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1. mfv¸‡jv‡Z m`m¨‡`i Dcw¯’wZi nvi

2. Bmy¨ †iwR÷vi wbqwgZ I mwVK wbq‡g †jLv 3. Bmy¨ m¤ú‡K© m`m¨‡`i aviYv 4. Bmy¨ Av‡jvPbvi †cÖw¶‡Z m`m¨‡`i cÖvZ¨wnK Rxe‡b Zvi cÖwZdjb 5. `‡ji m`m¨‡`i wbKU Kgx©i MÖnY‡hvM¨Zv 6. m`m¨‡`i Rxeb c×wZ I AvPi‡Yi BwZevPK cwieZ©b 7. Kg© GjvKvi me©gn‡j Kgx©i cwiwPwZ I MÖnY‡hvM¨Zv

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1. ¯^v¯’¨ :

eq:mwÜKvj

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eq:mwÜKvj
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wk¶v_x©‡`i cvV hvPvB: eq:mwÜKvj
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eq:mwÜKvj wK? wkïKvj I †hŠeb-G `yÕ‡qi gvSvgvwS mgq n‡jv eq:mwÜKvj| eq:mwÜKv‡j †Q‡j I †g‡q‡`i wK wK gvbwmK cwieZ©b †`Lv hvq? wØav, ØÜ I Av‡eM †`Lv hvq; ARvbv welq Rvbvi †KŠZ~nj Rv‡M; wecixZ wj‡½i cÖwZ AvKl©Y‡eva, †mŠ›`‡h©i cÖwZ m‡PZb nq; wb‡R‡K Avovj K‡i ivL‡Z Pvq; ¯^vaxb _vK‡Z cQ›` K‡i; evuav wb‡la fvj jv‡M bv| wb‡R‡`i Amnvq †eva K‡i; fzj Z_¨ †c‡Z cv‡i; †hŠb wbcxo‡bi wkKvi n‡Z cv‡i; A‰ea †hŠb m¤ú‡K© Rwo‡q bvbvb wecwË NUv‡Z cv‡i|

eq:mwÜKv‡j †Q‡j‡g‡qiv wK ai‡bi wec` ev mgm¨vq co‡Z cv‡i?

eq:mwÜKv‡j GKZidv Dc‡`k bv w`‡q †Q‡j‡g‡q†`i †Q‡j ‡g‡q‡`i mv‡_ mv‡_ wcZv mym¤úK© ivL‡eb|

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gvZvi AvPiY †Lvjv‡gjv fv‡e Zv‡`i †Kgb nIqv DwPr? mgm¨v wb‡q Av‡jvPbv Ki‡j †Q‡j‡g‡qiv Zv‡`i fvjg›` eyS‡Z cv‡i Ges mwVK c‡_ Pj‡Z cv‡i|

cvV: 1.2

cwievi cwiKíbv
D‡Ïk¨: GB cvV †k‡l AskMÖnYKvixMY

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Rxeb‡K myLx I my›`i K‡i M‡o Zzj‡Z ¯^vgx-¯¿x `yÕR‡b wg‡j wPš—v fvebv K‡i cwiKwíZfv‡e cwievi MVb Kiv DwPZ| †mUvB cwievi cwiKíbv| Rb¥wbqš¿Y c×wZ wK? cwiev‡ii mK‡ji Rb¨ fv‡jv ¯^v¯’¨, cwiev‡ii mevi g‡a¨ m¤úK© fv‡jv ivLvi Rb¨ cwievi †QvU ivLv cÖ‡qvRb| cwievi †QvU ivLvi Rb¨ `iKvi nq Rb¥wbqš¿Y c×wZ| GB c×wZ n‡”Q Rb¥ cÖwZ‡ivag~jK c×wZ, hv GKRb gwnjv‡K AbvKvw•¶Z Mf©mÂvi Gov‡Z mvnvh¨ K‡i| GQvov Aí eq‡m ev”Pv nIqvi nvZ †_‡K †invB cvIqv I ¯^v¯’¨ wVK ivLvi Rb¨ †h †Kvb ¯^vgx-¯¿xiB Rb¥wbqš¿Y c×wZi cÖ‡qvRb Av‡Q|

Rb¥wbqš¿Y c×wZmg~n
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Ab¨ c×wZ MÖnY Kiv hvq ev Mf©aviY Kiv hvq| Zv mn‡R cvIqv hvq Ges e¨enviI mnR| Bb‡RKkb: Bb‡RKkb gwnjv‡`i Rb¨ A¯’vqx I ¯^í‡gqv`x Rb¥wbqš¿Y c×wZ| GB c×wZ‡Z Bb‡RKk‡bi gva¨‡g GK ai‡bi wm‡š’wUK cÖ‡R‡÷ib kixi XywK‡q †`qv nq| gvsm †ckx‡Z cªwZ wZb gv‡m GKevi †`qv nq| G‡Z i³ Pvc ev‡o bv I gv‡qi `ya K‡g bv| GwU wbivc`, Kvh©Ki Ges mnRjf¨| AvB BD wW: cvw÷K Ges Zvgvi ˆZwi, Bs‡iwR A¶i ÔT’-i ,g‡Zv †QvU DcKiY, hv Rivqyi †fZ‡i ¯’vcb Kiv nq| Lvevi ewo Ges Bb‡RKk‡bi g‡Zv GUvI GKwU Kvh©Ki `xN©‡gqv`x A¯’vqx c×wZ| AvB BD wW gvwm‡Ki mgq i³mªve n«vm K‡i| d‡j †c‡U e¨_vI Kg nq| GQvov GwU cÖ‡qvM Kiv mnR Ges GKevi cÖ‡qvM Ki‡j hZw`b B‡”Q aviY Kiv hvq| mš—vb wb‡Z PvB‡j B‡”Q gZ GUv AcmviY Kiv hvq| cÖwZw`b ewo LvIqv ev KbWg e¨env‡ii g‡Zv Sv‡gjv †bB| bicv›U: GUv cwievi cwiKíbvi GKwU `xN©‡gqv`x, A¯’vqx I Kvh©Ki c×wZ| GB c×wZ‡Z K„wÎg cÖ‡R‡÷ib ni‡gvb gwnjvi Dci evûi Pvgovi wb‡P ¯’vcb Kiv nq| bic¨v›U GKUv 5 eQi ch©š— Rb¥wbqš¿Y K‡i| c×wZwU AZ¨š— Kvh©Ki Ges Gi e¨envi Lye mnR| GwU GKwU A¯’vqx c×wZ Ges Gi cvk¦© cÖwZwµqv A‡bK Kg|

Bmy¨

f¨v‡mKUwg: AÛ‡Kvl ev ïµKxU, ïµKxUevnx bvjx w`‡q †ewi‡q Av‡m| GB ïµKxUevnx bvjx A‡¯¿vcvPvi K‡i †K‡U †`qv‡K f¨v‡mKUgx e‡j| wUD‡eKUwg ev jvB‡Mkb: GwU gwnjv‡`i A‡¯¿vcvPvi K‡i eܨvKi‡Yi GKwU ¯’vqx c×wZ| gwnjv eܨvKiY‡K wUD‡eKUwg ejv nq| GwU GKwU mnR Acv‡ikb| GB Acv‡ikb‡K jvB‡MkbI ejv nq| myweav: Awb”QvK…Z Mf©avi‡Yi fq _v‡K bv| Kvh©KvwiZv nvi kZKiv 100 fvM| †hŠb wgj‡bi Avb›` †Kvb As‡kB K‡g bv| RwUjZvi SzwK Kg| ¯’vqx Ges LiPI GKKvjxb| wKfv‡e eyS‡ev †Kvb c×wZwU me‡P‡q fvj? †Kvb GKwU Rb¥wbqš¿Y c×wZ †e‡Q †bqvi myweavi Rb¨ m¶g `¤úwZ‡`i we‡klfv‡e `yÕ‡Uv w`K j¶¨ ivL‡Z nq| cÖ_gZ e¨w³MZ welq, wØZxqZ ¯^v¯’¨MZ welq| Rb¥wbqš¿Y c×wZ †e‡Q †bqvi me‡P‡q ¸i“Z¡c~Y© we‡eP¨ welq n‡jv, †KvbwU‡Z `¤úwZ me‡P‡q †ewk ¯^v”Q›`¨ †eva K‡i, †KvbwU MÖnxZvi ¯^v‡¯’¨i Rb¨ wbivc` Ges †mwU wVKgZ e¨envi Kiv hvq wK bv| wbivc` Kvj wK? Rb¥wbqš¿‡Yi cÖvK…wZK c×wZ wnmv‡e A‡bK wbivc` Kvj wba©vib K‡i †hŠb wgjb NUvb| A‡b‡Ki g‡b cÖkœBmy¨

GB wbivc` Kvj wK Ges wKfv‡e GB wbivc`Kvj †g‡b Pjv hvq? ‡ewki fvM †g‡qi 28 w`b ci ci gvwmK nq| Z‡e Gi Kg †ewkI n‡Z cv‡i| gvwm‡Ki cy‡iv mgqwU‡K 3 fv‡M fvM K‡i †bqv hvq| gv‡Si 10 w`‡bi g‡a¨ †hŠbwgjb n‡j M‡f© mš—vb Avmvi m¤¢vebv †ewk _v‡K| Gi Av‡Mi Ges c‡ii w`b¸‡jv n‡”Q wbivc` Kvj| GB c×wZ †g‡b Pj‡jI †h †Kvb mgq M‡f© mš—vb Avm‡Z cv‡i|

1.2 wk¶v_x©‡`i cvV hvPvB: cwievi cwiKíbv
cÖkœ DËi
Rv‡b I ey‡S (msL¨v) DËi`vZv i msL¨v cy‡ivcy ‡gvUvg G‡Kev‡i wi ywU Rv‡b bv

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cwievi †Kb?

cwiKíbv ¯^vgx-¯¿xi cQ›` g‡Zv mg‡q I mxwgZ msL¨vq mš—vb wb‡Z, wkï I gv‡qi Rxe‡bi SzuwK I g„Zy¨i nvi Kgv‡Z, cwiev‡ii mevi Lv`¨, e¯¿, evm¯’vb, wk¶v I ¯^v‡¯’¨i DbœwZ Ki‡Z, ¯^vgx ¯¿xi mngwg©Zv I mg‡SvZv evov‡Z cwievi cwiKíbv cª‡qvRb|

Rb¥ wbqš¿b c×wZ `ywU- ¯’vqx I A¯’vqx| KqwU? Rb¥ K‡qKwU ejyb? wbqš¿‡bi KbWg, ewo, B‡ÄKkb, c×wZ bicv›U, AvBBDwW, GbGmwf, jvB‡Mkb|

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Bmy¨

cvV: 1.3

Mf©eZxi hZœ I wUwU wUKv
D‡Ïk¨: GB cvV †k‡l AskMÖnYKvixMY

Mf©Kvjxb, cÖm‡ei e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡eb

Av‡M

Ges

c‡i

KiYxq

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h²v ‡ivM, †iv‡Mi we¯—vi I DcmM© m¤ú‡K© Rvb‡Z cvi‡eb h²v †iv‡Mi wPwKrmv m¤ú‡K© ej‡Z cvi‡eb Ges wb‡Ri cwievi Ges cÖwZ‡ekx Kv‡ivi h²vi DcmM© †`Lv w`‡j e¨e¯’v wb‡Z cvi‡eb| cwievi, AvZ¥xq¯^Rb wKsev cÖwZ‡ekx‡`i h²vi ‡ivM we¯—vi †iv‡a c`‡¶c wb‡eb| h²v evsjv‡`‡ki GKwU cÖavb †ivM| cÖwZ eQi 3 j¶ †jvK h²v †iv‡M Avµvš— nq Ges 70 nvRvi †jvK cÖwZeQi h²v †iv‡M g„Zz¨eiY K‡i| Bmy¨

h²v mvaviY mw`©Kvwki g‡Zv GKwU †ivM| GB †ivM evZv‡m Qovq| h²v Avµvš— †ivMxi wb:k¦vm, nuvwP-Kvwk Ges K‡di m‡½ GB †iv‡Mi Rxevby dzmdzm †_‡K †_‡K †ewi‡q Ges evZv‡m Qovq| h²v †iv‡Mi Rxevby wb:k¦v‡mi m‡½ my¯’ †jv‡Ki †`‡n cÖ‡ek K‡i G ‡iv‡M Avµvš— Ki‡Z cv‡i| mvaviYZ cwiev‡ii m`m¨, eÜz-evÜe hviv Ave× N‡i †ivMxi m‡½ `xN©Kvj AwZevwnZ K‡i ZvivB G †iv‡M †ekx Avµvš— nq| h_vh_ wPwKrmv bv n‡j GKRb dzmdz‡mi h¶vq Avµvš— †ivMx cÖwZ eQ‡i cÖvq 10 Rb my¯’ †jvK‡K msµwgZ Ki‡Z cv‡i| h²v †iv‡Mi Rxevby k¦vm-cÖk¦v‡mi gva¨‡g dzmdz‡m cÖ‡ek K‡i| dzmdzm †_‡K h²v †iv‡Mi Rxevby kix‡i me©Î Qov‡Z cv‡i| h²v †iv‡Mi Rxevby Øviv dzmdzm Avµvš— n‡j Zv‡K dzmdz‡mi h²v e‡j| dzmdz‡m h²vi Rxevby esk we¯—vi K‡i I ¶‡Zi m„wó K‡i Ges K‡di gva¨‡g †ewi‡q Av‡m| hLb GB Kd AYyex¶Y hš¿ Øviv cix¶v Kiv nq ZLb h²vi Rxevby †`Lv hvq, †m‡¶‡Î †ivMx Ab¨ †jv‡Ki gv‡S h²vi Rxevby Qov‡Z cv‡i | h²v †ivM kix‡ii Ab¨vb¨ Ask‡KI Avµvš— Ki‡Z cv‡i †hgb: • ‡gi“`Û • gw¯—®‹ • MÖwš’ Bmy¨

• ‡cU • kix‡ii Ab¨ †h †Kvb Ask GB me A‡½i h²v‡K dymdzm ewnf©~Z h²v e‡j| h²v †iv‡Mi cÖavb DcmM© n‡jv : 3 (wZb) mßvn A_ev AwaK mgq Kvwk _vKv| Kvwki m‡½ †h DcmM© _v‡K †m¸‡jv n‡jv : • R¡i Ges iv‡Z Nvg nIqv • IRb K‡g hvIqv • K¬vwš— I ¶zavg›`v • K‡di m‡½ i³ cov Gme DcmM© _vK‡j †ivMx‡K Wv³v‡ii civgk© †bqv DwPZ| evsjv‡`‡k RvZxq h²v wbqš¿Y Kg©m~Pxi AvIZvq Wv³viMY wPwKrmv ‡mevq wb‡qvwRZ Av‡Qb| †mLvb †_‡K webvg~‡j¨ †mev wbb| m‡›`nRbK dzmdz‡mi h²v †ivMxi †¶‡Î Aek¨B K‡di 3wU bgybv msMÖn Ki‡Z n‡e Ges j¨ve‡iUwi‡Z cix¶v Ki‡Z n‡e| K‡di 3wU bgybv Avjv`vfv‡e 2 w`‡bi g‡a¨ msMÖn Ki‡Z n‡e| cix¶vi Kd hZ`~i m¤¢e dzmdz‡mi wfZi †_‡K Av‡m, †m Rb¨ mgq wbb Ges `xN© Kvwk w`‡q Kd msMÖn Ki“b| h²v †iv‡Mi Rxevby Lvwj †Pv‡L †`Lv hvq bv | cix¶vMv‡i AYyex¶Y h‡š¿i mvnv‡h¨ K‡d h²vi RxevYy Av‡Q wKbv Zv †`Lv hvq | h²vi wPwKrmv 6-8 gvm a‡i Kiv nq| †ivMx‡K mKj Dc‡`k mwVKfv‡e Aek¨B †g‡b Pj‡Z n‡e Ges †Kvb cÖKvi Amyweav n‡j Zv Wv³v‡ii mv‡_ Av‡jvPbv Ki‡Z n‡e| Bmy¨

h²v †ivMx‡K nvmcvZv‡j fwZ© Ki‡Z nq bv| †Kvb e¨vw³i Dcw¯’wZ‡Z †ivMx cÖZ¨n Ilya †meb Ki‡eb| h²vi Jla †me‡bi †¶‡Î ¯^v¯’¨Kg©x, mgvRKg©xMY n‡”Qb me‡P‡q wek¦vm‡hvM¨ Z`viKKvix| h²v wPwKrmvi cÖ_g 2 gvm ci Kd Avevi cix¶v Ki‡Z nq| hw` K‡d RxevYy bv cvIqv hvq Z‡e cieZx© 4 gv‡mi Rb¨ Jla †`qv nq| H mgq mßv‡n wZbw`b Jla †meb Ki‡Z n‡e| mvgwqKfv‡e my¯’ n‡jI m¤ú~Y© wPwKrmv bv nIqv ch©š— †meb eÜ Kiv hv‡e bv| GgbwK cvk¦©cÖwZwµqv †`Lv w`‡jI| G‡Z h²vi RxevYy kix‡i †_‡K hvq Ges esk we¯—vi K‡i| d‡j †ivMx AveviI Amy¯’ n‡q c‡o| cieZx©‡Z Jla Avi KvR bvI Ki‡Z cv‡i| KviY h²v †iv‡Mi RxevYy Lye kw³kvjx| wewmwR wUKv beRvZ‡Ki R‡b¥i wZbw`‡bi g‡a¨ w`‡Z nq| G‡Z ev”Pviv gvivZ¥K h²v ‡ivM †_‡K i¶v cvq| cÖwZ‡iva: • N‡ii wfZi gy³ Av‡jv evZvm cÖ‡ek Ki‡j h²vi we¯—vi K‡g hvq| • gy³ Av‡jv evZvm fvmgvb h²v †iv‡Mi RxevYy Kwg‡q †`q Ges k¦vm-cÖk¦v‡mi m‡½ kix‡i RxevYy †XvKvi m¤¢vebv K‡g hvq| • mivmwi m~‡h©i Av‡jv‡Z ZvovZvwo h²vi RxevYy g‡i hvq, wKš‘ AÜKvi I eÜ N‡i G RxevYy K‡qK N›Uv †eu‡P _vK‡Z cv‡i| Bmy¨ †¯^”Qv‡meK,

Kvwki mgq gyL †X‡K ivLv Ges †hLv‡b †mLv‡b, we‡kl K‡i Ave× RvqMvq _y_y bv †djv| • h²vi RxevYy evZv‡m K‡qK N›Uv _vK‡Z cv‡i|

myZivs wZb mßv‡ni †ekx Kvwk n‡jB GbwRI wK¬wbK ev miKvix nvmcvZv‡j Kd cix¶v Ki“b| h²v n‡j i¶v bvB GB K_vi wfwË bvB|

1.5 wk¶v_x©‡`i cvV hvPvB: h²v
cÖkœ
h²v wK?

DËi
mw`© Kvwki g‡Zv GKwU cÖavb †ivM| GB †ivM evZv‡m Qovq| Avµvš— †ivMxi wb:k¦vm, nuvwP-Kvwk Ges K‡di m‡½ GB †iv‡Mi Rxevby my¯’ e¨w³i †`‡n cÖ‡ek K‡i|

Rv‡b I ey‡S (msL¨v) DËi`vZ G‡Kev‡i vi cy‡ivcy ‡gvUvg Rv‡b msL¨v wi ywU bv

wKfv‡e GB †ivM Qovq?

h²v †iv‡Mi cÖavb wZb mßvn ev Zvi AwaK DcmM© wK? mgq Kvwk _vKv| h²v †iv‡Mi wPwKrmv Ki‡Z KZw`b jv‡M? wKfv‡e h²vi nvZ †_‡K euvPv hv‡e? 6-8 gvm|

N‡ii wfZi gy³ Av‡jv evZvm _vKv,Kvwki mgq gyL †X‡K ivLv Ges †hLv‡b †mLv‡b _y_y bv †djv|

Bmy¨

cvV: 1.6

‡hŠb ‡ivM I GBWm
D‡Ïk¨: GB cvV †k‡l AskMÖnYKvixMY

‡hŠb ‡ivM, GBWm e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡eb|

ev GBPAvBwf †iv‡Mi

‡hŠb‡iv‡Mi RwUjZv m¤ú‡K© ej‡Z cvi‡eb Ges wb‡Ri wKsev cÖwZ‡ekx Kv‡ivi ‡hŠb‡ivM †`Lv w`‡j mgqgZ e¨e¯’v wb‡Z cvi‡eb| GBPAvBwf ev GBWm †iv‡Mi KviY I msµg‡Yi Dcvq Rvb‡eb Ges wb‡Ri cwievi I GjvKvevmx‡K cÖwZ‡iv‡ai Rb¨ m‡PZb Ki‡eb|

†hŠb ‡ivM
ˆ`wnK wgj‡bi d‡j †hme ‡ivM Qovq Zv‡K †hŠb ‡ivM e‡j| †hgb M‡bvwiqv, wmwdwjm, K¬vgvBwWqv, GBPAvBwf ev GBWm, †ncvUvBwUm, wewmwW BZ¨vw`| Z‡e ‡Kv‡bv †Kv‡bv mgq Ab¨fv‡eI G ‡ivM Qov‡Z cv‡i| †hŠb †ivM n‡j kix‡ii wewfbœ As‡k msµgb ev AmyL n‡Z cv‡i| †hgb wmwdwjm I M‡Yvwiqv n‡j †hŠb‡½ Nv nq| wKš‘ GBWm ev †ncvUvBwUm n‡j †hŠbv‡½ Nv n‡e bv Z‡e kix‡ii Ab¨ RvqMvq mgm¨v †`Lv †`q| wKfv‡e Qovq ? Bmy¨

‡ekxifvM †hŠb‡ivM msµwgZ e¨w³i mv‡_ †hŠbwgj‡bi d‡j Qovq| †hŠbwgjb QvovI Qov‡Z cv‡i, †hgb  

‡hŠb ‡ivM Av‡Q Ggb Kv‡iv i³ kix‡i wb‡j ‡hŠb ‡ivMxi e¨envi Kiv m~uP I wmwiÄ Rxevbyg~³ bv K‡i Ab¨ Kv‡iv kix‡i B‡ÄKkb w`‡j ‡hŠb ‡iv‡M Avµvš— Mf©eZx gv‡qi Mf©ve¯’vq, cÖm‡ei mgq ev ey‡Ki `ya MÖn‡Y wkïi g‡a¨ Qov‡Z cv‡i|
j¶Y cyi“l / gwnjv cyi“l ‡iv‡Mi bvg M‡bvwiq v

‡hŠb ‡iv‡Mi we‡kl wKQy j¶Y:

• ‡hŠbv½ †_‡K c~uR †ei nIqv • cÖmªv‡ei mgq e¨v_v I R¡vjv Kiv • Nb Nb cÖmªve nIqv • ‡hŠbv½ w`‡q njy` c~u‡Ri g‡Zv mv`v mªve †ei nIqv • ‡hŠbv‡½ AZ¨vwaK PzjKvwb • KL‡bv KL‡bv cÖmªve I †hŠbwgj‡bi mgq e¨v_v I Kó nIqv • ‡hŠbv½ I Gi Av‡kcv‡k Nv • KzuPwKi I kix‡ii Ab¨vb¨ MÖwš’ dz‡j hvIqv • g~Îbvjx †_‡K c~uR †ei nIqv • AÛ‡Kvl dz‡j hvIqv • cÖmªv‡ei mgq R¡vjv Kiv • cÖmªv‡ei mgq e¨v_v I R¡vjv Kiv • Nb Nb cÖmªve nIqv • KL‡bv KL‡bv cÖmªve I †hŠbwgj‡bi mgq e¨v_v I Kó nIqv

gwnjv

gwnjv I cyi“l cyi“l

wmwdwj m K¬vgvB wWqv

gwnjv

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gwnjv

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Bmy¨

• cÖmªve I †hŠbwgj‡bi mgq e¨v_v ‡QvU †dvmKvi g‡Zv hš¿Yv`vqK ¶Z • cÖmªv‡ei mgq e¨v_v I R¡vjv Kiv • gwnjv‡`i †hvwbc‡_ cvwbi gZ mªve hvIqv

‡gvwbqv wmm gwnjv I cyi“l nviwcm †RwbUv wjqv

‡hŠb ‡iv‡Mi -Gi RwUjZv mwVK mg‡q I mwVK wPwKrmv bv Kiv‡j †hŠb‡ivM †_‡K wewfbœ RwUjZv ev mgm¨v †`Lv w`‡Z cv‡i| wKQy wKQy †hŠb‡iv‡Mi d‡j  ‡ivMx eܨv n‡q †h‡Z cv‡i  M‡f©i ev”Pv bó n‡Z cv‡i

wkï AÜ n‡q Rb¥v‡Z cv‡i Rivqy gy‡L K¨vÝvi n‡Z cv‡i

 c½y wkï Rb¥ wb‡Z cv‡i

 GBWm †iv‡M mn‡R Avµvš— n‡Z cv‡i ‡hŠb‡ivM †_‡K i¶v cvIqvi Dcvq: ‡hŠb‡ivM †_‡K i¶v Ki‡Z n‡j wek¦¯— m½x Qvov Ab¨ Kv‡iv mv‡_ †hŠb m¤úK© bv ivLv

 cÖwZevi †hŠb wgj‡bi mgq mwVK wbq‡g KbWg e¨envi Kiv  GKevi e¨env‡ii ci †d‡j w`‡Z nq Ggb m~uP I wmwiÄ e¨envi Kiv i³ †bevi cÖ‡qvRb n‡j ‡hŠb †iv‡Mi Rxevby Av‡Q wKbv cix¶v K‡i wbwðZ n‡q wb‡Z n‡e|

GBW&m
Bmy¨

GBW&m (AIDS) (G‡KvqvW© BgDb †Wwdwm‡qwÝ wmb‡Wªvg) n‡”Q HIV bvgK fvBivm Øviv msµwgZ GKwU gvivZœK msµvgK †ivM|
HIV n‡jv : H (Human) = k‡Øi A_© gvbyl, I (Immunodeficiency) = k‡ãi A_© cÖwZ‡iva ¶gZv Afve, V (Virus) = fvBivm| HIV fvBiv‡mi Avµg‡bi d‡j gvbe‡`‡ni

†ivM cÖwZ‡iva ¶gZv K‡g hvq| Gi d‡j evievi Ges µgvMZ †ivMRxevYyi Avµg‡b kix‡i KZ¸‡jv DcmM© ev j¶Y †`Lv †`q Zv‡K GBW&m e‡j| myZivs HIV n‡jv GKwU fvBiv‡mi bvg Ges AIDS n‡jv HIV fvBivm Øviv m„wóKvix msµgK †ivM| GBW&m †ivM n‡j kix‡ii †ivM cÖwZ‡iva ¶gZv bó K‡i †`q| wK Kvi‡Y GBW&m nq ? GBPAvBwf bvgK GK cÖKvi fvBivm Øviv †KD msµwgZ n‡j GBW&m nq| kix‡ii Rjxq c`v_©mg~‡n, we‡klZ i³, exh©, gy‡Li jvjv Ges †hvwb wbtm„Z Rjxq c`v‡_© fvBivmwU we`¨gvb _v‡K| fvBivmwU kix‡ii †ivM cÖwZ‡iva ¶gZv‡K bó K‡i w`‡q Ab¨vb¨ †iv‡Mi msµgY cÖwZ‡iv‡a kixi‡K A¶Z K‡i †`q| GBW&m GKwU gvivZœK †ivM, hvi †Kv‡bv wPwKrmv bvB| GB fvBiv‡m Avµvš— n‡j kix‡ii †ivM cÖwZ‡iva ¶gZv _v‡K bv ZLb †h †Kvb †iv‡MB †m Avµvš— n‡Z cv‡i Ges †m †iv‡MB Zvi g„Zy¨ n‡Z cv‡i| GBW&m cÖwZ‡iv‡ai †Kv‡bv wUKvI GLb ch©š— Avwe¯‹…Z nqwb| d‡j GBWm †iv‡M g„Zz¨ AeavwiZ| GBW&m -i j¶Y wK? Bmy¨

GBPAvBwf RxevYy Øviv Avvµvš— n‡j AwZ ax‡i ax‡i †`‡ni †ivM cÖwZ‡iva ¶gZv †f‡½ co‡Z _v‡K| axi MwZ‡Z †ivM cÖwZ‡iva ¶gZv †f‡½ co‡Z 8 †_‡K 10 eQiI jvM‡Z cv‡i| GB `xN© mgq c‡i Avµvš— e¨w³i mvaviYZ: †h mKj j¶Y †`Lv †`q, Zv n‡jv • wUwe ev h²v ‡ivM †`Lv †`q • ax‡i ax‡i †`‡ni †ivM cÖwZ‡iva ¶gZv †f‡½ co‡Z _v‡K • gvivZ¥Kfv‡e IRb K‡g hvq • GK gv‡miI †ewk mgq a‡i cvZjv cvqLvbv n‡Z cv‡i • `xN©w`b R¡i _v‡K • evievi Kvb I Mjvq Nv nq • mg¯— kix‡i Ges Z¡‡K Pg©‡ivM nq • QÎvK RvZxq †ivM nq • Nv‡o I eM‡j ¸wU †e‡a dz‡j hvq • k¦vmZ‡š¿i cÖ`v‡n Avµvš— n‡Z cv‡i | GBW&m wKfv‡e Qovq? • GBW&m Avµvš— †ivMx‡`i m‡½ Aeva I Aiw¶Z †hŠb wgj‡bi gva¨‡g • GBW&m Avµvš— †ivMxi i³ MÖn‡Yi gva¨‡g • GBW&m †ivMxi e¨eüZ m~uP-wmwiÄ, KvuwP, ¶yi/†iRi, †eW BZ¨vw` e¨envi Ki‡j • GBW&m Avµvš— gv‡qi Mf©RvZ mš—vb • GBW&m Avµvš— gv‡qi ey‡Ki `ya cvbKvix wkïi • Mfxi Pz¤^b, hve gva¨‡g jvjvi AbycÖ‡ek N‡U

Bmy¨

‡hŠb wgjb QvovI GBW&m Avµvš— e¨w³i e¨eüZ wmwiÄ, ¶zi, BZ¨vw`i gva¨‡g ev gv‡qi kixi †_‡K beRvZ‡Ki kix‡i GBW&m Qov‡Z cv‡i| GBW&m nIqvi AvksKv Kv‡`i †ewk _v‡K ? hv‡`i GBW&m Avµvš— nIqvi AvksKv †ewk _v‡K• mgKvgx cyi“l (hviv cyi“‡l cyi“‡l †hŠbm½g K‡i) • eûbvixMvgx cyi“l (hviv A‡bK bvixi m‡½ †hŠb KvR K‡i) • eûcyi“lMvgx bvix (hviv A‡bK cyi“‡li m‡½ †hŠb KvR K‡i) • ‡hŠbKgx© (cyi“l I gwnjv) • wmwi‡Äi gva¨‡g †bkv MÖnYKvix • i³ ev A‡b¨i A½-cÖZ¨½ MÖnYKvix hviv A‡b‡Ki m‡½ †hŠb KvR K‡i Zv‡`i GBW&m nIqvi AvksKv A‡bK †ewk| GBW&m wKfv‡e Qovq bv ? • GBW&m ‡ivMxi mv‡_ †KvjvKzwj Ki‡j • nv‡Z ai‡j wKsev n¨vÛ‡kK Ki‡j • AkÖ“ †_‡K ev Nvg †_‡K • ‡ivMxi e¨eüZ Rvgv Kvco ‡_‡K • GKB _vjv evmb e¨envi Ki‡j • GKB Kv‡c Pv †L‡j • gkv gvwQ Øviv

Bmy¨

GBW&m †_‡K wKfv‡e wb‡R‡K gy³ ivLv hvq ? • ‡hŠb wgj‡bi mgq KbWg e¨envi Kiv • wb‡Ri wek¦¯— eÜz (¯^vgx/¯¿x) Qvov †hŠb m¤úK© bv ivLv • eûMvwgZv cwinvi Kiv • GBW&m Avµvš— e¨w³i mv‡_ †hŠb wgjb †_‡K weiZ _vKv • RxevYygy³ wmwiÄ I m~P e¨envi Kiv • i³ MÖn‡Y mZK©Zv Aej¤^b Kiv • ag©xq Abykvmb †g‡b Pjv I my¯’ Rxeb hvcb Kiv GBW&m mvgvwRK Ges cvwievwiK †¶‡Î wK ai‡Yi cvwievwiK cÖfve cÖfve †d‡j ? cvwievwiK eÜb †f‡½ co‡e mvgvwRK cÖfve mvgvwRK mvnv‡h¨i Rb¨ Kg©V †jvK K‡g hv‡e Pvc n‡e Drcv`b e¨e¯’v †f‡½ co‡e A_©‰bwZK Pvc m„wó D‡`¨v³v K‡g hv‡e n‡e (g„Zz¨) ¶zav I `vwi‡`ª¨i cÖmvi ci wbf©ikxj †jvK e„w× NU‡Z _vK‡e cv‡e A‡b¨i AbyMÖn wb‡q Amy¯’ wkïi Rb¥ n‡e evuP‡Z n‡e Abv_ wkïi msL¨v e„w× msmvi Rxeb n‡q DV‡e cv‡e `ywe©mn I Akvwš—gq GBW&m n‡j wK Ki‡Z n‡e ? Kv‡iv GBW&m nIqv gv‡bB †m Kjw¼Z bq| Avgv‡`i A‡b‡Ki aviYv †h, A‰eafv‡e †hŠb KvR Ki‡jB GBW&m nq Ges Kv‡iv GBW&m n‡j Avgiv Zv‡K Lvivc †Pv‡L †`wL| wKš‘ GUv wVK bq| eis Zv‡K mnRfv‡e †bqv GKRb gvby‡li `vwqZ¡| Zv‡K †mev Kiv, gvbwmKfv‡e mvnm †hvMv‡bv, mngwg©Zv †`Lv‡bv Avgv‡`i KvR | Bmy¨

GBW&m Avµvš— e¨w³i mv‡_ Avgv‡`i ¯^vfvweK AvPiY Kiv DwPZ | GBW&m n‡j wKfv‡e Pj‡Z n‡e ? ‡Kvb Kvi‡Y hw` GBW&m nq Zvn‡j h_vm¤¢e gvbwmKfv‡e k³ _vKvB eyw×gv‡bi KvR Ges wKfv‡e fvj _vKv hvq †m †Póv Ki‡Z n‡e | • cwi¯‹vi cwi”QbœZvi wbqg †g‡b Pj‡Z n‡e • cywóKi I wfUvwgbhy³ Lvevi †L‡Z n‡e • wb‡Ri Uz_eªvk, †iRvi e¨envi Ki‡Z n‡e (Ab¨ †KD †hb e¨envi bv K‡i) • ¯^vfvweK KvRKg©, wekªvg I cÖwZw`b wKQz e¨vqvg Ki‡Z n‡e • ‡hŠb wgj‡bi mgq Aek¨B KbWg e¨envi Ki‡Z n‡e • ‡g‡q‡`i †¶‡Î mš—vb PvB‡j ev wkï‡K ey‡Ki `ya LvIqv‡Z PvB‡j ¯^v¯’¨Kgx©i civgk© wb‡Z n‡e • nvwm-Lywk _vKv, †Kvb welq wb‡q `ywðš—v bv Kiv| ¯^vfvweKfv‡e mKj KvRK©g Ki‡Z n‡e| gvbwmKfv‡e k³ _vKv, wKQz wbqg †g‡b Pjv GBW&m Avµvš— e¨w³i Rb¨ Ri“ix |

1.6 wk¶v_x©‡`i cvV hvPvB: GBWm
Rv‡b I ey‡S (msL¨v)

cÖkœ

DËi

G‡Ke DËi`vZvi ‡gvU v‡i msL¨v cy‡ivcy vgyw wi Rv‡b U bv

†hŠb ‡ivM¸‡jv wK M‡bvwiqv, wmwdwjm, wK ? K¬vgvBwWqv BZ¨vw` GBWm wK? GKwU gvivZ¥K msµvgK

Bmy¨

†ivM| GBWm wKfv‡e Qovq? GBWm Avµvš— †ivMxi mv‡_ Aiw¶Z †hŠbm½g Ki‡j Ges Zv‡`i i³ MÖn‡Yi gva¨‡g, Zv‡`i e¨eüZ m~P wmwiÄ e¨envi Ki‡j|

GBWm I †hŠb wek¦¯— m½x Qvov Ab¨ †ivM †_‡K euvPvi Kv‡iv mv‡_ m½g bv Kiv, Dcvq wK? Rxevbyg~³ m~P wmwiÄ e¨envi, i³ MÖn‡Y mZK©Zv, agx©q wbqg †g‡b Pjv|

cvV: 1.7

gv`Kvmw³i Kzdj
D‡Ïk¨: GB cvV †k‡l AskMÖnYKvixMY 

gv`K`ªe¨ I Gi Kzdj m¤ú‡K© Rvb‡Z cvi‡eb| gv`‡Ki nvZ †_‡K wb‡R, GjvKvevmx‡K i¶v Ki‡Z cvi‡eb| cwievi Ges

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1.7 wk¶v_x©‡`i cvV hvPvB: gv`K`ªe¨
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2. gvbevwaKvi I mykvmb
• bvix wbh©vZb • wkïkªg • †gŠwjK AwaKvi I mykvmb • ‡fvUvwaKvi • bvix I wkï cvPvi

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cvV : 2.1

bvix wbh©vZb
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 kvixwiK ¯úk© Ges

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• gvbwmK Aemv‡`i Rb¥ ‡`q|

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• Acywói wkKvi nq|

• • • •

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• gwnjv cÖwZwbwaZ¡ n«vm cvq| • bvix‡`i ¶gZvqb e¨vnZ nq|

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 al©‡bi m‡e©v”P kvw¯— g„Zz¨`Û ev hve¾xeb  ‡hŠZz‡Ki Kvi‡Y hw` bvixi g„Zz¨ N‡U ev g„Zz¨

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 †hŠb wbcxo‡bi Rb¨ 10 ermi, wKš‘ Kgc‡¶ 3 ermi

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• • • • •

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2.1 wk¶v_x©‡`i cvV hvPvB: bvix wbh©vZb
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cvV : 2.2

wkïkªg
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GB cvV †k‡l AskMÖnYKvixMY

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RxweKvi cÖ‡qvR‡b, AwffveK‡`i cÖ‡ivPYvq Ges wb‡qvMKZ©vi AvMÖ‡n wkïiv Aev‡a kªg w`‡q hv‡”Q| G‡Z Zv‡`i †eu‡P _vKvi Aej¤^b _vK‡jI Rxeb weKvk Ges wbivcËv I myi¶vi AwaKvi jw•NZ n‡”Q| `vwi`ª¨ hZw`b _vK‡e wkïkªg ZZw`b _vK‡e| Z‡e SuzwKc~Y© wkïkªg e‡Ü mKj‡K D‡`¨vMx n‡Z n‡e| kª‡gi bv‡g wkï‡`i Dci Ab¨vq, †kvlY Ges AgvbweK AvPiY¸‡jv eÜ Ki‡Z n‡e| Zv‡`i Rb¨ b¨vh¨ gRyix I wbivc` Kg©cwi‡ek wbwðZ Ki‡Z n‡e| ‡hme KviLvbvq a~jvevwj I ¶wZKviK wRwbm e¨envi nq †mLv‡b wkï‡`i gv¯‹ e¨envi Avi †hLv‡b GwmW e¨envi K‡i †mLv‡b wkï‡`i Mvfm e¨envi Kivi e¨e¯’v Ki‡Z n‡e|

2.2 wk¶v_x©‡`i cvV hvPvB: wkïkªg
Rv‡b I ey‡S (msL¨v)

cÖkœ

DËi

DËi`vZvi ‡gvU msL¨v cy‡ivc vgyw G‡Kev‡i ywi Rv‡b bv U

wkïkªg ej‡Z wK mvaviYZ 15 eQ‡ii †Kvb ewyS? wkïkª‡gi mv‡_ RwoZ n‡j †mUv‡K wkkykªg e‡j| K‡qKwU SzuwKc~Y© wkïkªg D‡jL Ki“b? †hŠbKgx©, †PvivPvjvb, ZvgvK I ivmvqwbK KvR, U¨vbvix, jeb, cwienb, I‡qwìs, gv`K`ªe¨ BZ¨vw`|

Bmy¨

wkïkª‡gi kvw¯— 500 UvKv Rwigvbv A_ev 3 wK? gvm †Rj| wkïkª‡gi d‡j wK wkï‡`i kvixwiK, gvbwmK I ¶wZ nq? eyw×wfwËK weKvk nqbv| Avš—R©vwZK wkïkªg we‡ivax w`em K‡e?

12 Ryb|

cvV : 2.3

mykvmb I †gŠwjK AwaKvi
D‡Ïk¨: GB cvV †k‡l AskMÖnYKvixMYBmy¨

• •

AwaKvi I mykvmb m¤ú‡K© Rvb‡Z cvi‡eb| mykvm‡bi Dcv`vb¸wj ej‡Z cvi‡eb Ges wb‡Ri GjvKvq ¯’vbxq †mev cÖwZôv‡b mykvm‡bi NvUwZ wPwýZ K‡i e¨e¯’v wb‡Z HK¨e× n‡Z cvi‡eb| †gŠwjK AwaKvi m¤ú‡K© ej‡Z cvi‡eb Ges wb‡R‡`i AwaKvi cÖwZôvq `wi`ª gvbyl GKZve× n‡Z cvi‡eb|

ivóª ev cÖwZôv‡bi cÖPwjZ wewaweavb Abymv‡i kvmK KZ…©K RbMY‡K cwiPvjbvi cÖwµqv n‡”Q kvmb| Avi †h kvmb cÖwµqvq cÖPwjZ wewa weavb Abymv‡i I RbM‡Yi gZvgZ‡K cÖvavb¨ w`‡q mgvR I gvby‡li Kj¨vY mvwaZ nq ZvB mykvmb| GK K_vq ejv P‡j, wm×vš— MÖnY Ges wm×vš— ev¯— evqb Kiv bv Kivi †h cÖwµqv Zv-B kvmb| kvmb ZLbB mykvmb n‡e hLb wb‡gœi kZ©¸‡jv cvjb Kiv n‡e| mykvmb cÖwZôvq cÖ‡qvRbxq 8wU kZ© RbM‡Yi AskMÖnY 2. AvB‡bi kvmb 3. ¯^”QZv 4. Revew`wnZv 5. Kvh©KvwiZv I `¶Zv 6. RbM‡Yi cÖ‡qvR‡bi cÖwZ ms‡e`bkxjZv 7. HKgZ¨gywLbZv 8. mvg¨ I mve©RbxbZv
1.

Bmy¨

RbM‡Yi AskMÖnY : mykvmb cÖwµqvi Ab¨Zg kZ© n‡”Q mK‡ji AskMÖnY| kvmb Kv‡Ri me©¯—‡i gZvgZ cÖ`vb, wm×vš— MÖnY, cwiKíbv cÖYqb I ev¯ —evq‡b RbM‡Yi mwµq AskMÖnY _vK‡e| AvB‡bi kvmb : mykvm‡bi Rb¨ c¶cvZnxb I Kj¨vYKi AvBwb e¨e¯’v _vKv Ri“ix| GQvovI gvbevwaKvi, we‡kl K‡i msL¨vjNy‡`i AwaKvimg~n ev¯—evwqZ I msiw¶Z n‡e| AvB‡bi c¶cvZnxb cÖ‡qv‡Mi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRb ¯^vaxb, wbi‡c¶ I `ybx©wZgy³ AvBb cÖ‡qvM e¨e¯’v| kvmb cwiPvjbvq RbMYI mKj wbqgKvbyb †g‡b mnvqZv cÖ`vb Ki‡e| wbqgbxwZ mevi Rb¨ mgvb _vK‡e| ¯^”QZv : ¯^”QZv h_vh_ wbqg I weavb Abyhvqx wm×vš— MÖnY I Zvi ev¯—evqb Kiv| Ab¨ A‡_© †Kv‡bv wm×vš— I Zvi ev¯—evq‡bi cÖfve hv‡`i Dci co‡e Zviv G m¤úwK©Z me Z_¨ webv evavq I mivmwi Rvb‡Z cvi‡e - ZvB ¯^”QZv| cÖwZôv‡bi kvmb Kv‡Ri †h †Kvb wm×vš— m¤ú‡K© mKj Z_¨ cvIqv hv‡e Ges Zv mnR‡eva¨ iƒ‡c I gva¨‡g mK‡ji Rb¨ mieivn Kiv n‡e | Bmy¨

Revew`wnZv : Revew`wnZv mykvm‡bi gyL¨ Dcv`vb| ïay miKvix cÖwZôvbmg~n bq, e¨w³MZ KvR I mykxj mgv‡Ri cÖwZôvb I RbmvaviY I Zv‡`i cÖvwZôvwbK †÷K‡nvìvi‡`i Kv‡Q `vqe× n‡Z n‡e| †K Kvi Kv‡Q `vqe× - Zv wbf©i Ki‡e we‡eP¨ wm×vš— ev KvR cÖwZôvb ev ms¯’vi Avf¨š—ixb, bvwK evwn¨K Zvi Dci| ms¯’v ev cÖwZôvb Zvi wm×vš— ev KvR Øviv hv‡`i‡K cÖfvweZ K‡i, Zv‡`i Kv‡Q `vqe×| ¯^”QZv I AvB‡bi kvmb Qvov `vqe×Zv ev¯—evqb Kiv hvq bv| Kvh©KvwiZv I `¶Zv : mykvm‡bi Av‡iKwU ‰ewkó¨ n‡”Q kvmb cÖwµqv I cÖwZôvb¸‡jv mgv‡Ri Pvwn`v c~i‡Y †hme KvR K‡i Zv‡Z we`¨gvb m¤ú‡`i m‡eŸ©v”P e¨envi n‡q _v‡K| mykvm‡bi †¶‡Î `¶Zvi Av‡iKwU w`K n‡”Q Gi Øviv cÖvK…wZK m¤ú‡`i †UKmB e¨envi Ges cwi‡ek msi¶Y wbwðZ Kiv| RbM‡Yi cÖ‡qvR‡bi cÖwZ ms‡e`bkxjZv : mykvm‡bi Rb¨ cÖwZôvb I cÖwµqv¸‡jv‡K GKwU hyw³m½Z mg‡qi g‡a¨ †÷K‡nvìvi‡`i cÖ‡qvRb c~i‡Y m‡Pó _vK‡Z n‡e| HKgZ¨g~wLbZv : mgv‡Ri me ‡¶‡Î †ek wKQz c¶ I wewfbœ `„wófw½ _v‡K| mykvm‡bi Rb¨ mgv‡Ri ¯^v‡_©i h_v_© wm×vš — †KvbwU Ges Zv wKfv‡e ev¯—evqb Kiv hvq †m wel‡q GKwU HKgZ¨ _vKv cÖ‡qvRb| cÖwZôv‡bi j‡¶¨ mgv‡R we`¨gvb wewfbœ ¯^v_©‡Mvôxi g‡a¨ mg‡SvZv cÖwµqv _vKv cÖ‡qvRb| Bmy¨

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AwaKvi
e¨w³, cwievi, †Mvôx ˆea ev AvBbm¤§Zfv‡e A‡b¨i Kv‡Q, mKj cwievi, mgvR, ivóª ev we‡k¦i Kv‡Q hv `vex Ki‡Z cv‡i, ZvB AwaKvi| ‡gŠwjK AwaKvi : Abœ, e¯¿, wk¶v, wPwKrmv, evm¯’vb - GB cuvPwU †gŠwjK Pvwn`v Ges we‡bv`b, wbivcËv, evK& ¯^vaxbZvmn msweav‡b ¯^xK…Z mKj AwaKvi n‡jv †gŠwjK AwaKvi| evsjv‡`‡ki msweav‡b ewY©Z †gŠwjK AwaKvimg~n1972 mv‡ji 16 wW‡m¤^i MY cwil‡` evsjv‡`‡ki msweavb Kvh©Ki nq| msweav‡bi 26 - 44 Aby‡”Q‡` evsjv‡`‡ki RbM‡Yi Rb¨ 18wU †gŠwjK AwaKvi mwbœ‡ewkZ n‡q‡Q| GB AwaKv‡ii cwicš’x †Kvb AvBb cvk Kiv hv‡e bv| msweav‡b ewY©Z †gŠwjK AwaKvimg~n : • agx©q ¯^vaxbZv • AvB‡bi †PvL mgZv Bmy¨

• • • • • • • • • •

• •

AvB‡bi mvnvh¨ jv‡fi my‡hvM gZ cÖKv‡ki AwaKvi RvwZ, ag©, eY© wbwe©‡k‡l mgvb AwaKvi ‡MvcbxqZv i¶vi AwaKvi AvBb we‡ivax kvw¯— †_‡K i¶vi AwaKvi AvZ¥i¶vi AwaKvi mgv‡e‡ki AwaKvi msev`c‡Îi AwaKvi ‡gjv‡gkv I msMV‡bi ¯^vaxbZv m¤úwË †fvM I jv‡fi AwaKvi GKB Aciv‡ai Rb¨ `Õyevi mvRv bv cvIqvi AwaKvi ¯^vaxbfv‡e Pjv‡divi AwaKvi B‡”QgZ †ckvq wb‡qvwRZ _vKvi AwaKvi bvix -

cyi“‡li mgvb AwaKvi

2.3 wk¶v_x©‡`i cvV hvPvB: mykvmb I AwaKvi
Rv‡b I ey‡S (msL¨v)

cÖkœ
AwaKvi wK?

DËi
AvBbm¤§Z I b¨vqm½Zfv‡e A‡b¨i Kv‡Q hv wKQz `vex

DËi`vZvi G‡Kev cy‡ivc ‡gvUv msL¨v ‡i Rv‡b ywi gywU bv

Bmy¨

Kiv hvq ZvB AwaKvi| K‡qKwU ‡gŠwjK agx©q ¯^vaxbZv, AvB‡bi AwaKvi ejyb? †Pv‡L mgZv, gZcÖKv‡ki AwaKvi, mgv‡e‡ki AwaKvi, AvZ¥i¶vi AwaKvi, ¯^vaxbfv‡e Pjv‡div, m¤úwË †fvM I jv‡fi AwaKvi, †MvcbxqZv i¶v, AvBb we‡ivax kvw¯— †_‡K i¶vi AwaKvi BZ¨vw` AwaKvi j•Nb n‡j msMVb¸‡jv‡K GKZve× K‡i Avgiv wK Ki‡Z cÖkvmb‡K Rvbv‡Z cvwi| cvwi? mykvm‡bi kZ©¸‡jv ejyb ? AvB‡bi kvmb, Revew`wnZv, ¯^”QZv, RbM‡Yi AskMÖnY, Kvh©KvwiZv I `¶Zv| mykvm‡bi me¸‡jv kZ© h_vh_fv‡e gvbv nq wKbv, GUv †`‡L Avgiv eyS‡Z cvie G mKj cÖwZôv‡b KZUzKz mykvmb i‡q‡Q|

wKfv‡e eyS‡eb Avcbvi GjvKvq ¯‹yj I nvmcvZvjmg~‡n mykvmb Av‡Q wKbv?

Bmy¨

cvV : 2.4

‡fvUvwaKvi
D‡Ïk¨: GB cvV †k‡l AskMÖnYKvixMY

‡fvU wK, †fvUvi nevi †hvM¨Zv I †fvUvi ZvwjKvq bvg Aš—©f~w³ BZ¨vw` wel‡q Rvb‡Z cvi‡e| ‡fvU cÖ`v‡bi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv m¤ú‡K© ej‡Z cvi‡eb| wb‡R ‡fvU w`‡eb Ges cÖwZ‡ekx‡`i ‡fvU w`‡Z DrmvwnZ Ki‡Z cvi‡eb| †fvUv‡ii KZ©e¨ m¤ú‡K© Rvb‡eb Ges ‡hvM¨ cÖv_x© wbe©vPb Ki‡Z cvi‡eb | ‡fvU †Kb †`e ? ‡fvU n‡jv MYZvwš¿K AwaKvi| †fv‡Ui gva¨‡g wba©vwiZ n‡e Kviv †`k cwiPvjbv Ki‡e| RbMY n‡jv iv‡óªi bvMwiK| Avgiv evsjv‡`‡ki RbMY, ¯^vaxb mve©‡fŠg evsjv‡`‡ki bvMwiK| iv‡óªi g~j Dcv`vb 4wU : 1. RbMY, 2. ‡fŠMwjK mxgv‡iLv 3. miKvi 4. mve©‡fŠgZ¡| cÖK…Zc‡¶ GKwU iv‡óªi ‡fŠMwjK mxgv‡iLv hLb †mB iv‡óªi RbM‡Yi gvwjKvbvq _v‡K †mB Bmy¨

iv‡óªi RbM‡Yi wbe©vwPZ miKvi †`k cwiPvjbv K‡i iv‡óªi mve©‡fŠgZ¡ c~Y©Zv cvq| Avgiv nvRvi eQ‡ii cyiv‡bv RvwZ| AZx‡Z Avgiv civaxb wQjvg| cvVvb-‡gvNj Avgj †cwi‡q Bs‡iR G†jv †`k kvmb Ki‡Z| ewY‡Ki gvb`Û ivR`Û iƒ‡c †`Lv w`j| `yBkZ eQ‡ii weªwUk kvm‡bi ci fviZ fvM n‡q cvwK¯—vb bv‡g †h †`k †cjvg †mLv‡bI Avgiv ¯^vaxb wQjvg bv| cvwK¯—vbxiv †fv‡Ui AwaKvi †K‡o wbj| A_© ‰bwZKfv‡e ‡kvlY Kij| †mB †kvl‡Yi wei“‡× Õ70 mv‡ji †fv‡Ui gva¨‡g Avgv‡`i cÖwZwbwa wbe©vPb Kijvg| wKš‘ lohš¿ K‡i Avgv‡`i ‡fv‡Ui ivq A¯^xKvi Kij| Õ71 mv‡j gyw³hy‡× wcÖq Rb¥f~wg cwic~Y© ¯^vaxbZv AR©b Ki‡jv| Avgv‡`i cÖwZwbwaiv msweavb w`‡jb| Avgiv †cjvg bvMwiK AwaKvi cÖ‡qv‡Mi my‡hvM| we‡k¦i gvbwP‡Î Ôevsjv‡`kÕ bvg ivóªwU cÖwZwôZ n‡jv| RbM‡Yi †fv‡Ui ivq wQj e‡j GUv m¤¢e n‡qwQj | RbMY †hgb iv‡óªi Dcv`vb †Zgwb †fvU n‡”Q RbM‡Yi ¶gZv jv‡fi cÖavb gva¨g| †fv‡Ui AwaKvi ZvB Abœ, e¯¿, evm¯’vb, wk¶v I ¯^v‡¯’i AwaKvi cvIqvi g~jgš¿| gvby‡li †gŠwjK AwaKvi cÖwZôvi gva¨g n‡”Q ivóª| AvaywbK hy‡M ivóª n‡”Q MYZvwš¿K cÖRvZš¿| GB cÖRvZ‡š¿ RbM‡Yi wbe©vwPZ miKvi †fv‡Ui gva¨‡g MwVZ nq| gvby‡li AwaKvi I Zv‡`i B”Qv‡K iƒcvqb Ki‡e miKvi| RbMY †mB B”Qvi cÖKvk NUv‡e wbe©vP‡bi gva¨‡g| msm`xq c×wZ‡Z RbMY Bmy¨

mivmwi †fvU w`‡q Ggwc ev msm` m`m¨ wbe©vPb K‡i| Ggwciv RvZxq msm‡` e‡m AvBb ˆZix K‡ib| †mB AvBb w`‡qB †`k cwiPvwjZ nq| myZivs AvBb cÖYqY Kivi †hvM¨Zv hvi Av‡Q, Zv‡KB Avgiv wbe©vwPZ Kie| Zvn‡j †`‡ki Kj¨vY n‡e| G‡Z RbMYI DcK…Z n‡e| AZGe †fvU I RbMY G‡K Ac‡ii cwic~iK| †fvUvwaKvi cÖ‡qvM K‡iB RbMY iv‡óªi gvwjK nq Avi †fvU †c‡q miKvi MV‡bi gva¨‡g ivóª MwZkw³ jvf K‡i| ‡fvU GKwU bvMwiK I mvsweavwbK AwaKvi| †fvU cÖ`vb cÖwZwU bvMwi‡Ki KZ©e¨| RbM‡Yi kvmb cÖwZôvi cÖ_g avc nj †fvU †`qv Ges iv‡óª MYZš¿ PP©vi cÖ_g KvR nj †fv‡Ui AwaKvi‡K mwVKfv‡e cÖ‡qvM Kiv| B”QvgZ †fvU w`‡q †fv‡Ui cweÎ AvgvbZ bó Kiv hv‡e bv| G‡Z wb‡Ri AwaKvi ¶zbœ nq| ZvB GKRb m‡PZb bvMwiK wn‡m‡e †`‡L ï‡b ey‡S †fvU †`qv DwPr| Z‡e hv‡K †fvU †`qv n‡e wZwb n‡eb mwZ¨Kvifv‡e †`k‡cÖwgK, Rb`i`x, mr I †hvM¨ cÖv_x©| ‡Kb †fvUvi n‡ev : • bvMwiK AwaKvi cÖwZôv Ki‡Z • ‡fvU w`‡q RbcÖwZwbwa wbe©vPb Ki‡Z • cÖ‡qvR‡b wbe©vP‡b cÖv_x© n‡Z • ‡hvM¨ cÖv_x© wbe©vPb K‡i kw³kvjx ivóª cÖwZôv Ki‡Z • RbcÖwZwbwai gva¨‡g †`k I RbM‡Yi ¯^v‡_© AvBb cÖYq‡b Ask wb‡Z n‡e| ‡fvUvi nIqvi Rb¨ †hvM¨Zv : • evsjv‡`‡ki bvMwiK n‡Z n‡e • eqm Kgc‡¶ 18 eQi n‡Z n‡e Bmy¨

• gvbwmKfv‡e my¯’ n‡Z n‡e ‡fvU bv w`‡j – A‡hvM¨ I Amr †jvK wbe©vwPZ n‡q MYZš¿ I `vwi‡`ª¨ we‡gvP‡bi wec‡¶ KvR Ki‡e| ‡h cÖv_x©i g‡a¨ fvj ¸Yvejx cvIqv hv‡e Zvu‡KB †fvU †`e|

2.4 wk¶v_x©‡`i cvV hvPvB: †fvUvwaKvi
Rv‡b I ey‡S (msL¨v)

cÖkœ

DËi

DËi`vZv G‡Kev i msL¨v cy‡ivc ‡gvUv ‡i Rv‡b ywi gywU bv

†fvUvi nIqvi evsjv‡`‡ki bvMwiK n‡Z n‡e, †hvM¨Zv wK wK? eqm Kgc‡¶ 18 n‡Z n‡e, gvbwmKfv‡e my¯’ _vK‡Z n‡e| ‡Kb †fvU w`e? †fv‡Ui AwaKvi gv‡b Abœ, e¯¿, evm¯’vb, wk¶v I ¯^v‡¯’¨i AwaKvi cvIqvi g~jgš¿| B‡”Qg‡Zv †fvU w`‡q ‡fv‡Ui cweÎ AvgvbZ

Bmy¨

bó Kiv gv‡b wb‡Ri AwaKvi ¶zbœ Kiv| ZvB †fvU w`‡q RbM‡Yi kvmb cÖwZôv Kie| †fvU bv w`‡j wK mgv‡R g›` †jvK wbe©vwPZ ¶wZ n‡e? n‡q MYZš¿ I Mix‡ei wec‡¶ KvR Ki‡e| ‡fvU †`qvi mgq †`k‡cÖwgK, Rb`i`x, mr I wK wK we‡ePbv †hvM¨ cÖv_x© wKbv Zv Kiv DwPr? †`‡L, ï‡b I ey‡S †fvU w`‡Z n‡e|

cvV: 2.5

bvix I wkï cvPvi cÖwZ‡iva
D‡Ïk¨: GB cvV †k‡l AskMÖnYKvixMYBmy¨

cvPvi wK Ges cvPv‡ii aiY I †KŠkj¸‡jv e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡eb| cvPvi cÖwZ‡iv‡a wb‡Ri cwievi I cÖwZ‡ekx†`i m‡PZb Ki‡Z cvi‡eb| cvPv‡ii cÖPwjZ kvw¯—i wel‡q Rvb‡eb Ges cvPvi cÖwZ‡ivaKvix cÖwZôvb¸‡jv‡K mnvqZv Ki‡Z cvi‡eb| cvPvi wK? bvix I wkï‡`i‡K AmvgvwRK ev †eAvBbx Kv‡R e¨envi Kivi Rb¨ ‡`‡ki wfZ‡i ev evB‡i wewµ K‡i †`Iqv‡K cvPvi e‡j| ‡Kvb ai‡Yi bvix I wkï cvPvi nq: 1. wkï| 2. `wi`ª bvix I

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wbi¶i I Aíeqmx bvix I wkï| 3. mnR-mij gwnjv I wkï| 4. wK‡kvix, AweevwnZv, ZvjvKcÖvß, ¯^vgx cwiZ¨v³ gwnjv| 5. evox †_‡K cvjv‡bv wK‡kvi-wK‡kvix| 6. PvKzixi D‡Ï‡k¨ MÖvg †_‡K Avmv gwnjv| mvaviYZ: †Kvb †Kvb †`‡k bvix I wkï cvPvi nq: fviZ, cvwK¯—vb, ‡bcvj, kªªxjsKv, ga¨cÖvP¨, gvj‡qwkqv| bvix I wkï cvPv‡ii †KŠkjmg~n wK? AcniY, fvj Lv‡`¨i cÖ‡jvfb, fq-fxwZ cÖ`k©b, abx nIqvi Bmy¨

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wbivc` Rxeb Mwo|

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2.5 wk¶v_x©‡`i cvV hvPvB: bvix I wkï cvPvi
Rv‡b I ey‡S (msL¨v)

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cvPvi wK?

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D‡Ï‡k¨ MÖvg †_‡K Avmv gwnjv| cvPvi e‡Ü Kiv `iKvi? wK wkï‡`i GKv bv Qvov, AcwiwPZ KvD‡K evox‡Z Avkªq bv †`qv, AcwiwPZ Kv‡iv Lvevi bv LvIqv, †cÖ‡gi e¨vcv‡i †g‡q‡`i m‡PZb Kiv, GjvKvq m‡›`nRbK †jvK †`L‡j †LvR †bqv, mwVK Z_¨ bv †R‡b †Q‡j †g‡q‡K we‡q bv †`qv|

3. cwi‡ek
• ¯^v¯’¨m¤§Z cvqLvbv • cwi‡ek I e„¶‡ivcb • cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©vM

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cvV : 3.1

¯^v¯’¨m¤§Z cvqLvbv
D‡Ïk¨: GB cvV †k‡l AskMÖnYKvixMY

¯^v¯’¨m¤§Z cvqLvbv wK Zv e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡eb| ¯^v¯’¨m¤§Z cvqLvbv e¨env‡ii cÖ‡qvRbxqZv Dcjw× Ki‡eb Ges wbR cwievi I cÖwZ‡ekx†`i ¯^v¯’¨m¤§Z cvqLvbv e¨env‡i DØz× Ki‡eb| ¯^v¯’¨m¤§Z cvqLvbv eZ©gv‡b GKwU ¸i“Z¡c~Y© welq| ‡ivM evjvB n‡Z gyw³ †c‡Z cÖ_‡gB `iKvi ¯^v¯’¨m¤§Z cvqLvbv| GK mgx¶vq †`Lv †M‡Q Avgv‡`i †`‡k Bmy¨

m¨vwb‡Ukb e¨e¯’v bv _vKvi KviY n‡”Q `yBwU: `vwi`ªZv I 2. m‡PZbZvi Afve| 1. `vwi`ªZv

1.

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• ‡QvU wkïiv cvqLvbvi evB‡i gjZ¨vM Ki‡j Zv‡`i gj m‡½ m‡½ †mLvb †_‡K cwi¯‹vi K‡i cvqLvbvq †d‡j w`‡Z n‡e| • cvqLvbv †_‡K wd‡i G‡m nvZ fvjfv‡e mvevb ev QvB w`‡q ay‡q wb‡Z n‡e | • Avcbvi evwo‡Z cvqLvbv bv _vK‡j AvRB MZ© K‡i evuk, KvV w`‡q Avcwb wb‡RB GKwU ¯^v¯’¨m¤§Z wbivc` cvqLvbv ˆZix K‡i †djyb| • cÖwZevi cvqLvbv e¨env†ii ci h‡_ó cwigvb cvwb w`‡q cvqLvbv cwi¯‹vi Ki“b | ‡Lvjv RvqMvq gjZ¨vM Kiv ¯^v‡¯’¨i Rb¨ ¶wZKi : • ‡Lvjv RvqMvq gjZ¨vM Ki‡j g‡ji Dci gvwQ e‡m Ges cv I cvLvq K‡i Rxevby wb‡q gvwQ Lvev‡ii Dci e‡m| GB `~wlZ Lvevi †L‡q gvbyl Amy¯’ nq| • ‡Lvjv RvqMvq gj Z¨vM Ki‡j e„wói cvwbi mv‡_ cyKzi, Lvj I b`xi cvwb wg‡k cvwb‡K `~wlZ K‡i †Zv‡j| GB `~wlZ cvwb †L‡q gvbyl Amy¯’ nq | • ‡Lvjv RvqMvq cvqLvbv Ki‡j cvqLvbvq wg‡k _vKv †ivMRxevYy Avgv‡`i kix‡i Xy‡K hvq| Gfv‡e Avgv‡`i K„wg n‡Z cv‡i| cÖwZwU evwo‡Z ¯^v¯’¨m¤§Z cvqLvbv ˆZix Kiv m¤¢e • evwo †_‡K GKUz `~‡i wbw`©ó GKwU ¯’v‡b MZ© K‡i (2 dzUX6 dzU) M‡Z©i gy‡Li Dci evuk ev KvV w`‡q Ggbfv‡e †X‡K w`‡Z n‡e hv‡Z gvSLv‡b GKwU wQ`ª _v‡K| Ges wQ`ªwUi Bmy¨

Dci GKwU wUb ev Kv‡Vi XvKbv ˆZix Ki‡Z n‡e | `yM©Ü Kgv‡Z ev gvwQ `~‡i ivLvi Rb¨ e¨env‡ii c‡i wKQyUv QvB wQwU‡q w`‡Z n‡e Ges XvKbv w`‡q wQ`ªwU eÜ K‡i ivL‡Z n‡e| • ¯^v¯’¨m¤§Z cvqLvbv _vbv Rb¯^v¯’¨ cÖ‡KŠkj Awd‡m wKsev GbwRI Awd‡m Aí`v‡g cvIqv hvq|

3.1 wk¶v_x©‡`i cvV hvPvB: ¯^v¯’¨m¤§Z cvqLvbv
cÖkœ DËi
Rv‡b I ey‡S (msL¨v) DËi`vZvi msL¨v cy‡ivcyw ‡gvUvgy G‡Kev‡i i wU Rv‡b bv

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Bmy¨

cvV: 3.2

cwi‡ek I e„¶‡ivcb
D‡Ïk¨: GB cvV †k‡l AskMÖnYKvixMY

cwi‡ek Ges cwi‡ek ¸i“Z¡ e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡eb|

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nvZ †_‡K evmM„n‡K i¶v K‡i| KZUzKz eb cÖ‡qvRb: _vKv

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e„¶ i¶vq KiYxq:  mKj †kªYxi gvbyl‡K m‡PZb n‡Z n‡e|  AcÖ‡qvR‡b MvQ KvUv eÜ Ki‡Z n‡e|  A‰ea ‡PvivPvjvb eÜ Kivi Rb¨ eb msi¶‡Yi e¨e¯’v‡K Av‡iv †Rvi`vi Ki‡Z n‡e| e„¶ wbab I cÖwZKvi : e„¶ Avgv‡`i Rxeb avi‡Yi Rb¨ Acwinvh© n‡jI bvbv Kvi‡Y Zv †K‡U †djv n‡”Q| cÖvK…wZK R¡vjvwbi Afve, nvRvi nvRvi B‡Ui fvUv †cvov‡bv, wecyj Rb‡Mvwôi R¡vjvwb I Avmevec‡Îi Pvwn`v †gUv‡bv, †PvivPvjvb cÖf„wZ Kvi‡Y Avgv‡`i ebR m¤ú` bó n‡q hv‡”Q| GKwU MvQ KvU‡j Ab¨ MvQ jvMv‡bv nq bv| GKwU MvQ KvU‡j `kwU MvQ jvMv‡Z n‡e| ÔaŸsm bq m„wóÕ GB g‡bvfve wb‡q cÖwZwU gvbyl‡K GwM‡q Avm‡Z n‡e| †hfv‡e e„¶ KvUv n‡”Q GBfv‡e Pj‡Z _vK‡j AvMvgx K‡qK hy‡Mi g‡a¨ †`k Dò gi“f~wg‡Z cwiYZ n‡e| DòZv e„w× †c‡j c„w_exi Rgv‡bv eid Mj‡Z _vK‡e| G‡Z Avgv‡`i gZ †`‡ki bxPz GjvKv mvM‡i nvwi‡q hv‡e| ZvB †`k‡K euvPv‡Z n‡j e„¶‡ivcb Kg©m~Pxi ¸i“Z¡ Acwimxg|

Bmy¨

3.2

wk¶v_x©‡`i cvV hvPvB: cwi‡ek I e„¶‡ivcb
DËi
Rv‡b I ey‡S (msL¨v) DËi`vZvi msL¨v cy‡ivcyw ‡gvUvgy G‡Kev‡i i wU Rv‡b bv

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cwi‡ek wKfv‡e welv³ †auvqv, KjKviLvbvi `ywlZ nq? eR©¨, ivmvqwbK mv‡ii AwZ e¨envi, AcwiKwíZ bMi, ebvÂj aŸsm, wPswo Pvl BZ¨vw`| ‡ekx K‡i MvQ Lv‡`¨i Drm, cywói jvMv‡eb †Kb? †hvMvb †`q, Ni evwo Avmeve ˆZix Kiv hvq, Aw·‡Rb cvIqv hvq, cïcvwLi Avkªq, `y‡h©vM †gvKvwejv Kiv hvq, Avw_©Kfv‡e jvfevb nIqv hvq| e„¶‡ivc‡bi ¸i“Z¡ e„¶ cwi‡ek I AvenvIqvi ejyb? fvimvg¨ eRvq iv‡L| AwaK e„wócvZ NUvq, b`xi fv½b †iva K‡i, cÖvK… wZK `y‡hv©M †_‡K i¶v †c‡Z mvnvh¨ K‡i| ‡`‡k KZUzKz eb f~-L‡Ûi 25 fvM|

Bmy¨

_vKv `iKvi?

cvV : 3.3

cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©vM
D‡Ïk¨: GB cvV †k‡l AskMÖnYKvixMY

`y‡h©vM m¤ú‡K© Rvb‡Z cvi‡eb `y‡h©v‡Mi KviY e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡eb Ges `y‡h©vMc~e©, `y‡h©vMKvjxb I `y‡h©vM cieZx© KiYxq m¤ú‡K© Rvb‡eb `y‡h©v‡M wKfv‡e †gvKvwejv Ki‡Z nq wbR cwievi I cÖwZ‡ekx†`i ‡kLv‡Z cvi‡eb| †fŠ‡MvwjK Ae¯’v‡bi Kvi‡Y evsjv‡`k Dò gÛjxq A‡ji Aš—f©~³| eZ©gvb we‡k¦ evsjv‡`k we‡kl `ywU Bmy¨

cwiP‡q cwiwPZ| cÖ_gwU n‡jv `vwi`ª¨ I AwaK RbmsL¨v Ges wØZxqwU n‡jv cÖvK…wZK `y‡hv©M| cÖvK… wZK `y‡hv©M h_v: So, R‡jv”Q¡vm, eb¨v, Liv ev b`xfv½b BZ¨vw` cÖwZ eQiB Rxeb I m¤ú‡`i wecyj ¶wZmvab K‡i| `w¶‡Y mywekvj mgy`,ª Dˇi m‡e©v”P ce©Zgvjv, G `yÕ‡qi gv‡S Ae¯’v‡bi Kvi‡Y evsjv‡`‡k GB me cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©vM msNwUZ nq| hw`I GB me cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©vM wbg©~j Kiv m¤¢e bq| Z‡e mycwiKwíZ cÖkgb e¨e¯’v I DbœZ ai‡bi cÖ¯‘wZi gva¨‡g `y‡h©v‡Mi weiƒc djvdj n«vm Kiv m¤ ¢e| `y‡h©vM †gvKv‡ejvq cÖ¯‘wZ wn‡m‡e Avgv‡`i h‡_ó KiYxq i‡q‡Q| Gme cvjb Ki‡j Rvbgv‡ji ¶q-¶wZ n«vm Ges `ª“Z cybe©vmb Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i | `y‡hv©M wK ? `y‡hv©M n‡jv cÖK…wZ ev gvbyl m„ó Ggb AcÖZ¨vwkZ, Abwf‡cÖZ I wec`RbK Ae¯’v hv Rb Rxe‡bi ¯^vfvweK Pjv‡K e¨vnZ K‡i| `y‡hv©M e¨e¯’vcbv wK? `y‡hv©M cÖwZ‡iva †gvKv‡ejv Ges ¶q-¶wZ n«v‡mi Rb¨ M„nxZ cwiKíbv, cÖ¯‘wZ, †gvKvwejv Ges `y‡hv©M cieZ©x cyYe©vmb GB mg¯— Kg©KvÛ‡K mvgwMÖKfv‡e ejv nq `y‡hv©M e¨e¯’vcbv| `y‡hv©M cÖeY GjvKvq †h mg¯— `y‡hv©M cÖkgb I cÖZ¨vwkZ `y‡hv©M mg~‡ni ‡gvKvwejvq †h me cÖ¯ —wZ gyjK c`‡¶c MÖnY Kiv n‡q _v‡K, mvaviYZ Zv‡K cÖvK-`y‡hv©M e¨e¯’vcbv ejv nq| `y‡hv©M KZ cÖKvi :

Bmy¨

K) cÖK…wZ m„ó `y‡h©vM| †hgb: mvB‡K¬vb, eb¨v, f‚wgK¤ú BZ¨vw`| L) gvbe m„ó `y‡h©vM| †hgb: hy×, bvMwiK msNvZ, mš¿vm, `v½v-nv½vgv BZ¨vw`| evsjv‡`‡ki `y‡hv©M mg~n : U‡b©‡Wv: GwU mvaviYZ MÖx®§Kvj n‡Z el©vKvj Ges el©vKvj n‡Z kxZKv‡j N‡U _v‡K| U‡b©‡Wvi Kvi‡Y †h me ¶wZ mvab nq Zv n‡jv cÖvYnvwb, evwo-Ni I cïm¤ú` bó nq BZ¨vw`| U‡b©‡Wv †_‡K i¶vi Rb¨ evwoi Avw½bvq, Av‡k-cv‡k fvix wRwbmcÎ, KvV, wUb, Pv‡li hš¿cvwZ, †jvnv BZ¨vw` †Lvjv RvqMvq Qwo‡q wQwU‡q ivLv DwPr bq| evwoi KvQvKvwQ MvQcvjvi Wvj †K‡U I †Q‡U evwo‡K gy³ K‡i ivLv †h‡Z cv‡i| eb¨v: evsjv‡`k GKwU e-Øxc nIqv‡Z Gi ga¨ w`‡q wZbwU eo b`x e‡q ‡M‡Q| elv©Kv‡j GB me b`xi Drmmg~n ‡_‡K A_©vr fviZ I †bcvj n‡Z †h cvwb cÖevwnZ nq Ges †`‡k †h e„wócvZ nq Zv enb K‡i e‡½vcmvM‡i wb‡q hvIqv GB b`x¸‡jvi c‡¶ `ytmva¨ n‡q c‡o| d‡j eb¨v nq| eb¨v wbqwš¿Z GjvKvq evua †f‡½ eb¨v n‡j ¶q¶wZi gvÎv A‡bK e¨vcK I my`~i cÖmvix nq| Bmy¨

eb¨vgy³ GjvKv nIqvq RbMY eb¨vi Rb¨ cÖ¯—Z _v‡K bv Ges Rxeb hvÎvq e¨vcK cwieZ©b Av‡m| d‡j eb¨vq ¶q¶wZi cwigvb †e‡o hvq| AZGe euva ˆZixi cvkvcvwk euva i¶Yv‡e¶Y, euv‡ai `~e©j RvqMv wPwýZKiY I cwiPh©v Ges cÖ‡qvR‡b euv‡ai †cQ‡b mnvqK euva wbg©v‡Y miKvix, †emiKvix D‡`¨v‡Mi cvkvcvwk RbMY‡K GwM‡q Avm‡Z n‡e| mvB‡K¬vb R‡jv”Q¡vm: FZz cwieZ©‡bi mgq evqy mgy`ª †mªvZ ZvcgvÎv ZviZg¨ Ges evZv‡mi NbZ¡ Kvi‡Y GUv fviZ gnvmvMi I e‡½vcmvM‡i msNwUZ nq| evsjv‡`‡ki Ae¯’vb: e‡½vcmvM‡i Lvoxi g‡a¨ nIqvq mvgyw`ªK wbgœPvc ZxiMvgx nIqvi cÖeYZv _v‡K| R‡jv”Q¡vm N~wY©S‡oi mnhvÎx A_©vr N~wY©So n‡j R‡jv”Q¡vm nIqvi m¤¢vebv _v‡K| mvaviYZ: N~wY©So Qvov R‡jv”Q¡vm nq bv| †h N~wY©S‡o R‡jv”Q¡vm Kg †m N~wY©S‡o g„Zz¨ wKsev aŸs‡mi cwigvb Kg| Kv‡RB R‡jv”Q¡v‡m Rxeb euvPv‡bvi c_ Ges Zv wKfv‡e Ki‡Z n‡e †m m¤ú‡K© †R‡b ivLv cÖ‡qvRb| N~wY©So Avkªq‡K›`ª Ges DuPz ¯’v‡b bvix, wkï, Mevw` cï I e„ׇ`i‡K gnvwec` ms‡KZ ‡kvbvi mv‡_ mv‡_ wb‡q †h‡Z n‡e| cvwb‡Z fv‡m Ges hv Rxeb i¶vq mvnvh¨ K‡i Ggb fvmgvb e¯‘ evox‡Z ivL‡Z n‡e| Liv: Livi KviY nj fvi‡Z ïKbv †gŠmy‡g cvwb cÖev‡ni wefvRb Kiv, eb DRvo, b`xi bve¨Zv n«vm ev el©vKv‡ji cvwb aviY ¶gZv n«vm BZ¨vw`| Livi d‡j K…lK‡`i Rxeb Ges A_©bxwZ‡Z GKwU `xN©†gqv`x ‡bwZevPK cªfve c‡o| mgqgZ †mP I Pvlvev` c×wZi cwieZ©‡bi gva¨‡g Liv Bmy¨

cÖwZnZ Kiv hvq| Liv cÖeY GjvKvq wfbœZvi Dci I K… l‡Ki AwfÁZv jä Áv‡bi Av‡jv‡K mwVK †mP c×wZ MÖnY Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| Liv cÖeY GjvKvq Av‡M _vK‡Z †m‡Pi mKj cª¯‘wZ I cÖhyw³ msMÖ‡n ivLv †h‡Z cv‡i, hv‡Z k‡m¨i cvwbi Pvwn`v h_vmg‡q c~iY Kiv hvq| gnvgvix: ‡h †Kvb `y‡h©v‡Mi (eb¨v, Liv R‡jv”Q¡vm) ci `~wlZ cvwbi Kvi‡Y K‡jiv Ges Wvqwiqv gnvgvix AvKv‡i †`Lv †`q| hw`I m‡PZbZvg~jK Kvh©µ‡gi ga¨ w`‡q g„Zz¨nvi A‡bK Kgv‡bv m¤¢e| GQvov e¨vcKfv‡e m¨vjvBb evbv‡bv Ges evRviRvZKi‡Yi gva¨‡g cvwb k~b¨Zv †iva Kiv hvq| Z_vwc el©v †gŠmy‡g Ges eb¨v †k‡l cvwb †b‡g †M‡j g„Zz¨i nvi h‡_ó †ewk Ges me mgqB G¸‡jvi cÖv`yf©ve N‡U| g¨v‡jwiqv: †`‡k †h †h ¯’v‡b eb-R½j Av‡Q †mLv‡b g¨v‡jwiqvi cÖ‡Kvc I cÖv`yf©ve †ewk| mvaviYZ el©v †gŠmy‡gi Av‡M I c‡i Gi cÖv`yf©ve †`Lv †`q| Av‡m©wbK : Av‡m©wbK GK ai‡bi wel, hv mivmwi cvb ev †meb Ki‡j g„Zz¨ AeavwiZ| †`‡ki GK weivU AÂj a‡i Ges f‚Mf©¯’ R‡j Av‡m©wb‡Ki cwigvY †e‡o hvIqvq we‡kl K‡i wUDeI‡q‡ji R‡j Gi cwigvY †e‡o hvIqvq gvby‡li wewfbœ †ivM †`Lv w`‡”Q Ges Gi Rb¨ g„Zz¨I N‡U| GB cwiw¯’wZ‡Z fwel¨‡Z AviI fqven Ae¯’v m„wó n‡Z cv‡i| evqy`~lY : wk‡ívbœZ †`‡ki g‡Zv evqy`~lY mviv we‡k¦i Rb¨ GKwU eo Bmy¨

ûgwK| kn‡ii †auvqv hvbevn‡bi Kv‡jv †auvqv, eR© c`v_©, evqy`~lY GRb¨ we‡klfv‡e `vqx| f‚wgK¤c : evsjv‡`‡ki Ae¯’vb f‚wgK¤ccÖeb GjvKvq| evsjv‡`‡k AZx‡Z g„`y I gvSvwi ai‡bi K¤cb n‡q‡Q| evsjv‡`k GB kZvwãi †k‡l AvKv‡ii f‚wgK¤ccªeb GjvKvq cwiYZ n‡e e‡j we‡klÁiv g‡b K‡ib| f~wgK‡¤úi ¶q¶wZ †_‡K i¶vi Rb¨ evox ˆZixi Av‡M H A‡ji f~-ZvwË¡K Ae¯’v, GKwUf dë, f~wgi MVb BZ¨vw`i e¨vcv‡i †LuvR wbb| f~wgaŸm A‡j evox ˆZixi c~‡e© evoxi b·vcÖ‡KŠkj m¤ú‡K© wbwðZ †nvb| cÖ‡qvR‡b Z…Zxq c‡¶i gva¨‡g Gme cix¶v Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| f‚wgaŸm : f‚wgaŸm cwi‡e‡ki Ab¨Zg cÖavb wech©q| evsjv‡`‡ki 3wU †Rjv cvnvwo GjvKvq| †mLv‡b A‡bK cvnvwo wUjvI i‡q‡Q| ZvB Gme GjvKvq f‚wgaŸ‡mi Avk¼v A‡bK| f‚wgaŸm AvMvgx‡Z AviI evo‡e| ebf‚wg DRvo n‡”Q| cvnvo ev wUjv A‡ji gvwU w`‡q †QvU wbæ f‚wg fivU Kiv n‡”Q| d‡j f‚wgaŸm evo‡Q| b`xfvsMb : b`xfv½b KewjZ GjvKvq Ggbfv‡e Ni-evox ˆZix Kiv DwPr hv‡Z cÖ‡qvR‡bi mgq mn‡R GK¯’vb †_‡K Ab¨¯’v‡b mwi‡q c~bwb©gvb Kiv hvq| fv½bcÖeY ev fv½‡bi SuywK Av‡Q Ggb RvqMvq ¯’vqx cvKv KvVv‡gv ev feb wbg©vY Kiv DwPr bq|

Bmy¨

`y‡h©v‡Mi cÖev‡n Kx nq : 1. Rxeb nvwb 2. AvNvZ/¶Z/Amvg_©¨Zv 3. AZ¨vekKxq Lv`¨ k‡m¨i ¶wZ 4. m¤cwË aŸsm 5. M„ncvwjZ cï-cvwLi ¶wZ 6. Rxeb hvc‡bi ¯’weiZv 7. euvPvi c_/PvKzwi nviv‡bv 8. emev‡mi Ae¯’v ev cwi‡ek e¨vnZ Kiv| 9. Rxe‡bi mv‡_ ‡h me †mev cÖwZôvb RwoZ †hgbnvmcvZvj, LvIqvi cvwb, cqtwb®‹vkb, we`y¨r, R¡vjvwb, mieivn Kvh©µg aŸsm Ges e¨vnZ K‡i| 10. mvgvwRK I gb¯—vwË¡K Pvc evovq| 11. ¯’vbxq I RvZxq AeKvVv‡gv aŸsm K‡i| 12. Pjgvb Dbœqb cÖ‡Póv e¨nZ K‡i| 13. A_©‰bwZK cðvrc`Zv, ¶zav evovq hv Acywó e‡q Av‡b| 14.MÖvg n‡Z RbMY kn‡i Av‡m| `y‡h©vM c~e©eZx c`‡¶cmg~n : • evwo‡Z wbqwgZ AvenIqv evZ©v ïbvi Rb¨ †iwWI msMÖn Kiv Ges AwZwi³ e¨vUvwi gRy` ivLyb| • Avcbvi evwo‡Z †Kvb GKUv wbw`©ó ¯’vb wPwýZ K‡i ivLyb| †hLv‡b Ri“wi Lv`¨, Lvevi cvwb, w`qvkjvB ev·, †gvgevwZ BZ¨vw` gvwUi wb‡P cuy‡Z ivLv hvq| • `~ieZx© Pi GjvKvq I Mfxi mgy‡`ª PjvPjKvix †R‡j †bŠKvmn mg¯— †bŠhv‡b UªvbwR÷vi †iwWI I jvBdeq ivLyb Ges wbqwgZ AvenvIqv evZ©v ïbyb| Bmy¨

• muvZvi KvUv Ges Mv‡Q DVvi †KŠkjvw` fvjfv‡e AvqË Ki“b| cÖ‡qvRb gyn~‡Z© AwZ mn‡R wfRv Mv‡Q DVvi Rb¨ `woi gB evwb‡q ivLyb| • jvBd R¨v‡KU, jvBdeq, Mvwoi cyiv‡bv Uvqvi I evqyfwZ© wUDe, cvw÷‡Ki Wªvg BZ¨vw` evwo‡Z msi¶Y Ki“b| • AcmviY wb‡`©k †c‡j †Kv_vq Avkªq MÖnY Ki‡eb, Zv wVK K‡i ivLyb| • AvmevecÎ, hš¿cvwZ, wUb BZ¨vw` fvjfv‡e †MvQv‡bv Ae¯’vq N‡ii wfZ‡i ivLyb| KviY cÖej evZv‡m D‡o G¸‡jv gvby‡li ¶wZ Ki‡Z cv‡i| • gvwU †d‡j evwoi wfUv DuPz Ki“b| bZzb evwo ˆZwii mgq evwoi wfUv DuPz Kivi Dci ¸i“Z¡ w`b| `y‡h©vM mgqKvjxb c`‡¶c : • †iwWI‡Z cÖPvwiZ AvenvIqv evZ©v wbqwgZ ïbyb| • wew”Qbœ Pi GjvKv †_‡K mZ¡i wbivc` ¯’v‡b P‡j Avmyb| • evwoi wbw`©ó ¯’v‡b cÖ‡qvRbgZ wPov, gywo, Pvj, Wvj, Lvevi cvwb, K‡qKwU bvwi‡Kj, w`qvkjvB ev·, †gvgevwZ BZ¨vw` wewfbœ cvÎ I cvwb wb‡ivaK e¨v‡M ‡i‡L 2 nvZ MZ© K‡i gvwUi wb‡P cyu‡Z ivLyb| • gwnjviv gv_vi Pz‡ji †ebx A_ev †Luvcv euvayb Ges UzKiv Kvco w`‡q gv_vi Pzj †eu‡a ivLyb| • †R‡j †bŠKvmn mKj †bŠhvb DcK‚‡ji KvQvKvwQ wbivc` ¯’v‡b wb‡q Avmyb| • Avkªq ‡K‡›`ª hvIqvi Rb¨ wkï, e„× I Amy¯’ e¨w³‡`i‡K mvnvh¨ Ki“b| • Avkªq ‡K‡›`ª hvIqvi c~‡e© Mevw` cïi euvab †Q‡o w`b| Bmy¨

• evwo‡Z we`y¨r ms‡hvM _vK‡j Avkªq †K‡›`ª hvIqvi c~‡e© †gBb myBP eÜ K‡i w`b| • j¶¨ ivLyb †KD †hb Avkªq †K‡›`ªi †hLv‡b-†mLv‡b gjg~Î Z¨vM bv K‡i Ges mevB †hb ¯^v¯’¨ wewa †g‡b P‡j| `y‡h©vM cieZx© c`‡¶cmg~n : • Avcbvi g‡bvej AUzU ivLyb| • Ni-Pvcv cov, Mv‡Qi Wv‡j AvU‡K cov cvwb‡Z fvmgvb †jvK‡`i D×vi Ki“b| • iv¯—v-NvU I evwoN‡ii AvwObvq Qov‡bv wQUv‡bv KvV, wUb, †jvnv fv½v, MvQcvjv BZ¨vw` mwi‡q †djyb| • AvnZ †jvKR‡bi †mev Ki“b Ges cÖv_wgK wPwKrmv w`b| • †¯^PQv‡meK I Kg©x`j‡K mvnvh¨ Ki“b| • wb‡Ri Nievwo †givgZ Ki“b Ges Nievwo †givg‡Z Ab¨‡K mvnvh¨ Ki“b| • N~wY©S‡oi mv‡_ R‡jv”Q¡vm cvweZ GjvKvq †Kv‡bv cyKzi, K‚c BZ¨vw`i cvwb cvb Ki‡eb bv| • gvwUi wb‡P cyu‡Z ivLv mwÂZ cvwb †ei K‡i cvb Ki“b| • cvwb dzwU‡q cvb Ki“b A_ev weï×KiY ewo cvwbi cv‡Î w`‡q Kgc‡¶ GKNÈv c‡i †mB cvwb cvb Ki“b|

Bmy¨

3.3 wk¶v_x©‡`i cvV hvPvB: cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©vM
cÖkœ DËi
Rv‡b I ey‡S (msL¨v) DËi`vZvi cy‡ivcy ‡gvUvg G‡Kev‡i msL¨v wi ywU Rv‡b bv

`~‡h©vM wK? cÖK…wZ ev gbyl¨ m„ó AcÖZ¨vwkZ,wec`RbK Ae¯’v hv RbRxeb‡K ¯^vfvweKfv‡e Pjv e¨vnZ K‡i| cÖK…wZ m„ó mvB‡K¬vb, f~wgK¤ú, `y‡h©vM wK? eb¨v, Liv, b`xfv½b| `y‡h©v‡Mi d‡j Rxeb nvwb, Lv‡`¨i Afve, wK ¶wZ nq? m¤úwË bó, mvgvwRK I gvbwmK Pvc ev‡o, Avw_©K AbUb †`Lv †`q| `y‡h©v‡Mi nvZ `y‡h©vM m¤ú‡K© †_‡K i¶v †c‡Z m‡PZb _vKv Ges wK Kiv DwPr? `y‡h©v‡Mi Av‡M I c‡i wK KiYxq Zv m¤ú‡K© aviYv ivLv|

Bmy¨

4.

mgvR cwieZ©b I ¯’vbxq msMVb ˆZix
• Rb¥ wbeÜb • evj¨weevn I eûweevn • ‡hŠZzK • ZvjvK • ¯’vbxq †mevg~jK cÖwZôvb

Bmy¨

cvV : 4.1

Rb¥ wbeÜb
D‡Ïk¨ t GB cvV †k‡l AskMÖnYKvixMY

Rb¥wbe܇bi cvi‡eb|

cÖ‡qvRb

m¤ú‡K©

Rvb‡Z

wbR cwievi, AvZ¥xq I cÖwZ‡ekx‡`i wkï Rb¥MÖnY Ki‡j Rb¥ wbeÜb Ki‡Z DrmvwnZ Ki‡eb| evsjv‡`‡k Rb¥ wbeÜb cÖwZwU wkïi Rb¥MZ AwaKvi| RvwZmsN wkï AwaKvi mb‡` R‡b¥i ciciB wkïi Rb¥ wbeÜb wbwðZ Kivi K_v ejv n‡q‡Q| 1873 mvj †_‡K evsjv‡`‡ki Rb¥ I g„Zz¨ wbeÜb AvBb Abymv‡i GKwU wkï R‡b¥i 8 w`‡bi g‡a¨ wkïi Rb¥ wbeÜb eva¨Zvg~jK|

Bmy¨

cÖwZwU wkïi AwaKvi myi¶vi c~e©kZ© n‡”Q Zvi Rb¥ wbeÜb Kiv| wkkyi Rb¨ mKj AvBb I wewaweavb h_vh_fv‡e cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z mwVK eqm wba©vib LyeB cÖ‡qvRb| GKRb wkïi Rb¥ wbe܇bi d‡j Zvi mwVK eqm wba©vib QvovI ‡m Av‡iv eû myweav cv‡e| Rb¥ wbe܇bi mv‡_ mv‡_ wkï cv‡e iv‡óªi ¯^xK…wZ| evsjv‡`‡k wkï m¤úwK©Z AvB‡b wkï AwaKvi i¶vq ivóª `vwqZ¡ wb‡q‡Q| evsjv‡`‡ki g‡Zv †`‡k wkkyi Rb¥ wbeÜb n‡jv wkï‡`i ¯’vqx cvwievwiK cwiwPwZ| Avi Rb¥ wbeÜb mb` n‡”Q †`‡ki gvby‡li GKwU AvbyôvwbK ¯^xK…wZcÎ| evsjv‡`‡k Rb¥ wbeÜb AvB‡bi AvIZvq BDwbqb cwil`, †cŠimfv I K¨v›Ub‡g›U †evW© Rb¥ wbeÜb Kivi Rb¨ `vwqZ¡cÖvß| 2004 mv‡ji wW‡m¤^‡i mKj wkïi Rb¥ wbeÜb eva¨Zvg~jK Kiv n‡q‡Q|

Rb¥ wbeÜb bv Kivq Amyweavmg~n:
Rb¥ wbeÜb bv nevi d‡j cvPvi nIqv wkï Zv‡`i wbR †`k, Ni, Avkªq Ges bvMwiKZ¡ †_‡K ewÂZ n‡”Q| Rb¥ wbeÜb bv n‡j †fvUvi wn‡m‡e mwVK mg‡q bvg Aš—f©~w³ nq bv, PvKzixi eqmmxgv wba©vib mgm¨v nq, we‡`‡k cov‡kvbvq mgm¨v nq, †`‡ki bvMwiK wn†m‡e cÖgvY Kiv hvq bv, ¯‹z‡j mwVK mg‡q fwZ© Kiv‡bv hvq bv Ges evj¨weevn ‡iva Kiv m¤¢e nq bv|

Rb¥ wbe܇bi DcKvwiZv :
 RvZxqZv bvMwiKZ¡ cÖgvY I

Bmy¨

evj¨ weevn †iva m¤¢e wkï kªg mn‡R eÜ Kiv hvq wK‡kvi wePvi e¨e¯’vq wkï‡`i †¶‡Î AvPiY Kiv hvq  mwVK RbmsL¨v wba©vi‡Yi d‡j ¯^v¯’¨, wk¶v BZ¨vw` wewfbœ †mev cwiKíbv MÖnY m¤¢e nq  wewfbœ D‡Ï‡k¨ eqm evov‡bv-Kgv‡bvi cÖeYZv ‡iva Kiv hvq  wkï AwaKvi msi¶‡b AvBbMZ mnvqZv †c‡Z, †hgb ¯‹z‡j fwZ©, cvm‡cvU© cvIqv, †fvUvi ZvwjKvq bvg †jLv‡bv, ¯^v¯’¨ †mev cvIqv, weevn, m¤úwË weµq I DËivwaKvi wVK Ki‡Z Rb¥ mb` cÖ‡qvRb  PvKzixi eqmmxgv wba©viY Kiv hvq|    wbwðZ wW‡m¤^i 2008-Gi ci eva¨Zvg~jKfv‡e Rb¥wbeÜb mb` 16wU †mev cÖvw߇Z cÖ‡qvRb n‡ecvm‡cvU© ˆZix weevn †iwR‡óªkb wk¶v cÖwZôv‡b fwZ© PvKix‡Z wb‡qvM WªvBwfs jvB‡mÝ ˆZix †fvUvi ZvwjKv ˆZix Rwg ‡iwRwóª e¨vsK wnmve †LvjvAvg`vbx ißvbx jvB‡mÝ Ki‡Z M¨vm, cvwb, we`y¨r I †dvb ms‡hvM †c‡Zevoxi bKkv Aby‡gv`b Ki‡Z wVKv`vix jvB‡mÝevox †iwRwóª‡UªW jvB‡mÝRvZxq cwiPq cÎ U¨v· cwiwPwZ b¤^i

Rb¥ wbeÜb wKfv‡e nq:
wkïi wcZv-gvZv ev AwffveK wb‡R A_ev Ab¨ Kv‡iv gva¨‡g 6 (Qq) eQi ch©š— eqmx wkïi Z_¨ wba©vwiZ di‡g wjwce× K‡i Zv mivmwi BDwbqb cwil` ev †cŠimfvq Rgv w`‡Z nq| †Pqvig¨vb Z`‡š—i gva¨‡g Bmy¨

mZ¨Zv hvPvB K‡i Av‡e`b cÖvwßi 10 Kg© w`e‡mi g‡a¨ wbeÜb w`‡Z cv‡ib| 6 eQ‡ii D‡aŸ© hv‡`i eqm Zviv Rb¥ wbe܇bi Rb¨ Av‡e`b Ki‡j BDwbqb miKvix ¯^v¯’¨ wK¬wb‡Ki †gwWK¨vj Awdmvi A_ev miKvix GgweweGm Wv³vi Av‡e`bKvixi eqm m¤ú‡K© Z_¨ msMÖn di‡gi wba©vwiZ ¯’v‡b cÖZ¨qb Ki‡eb Ges mswkó IqvW© †g¤^vi Av‡e`bKvixi Rb¥¯’vb m¤ú‡K© di‡gi wba©vwiZ ¯’v‡b cÖZ¨qb Ki‡eb| AZ:ci BDwc/ †cŠi †Pqvig¨vb wkï Rb¥ wbe܇bi Av‡`k w`‡eb| Rb¥ wbeÜxKiY Kg©m~wP‡Z ¯^v¯’¨ I cwievi cwiKíbv wefv‡Mi gvVKgx© I BDwc †PŠwK`vi /`dv`vi `vwqZ¡ cvjb K‡ib|

Rb¥ wbe܇bi KwZcq mvaviY wbqg :
 cÖ‡Z¨‡K Rb¥ wbeÜb Ki‡Z n‡e  ‡hLv‡b Rb¥ †mB ¯’v‡bi BDwbqb A_ev †cŠimfvq wbeÜb Ki‡Z n‡e  6 eQi ch©š— wcZvÑgvZvi †`qv Z_¨ MÖnY‡hvM¨  wcZvi cwiPq Rvbv bv _vK‡j gvZvi cwiP‡q Rb¥ wbeÜb Kiv hv‡e  RgR ev”Pvi †¶‡Î 2wU c„_K wbeÜb Ki‡Z n‡e  wbe܇bi c~‡e© wkïi g„Zz¨ n‡j Rb¥ wbeÜb K‡i g„Zz¨ wbeÜb Ki‡Z n‡e  Rb¥ mb‡` fyj n‡j 7 w`‡bi g‡a¨ wd Qvov ms‡kvab Kiv hv‡e  h_v mg‡q Rb¥ wbeÜb I mb‡`i Rb¨ †Kvb wd w`‡Z nq bv  Wywc‡KU I Bs‡iRx Rb¥ mb` wb‡Z miKvi wba©vwiZ wd w`‡Z nq

Bmy¨

eqm ms‡kvab Ki‡Z n‡j BDwbqb cwil‡`i †ejvq Dc‡Rjv wbe©vnx Awdmvi Ges †cŠimfvi †¶‡Î †Rjv g¨vwR‡óª‡Ui wjwLZ Av‡`k cÖ‡qvRb wKš‘ eqm 10(`k) eQi c~Y© n‡j †Kvb Kg©KZ©v Av‡`k w`‡Z cvi‡eb bv|  Av‡e`bKvix Rb¥ mb` PvB‡j Av‡e`‡bi 30 w`‡bi g‡a¨ KZ„©c¶ Zv w`‡Z eva¨| Ab¨_vq wej‡¤^i KviY Av‡e`bKvix‡K wjwLZfv‡e Rvbv‡Z n‡e|

4.1 wk¶v_x©‡`i cvV hvPvB: Rb¥ wbeÜb
cÖkœ DËi
Rv‡b I ey‡S (msL¨v) DËi`vZ G‡Kev vi cy‡ivc ‡gvUv ‡i msL¨v ywi gywU Rv‡b bv

Rb¥ wbeÜb Kivi RvZxqZv I bvMwiK‡Z¡i cÖgvY, myweav wK? wkïkªg I evj¨ weevn eÜ, PvKzixi eqmmxgv wba©vib, cvm‡cvU© †c‡Z Rwg µq weµq, †fvUvi ZvwjKvq bvg †jLv, ¯^v¯’¨‡mev cvIqv BZ¨vw` wKfv‡e wbeÜb nq ? Rb¥ wkïi wcZv-gvZv ev AwffveK Ki‡Z A_ev Ab¨ Kv‡iv gva¨‡g 6 eQi ch©š— eqmx wkïi Z_¨ di‡g wj‡L BDwbqb cwil` ev †cŠimfvq Rgv w`‡Z n‡e| 16wU †mev|

Rb¥ wbe܇bi d‡j KqwU †mev cvIqv hv‡e?

KLb †_‡K 2008 mv‡ji wW‡m¤^i gv†mi ci eva¨Zvg~jKfv‡ †_‡K| e Rb¥ mb`

Bmy¨

jvM‡e?

cvV : 4.2

evj¨ weevn I eû weevn
D‡Ïk¨: GB cvV †k‡l AskMÖnYKvixMY

evj¨ weevn I eû weev‡ni Kzdj m¤ú‡K© Rvb‡Z cvi‡eb evj¨ weevn I eû weev‡n wb‡R‡`i KiYxq m¤ú‡K© Rvb‡eb G †_‡K wbR cwievi I cÖwZ‡ekx†`i gv‡S evj¨ weevn I eû weevn cÖwZ‡iv‡a mvgvwRK `vwqZ¡ cvjb Ki‡Z cvi‡eb|

Bmy¨

hw` †Kv‡bv mvevjK cyi“l †Kvb bvevjK †g‡q‡K, †Kvb bvevjK †Q‡j ‡Kvb mvevjK †g‡q‡K we‡q K‡i A_ev †Q‡j †g‡q `yÕRbB bvevjK bvevwjKv nq Zv‡KB evj¨ weevn e‡j| A_©vr 18 eQ‡ii bx‡P ‡Kv‡bv †g‡qi Ges 21 eQ‡ii bx‡P †Kv‡bv †Q‡ji we‡q n‡jB Zv‡K evj¨ weevn e‡j| evj¨ weev‡ni Amyweavmg~n :  kixi †f‡½ hvq (¯^v¯’¨ bó nq)
 

¯^vgx-¯¿xi wfZi wgjwgk nq bv Aí eq‡mB msmv‡ii †evSv gv_vq c‡o ¯^vgx-¯¿xi m¤úK© eyS‡Z cv‡i bv k¦ïi, kvïoxi mgv`i eyS‡Z cv‡i bv Aí eq‡m Nb Nb mš—vb nq gv I wkï cywónxbZvq †fv‡M SMov ev cvwicvwk¦©K Akvwš— †j‡M _v‡K Zvjv‡Ki msL¨v ev‡o eû weevn e„w× cvq


 


 

evj¨ weev‡ni kvw¯— : GKgvm †gqv` ch©š— webvkªg Kviv`Û wKsev GK nvRvi UvKv ch©š— Rwigvbv A_ev Dfq `ÛB n‡Z cv‡i| G kvw¯— evj¨weevnKvix, weevn m¤úbœKvix Ges Awffve‡Ki †¶‡ÎI Bmy¨

cÖ‡hvR¨| hviv weevn Av‡qvR‡b RwoZ _vK‡e Zv‡`i †¶‡ÎI GB kvw¯— cÖ‡hvR¨| G AvB‡b msNwUZ Aciva m¤ú~Y©iƒ‡cB †dŠR`vix Aciva| myZivs wbtm‡›`‡n Gi wePvi c×wZ †dŠR`vix Kvh©wewai Aaxb AbyaŸ© 6 gvm †gqv‡`i Kviv`Û †hvM¨ Aciva¸wji welq msw¶ß c×wZ‡Z AbywôZ n‡e| G Rb¨ evj¨weevn wb‡iva AvB‡bi Aax‡b †Kv‡bv Aciva msNwUZ n‡j Gi wePvi †dŠR`vix wewa AvB‡bi 260 (K) avivi AvIZvf~³ n‡e| evj¨ weevn cÖwZ‡iv‡a KiYxq: cÖwZwU wkïi Rb¥ wbeÜb Ki‡Z n‡e| GjvKvi MY¨gvb¨ e¨w³, †Pqvig¨vb I †g¤^i‡`i‡K Rvbv‡Z n‡e|  AwffveK‡`i Dci mvgvwRK Pvc m„wó Ki‡Z n‡e|  evj¨ weevn †iv‡a KvRx I Bgvg‡`i `vwqZ¡ cvj‡b mnvqZv Ki‡Z n‡e|  evj¨weevn cÖwZ‡iv‡a AwffveK‡`i ¶wZKi w`K¸‡jv m¤ú‡K© Rvbv‡Z n‡e|  ‡Kv_vI evj¨ weevn msNwUZ n‡j mswkó GjvKvi nxW evsjv‡`k Awd‡m Rvbv‡Z n‡e|
 

eû weevn
¯¿x eZ©gvb _vKv Ae¯’vq cybivq we‡q Kiv‡K eû weevn e‡j| Bmjvg ag© eû weevn‡K wbwl× K‡iwb| Z‡e eû weevn‡K kZ©hy³ K‡i‡Q| Bmjv‡gi `„wó‡Z eû weev‡ni kZ©¸‡jv n‡jv :  ‡mœn-fvjevmvi w`K †_‡K mKj ¯¿x‡K GKB `„wó‡Z †`L‡Z n‡e|  mKj ¯¿xi mv‡_ mgvb e¨envi Ki‡Z n‡e| Bmy¨

mKj‡K mgvbfv‡e fiY‡cvlb w`‡Z n‡e|

mvaviY gvby‡li c‡¶ a‡g©i GB me kZ© cvjb K‡i eû weevn Kiv m¤¢e bq| ZvB ejv hvq ag© eûweevn‡K wbi“rmvwnZ K‡i‡Q| eûweev‡ni Lvivc w`K¸‡jv: msmv‡i LiP e„w× cvq msmv‡i Afve †`Lv †`q RbmsL¨v ev‡o msmv‡i Akvwš— e„w× cvq  msmv‡i †Q‡j-†g‡q‡`i mwVKfv‡e jvjb cvjb Kiv hvq bv  ¯^vgx-¯¿xi mym¤úK© _v‡K bv  msmv‡i wnsmv †e‡o hvq|     eûweev‡ni wbqg: 1. eZ©gvb ¯¿xi wjwLZ AbygwZ wb‡Z n‡e, 2. ¯^vgx‡K BDwbqb cwil` †Pqvig¨v‡bi wbKU wØZxq we‡qi AbygwZ †P‡q Av‡e`b Ki‡Z n‡e, 3. ‡Pqvig¨vb Dfq c‡¶i cÖwZwbwa‡`i wb‡q mvwjkx cwil` MVb Ki‡eb| mvwjkx cwil` eûweev‡ni KviY ev †hŠw³KZv hvPvB Ki‡eb| A_©vr ¯¿x mš—vb Rb¥`v‡b, mvsmvwiK I `v¤úZ¨ `vwqZ¡ cvj‡b A¶g wKbv †`L‡eb| Dc‡iv³ AbygwZ cÎ e‡j ¯^vgx eû weevn Ki‡Z cv‡ib| eû weev‡ni kvw¯— : mvwjkx cwil‡`i AbygwZ Qvov eû weevn msMwVZ n‡j 1 (GK) ermi ch©š— webvkªg Kviv`Û A_ev Bmy¨

10,000 (`k nvRvi) UvKv ch©š— Rwigvbv A_ev Dfq `‡Û `wÛZ n‡e| eû weevn †iv‡a KiYxq :
 we‡q†Z †iwR‡óªkb Kivi Rb¨ mevB‡K DØy× Ki‡Z

n‡e|
 eû weev‡n wbi“rmvwnZ Ki‡Z n‡e|

 evj¨ weevn I †hŠZzK †jb‡`b eÜ Ki‡Z n‡e|
 ‡g‡q‡`i wkw¶Z I ¯^vej¤^x K‡i Zzj‡Z n‡e|

4.2

wk¶v_x©‡`i cvV hvPvB: evj¨ weevn I eû weevn
DËi
DËi`v Zvi msL¨v Rv‡b I ey‡S (msL¨v) G‡Kev‡ cy‡ivcy ‡gvUv i Rv‡b wi gywU bv

cÖkœ

evj¨ weevn wK? 18 eQ‡ii bx‡P †g‡q A_ev 21 eQ‡ii bx‡P †Q‡ji we‡q‡K evj¨ weevn e‡j| evj¨ weev‡ni GKgvm †Rj ev kvw¯— wK wK? 1000UvKv Rwigvbv A_ev Dfq `Ê n‡Z cv‡i| evj¨ weev‡ni ¯^v¯’¨ bó, SMov Akvw¯ d‡j wK ÿwZ —, NbNb mš—vb, gv I nq? wkïi Acywó, eû weevn e„w×, Zvjv‡Ki msL¨v e„w×| eû weev‡ni Kzdj msmv‡i LiP e„w×, wK ? Akvw¯— ev‡o, Afve †`Lv †`q, RbmsL¨v e„w×| eû weev‡ni mvwjkx cwil‡`i AbygwZ kvw¯— wK wK? Qvov eû weevn Ki‡j 1 ermi †Rj ev 10000 UvKv

Bmy¨

Rwigvbv ev Dfq `Ê n‡Z cv‡i| eû weev‡ni nvZ ‡iwR‡óªkb Qvov we‡q †_‡K i¶v †c‡Z bv Kiv,evj¨ weevn I wK Kiv DwPr? †hŠZzK eÜ Kiv, †g‡q‡`i wkw¶Z I ¯^vejw¤^ Kiv|

cvV : 4.3

‡hŠZzK
D‡Ïk¨: GB cvV †k‡l AskMÖnYKvixMY 

‡hŠZz‡Ki Kzdj m¤ú‡K© Rvb‡Z cvi‡eb| ‡hŠZzK †jb‡`b Kiv †_‡K weiZ _vK‡eb| ‡hŠZzK cÖwZ‡iv‡a mvgvwRK `vwqZ¡ cvjb Ki‡Z cvi‡eb| ‡hŠZzK GKwU AgvbweK mvgvwRK KzcÖ_v| GB cÖ_vi AvIZvq weevn Kv‡j Kb¨vi gvZv-wcZv Øviv eic¶‡K bM` A_© I g~j¨evb `ªe¨ mvgMÖx, †hgb-¯^Y©vjsKvi, wUwf, d«xR BZ¨vw` cÖ`v‡bi cÖwZkÖ“wZ‡K †evSvq| †hŠZzK‡K cYcÖ_vI ejv P‡j| Bmy¨

‡Kv‡bv weev‡ni ei ev e‡ii wcZv-gvZv ev cÖZ¨¶fv‡e weev‡ni mv‡_ RwoZ ei c‡¶i Ab¨ ‡KD weev‡ni mgq ev Zrc~‡e© ev ˆeevwnK m¤úK© _vKvKv‡j weevn w¯’i ev AUzU ivLvi k‡Z© weev‡ni cY wnmv‡e K‡b c‡¶i wbKU `vexK…Z A_©, mvgMÖx ev Ab¨wea m¤ú`‡K †hŠZzK e‡j| Abyiƒcfv‡e †Kvb weev‡ni K‡b c¶ KZ©„K weev‡ni ei ev e‡ii wcZv gvZv ev cÖZ¨¶fv‡e weev‡ni mv‡_ RwoZ Ab¨ KvD‡K D³ weev‡ni mgq ev Zrc~‡e© ev ˆeevwnK m¤úK© _vKvKv‡j weevn w¯’i AUzU ev w¯’i ivLvi k‡Z© weev‡ni cY wnmv‡e cÖ`Ë ev cÖ`v‡b m¤§Z A_©, mvgMÖx ev Ab¨wea m¤ú`†K †hŠZzK eySv‡e| (bvix I wkï wbh©vZb `gb 2003 ms‡kvab AvBb) ‡hŠZzK †bIqv wK ai‡bi Aciva : ‡hŠZzK †bIqv kvw¯—‡hvM¨ Aciva| †h wb‡e ev hviv wb‡e Zv‡`i mevi mvRv n‡e| G Rb¨ †hŠZzK †bIqvi Aciva‡K ejv n‡q‡Q Avgj A‡hvM¨, Rvwgb A‡hvM¨, Av‡cvl A‡hvM¨| myZivs †hŠZzK `Ûbxq Aciva| ‡hŠZzK †bIqvi kvw¯—i cwigvb : ‡hŠZzK †bIqvi Rb¨ 1 †_‡K 5 eQi ch©š— Kviv`Û ev 5 nvRvi UvKv ch©š— Rwigvbv ev Dfq `ÛB n‡Z cv‡i| †h e¨w³ †hŠZzK †bIqvi e¨vcv‡i mnvqZv Ki‡e ZviI GKB iKg kvw¯— n‡e Ges †h e¨w³ †hŠZzK `vex Ki‡e ZviI GKB iKg kvw¯— n‡e| GQvov †hŠZzK MÖn‡Y hw` †KD DØy× K‡i †mB e¨w³I 3 aviv Abyhvqx Acivax n‡e Ges Zvi kvw¯— n‡e| Bmy¨

bvbv Kvi‡Y Avgv‡`i mgv‡R †hŠZzK Av`vb-cÖ`vb n‡q _v‡K| A‡bK evev gv Avw_©K A¯^”QjZv ev mvgvwRK `„wóf½xi Kvi‡Y †g‡q‡K msmv‡ii †evSv g‡b K‡i| ZvB †evSv jvN‡ei D‡Ï‡k¨ wKsev Dchy³ cvÎ †c‡j †jv‡f c‡o †hŠZzK w`‡q †g‡qi we‡q †`q| Avevi †Q‡j c¶ g‡b K‡i GKwU †g‡q‡K we‡q Kiv gv‡b Zv‡K I Zvi gv evev‡K mg~n wec` †_‡K D×vi Kiv| ZvB †Q‡j c¶ GB my‡hv‡M †g‡qc‡¶i KvQ †_‡K myweav †c‡Z Pvq| GQvovI Avw_©K Am”QjZv, †Q‡ji covïbvi LiP Pvjv‡bv, †Q‡j †eKvi n‡j e¨emv Kiv ev we‡`k cvVv‡bv BZ¨vw` Kvi‡Y †Q‡jc¶ †hŠZzK `vex K‡i| ‡hŠZzK †`qv ev †bqvi cwiYwZ KL‡bvB fv‡jv nq bv| hviv †hŠZzK w`‡q‡Qb ev wb‡q‡Qb AvcvZ `„wó‡Z Zv‡`i‡K jvfevb g‡b n‡jI cÖK…Zc‡¶ GwU Kj¨v‡Yi PvB‡Z AKj¨vYB †ekx e‡q Av‡b| †hŠZzK w`‡Z wM‡q GKwU †g‡qi cwievi‡K Avw_©K Pv‡ci g‡a¨ co‡Z nq| GKwU †Q‡ji cwieviI †Kej †hŠZzK wb‡q m”Qj n‡Z cv‡i bv| G‡Z cvwievwiK myL-kvwš— bó nq Ges cwievi aŸs†mi w`‡K P‡j †h‡Z cv‡i| †hŠZz‡Ki `vex †gUv‡Z bv cvivq A‡bK †g‡q wbg©g wbh©vZ‡bi wkKvi nq Ges AKv‡j g„Zz¨eiY K‡i| Avevi A‡b‡K AvZ¥nZ¨vi c_ †e‡Q †bq| ZvB †hŠZzK e‡Ü mK‡ji m‡PZbZv Ges †hŠZzK cwinvi Kiv GKvš— cÖ‡qvRb| Avgv‡`i mevi mw`”QvB cv‡i mgvR †_‡K †hŠZzK cÖ_v `~i Ki‡Z| Avmyb, †hŠZzK‡K bv ewj| mevB wg‡j †hŠZzKgy³ evsjv‡`k M‡o Zzwj| Bmy¨

AvZ¥m‡PZbZvB †hŠZzK cÖ_v ‡iva Kivi †kªô Dcvq

4.3 wk¶v_x©‡`i cvV hvPvB: †hŠZzK
cÖkœ
‡hŠZzK wK?

DËi
‡hŠZzK GKwU AgvbweK mvgvwRK KzcÖ_v| we‡qi mgq Kb¨vi AwffveK Øviv eic¶‡K A_© I g~j¨evb `ªe¨ mvgMÖx cÖ`v‡bi cÖwZkÖ“wZ‡K †evSvq|

Rv‡b I ey‡S (msL¨v) DËi`vZvi cy‡ivcy ‡gvUvg G‡Kev‡i msL¨v wi ywU Rv‡b bv

‡hŠZzK wK kvw¯—‡hvM¨ Aciva| ai‡bi Aciva? GwU Avgj A‡hvM¨, Rvwgb I Av†cvl A‡hvM¨| myZivs †hŠZzK `Êbxq Aciva| ‡hŠZz‡Ki kvw¯— ? wK 1 †_‡K 5 eQ‡ii Kviv`Ê ev 5000 nvRvi UvKv ch©š— Rwigvbv ev Dfq `Û n‡Z cv‡i| mevi m‡PZbZv cÖ‡qvRb| wK †hŠZzK e‡Ü Avgv‡`i cÖ‡Z¨‡Ki mw`”QvB cv‡i GB Awfkvc †_‡K mKj‡K i¶v Ki‡Z|

†hŠZzK cÖwZ‡iv‡a Kiv DwPr?

Bmy¨

cvV : 4.4

ZvjvK
D‡Ïk¨: GB cvV †k‡l AskMÖnYKvixMY  

Zvjv‡Ki Kzdj m¤ú‡K© Rvb‡Z cvi‡eb| Zvjv‡Ki †¶‡Î wb‡R‡`i KiYxq m¤ú‡K© Rvb‡eb| AvBbm¤§Z ZvjvK `vwqZ¡ cvjb Ki‡Z cvi‡eb| bv n‡j mvgvwRK

we‡q GKwU mvgvwRK I †`Iqvbx Pzw³| Ab¨vb¨ Pzw³i b¨vq GB Pzw³I f½ Kiv hvq| GB Pzw³ ¯^vgx †f‡½ w`‡j Zv‡K ZvjvK e‡j| A_©vr ¯^vgx hLb we‡q †f‡½ †`q, ZvB ZvjvK| • gy‡L gy‡L ZvjvK †`Iqvi AvBb †bB| • ¯¿x Mf©eZ©x _vK‡j ZvjvK Kvh©Ki n‡e bv|
• ZvjvKcÖvß ¯¿x‡K cybivq we‡q Ki‡Z cvi‡e| (wnjv

we‡qi †Kv‡bv AvBb †bB)|

Bmy¨

• ZvjvKcÖvß ¯¿x‡K 90 w`‡bi (wZb gvm) fib-†cvlb I

†`b‡gvn‡ii UvKv w`‡Z n‡e|

• bvevjK †Q‡j mš—vb 7 erm‡ii bx‡P ¯¿xi Kv‡Q

_vK‡Z cvi‡e Ges Zv‡KI fiY †cvlb w`‡Z n‡e| †g‡q _vK‡j weev‡ni AvM ch©š— ¯¿xi Kv‡Q _vK‡Z cvi‡e Ges Zv‡KI fiY †cvlb w`‡Z n‡e| ¯^vgx wKfv‡e ¯¿x‡K ZvjvK w`‡Z cv‡i| Zvi AvBbMZ w`KÑ  ¯^vgx ¯¿x‡K ZvjvK w`‡Z PvB‡j ¯¿xi GjvKvi BDwbqb cwil‡`i ‡Pqvig¨vb I ¯¿x‡K wjwLZ †bvwUk w`‡Z n‡e|
 †Pqvig¨vb †bvwUk cvIqvi w`b †_‡K 30 w`‡bi gv_vq

Dfq c¶‡K †W‡K mg‡SvZv Kivi †Póv Ki‡eb| †Póv e¨_© n‡j 60 w`‡bi gv_vq wØZxq ˆeV‡K em‡e| GLv‡bI Dfq

c¶‡K WvKv n‡e| GLv‡b †Póv e¨_© n‡j-

 Z…Zxq ‰eVK 90 w`‡bi gv_vq em‡e| AveviI Dfq

c¶‡K †evSv‡bi †Póv Kiv n‡e| hw` Dfq c¶ wgjvwgwk bv nq †Pqvig¨vb wjwLZ w`‡eb| †mB wjwLZ †bvwUk wb‡q KvRx Awd‡m hv‡e| †mLv‡b 200 UvKv wd w`‡q (†Q‡j c¶) ZvjvK Kvh©Kix n‡e| GLv‡b D‡jL¨ †h, †Pqvig¨vb †`b‡gvni Ges fiY †cvl‡bi UvKv Av`v‡qi e¨e¯’v wb‡e|

Zvjv‡Ki ¶wZKi w`K¸‡jv :
 ZvjvK cÖvß gwnjvi LvIqv-covi Amywe‡a nq|  ‡Q‡j-†g‡qiv gv-evevi Av`i hZœ cvIqv †_‡K ewÂZ nq|  evev-gv I †Q‡j-†g‡q‡`i cwiPq _v‡K bv|  ZvjvKcÖvß gwnjvi cybivq we‡q †`Iqvi Amywe‡a nq|

Bmy¨

 ‡jv‡K N„Yv I AeÁvi

`„wó‡Z †`‡L|

 es‡ki gvb gh©v`v K‡g hvq|  gvgjv †gvKÏgvi m„wó nq|  gy‡L gy‡L ZvjvK w`‡j AvBbZ ZvjvK nq bv|
 ZvjvKcÖvß ¯¿xi †`b‡gvni I 90 w`‡bi fib‡cvlb Av`v‡qi

Kv‡R mn‡hvwMZv Ki‡ev|
 ‡bvwUk Qvov ZvjvK †`Iqv eÜ Ki‡ev|

4.4 wk¶v_x©‡`i cvV hvPvB: ZvjvK
cÖkœ
ZvjvK wK?

DËi
we‡q mvgvwRK I †`Iqvbx Pzw³| ¯^vgx hLb GB Pzw³ f½ K‡i we‡q †f†½ †`q ZLb †mUv‡K ZvjvK e‡j| bv g~‡L gy‡L ej‡j, Mf©eZx _vK‡j ¯¿x

Rv‡b I ey‡S (msL¨v) DËi`vZvi cy‡ivcy ‡gvUvg G‡Kev‡i msL¨v wi ywU Rv‡b bv

ZvjvK KLb?

n‡e

wKfv‡e ZvjvK ¯^vgx ¯¿x‡K ZvjvK Kvh©Ki n‡e w`‡Z PvB‡j BDwbqb cwil‡`i †Pqvig¨vb I ¯¿x‡K †bvwUk w`‡Z

Bmy¨

n‡e| Zvjv‡Ki w`K wK? ¶wZKi fib‡cvl‡Yi Amyweav, mš—vb gv evevi Av`i hZœ †_‡K ewÂZ, N„Yv I AeÁvi `„wó‡Z †`‡L, gvgjv †gvKÏgv nq|

cvV: 4.5

¯’vbxq †mevg~jK cÖwZôvb
D‡Ïk¨:
(1) ¯’vbxq †mevg~jK cÖwZôvb¸‡jv wPb‡Z cvi‡e

Ges wb‡R‡`i †mLv‡b cÖ‡qvR‡b hv‡e|
(2) wKfv‡e miKvix my‡hvM-myweav MÖnY Kiv

hvq †m wel‡q aviYv jvf Ki‡e Ges wb‡R‡`i Ae¯’vi cwieZ©‡b D‡`¨vM MÖnY Ki‡Z cvi‡e| Bmy¨

cÖK…Zc‡¶ miKvi n‡jv RbMY Øviv m„ó, RbMY‡K †mev`vbKvix m‡e©v”P ivóªxq msMVb| miKvi RbMY Øviv wbe©vwPZ Ges RbM‡bi Rb¨ Kj¨vYKi KvR KivB miKv‡ii `vwqZ¡| miKvix Kg©Pvixiv (Dc‡Rjv, BDwbqb, †Rjv I Ab¨vb¨ ch©v‡q) †eZb cvq RbM‡Yi Dci wewfbœ ai‡bi †h Ki avh© Kiv nq, Zv msMÖn K‡i| Avgiv cÖwZwbqZ Ki w`w”Q| cÖwZwU `ªe¨ µ‡qi mv‡_B Avgiv (VAT = Value Added Tax) f¨vU I Ki w`w”Q| GQvov Rwgi LvRbv w`w”Q| Avgv‡`i cÖ`Ë K‡ii UvKv w`‡q miKvix Kg©KZ©v-Kg©Pvix‡`i †eZb fvZvw` cÖ`vb Kiv nq| AZGe, miKvix mKj Kg©KZ©v-Kg©Pvix Avgv‡`i †meK| Avgv‡`i Kj¨v‡Y KvR KivB Zv‡`i cÖavb I cÖ_g KZ©e¨| GQvov miKvix †h me †mev I Dbœqbg~jK Kvh©µg nv‡Z †bq Zv Avgv‡`iB Rb¨| miKvi n‡jv RbM‡Yi cÖwZwbwa Øviv m„ó GKwU cÖwZôvb Ges Zviv RbM‡Yi KvR Kivi Rb¨ cÖwZkÖ“wZe×| miKvix cÖkvmb‡K we‡K›`ªxKi‡Yi gva¨‡g RbM‡Yi wbKU ‡mev †cuŠ‡Q ‡`Iqvi GKwU e¨e¯’v n‡jv ¯’vbxq miKvi| ¯’vbxq miKv‡ii `yÕwU ¯—i BDwbqb cwil` Ges Dc‡Rjv cwil`| mnvqK Z_¨: GKRb m‡PZb bvMwiK wn‡m‡e Avgv‡`i Rvb‡Z n‡e nv‡Zi bvMv‡j wK wK miKvix my‡hvM-myweav i‡q‡Q Ges wKfv‡e Zv MÖnY ev AR©b Kiv hvq| wb‡gœ miKvix my‡hvM-myweavi GKwU ZvwjKv cÖYqb Kiv n‡jv:

Bmy¨

IqvW© ch©vq:
MÖvg¨ mvwjkx‡Z †g¤^vi‡`i mnvqZv †bqv| miKvix †mevg~jK cÖKí ev¯—evqbKv‡j †Kv‡bv e¨w³ ¶wZMÖ¯’ ev ewÂZ bv nIqvi †¶‡Î mnvqZv †bqv| 3. wfwRwW I wfwRGd KvW© myôzfv‡e Bmy¨‡Z mnvqZv cvIqv| 4. Ab¨vb¨ miKvix fvZv cÖvw߇Z mnvqZv cvIqv|
1. 2.

BDwbqb ch©vq:
1. MÖvg¨ mvwjkx‡Z †g¤^vi †Pqvig¨vb‡`i mnvqZv †bqv| 2. miKvix cÖKí I †mevg~jK cÖKí ev¯—evqbKv‡j †Kvb e¨w³ ¶wZMÖ¯’ ev ewÂZ bv nIqvi †¶‡Î mnvqZv †bqv| 3. wfwRwW I wfwRGd KvW© myôzfv‡e Bmy¨‡Z mnvqZv cvIqv| 4. Ab¨vb¨ miKvix fvZv cÖvw߇Z mnvqZv cvIqv| 5. PwiÎ, bvMwiKZ¡, Iqv‡ikvb I Ab¨vb¨ mb` cÖvwß| 6. †eAvBbx I Ab¨vqfv‡e hv‡Z cywjwk wbh©vZb ev †MÖdZvi bv K‡i †m †¶‡Î mnvqZv cvIqv| 7. we`¨gvb eo ai‡bi (†`Iqvbx I †dŠR`vix Dfq †¶‡Î) Ø›Ø, weev` ev MÛ‡Mv‡ji †¶‡Î b¨vh¨ wePvi jv‡f mnvqZv cvIqv| 8. BDwbqb ¯^v¯’¨ wK¬wbK n‡Z ¯^v¯’¨ †mev cvIqvi mnvqZv †bqv| Bmy¨

miKvix wiwjd ev †ikb cÖPwjZ _vK‡j †hvM¨ e¨w³‡K †mB my‡hvM MÖn‡Yi mnvqZv ‡`Iqv|
9.

Dc‡Rjv ch©vq
K…wl wefvM:  K…wl wel‡q civgk© †bIqv|  K…wl wel‡q bZzb bZzb cÖhyw³ AR©‡b Z_¨MZ I nv‡Z Kj‡g wk¶v cvIqv|  KxU bvkK, mvi, †mP BZ¨vw` e¨envi msµvš— civgk© MÖnY| cï cvjb:  cï cvjb m¤cÖmvi‡Y civgk© MÖnY|  DbœZ I ksKi Rv‡Zi Mev`x cï cÖRbb I cÖwZcvj‡b civgk© I mnvqZv †bIqv|  jvfRbK I DbœZ cïcvj‡b bZzb bZzb aviYv cÖ`vb| grm¨ wefvM:  ˆeÁvwbK wfwˇZ jvfRbK gvQ Pv‡l mnvqZv †bqv|  Ae¨eüZ Rjvk‡q ˆeÁvwbK I jvfRbK gvQ Pv‡l mnvqZv cÖvwß| cjx Dbœqb: K…wl mgevq mwgwZ, gwnjv mgevq mwgwZ, weËnxb mgevq mwgwZ, gwnjv weËnxb mgevq mwgwZ BZ¨vw`i m`m¨ jv‡f mnvqZv|

Bmy¨

wewfbœ cÖwk¶Y jv‡f mnvqZv MÖnY|  FY jv‡f mnvqZv †bqv|  we.G.wW.wm:  Mfxi I AMfxi bjK~c cÖvw߇Z mnvqZv MÖnY|  DbœZ I fvj exR cÖvw߇Z mnvqZv cvIqv| ¯^v¯’¨ Kg‡c·:  hveZxq ¯^v¯’¨‡mev I civgk© `vb|  cwievi cwiKíbv welqK mvnvh¨ `vb| cywjk :
 e¨w³i wec‡` cywj‡ki mvnvh¨ cvIqv|

 Rxe‡bi wbivcËv mnvqZv cvIqv|  gvgjv MÖnY mnvqZv cvIqv|  †gvKÏgv msµvš— myôz Z`š— jv‡f mnvqZv cvIqv|  kvwš—‡Z emevm I AwaKvimg~n mnvqZv †bqv| wePvi :  b¨vh¨ wePvi cÖvw߇Z mnvqZv cvIqv|  mvsweavwbK †gŠwjK AwaKvi †fvM Kivi mnvqZv MÖnY|  †`Iqvbx I †dŠR`vix msµvš— weev` wb®úwˇZ mnvqZv cvIqv| cÖkvmb :
 GjvKvq kvwš-k„•Ljv i¶vq mnvqZv †bqv|

Bmy¨

 Lvm Rwg/ cyKzi jxR/ nvU-evRvi jxR cÖvw߇Z

mnvqZv MÖnY|  miKvix D”P ch©v‡q †hvMv‡hv‡Mi mnvqZv| f~wg :

 Rwgi `wjj, cP©v, cvÆv jv‡f mnvqZv †bqv|  Lvm Rwgi ZvwjKv cÖvw߇Z mnvqZv `vb|  Rwgi myôz †iK‡W© mnvqZv cvIqv| Avgiv mevB hw` miKvix my‡hvM-myweavmg~‡ni e¨vcv‡i m‡PZb _vwK Ges miKvix my‡hvM-myweav mg~‡n Avgv‡`i AwaKvi Av‡Q e‡j Rvwb| Zvn‡j wba©vwiZ cÖwµqvq Avgiv G my‡hvM¸‡jv MÖnY K‡i jvfevb n‡Z cvwi|

4.5 wk¶v_x©‡`i cvV hvPvB: ¯’vbxq cÖwZôvb
cÖkœ DËi
Rv‡b I ey‡S (msL¨v) DËi`vZv i msL¨v cy‡ivcyw ‡gvUvgy G‡Kev‡i i wU Rv‡b bv

¯’vbxq †mev †hme cÖwZôvb †_‡K ej‡Z wK eySvq? RbMY‡K ¯’vbxqfv‡e †mev †`qv nq|

Bmy¨

K‡qKwU ¯’vbxq we`¨vjq, ¯^v¯’¨wK¬wbK, †mev f~wg Awdm, BDwbqb cÖwZôv‡bi bvg cwil` ejyb? wKfv‡e Gme cÖwZôv‡bi my‡hvMmyweav cvIqv hvq? cÖwZôv‡bi my‡hvMmyweav m¤ú‡K© m‡PZb _vK‡Z n‡e Ges wba©vwiZ my‡hvM myweav wel‡q †LvR Lei wb‡q Hme cÖwZôv‡b †hvMv‡hvM K‡i|

miKvix my‡hvM GjvKvi mKj‡K AewnZ K‡i myweav bv †c‡j mevi mw¤§wjZ D‡`¨v‡M wK Kie? KZ„©c‡¶i mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM Ki‡Z n‡e|

IqvW© I BDwbqb KwgwU
Bmy¨

nxW evsjv‡`k-i cÖavb D‡Ïk¨ `wi`ª RbM‡Yi mvg_©¨vqb I Zv‡`i AwaKvi Av`v‡qi Rb¨ ¯’vbxq cÖwZôvb ˆZix Kiv| G j‡¶¨ mgv‡Ri cÖwZwbwa I `wi`ª‡`i wb‡q IqvW© I BDwbqb ch©v‡q ¯’vbxq cÖwZôvb msMwVZ Kiv| G msMVb¸‡jvi mgwš^Z D‡`¨vM GjvKvi `wi`ª‡`i AwaKvi Av`vq I ¯’vbxq mgm¨v mgvav‡b f~wgKv ivL‡e| GRb¨ AskMÖnYg~jK Dbœqb Kvh©µg wbæwjwLZ Dcv‡q cwiPvwjZ n‡e•

wcwWwc `j¸‡jv‡K Kvh©Kix `j wnmv‡e DbœxZ Kiv n‡e, †hb Zviv mvgvwRK msMVb (CBO) wnmv‡e KvR Ki‡Z cv‡i, †mBmv‡_ `‡ji m`m¨iv gvbevwaKvi I MYZvwš¿K AwaKvi m¤ú‡K© m‡PZb n†e;

• `wi`ª Rb‡Mvôx‡K Dbœqb cÖwµqvq hy³ Kivi Rb¨ mn‡hvMx `j Ges mvgvwRK D‡`¨v³v‡`i wb‡q D”P ch©v‡qi ¯’vbxq cÖwZôvb ‰Zix Kiv n‡e; G¸‡jv IqvW© I BDwbqb KwgwU bv‡g cwiwPZ n‡e|

¯’vbxq IqvW© I BDwbqb KwgwUi D‡Ïk¨:

`wi`ª bvix-cyi“‡li Rb¨ ¯’vwqZ¡kxj msMVb M‡o mg„×kvjx Ges MYZvwš¿K

†Zvjv;  GKwU b¨vh¨, mgvR cÖwZôv Kiv;

 MÖvgxY ¶gZv KvVv‡gv‡Z `wi`ª‡`i AskMÖnY wbwðZ Kiv;  miKvix-†emiKvix cÖwZôv‡bi mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM †i‡L `wi`ª‡`i c‡¶ †mev cÖvwß wbwðZ Kiv;  nxW evsjv‡`‡ki mvgvwRK Dbœqb Kg©m~Px m¤ú‡K© ¯’vbxq †bZ…e„‡›`i mv‡_ gZwewbgq Kiv;  ¯’vbxq f~wgKv ivLv; ch©v‡q DbœqbgyLx Bmy¨ Kg©Kv‡Û

IqvW© KwgwU
GKRb gwnjv m`‡m¨i wbe©vPbx GjvKvi Iqv‡W© wcwWwc mvgvwRK msMV‡bi msL¨vi Dci wbf©i K‡i IqvW© KwgwUi c` msL¨v wba©vwiZ n‡e| KwgwU 7, 9 ev 11 m`m¨ wewkó n‡Z cv‡i| KwgwUi †gqv` n‡e 2 eQi| cÖwZ `yB gv‡m GKevi mfv n‡e| cÖ‡qvRb‡ev‡a wba©vwiZ mgq QvovI †h †Kvb mgq mfv Avnevb Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| IqvW© KwgwU MVb c×wZ: 1. cÖwZ Iqv‡W© wcwWwc `‡ji Ges mgv‡Ri cÖwZwbwa‡`i wb‡q GKwU IqvW© KwgwU MwVZ n‡e|
2.

mvgvwRK `j¸‡jv (CBO) wb‡gœv³ kZ© AR©b Ki‡jB IqvW© KwgwU‡Z Aš—f©~³ n‡Z cvi‡e `jwU ¯’vqx Ges Kgc‡¶ GKeQi wbqwgZfv‡e e‡m;  `jwU ¯’vbxqfv‡e mvgvwRK Kv‡R wKQz D‡jL‡hvM¨ f~wgKv †i‡L‡Q;

Bmy¨

 GjvKv‡Z `jwU Zvi KvR Ges †bZ…Z¡`v‡bi Rb¨ mvgvwRK msMVb wnmv‡e cÖwZwôZ;  cÖwZ `yB eQi ci ci `jwU †bZ…Z¡ cwieZ©‡bi Rb¨ evrmwiK mfv Wv‡K;  RbmsMV‡b `jwU mwµq f~wgKv cvjb K‡i Ges ¯’vbxq KwgwU mg~‡ni m`m¨ wbe©vwPZ Kivi Rb¨ wbe©vP‡b AskMÖnY K‡i;  `jwU‡Z F‡Yi wKw¯— Av`v‡qi nvi fvj;  ¯’vbxq KwgwU‡Z `jwUi cÖwZwbwa _vK‡e Ges ¯’vbxq mgm¨v m¤ú‡K© m‡PZb n‡e| IqvW© KwgwU MV‡bi Rb¨ mswkøó Iqv‡W©i mvgvwRK `j¸‡jv Zv‡`i cÖwZwbwa wbe©vPb Ki†e| GKB mv‡_ nxW evsjv‡`‡ki mKj Kg©KZ©v I Kgx© ¯’vbxq RbM‡Yi mv‡_ ˆeVK K‡i Zv‡`i ga¨ †_‡K cÖwZwbwa wbe©vPb Ki‡e| c‡i GB cÖwZwbwa‡`i wb‡q IqvW© KwgwU MwVZ n‡e| IqvW© KwgwUi `vwqZ¡ I KZ©e¨: 1.   MÖvgxY ¶gZv KvVv‡gv‡Z AskMÖnY†fvUvwaKvi wel‡q m‡PZbZv m„wó; ¯’vbxq wbe©vP‡b AskMÖnY; wewfbœ KwgwU‡Z †hgbevRvi, gmwR`/gw›`i BZ¨vw`‡Z

 ¯’vbxq ¯‹zj/gv`ªvmv, AskMÖnY;  

ga¨¯’Zvi Av‡qvRb; ¯’vbxq mvwjkx cÖwµqvq AskMÖnY| Bmy¨

civgk©‡Ki f~wgKvmiKvix †emiKvix cÖwZôv‡bi mv‡_ mym¤úK© ¯’vcb K‡i `wi`ª gvby‡li †gŠwjK †mev cÖvwß wbwðZ Kiv;
2.

3.

¯’vbxq m¤ú‡`i myôz e¨envi; Ges

4. mvgvwRK Kv‡Ri D‡`¨vM MÖnY AmvgvwRK Kv‡R cÖwZ‡iva M‡o †Zvjv-

 GjvKvq RbMY‡K ¯^v¯’¨m¤§Z cvqLvbv e¨env†i DØy× KiY;  beRvZ‡Ki R‡b¥i ci ci Rb¥ wbe܇b DØy× KiY;  RvZxq I Avš—R©vwZK w`em cvjb|

IqvW© KwgwUi cwic°Zvi (Graduation) ¯—i ev ch©vq
mvgvwRK msMVb¸‡jv wk¶v_©xi gZ| GKwU wbw`©ó †gqv‡` Zviv wkLb I MVb Kvh©µ‡gi g‡a¨ _v‡K, AZ:ci Zviv cwic° nq| GB cÖwµqvq _vKvKvjxb Zv‡`i Ae¯’vb cwigvc Kivi Rb¨ wKQz m~PK/wb‡`©kK _vK‡e| GB ¯—i¸‡jv n‡e wZbwU, h_vµ‡g♦ m‡PZbZv e„w× I MVb ¯—i ♦ cwic° Ges MÖvRy‡qkb ¯—i ♦ MÖvRy‡qkb cieZx© ch©‡e¶Y ¯—i

¯—i
m‡PZbZv e„w× I MVb ¯—i

mgqKvj 2 eQi

D‡jL‡hvM¨ KvR I djvdj ¯^-e¨e¯’vcbv: 

wb‡Riv mfv WvK‡e Ges cwiPvjbv Ki‡e; mgm¨v I mvgvwRK Bmy¨ wPwýZ K‡i mgvav‡bi Rb¨

Bmy¨

D‡`¨vM wb‡e;

nZ `wi`ª‡`i c‡¶ KvR Ki‡e; wb‡Riv wm×vš— wb‡e Ges wgwbUm ivL‡e| ‡hvM¨ GKvwaK †bZ…Z¡ m„wó Ki‡e ; miKvix-†emiKvix my‡hvMmyweav `wi`ª‡`i Rb¨ Av`vq Ki‡e; ¯’vbxq m¤ú†`i myôz e¨envi Ki‡e; `wi`ª‡`i Avkªq Ges RbM‡bi Av¯’v _vK‡e| nx‡Wi cÖwZ wbf©ikxjZv Kg‡e; wb†R‡`i GKwU Znwej _vK‡e|

 cwic° Ges MÖvRy‡qkb ¯—i 3 eQi

 

 MÖvRy‡qkb cieZx© ch©‡e¶Y ¯—i 1 eQi

 

BDwbqb KwgwU
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