune 9, 4;54). (See +rench and En lish te?ts, Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at pp. 4444-4459). 2ag e34is!y 5 les: The 2ag e 5 les (supra) as amended b0 the 4is!y 5 les (infra). 2ale / =leetwood on Admiralty D risdiction - (%.E. Frichard 7 #.E.C. Pale, eds.), Selden Societ0, vol. CB!!!, 4;;9, 8ondon. 2am! rg 5 les *+r.: ,R+gles de =ambourg,- *Span.: ,Reglas de =amburgo- ,- *!tal.: ,Regole di Amburgo,- *.r.: ,=amburger Regeln,- - The 1nited Iations Convention on the Carria e o" .oods b0 Sea,, adopted at Hambur on %arch 5:, 4;@= and in "orce as o" Iovember 4, 4;;9. See En lish te?t: Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at pp. 44<5-443>. 2are, Do'n - Shipping Law 2en'0n, South A"rica. Admiralty Durisdiction in South Africa , 4;;;, Euta 7 Co. 8td.,

2arter Act #A$E - "ormerl0 <3 1.S. Code App?. 4;:-4;3. !t is the precursor o" (6G7A (supra), 4;53 in the 1.S. !t continues to appl0 to coastin trade and to shippin e?empt "rom (6G7A and also overns the carrier6s (supra) liabilit0 "or the oods be"ore loadin and a"ter dischar e. See the te?t in Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at pp. 49:=-494:. Iote that the Harter Act 'as codi"ied in <3 1.S. Code at Chapter 5:@ (,8iabilit0 o" Water Carriers,) b0 the ,Act to complete the codi"ication o" title <3, 1nited States Code, 6Shippin 6, as positive la',, bein the Act o" Dctober 3, 9::3, Fublic 8a' Io. 4:;-5:< ("ormerl0 H.$. 4<<9). The codi"ication, 'hile simpli"0in , clari"0in and moderniHin the lan ua e o" the ori inal statute, 'as not intended to maCe an0 substantive chan e in its provisions. 2&7 (onvention #$$% - The !nternational Convention on 8iabilit0 and Compensation "or #ama e in connection 'ith the Carria e o" HaHardous and Io?ious Substances b0 Sea, 4;;3, adopted b0 the "M6 (infra) at 8ondon, %a0 5, 4;;3 (not 0et in "orce). See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. 4<94<5. 2aJelwood, 7teven D. - $ I Clubs% Law and $ractice, 5 Ed., 9:::, 88F, 8ondon.

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2ealy, &.D. / 7'ar1e, +.D. / 7'ar1e, +... - Cases and Materials on Admiralty,< Ed., 9::3, Thomson&West, St. Faul, %inn. 2ealy, &.D. / 7weeney, D.(. - !he Law of Marine Collision , 4;;=, Cornell %aritime Fress, Centreville, %d. 2esse, <'. DN .e rier, D.B<.N ('a mette, <.N Tassel, ;.N Mesnard, A.B2.N and 5eJent'el, 5. ,roits Maritimes, tome !, Mer7 6a"ire et Marins, 4;;>, 8es Oditions Euris-Service, 80on and Faris. 2ill, ('risto1'er - Maritime Law, 3 Ed., 9::5, 88F, 8ondon. 2imalaya cla se *+r.: ,clause =imalaya,- *Span.: ,clPusula =imalaya,- *!tal.: ,clausola =imalaya,- *.r.: ,=imalaya&2lausel,- - A clause in a !ill of lading (supra) e?tendin to speci"ied third parties, such as servants or a ents o" the carrier (supra) and independent contractors (e. . stevedores and terminal operators) emplo0ed b0 the carrier, the bene"it o" the e?emptions, limitations, de"ences and immunities o" the carrier under the bill o" ladin . The name is derived "rom the decision o" the En lish Court o" Appeal in Adler v. ,ic0son F!he =imalayaA *4;>>- 4 J.A. 4>=, *4;><- 9 8lo0d6s $ep. 93@ (C.A.). (Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at pp. @>@-@@;.) The ,Himala0a clause, is sometimes combined 'ith a ,circ lar indemnity cla se, (see supra).The Contracts FRights of !hird $artiesA Act 3444, 1.2. 4;;;, c. 54, at sects. 4 and 3(>) to (@), permits a third part0 to taCe advanta e o" a term e?cludin or limitin liabilit0 in a contract "or the carria e o" oods b0 sea, thus providin a statutor0 basis "or the Himala0a clause. See Tetle0, ,The Himala0a Clause revisited, (9::5) ; E!%8 <:-3</ also available on-line at: The Himala0a Clause - revisited *.pd"2ire *+r.: ,loyer, or ,loyer d'affr+tement,- *Span.: ,precio, or ,tarifa,- *!tal.: ,pre((o di noleggio,*.r: ,Miet(ins,- - The consideration in bareboat, demise and time charterparties. 2odges, 7 san - Law of Marine Insurance, 4;;3, Cavendish Fublishin 8imited, 8ondon. 2odges, 7. / 2ill, (. - $rinciples of Maritime Law, 9::4, 88F, 8ondon. 2ome 1ort doctrine - A principle o" the general maritime law 'hereb0 a maritime lien e?isted "or the suppl0 o" necessaries (infra)to a vessel onl0 i" the necessaries 'ere supplied a'a0 "rom the vessel6s home port. The home port doctrine is still enshrined in +rench maritime la' in respect o" necessaries and masterCs dis! rsements (infra), but has been repealed b0 statute in the modern maritime la' o" most common law j risdictions. See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;=, >>9, >=:, >;3>;@, 3:@, 3:=/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at p. <;<. 2on:a, 2ann , ed. - 6ew Carriage of -oods by Sea% !he 6ordic Approach including Comparisons with some #ther Durisdictions , 4;;@, !nstitute o" %aritime and Commercial 8a', ^bo ACademi 1niversit0, HelsinCi, +inland. 2ortonCs ?ey - A qua0 near 8ondon Arid e in South'arC durin the %iddle A es. The Admiralt0 Court sat in a buildin on Horton6s qua0 and at the Church St. %ar aret-at-Hill nearb0 prior to the .reat +ire o" 4333, "ollo'in 'hich the Court moved to +octorsC (ommons (supra). 2oyle, Mar: - !he Mare"a In>unction and Related #rders, 5 Ed., 9::5, 88F, 8ondon. 2 y!rec'ts, Marc , ed. - Marine Insurance at the !urn of the Millennium , vol. 4 (E. Ban Hoo0donC 7 C. #ier0cC, co-eds.), 4;;;, European !nstitute o" %aritime and Transport 8a', !ntersentia, Ant'erp, .ronin en, D?"ord.

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"
".(.(. - The !nternational Chamber o" Commerce (!CC) is the 'orld business or aniHation. !t is "ormed o" national associations and has its head o""ice in Faris. !t maCes rules that overn the conduct o" business across borders. Amon them are the !ncoterms (the latest bein "ncoterms 2000 (infra), in "orce Eanuar0 4, 9:::) and the Uniform ( stoms and <ractice for +oc mentary (redits (infra)the latest (9::3) revision o" 'hich comes into "orce on Eul0 4, 9::@. The0 are Cno'n as 1CF 3::. Website: http:&&'''.icc'bo.or &. Email: 'ebmaster@icc'bo.or The !CC operates the !CC !nternational Court o" Arbitration. Website: http:&&'''.icc'bo.or &inde?Zcourt.asp. Email: 'ebmasterZcourt@icc'bo.or . There is also the !CC !nstitute o" World Ausiness 8a'. Website: http:&&'''.icc'bo.or &home&businessZla'&council.asp Email: ldt@icc'bo.or . ".(.7. - The !nstitute o" Chartered ShipbroCers - Website: http:&&'''.ics.or .uC&. Email: in"o@ics.or .uC. See also "nternational ('am!er of 7'i11ing )"(7*, infra. "dentity of carrier cla se *+r.: ,clause d'identité du transporteur,- *Span.: ,clPusula de identificaci@n del porteador,- *!tal.: ,clausola d'identifica(ione del "ettore,- *.r.: ,Identity&of& carrier&2lausel,- - A clause in a !ill of lading (supra) providin that the shipo'ner is the carrier (supra). See Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 ed., 4;== at pp. 9>=-9>;/ Tetle0, !nt6l. %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at p. 4:<. See also demise cla se (supra). ".=.=. - !nstitute o" +rei ht +or'arders - The "ormer name o" the .ritis' "nternational =reig't Association, supra. "l +iritto Marittimo - A quarterl0 maritime la' revie', published in .enoa, !tal0. Website: http:&&'''.dirmar.com. Email: marla'@dirmar.com. The Editor-in-Chie" is =rancesco .erlingieri (supra). "MA636"AM - !nternational %aritime Arbitration Dr aniHation (Dr anisation !nternationale d6Arbitra e %aritime), based in Faris, 'hich operates under the ae is o" the "(( (supra). "M6 )!efore #$A2 it was named "M(6* - !nternational %aritime Dr aniHation ("M6), "ormerl0 !nter- overnmental %aritime Consultative Dr aniHation (!%CD), is a specialiHed a enc0 o" the 1nited Iations / Email: in"o@imo.or 'eb site: http:&&'''.imo.or &. The "M6 has been instrumental in the preparation o" man0 international conventions and protocols. "mm nity of 7tateBowned 7'i1s (onvention #$2% - The !nternational Convention "or the 1ni"ication o" Certain $ules Concernin the !mmunit0 o" State-o'ned Ships, adopted at Arussels on April 4:, 4;93 and in "orce as o" Eanuar0 =, 4;5@, and its Additional Frotocol o" %a0 9<, 4;5<, in "orce as o" Eanuar0 =, 4;5@. See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. 4435-443>. ,n personam (a ainst the person) - A t0pe o" le al proceedin s directed a ainst the de"endant personall0 (e. . an action "or breach o" contract, the commission o" a tort or delict or the possession o" propert0). Where an action in personam is success"ul, the Gud ment ma0 be en"orced a ainst all o" the de"endant6s assets, real and personal, moveable and immoveable. See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. ;>=-;=>. The j risdiction o" a court to tr0 actions in personam is re"erred to as the court6s in personam j risdiction. See Tetle0, !nt6l. C. o" 8., 4;;< at p. @;>/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. <:<-<:=. !n the 1.2., Admiralt0 claims "ormerl0 Cno'n as ,claims in personam, under the Civil Frocedure $ules 4;;= (S.!. 4;;=&5459), in "orce April 93, 4;;;, are no' overned, as o" %arch 9>, 9::9, b0 Fractice #irection 34 (Admiralt0 Claims), paras. 49.4 to 49.3 (Dther Claims) and such claims proceed in accordance 'ith Fart >= (Commercial Court) (see para. 49.9). The relevant claim "orm must be in +orm A#%4A (see para. 49.5).

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,n rem (a ainst the thin ) - A t0pe o" le al proceedin s, taCen in an admiralt0 court in a common law j risdiction, a ainst the ship (and sometimes a ainst car o and&or "rei ht) (the res) as de"endant, in respect o" particular t0pes o" maritime claims (e. . to en"orce a claim secured b0 a maritime lien (infra) or a stat tory rig't in rem (infra)). The taCin o" an action in rem is enerall0 accompanied b0 the arrest (supra) o" the res, 'hich provides pre-Gud ment securit0 "or the claim and con"irms the admiralt0 court6s in rem j risdiction. Where an action in rem is success"ul, the Gud ment ma0 be en"orced a ainst the res b0 'a0 o" Gudicial sale. !" the de"endant "iles an appearance in the action in rem, ho'ever, the action proceeds as a combined action in personam and in rem, and an eventual Gud ment in the plainti""6s "avour ma0 then be e?ecuted a ainst both the res and the de"endant6s other personal assets. Dn in rem j risdiction, see Tetle0, Int'l. C. of L., 4;;< at p. @;>/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. <:<-<:=. !n the United ?ingdom, an action in rem is no' termed a ,claim in rem,. See paras. 5.4 to 5.> o" Fractice #irection 34 (Admiralt0 Claims), promul ated under Fart 34 (Admiralt0 Claims) at $ule 34.5 o" the Civil Frocedure $ules 4;;= (S.!. 4;;=&5459), in "orce April 93, 4;;;, as amended 'ith e""ect "rom %arch 9>, 9::9. The action in rem does not e?ist in civilian j risdictions, but in such j risdictions, the action in personam (supra) ma0 be accompanied b0 the saisie conservatoire (conservator0 attac'ment) (infra) o" the ship, car o or freig't, 'hich, liCe the action in rem, provides pre-Gud ment securit0 "or the claim. See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. ;>=-;=>/ Tetle0, !nt6l %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at p. <:3. "nc'maree (la se - A clause in the hull polic0 e?tendin the perils to include ne li ence o" master and cre' and other additional perils. See Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at p. 3:5, "ootnote 45=. "ncoterms 2000 - The !ncoterms, the internationall0 accepted and emplo0ed terms "or contracts o" sale, 'ere "irst published b0 the "nternational ('am!er of (ommerce )"((* (supra) in 4;53. The0 'ere revised in 4;>5 and reprinted in 4;@<, includin t'o ne' terms that had been adopted in 4;3@, and a ain in 4;@3, 4;=: and 4;;:. The latest revision, Cno'n as ,!ncoterms 9:::,, came into "orce on Eanuar0 4, 9:::. !t modi"ies some o" the e?istin terms in an updated "ormat "or ease o" use, providin traders, la'0ers, transport o""icials and insurers 'ith a modern te?t re"lectin the latest chan es in the tradin environment. Dn the !ncoterms 9:::, see enerall0 Emmanuel Eolivet, 8es !ncoterms: Otude d6une norme du commerce international, 9::5, 8itec, Faris. See also the !CC 'ebsite:http:&&'''.icc'bo.or &. "ndeterminate term )intermediate term* - A term o" a contract 'hich, accordin to the consequences o" its breach, 'ill allo' rescission o" the contract (and dama es) or merel0 dama es. See .unge Corp. v. !rada8 *4;=4- 9 All E.$. >45, *4;=4- 9 8lo0d6s $ep. 4 (H.8.)/ =ong 2ong 9ir v. 222 *4;39- 9 J.A. 93, *4;34- 9 8lo0d6s $ep. <@= (C.A.). See also condition (supra) and warranty (infra). "nstit t Maritime d S G!ec - Ce ep de $imousCi, $imousCi, Juebec, Canada. Website: http:&&'''.imq.qc.ca. Email: institut@imq.qc.ca. "nstit te of "nternational (ontainer Lessors )".".(.L.* The trade association "or the international container and chassis leasin industr0 and leadin publisher o" inspection and repair publications "or containers and chassis. Website: http:&&'''.iicl.or &. Email: in"o@!!C8.or . "nstit te of "nternational 7'i11ing and Trade Law - 1niversit0 o" Wales (S'ansea). Website: http:&&'''.s'an.ac.uC&la'&istl. Email: #.$.Thomas@S'ansea.ac.uC. "nstit te of Marine and Environmental Law - A specialiHed institute 'ithin the 1niversit0 o" Cape To'n, South A"rica, 'hich provides teachin and research "acilities in re ard to the public

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la' o" the sea. Website: http:&&'eb.uct.ac.Ha&depts&pbl&imel&intro.htm. Email:la'mar@la'.uct.ac.Ha. See also ,7'i11ing Law Unit, and ,University of (a1e Town,. "nstit te of Maritime Law - A specialiHed institute 'ithin the +acult0 o" 8a' o" the 1niversit0 o" Southampton, 'hi ch provides maritime la' courses "or practitioners and students. Website: http:&&'''.iml.soton.ac.uC& Email: $.A.Hollo'a0@soton.ac.uC. "nstit te of Maritime and Trans1ort Law - 1niversit0 o" StocCholm, StocCholm, S'eden. Website: http:&&'''.Guridicum.su.se&transport&%ain&e"ramep.htm. Email: transport@Guridicum.su.se "nstit te of ,orld . siness Law- See "(( (supra). "nstit to 2is1anoBL soBAmericano de +erec'o Mar0timo )"2LA+M* - c&o "nstit to "!eroamericano de +erec'o Mar0timo, infra. "nstit to "!eroamericano de +erec'o Mar0timo )""+M*. Auenos Aires, Ar entina. Website: http:&&'''.institutoiberoamericanodederechomaritimo.com&. "nstit to Mar0timo maritimo@ime.es. Es1aTol %adrid, Spain. Website: http:&&'''.ime.es. Email:

"nstit to Mar0timo "nternacional de Alicante - 1niversidad de Alicante, Spain. Website: http:&&'''.sri.ua.es&club&cursnauticos.asp. Email: imia@ua.es. "ntegration cla se - See ,supersedin clause,, infra. "ntermediate )innominate* term - A term o" a contract 'hich cannot easil0 be classi"ied as either a condition (a contractual term the breach o" 'hich deprives the a rieved part0 o" substantiall0 the entire bene"it 'hich it 'as intended he should obtain "rom the contract, thus permittin him to sue "or the annulment o" the contract and&or dama es) or a warranty (breach o" 'hich is o" a less serious nature, soundin onl0 in dama es). An intermediate (innominate) term, b0 comparison, is a term 'hich (i" the parties have not stipulated that is either a condition or a 'arrant0) the court must e?amine on a case-b0-case basis, evaluatin the nature and consequences o" its breach in the li ht o" the contract as a 'hole, in order to decide 'hether it should be treated as a condition or as a 'arrant0. See =ong 2ong 9ir Shipping Co.7 Ltd. ". 2awasa0i 2isen 2aisha7 Ltd. *4;39- 4 All E.$. <@< (C.A.). See also .unge Corp. ". !rada8 18port S.A. *4;=4- 9 8lo0d6s $ep. 4 (H.8.), 'here the e?istence o" intermediate (innominate) terms 'as acCno'led ed, but 'here it 'as also held that in mercantile contracts 'here ,time is o" the essence,, the breach b0 one part0 o" a time-related provision, 'hich precludes the other part0 "rom per"ormin his bar ain under the contract, should normall0 be treated as the breach o" a condition, rather than as the breach o" a 'arrant0. "nternational Association of (lassification 7ocieties )"A(7* - Website: http:&&'''.iacs.or .uC&. Email: permsec@iacs.or .uC. "nternational Association of +ry (argo 7'i1owners http:&&'''.intercar o.or &. Email: in"o@intercar o.or . )"&TE5(A5G6* - Website:

"nternational Association of E ro1ean General Average Adj sters - c&o Henr0 Boet-.enicot, %echelsesteen'e 9:5 A3, A-9:4=, Ant'erpen, Ael ium. "nternational Association of "nde1endent Tan:er 6wners )"&TE5TA&?6* - Website: http:&&'''.intertanCo.com&. Email: london@intertanCo.com.

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"nternational Association of Maritime Universities )"AMU* Website: http:&&'''.iamu-edu.or &. Email: in"o@iamu-edu.or "nternational Association of <orts and 2ar!o rs http:&&'''.iaph'orldports.or &. Email:in"o@iaph'orldports.or . "nternational .ar Association )".A* - Website: http:&&'''.ibanet.or &. "nternational (argo 2andling (oBordination Association )"(2(A* http:&&'''.ichcainternational.co.uC&. Email: in"o@ichcainternational.co.uC. "nternational ('am!er of 7'i11ing )"(7* - Website: http:&&'''.marisec.or &. "nternational (ongress of Maritime Ar!itrators )"(MA * - A convention o" maritime arbitrators held ever0 second 0ear in di""erent parts o" the 'orld since 4;@9, also attended b0 man0 Gud es, la'0ers, and shippin o""icials concerned 'ith maritime ar!itration (supra). "nternational (o ncil of (r ise Lines )"((L* Website: http:&&'''.iccl.or &. Email: in"o@iccl.or . "nternational (o rt of Ar!itration - See "(( (supra). "nternational =ederation of 7'i1mastersC http:&&'''.i"sma.or &. Email: HJ@i"sma.or . Associations-)"=7MA * _ Web site: Website: )"A<2* 'ebsite:

"nternational Gro 1 of <. / ". (l !s - Email: international. roup@btinternet.com. "nternational "nstit te of Marine 7 rveying - Website: http:&&'''.iims.or .uC&. Email: iims@compuserve.com. "nternational Law Association (".L.A.) - Website: http:&&'''.ila-hq.or &. Email: in"o@ila-hq.or . "nternational La!o r 6rganiJation (".L.6.) - The specialiHed a enc0 o" the 1nited Iations, headquartered in .eneva, 'hich seeCs the promotion o" social Gustice and internationall0 reco niHed human and labour ri hts. +ounded in 4;4; under the Treat0 o" Bersailles 'hich brou ht the 8ea ue o" Iations into bein , the !.8.D. became the "irst specialiHed a enc0 o" the 1I in 4;<3. Since 4;9:, the !.8.D. has prepared <: conventions and 9; recommendations on maritime labour standards, dealin 'ith matters such as recruitment and placement, minimum a e, hours o" 'orC, sa"et0, health and 'el"are, labour inspection and social securit0. The !.8.D. is maCin e""orts to consolidate these conventions and recommendations into a ne', international maritime labour convention. Website: http:&&'''.ilo.or &/ e-mail: ilo@ilo.or . "nternational Maritime and (ommercial Law ;ear!oo:- A Gurisdictional revie' o" international maritime and commercial la', published b0 !n"orma Fro"essional since 9::9, and containin annual summaries o" the maritime la' and marine insurance decisions rendered b0 courts in Australia, Canada, the 1nited 2in dom and the 1nited States. An e?ample o" a citation is: *9::9- !%C8P `9@. Editor: <rof. =rancis +. 5ose. "nternational Maritime Mo!ile 7atellite 6rganiJation )"&MA57AT * - Website: http:&&'''.inmarsat.com&. Email: customerZcare@inmarsat.com. !%SD (!nternational %obile Satellite Dr aniHation) is the inter- overnmental or aniHation (!.D) "ormed to oversee !I%A$SAT6s public sa"et0 and services obli ations since becomin a private compan0 (!nmarsat 8td.) on April 4>, 4;;;. !I%A$SAT 'as established b0 the Convention on the !nternational

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%aritime Satellite Dr aniHation, adopted b0 the "M6 (supra) on September 5, 4;@3, 'hich came into "orce on Eul0 43, 4;@;. "nternational Maritime +angero s Goods (ode )"M+G (ode* - The !nternational %aritime #an erous .oods Code, adopted b0 the "M6. See consolidated edition 4;;<, in "our volumes 'ith one Supplement. "nternational Maritime Law "nstit te - A specialiHed institute established under the auspices o" the "M6, providin maritime la' courses to practitioners and students in %alta. #irector: #avid E. Attard. Website: http:&&'''.imli.or &. Email: in"o@imli.or . "nternational Maritime Lect rers Association )".M.L.A.* - c&o The World %aritime 1niversit0, F.D. Ao? >:: S 9:4 9<, %almo, S'eden. See ,orld Maritime University, infra. "nternational Maritime <ilotsC Association http:&&'''.internationalpilots.or &. Email: sec@impahq.or &. )".M.<.A.* Website:

"nternational Maritime 7ec rity )"M7* - An or aniHation specialiHin in providin and implementin the !nternational Ship and Fort +acilit0 Securit0 Code (!SFS Code). Website: http:&&'''.intemarsec.co.uC&. E-mail: ims@intmarsec.co.uC. "nternational &avigation Association )<"A&(BA"<(&* -A 'orld-'ide non-political and nonpro"it maCin technical and scienti"ic or aniHation o" private individuals, corporations and national overnments, "ormerl0 Cno'n as the <ermanent "nternational Association of &avigation (ongresses )<"A&(* (infra). Website: http:&&'''.pianc-aipcn.or &. Email: in"o@pianc-aipcn.or . "nternational 6il <oll tion (om1ensation = nds )"6<( = nds* - Website: http:&&'''.iopc"und.or &. Email: in"o@iopc"und.or . See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at p. 45=/ Tetle0, !nt6l. %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at pp. <>5-<><. See also "nternational 7 11lementary = nd for (om1ensation for 6il <oll tion +amage (infra). "nternational 7afety Management (ode )"7M (ode* - The !nternational %ana ement Code "or the Sa"e Dperation o" Ships and "or Follution Frevention (commonl0 called the ,!S% Code,) 'as ori inall0 the anne? to $esolution Io. A.@<4(4=), adopted b0 the "M6 Assembl0 at its Ei hteenth Session on Iovember <, 4;;5, but has no' become Anne? !Q to the 7afety of Life at 7ea )76LA7* (onvention, infra. See te?t published b0 "M6, 8ondon, 4;;<. See Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. <3>-<3@. "nternational 7alvage Union )".7.U.* - Website: http:&&'''.marine-salva e.com. Email: isu@randell."snet.co.uC/ "nternational 7'i1 and <ort =acility 7ec rity (ode )"7<7 (ode* - The ,!nternational Code "or the Securit0 o" Ships and o" Fort +acilities,, adopted b0 the "M6 (supra) on #ecember 49, 9::9, and 'hich taCes e""ect Eul0 4, 9::< upon the entr0 into "orce o" Chapter Q!-9 o" the 76LA7 (onvention #$94 (infra) concernin measures to enhance sa"et0 and securit0 in the maritime transport sector. The !SFS Code establishes and international "rame'orC "or cooperation bet'een overnments, their a encies and local administrations, on the one hand, and the shippin and port industries, on the other, in order to detect securit0 threats, prevent securit0 incidents and collect and e?chan e securit0-related in"ormation. !t also requires the preparation o" securit0 assessments, securit0 plans and related procedures "or ships and port "acilities. "nternational 7'i1 ManagersC Association )".7.M.A.* - Website: http:&&'''.intermana er.or &. Email: secretar0@intermana er.or .

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"nternational 7'i1 7 11liersC Association )".7.7.A.* - Website: http:&&'''.shipsuppl0.or &. Email: issa@dial.pipe?.com. !SSA is the international association representin nearl0 9,::: ship suppliers throu hout the 'orld. 5= national associations o" ship suppliers are "ull !SSA members and there are associate members in << other countries 'here no national association e?ists. "nternational 7 11lementary = nd for (om1ensation for 6il <oll tion +amage )7 11lementary = nd* The 7 11lementary = nd 'as established on %a0 43, 9::5 b0 'a0 o" a Frotocol (in "orce %arch 5, 9::>) to the = nd (onvention #$$2 (supra), in order to provide a third tier o" compensation "or marine oil pollution dama e, over and above the compensation provided "or under the (L( (onvention #$$2 (supra) and the = nd (onvention #$$2 (supra). The 7 11lementary = nd and the "nternational 6il <oll tion (om1ensation = nd (supra) share a common director and secretariat in 8ondon. "nternational 7 11ort 4essel 6wnersC Association )".7.6.A.* http:&&'''.marisec.or &marisec&marisec.htm. Email:mailto:isoa@marisec.or . Website:

"nternational Tan:er 6wners <oll tion =ederation )"T6<=* - Website: http:&&'''.itop".com. Email: central@itop".com. "nternational Trans1ort ,or:ersC =ederation )".T.=.* - The !T+ is a lobal or aniHation o" more than 394 transport trade unions in 45@ countries, representin around > million 'orCers. !t is one o" 4: .lobal 1nion +ederations ("ormerl0 !nternational Trade Secretariats) allied to the !nternational Con"ederation o" +ree Trade 1nions (!CT+1). +ounded in 4=;3, it or aniHes 'orCers in sea"arin , docCs, rail'a0s, road transport, civil aviation, inland navi ation, "isheries, and civil aviation and tourism. !t represents the interests o" transport 'orCers at 'orld level throu h its input into lobal solidarilt0, promotes independent and democratic trade unionism and de"ends human and trade union ri hts. Website: http:&&'''.it".or .uC&. Email: mail@it".or .uC. "nternational Underwriting Association of London )".U.A.* - An association o" international insurers and reinsurers created in 4;;= b0 the mer er o" the !nstitute o" 8ondon 1nder'riters (!.8.1.) and the 8ondon !nternational !nsurance and $einsurance %arCet Association (8!$%A). Website: http:&&'''.iua.co.uC&. Email: in"o@iua.co.uC,. "nternational Union of Marine "ns rance )"UM"* - The international association o" marine insurers (hull, car o, liabilit0, ener 0 7 o""shore) has its head o""ice in Rurich, S'itHerland. Website: http:&&'''.iumi.com&. Email: mail@iumi.com. "ntervention (onvention #$%$ - The !nternational Convention relatin to !ntervention on the Hi h Seas in Cases o" Dil Follution Casualties, adopted b0 "M6 (supra) at Arussels, Iovember 9;, 4;3; and in "orce %a0 3, 4;@>. See also the Frotocol to the !nternational Convention relatin to !ntervention on the Hi h Seas in Cases o" Follution b0 Substances other than Dil, adopted at 8ondon, Iovember 9, 4;@5, in "orce %arch 5:, 4;=5. "vamy, E.5. 2ardy Marine Insurance, < Ed., 4;=>, Autter'orths, 8ondon.

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Dac:son, +avid (. - 1nforcement of Maritime Claims, < Ed., 9::>, 88F, 8ondon. Dados, 7tanley 7. - Consulate of the Sea and Related ,ocuments, 4;@>, 1niversit0 o" Alabama Fress, 1niversit0 o" Alabama. Dason cla se3 &ew Dason cla se - A clause in American !ills of lading 'hich permits the carrier (supra) to collect general average contri! tions (supra) "rom car o o'ners in situations 'here the carrier is at "ault, but is not responsible "or the car o loss or dama e under the 2arter Act #A$E (supra) or (6G7A (supra). The name ori inates in the 1.S. Supreme Court6s decision in !he Dason 99> 1.S. 59 (4;49), 'here the clause 'as upheld under the 2arter Act. The clause evolved into the ,Ie' Eason clause, 'ith the advent o" (6G7A in 4;53. (See Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at pp. @99-@95/ Tetle0, !nt6l. %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at p. 5@4). Doint lia!ility - T'o or more debtors 'ho are obli ated to the same creditor "or the same obli ation are ,Gointl0 liable, 'here the0 ma0 onl0 be compelled to per"orm the obli ation separatel0 and onl0 up to their respective shares o" the debt. See JuKbec Civil Code 4;;<, art. 4>4=/ 8ouisiana Civil Code, art. 4@==. Doint and several lia!ility - T'o or more debtors 'ho are obli ated to the same creditor "or the same obli ation are ,Gointl0 and severall0 liable, 'here an0 one o" them ma0 be compelled to per"orm the 'hole obli ation and 'here per"ormance b0 one o" them releases the other debtors to'ards the creditor. See +rench Civil Code, art. 49::/ JuKbec Civil Code 4;;<, art. 4>95. !n the civil law, a Goint and several obli ation is re"erred to as a ,solidar0, obli ation (in +rench, , une obligation solidaire,) and Goint and several liabilit0 is termed ,solidarit0, (in +rench, , solidarité,). See +rench Civil Code, art. 49:: and 49:4/ JuKbec Civil Code 4;;<, arts. 4>95 and 4>9>/ 8ouisiana Civil Code, arts. 4@;< and 4@;3. Dolivet, Emman el - Les Incoterms% Itude d'une norme du commerce international , 9::5, 8itec, Faris. Dones, <eter - !he 9IA!A Legal =andboo0 for 9reight 9orwardersX 1ssentials of 1,I , E#! Council o" Canada, EtobicoCe, Dntario, Canada, 4;;9/ and E#!, The Ie' Transport $evolution, E#! Council o" Canada, 4;;5. See also forwarderlaw.com (supra). Do rnal of (ommerce - A ne's service, based in Ie' PorC Cit0, providin in"ormation on international trade and commerce, includin shippin , sur"ace and air transport and lo istics. The EoC .roup provides the in"ormation in di""erent "orms, includin , amon others, EoC Dnline (a dail0 ne's service on the !nternet) and EoC WeeC (a 'eeCl0 ma aHine). Website: http:&&'''.Goc.com&. Email: customerservice@cbiHmedia.com. Do rnal of "nternational Maritime Law - A maGor international maritime la' revie', published si? times a 0ear, 'ith an inde?, b0 8a'te?t Fublishin 8imited, Witne0, D?"ordshire, En land. Website: http:&&'''.la'te?t.com&la'te?t'eb&de"ault.GspWFa e!#X9. Email: Giml@la'te?t.com. An e?ample o" a citation is: E!%8 *9::5- ; >:5. The Editor-in-Chie" is <rof. +. 5'idian T'omas (infra). Do rnal of Maritime Law and (ommerce - The leadin American maritime la' revie' published "our times per 0ear b0 Ee""erson 8a' AooC Co. Website: http:&&'''.Gmlc.or &. Email: Ge""la'4@Guno.com. An e?ample o" the citation is 4< E. %ar. 8. 7 Com. 495 (4;=5). The Editor is Ed'ard B. Cattell, Er.

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D ris "nternational - A 'ebsite o" le al in"ormation in En lish, +rench and Spanish dealin 'ith international trade, includin international conventions, model clauses, dra"tin uidelines and linCs to various dispute resolution centres and business associations. Website: http:&&'''.Gurisint.or &pub&. D risdiction - A term re"errin to the nature and e?tent o" the le al authorit0 besto'ed upon a le islature to enact la's (le islative Gurisdiction) or o" courts to hear and determine actions and other le al proceedin s (Gudicial Gurisdiction), as determined b0 international conventions or national la's. A court e?ercises its ,Gurisdiction, (i.e. decision-maCin authorit0, or ,competence,) over proceedin s o" certain t0pes (,subGect-matter Gurisdiction,, or ,Gurisdiction ratione materiae,) and over a de"ined territor0 (,territorial Gurisdiction,, or ,Gurisdiction ratione loci,). !ts authorit0 to adGudicate ma0 also be limited to certain persons or to certain ma?imum amounts o" mone0 in dispute. ,Eurisdiction, ma0 also re"er to one or more States or political subdivisions overned b0 a particular le al s0stem (e. . ,common la' Gurisdictions,, ,civilian Gurisdictions,). The term ma0 also re"er to the t0pe o" le al proceedin s 'hereb0 a court assumes and e?ercises its decisionmaCin "unction (e. . the court6s ,in personam, or ,in rem, Gurisdiction (supra)). ,Eurisdiction, ma0 be used 'ith respect to a particular t0pe o" subGect-matter Gurisdiction e?ercised b0 a court (e. . the ,Admiralt0 Gurisdiction, o" the Court o" Jueen6s Aench), as 'ell as 'ith respect to the eo raphic limits o" the territorial Gurisdiction o" the court (e. . service ,out o" the Gurisdiction,/ assets ,'ithin the Gurisdiction,). D risdiction cla se - A clause in a !ill of lading (supra), a way!ill (supra) or a c'arter1arty (supra), providin that an0 dispute arisin under the contract evidenced b0 that document shall be tried be"ore the competent court o" a particular State (e. . ,the courts o" +rance,) or b0 a speci"ic court 'ithin that State (e. . the , !ribunal de Commerce de Rouen,). A Gurisdiction clause usuall0 also speci"ies the la' that 'ill overn the disputes concerned. See Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at pp. @=4-=9:/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at p. 4:@/ Tetle0, ,Eurisdiction Clauses and +orum Ion Conveniens in the Carria e o" .oods b0 Sea *.pd"-, (publisbed in Durisdiction and 9orum Selection in International Maritime Law. 1ssays in =onor of Robert 9orce (%artin #avies, ed.), 2lu'er 8a' !nternational, The Ha ue, 9::>, Chapter 3 at pp. 4=5-935).

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?ennedy, ,.5. / 5ose, =.+. - 2ennedy and Rose on the Law of Sal"age , 3 Ed., 9::4, S'eet 7 %a?'ell, 8ondon. ?'odjet el ?'il, Lilia - La $ollution de la Mer Méditerranée du 9ait du !ransport Maritime de Marchandises, 9::5, Fresses 1niversitaires d6Ai?-%arseille. ?ianto B<am1o :i, Ali:i -Multimodal !ransport% Carrier Liabiity and Issues related to the .ills of Lading, 9:::, Aru0lant, Arussels. ?not - Dne na tical mile (infra) (3:=: "eet) per hour, the maritime measure "or speed at sea. ?1oa'o n Amo sso , A !in - Les Clauses Attributi"es de Compétence dans le !ransport Maritime de Marchandises, 9::9, Fresses 1niversitaires d6Ai?-%arseille.

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Lac'es - A common law term derived "rom the Courts o" Equit0, re"errin to the "ailure o" a plainti"" to assert his claim 'ithin a reasonable time, 'hich alone or 'ith other circumstances, causes preGudice to his debtor or to third parties, resultin in the dismissal o" his tard0 suit on equitable rounds. 8aches is "requentl0 invoCed in admiralt0 courts, especiall0 in the 1nited States 'here there are "e' statutes o" limitation applicable to maritime claims. See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. =>@, =35-=3=, ==9-==5, ;:4, ;:=-;:;/ Tetle0, !nt6l C. o" 8., 4;;< at pp. 3@5-3@@, 3=@3==/ Tetle0, !nt6l. %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at pp. >:5->:<. -Law Merc'ant- - See ,le' mercatoria,, infra. Law of t'e flag - The conflict of laws rule, still re"lected in man0 national la's and international conventions, 'hich subGected various maritime la' matters to the la' o" the "la or port o" re istr0 o" the ship. The concept bore the imprint o" nineteenth-centur0 theories o" the la' o" the citiHen, espoused b0 Iapoleon Aonaparte and %ancini. Toda0, the emer ence o" "la s o" convenience, double-"la in , "la in out, and the increasin insistence in man0 international conventions on a , enuine linC, bet'een the "la and the ship, have reduced the importance o" the la' o" the "la to merel0 one contact, or connectin "actor, amon others in maritime con"licts o" la'. See "or e?ample, =ellenic Lines7 Ltd. ". Rhoditis , 5;= 1.S. 5:3, 4;@: A%C ;;< (4;@:) and Spector ". 6orwegian Cruise Line Ltd., ><> 1.S. 44;, 9::> A%C 4>94 (9::>). See Tetle0, Int'l C. of L., 4;;< at pp. 4@>-99<. Law of t'e 7ea (onvention #$A2 )L67 #$A2* - The 1nited Iations 8a' o" the Sea Convention, adopted at %onte o Aa0, Eamaica, #ecember 4:., 4;=9 and in "orce Iovember 43, 4;;<. This Convention 'as the product o" nine 0ears o" 'orC b0 the Third 1nited Iations Con"erence on the 8a' o" the Sea (4;@5-4;=9). See Tetle0 M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at p. 4<4/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. 355-3<<. -Law of t'e United ?ingdom- : The statutes and re ulations applicable to the 'hole o" the United ?ingdom, includin E ro1ean Union treaties and re ulations, 'hich are ,directl0 applicable, in the 1.2. as a %ember-State o" the E.1., as 'ell as treaties made b0 the 1.2. .overnment under the ro0al prero ative o" the Cro'n. See also Englis' law )Law of England* and United ?ingdom. Laws of ,is!y )4is!y* - An important collection o" maritime la's based on the 8ubecC codes, a +lemish cop0 o" the Gud ments o" DlKron and #utch ordinances "rom Amsterdam, "irst published at Wisb0 (Bisb0), capital o" .otland in 4>:> b0 .od"re0 o" .emen. See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. 4=-94. Lay days - See laytime infra. Lay )s'are* - A t0pe o" emplo0ment contract "or commercial "ishermen, 'hereb0 the0 are paid a share, or percenta e, o" the pro"its "rom the catch. See <3 1.S. Code 4:3:4 et se:. See also Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. 9;;-5:4. Laycan - An abbreviation o" ,la0da0 cancellin date, or ,la0da0s cancellin ,. A term used in a voyage c'arter1arty, (supra) re"errin to the period o" time bet'een the commencement o" laytime (infra) (bein the be innin o" the ,la0 da0s, 'hen the charterer must commence loadin the car o), and the cancellin date (bein the date a"ter 'hich the charterer ma0 repudiate the charterpart0 i" the ship has not then arrived at the speci"ied port or place o" loadin ). This period, also called the ,la0can spread,, is t0picall0 e?pressed as t'o dates, "or e?ample ,la0can 9> %arch&9 April,, meanin that the charterer ma0 not be obli ed to commence loadin earlier than 9> %arch even i" the ship has arrived at the speci"ied port or place o" loadin b0 that date, and that he ma0 cancel the charterpart0 i" the ship has not arrived there b0 9 April. See E. Scho"ield, 8a0time and

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#emurra e, > Ed., 88F, 8ondon, 9::</ F. Arodie, #ictionar0 o" Shippin Terms, < Ed., 88F, 8ondon, 9::5 at p. 4<:. Laytime *+r.: ,staries, or ,délai de staries,- *!tal.: ,stallie,- *.r.: ,Liege(eit,- - !n a voyage c'arter1arty (supra), the period o" time (the ,la0 da0s,) a reed bet'een the parties durin 'hich the shipo'ner 'ill maCe and Ceep the vessel available to the vo0a e charterer "or loadin or dischar in 'ithout pa0ment additional to the freig't (supra). See Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L. , 9::5 at p. 45> "ootnote 3@. L("A )London (o rt of "nternational Ar!itration* - The !nternational #ispute $esolution Centre in 8ondon, En land. Website: http:&&'''.lcia.or &. Email: lcia@lcia.or . L.(.L. - (less than a container load). Here the carrier (supra) taCes the oods "rom t'o or more s'i11ers (infra), pacCs them into the container and seals it. Leader - An under'riter 'hose Gud ment is so respected b0 other under'riters that the0 'ill "ollo' his lead in acceptin a risC presented b0 the assured6s broCer. His s0ndicate or compan0 'ill be the "irst to initial the slip presented b0 the assured6s broCer. Leag e - An ancient term o" measurement on land and sea, the equivalent o" "our $oman miles. !t is 5.4= na tical miles but at sea it is usuall0 taCen as 5 nautical miles, o"ten reduced to 3::: "eet. Letter of g arantee *+r.: ,lettre de garantie,- *Span.: ,carta de garantBa del consignatario,- *!tal.: ,lettera di garan(ia all'arri"o,- *.r.: ,-arantiebrief,- - A 'ritten undertaCin , or letter o" indemnit0, usuall0 provided b0 a banC, promisin to hold the carrier (supra) harmless, up to a certain sum, "or claims that ma0 arise "rom the deliver0 o" oods to a particular person 'ho is unable to surrender the ori inal !ills of lading in return "or the oods. See Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at p. =99. Letter of indemnity *+r.: ,lettre d'indemnité,- *Span.: ,carta de garantBa del cargador,- *!tal.: ,lettera di manle"a, or ,lettera di garan(ia alla parten(a,- *.r.: ,Indemnit)tsbrief,- - A 'ritten undertaCin b0 a s'i11er (infra) to indemni"0 a carrier (supra) "or an0 liabilit0 'hich the carrier ma0 incur "or havin issued a clean !ill of lading (supra) 'hen, in "act, the oods received 'ere not as stated on the !ill of lading (supra). Such a letter is usuall0 a central document in a "raud, 'hereb0 the shipper and carrier Cno'in l0 misrepresent to third parties the actual order and condition o" the oods at the time o" shipment or the bad order o" the pacCin , or 'hereb0 the0 issue duplicate bills o" ladin to replace lost or stolen ori inals. 8etters o" indemnit0 should not be condoned b0 courts and are enerall0 held ine""ective as a ainst third parties. See Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at pp. =94-=5@/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at p. @5/ 2am! rg 5 les (supra) art 4@(9) and (5) (re"errin to letters o" indemnit0 as ,letters o" uarantee,. Letter of nderta:ing )L6U* *+r.: ,lettre d'engagement,- *!tal.: ,lettera di impegno,- *.r.: ,SchuldQbernahme,- - A 'ritten undertaCin provided b0 a <. / ". cl ! (see <. / ". ins rance, infra) to secure the release o" a ship belon in to one o" the Club6s shipo'nin members "rom arrest or attac'ment, or to prevent such arrest or attac'ment. The letter provides the seiHin creditor 'ith a uarantee that his claim 'ill be satis"ied up to the amount speci"ied b0 the letter. !t also usuall0 replaces the ship as securit0 and contains a submission to the j risdiction o" the competent court or , as 'ell as an undertaCin to accept service on behal" o" the shipo'ners in personam besides in the name o" the ship. See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. 4444-444=. -le' causae- - The la' applicable to the case. -le' fori- - The la' o" the "orum.

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-le' loci contractus- - The la' o" the place o" conclusion o" the contractin . -le' loci damni- - The la' o" the place o" the inGur0. -le' loci delicti- - The la' o" the place o" the tort&delict. -le' loci solutionis- - The la' o" the place o" per"ormance o" the contract. -le' maritima- )-ley maryne-* - A bod0 o" oral rules, customs and usa es relatin to navi ation and maritime commerce, the "irst elements o" 'hich ma0 be traced bacC to the 5'odian Law (infra) (c. =:: A.C.), and 'hich developed in medieval Western Europe "rom the ninth to the t'el"th centuries as part o" a 'ider, customar0 mercantile la' (the ,le' mercatoria, or ,LaMerc&ant,, infra), administered b0 merchant Gud es. The le8 maritima 'as raduall0 codi"ied in earl0 maritime la' compilations, such as the 5Hles of 6lGron (infra) in the t'el"th centur0, the (onsolato del Mare (supra) in the "i"teenth centur0 and the Laws of ,is!y (supra) in the si?teenth centur0. !t underlies much o" contemporar0 maritime la', not onl0 in civil law countries, but even in common law j risdictions such as En land and Canada, and, in particular, ma0 be "ound in the ,general maritime law, (supra) o" the 1nited States. See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. @, 49-45, <=, >>->3, >;/ Tetle0, !nt6l. C. o" 8., 4;;< at pp. 4=4-4=>, 5:9, 5=;, 3@4, =3=/ Tetle0, !nt6l. %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at p. ;/ Tetle0, ,The .eneral %aritime 8a' - The Le8 Maritima, (4;;<) 9: S0racuse E. !nt. 8. 7 Comm. 4:>-4<>/ reprinted in *4;;3- ET8 <3;->:3. -le' mercatoria- )-Law Merc'ant-* - A bod0 o" oral, customar0 mercantile la' 'hich developed in medieval Europe and 'as administered quite uni"orml0 across Europe b0 merchant Gud es, adGudicatin disputes bet'een merchants. The le8 mercatoria ori inall0 included the le' maritima (supra). !n the contemporar0 'orld, some (althou h not all) scholars believe there e?ists a modern le8 mercatoria, de"ined to include certain transnational trade usa es and commercial customs reco niHed internationall0 b0 the mercantile communit0, and possibl0 e?tendin to certain international conventions and even national la's pertainin to international economic relations. !nternational commercial ar!itration (supra) is "requentl0 cited as a "ield in 'hich the modern le8 mercatoria is operative. See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. @, 49, >>->3, 3:/ Tetle0, !nt. C. o" 8., 4;;< at pp. 4=4-4=>, 5=;, <4@-<4;, 3@4, =3=/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at p. </ Tetle0, ,The .eneral %aritime 8a' -!he Le8 Maritima, (4;;<) 9: S0racuse E. !nt. 8. 7 Comm. 4:>-4<>, at pp. 4:;-44< and 45<-4<9/ reprinted in *4;;3- ET8 <3;->:> at pp. <@9-<@= and <;@->:<. Le> Mercatoria - An e?tensive 'ebsite o" le al materials related to various "ields o" international trade la', includin , inter alia, carria e o" oods, international commercial ar!itration and the conflict of laws. Website: http:&&'''.Gus.uio.no&lm. -ley maryne- - See ,le' maritima,, supra. Li, ?.U. / "ngram, (.,.M. - Maritime Law and $olicy in China , 9::9, Cavendish Fublishin , 8ondon 7 S0dne0. Limitation (onvention #$89 - The !nternational Convention $elatin to the 8imitation o" the 8iabilit0 o" D'ners o" Sea oin Ships, adopted at Arussels on Dctober 4:, 4;>@ and in "orce as o" %a0 54, 4;3=. See also the Frotocol, adopted at Arussels on #ecember 94, 4;@; and in "orce as o" Dctober 3, 4;=<. See (M" (supra). Limitation (onvention #$9% - Convention on 8imitation o" 8iabilit0 "or %aritime Claims, adopted b0 the "M6 (supra) at 8ondon on Iovember 4;, 4;@3 and in "orce as o" #ecember 4, 4;=3. See also the Frotocol, adopted at .eneva on %a0 5, 4;;3 (in "orce %a0 45, 9::<).

>=

Limitation f nd *+r.: ,fonds de limitation,- *Span.: ,fondo de limitaci@n,- *!tal.: ,fondo di limita(ione,- *.r.: =aftungsbegren(ungsfond,- - The "und 'hich is constituted in court b0 the part0 seeCin to limit its liabilit0 under the Limitation (onventions #$89 (art. 9) or #$9% (art. 44) (supra). Dnce constituted, the limitation "und is available onl0 to pa0 claims subGect to limitation, so that other claims must be asserted separatel0, and claimants a ainst the "und are barred "rom proceedin a ainst other assets o" the de"endant. The "und is constituted b0 the deposit 'ith the court o" the sum or approved securit0, as determined under the relevant Convention, "or the bene"it o" all claimants. The constitution o" the "und results in a sta0 o" proceedin s in an0 actions alread0 be un in respect o" the casualt0 concerned, and in the "ilin o" all claims relatin to the casualt0 in the limitation proceedin s, in accordance 'ith the principle o" ,conc rs s, (supra). At the conclusion o" the limitation proceedin s, the "und is distributed in proportion to the ,established claims,. See Tetle0, !nt6l. %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at pp. 5::-544. Limitation of s'i1ownersC lia!ility - The ancient ri ht o" shipo'ners, later e?tended to charterers, mana ers, salvors and insurers o" ships, to limit their liabilit0 "or certain maritime claims, either to a sum representin the value o" the vessel and pendin freig't a"ter the casualt0, or to a sum determined b0 the tonna e o" the vessel, dependin upon the j risdiction concerned and the applicable or national la'. See Tetle0, Int'l. C. of L., 4;;<, at pp. >:>->54/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5, Chap. @, at pp. 93@-543. liner *+r.: ,na"ire de ligne,- *Span.: ,bu:ue de lBnea,- *!tal.: ,na"e di linea,- *.r.: ,Linienschiff,- A vessel habituall0 emplo0ed on a re ular schedule and loadin and dischar in at speci"ied ports. liner terms - 8iner terms re"er to the ordinar0 responsibilit0 o" the shipo'ner under a c'arter1arty to control and pa0 "or the loadin , sto'a e, trimmin and dischar e o" the car o o" the charterer. 8iner terms are there"ore to be contrasted 'ith terms such as =.".6., =.".L.6., =.".6.7. and =.".6.7.T. (supra), 'hich have the e""ect o" trans"errin some o" those responsibilities "rom the shipo'ner to the charterer. Lineway!ill - See way!ill )sea way!ill* (supra). Lis!on 5 les #$A9 *+r.: ,R+gles de Lisbonne 34E5,- *Span.: ,Reglas de Lisboa 34E5,- *!tal.: ,Regole di Lisbona 34E5,- *.r.: ,Lissabonner Regeln 34E5,- - A set o" rules on the assessment o" dama es in ship collisions (supra), prepared b0 the C%! and adopted at 8isbon in 4;=@. The $ules do not have the "orce o" la', but are intended rather as uidelines "or Gud es, arbitrators, insurers, avera e adGusters and others concerned 'ith evaluatin collision dama es. The0 ma0 also be chosen b0 the parties to a collision dispute, a"ter it arises, to overn dama e assessment. See te?t at (4;=@) 4= E%8C >@@->=9, 'ith commentar0 b0 E. Warot at pp. >=5->=@. See also Tetle0, !nt6l. %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at p. 9>;. LloydCs List - A dail0 ne'spaper published in 8ondon, En land, and also available on the !nternet, providin in"ormation on 'orld shippin , insurance, ener 0 and lo istics marCets. Email: 'ebeditor@llo0dslist.com/ 'ebsite: http:&&'''.llo0dslist.com&. LloydCs Maritime and (ommercial Law S arterly - The leadin En lish maritime revie' published b0 !n"orma Fro"essional (a tradin division o" !n"orma 12 8imited). !n Iorth America: !n"orma Fublishin .roup 8td. Website: http:&&'''.in"ormala'.com&. An e?ample o" the citation is *4;=:- 8%C8J 495. The .eneral Editor is <rof. =rancis. +. 5ose (infra). The Consultant Editor is <rof. =rancis M... 5eynolds (infra). LloydCs 5egister - A parent or aniHation 'hich is the 'orld6s leadin classification society. The $e ister o" Ships contains details o" some =5,::: merchant ships "rom around the 'orld. +or publications, contact %arine !n"ormation Fublishin .roup. Website: http:&&'''.lr.or &. Email: 8lo0dsre @lr.or . >;

LloydCs 5e1. and Ll. L. 5e1. - 8lo0d6s 8ist 8a' $eports (since 4;>: the title has been 8lo0d6s $eports.) The0 are the leadin maritime la' reports o" .reat Aritain, published b0 88F Fro"essional Fublishin . An e?ample o" the citation up to 4;>: is: (4;>:) =< 8l. 8. $ep. 495 and therea"ter is: *4;@:- 4 8lo0d6s $ep. 495. Website: http:&&'''.llo0dsla'reports.com&/ E-mail: contact@llo0dsla'reports.com. LloydCs 7tandard =orm of 7alvage Agreement - See L6= 2000 (infra). Load lines *+r.: ,lignes de charge,- *Span.: ,lBneas de carga,- *!tal.: ,linee di massimo carico, or ,marche di bordo libero,- *.r.: ,Ladelinie,- - 8ines painted on the side o" a ship, indicatin the ma?imum depth to 'hich the vessel ma0 sa"el0 be loaded. See also the !nternational Convention on 8oad 8ines, adopted b0 "M6 on April >, 4;33, 'hich came into "orce Eul0 94, 4;3=. See also ,<limsoll line, (infra). L6= 2000 )LloydCs 7tandard =orm of 7alvage Agreement* - A "orm o" salva e contract approved and published b0 the Council o" 8lo0d6s to replace, as o" September 4, 9:::, the previous 8lo0d6s Standard +orm Salva e A reement (8D+ 4;;>). The acron0m ,8D+, derives "rom the "ormer name o" the A reement (,8lo0d6s Dpen +orm,). 8D+ 9::: provides "or salva e services to be rendered on the principle o" ,no c re B no 1ay, (infra), subGect, ho'ever, to the provisions o" the 7alvage (onvention #$A$ (infra) relatin to s1ecial com1ensation (infra) and to the 7(6<"( (la se (infra). See Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. 59@-59=. Log )s'i1Cs log* *+r.: ,>ournal de bord, or ,li"re de bord,- *Span.: ,diario de na"egaci@n,- *!tal.: ,giornale di bordo,- *.r.: ,Logbuch,- - A record booC carried aboard a ship in 'hich all si ni"icant events relatin to the Gourne0 are recorded b0 the ship6s o""icers authoriHed to maCe such entries. A ship ma0 have aboard more than one lo , includin an ,o""icial, lo , an en ine room lo , a radio lo , a ,rou h, lo , etc. The lo is at time prima facie (infra) evidence in a maritime dispute. See Cour de Cassation, Eul0 9, 4;;3, #%+ 4;;3, 44<>. note F. #elebecque. The modi"ication o" or "ailure to produce lo s is re arded b0 courts 'ith suspicion. See #ld Colony Ins. Co. v. S.S. Southern Star 9=: +. Supp. 4=; at p,. 4;4, 4;3@ A%C 43<4 at p. 43<< (#. Dre. 4;3@)/ International $roduce7 Inc. v. 9rances Salman 4;@> A%C 4>94 at p. 4><:, *4;@>- 9 8lo0d6s $ep. 5>> at p. 53> (S.#. I.P. 4;@>)/ Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at pp. 4<:-4<4 (,+ourth Frinciple o" Froo",). London (o rt of "nternational Ar!itration - See ,L("A, (supra). London Maritime Ar!itratorsC Association )LMAA* - A maGor association o" maritime arbitrators. Website: http:&&'''.lmaa.or .uC&. Email: lmaa@btinternet.com. London 7'i11ing Law (entre - A specialiHed institute 'ithin the +acult0 o" 8a's o" 1niversit0 Colle e 8ondon, 'hich provides maritime la' courses to practitioners and students. !t is an industr0-based "orum "or education, discussion, interaction and development o" pro"essional linCs. Address: The 8ondon Shippin 8a' Centre, #r. AleCa %andaraCa-Sheppard, +oundin #irector, 1niversit0 Colle e 8ondon, Aentham House, Endslei h .ardens, 8ondon WC4H :E., En land. Tel.: S<< (:)9: @3@; 4>49 or 4<5</ "a?: S<< (:)9: @3@; 4>49. Website: http:&&'''.londonshippin -la'.com&. Email: shippin @ucl.ac.uC. Frospective %aster6s students can contact %arion %arC at the .raduate D""ice, +acult0 o" 8a's, Aentham House, Endslei h .ardens, 8ondon WC4H :E., En land. Email: m.marC@ucl.ac.uC. Long form !ill of lading - See ,.ills of Lading / 5elated +oc ments, (supra). L.&.G. - 8ique"ied natural as carrier. A speciall0 constructed ship desi ned to carr0 natural as at lo' temperatures and under pressure.

3:

L6 B L6 - 8i"t Dn - 8i"t D"" is the conventional container s'i1, as opposed to the $o-$o ($oll Dn - $oll D""). Lowndes and 5 dolf - !he Law of -eneral A"erage and the Yor0&Antwerp Rules (#.E. Wilson 7 E.H.S. CooCe, eds.), 49 Ed., 4;;@, Stevens 7 Sons, 8ondon. Loyola Maritime Law Do rnal - A maritime la' revie' published b0 8o0ola 1niversit0 Ie' Drleans. Website: http:&&'''.la'.lo0no.edu&mlG&. L cas, D.+. - Admiralty Cases and Materials, < Ed., 4;;3, +oundation Fress, Westbur0, Ie' PorC/ and 4;;= Statute, $ule and Case Supplement, 4;;=, +oundation Fress, Ie' PorC, Ie' PorC. L gano (onvention #$AA - The Convention on Eurisdiction and the En"orcement o" Eud ments in Civil and Commercial %atters, adopted at 8u ano on September 43, 4;== (D.E.E.C. 4;== 8 5;4&4) and in "orce as o" %a0 4, 4;;9, establishes uni"orm rules on j risdiction and the recognition and enforcement o" Gud ments in civil and commercial matters as bet'een the States o" the E ro1ean Union (supra) and those o" E.+.T.A. (the E ro1ean =ree Trade Association, supra). See W. Tetle0, !nt6l. C. o" 8., 4;;< at pp. =:; and =>3-=>=/ W. Tetle0, !ntl. %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at p. <99.

M
Maintenance and c re - E?penses incurred "or "ood and lod in durin recover0 (maintenance) and necessar0 medical services (cure) "or a seaman su""erin "rom an illness or inGur0 sustained in the service o" the ship. The e?penses arise in contract or in virtue o" the general maritime law and the0 are pa0able "or a reasonable period o" time, dependin on the circumstances o" each case until ,ma?imum cure, is achieved. See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. 5:<-5:=/ Tetle0, !nt6l. %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at pp. >3:->34. Malmo - See ,,orld Maritime University,, infra. Malta - See ,"nternational Maritime Law "nstit te,, supra. Mandara:aB7'e11ard, Ale:a - Modern Admiralty Law, 9::4, Cavendish Fublishin 8imited, 8ondon and S0dne0. Mandatory r les - !n the conflict of laws, mandator0 rules are compulsoril0 applicable rules o" la', "ound in applicable international conventions or national statutes, 'hich cannot be contracted out o". !n some cases, the0 ma0 also be rules 'hich appl0 re ardless o" the la' other'ise applicable under the "orum6s rules o" private international la'. %andator0 rules "requentl0 ive e""ect to social and economic policies deemed b0 the countr0 concerned to be o" overridin importance, particularl0 in "ields such as consumer protection, emplo0ment, monetar0 and "iscal polic0. !n maritime la', the 2ag e34is!y and 2am! rg 5 les (supra) on the carria e o" oods b0 sea, and various national statutes maCin those rules compulsoril0 applicable, are e?amples o" mandator0 rules. The 5ome (onvention #$A0 (infra) reco niHes mandator0 rules o" the sole connected la' (art. 5(5)), o" a closel0 connected la' (art. @(4)) and o" the "orum (art. @(9)), as 'ell as speci"ic mandator0 rules on consumer contracts (art. >(9)), emplo0ment contracts (art. 3(4)) and contracts concernin immoveable propert0 (art. ;(3)). See Tetle0, Int'l C. of L., 4;;< at pp. 4:4-4:9, 49<-454 and 433-4@:. Maraist, =.L. / Galligan, Dr., T.(. - Admiralty in a 6utshell, > Ed., 9::>, Thomson&West, St. Faul, %inn. %araist, +.8. 7 .alli an Er., T.C. - $ersonal In>ury in Admiralty, 9:::, 8e?is Fublishin , Charlottesville, Bir inia, 1.S.A. 34

Mareva inj nction - An inGunction issued b0 the courts o" the United ?ingdom and other Aritish Common'ealth countries, on the motion o" a plainti"" at the be innin o" or durin a suit, enGoinin the de"endant "rom removin "rom the j risdiction, and&or "rom dealin 'ith, speci"ied assets (real or personal, moveable or immoveable), in cases 'here it appears to the court that 'ithout the rant o" such an inGunction, the plainti""6s recover0 on his claim 'ill be GeopardiHed. The inGunction 'as "irst ranted b0 8ord #ennin %.$. in 4;@> in 6ippon Yusen 2aisha v. 2arageorgis *4;@>- 9 8lo0d6s $ep. 45@ (C.A.), and the name ,%areva, derives "rom 8ord #ennin 6s second decision issuin such an inGunction, in Mare"a Cia. 6a"iera S.A. v. International .ul0carriers F!he Mare"aA *4;@>- 9 8lo0d6s $ep. >:; (C.A.). !n the United ?ingdom, the %areva inGunction is no' provided "or b0 le islation, at sect. 5@(5) o" the Supreme Court Act 34E3 (1.2. 4;=4 c. ><). See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. ;=@-;;@, 4::4-4::3/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. <:;-<44. !n the United ?ingdom, the %areva inGunction is no' Cno'n as a , freeJing inj nction, (or ,"reeHin order) under the Civil Frocedure $ules 4;;= (S.!. 4;;=&5459), in "orce April 93, 4;;;, and such an inGunction ma0 be ranted either to restrain the removal "rom En land and Wales o" assets located in that j risdiction or to restrain dealin 'ith an0 assets 'orld'ide, pursuant to the Civil Frocedure $ules 4;;=, Fart 9> (!nterim $emedies), at $ule 9>.4(4)(") and Fractice #irection Fart 9> (!nterim !nGunctions) at para. 3. E?amples o" both t0pes o" "reeHin inGunction are provided in the anne?es to that Fractice #irection. Dn 'orld'ide "reeHin inGunctions, see, "or e?ample, ,adourian -roup International Inc. v. Simm *9::3- 5 All E.$. <= (C.A.). %areva inGunction does not e?ist in the 1nited States. See -rupo Me8icano de ,esarollo v. Alliance .ond 9und7 Inc. >9@ 1.S. 5:=, 4;;; A%C 4;35 (1.S. Supr. Ct. 4;;;). +or the e?istence o" the %areva inGunction in Canada see Aetna 9inancial Ser"ices Ltd. ". 9eigelman *4;=>- 4 S.C.$. 9. Marine and 7'i11ing Law Unit - A research centre specialiHin in maritime la' and the international la' o" the sea, operatin at the T.C. Aeirne School o" 8a', 1niversit0 o" Jueensland, Australia. Website: http:&&'''.la'.uq.edu.au&maslu&. Email: s.derrin ton@la'.uq.edu.au. Marine "ns rance - The ori inal "orm o" insurance in Western societ0, pre-datin all insurance ashore, marine insurance 'as developed b0 8ombard merchants in the cit0 states o" northern !tal0 in the t'el"th centur0, 'hence it raduall0 spread north to the cities o" the Hanseatic 8ea ue, and later to 8ondon, 'here 2in Henr0 !B o" En land (45;;-4<45) ranted the ,8ombard merchants, a sector o" the Cit0 o" 8ondon in 'hich to live and practise their trade, 'hich came to be Cno'n as ,8ombard Street,. !n succeedin centuries, 8ondon emer ed as the maGor 'orld centre o" the marine insurance and reinsurance marCets, a position 'hich it continues to occup0, bein the seat o" both 8lo0d6s and the "nternational Underwriting Association of London ("ormerl0 the !nstitute o" 8ondon 1nder'riters). %arine insurance 'as ori inall0 an aspect o" the medieval European, transnational le> mercatoria, or 8a' %erchant, rooted in the civil law, 'hose usa es 'ere eventuall0 codi"ied in the ordinances o" various maritime commercial centres on the Continent and later in the 6rdonnance de la Marine (43=4). !n En land, thanCs lar el0 to the e""orts o" 8ord %ans"ield, Chie" Eustice o" 2in 6s Aench "rom 4@>3 to 4@==, these Continental sources o" marine insurance la' 'ere "requentl0 cited and came slo'l0 to be incorporated into the common law o" En land. !n 4;:3, the bulC o" this common law 'as codi"ied in the 1.2.6s Marine "ns rance Act, #$0%, 3 Ed' B!!, c. <4 (infra), in "orce Eanuar0 4, 4;:@. The 4;:3 enactment, a masterpience o" le islative dra"tin attributable to Sir %acCenHie Chalmers, has been copied, almost "erbatim, b0 various Common'ealth j risdictions (e. . Australia and Canada) and even in"luences American Gud es in renderin decisions on marine insurance matters, althou h the 1nited States has no statute on the subGect. The historic le> mercatoria continues to appl0 to contracts o" marine insurance in En land the Common'ealth, ho'ever, thanCs to provisions such as sect. ;4(9) o" the 1.2.6s Marine "ns rance Act, #$0%, 'hich perpetuates the ,... rules o" the common la' includin the la' merchant, save in so "ar as the0 are inconsistent 'ith the e?press provisions o" this Act,. See Tetle0, ,The .eneral %aritime la' - The 8e? %aritima, (4;;<) 9: S0racuse E. !nt6l 8. 7 Comm. 4:>-4<> at pp. 49;-45:/ reprinted in *4;;3ET8 <3;->:> at pp. <;9-<;5/ Tetle0, ,%aritime 8a' as %i?ed 8e al S0stem (With Farticular 39

$e"erence to the #istinctive Iature o" American %aritime 8a', Which Aene"its "rom Aoth its Civil 8a' and Common 8a' Herita es), (4;;;) 95 Tul. %ar. 8.E. 54@-5>: at p. 553 and at http:&&'''.mc ill.ca&maritimela'&comparative&marla'mi?&. A0 sect. 4 o" the 1.2.6s Marine "ns rance Act, #$0%, a contract o" marine insurance is ,... a contract 'hereb0 the insurer undertaCes to indemni"0 the assured, in the manner and to the e?tent thereb0 a reed, a ainst marine losses, that is to sa0, the losses incident to marine adventure., #e"initions iven in other statutes and treatises are similar. See Tetle0, Int'l C. of L., 4;;< at pp. 553-55=. The three basic t0pes o" marine insurance are hull insurance (on the ship and its machiner0), car o insurance (on car o) and Frotection and !ndemnit0, or ,F. 7 !., insurance (insurasnce in respect o" third part0 liabilit0 resultin "rom the operation o" the ship). See also marine reins rance (infra). See Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5, Chap. 4>, at pp.>@5-399. Marine "ns rance Act, #$0% - (1.2.) 3 Ed'. B!!, c. <4 - The basic statute on marine ins rance, 'hich has been copied almost "erbatim in man0 Aritish Common'ealth countries and 'hich is "requentl0 looCed to as authoritative, even b0 American courts, in marine ins rance decisions. See "or e?ample, Oueen Ins. Co. ". -lobe Rutgers 9ire Ins. Co. , 935 1.S. <=@ at p. <;5, 4;9< A%C 4:@ at p. 4:; (4;9<)/ -ulf Refining Co. ". Atlantic Mut. Ins. Co. , 9@; 1.S. @:=, 4;9; A%C =9> (4;9;)/ Standard #il Co. of 6ew Dersey ". M.S., 5<: 1.S. ><, 4;>4 A%C 4 (4;>:)/ Calmar S.S. Corp ". Scott, 5<> 1.S. <9@ at p. <<5, 4;>5 A%C ;>9 at p. ;3> (4;>5)/ Antilles S.S. Co. ". Members of American =ull Ins., @55 +.9d 4;> at p. 4;=, 4;=< A%C 9<<< at p. 9<<; (9 Cir. 4;=<). See Tetle0, Int'l C. of L., 4;;< at p. 55;/ !nt6l. %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at pp. >=5->=3/ and M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. =54-=<: 'ith respect to marine ins rance liens. Marine "ns rance Act - S.C. 4;;5, c. 99 - The Canadian "ederal statute on marine ins rance, modelled on the United ?ingdomCs Marine "ns rance Act, #$0% (supra). Marine "ns rance "nd stry - marine ins rance ma0 be divided into three cate ories: (4) car o/ (9) hull and machiner0/ and (5) protection and indemnit0 (F.7 !.). Marine Law "nstit te - 1niversit0 o" %aine School o" 8a', Fortland, %aine, 1.S.A. Website: http:&&'''.mli.usm.maine.ed&indes.htm. Email: mainela'@usm.maine.edu. Marine Lia!ility Act , S.C. 9::4, c. 3, in "orce Au ust =, 9::4. Amon other thin s, this statute ave the "orce o" la' in Canada to the 2ag e34is!y 5 les (supra) and also provided "or the eventual comin into "orce in Canada o" the 2am! rg 5 les (supra). Marine reins rance - A contract 'hereb0 risCs insured under a number o" marine ins rance contracts are redistributed amon one or more reinsurers. %arine reinsurance contracts are o"ten termed ,reinsurance treaties,. See Tetle0, !nt6l C. o" 8., 4;;< at pp. 534-539/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. 34;-39:. Mar. L.(. - CrocC"ord6s %aritime 8a' Cases. En lish maritime decisions "rom 4=3: to 4=@4. An e?ample o" a citation is !he -reat 1astern (4=3@) 9 %ar. 8.C. >>5. Mar. Law - The %aritime 8a'0er. Fublished t'ice a 0ear ("rom 4;@> to 4;=3) b0 the students o" the Tulane 1niversit0 School o" 8a'. An e?ample o" a citation is *4;=:- %ar. 8a'. 495. !t 'as succeeded in 4;=@ b0 the Tulane %aritime 8a' Eournal. (See T l. Mar. L.D., infra). Maritime law - is a complete s0stem o" la', both public and private, substantive and procedural, national and international, 'ith its o'n courts and j risdiction, 'hich oes bacC to 5'odian law o" =:: A.C. and pre-dates both the civil and common laws. !ts more modern ori ins 'ere civilian in nature, as "irst seen in the 5Hles of 6lGron o" circa 44;: A.#. %aritime la' 'as subsequentl0 reatl0 in"luenced and "ormed b0 the En lish Admiralt0 Court and then later b0 the common law 35

itsel". That maritime la' is a complete le al s0stem can be seen "rom its component parts. +or centuries maritime la' has had its o'n la' o" contract - o" sale (o" ships), o" service (to'a e), o" lease (charterin ), o" carria e (o" oods b0 sea), o" insurance ( marine ins rance bein the precursor o" insurance ashore), o" a enc0 (ship chandlers), o" pled e (!ottomry and res1ondentia), o" hire (o" masters and seamen), o" compensation "or sicCness and personal inGur0 ( maintenance and c re) and risC distribution (general average). !t is and has been a national and an international la' (probabl0 the "irst private international la'). !t also has had its o'n public la' and public international la'. %aritime la' is composed o" t'o main parts - national maritime statutes and international maritime conventions, on the one hand, and the general maritime law (le' maritima), on the other. The general maritime law has evolved "rom various maritime codes, includin 5'odian law (circa =:: A.C.), 5oman law, the 5Hles of 6lGron (circa 44;:), the 6rdonnance de la Marine (43=4), all o" 'hich 'ere relied on in +octorsC (ommons, the En lish Admiralt0 Court, and the maritime courts o" Europe. This le' maritima, part o" the le' mercatoria, or ,8a' %erchant, as it 'as usuall0 called in En land, 'as the eneral la' applicable in all countries o" Western Europe until the "i"teenth centur0, 'hen the radual emer ence o" nation states caused national di""erences to be in creepin into 'hat had been a virtuall0 pan-European maritime la' s0stem. Toda06s general maritime law consists o" the common "orms, terms, rules, standards and practices o" the maritime shippin industr0 - standard "orm !ills of lading, c'arter1arties, marine insurance policies and sales contracts are ood e?amples o" common "orms and the accepted meanin o" the terms, as 'ell as the ;or:3Antwer1 5 les on general average and the Uniform ( stoms and <ractice for +oc mentary (redits . %uch o" this contemporar0 le' maritima is to be "ound in the maritime ar!itral awards rendered b0 ar!itral tri! nals around the 'orld b0 a host o" institutional and ad hoc arbitral bodies. See Tetle0 , Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5, Chap. 4, at pp. 45:. T'e Maritime Law Association of t'e United 7tates )M.L.A.* - Website: http:&&'''.mlaus.or &. Maritime lien *+r.: ,pri"il+ge maritime,- *Span.: ,pri"ilegio marBtimo,- *!tal.: ,pri"ilegio speciale marittimo,- *.r.: ,Seerechtliches $fandrechtX Schiffsgl)ubigerrecht,- - A secured claim a ainst a ship (and sometimes a ainst car o or bunCers) in respect o" services provided to the vessel or dama es done b0 it. A maritime lien is a substantive ri ht in the propert0 o" another, derived "rom the general maritime law (supra) and rooted in the civil law concept o" a ,pri"il+ge,. !t arises 'ithout notice, re istration or other "ormalities, at the time the services are rendered or the dama es are done. 1nliCe a common law 1ossessory lien (infra), it does not depend "or its e?istence on the possession o" the res b0 the creditor. !t travels 'ith the ship, so as to encumber the title o" subsequent o'ners or possessors and survives the conventional sale o" the vessel. !t remains inchoate "rom the moment it attaches, until it is en"orced b0 an action in rem, 'hen it relates bacC to the time it "irst attached. !n the 1.2. and Aritish Common'ealth countries, it ranCs a"ter s1ecial legislative rig'ts (infra), the costs o" arrest and sale and custodia legis e?penses (supra) and be"ore s'i1 mortgages (infra) and stat tory rig'ts in rem (infra). !n the 1.2. and Common'ealth, maritime liens are restricted to seamen6s and master6s 'a es, masterCs dis! rsements (infra), salvage (infra), dama e, !ottomry (supra) and res1ondentia (infra) (the last t'o bein obsolete). !n the 1.S. and civilian j risdictions, maritime liens are more numerous, includin , notabl0, contract maritime liens "or the suppl0 o" necessaries (infra) and liens "or general average contri! tions (supra) ('hich in An lo&Common'ealth la' are secured onl0 b0 stat tory rig'ts in rem (infra). American la' also distin uishes bet'een ,1referred maritime liens, (infra) and other maritime liens. American and civilian ranCin o" maritime liens also di""ers "rom that applied in the 1.2. and Common'ealth. See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. >3-3: ( enerall0) and re ranCin at pp. =@9-=@3 (1.S.), ==<-=;: (1.2.), =;9-=;@ (Canada) and ;:5-;:> (+rance)/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. <3;->4< ( enerall0) and re ranCin at pp. <;=->:>. %aritime liens are e?pun ed b0 the e?tinction o" the debt (e. . b0 pa0ment), b0 the loss or destruction o" the res, b0 prescription, lac'es (supra), 'aiver or Gudicial sale. 3<

Maritime Liens and Mortgages (onvention #$2% - The !nternational Convention "or the 1ni"ication o" Certain $ules o" 8a' $elatin to %aritime 8iens and %ort a es, adopted at Arussels on April 4:, 4;93 and in "orce as o" Eune 9, 4;54. See te?t in Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;=, Appendi? A at pp. 4<45-4<9:/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. <;=->::. Maritime Liens and Mortgages (onvention #$%9 - The !nternational Convention "or the 1ni"ication o" Certain $ules $elatin to %aritime 8iens and %ort a es, adopted at Arussels on %a0 9@, 4;3@ (not 0et in "orce). See te?t in Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;=, Appendi? A at pp. 4<944<9=/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. <;=->::. Maritime Liens and Mortgages (onvention #$$E - The !nternational Convention on %aritime 8iens and %ort a es, adopted at .eneva on %a0 3, 4;;5 (in "orce September >, 9::<). See te?t in (4;;3) 9@ E%8C 955-9<4, 'ith commentar0 b0 EosK %arLa Alcantara, ibid. at pp. 94;-959, as 'ell as in Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;=, Appendi? C at pp. 4<9;-4<5=/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. <;=->::. Maritime London - An or aniHation promotin 8ondon as the 'orld6s premier maritime centre. !ts 'ebsite "eatures ne's, in"ormation and linCs to various maritime or aniHations in the 1nited 2in dom. Website: http:&&'''.maritimelondon.com&inde?Z".shtml. MA5<6L #$9E3#$9A - The !nternational Convention "or the Frevention o" Follution "rom Ships (%A$FD8), adopted b0 the "M6 (supra) at 8ondon, Iovember 9, 4;@5, as amended on +ebruar0 4@, 4;@=, 'hich came into "orce on Dctober 9, 4;=5, e?cept "or Anne? !! (in "orce April 3, 4;=@), Anne? !!! (in "orce Eul0 4, 4;;9) and Anne? B (in "orce #ecember 54, 4;==), to ether 'ith several amendments. See Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at p. <<;. Marsden, 5eginald G. - !he Law of Collisions at Sea (Simon .ault, en. ed.), 45 Ed., 9::5 (Aritish Shippin 8a's Series), S'eet 7 %a?'ell, 8ondon. Mars'alling - The equitable process, 'hereb0 the %arshal or the court orders a creditor 'ho has a secured ri ht on more than one res or more than one "und belon in to the debtor or securit0 "rom t'o or more debtors "or the same debt, to e?ercise his ri ht on the securit0 in a manner 'hich 'ill be in the best interests o" all the creditors. See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. =>@-=>=/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at p. >:<. MasterCs dis! rsements - E?penditures made b0 the master and paid "or 'ith his o'n "unds or obtained on his personal credit "or the purchase o" necessaries (infra) "or the ship. A maritime lien is ranted "or such disbursements, but both the disbursements and the lien are virtuall0 e?tinct toda0, because modern means o" communication obviate the need "or them, and because masters no lon er 'ish to bind their o'n credit to obtain necessaries "or the ship. See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. <4@-<5=. Material deviation- An American doctrine ori inatin in the admiralt0 la' doctrine o" f ndamental !reac' (supra), 'hich is sometimes applied b0 1.S. courts in carria e o" oods cases arisin under the (armac: Amendment (supra). !n cases o" shipments b0 air, rail and trucC, 'here the shipper has paid an additional char e to ensure specialiHed sa"et0 measures to reduce the risC o" dama e to its car o, the carrier6s "ailure to per"orm those ver0 measures 'hich resulted in dama e to the car o has been "ound to be a su""icient basis upon 'hich the liabilit0 limitation provision in the shippin a reement ma0 be rescinded. See $ra8air7 Inc. v. Mayflower !ransit7 Inc., ;4; +. Supp. 3>: at p. 3>3 (S.#. I.P. 4;;3)/ 6ippon0oa Ins. Co.7 Ltd. v. /at0ins Motor Lines7 Inc., <54 +. Supp.9d <44, 9::3 A%C 9>;= (S.#. I.P. 9::3). -Ma>well order- - An order rendered b0 a banCruptc0 court in one j risdiction, approvin an a reement bet'een o""icials appointed b0 the banCruptc0 courts o" t'o or more j risdictions in 3>

'hich a debtor has assets, 'hich a reement is desi ned to "acilitate co-operation b0 those o""icials in proceedin to develop and have Gudiciall0 con"irmed, a plan o" reor aniHation o" the debtor and thereb0 avoidin liquidation proceedin s. The %a?'ell order taCes its name "rom the decision rendered b0 the Hi h Court in En land in Re Ma8well Communications Corporation plc. *4;;9A.C.8.C. <3>. See Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at p. <4@. Mayers, Edward (. - Admiralty law and $ractice, 4;43, Cars'ell, Toronto. McLean, Malcom - The inventor o" the container, supra. Meeson, &igel - Admiralty Durisdiction and $ractice, 5 Ed., 9::5, 88F, 8ondon. MelGndeJ, M.A.<. et al. - Comentario a los $rincipios de Mnidroit para los Contratos del Comercio Internacional, 4;;;, Editorial AranHadi S.A., Famplona, Spain. Merger cla se - See ,supersedin clause,, infra. Mer:in, 5o!ert M. - Arbitration Act 344N, 5 Ed., 9::>, !n"orma, 8ondon. %erCin, $obert %. - Marine Insurance Legislation, 5 Ed., 9::>, 88F, 8ondon. %erCin, $obert %. - $ri"ity of Contract% !he Impact of the Contracts FRights of !hird $artiesA Act 3444, 9:::, 88F, 8ondon. Met'odology - A "i"th approach to solvin conflict of laws problems, 'hich permits the identi"ication o" the ,1ro1erly a11lica!le law, (infra). A methodolo 0 o" this Cind is described in Tetle0, Int'l. C. of L., 4;;< at pp. 5>-<5, and is presented as a consistent, lo ical s0stem "or resolvin con"licts problems, pre"erable to, but buildin upon, the "our traditional approaches to solvin such problems, outlined and criticiHed ibid. at pp. 5-5< (viH., sin le concepts or principles/ multiple numbered rules/ eneral te?ts, commentaries and essa0s/ and national le islation and international conventions). Mi>ed j risdiction - A countr0 or a political subdivision o" a countr0 in 'hich a mi>ed legal system (infra) prevails. Mi>ed legal system - A le al s0stem in 'hich the la' in "orce is derived "rom more than one le al tradition or le al "amil0. +or e?ample, in Scotland, South A"rica, 8ouisiana and JuKbec, the basic private la' is derived partl0 "rom the civil law tradition (supra) and partl0 "rom the common law tradition (supra). See Tetle0, 4;;;-< 1ni"orm 8a' $evie' >;4-34; at p. >;@/ also available on-line at: %i?ed Gurisdictions: common la' vs. civil la' (codi"ied and uncodi"ied) *.pd"-Most significant connection- - The principle o" the conflict of laws accordin to 'hich the ,proper, (i.e. applicable) la' o" a contract or tort is the la' 'hich, on polic0 rounds, appears to have the most si ni"icant connection 'ith the chain o" acts and consequences in the particular case at hand. This connection is assessed b0 consideration o" the ,connectin "actors,, or ,contacts, (supra), linCin the le al situation concerned 'ith the di""erent j risdictions involved. The term 'as used b0 E.H.C. %orris in his reno'ned essa0s, ,Torts in the Con"lict o" 8a's, (4;<;) 49 %odern 8a' $ev. 9<= and ,The Froper 8a' o" a Tort, (4;>4) 3< Harv. 8. $ev. ==4. !n contract con"licts, the correspondin term enerall0 used in the United ?ingdom and Aritish Common'ealth countries toda0 is ,closest and most real connection,. See, e. ., #ice0 and %orris, The Con"lict o" 8a's, 44 Ed., 4;=@ at $ule 4=:. !n tort, the term ,most si ni"icant relationship, has the same meanin . See, e. ., #ice0 and %orris, ibid. 49 Ed., 4;;5 at $ule 9:9. See Tetle0, Int'l. C. of L., 4;;< at pp. 4:-49. -Most significant relations'i1- -The principle o" the conflict of laws requirin that the ,proper, (applicable) la' be that o" the state havin the closest and most real connection 'ith the "acts o" the 33

case concerned. The term 'as derived "rom ,most si ni"icant connection, as "irst used b0 E.H.C. %orris (supra) and 'as introduced into American private international la' b0 Willis %. $eese, the principal author o" the $estatement (Second) o" the Con"lict o" 8a's, adopted b0 the American 8a' !nstitute in 4;3;, 'here it "i ures prominentl0. See, e. . sect. 4<> re tort and sect. 4== re contract. See Tetle0, Int'l. C. of L., 4;;< at pp. 49-45. MVller, ,alter - Internationales Recht auf See und .innengew aumlssern. 9estschrift fQr /alter MQller, 4;;5 (A. von Rie ler 7 T. AurcChardt, eds.), Schulthess Fol0 raphischer Berla , Rurich. M ltimodal (arriage *+r.: ,transport multimodal,- *Span.: ,transporte multimodal,- *!tal.: ,trasporto multimodale,- *.r.: ,Multimodaler !ransport,- - %ultimodal carria e is the transport o" oods b0 t'o or more carriers (supra) usin t'o or more t0pes o" carria e (i.e. trucC, rail, sea and air). The Convention on !nternational %ultimodal Transport o" .oods, 4;=: (the M ltimodal (onvention #$A0 (infra)) 'as adopted b0 the 1nited Iations, but is not in "orce. M ltimodal (onvention #$A0 - The 1nited Iations Convention on !nternational %ultimodal Transport o" .oods, adopted at .eneva on %a0 9<, 4;=: (not 0et in "orce). See te?t in Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;==, Appendi? A at pp. 4433-44=;. See also "M6 (supra). M ltimodal or com!ined trans1ort !ill of lading - See ,.ills of Lading / 5elated +oc ments , (supra).

&
&amed )nominate* !ill of lading - See ,.ills of Lading / 5elated +oc ments, (supra). &ational Union of Marine, Aviation and 7'i11ing Trans1ort 6fficers (&UMA7T) - A Aritish trade union, headquartered in 8ondon, representin shipmasters, o""icers, cadets and other sta"" servin in the 12 and international "leets and ashore in maritime- related industries. I1%AST is a""iliated 'ith the T1C (Trades 1nion Con ress), and the !nternational Transport WorCers6 +ederation (!T+). Website: http:&&'''.numast.or &'elcome.asp/ e-mail: enquiries@numast.or . &a tical assessors *+r.: ,assesseurs,- *Span.: ,asesores nPuticos,- *!tal.: ,consulenti tecnici nautici,- *.r.: ,Sach"erst)ndiger fQr Schiffahrtsfragen,- - Court-appointed e?perts (usuall0 on matters o" navi ation and seamanship) 'ho sit 'ith the Gud e on the bench durin the trial o" maritime disputes and ive their opinions to the Gud e, at his request, on matters relatin to their "ield o" e?pertise. Traditionall0, nautical assessors have not been subGect to e?amination or crosse?amination b0 the parties to the suit, nor has the Gud e been required to disclose to the parties the in"ormation or opinions provided to him b0 them. !n Canada, ho'ever, these traditional rules have been departed "rom on rounds o" respect "or natural Gustice, and e?pert 'itnesses ma0 no' also be called b0 the parties, even i" the0 testi"0 on matters 'ithin the e?pertise o" the nautical assessors. See $orto Seguro Companhia de Seguros -erais ". .elcan S.A. *4;;@- 5 S.C.$. 49@=, (4;;@) 4>5 #.8.$.(<th) >@@, (4;;@) 99: I.$. 594 (Supr. Ct. o" Can.). See also ,Trinit0 House, (infra). &a ticalcam1 s - 8ondon, in"o@nauticalcampus.or . En land. Website: http:&&'''.nauticalcampus.or Email:

&a tical "nstit te - 8ondon, En land. Website: http:&&'''.nautinst.or . Email: sec@nautinst.or . &a tical mile - The maritime measurement "or distance, bein 3:=: "eet, as opposed to >9=: "eet, bein a land mile. Also Cno'n as a :not (supra).

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T'e &ational Association of Marine 7 rveyors - ChesapeaCe, Bir ina. Website: http:&&'''.nams-cms.or &/ email: IationalD""ice@nams-cms.or idX,necessaries, nameX,necessaries,b - .oods or materials (and in some cases services) provided to the ship "or its operation or maintenance. The speci"ic classes o" oods, materials and services 'hich quali"0 as necessaries var0 to some e?tent "rom j risdiction to j risdiction, but in eneral necessaries include such items as bunCers, supplies, repairs, to'a e and stevedorin . !n the 1nited States, a maritime lien (supra) is ranted "or necessaries under <3 1.S. Code 545:4(<) and 545<9, 'hereas in the United ?ingdom, Canada, and other Aritish Common'ealth j risdiction, necessaries con"er onl0 at most a stat tory rig't in rem (infra). !n +rance, necessaries con"er a maritime lien (,pri"il+ge maritime,) onl0 i" the0 are ordered a'a0 b0 the master 'ithin the scope o" his authorit0 a'a0 "rom the vessel6s home port, "or the preservation o" the ship or the completion o" the vo0a e. See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. ><>-34=/ Tetle0, !nt6l. %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at p. <=5. ".egotiorum gestio" - A civil law term, meanin mana ement o" the business o" another. 1nder this principle, a part0 'ho voluntaril0 taCes care o" the a""airs o" another person, 'ithout an0 e?press or implied authorit0 "rom that person, ma0 claim reimbursement o" his necessar0 and use"ul e?penses, 'hether he has been success"ul or not. 6egotiorum gestio is there"ore the liCel0 ori in o" the concept o" salvage (infra) in maritime la'. See the +rench Civil Code, arts. 45@9-45@>/ the JuKbec Civil Code, art. 4<=9-4<;:/ Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. 4: and 55:/ Int'l M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. 595-59<. -.emo jude' in causa sua- - ,Io one ma0 be Gud e in his o'n case,, re"errin to the principle o" natural Gustice that an adGudicator should be disinterested and unbiased See $orto Seguro Companhia de Seguros -erais ". .elcan S.A. *4;;3- 9 +.C. @>4 at p. @@=, (4;;3) 4;> I.$. 9<4 at p. 9@4 (+ed. Ct. o" App. o" Canada). &et tonnage - See ,Tons / Tonnage, (infra). &et'erlands "nstit te for t'e Law of t'e 7ea - 1niversit0 o" 1trecht, 1trecht, The Ietherlands. Website: 8inC. Email: Iilos@la'.uu.nl. &ew Dason cla se - See ,Dason cla se3&ew Dason cla se, (supra). &ew ;or: (onvention #$8A - The ,Convention on the $eco nition and En"orcement o" +orei n Arbitral A'ards, 'as si ned on Eune 4:, 4;>= in Ie' PorC: 94 1.S.T. 9>4@, 55: 1.I.T.S. 5. This convention deals 'ith the recognition o" "orei n ar!itral awards (supra) and the en"orcement o" ar!itration cla ses (supra). See Tetle0, Int'l. C. of L., 4;;< at pp. 5;9-5;5. &ew Wealand Maritime Law - A 'ebsite o" Ie' Realand maritime case la' and le islation, maintained b0 Fro". Faul %0bur h o" the 1niversit0 o" AucCland, Ie' Realand. Website: http:&&'''.maritimela'.orcon.net.nH&. &o c re no 1ay - The historic common law principle o" salvage (infra) 'hich prohibited the pa0ment o" an0 salvage reward 'here the salva e operations had been unsuccess"ul. ,Io cure no pa0, contrasts 'ith the historic civilian concept o" , assistance, (supra), 'hich permitted the pa0ment o" salva e remuneration even i" no success"ul result 'as achieved. See the 7alvage (onvention #$#0 (infra) art. 9 and the 7alvage (onvention #$A$ (infra) art. 45. See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at p. 55=, 55;/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. 59<-59>. &onBse1aration agreement - An a reement bet'een a carrier and a car o o'ner "ollo'in a general average act (supra) 'hich permits the car o o'ner to have his oods dischar ed at the port o" re"u e and "or'arded to destination b0 the carrier in another ship, thus terminatin the common maritime adventure, in return "or car o contributin to "uture general average loss 3=

(supra), accordin to values stated in the a reement, as i" the common adventure 'ere continued. See also .ig'am cla se (supra). &onBvesselBo1erating common carrier - See &46((, infra. &orris, Martin D. - !he Law of Sal"age, 4;>=, AaCer, Boorhis, %ount 2isco, Ie' PorC &otice of a!andonment - !n marine ins rance, a notice iven b0 the insured to the insurer 'hereb0 the insured indicates that he 'ishes to treat a ,constr ctive total loss, (supra) as an ,act al total loss, (supra) and to abandon the subGect-matter insured to the insurer. See the 1.2.6s Marine "ns rance Act, #$0%, sects. 34, 39 and 35. See Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. 349345. &otify <arty - A person identi"ied in the !ill of lading (supra) as the part0 to be noti"ied b0 the carrier (supra) 'hen the oods arrive at their destination. (Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at pp. 4;;, 9:3). !n +rance, the ,noti"0 part0, is "requentl0 re arded as the , destinataire réel, (real consignee (supra)) o" the oods. -&ov s act s interveniens- - A harm"ul act or omission 'hich occurs subsequent to an initial 'ron "ul act or omission o" a tort"easor and 'hich breaCs the chain o" causation bet'een that initial act or omission and the ensuin dama e. See Restatement Second of the Law of !orts, 4;3>, sect. <<4/ Letni0 v. !oronto =9 I.$. 934, 4;;5 A%C @3= (+ed. C.A.). A no"us actus inter"enies ma0 taCe three "orms: 4) a natural event independent o" human a enc0/ 9) an act or omission b0 a third part0/ or 5) the conduct o" the plainti"" himsel". See Ree"es v. Commissioner of $olice of the Metropolis *4;;;- J.A. 43; (C.A.)/ Cler0 Lindsell on !orts, 4= Ed., 9::: at paras. 9-53 to 9->;. &UMA7T - See &ational Union of Marine, Aviation and 7'i11ing Trans1ort 6fficers, supra. &46(( (Ion-vessel-operatin common carrier) - A common carrier that does not operate the vessel b0 'hich the ocean transportation is provided, and is a s'i11er (infra) in its relationship 'ith an ocean common carrier. See Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at pp. 3;@-3;=, citin de"inition enacted at sect. 5(4@) o" the 1.S. Shippin Act o" 4;=< (<3 1.S. Code App?. 4@:9(4@)). The ,non-vessel operatin common carrier, and the ocean freig't forwarder (infra) 'ere combined in the ne' cate or0 o" ocean trans1ortation intermediary (infra) b0 the #cean Shipping Reform Act of 344E, Act o" Dctober 4<, 4;;=, Fublic 8a' no. 4:>-9>=, Title !, sect. 4:9, 449 Stat. 4;:9. See <3 1.S. Code App?. 4@:9(4@)(A) and (A). China has also le islated on IBDCC6s b0 virtue o" the ,$e ulations o" the Feople6s $epublic o" China on !nternational %aritime Transport,, promul ated b0 #ecree Io. 55> b0 the State Council o" the F.$.C. on #ecember 44, 9::4. Iota bene: Althou h ,IBDCC,, under the above le islation, stands "or ,non-vessel-o1erating common carrier,, the acron0m is also sometimes (erroneousl0) taCen to mean ,non-vessel-owning common carrier, (emphasis added). See, "or e?ample, American %aritime Cases ( AM(, supra), 'hich, in its collection o" reported decisions "rom 4;95 to the "ourth quarter o" 9::4 on C#-$D%, includes @9 decisions 'here &46(( is sho'n as standin "or ,non-vessel-operatin common carrier, and 44 decisions 'here the acron0m is e?plained as standin "or ,non-vessel-o'nin common carrier,. See also freig't forwarder (supra). &;<E3&;<E C$E See time c'arter1arty (supra).

6
-obiter dictum- - (,a sa0in b0 the 'a0,), re"errin to a "indin o" la' in a decision 'here that "indin 'as based on issues not properl0 be"ore the court. !t is an opinion e?pressed b0 a court upon

3;

a question o" la' 'hich is not necessar0 to the decision o" the case be"ore it. The opposite o" ,obiter dictum, is ,ratio decidendi, (see infra). 6!ligatory for m co rt stat te - !n the conflict of laws, an obli ator0 "orum court statute is a national statute or international convention 'hich is compulsoril0 applicable 'henever an0 case on the subGect o" that statute or convention is heard in the courts o" the State in question. %ost le al authors do not distin uish obli ator0 "orum court statutes "rom 1 !lic order (infra) or mandatory r les (supra) o" the "orum, but such statutes are distin uishable "rom both those concepts, in that the0 are o!ligatorily applied b0 the "orum co rt, 'henever a case involvin their subGect matter is tried in such a court, rather than because o" an0 connectin "actor (contact) linCin the case to the la' o" that "orum (State). An e?ample o" this t0pe o" statute is the United ?ingdomCs Merchant Shipping Act 344;, 1.2. 4;;> c. 94, at sect. 4=>(4) and Schedule @ Fart ! art. 4>, 'hich provisions ive e""ect in the 1.2. to the Limitation (onvention #$9% (supra) and require the Convention to be applied 'henever limitation proceedin s are instituted be"ore the courts o" an0 State part0 to the Convention, thereb0 maCin the Convention compulsoril0 applicable to an0 such proceedin s taCen in an0 1.2. court. Dbli ator0 "orum court statutes are rare. The0 have no place in an0 s0stem o" international la' and can be overcome in j risdictions 'hich have adopted the principle o" forum non con"eniens (supra). See Tetle0, !nt6l. C. o" 8., 4;;< at pp. 4:9-4:5, 454-459, >34/ Tetle0, !nt6l. %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at p. 54<. 6cean freig't forwarder - A person 'ho dispatches shipments "rom the 1nited States via a common carrier, booCs or other'ise arran es space "or those shipments on behal" o" shippers and processes the documentation or per"orms related activities incident to those shipments. See the 1.S. Shipping Act of 34EV, as amended b0 the #cean Shipping Reform Act of 344E , Act o" Dctober 4<, 4;;=, Fublic 8a' no. 4:>-9>=, Title !, sect. 4:9, 449 Stat. 4;:9, <3 1.S. Code App?. 4@:9(4@)(A) (i) and (ii). See also freig't forwarder (supra), &46(( (supra) and ocean trans1ortation intermediary (infra). 6cean t'ro g' !ill of lading - See ,.ills of Lading / 5elated +oc ments, (supra). 6cean trans1ortation intermediary - A term 'hich in the 1nited States includes both the &46(( (supra) and the ocean freig't forwarder (supra). See the 1nited States Shipping Act of 34EV, as amended b0 the #cean Shipping Reform Act of 344E, Act o" Dctober 4<, 4;;=, Fublic 8a' no. 4:>-9>=, Title !, sect. 4:9, 449 Stat. 4;:9, <3 1.S. Code App?. 4@:9(4@). 6il (om1anies "nternational Marine =or m )6("M=* - Website: http:'''.ocim".com&. 6il <oll tion Act #$$0 - See 6<A C$0, infra 6CMay, +onald - #'May on Marine Insurance, 4;;5, (Eulian Hill, ed. 7 co-author), S'eet 7 %a?'ell, 8ondon. 6<A C$0 - The #il $ollution Act of 344T o" the 1nited States (Act o" Au ust 4=, 4;;:, Fublic 8a' Io. 4:4-5=:, 4:< Stat. <=<, 55 1.S. Code sects. 9@:4-9@34). See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. 4<>-4<=/ Tetle0, !nt6l %. 7 A.8., 9::5 at pp. <3:-<35. 6<5( #$$0 - The !nternational Convention on Dil Follution Freparedness, $esponse and Cooperation, adopted at 8ondon, Iovember 5:, 4;;:, and in "orce %a0 45, 4;;>, and its 9::: Frotocol, adopted at 8ondon, %arch 4>, 9:::, not 0et in "orce. See "M6 (supra). 6rder !ill of lading - See ,.ills of Lading / 5elated +oc ments, (supra). -/rdonnance de la Marine- - An important piece o" +rench maritime le islation, datin "rom 43=4, codi"0in much o" the +rench maritime la' and practice. The best te?t concernin the @:

#rdonnance de la Marine is the commentar0 'ritten in 4@3: b0 $enK-EosuK Balin, 'ho, at the time, 'as the 2in 6s advocate at the admiralt06s headquarters in 8arochelle, +rance. See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. 4=, 9<-9>. 6s1ar (onvention #$$2 - The Convention "or the Frotection o" the %arine Environment o" the Iorth East Atlantic, aopted at Faris, September 99, 4;;9 and in "orce %arch 9>, 4;;=. This Convention is the mechanism b0 'hich Ael ium, #enmarC, +inland, +rance, .erman0, !celand, !reland, 8u?embour , the Ietherlands, Ior'a0, Fortu al, Spain, S'eden, S'itHerland and the 1nited 2in dom, cooperate "or the protection o" the marine environment o" the Iorth East Atlantic. The Dspar Commission is based in 8ondon (Email: secretariat@ospar.or / 'ebsite: http:&&'''.ospar.or &). 6 g'ton, +.,.N Lowry, D.<. / Mer:in, 5.M. - Limitation of Actions, 9::5, 88F, 8ondon. 6Jcayir, W. 6ya - Liability for #il $ollution and Collisions , 4;;=, 88F, 8ondon. DHca0ir, R. D0a - $ort State Control, 9 Ed., 9::<, 88F 8imited, 8ondon. TDF D+ FA.E

<
b A A C # E +. H !E2 8 % I D < J $ ST 1 B W Q P R <. / ". "ns rance *+r.: ,assurance de protection et d'indemnisation,- *Span.: ,seguro de protecci@n y de indemni(aci@n,- *!tal.: ,assicura(ione di prote(ione e indenni((o,- *.r.: ,Reederhaftpflicht,- - Frotection and !ndemnit0 !nsurance is mutual insurance 'hich covers shipo'ners6 liabilit0 to third parties "or dama e to their ship or car o, as 'ell as statutor0 liabilities such as pollution and 'recC removal, but does not cover direct losses to the shipo'ner6s o'n ship or car o. +our classes o" covera e are included in F. 7 !./ (i) Frotection, 'hich covers a shipo'ner "or claims paid in re ard to liabilit0 "or loss o" li"e, personal inGur0, dama e to "i?ed or "loatin obGects, 'recC removal and one-"ault collision (supra) in liabilit0/ (ii) !ndemnit0, 'hich reimburses the shipo'ner "or indemnit0 iven to o'ners o" dama ed or lost car o/ (iii) War risCs/ (iv) +rei ht War $isCs. The bulC o" this covera e is provided b0: <. / ". (l !s )<rotection and "ndemnity (l !s* *+r.: ,mutuelles de protection et d'indemnisation,- *Span.: ,clubs de protecci@n e indemni(aci@n,- *.r.: ,Reeder"ereinigung fQr die *ersicherung "on Schiffsrisi0en,-. These have been "ormed b0 shipo'ners to provide "inancial protection a ainst the e?tent o" liabilities to 'hich the0 ma0 be subGected. As a result o" the ,homo eneit0, o" risCs "aced b0 shipo'ners, F. 7 !. Clubs operate on a mutual basis 'here risCs are placed in the same port"olio/ annual premiums are paid into a common "und accordin to the de ree o" e?posure to risCs,(4) and losses are indemni"ied out o" this common "und. See Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. >;4->;9.
4

,... each member is rated "or annual contributions in accordance 'ith the haHards he 'ishes to cover, the deductibles chosen, and the individual risC e?posure he represents .... This basic rate, 'hich also includes the member6s share o" e?penditures "or the runnin o" the association and "or reinsurance premiums, is multiplied b0 the tonna e entered "or the 6polic0 0ear6 and produces the 6advance call6. A"ter a 6polic0 0ear6 ends, ... a balance is strucC bet'een the income derived "rom the 6advance call6 and the e?penditure "or claims (paid and outstandin ) and mana ement, reinsurance and representatives "ees. E?cess e?penditure over income is collected "rom members b0 @4

6supplementar0 calls6 (one or more) in proportion to their 6advance calls6. !" income e?ceeds e?penditure ... a return is made on the same basis., !n other 'ords, the members o" the Club share each other6s liabilities/ the insurer also bein the assured. At present, there are less than t'ent0 F. 7 !. Clubs in operation. The maGor Clubs have Goined the "nternational Gro 1 of <rotection and "ndemnity (l !s (supra), "ormin a pool "or reinsurance purposes, as 'ell as ivin attention to problems o" eneral concern to members. The maGor Clubs are in the United ?ingdom, Scandinavia, Eapan and the 1nited States o" America. The !nternational .roup Clubs are: The American Steamship D'ners %utual Frotection and !ndemnit0 Association, !nc. - Website: http:&&'''.american-club.com&. Email: in"o@american-club.net. Assurance"orenin en SCuld Website: http:&&'''.sCuld.com&. Email: osl@sCuld.com. (.Gensidi ) Association 8imited -

Aritannia Steam Ship !nsurance Association 8td. Website: http:&&'''.britanniapandi.com&. Email: http:&&'''.britanniapandi.com&contact.html. .ard AS Website: http:&&'''. ard.no&. Email: compan0mail@ ard.no. Eapan Ship D'ners6 %utual Frotection 7 !ndemnit0 Website: http:&&'''.piclub.or.Gp&. Email: eneral-dpt@piclub.or.Gp. 8ondon Steam-Ship D'ners6 %utual !nsurance Association Website: http:&&'''.lsso.com&. Email: comms@a-bilbrou h.co.uC. Iorth o" En land F. 7 Website: http:&&'''.nepia.com&. Email: eneral@nepia.com. !.

Association (8u?embour )

Shipo'ners6 %utual Frotection and !ndemnit0 Association Website: http:&&'''.shipo'nersclub.com&. Email: in"o@shipo'ners.co.uC.

Standard Steamship D'ners6 Frotection 7 !ndemnit0 Association 8imited - Website: http:&&'''.standard-club.com&. Email: p7i.london.ctcplc.com. Steamship %utual 1nder'ritin Association Website: http:&&'''.ssmua.com&. Email: steamship@simsl.com. Sveri es An "art0 s Assurans +orenin (The S'edish Website: http:&&'''.s'edishclub.com. Email: s'edish.club@s'edishclub.com&. 1nited 2in dom %utual Steam-Ship Assurance Association Website: http:&&'''.uCpandi.com&. Email: Gohn.mcphail@thomasmiller.com. West o" En land Ship D'ners %utual !nsurance Website: http:&&'''.'estpandi.com&. Email: mail@'estpandi.com. Services 8imited Club) 8imited 8imited -

<ardess s, D.BM. Collection de lois maritimes antérieures au J*IIIe si+cle , 3 vols., 4=9=-4=<>, !mprimerie ro0ale, Faris. <aris M6U - Faris %emorandum o" 1nderstandin . See <ort 7tate (ontrol.

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<ar:s, A.L. and (attell, E.4. - !he Law of !ug7 !ow and $ilotage , 5 Ed., 4;;<, Cornell %aritime Fress, Centreville, %ar0land. <artic lar Average *+r.: ,a"arie particuli+re- *Span.: ,a"erBa particular,- *.r.: ,.esondere =a"arie,- - A marine ins rance term meanin a partial and not total loss su""ered b0 an insured. (,Farticular, means percenta e and ,avera e, means loss.) See Marine "ns rance Act, #$0% (1.2.) sect. 3<. See Tetle0, !nt6l. %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at pp. 3:;-34:. <avli'a, Mar:'o A. - Implied !erms of *oyage Charters 344U, $einsurance Compan0 Sava 8imited, 8GublGana, Slovenia. Favliha, %arCho A., FrevoHno Fravo, 9:::, .ospodarsCi BestniC, 8GublGana, Slovenia. <ayne, ,. / "vamy, E.5. 2ardy - Carriage of -oods by Sea, 45 Ed., 4;=;, Autter'orths, 8ondon. <enal D risdiction (onvention #$82 - The !nternational Convention "or the 1ni"ication o" Certain $ules $elatin to Fenal Eurisdiction in %atters o" Collision or Dther !ncidents o" Iavi ation, adopted at Arussels on %a0 4:, 4;>9 and in "orce as o" Iovember 9:, 4;>>. See C%! (supra). <ennsylvania 5 le - An almost irrebuttable presumption o" causation in ship collisions (supra) in American maritime la', established b0 the 1nited States Supreme Court6s decision in !he$ennsyl"ania, =3 1.S. (4; Wall.) 49> at p. 453 (4=@<), 'hereb0 'hen a ship, at the time o" the collision, is in violation o" a statutor0 rule, that violation is deemed to be at least a contributor0 cause o" the collision. The presumption ma0 onl0 be rebutted b0 proo" that the violation co ld not 'ave !een a cause o" the collision. See Tetle0, Int'l C. of L., 4;;< at pp. <@9, <=<, 3:4-3:9/ Tetle0, ,The Fenns0lvania $ule - An AnachronismW, (4;=9) 45 E%8C 49@/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. 9<9-9<<. <eril of t'e sea - ,Feril o" the sea is some catastrophic "orce or event that 'ould not be e?pected in the area o" the vo0a e, at that time o" 0ear and that could not be reasonabl0 uarded a ainst., See Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at p. <59/ M.C.C., < Ed., 9::W, Chap. 4=. !n this 'ebsite, see Chapter 4=: Feril o" the Sea and Similar E?ceptions *.pd"-. See also Tetle0, Int'l M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. => and >;5. <ermanent "nternational Association of &avigation (ongresses - See "nternational &avigation Association )<"A&(BA"<(&* (supra). <ersonification t'eory - A theor0 o" maritime liens (supra), particularl0 popular in the 1nited States, 'hich understands such liens as ri hts a ainst a ship, treated as bein a person. See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. >5->>. -<lace of mac'inery- or -centre of gravity- - is the contact introduced b0 $obert %erCin in repect o" insurance la', bein ,the la' o" the place in 'hich the process o" the "ormation o" the a reement primaril0 tooC place.,. See Tetle0, !nt6l C. o" 8., 4;;< at p. 5>@-5>=. <LAT6 - The Follution 8iabilit0 A reement amon TanCer D'ners. An a reement proposed "ollo'in the adoption o" the 4;=< Frotocol to the (ivil Lia!ility (onvention #$%$ (supra), 'hich 'as intended to increase, on a voluntar0 basis, the compensation pa0ble b0 independent tanCer o'ners in respect o" marine oil pollution dama e and to amend (5"7TAL (supra), but 'hich never came into "orce. <leas re craft *+r.: ,embarcation de plaisance,- *Span.: ,embarcaci@n de recreo,- *!tal.: ,natante da diporto,- *.r.: ,*ergnQgungsschiff,- - A term used to desi nate an0 class o" vessel desi ned "or recreational purposes (e. . 0achts, ro'-boats, motor boats, etc.). @5

<limsoll line )<limsoll mar:* - A marC painted on the side o" merchant vessels sho'in the various drau ht levels to 'hich the ship ma0 be loaded, usuall0 includin tropical "resh 'ater, "resh 'ater, tropical sea 'ater, summer sea 'ater, 'inter sea 'ater and ("or vessels under 4:: meters in len th) 'inter Iorth Atlantic Dcean 'ater. The Flimsoll line is accompanied b0 a circle bisected b0 a horiHontal line, indicatin the summer "reeboard o" the ship and letters si ni"0in the name o" the ship6s classi"ication societ0 (e. . LloydCs 5egister). The Flimsoll line is named "or Samuel Flimsoll (4=9<-4=;=), an En lish %ember o" Farliament 'ho "ou ht "or improved sa"et0 o" Aritish merchant ships. See also ,Load lines, (supra). <oincarG gold franc )1.g.f.*- Dne p. .". is 3>.3 milli rams o" old o" millesimal "ineness ;::. !t 'as "irst de"ined b0 the +rench 8a' o" Eune 9>, 4;9= and named a"ter $a0mond FoincarK, the +rench Frime %inister 'ho stabiliHed the currenc0 o" +rance. The p. .". is 'orth appro?imatel0 45 cents Cdn. or 4: cents 1.S. appro?imatel0. <omerene Act - The American .ills of Lading Act o" 4;43, <; 1.S. Code App?. =4-49<, recodi"ied in 4;;< as <; 1.S. Code sect. =:4:4-=:443. !t controls bills o" ladin coverin common carria e bet'een the 1nited States and "orei n countries and inside the countr0. (See te?t: Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at pp. 494:-4999.) <ort 7tate (ontrol - Fort State Control is the s0stem 'hereb0 the authorities o" a State responsible "or marine sa"et0 are empo'ered to inspect vessels enterin its ports, even i" the0 do not "l0 the "la o" that State, in order to identi"0 ships not compl0in 'ith applicable norms, especiall0 'ith respect to sa"et0. Fort State Control is t0picall0 overned b0 an international a reement, such as the <aris Memorand m of Understanding (Faris %D1) o" Eul0 4, 4;=9 (bindin most European countries and a "e' others, includin Canada) or the To:yo M6U o" #ecember 9, 4;;5, in "orce April 4;;< (bindin man0 States in the Asia-Faci"ic re ion and also includin Canada). Dther Fort State Control %D1Vs e?ist "or various other re ions o" the 'orld, includin the Caribbean, the %editerranean, 8atin America, West A"rica and the !ndian Dcean. These %D1Vs t0picall0 con"er po'ers o" detention on the port states part0 to them in respect o" vessels inspected and "ound 'antin in their compliance 'ith national or international standards, such as the ".7.M. (ode. See also A.E. $odri ueH 7 %.C. Hubbard, TThe !nternational Sa"et0 %ana ement (!S%) Code: A Ie' 8evel o" 1ni"ormit0U (4;;;) @5 Tul. 8. $ev. 4>=> at pp. 434>-4343, concernin the Bancouver #eclaration o" 4;;= on en"orcement o" the Code b0 si natories o" the ToC0o and Faris %D1V s and also outlinin en"orcement measures taCen b0 the E ro1ean Union. The 1nited States, althou h not part0 to an0 Fort State Control %D1, nevertheless vi orousl0 en"orces the !.S.%. Code throu h the 1.S. Coast .uard b0 boardin s, inspections, detentions and denial o" port entr0. See %atthe' %arshall, TFort State #etentions _'hat messa e "or insurersWU, an unpublished lecture delivered to the !nsurance !nstitute o" 8ondon, Eanuar0 49, 4;;; at p. ; (on "ile 'ith the author)/ $odri ueH 7 Hubbard, supra at pp.4345-434>. <ossessory liens - At common law, the ri ht o" a bailee to retain propert0 in his possession belon in to another until certain claims o" the bailee in possession are satis"ied. The common carrier thus had a possessor0 lien "or freig't (supra), 'hich 'as strictl0 possessor0 and 'as lost 'hen the car o 'as delivered unconditionall0. This lien 'as reco niHed b0 En lish admiralt0 la', as 'ell as the possessor0 liens o" salvors and repairmen. Fossessor0 liens are also reco niHed in the 1nited States. The civil law equivalent o" the possessor0 lien is the ri ht o" retention (, droit de rétention,) *Span.: ,derecho de retenci@n,- *!tal.: ,diritto di riten(ione,-. See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. 535, 3<3-3<;, @<;-@><, @>;-@@:/ Tetle0, !nt6l. %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at pp. 43@-43=, <;><;=. <ower, 4incent - 1C Shipping Law, 9 Ed., 4;;=, 88F 8imited, 8ondon. <owles, +avid G. - !he Mare"a In>unction and Associated #rders, 4;=>, Fro"essional AooCs, Abin don, En land. @<

<referred maritime lien - A cate or0 o" maritime lien (supra) under the American Commercial Instruments and Maritime Liens Act (<3 1.S. Code 545:4(>)), includin (contract) maritime liens arisin be"ore the "ilin o" a 1referred mortgage (infra) on the ship/ as 'ell as liens "or dama e, 'a es o" stevedores emplo0ed directl0, cre' 'a es, general average (supra) and salvage (infra). (Fre"erred maritime liens ranC a"ter e?penses and "ees allo'ed b0 the court ( custodia legis) (supra) and court costs, and be"ore 1referred mortgage liens (infra). See <3 1.S. Code 54593(4)/ Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. =@5-=@> (re ranCin )/ Tetle0, !n6tl. %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at pp. <=5-<=<. <referred mortgage - A s'i1 mortgage (infra) on the 'hole o" a vessel, "iled in the 1.S. in substantial compliance 'ith the requirements o" <3 1.S. Code 54599 et se:. <referred mortgage lien - A lien on a ship on 'hich a 1referred mortgage (supra) has been "iled. the0 ranC a"ter 1referred maritime liens (supra), b0 virtue o" <3 1.S. Code 54593(4). See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at >49->4>. -prima facie- - (,at "irst si ht,) a rule 'hereb0 a particular "act constitutes evidence o" a state o" a""airs, unless contradicted b0 other stron er, admissible evidence. See, e. ., the 2ag e and 2ag e34is!y 5 les (supra) art. 5(<), under 'hich the issue o" a clean !ill of lading (supra) is prima facie evidence o" the receipt b0 the carrier (supra) o" the oods as described in the bill, and the similar provisions o" the 2am! rg 5 les (supra) art. 43(5) and o" the <omerene Act (supra), old sect. 99 (<; 1.S. Code sect. 4:9, no' <; 1.S. Code sect. =:445(a). See also !he Atlas *4;;3- 4 8lo0d6s $ep. 3<9. <rivate carriage - Carria e o" particular oods o" one s'i11er (infra) under a special contract, usuall0 b0 c'arter1arty, as opposed to the common )1 !lic* carriage (supra) o" oods o" the public in eneral, on advertised, ,liner, routes, usuall0 under !ills of lading or way!ills. See Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;==, at pp. ;-4:, 5>/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5, Chap. <, at pp.44;-4@=. <rivity or :nowledge - See ,act al fa lt or 1rivity,,supra. -pro &ac vice- - ,"or this occasion,. See .aumwoll Manufactur "on Carl Scheibler v. 9urness *4=;5- A.C. = at p. 43 (H.8.). 'here it 'as held that the demise charterer o" a ship is re arded as the vessel6s o'ner ,pro hac "ice, durin the term o" the c'arter1arty. <roced ral t'eory - A theor0 o" maritime liens (supra), particularl0 popular in En land, 'hich holds that maritime liens are the ,children o" procedure, and in particular o" the writ in rem(infra), rather than substantive ri hts in the propert0 o" another. See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. >5>>. <ro1er law - The principle o" the conflict of laws accordin to 'hich the la' applicable to a iven le al situation should be the la' havin the closest and most real connection to the case. The term ,proper la' o" the contract, 'as "irst used b0 WestlaCe in A !reatise on $ri"ate International Law7 with principal reference to its practice in 1ngland, 9 Ed., 4==:, sect. 9:4 at p. 95@, 'ho de"ined it as ,the la' o" the countr0 'ith 'hich the contract has its most real connection,. The term 'as taCen up b0 %orris and Cheshire in their essa0 ,The Froper 8a' o" a Contract in the Con"lict o" 8a's, (4;<:) >3 8.J.$. 59: and 'as later used b0 %orris in his essa0s ,Torts in the Con"lict o" 8a's, (4;<;) 49 %odern 8. $ev. 9<= and ,The Froper 8a' o" a Tort, (4;>4) 3< Harv. 8. $ev. ==4. The ,proper la', is ar uabl0 the most important concept in contemporar0 con"lict o" la' le islation, both national and international. See Tetle0, !nt6l. C. o" 8., 4;;< at pp. 4:-44. <ro1erly a11lica!le law - The la' 'hich has the closest and most real connection (or most si ni"icant relationship) 'ith the contract or tort, based upon the connectin "actors (contacts). The properl0 applicable la' ma0 be identi"ied b0 the application to an0 conflict of laws problem o" a

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consistent met'odology (supra), such as that proposed in Tetle0, Int'l C. of L., 4;;< at pp. 5>-<5, <4-<9. <ro1ortionate fa lt - The rule "or apportionin dama es in tort&delict, 'hereb0 each part0 'hose "ault or ne li ence has contributed to the total loss or dama e is held liable "or that loss or dama e in a proportion correspondin to that part06s "ault or ne li ence. Froportionate "ault is the s0stem o" apportionment o" dama es reco niHed historicall0 b0 the civil law and later codi"ied in the various civil codes. At common law, ho'ever, proportionate (comparative) "ault onl0 replaced the old common law contri! tory negligence (supra) rule ('hich precluded an0 recover0 b0 a plainti"" 'hose "ault or ne li ence had contributed to his loss or dama e in even the sli htest de ree) 'hen the United ?ingdom enacted the Law Reform FContributory 6egligenceA Act7 34V;, = 7 ; .eo. 3, c. 9=, althou h several Canadian common law provinces had enacted similar le islation some t'ent0 0ears earlier. !n maritime la', proportionate "ault replaced the traditional equall0 divided damages (supra) rule o" apportionment "or ship collision 'hen the United ?ingdom, Canada and other Aritish Common'ealth countries enacted national statutes ivin e""ect to the (ollision (onvention #$#0 (supra). !n the 1nited States, proportionate "ault in ship collisions 'as imposed b0 the 1.S. Supreme Court6s decision in Mnited States v. Reliable !ransfer Co. <94 1.S. 5;@, 4;@> A%C ><4, *4;@>- 9 8lo0d6s $ep. 9=3 (4;@>). !n (anadian maritime law, proportionate "ault replaced contri! tory negligence in respect o" maritime torts other than ship collisions pursuant to the Supreme Court o" Canada6s decision in .ow *alley =us0y F.ermudaA Ltd. v. Saint Dohn Shipbuilding Ltd. *4;;@- 5 S.C.$. 494:, (4;;@) 4>5 #.8.$.(<th) 5=>. See Tetle0, Int'l. C. of L., 4;;< at pp. <@=-<=;/ Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. <;->:/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. 999, 99=-9<4. <r dent mariner doctrine -A term derived "rom a 'arnin printed on close area navi ation charts published b0 the Iational Dceanic and Atmospheric Administration o" the 1nited States, 'hich reads as "ollo's: ,The prudent mariner 'ill not rel0 solel0 on an0 sin le aid to navi ation, particularl0 on "loatin aids., <r jiner, Alain - !raités et documents internationau8 usuels en droit du commerce internationalC!reaties and International ,ocuments used in International !rade Law, 9 Ed., rev. and updated, 9::>, Wilson 7 8a"leur, %ontreal. < !lic order31 !lic 1olicy *+r.: ,ordre public,- *Span.: ,orden pWblico,- *!tal.: ,ordine pubblico,*.r.: ,Zffentliche Sicherheit und #rdnung,- - !n domestic la', public order (a civil law term) re"ers to domestic rules and le al principles re"lectin lo"t0 standards o" moralit0 and social conduct in a civiliHed societ0, 'hile public polic0 (a common law term) re"ers to "undamental principles o" natural Gustice "ound in a state6s constitution, bill o" ri hts, la's, re ulations, precedents and accepted customs. See Tetle0, Int'l C. of L., 4;;< at p. 4::. !n the conflict of laws, international public order&public polic0 re"ers to the eneral principle 'hereb0 courts ma0 re"use to reco niHe or en"orce contracts or "orei n Gud ments or "orei n ar!itral awards 'hich the0 deem to be repu nant to the "orum6s essential principles o" moralit0 and Gustice, or, in some cases, to the basic policies and interests o" the "orum State. !n the 1nited States, the concept o" public polic0 in con"licts theor0 and practice has been subsumed, at least partiall0, b0 the American theor0 o" interest anal0sis and quest "or equit0. !nternational public order&public polic0 is "ound in both the codes and Gurisprudence o" civil law j risdictions and the case la' o" common law j risdictions. !t is also to be "ound in international conflict of laws conventions and instruments, such as the 5ome (onvention #$A0 (infra) at art. 43, the .r ssels (onvention #$%A (supra) and L gano (onvention #$AA (supra) at art. 9@(4), the &ew ;or: (onvention #$8A (supra) at art. B(9)(b) and the U&("T5AL Model Law #$A8 (infra) at art. 53(4)(b)(ii), as 'ell as in national statutes ivin e""ect to them. See Tetle0, Int'l C. of L., 4;;< at pp. ;>-455 and =94-=34. < nitive damages - #ama es a'arded in addition to normal dama es "or bad "aith or e?cessivel0 improper acts o" the de"endant in contract or tort or even durin a court action. The0 are usuall0 @3

ranted b0 statute and at times e?cluded b0 statute (2ag e34is!y 5 les at art. <(>)(b)). The0 are onl0 no' appearin in modern civilian j risdictions (e. . JuKbec Civil Code 4;;<, at art. 4394 c.c.q.) See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at p. 95= and Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at pp. 55;-5<9. TDF D+ FA.E

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A A C # E +. H !E2 8 % I D FS $ ST 1 B W Q P R S asiBdeviation - An American term "or certain t0pes o" breach o" a contract o" carria e o" oods b0 sea, analo ous to unreasonable eo raphic deviation, notabl0 overcarria e, non-deliver0 and dela0ed deliver0. Where intentional, these breaches have been held b0 1.S. courts as deprivin the carrier (supra) o" the bene"it o" the pacCa e limitation under (6G7A (see supra), and should result in the loss o" all the carrier6s e?emptions and limitations o" liabilit0. See "or e?ample, *ision Air 9light Ser". ". MC* 6at'l $ride, 4>> +.5d 443>, 4;;; A%C 443= (; Cir. 4;;=), and S$M Corp. ". MC* Ming Moon, ;3> +.9d 49;@, 4;;9 A%C 9<:; (5 Cir. 4;;9). See Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at pp. 4:9-4:5, 443-494/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. ;9-;5. S asi in rem Gurisdiction - An American term re"errin to j risdiction (supra) e?ercised b0 'a0 o" the attac'ment (supra) over the chattels o" a de"endant 'ho cannot be "ound 'ithin the district. See Supplemental $ules A and E o" the 7 11lemental 5 les for (ertain Admiralty and Maritime (laims (infra). See also Tetle0, !nt6l. C. o" 8., 4;;< at pp. @;>-@;3, =5:/ Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. ;<:, ;></ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. <:=-<:;. S asiBmaritime liens B A term used to describe claims "or pilota e, general average contri! tions and docC char es in Canada, 'hich claims, under sects. 9(4) and 99(9)(l), (q),and (s), read 'ith sects. <5(9) and (5), o" the 9ederal Court Act, $.S.C., 4;=>, c. +-@, "ollo' the ship into 'hosever hands it passes (liCe traditional maritime liens (supra)), but 'hich (unliCe maritime liens) ranC a"ter rather than be"ore s'i1 mortgages. See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed, 4;;= at pp. ;<, <>9, <>@ and @53-@5@/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at p. <53. TDF D+ FA.E

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A A C # E +. H !E2 8 % I D FJ 5 ST 1 B W Q P R 5ainey, 7imon - !he Law of !ug and !ow and allied Contracts, 9 Ed., 9::9, 88F, 8ondon. -ratio decidendi- - (,reason "or decidin ,), 'hich re"ers to a "indin o" la' in a decision, 'here the "indin 'as based on the issues properl0 be"ore the court. !t is le al reasonin essential to the decision 'hich the court has to taCe to decide the case. +or the opposite o" , ratio decidendi,, see ,obiter dictum, (supra).

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5eceived for s'i1ment !ill of lading - See ,.ills of Lading / 5elated +oc ments, (supra). 5ecognition of foreign j dgments - !n the conflict of laws, the rules and principles applied b0 courts in order to determine 'hether or not to reco niHe and en"orce a Gud ment rendered b0 a "orei n court or an ar!itral award rendered b0 a "orei n ar!itral tri! nal. 5egister tonnage - See ,Tons / Tonnage, (infra). 5eins rance - See marine reins rance (supra). 5XmondBGo illo d, Martine - ,roit Maritime, 9 Ed., 4;;5, Oditions A. Fedone, Faris. $Nmond-.ouilloud, %artine - Le Contrat de !ransport, 4;;5, #alloH, Faris. $Nmond-.ouilloud, %artine - ,u droit de détruire, 4;=;, Fresses 1niversitaires de +rance, Faris. -renvoi- *Span.: ,reen"Bo,- *!tal.: ,rin"io,- *.r.: ,*erweisung,- - !n the conflict of laws, the +rench term ren"oi re"ers to the application o" the con"lict rules o" one state b0 the court or tribunal o" another state, in order to solve a conflict of laws problem. Ren"oi developed in the nineteenth centur0, as a reaction to the territorial theor0, in an e""ort to secure reater uni"ormit0 and equit0 in con"licts decisions. Sin le ren"oi (a.C.a. partial, imper"ect, or receptive ren"oi or ren"oi simpliciter) is the re"erral b0 the "orum court to the con"lict rules o" a "orei n state, but not to that state6s ren"oi rules. This ma0 result in a re"erence bacC to the "orum6s domestic la' (,remission,) or a re"erence to the domestic la' o" a third state (,transmission,). #ouble ren"oi (a.C.a. per"ect, total, true or inte ral ren"oi, total re"erence, or the "orei n court principle) is the re"erral b0 the "orum court to the con"lict rules, includin the ren"oi rules) o" a "orei n state. Thus the "orum court applies the la' speci"ied b0 the "orei n con"licts rules, includin the "orei n ren"oi rules, in an e""ort to render the decision 'hich the "orei n court 'ould render i" it 'ere seiHed o" the case. #ouble ren"oi appears to be limited to En land. Ren"oi has been subGected to criticism b0 le al authors and is increasin l0 e?cluded in international conflict of laws conventions (e. . the $ome Convention 4;=:, infra, at art. 4>) and should be reGected. See Tetle0, Int'l. C. of L., 4;;< at pp. 3;-;5 5e1levin- An action "or the repossession o" personal propert0 'ron "ull0 taCen or held b0 the de"endant, 'here the plainti"" ives securit0 "or and holds the propert0 until the court decides 'ho o'ns it. See =ual AS v. 18pert Concrete7 Inc. 9::9 A%C @<4 (I.P. Supr. Ct. 9::4). -res ipsa lo0uitur- - (,the thin speaCs "or itsel",), re"errin to the presumption that dama es caused b0 an inanimate obGect, 'ithout human intervention, result "rom some "ault or ne li ence on the part o" the o'ner or possessor o" the obGect in 'hose custod0 it 'as at the time it caused the harm. The doctrine applies in cases 'here the dama e 'ould not ordinaril0 occur in the absence o" "ault or ne li ence, and 'here there is no evidence as to ho' or 'h0 the harm"ul occurrence tooC place. See Scott v. London and St. 2atherine ,oc0s Co. (4=3>) 5 H. 7 C. >;3 at p. >;3, 4>; E.$. 33> at p. 33@/ =ellenius. v. Lees *4;@9- S.C.$. 43> at p. 4@9/ Dac0son v. Millar *4;@3- 4 S.C.$. 99> at p. 95>. The principle 'as shot throu h the heart b0 the Supreme Court o" Canada in 9ontaine v. ..C. F#ffical AdministratorA *4;;=- 4 S.C.$. <9< at p. <5>, 'here %aGor, E. said: ,!t 'ould appear that the la' 'ould be better served i" the ma?im 'as treated as e?pired and no lon er used as a separate component in ne li ence actions. A"ter all, it 'as nothin more than an attempt to deal 'ith circumstantial evidence. That evidence is more sensibl0 dealt 'ith b0 the trier o" "act,..., The decision has been "ollo'ed in a number o" countries in the 'orld. -res judicata- *+r.: ,chose >ugée,- *Span.: ,cosa >u(gada,- *!tal.: ,cosa giudicata,- *.r.: ,Rechts0r)ftig entschiedene Sache,- - (,the thin havin been adGu ed,), re"errin to the principle that once a court o" competent j risdiction has rendered a "inal and conclusive decision in a dispute, the same cause o" action ma0 not normall0 be tried a ain. !n the conflict of laws, b0 virtue o" res >udicata, a court is estopped "rom retr0in a case 'hich has been the obGect o" a "inal and

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conclusive Gud ment b0 a competent court or in another j risdiction. See Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at pp. =::-=:4/Tetle0, Int'l C. of L., 4;;< at pp. =54-=59. -res perit domino- - (,the thin perishes "or the o'ner,), re"errin to the principle that risC in the oods pass 'ith o'nership. See Martineau ". 2itching (4=@9) @ J.A. <53 at pp. <>5-<></ Tetle0, M.C.C.,5 Ed., 4;== at p. 43<. res1ondentia (,nantissement ? la grosse sur facultés,) - The h0pothecation o" the ship6s car o b0 the master 'hile a'a0 "rom the vessel6s home port, as securit0 "or a loan to pa0 "or oods or services needed to preserve the ship or complete the vo0a e. $espondentia, althou h still secured b0 a maritime lien (supra) in the 1.2. and Aritish Common'ealth countries, is obsolete, in vie' o" the emer ence o" modern means o" communications. See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. ;, 4@ and <4;/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at p. >;< "ootnote ;4. res1onder imm nity B A term used to e?press the limited immunit0 "rom civil liabilit0 iven to ,responders, to an environmental accident 'hose actions taCen or not taCen result in 'orsenin the environmental consequences, as lon as their conduct 'as in accord 'ith certain principles and as lon as the 'orsenin o" the consequences 'as not due to ross ne li ence or 'il"ul misconduct. 5estatement 7econd of t'e (onflict of Laws - The $estatement (Second) o" the Con"lict o" 8a's, adopted b0 the American 8a' !nstitute at Washin ton, #.C., on %a0 95, 4;3;. "restitutio in integrum" - A latin term "or ,restoration in "ull,, re"errin to the civilian principle, also reco niHed at common law and "requentl0 applied in admiralt0 la', requirin that the success"ul plainti"" be f lly compensated b0 the "inal Gud ment o" the court "or all the losses and dama es 'hich the breach o" contract or the commission o" the tort or delict caused him. !t requires that the victim o" the breach o" contract or the tort&delict be placed in the same position he 'as in be"ore the harm"ul event occurred. !n admiralt0 la', the principle has notabl0 been applied to permit the a'ardin o" dama es "or pure economic loss, the rantin o" Gud ments in "orei n currenc0 and the orderin o" pre-Gud ment interest as an inte ral part o" dama es "rom the date o" the casualt0. See Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at p. 54;, Tetle0, Int'l C. of L., 4;;< at pp. @4;-@94, @53-@5@, @<4, @<5, @>9/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. ;@-;=, 9>>. 5e ter, &. - 8a notion d6assistance en %er, 4;@>, 8ibrairies techniques, Faris. 5ev e de +roit (ommercial, Maritime, AGrien et des Trans1orts )-5ev e 7ca1el-* (< times a 0ear). Website: http:&&'''.scp-scapel.com&revue.html. Email: scp.scapel@barreau.com. The #irector is Christian Scapel and the Editor-in-Chie" is Eacques Aonnaud. 5eward - See salvage reward (infra). 5eynolds, =rancis M... - Le8 Mercatoria. 1ssays in =onour of 9rancis Reynolds , 9::: (+.#. $ose, ed.), 88F, 8ondon. See also (arver, T.G. (supra). 5'odian Law - An un'ritten bod0 o" sea la', purportedl0 administered on the !sland o" $hodes, datin "rom appro?imatel0 =:: A.C., some "ra mentar0 portions o" 'hich 'ere recorded in the si?th centur0 A.# in the #i est o" Eustinian, especiall0 in AooC QB, Title 9, , ,e lege Rhodia de >actu,, concernin general average (supra). See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. @-=/ Tetle0, !nt6l. %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at pp. ;-49/ Tetle0, ,The .eneral %aritime 8a' - The 8e? %aritima, (4;;<) 9: S0racuse E. !nt. 8. 7 Comm. 4:>-4<> at p. 4:;/ reprinted in *4;;3- ET8 <3;->:3 at p. <@5. See also ,.yJantine35'odian 7eaBLaw, (supra). 5io 5 les #$99 *+r.: ,$N les de $io 4;@@,- *Span.: ,$e las de $io 4;@@,- *!tal.: ,$e ole di $io 4;@@,- *.r.: ,$io $e eln 4;@@,-- The dra"t ,!nternational Convention "or the 1ni"ication o" Certain @;

$ules Concernin Civil Eurisdiction, Choice o" 8a' and $eco nition and En"orcement o" Eud ments in %atters o" Collision,, approved b0 the C%! Con"erence at $io de Eaneiro on September 5:, 4;@@, but 'hich is not in "orce. +or a commentar0 and the te?t o" the $io $ules 4;@@, see *4;@=- 8%C8J 4<. 5i1ert, Georges - ,roit Maritime, < Ed., 5 vols, 4;>:-4;>5, 8es Oditions $ousseau, Faris. b 5odiXre, 5enG - !raité -énéral de ,roit Maritime in seven volumes, 4;3@ to 4;=5, #alloH, Faris. $odiNre, $enK - Le ,roit Maritime, 4;=:, Fresses 1niversitaires de +rance, Faris. 5odiXre, 5. et 5XmondBGo illo d, M. - La Mer. ,roits des =ommes ou $roie des Itats , 4;=:, Oditions A. Fedone, Faris. 5odiXre et d <ontavice - ,roit Maritime, 49 Ed., 4;;@, #alloH, Faris. 5Hles of 6lGron : 49th centur0 codi"ication o" maritime la' 'hich de"ined the duties and responsibilities o" masters, cre's, shipo'ners and merchants. See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. 45-4=/ Tetle0, !nt6l %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at pp. 49-43. 5oman law - The la' o" ancient $ome, 'hich is the source o" the civil law. The term ,$oman la', is sometimes applied loosel0 to re"er to civil law enerall0. 5omanB+ tc' law - The uncodi"ied civil law o" South A"rica, 'hich has been stron l0 in"luenced b0 common law. 5ome (onvention, #$A0 - The ,Convention on the 8a' Applicable to Contractual Dbli ations, (E.E.C. =:&;5<) opened "or si nature at $ome on Eune 4;, 4;=:, and in "orce April 4, 4;;4, is one o" the most important conventions o" private international la'. !t establishes uni"orm con"lict o" la' rules "or contract applicable in all countries o" the E ro1ean Union (supra). (See te?t: Tetle0, Int'l. C. of L., 4;;< at pp. 4:59-4:<>, 'ith a brie" commentar0 at pp. 4:<>-4:<=.) 56B56 (,roulage, or ,transroulage,) - $oll Dn-$oll D"" is the method o" ship carria e 'hereb0 the car o is driven directl0 on board ship and at destination driven directl0 o"". 5oland, 5oger - Liber Amicorum R. Roland, 9::5, 8arcier, Arussels. 5ose, =rancis, +. , ed., - 6ew 9oundations for Insurance Law, 4;=@, Stevens 7 Sons, 8td., 8ondon/ Marine Insurance% Law and $ractice, 9::<, 88F, 8ondon/ -eneral A"erage% Law and $ractice, 9 Ed., 9::>, 88F, 8ondon. See also LloydCs Maritime and (ommercial Law S arterly (supra). $ose, +rancis, #., ed., - Le8 Mercatoria, 9:::, 88F, 8ondon. See 5eynolds, =rancis M..., (supra). 5 les of t'e 5oad - A term o"ten used to re"er to the Collision $e ulations 4;@9 (supra). 5 les for Electronic .ills of Lading - These are C%! rules concernin the use o" !ills of lading sent b0 Electronic #ata !nterchan e (E#!). The0 'ere adopted in Faris, Eune 9;, 4;;:. (See te?t: (4;;4) 99 E%8C 39:-39>.

7

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7afe (ontainers (onvention #$92 - The !nternational Convention "or Sa"e Containers, adopted b0 the "M6 (supra) on #ecember 9, 4;@9, 'hich came into "orce September 3, 4;@@. 7afety of Life at 7ea )76LA7* (onvention #$94 - !nternational Convention "or the Sa"et0 o" 8i"e at Sea, amended 4;@<, in "orce %a0 9>, 4;=:, as amended. Adopted b0 the "M6 (supra). -7aid to contain- - Words 'hich ma0 be inserted in the !ill of lading (supra) b0 the carrier (supra), in accordance 'ith sect. 94 o" the <omerene Act o" 4;43 (supra) (<; 1.S. Code App?. sect. 4:4/ recodi"ied in 4;;< as <; 1.S. Code sect. =:445(b), (c) and (d)), to indicate that pacCa e "rei ht is loaded b0 a s'i11er (infra) and is supposed to contain oods o" a certain Cind or quantit0 or in a certain condition. !" true, these 'ords relieve the carrier issuin the bill o" ladin "rom liabilit0, althou h the oods are not o" the Cind or quantit0 or in the condition the0 'ere said to be b0 the consi nor. -saisie conservatoire- *Span.: ,embargo pre"enti"o,- *!tal.: se:uestro conser"ati"o,- *.r.: ,Sicherungsbeschlagnahme,- - The civil law procedure, Cno'n in En lish as the ,conservator0 attachment,, 'hereb0, on motion b0 a plainti"", at the be innin o" or durin a suit, speci"ied assets o" the de"endant (real or personal, moveable or immoveable) ma0 be seiHed b0 the court, as securit0 "or the plainti""6s claim. See #ecree no. 3@-;3@ o" Dct. 9@, 4;3@ as amended (+rance) and arts. @55@5; Code o" Civil Frocedure (C.C.F.) re ,seiHure be"ore Gud ment, (JuKbec). The American ,attac'ment, (supra) under the general maritime law (supra) and Supplemental $ule A o" the 7 11lemental 5 les for (ertain Admiralty and Maritime (laims (infra) is the equivalent o" the ,saisie conser"atoire,. See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. ;39-;@4/ Tetle0, !nt6l. %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at p. <:3. 7alvage *+r.: ,assistance, or ,assistance en mer,- *Span.: ,sal"amento,- *!tal.: ,assisten(a e sal"ataggio,- *.r.: ,.ergung,- - The salvor has a claim o" salvage reward i" he has success"ull0 and voluntaril0 salva ed maritime propert0 in dan er. The civil law term is ,assistance, (supra) permittin the salvor to be re'arded 'hether the salva e 'as success"ul or not. , Sau"etage, (supra) is used in +rance "or 'recC salva e *!tal.: ,ricupero,-. See Chap. ; in Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. 59;-5=9/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5, Chap. =, at pp. 54@-5>;. 7alvage (onvention #$#0 - The !nternational Convention "or the 1ni"ication o" Certain $ules o" 8a' $elatin to Assistance and Salva e at Sea, adopted at Arussels on September 95, 4;4: and in "orce as o" %arch 4, 4;45. See also the Frotocol, adopted at Arussels on %a0 9@, 4;3@ and in "orce as o" Au ust 4>, 4;@@. See (M" (supra)/ Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. 559-555/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at p. 593. 7alvage (onvention #$A$ - The !nternational Convention on Salva e, adopted b0 the "M6 (supra) at 8ondon on April 9=, 4;=; and in "orce as o" Eul0 4<, 4;;3. See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. 559-555/ Tetle0, !nt6l. %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at pp. 593-59@. 7alvage reward -The compensation 'hich is pa0able to a salvor, pursuant to a salva e award (supra). See the 7alvage (onvention #$A$ (supra), arts. 49 and 45. See Tetle0, !nt6l. %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at pp. 55=-5>9. 7AM7A - The Societ0 o" Accredited %arine Surve0ors, !nc., EacCsonville, +lorida. Website: http:&&'''.marinesurve0.or &/ email: SA%SHJ@aol.com. 7an!orn, =.5. - #rigins of the 1arly 1nglish Maritime and Commercial Law , 4;5:, The Centur0 Co., Ie' PorC and 8ondon. $eprinted b0 William S. Hein 7 Co., !nc., Au""alo, I.P., 9::9. 7Ync'eJ, G.D. DimGneJ, ,erecho mercantil, 3 Ed., (9 vols.), 9:::, Editorial Ariel, S.A., Aarcelona, Spain. =4

7anderson order - See . lloc: order, supra. 7candinavian "nstit te of Maritime Law - 1niversit0 o" Dslo, Dslo, Ior'a0. Website: http:&&'''.Gus.uio.no&ni"s&ni"s&en lish. Email: sGorett-adm@Gus.uio.no. 7c'ei!er, 2arry &. - Law of the Sea% the common heritage and emerging challenges , 9:::, IiGho"", The Ha ue and Aoston. 7c'elin, Do'an - Modern Law of Charterparties, 9::9, Eure AA, StocCholm. 7c'oen!a m, T'omas D. - Admiralty and Maritime Law, < Ed., 9::<, (5 vols.), West .roup, St. Faul, %inn. 7c'ofield, Do'n - Laytime and ,emurrage, > Ed., 9::<, 88F, 8ondon. 7(6<"( (la se - The ,Special Compensation F. 7 !. Club Clause, (,SCDF!C Clause,) re"ers to the a reement, 'hich "irst became e""ective Au ust 4, 4;;;, bet'een members o" the "nternational 7alvage Union )".7.U.* (supra), the "nternational Gro 1 of <. / ". (l !s (supra), and certain propert0 under'riters, providin a mechanism "or remuneratin salvors on the basis o" a "i?ed tari"" o" dail0 rates "or tu s, equipment and personnel used, rather than b0 arbitration on the basis provided b0 arts. 45 and 4< o" the 7alvage (onvention #$A$ (supra). The SCDF!C Clause, sli htl0 re'orded, is no' an optional clause 'hich ma0 be incorporated b0 the salvor into L6= 2000, (LloydCs 7tandard =orm of 7alvage Agreement), in e""ect September 4, 9:::) (supra), 'hereb0 the salvor ma0 request uaranteed remuneration therea"ter, instead o" a , no c re3no 1ay, ( supra) salvage reward. See Tetle0, Int'l. M A. L., 9::5 at pp. 5<9-5<>. 7.(.5. - Supreme Court $eports. The o""icial bilin ual reports o" the Supreme Court o" Canada published b0 Fublic WorCs and .overnment Services, Dtta'a, DI, Canada, 24A :S;. Web site: http:&&'''.le?um.umontreal.ca&csc-scc&en&inde?.html. An e?ample o" the citation is *4;@:- S.C.$. 495. 7cots law - The uncodi"ied civil law o" Scotland, 'hich has been stron l0 in"luenced b0 En lish common law and United ?ingdom statutes. 7cr tton, T.E. - Scrutton on Charterparties (S.C. Ao0d, A.S. Aurro's, #. +o?ton, eds.) 9: Ed., 4;;3, S'eet 7 %a?'ell, 8ondon. 7.+.5. *+r.: ,,.!.S.& ,roits de tirage spéciau8,- *Span.: ,,erechos especiales de giro,- *!tal.: ,,.S.$.7 diritti speciali di prelie"o ,- *.r.: ,Sonder(iehungsrechte,- - Special #ra'in $i hts are an international value used to provide a re ular comparative evaluation b0 the !nternational %onetar0 +und o" the currenc0 o" member nations. Balue o" a national currenc0 'ill rise in S.#.$.s as the value o" the national currenc0 rises on the 'orld marCet. S.#.$.s there"ore are a "air evaluation o" the comparison o" national currencies one 'ith another and as such use"ul as a valuation "or limitation in an international convention. !" S.#.$.s adGust to the rise and "all o" the currenc0 o" a sin le nation as compared 'ith other nations, the0 do not adGust to 'orld in"lation and as a result, the limitation o" liabilit0 in S.#.$.s in various conventions has "allen as all currencies have in"lated. !n this respect, S.#.$.s are unsatis"actor0. .old does adGust to 'orld in"lation over ver0 lon periods o" time, but in the short run su""ers violent "luctuations in value. .old has also been controlled in price b0 man0 countries at various times. Aoth S.#.$.s and old su""er "rom the reluctance o" man0 nations to compl0 'ith a marCet evaluation o" their currenc0. The value o" the S.#.$., as established b0 the !%+ 'ith e""ect "rom Eanuar0 4, 9::4, is equal to the marCet value o" "i?ed amounts o" "our currencies, the 1.S. dollar <>c, the euro 9;c, the Eapanese 0en 4>c and the Aritish pound sterlin 44c. (1p to #ecember 54, 4;=:, there 'ere 43 currencies =9

in the basCet). !" an0 o" the component currencies 'eaCen, the assumption is that other component currencies 'ill stren then, thus moderatin "luctuations in the S.#.$.6s value. The criteria selecton o" currencies "or inclusion in the S.#.$. valuation basCet are: 4) the currencies o" those member countries o" the !%+ 'hich are the lar est e?porters o" oods and services (includin e?ports b0 a monetar0 union that includes !%+ members)/ and 9) currencies 'hich are ,"reel0 usable, in acordance 'ith Article QQQ(") o" the !%+6s Articles o" A reement, bein ones 'hich the !%+6s E?ecutive Aoard determines are in "act 'idel0 used to maCe pa0ments "or international transactions and are 'idel0 traded in the principal "orei n e?chan e marCets. The 'ei hts assi ned to the currencies in the S.#.$. basCet continue to be based on the value o" the e?ports o" oods and services and the amount o" reserves denominated in the respective currencies 'hich are held b0 other members o" the !%+. The basCet composition is revie'ed ever0 "ive 0ears to ensure that it re"lects the relative importance o" currencies in the 'orld6s tradin and "inancial s0stems. As at %arch 9::@, the S.#.$. 'as 'orth appro?. \4.@@ Cdn., or appro?. \4.>: 1.S., or appro? ]:.@@ (pound sterlin ), or appro?. [4.4<(e ro) (supra) . 7eaways Website: http:&&'''.nautinst.or &sea'a0s&inde?.htm. Email: sec@nautinst.or . 7ea ,ay!ill - See ,.ills of Lading / 5elated +oc ments, (supra). 7earc' and 5esc e )7A5* (onvention #$9$ - The !nternational Convention on %aritime Search and $escue, adopted b0 the "M6 (supra) on April 9@, 4;@;, 'hich came into "orce Eune 99, 4;=>, as subsequentl0 amended b0 a revised technical anne? on %a0 4=, 4;;=, 'hich came into "orce Eanuar0 4, 9::3, and a roup o" amendments relatin to persons in distress at sea, adopted on %a0 9:, 9::<, 'hich came into "orce on Eul0 4, 9::3. 7earc' 6rder - See ,Anton <iller 6rder,, (supra). 7eawort'iness *+r.: ,na"igabilité,- *Span.: ,na"egabilidad,- *!tal.: ,na"igabilit?,- *.r.: ,SeetQchtig0eit,- - A basic theme in maritime la', re"errin to the obli ation o" shipo'ners and carriers (supra) to provide a vessel and cre' "it to con"ront the perils o" the sea. !n the carria e o" oods b0 sea, under art. 5(4) o" the 2ag e and 2ag e34is!y 5 les (supra), the carrier must e?ercise ,due dili ence, be"ore and at the be innin o" the vo0a e , (a) to maCe the ship sea'orth0/ (b) to properl0 man, equip and suppl0 the ship/ and (c) to maCe the holds, re"ri eratin and cool chambers, and all other parts o" the ship in 'hich oods are carried, "it and sa"e "or their reception, carria e and preservation,. Althou h less demandin than the absolute dut0 o" sea'orthiness o" the "ormer common law, 'hich applied at all times and at all sta es o" the vo0a e, the due dili ence obli ation has been held to be an overridin obli ation on the carrier (see Ma8ine 9ootwear Co.7 Ltd. ". Canadian -o"ernment Merchant Marine *4;>;- A.C. >=; at pp. 3:9-3:5 (F.C.)). The carrier has the obli ation o" provin that due dili ence has been e?ercised. The e?ercise o" due dili ence is onl0 material i" lacC o" sea'orthiness 'as the pro?imate cause o" the loss or dama e to the oods carried (see 1isener( -.m.b.=. ". 9ederal Commerce 6a"igation Co. F!he #a0 =illA *4;@<S.C.$. 499>, *4;@>- 4 8lo0d6s $ep. 4:> (Supr. Ct. o" Can.)). %oreover, the due dili ence obli ation ma0 not be dele ated (see Ri"erstone Meat Co. $ty. Ltd. ". Lancashire Shipping Co. F!he Muncaster CastleA *4;34- A.C. =:@, *4;34- 4 8lo0d6s $ep. >@, 4;34 A%C 45>@ (H.8.)). Where the contractors act care"ull0 and competentl0, ho'ever, the carrier has been held to have "ul"illed its obli ation o" due dili ence (see Mnion of India ". 6.*. Reederi> Amsterdam F!he AmstelslotA *4;359 8lo0d6s $ep. 995 (H.8.)). 1nder the 2am! rg 5 les (supra), art. >(4), the due dili ence obli ation is not mentioned e?pressl0, nor is sea'orthiness. Ievertheless, the obli ation o" the carrier under that provision to prove that he, his servants and his a ents tooC all measures 'hich could reasonabl0 be required to avoid the occurrence and its consequences, 'ould seem to impose a due dili ence obli ation at all times and all sta es o" the vo0a e. See Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at pp. 53;-5;3/ Tetle0, !nt6l. %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at pp. >9->5.

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Sea'orthiness is also a requirement o" c'arter1arties, and is also "ound in public la', in le islation overnin seamen6s emplo0ment contracts and steamship inspection (e. . Canada Shipping Act7 <TT3, S.C. 9::4, c. 93, sects. =>(4) and (9) and 999(4)). !t also is "ound in marine ins rance (e. . the 1.2.6s Marine "ns rance Act, #$0%, @ Ed'. B!!, c. <4, sect. 5;/ see te?t in Tetle0, !nt6l %. 7 A. 8., 9::5, Appendi? ,D, at pp. =9>-=>;). See also Canada6s Marine "ns rance Act, S.C. 4;;5, c. 94, sect. 5@), as 'ell as in general average (supra). See Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. 439-435 (charterparties), >;;-3:4 (marine insurance), >9->5 ( eneral avera e). 7enate (6G7A C$$ - A bill to repeal and replace 1.S.(6G7A, 4;53 (supra), introduced (in a si?th dra"t) in the 1.S. Senate on September 9<, 4;;;, but not 0et adopted. +or the te?t, see here. See also Tetle0, ,$e"orm o" Carria e o" .oods - The 1IC!T$A8 #ra"t and Senate CD.SA 6;;, (9::5) 9= Tul. %ar. 8.E. 4-<<, also available: $e"orm o" Carria e o" .oods -- The 1IC!T$A8 #ra"t and Senate CD.SA 6;; *.pd"-. See also "urther comments b0 Tetle0 at here and b0 the (anadian Maritime Law Association here. 7Gria >, Alain - La faute du transporteur, 9 Ed., 4;;=, Economica, Faris. 7'i1arrested.com A 'ebsite providin in"ormation on the arrest o" ships in man0 di""erent j risdictions around the 'orld. Website: http:&&'''.shiparrested.com& Email: in"o@shiparrested.com/ 7'i1 mortgage *+r.: ,hypoth+:ue maritime,- *Span.: ,hipoteca marBtima,- *!tal.: ,ipoteca na"ale,*.r.: ,Schiffshypothe0,- - Securit0 on a ship and its appurtenances b0 the shipo'ner as securit0 "or a loan. !t is derived "rom the En lish common law chattel mort a e and is similar to the ,hypoth+:ue maritime, o" the civil law. Ship mort a es in common law Gurisdictions ma0 be either le al or equitable mort a es. See Chap. 4< in Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. <@5->59/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5, Chap. 49, at pp. <3;->4<.. 7'i11ed !ill of lading - See ,.ills of Lading / 5elated +oc ments, (supra). 7'i11er - The part0 'ho contracts 'ith a carrier (supra) "or the carria e o" oods. See Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at pp. 4@@-945. -7'i11erCs weig't, load and co nt- - Words 'hich ma0 be inserted in a !ill of lading (supra) b0 a carrier (supra), under sect. 94 o" the <omerene Act o" 4;43 (supra) (<; 1.S. Code App?. sect. 4:4, recodi"ied in 4;;< as <; 1.S. Code sect. =:445(b), (c) and (d)) to indicate that the oods 'ere loaded b0 the s'i11er (supra) and that the description o" them in the bill o" ladin 'as also made b0 him. !" such statement is true, the carrier is not liable "or loss or dama es resultin "rom improper loadin , non-receipt or misdescription o" the oods described in the bill. The 'ords are treated as null and void, ho'ever, i" the carrier in "act loaded the oods, or i" he 'as requested b0 the shipper in 'ritin and a""orded a reasonable opportunit0 to 'ei h the bulC freig't (supra) at 'ei hin "acilities maintained b0 the shipper. See Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at pp. 9=>-9=3, <;=, 3<<, 3>:. 7'i11ing (onferences - Barious shipo'ners 'ho operate liner, rather than tramp, services have "ormed associations in various trades, and various areas o" the 'orld. These associations, or con"erences, "i? freig't (supra) rates to prevent un"air price cuttin and to ensure reasonable pro"its. Some nations consider such con"erences and their price "i?in to be monopolistic and un"air as 'ell as bein oppressive, because the con"erence presumabl0 restricts the development o" "leets o" emer in nations. +or this reason, the Convention on a Code o" Conduct "or 8iner Con"erences 'as adopted b0 U&(TA+ in 4;@<. Dther nations "eel that ocean carria e is alread0 so competitive and risC0 that some international rules and rate "i?in is needed to prevent un"air undercuttin and other improper practices.

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7'i11ing =ederation of (anada3=GdGration http:&&'''.ship"ed.ca&. Email: in"o@ship"ed.ca.

maritime

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(anada

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Website:

7'i11ing Law Unit - A specialiHed institute 'ithin the 1niversit0 o" Cape To'n, South A"rica, providin teachin and research "acilities in re ard to private maritime la'. Website: http:&&'''.uctshipla'.com&shippin .htm. See also "nstit te of Marine and Environmental Law , and ,University of (a1e Town,. 7'i1Cs delivery order - See ,.ills of Lading / 5elated +oc ments, (supra). 7'i1sC .allast ,ater and 7ediments (onvention 2004 - The !nternational Convention "or the Control and %ana ement o" Ships6 Aallast Water and Sediments, adopted b0 the "M6 (supra) on +ebruar0 45, 9::<, not 0et in "orce. 7'ort form !ill of lading - See ,.ills of Lading / 5elated +oc ments, (supra). 7isterBs'i1 arrest *+r.: ,saisie conser"atoire de na"ires apparentés Fna"ires >umeau8A ,- *Span.: ,detenci@n Finmo"ili(aci@nA de bu:ues hermanos,- *!tal.: ,se:uestro di na"e sorella appartenente allo stesso armatore,- *.r.: ,1rsat(beschlagnahme,- - A procedure 'hereb0 a ship, 'hich is not the ship to 'hich the claim relates, but 'hich is bene"iciall0 o'ned (or, in the 1.2., the shares o" 'hich are bene"iciall0 o'ned) at the time the action in rem is brou ht b0 the part0 'ho 'as personall0 liable on the claim 'hen it arose, ma0 be arrested in an action in rem as securit0 "or the claim. See the 1.2.6s Supreme Court Act 4;=4 (1.2. 4;=4 c. ><) sect. 94(<)(b)(ii)/ Canada6s +ederal Court Act ($.S.C. 4;=> c. +-@) sect. <5(=). South A"rica6s Admiralt0 Eurisdiction $e ulation Act 4;=5 (Io. 4:> o" 4;=5), sect. 5(3) and (;), providin "or the arrest o" ,associated ships, provides a particularl0 liberal "orm o" sister-ship arrest. Sister-ship arrest is reall0 a "orm o" attac'ment (supra), and there"ore is not needed in the 1.S. or civil law countries, 'here the attac'ment and saisie conservatoire (supra) e?ist. See also the !nternational Convention "or the 1ni"ication o" Certain $ules $elatin to the Arrest o" Sea oin Ships, adopted at Arussels %a0 4:, 4;>9 (the Arrest (onvention #$82, supra) art. 5 (4) and (<). See Chap. 9@ in Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. 4:9;-4:<3/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. <4;, <94. The principle o" sister-ship arrest 'as enunciated in order to counter 'hat are deemed as evasions o" responsibilit0 b0 shipo'ners and mana ers 'ho operate lar e "leets in one-ship companies. These evasions are o"ten seen to be ma ni"ied b0 the use o" "la s o" convenience. ,Fiercin , and ,li"tin , the cor1orate veil (supra) has been permitted more and more b0 le islation and even b0 the courts a"ter the principle 'as re"used 'ith authorit0 b0 the House o" 8ords in Salomon v. Salomon *4=;@- A.C. 99. See Tetle0, Int'l C. of L., 4;;< at pp. <4, 4>; and 94;-99<. Dn the other hand, liens a ainst one particular ship should not be trans"erable as liens per se a ainst another ship, ranCin ahead o" creditors o" the second ship. See in eneral, Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;=, Chap. 9@, and in particular pp. 4:5:-4:<3, 44@4 and 44=5. The Arrest (onvention #$$$, supra, at art. 5(9) permits arrest o" ships under common le al (i.e. re istered) o'nership, but not common bene"icial o'nership. See in eneral Tetle0, ,Arrest, Attachment, and $elated %aritime 8a' Frocedures, (4;;;) @5 Tul. 8. $ev. 4=;> at pp. 4;44-4;49, 4;9<-4;9>, 4;5>, 4;<5 and 4;3;/ also available on-line at: http:&&'''.mc ill.ca&maritimela'&maritime-admiralt0&arrest&. 7.M.A. - The Societ0 o" %aritime Arbitrators, Ie' PorC. Email: in"o@sman0.or / 'ebsite: http:&&'''.sman0.or &. See %.%. Cohen, ,Current 8a' and Fractice o" %aritime Arbitration in Ie' PorC,, #%+ 4;;3.>=;, 'ith +rench translation, #%+ 4;;3.3:>. 7ociGtG de dGvelo11ement d 7aintBLa rent laurent.or &inde?Zen.htm. Email: sodes@st-laurent.or . )76+E7* Website: http:&&'''.st-

7o'n, L. .. / G stafson, ?. - The 8a' o" the Sea in a Iutshell, 4;=<, West, St. Faul, %inn.

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76LA7 - See 7afety of Life at 7ea )76LA7* (onvention #$94 (supra). 7o t'am1ton - See ,"nstit te of Maritime Law,. 71ecial com1ensation *+r.: ,indemnité spéciale,- *Span.: ,compensaci@n especial,- *!tal.: ,indennit? FcompensoA speciale,- *.r.: ,.esondere Aufwandsentsch)digung,- - Compensation pa0able under art. 4< o" the !nternational Convention on Salva e, 4;=;, adopted at 8ondon, April 9=, 4;=; (the 7alvage (onvention #$A$ (supra), in respect o" salva e operations carried out in respect o" a vessel 'hich b0 itsel" or its car o threatened dama e to the environment. This special compensation covers the salvor6s e?penses, de"ined at art. 4<(5) as ,the out-o"-pocCet e?penses reasonabl0 incurred b0 the salvor in the salva e operation and a "air rate "or equipment and personnel actuall0 and reasonabl0 used in the salva e operation, taCin into consideration the criteria set out in article 45, para raph 4(h), (i) and (G)., Special compensation is onl0 pa0able i" the salvor "ailed to earn a salvage reward under art. 45 o" the Convention at least equivalent to special compensation as de"ined (art. 4<(4)). !t is pa0able, ho'ever, re ardless o" 'hether or not the salvor succeeded in salvin an0 o" the ship or car o. Where the salvor6s e?ertions to prevent or minimise dama e to the environment 'ere success"ul, the amount o" the special compensation ma0 be increased b0 up to 5:c o" his e?penses, 'ith the tribunal also havin the ri ht to rant an increase up to 4::c 'here it deems it "air and Gust to do so, bearin in mind the relevant criteria in art. 45(4) (art. 4<(9). The total special compensation is paid onl0 to the e?tent that it e?ceeds a salvage reward pa0able under art. 45 (art. 4<(<)). See Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. 5<4-5<9. 71ecial +rawing 5ig'ts - see 7.+.5., supra. 71ecial legislative rig'ts - $i hts 'hich overnments in most countries o" the 'orld have iven themselves b0 national le islation to detain, seiHe and sell ships, and (o"ten) to be pre"erred to other creditors on the proceeds o" sale, in respect o" claims "or harbour, docC and canal dues/ 'recC removal/ or pollution. Special le islative ri hts also increasin l0 include a overnmental po'er o" "or"eiture o" ships and&or other propert0 "or o""ences a ainst national le islation on matters such as dru tra""icCin , "isheries control, customs, immi ration, the arms trade and pirac0. See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. 3>-@4/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. <@>-<@=. 7@ i!!, G.+. - ,octors' Commons, 4;@@, Clarendon Fress, D?"ord. 7tandards of Training, (ertification and ,atc':ee1ing for 7eafarers )7T(,* (onvention #$9A - The !nternational Convention on Standards o" Trainin , Certi"ication and WatchCeepin "or Sea"arers, adopted b0 the "M6 (supra) on Eul0 @, 4;@=, 'hich came into "orce on April 9=, 4;=<, as amended. -stare decisis- - (,to stand b0 decisions,), re"errin to the common law principle 'hich obli es an in"erior court to "ollo' the clear "indin s in la' o" a superior court o" the same j risdiction. Supreme courts and in"erior courts ma0 also hold themselves bound b0 their o'n decisions. Iota bene: ,Stare decisis, is an abbreviation o" the "ull 8atin ma?im, ,stare decisis et non :uieta mo"ere,, meanin ,stand b0 decisions and do not disturb the calm,. See !elstra Corp. Ltd. v. !reloar (9:::) 4:9 +C$ >;> at p. 3:> (+ed. Ct. Aust.). 7tat tory law - The la' "ound in le islation other than civil codes. Statutor0 la' is basic to both the civil law (supra) and the common law (supra). !n common law Gurisdictions, most rules are "ound in the Gurisprudence and statutes complete them. !n civil law Gurisdictions, the important principles are stated in codes, 'hile statutes complete them. See Tetle0, , %i?ed Eurisdictions: Common 8a' vs. Civil 8a' (Codi"ied and 1ncodi"ied) - Fart !, 4;;;-< 1ni"orm 8a' $evie' >;434; at p. >;@.

=3

7tat tory rig't in rem - !n the 1.2. and Aritish Common'ealth countries, a ri ht to arrest a ship in an action in rem as securit0 "or a maritime claim, usuall0 in respect o" a contract "or necessaries (supra) provided to the vessel (e. . repairs, to'a e, bunCers, stevedorin ). 1nliCe a maritime lien (supra), a statutor0 ri ht in rem arises onl0 'hen the 'rit in rem is issued (as in the 1.2.) or 'hen the ship is arrested (as in Canada), rather than 'hen the claim arises, and is e?pun ed b0 the conventional sale o" the ship. !t ranCs a"ter maritime liens and is sometimes re"erred to as a ,statutor0 lien,. See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. >>>, >@@/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. 4=;-4;:, <;4. 7tay - A procedure 'hereb0 a court does not dismiss an action or dismisses it conditionall0 on rounds o" for m non conveniens (supra). See Arctic 18plorer, >;: +. Supp. 45<3 at p. 4534, 4;=< A%C 9<45 at p. 9<5< (S.#. Te?. 4;=<)/ but retains j risdiction (supra)and calls on the plainti"" to taCe suit in the more convenient "orum. The conditions are usuall0 that the de"endant a ree to appear in the "orei n court 'ithin a certain dela0, accept j risdiction there and a ree to an0 "inal Gud ment. See Tetle0, !nt6l C. o" 8., 4;;< at pp. >9;, =:9-=:5 and =4;/ Tetle0, !nt6l. %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at pp. 549-545. 7tem - See 7 !ject stem (infra). 7tory, Dose1' - Commentaries on the Conflict of laws7 foreign and domestic, 4 Ed., 4=5<, Hilliard, .ra0 7 Co., Aoston. 7traig't !ill of lading - See ,.ills of Lading / 5elated +oc ments, (supra). 7trat'y, George 5. - !he Law and $ractice of Marine Insurance in Canada, 9::5, 8e?is Ie?is Autter'orths, %arCham, Dntario. 7trict lia!ility - 8iabilit0 'ithout re ard to mens rea (the uilt0 mind) or scienter (Cno'led e). +or e?ample, strict liabilit0 ma0 result in dama es bein a'arded in the 1nited States in marine pollution cases. 7t rley, Mic'ael =. - Legislati"e =istory of the Carriage of -oods by Sea Act, in three volumes, 4;;:, $othman, 8ittleton, Colorado. -7 a s1onte- - A 8atin term meanin ,o" one6s o'n accord,. The term is "requentl0 used to re"er to the ri ht o" a court to consider a le al issue ,o" its o'n motion,, even i" none o" the parties have raised or addressed the issue in their 'ritten or oral pleadin s. See, "or e?ample, M.S. 18press Lines7 Ltd. v. =iggins 9=4 +.5d 5=5 at pp. 5==-5=;, 9::9 A%C =95 at p. =9@ (5 Cir. 9::9), re"errin to ,... the dut0 o" "ederal courts to e?amine their subGect matter j risdiction at all sta es o" the liti ation sua sponte i" the parties "ail to raise the issue., 7 !ject stem - !n "i?in a voyage c'arter1arty (supra), ,subGect stem, (or ,sub. stem,) means that the charter is conditional upon the charterer obtainin car o "or the a reed loadin period. ,Stem, is an abbreviation o" ,subGect to enou h merchandise,. Aoth the charterer and the shipo'ner are relieved o" their obli ations i" the car o cannot be obtained. See 2o0usai 2isen 2abushi0i ". Dohnson (4;94) = 8l. 8. $ep. <5<. See also E. CooCe, E.#. 2imball, T. Poun , #. %arto'sCi, A. Ta0lor, 7 8. 8ambert, *oyage Charters, 9 Ed., 88F, 8ondon, 9::4 at para. 4.95/ F. Arodie, ,ictionary of Shipping !erms, < Ed., 88F, 8ondon, 9::5 at p. 995. 7 !rogation - A le al "iction 'hereb0 a creditor (the ,subro or,) is deemed to have assi ned his ri hts and claims a ainst his debtor to a third person (the ,subro ee,) 'hen he receives pa0ment o" the debt in question "rom that third person. The civil law distin uishes ,le al subro ation, (occurrin b0 the sole operation o" the la' upon pa0ment b0 the third person) "rom ,conventional subro ation, (occurrin b0 the e?press assignment (supra) o" the creditor6s ri hts at the time he =@

receives pa0ment "rom the third person). At common law, subro ation ma0 be le al, contractual or b0 Gudicial consent. Subro ation to maritime liens is e?pressl0 permitted b0 the %aritime 8iens and %ort a es Conventions #$%9 (supra) (art. ;) and #$$E (supra) (art. 4:). (See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;=, at pp. 4944-49<:/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. 34>-343). -7 e and la!o r- cla se - A clause in a marine ins rance polic0 'hich permits the assured to recover "rom the insurer an0 e?penses incurred b0 the assured in order to minimiHe or avert a loss to the insured propert0, "or 'hich loss the insurer 'ould have been liable under the polic0. See E.$. Hard0 "vamy, Marine Insurance, < Ed., Autter'orths, 8ondon, 4;=> (supra) at pp. <<9-<>9/ 8.E. . glass (supra), Marine Insurance and -eneral A"erage in the Mnited States, 5 Ed., 4;;4 at pp. 5><-539/ 1.2. Marine "ns rance Act, #$0%, 1.2. 3 Ed'. @, c. <4, sect. @=. See Tetle0, !nt6l. %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at pp. 34<-34>. 7 mmers:ill, Mic'ael .. - Laytime, < Ed., 4;=;, Stevens 7 Sons, 8td., 8ondon. 7 1erseding cla se (a.C.a. supersession clause, in the 1.2.) - A clause in a !ill of lading (supra) providin that the bill o" ladin itsel" supersedes all a reements or freig't (supra) en a ements "or the shipment o" the oods, and also that all the terms o" the bill o" ladin , 'hether 'ritten, t0ped, stamped or printed, are bindin on the s'i11er (supraA, consignee (supra), o'ner o" the oods and holder o" the bill, as i" the bill 'ere si ned b0 them, an0 local customs or privile es to the contrar0 not'ithstandin (see Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at pp. ==-;=). Supersedin clauses in contracts enerall0 the 1.S. are also sometimes called ,inte ration clauses, or ,mer er clauses,. 7 11lemental 5 les - The Supplemental $ules "or Certain Admiralt0 and %aritime Claims, adopted in 4;33 as part o" the +ederal $ules o" Civil Frocedure in the 1nited States. The Supplemental $ules are lettered rules (e. . 5 le . re maritime attac'ment (supra) and 5 le ( re ship arrest (supra)). See te?t in +ederal $ules o" Civil Frocedure, $ules 3: - End, 1nited States Code Service (4;=@). See Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at pp. <9;-<54. 7 11ression of Unlawf l Acts )7UA* (onvention #$AA - The Convention "or the Suppression o" 1nla'"ul Acts a ainst the Sa"et0 o" %aritime Iavi ation, adopted b0 the "M6 (supra) on %arch 4:, 4;==, 'hich came into "orce %arch 4, 4;;9. The S1A Convention 4;== 'as amended b0 a Frotocol adopted at 8ondon, on Dctober 4<, 9::>, 'hich is not 0et in "orce. The S1A Convention 4;==, arts. 4 to 43, as revised b0 the 9::> Frotocol, to ether 'ith arts. 4@ to 9< o" the Frotocol and its Anne?, constitute the ,Convention "or the Suppression o" 1nla'"ul Acts a ainst the Sa"et0 o" %aritime Iavi ation, 9::> (9::> S1A Convention). 7wedis' Maritime (ode #$$4 - !t is the S'edish rati"ication o" the Iordic %aritime Code (in "orce Dct. 4, 4;;<) enacted b0 #enmarC, +inland, Ior'a0 and S'eden. !t is published in S'edish 'ith translation in En lish b0 Eurist"drla et StocCholm 4;;>. (See Ti!erg, *4;;>- 8%C8J >9@.) See also the 9 Ed., updated to Eune 5:, 9:::, published b0 Eure AA, StocCholm, 9::4.

T
T.7.7. - See Traffic 7e1aration 7c'eme, infra. Tacit acce1tance 1roced re - A procedure "or amendin limits o" liabilit0 under various maritime la' conventions and protocols dra"ted b0 the "nternational Maritime 6rganiJation )"M6*, (supra), 'ithout the need to convoCe a diplomatic con"erence to adopt the amendment b0 protocol. A0 virtue o" this more e?peditious procedure, an0 proposal to amend liabilit0 limits under a iven convention or protocol, at the request o" at least one-quarter o" the Contractin States to the convention or protocol concerned, is "irst circulated b0 the Secretar0 .eneral o" the "M6 to all such States. An0 amendment so proposed and circulated is then submitted to the 8e al Committee o" the "M6 "or consideration at least si? months a"ter the date o" its circulation. All Contractin States to ==

the convention or protocol concerned are entitled to participate in the consideration o" the proposed amendment at the 8e al Committee, even i" the0 are not %ember States o" the "M6. Amendments ma0 then be adopted b0 a t'o-thirds maGorit0 o" the Contractin States present and votin in the 8e al Committee, includin those Contractin States not belon in to the "M6, provided that at least one-hal" o" all the Contractin States are present at the time o" votin . The amendment is then noti"ied b0 the "M6 to all Contractin States and is deemed to have been accepted ei hteen (4=) months a"ter the date o" such noti"ication, unless 'ithin that period not less than one-quarter o" the States that 'ere Contractin States at the time o" the adoption o" the amendment b0 the 8e al Committee have communicated to the "M6 that the0 do not accept the amendment. !n that case, the amendment is reGected and 'ithout e""ect. An amendment 'hich is deemed to have been accepted, ho'ever, enters into "orce ei hteen (4=) months a"ter its acceptance. All Contractin States o" the convention or protocol concerned are then bound b0 the amendment unless the0 denounce the convention or protocol at least si? months be"ore the amendment enters into "orce. States 'hich become Contractin States o" the convention or protocol concerned durin the ei hteen- month period "ollo'in the adoption o" the amendment b0 the 8e al Committee o" the "M6 are then bound b0 the amendment i" it enters into "orce. States that become Contractin States to the convention or protocol concerned more than 4= months a"ter its adoption b0 the 8e al Committee o" the "M6 are bound b0 the amendment that has been accepted. The tacit amendment procedure also o"ten provides "or certain restrictions on the "requenc0 'ith 'hich amendments to liabilit0 limits ma0 be proposed (e. . not less than "ive 0ears a"ter the entr0 into "orce o" a previous amendment) and "or certain restrictions on the percenta e increases in such limits. This ,tacit acceptance procedure, is a "eature o" the (L( (onvention #$$2 (supra) (art. 4>), the = nd (onvention #$$2 (supra) (art. 55), the 2aJardo s and &o>io s 7 !stances (onvention #$$% (supra) (art. <=), as 'ell as o" the Frotocol o" 4;;: to the At'ens <assenger (onvention #$94 (supra) (art. B!!!), the Frotocol o" 9::9 to the At'ens <assenger (onvention #$94 (supra) (art. 95) and the Frotocol o" 9::5 to the = nd (onvention #$$2 establishin the "nternational 7 11lementary = nd for (om1ensation for 6il <oll tion +amage (supra). Terminal 61erators (onvention #$$# - The 1nited Iations Convention on the 8iabilit0 o" Dperators o" Transport Terminals in !nternational Trade, adopted at Bienna, April 4;, 4;;4, not 0et in "orce. T.E.U. (,1.*.$. & é:ui"alent "ingt pieds ,) - T'ent0-"oot Equivalent 1nit. The basic "ort0-"oot container is 9 T.E.1. Tetley - International Conflict of Laws & Common7 Ci"il and Maritime, 4;;<, Alais, %ontreal. Cited: Tetle0, Int'l. C. of L., 4;;<. Tetley - Marine Cargo Claims, 5 Ed., 4;==, Alais, %ontreal. Cited: Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;==. See also Marine Cargo Claims7 V 1d.7 <TTE in preparation. Tetley - Maritime Liens and Claims7 < 1d.7 344E7 .lais7 Montreal. Cited% !etley7 %.8.C., 9 Ed., 4;;=. Tetley - International Maritime Law, bein a eneral te?t on international maritime la', prepared "or the ,!nternational Enc0clopedia o" Comparative 8a', o" the %a? FlancC !nstitute, Hambur , .erman0, 9::4. Tetley - International Maritime and Admiralty Law, 9::5, Alais, %ontreal. Cited: Tetle0, !nt6l. %. 7 A. 8., 9::5. Tetley, International Maritime and Admiralty Law (Chinese version), 9::>, 8a' Fress, AeiGin . Tetley, International Conflict of Laws (Chinese version), 9::5, 8a' Fress, AeiGin . =;

T'omas, +. 5'idian - !he Modern Law of Marine Insurance, vol. 4, 4;;3 and vol. 9, 9::9, 88F 8imited, 8ondon. See also Do rnal of "nternational Maritime Law (supra). Thomas, #. $hidian - Marine Insurance & !he Law in !ransition, 9::3, 88F 8imited, 8ondon. T'ird 1arty !enefit - See 2imalaya cla se (supra). T'ro g' !ill of lading - See ,.ills of Lading / 5elated +oc ments, (supra). T'ro g' carriage - Throu h carria e is the transport o" oods b0 t'o or more carriers (supra) usuall0 o" the same t0pe (i.e. either land, or sea or air). Ti!erg, 2 go - !he Law of ,emurrage, < Ed., 4;;>, S'eet 7 %a?'ell, 8ondon. Tiber , Hu o - 1ssays in =onour of =ugo !iberg (Feter Wetterstein 7 Anders AeiGer, eds.), 4;;3, Eurist"drla et, StocCholm. Time c'arter1arty - See c'arter1arty (supra). Todd, <a l - Maritime 9raud, 9::5, 88F, 8ondon. To:yo M6U - ToC0o %emorandum o" 1nderstandin . See <ort 7tate (ontrol. To:yo 5 les - The (M"Cs proposed multimodal convention, adopted at ToC0o, 4;3; (not in "orce). Tonnage contract *+r: ,contrat de tonnage,- - A contract "or the carria e o" a certain quantit0 o" oods, usuall0 measured in tons, durin a period o" time, b0 ships or other means, ususall0 to be desi nated later. The contract o"ten be ins inland and is multimodal in nature. The tonna e contract there"ore constitutes a promise to conclude a number o" contracts, either o" carria e or charterpart0, "or the transportation o" the oods to be shipped. Another term "or tonna e contract is ,volume contract,. !n En lish-speaCin countries, the tona e contract is sometimes re"erred to as a ,contract o" a""rei htment, (CDA). See also s1ace c'arter, supra. Tonnage for 1 r1oses of s'i1ownersC limitation of lia!ility- See ,Tons / Tonnage, (infra). Tonnage Meas rement of 7'i1s (onvention #$%$ - See ,Tons / Tonnage, (infra). Tons - See ,Tons / Tonnage, (infra). Tons / Tonnage #* Tons *+r.: ,tonnes,- *Span.: ,toneladas,- *!tal.: ,tonnellate,- *.r.: ,!onnen,-: Short ton 8on ton %etric ton (4::: C .) 99:<.3 lbs. (American) (En lish) 9::: 99<: lbs. lbs.

2* Gross tonnage *+r.: ,tonnage brut,- *Span.: ,tonela>e bruto,- *!tal.: ,sta((a lorda,- *.r.: ,.ruttotonnengehalt,- is the actual carr0in capacit0 o" the ship6s hull belo' the upper decC, in cubic "eet, divided b0 4::. E* Gross register tonnage )g.r.t.* *+r.: ,>auge brute,- *Span.: ,tonela>e FtoneladasA de registro bruto,- *!tal.: ,sta((a lorda registrata,- *.r.: ,.ruttoregistertonnengehalt,- - The volumetric car o capacit0 o" the ship accordin to its certi"icate o" re istr0.

;:

4* &et tonnage *+r.: ,tonnage net, or ,>auge nette,- *Span.: ,tonela>e neto,- *!tal.: ,sta((a neta,*.r.: ,6ettotonnengehalt,- is ross tonna e less the number o" cubic "eet reserved "or cre'6s quarters, ships stores, bunCers, en ine room space, etc. 8* +eadweig't cargo ca1acity *+r.: ,port en lourd utile, or ,portée en lourd utile,- *Span.: ,capacidad de carga de peso muerto,- *!tal.: ,portata lorda utile,- *.r.: ,Ladef)hig0et eines Schiffes F6ettoladef)hig0eitA,- - !n a voyage c'arter1arty (supra), the vessel6s dead'ei ht tonna e, "rom 'hich bunCers, "resh 'ater and ,constant, (e. . alle0 supplies, paint, lubricatin , oil, etc.) are deducted, to determine the ship6s actual car o carr0in capacit0. %* +eadweig't tonnage *+r.: ,portée en lourd, or ,port en lourd,- *Span.: ,tonela>e de peso muerto,- *!tal.: ,portata lorda,- *.r.: ,Ladef)hig0eit eines Schiffes F.ruttoladef)hig0eitA,- is the actual car o carr0in capacit0 o" the ship, 'hen she is "ull0 loaded 'ith car o so that the hull is immersed in 'ater up to her <limsoll mar:s (supra). 9* +is1lacement tonnage is a term usuall0 used in 'arships to measure the 'ei ht o" the 'ater displaced b0 the ship 'hen she is "ull0 loaded 'ith all her cre', bunCers, stores and equipment and armament on board. A* 5egister tonnage *+r.: ,>auge au registre,- *Span.: ,tonela>e de registro,- *!tal.: ,sta((a registrata,- *.r.:,Registertonnengehalt,- is the ross tonna e and&or the net tonna e, as entered on a ship6s certi"icate o" re istr0. A re ister ton is 4:: cu. "t. $* Tonnage for 1 r1oses of s'i1ownersC limitation of lia!ility - 1nder the Limitation (onvention #$9% (supra), art. 3(>), tonna e "or purposes o" limitation o" liabilit0 "or maritime claims is the tonna e as measured in accordance 'ith the tonna e measurement rules o" the !nternational Convention on the Tonna e %easurement o" Ships, adopted b0 "M6 on Eune 95, 4;3;, 'hich came into "orce on Eul0 4=, 4;=9. See also Canada6s Marine Lia!ility Act, S.C. 9::4 c. 3, sects. 9=(9) and 5:(9), providin a similar rule on tonna e measurement in respect o" the limitation o" liabilit0 o" ships havin a ross tonna e o" less than under 5:: tons, as 'ell as "or the limitation o" liabilit0 o" o'ners o" docCs, canals and ports. See also the Merchant Shipping Act 344;, 1.2. 4;;> c. 94, sect. 4=> and Schedule @, Fart !!, para. >(9) and (5). Total loss *+r.: ,perte totale,- *Span.: ,pérdida total,- *!tal.: ,perdita totale,- *.r.: ,!otalschaden,- ,an actual total loss o" the vessel or such dama e to the vessel that the cost o" savin and repairin her 'ould e?ceed her marCet value at the time o" the collision., (Lis!on 5 les #$A9, supra). T64AL6< - TanCer D'ners6 Boluntar0 A reement concernin 8iabilit0 "or Dil Follution. An a reement subscribed b0 most o" the 'orld6s tanCer operators 'hereb0 the D'ners a ree to reimburse .overnments "or oil pollution clean-up costs. Each member insures his potential liabilit0 under the a reement. This a reement 'as in e""ect until +ebruar0 9:. 4;;@ but 'as not rene'ed a"ter that date.(see also re"erence to (5"7TAL, supra). Towage *+r.: ,remor:uage,- *Span.: ,remol:ue,- *!tal.: ,rimorchio,- *.r.: ,Schleppen,- is a contract 'hereb0 one ship moves another. To'a e, as opposed to salvage (supra), is a service contract, 'hich does not involve a marine peril, and the consideration is an hourl0 or dail0 rate or a lump sum, rather than a salvage reward (supra) based on the peril, the 'orC accomplished and the value o" the obGect salved. There are various standard-"orm to'a e contracts, includin , "or e?ample, the ,!nternational Dcean To'a e A reement (8ump Sum), (Code Iame: ,TDWCDI,) and the ,!nternational Dcean To'a e A reement (#ail0 Hire), (Code Iame: ,TDWH!$E,) o" ."M(6 (supra). See Tetle0, !nt6l %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at p. 4=3. See also dominant mind (supra). Trade,inds - A leadin international shippin ne'spaper, published 'eeCl0 b0 TradeWinds A&S. Web site: http:&&'''.trade'inds.no&. ;4

Traffic 7e1aration 7c'eme )T.7.7.* - A method o" re ulatin the "lo' o" vessel tra""ic movin in di""erent directions. The term is de"ined b0 the "nternational Maritime 6rganiJation )"M6* in its $esolution A&9=< o" Iovember 9:, 4;@5, as ,a scheme 'hich separates tra""ic proceedin in opposite or nearl0 opposite directions, b0 the use o" a separation Hone or line, tra""ic lanes, or b0 other means., Toda0, tra""ic separation schemes are o"ten part o" 4essel Traffic 7ervices )4.T.7.*, infra, in ports or restricted coastal areas. See Tetle0, !nt6l %. 7 A. 8., 9::5 at p. 95@. See also $ussell %acWilliam 7 #arr0l CooCe, ,BTS: li"tin the "o o" le al liabilit0, *9::3- 8%C8J 5395=;. Tra:man, Leon - !he Law Merchant% !he 1"olution of Commercial Law, 4;=5, +red A. $othman, 8ittleton, Colorado. Trinity 2o se - The Corporation o" Trinit0 House, established as a uild o" mariners b0 2in Henr0 B!!! o" En land in 4>4@, in the Farish o" #ept"ord Strond, in the Count0 o" 2ent (no' near the To'er o" 8ondon). The Trinit0 House has been responsible, since the time o" Jueen EliHabeth !, "or the erection and maintenance o" li hthouses, li htships and buo0s in En lish 'aters. !t is also the authorit0 "or the licensin o" pilots. The ,Elder Arethren, o" Trinit0 House (retired sea captains, also Cno'n as ,Trinit0 %asters,) serve as na tical assessors (supra) to the Hi h Court, Admiralt0 #ivision. T lane Admiralty Law "nstit te - c&o Ann Schumacher, 359; +reret Street, Ie' Drleans, 8ouisiana @:44=-3954, 1.S.A. Tel.: (>:<) =3>-5>;@/ "a?: (>:<) =39-=>==. Website: http:&&'''.la'.tulane.edu&cdo&inst&ali&ali.c"m. Email: aschumach@la'.tulane.edu. $obert A. Acomb, Er., Chairman. T l. L.5. - Tulane 8a' $evie'. Fublished si? times annuall0 (Iov., #ec., +eb., %ar., %a0, Eune). Editorial and business o""ices are located in Tulane 8a' School, Eohn .i""en Weinmann Hall, 359; +reret Street, Ie' Drleans, 8ouisiana, @:44=->3@:, 1.S.A. Tel: (>:<)-=3>->;@5/ (>:<)-=3>->;@<. Website: http:&&'''.la'.tulane.edu&tue?p&Gournals&la'rev&revie'.htm. An e?ample o" a citation is *4;@:- Tul. 8.$. 495. Ever0 second 0ear has published the Tulane %aritime 8a' !nstitute S0mposiums bein : The Hull Folic0, 4;3@/ the F. 7 !. Folic0, 4;3;. T lane Maritime Law (enter - Tulane 8a' School (as above)/ #irector Emeritus: Fro". $obert +orce (tel.: (>:<) =3>->;<@)/ "a?: (>:<) =39-==>>/ Email: $+orce@la'.tulane.edu)/ #irector: Fro"essor %artin #avies (tel.: (>:<) =39-==9</ "a?: (>:<) =39-==>>/ Email: %#avies@la'.tulane.edu). Website: http:&&'''.la'.tulane.edu&tue?p&centers&marcenter&de"ault.html. T l. Mar. L.D. - Tulane %aritime 8a' Eournal. See: Mar. Law, supra. Fublished t'ice 0earl0 "rom 4;=@ to the present b0 students o" the Tulane 1niversit0 8a' School. D""ices are located in Tulane 8a' School, Eohn .i""en Weinmann Hall, 359; +reret Street, Ie' Drleans, 8ouisiana, @:44=->3@:, 1.S.A. Tel.: (>:<) =3>->;>;/ "a?: (>:<) =39-==@=. Website: http:&&'''.la'.tulane.edu&tue?p&Gournals&maritime&inde?.c"m. An e?ample o" a citation is *4;;>Tul. %ar. 8.E. 495. Twiss, 7ir Travers - 1&e Blac% Boo% of t&e Admiralty, < vols., 4=@4-4=@3, 8ondon.

U
-2berrimae fidei- - ,utmost ood "aith,, re"errin to the basic principle o" insurance, requirin the assured and his broCer to disclose and trul0 represent ever0 material circumstance to the under'riter be"ore acceptance o" the risC. A breach o" ,utmost ood "aith, entitles the under'riter to avoid the

;9

contract. See the Marine "ns rance Act, #$0% (1.2.) sect. 4@. See Tetle0, Int'l. M. pp. >;>->;=.

A. L., 9::5 at

U(< 800N U(< %00 - See Uniform ( stoms and <ractice for +oc mentary (redits (infra). U.L.(.(. - 1ltra 8ar e Crude Carrier. U&("+ 5 les - The ,1ni"orm $ules o" Conduct "or !nterchan e o" #ata b0 Teletransmission, 4;=@, 'ere adopted b0 the !CC E?ecutive Aoard in Faris, September 99, 4;=@. (See te?t: (4;;9) 43 Tul.%ar.8.E. 5@9.) U&("T5AL - The 1nited Iations Commission on !nternational Trade 8a' 'as established b0 a 1nited Iations .eneral Assembl0 $esolution in 4;33. The aim o" 1IC!T$A8 is to harmoniHe and uni"0 international trade la'. !t 'as instrumental in the preparation o" the 2am! rg 5 les, #$9A (supra), and prepared the United &ations (onvention on t'e Lia!ility of 61erators of Trans1ort Terminals in "nternational Trade, #$$#. !n addition, 1IC!T$A8 has been active in the area o" international commercial arbitration and has prepared the U&("T5AL Model Law on "nternational (ommercial Ar!itration, #$A8 (infra), the U&("T5AL Model Law on "nternational (ommercial (onciliation, 2002 (infra), the U&("T5AL Ar!itration 5 les, the U&("T5AL (onciliation 5 les, and the U&("T5AL &otes on 6rganiJing Ar!itral <roceedings. Website: http:&&'''.uncitral.or &. Email: uncitral@uncitral.or . U&("T5AL +raft "nstr ment on Trans1ort Law - See (M"3U&("T5AL +raft "nstr ment on Trans1ort Law (supra). U&("T5AL Model Law, #$A8 - The ,1nited Iations Commission on !nternational Trade 8a' Model Law on "nternational (ommercial Ar!itration, 'as adopted Eune 94, 4;=>. (Te?t can be "ound in: $eport o" the 1nited Iations Commission on !nternational Trade 8a', 4=th Session, 5-94 Eune 4;=>, Supplement no 4@ (A&<:&4@) o" the D""icial $ecords o" the +ortieth Session o" the .eneral Assembl0, 1nited Iations, Ie' PorC, 4;=>.) U&("T5AL Model law, 2002 - The ,1nited Iations Commission on !nternational Trade 8a' Model Law on "nternational (ommercial (onciliation ,, 'as adopted Eune 9<, 9::9. (Te?t can be "ound in: $eport o" the 1nited Iations Commission on !nternational Trade 8a', published as Anne? ! to the $eport o" the 1nited Iations Commission on !nternational Trade 8a' on its 5>th session, Supplement no 4@ (A&>@&4@) o" the D""icial $ecords o" the +i"t0-Seventh Session o" the .eneral Assembl0, 1nited Iations, Ie' PorC, 9::9). U&(TA+ - The 1nited Iations Con"erence on Trade and #evelopment 'as established on #ecember 5:, 4;3>, b0 a 1nited Iations .eneral Assembl0 resolution as a permanent or an o" the .eneral Assembl0. !t is a ,polic0-maCin , bod0 'ith the purpose o" promotin international trade especiall0 amon st emer in nations. 1ICTA# 'as instrumental in promotin dra"t conventions 'hich 'ere then taCen over b0 U&("T5AL "or le al dra"tin and adoption. An e?ample is the 2am! rg 5 les, 4;@= (supra). 1ICTA# has also dra"ted a number o" maritime transport conventions, includin the Code o" Conduct "or 8iner Con"erences 4;@<, the M ltimodal (onvention #$A0 (supra) and the 1I Convention on the $e istration o" Ships 4;=3. 1ICTA#, 'orCin in conGunction 'ith "M6 (supra), also helped prepare the Maritime Liens and Mortgages (onvention #$$E (supra) and the Arrest (onvention #$$$ (supra). Website: http:&&'''.unctad.or &. Email: in"o@unctad.or . U&E(E - The 1nited Iations Economic Commission "or Europe. Website: http:&&'''.unece.or &. Email: in"o.ece@unece.or .

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U&"+56"T - !nternational !nstitute "or the 1ni"ication o" Frivate 8a' - 1I!#$D!T is an independent inter overnmental or aniHation, based in $ome. !ts purpose is to stud0 needs and methods "or moderniHin , harmoniHin and co-ordinatin private and, in particular, commercial la' as bet'een States and roups o" States. Set up in 4;93 as an au?iliar0 or an o" the 8ea ue o" Iations, the !nstitute 'as, "ollo'in the demise o" the 8ea ue, re-established in 4;<: on the basis o" a multilateral a reement, the 1I!#$D!T Statute. Website: http:&&'''.unidroit.or &. Email: unidroit.rome@unidroit.or . U&"+56"T <rinci1les of "nternational (ommercial (ontracts #$$432004 - A maGor restatement o" "undamental principles applicable to international commercial contracts, prepared b0 a 'orCin roup o" respected specialists in contract la' and international trade la' "rom all the maGor le al traditions, approved b0 the .overnin Council o" U&"+56"T in 4;;<, and then amended in 9::< to include a number o" ne' topics, notabl0 the authorit0 o" a ents, third part0 ri hts, set-o"", assi nment o" ri hts, trans"er o" obli ations and assi nment o" contracts, limitation periods and 'aiver. The ne' edition also has an e?panded Freamble and ne' provisions on ,!nconsistent Aehaviour, and on ,$elease b0 A reement, and has adapted the 4;;< edition to meet the needs o" electronic contractin . The Frinciples constitute a basic "ormulation o" the modern le' mercatoria (supra) in respect o" international commercial contracts, 'hich ma0 be applied i" the parties to such a contract e?pressl0 choose them as the la' overnin their contract or a ree to subGect it to the le' mercatoria. The Frinciples ma0 also be applied 'hen it proves impossible to establish the relevant rule o" the applicable la', 'hen the parties have not chosen an0 la' to overn their contract, to interpret or supplement international uni"orm la' instruments, as 'ell as domestic la', and as a model "or national and international le islation on commercial contracts. +or the En lish version o" the ori inal Frinciples o" 4;;<, see E.%. Ferillo, ,1I!#$D!T Frinciples o" !nternational Commercial Contracts: The AlacC 8etter Te?t and a $evie', (4;;<) 35 +ordham 8. $ev. 9=4. +or the te?t o" the Frinciples 9::<, see 'ebsite: http:&&'''.unidroit.or &en lish&principles&contracts&main.htm. +or commentar0 on the Frinciples 9::<, se %.E. Aonell, ,1I!#$D!T Frinciples 9::< - The Ie' Edition o" the Frinciples o" !nternational Commercial Contracts adopted b0 the !nternational !nstitute "or the 1ni"ication o" Frivate 8a',, 1ni"orm 8a' $evie' 9::<, >-<: and at 'ebsite: linC. Uniform ( stoms and <ractice for +oc mentary (redits - 1ni"orm Customs and Fractice "or #ocumentar0 Credits are rules adopted b0 the "nternational ('am!er of (ommerce )"((* (supra), de"inin the ri hts and duties o" parties to letters o" credit. The 4;;5 $evision came into e""ect on Eanuar0 4, 4;;< and is Cno'n as 1CF >:: (4;;<). See !CC Fublication Io. >:: (4;;<). 1CF >:: has been superseded b0 the 9::@ $evision (1CF 3::), adopted b0 the !CC6s AanCin Commission on Dctober 9>, 9::3, 'hich enters into "orce Eul0 4, 9::@. See !CC Fublication Io. 3:: (9::3). The !CC, in its role at the "ore"ront o" documentin rules "or e?istin or ne' practices, has developed, 'ith e""ect "rom April 4, 9::9, a supplement to the 1CF >:: (e1CF), coverin electronic presentations under letters o" credit (!CC Fublication Io. >::&5). See the !CC 'ebsite: http:&&'''.icc'bo.or &. Uniform 5 les for 7ea ,ay!ills - 1ni"orm rules "or sea way!ills (supra), prepared b0 the (M" and adopted in Faris, Eune 9;, 4;;:. See te?t in (4;;4) 99 E%8C 34@-34;. United ?ingdom )U.?.* : .reat Aritain (i.e. En land, Scotland and Wales) and Iorthern !reland. I.A. 4) The Channel !slands and the !sle o" %an are ,Aritish islands,, but are not included in the term ,1nited 2in dom,, unless other'ise provided b0 a de"inition in a particular statute. 9) Also e?cluded "rom ,the 1.2., are Aritish colonies and Aritish overseas territories. See also , Englis' law, and ,Law of t'e United ?ingdom,, supra. United 7tates Maritime Law Association - See ,Maritime Law Association of t'e United 7tates,.

;<

University of (a1e Town B +acult0 o" 8a'. Website: http:&&'''.uctshipla'.com&. See also ,"nstit te of Marine and Environmental Law, and ,7'i11ing Law Unit,. University (ollege London - See ,London 7'i11ing Law (entre,. U.7. - 1nited States Supreme Court decisions. An e?ample o" a citation is <99 1.S. >;: (4;@>). U.7.=. Mar. L.D. - 1niversit0 o" San +rancisco %aritime 8a' Eournal - Fublished semi-annuall0 since 4;=; b0 student members o" the 1niversit0 o" San +rancisco Admiralt0 and %aritime 8a' Societ0 o" the 1niversit0 o" San +rancisco School o" 8a'. An e?ample o" a citation is = 1.S.+. %ar. 8.E. 9; (4;;>). -Utmost good fait'See ,uberrimae fidei,, supra.

4
4.L.(.(. - Ber0 8ar e Crude Carrier. 4.L.(.<. - Ber0 8ar e Crude Fartner - o" a maritime la' "irm. 4.M.A.A. - The Bancouver %aritime Arbitrators Association. Website: http:&&'''.vmaa.or &/ Email: secretar0@vmaa.or &. 4.T.7. - See 4essel Traffic 7ervices, infra. 4al ed .ill of Lading or Ad 4alorem .ill of Lading - A valued !ill of lading (supra), sometimes called an ad valorem bill o" ladin , is a bill o" ladin 'here the value o" the car o has been declared b0 the carrier (supra) and ,inserted in the bill o" ladin , b0 art. <(>) o" the 2ag e 5 les (supra) or art. <(>)(a) o" the 4is!y 5 les (infra). 4allesc ra 5 le - The rule derived "rom the 1nited States Supreme Court decision in Schnell Co. v. S.S. *allescura, 9;5 1.S. 9;3, 4;5< A%C 4>@5 (4;5<), 'hereb0, 'hen car o loss or dama e is caused b0 t'o separate causes, one "or 'hich the carrier (supra) is e?empted "rom liabilit0 and the other "or 'hich he is not, the carrier has the burden o" establishin 'hat dama e 'as due to the cause "or 'hich he is e?empted, on pain o" bein held responsible "or the entire dama e. The $ule, 'hich is also applied b0 1.2. courts, has been codi"ied in the 2am! rg 5 les (supra) at art. >(@). See Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at pp. 54<-543, 59=-59;, ;43-;4=/ Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5 at p. 4::. 4essel Traffic 7ervices )4.T.7.* - S0stems "acilitatin sa"e and e""icient vessel tra""ic movement to or "rom ports, or 'ithin restricted sea areas adGacent to the coasts o" states, under 'hich ship tra""ic is subGect to the suppl0 or e?chan e o" in"ormation, or the ivin o" advice or instructions, b0 coastal stations. Dn Iovember 9@, 4;;@, the "nternational Maritime 6rganiJation )"M6* adopted $esolution A.=>@(9:), entitled ,.uidelines "or Bessel Tra""ic Services,. That $esolution de"ines a B.T.S. as ,a service implemented b0 a Competent Authorit0, desi ned to improve the sa"et0 and e""icienc0 o" vessel tra""ic and to protect the environment. The service should have the capabilit0 to interact 'ith the tra""ic and to respond to tra""ic situations developin in the B.T.S. area., See enerall0 $ussell %acWilliam 7 #arr0l CooCe, ,BTS: li"tin the "o o" le al liabilit0, *9::3- 8%C8J 539-5=;. B.T.S. s0stems o"ten operate in conGunction 'ith Traffic 7e1aration 7c'emes )T.7.7.*, supra. 4ialard, Antoine - ,roit maritime, Fresses 1niversitaires de +rance, 4;;@.

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4is!y 5 les *+r.: ,R+gles de *isby,- *Span.: ,Reglas de *isby,- *!tal.: ,Regole di *isby,- *.r.: ,*isby&Regeln,- - ,The Frotocol to amend the !nternational Convention "or the 1ni"ication o" Certain $ules o" 8a' $elatin to Aills o" 8adin , si ned at Arussels on 9>th Au ust, 4;9<., These amendments to the 2ag e 5 les (supra), adopted in Arussels on +ebruar0 95, 4;3=, came into "orce on Eune 95, 4;@@, "or ten nations and since then "or man0 more. The Bisb0 $ules 'ere the result o" the (M" Con"erence o" 4;35 in StocCholm, S'eden, 'hich "ormall0 adopted the $ules in the ancient to'n o" Bisb0 a"ter the Con"erence. The 2ag e34is!y 5 les (supra) are the 2ag e 5 les as amended b0 the 4is!y 5 les. (See te?t, Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at pp. 4444-445;). A "urther ,Frotocol to Amend the !nternational Convention "or the 1ni"ication o" Certain $ules o" 8a' $elatin to Aills o" 8adin si ned at Arussels on Au ust 9>, 4;9< as Amended b0 Frotocol o" +ebruar0 95, 4;3=,, 'as adopted on #ecember 94, 4;@; and entered into "orce on +ebruar0 4<, 4;=<. %ost nations 'hich have adopted Bisb0 have adopted this Frotocol, 'hich is called the , 4is!y 7.+.5. <rotocol,. (See te?t, Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;== at pp. 445;-44<5.) 4ol me contract - See tonnage contract, supra. von Me'ren, A.T. - Law and Dustice in a Multistate /orld (Eames A.$. Ia"Hi er 7 S0meon C. S0meonides, eds.), 9::9, Transnational Fublishers !nc., Ardsle0, Ie' PorC. 4o c'ing in - The common-la' procedure (not enerall0 accepted) 'here a third part0 is iven notice o" a suit or ar!itration and is deemed to be bound b0 the "acts or la' arrived at in the ori inal suit or arbitration. Should there be a subsequent suit or arbitration, ho'ever, the vouchee is not a de"endant. See 9errostaal v. American Commercial 9::9 A%C ;=3 at pp. ;=@-;=; (I.#. !ll. 9::9). See also %ichael H. Aa ot, Er. 7 #ana A. Henderson, ,Iot Fart0, Iot AoundW Iot Iecessaril0: Aindin Third Farties to %aritime Arbitration, (9::9) 93 Tul. %ar. 8.E. <45-<34. 4oyage c'arter1arty - See c'arter1arty (supra). 4oyage ('arter1arty Laytime "nter1retation 5 les #$$E )L4oylayr les $EM* (prepared Gointl0 'ith ."M(6, =6&A7.A and "ntercargo) (see te?t in Eohn 7c'ofield, 8a0time and #emurra e, > Ed., 88F, 8ondon, 9::<, supra, Appendi?). Bo0la0rules ;5 superseded the Charterpart0 8a0time #e"initions 4;=: (see (M"" supra).

,
,.A. (over - ,W.A., means ,With Avera e,. +ormerl0 described a car o polic0 coverin particular and general average (supra), in addition to total loss, but onl0 in respect o" the perils speci"ied in the S... polic0 "orm and the attached clauses. The term is obsolete no' that ,A,, ,A, and ,C, car o clauses are in use. ,arranty - A term o" a contract the breach o" 'hich 'ill allo' the o""ended part0 to claim onl0 dama es. See condition (supra) and indeterminate term (supra). ,ay!ill - See ,.ills of Lading / 5elated +oc ments, (supra). ,'ite, Mic'ael ,.+., ed. - Australian Maritime Law, 9 Ed., 9:::, +ederation Fress, Annandale, I.S.W., Australia. ,ijffels, 5o!ert - Liber Amicorum Robert /i>ffels, 9::4 (%arie-Faule SercC, ed.), Ant'erp. See also E ro1ean Trans1ort Law (supra). ,ilford M., (og'lin, T. and D.+. ?im!all - !ime Charters, > Ed., 9::5, 88F, 8ondon. ;3

,ilson, Do'n =. - Carriage of -oods by Sea, > Ed., 9::<, Fearson&8on man, Harlo', En land. ,iswall, =ran: L. - !he ,e"elopment of Admiralty Durisdiction and $ractice Since 3ETT , 4;@:, Cambrid e 1niversit0 Fress, Cambrid e. ,orld Maritime University - A universit0 established under the auspices o" the "nternational Maritime 6rganiJation )"M0* (supra) in %almd, S'eden, o""erin post raduate de rees in maritime a""airs, includin courses in maritime la', and short courses to practitioners. Website: http:&&'''.'mu.se&. Email: in"o@'mu.se. ,rec: removal - The operation o" clearin navi able 'aters o" sunCen vessels or other submer ed obGects 'hich threaten the sa"et0 o" navi ation. WrecC removal claims are "requentl0 secured b0 s1ecial legislative rig'ts (supra) o" detention, sale and&or "or"eiture, under national la'. See Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;= at pp. 4:5-49>/ Tetle0, Int'l M. A. L, 9::5 at p. <@3. WrecC removal operations are o"ten conducted under the terms o" certain standard-"orm contracts, includin , "or e?ample, those issued b0 ."M(6 (supra), and approved b0 the "nternational 7alvage Union (supra), viH., the ,!nternational WrecC $emoval and %arine Services A reement (+i?ed Frice - ,Io Cure, Io Fa0,) (Code Iame: ,WrecC"i?ed ;;,), the ,!nternational WrecC $emoval and %arine Services A reement (8ump Sum - Sta e Fa0ments) (Code Iame: ,WrecCsta e ;;,), or the ,!nternational WrecC $emoval and %arine Service A reement (#ail0 Hire) (Code Iame: ,WrecChire ;;,). ,rit in personam - !n common law j risdictions, the 'rit 'hereb0 an action 'as traditionall0 instituted a ainst a person, includin a corporation, rather than a ainst a thin . !n the United ?ingdom, such an action is no' instituted b0 the issuance b0 the court o" a ,claim "orm,. !n the U.?., Admiralt0 claims "ormerl0 Cno'n as ,claims in personam, under the Civil Frocedure $ules 4;;= (S.!. 4;;=&5459), in "orce April 93, 4;;;, are no' overned, as o" %arch 9>, 9::9, b0 Fractice #irection 34 (Admiralt0 Claims), paras. 49.4 to 49.3 (Dther Claims) and such claims proceed in accordance 'ith Fart >= (Commercial Court) (see para. 49.9). The relevant claim "orm must be in +orm A#%4A (see para. 49.5). !n Canada, the ,action in personam, in Admiralt0 is no' instituted b0 a ,statement o" claim, under the +ederal Court $ules, 4;;= (SD$ ;=&4:3), in "orce April 9>, 4;;=, Fart 45 (Admiralt0 Actions), $ules <@@ and <@;. ,rit in rem - !n common law j risdictions, the 'rit 'hereb0 an action 'as traditionall0 instituted a ainst a thin . !n the United ?ingdom, under the Civil Frocedure $ules 4;;= (S.!. 4;;=&5459), in "orce April 93, 4;;;, such an action (called a ,claim in rem,) is no' instituted b0 a ,claim "orm in rem,, under Fractice #irection 34 (Admiralt0 Claims), para. 5.4 and +orm A#% 4. Fractice #irection 34 'as promul ated pursuant to Fart 34(Admiralt0 Claims) at $ule 34.5 o" the Civil Frocedure $ules 4;;=, as amended 'ith e""ect "rom %arch 9>, 9::9. !n Canada, the ,action in rem, is no' instituted b0 a ,statement o" claim, under the +ederal Court $ules, 4;;= (SD$ ;=&4:3), in "orce April 9>, 4;;=, Fart 45 (Admiralt0 Actions), $ules <@@ and <@; and +orm <@@. , , ('ao - $ollution from the Carriage of #il by Sea% Liability and Compensation , 4;;3, 2lu'er 8a' !nternational, 8ondon and Aoston.

;
;or:BAntwer1 5 les *+r.: ,R+gles de Yor0CAn"ers,- *Span.: ,Reglas de Yor0CAmberes,- *!tal.: ,Regole di Yor0&An"ersa,- *.r.: ,Yor0&Antwerpener Regeln,- - The rules under 'hich a general average sacrifice (supra) is determined and b0 'hich the pa0ments to the part0 'ho sacri"iced are calculated. The most recent $ules are the PorC&Ant'erp $ules 4;;<, amended in S0dne0, Australia in 4;;< at a meetin o" the (M". The $ules are not imposed b0 a national or international statute, but b0 a reement o" the parties, in the c'arter1arty (supra) or the !ill of lading (supra). See ;@

En lish te?t: (4;;>) 93 E%8C 4;;>, <=>->:9. See +rench te?t o" , les R+gles de Yor0CAn"ers,: #%+ 4;;3, 45@. Also available on the !nternet at: http:&&'''.Gus.uio.no&lm&cmi.0orC.ant'erp.rules.4;;<&doc.html. The $ules 'ere considered b0 the C%! in Bancouver, Canada, in Eune 9::< but onl0 minor adGustments, rather than real re"orm, 'ere made. +or a comparison o" the 9::< $ules 'ith the 4;;< $ules, see http:&&'''.Gonathansspencer.com&;<:<.pd".

I.A. Tetle0 - !nternational %aritime and Admiralt0 8a', 9::5, Alais, %ontreal. Cited: Tetle0, Int'l. M. A. L., 9::5/ Tetle0 - !nternational %aritime 8a', bein a eneral te?t on international maritime la', prepared "or the ,!nternational Enc0clopedia o" Comparative 8a', o" the %a? FlancC !nstitute, Hambur , .erman0, 9::4/ Tetle0 - %aritime 8iens and Claims, 9 Ed., 4;;=, Alais, %ontreal. Cited: Tetle0, M.L.C., 9 Ed., 4;;=. Tetle0 - !nternational Con"lict o" 8a's - Common, Civil and %aritime, 4;;<, Alais, %ontreal. Cited: Tetle0, Int'l. C. of L., 4;;</ Tetle0 - %arine Car o Claims, 5 Ed., 4;==, Alais, %ontreal. Cited: Tetle0, M.C.C., 5 Ed., 4;==. Iote: ,Alais, re"ers to 8es Oditions Pvon Alais !nc., <5: rue St-Fierre, %ontreal, JuKbec, Canada H9P 9%>. Tel.: (>4<) =<9-5;5@/ 4-=::-535-5:<@/ "a?: (>4<) =<9-@4<<.

6t'er .oo:s .y ,illiam Tetley
Marine Cargo Claims, 4 Ed., 4;3>, Cars'ell, Toronto/ Stevens, 8ondon. Marine Cargo Claims, 9 Ed., 4;@=, Autter'orths, Toronto 7 8ondon. Marine Cargo Claims, 9 Ed., published in $ussian b0 %osco' Transport, %osco', 1.S.S.$., 4;=5. Marine Cargo Claims 9 Ed., published in Eapanese b0 The Eapan Shippin E?chan e !nc., ToC0o, Eapan, 4;=<. Marine Cargo Claims, 5 Ed., published in Chinese b0 #alian 1niversit0, #alian, F$C, 4;;5. International Conflict of Laws, published in Chinese b0 8a' Fress, AeiGin , F$C, 9::5.

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