OVERHEAD CRANE OPERATOR SAFETY TRAINING

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TYPES OF OVERHEAD CRANES

Bridge Crane Floor Mounted Jib

Monorail Crane

Here is an assortment of overhead cranes.

Take pictures of the different types you may have at your facility and put them on this page. You may also replace other pictures and drawings in this presentation. To do so: 1. Download a picture from a digital camera or scan a picture onto your computer.

2. Click on the “insert’ button on the toolbar above and select picture>from file and then go to where the picture is stored on your computer. Click on that file and it is inserted on the current slide. 3. You may crop it, downsize it, add borders and lighter or darken it. It’s easy and adds immensely to the presentation. 4. You may also create a hyperlink from a smaller picture to a picture that takes up the whole slide to see the details better. To do this, a) right click on the picture, left click on ‘action settings’, select ‘hyperlinks, and then scroll down to the slide where the full size picture is. A good place for it is at the end of the slide show. Be sure to create a hyperlink back the the original slide to ease in navigating back and forth between slides. 5. Many of the pictures in this presentation have hyperlinks to a full size picture at the end of the presentation. Once you have created a hyperlink, it will stay with that slide no matter what order you put the slides in.

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Wall Mounted Jib

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OVERHEAD CRANE REGULATIONS
• 29 CFR 1910.179 Overhead cranes and gantries • 29 CFR 1926.554 Overhead hoists • ASME B30.2 Overhead and gantry cranes (Top running bridge, single or multiple girder, top running trolley hoist) • ASME B30.11 Monorails and underhung cranes • ASME B30.16 Overhead hoists (underhung)

• ASME B30.17 Overhead and gantry cranes (Top running bridge, single girder, underhung hoist)

These are the main standards concerning overhead cranes but certainly not all of them. Many States have additional standards as do some industries such as Maritime, Mining, Offshore oil platforms, etc.

We have included only the two OSHA standards and the B30.16. This is because the are almost identical when it comes to operation and inspections.

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or malfunction.Daily to monthly intervals.179(j)(1)(ii)(b) Periodic inspection . Inspection intervals are: • Daily to monthly PERIODIC: Periodic inspections are visual and audio inspections and examinations by designated personnel making records of external conditions to provide the basis for continuing evaluation. deterioration. The intervals in turn are dependent upon the nature of the critical components of the crane and the degree of their exposure to wear. • 1 to 12 month intervals 29 CFR-1910.179(j)(1)(ii) Inspection procedure for cranes in regular service is divided into two general classifications based upon the intervals at which inspection should be performed. A S E L P M 4 . 1910. The two general classifications are herein designated as "frequent" and "periodic" with respective intervals between inspections as defined below: 1910.TYPES OF INSPECTION FREQUENT: Frequent inspections are visual inspections and examinations by the operator or other designated personnel.1 to 12-month intervals.179(j)(1)(ii)(a) Frequent inspection . Records are not required.

1. A S E L P M 5 . Heavy Service: Involves operation of the crane within the rated load limit that exceeds normal service. 3. lubricated and maintained. Some cranes are used more than others. The frequency of service is a key factor in determining how often the crane should be inspected and serviced. 2.DEFINITIONS OF SERVICE Normal Service: Involves operations of the crane with randomly distributed load within the rated load limit or uniform loads of less than 65% or rated load limit for no more than 25% of the time for a normal work shift. Even cranes that are not used need to be inspected. Especially cranes that are out in the weather all year or in corrosive environments. Severe Service: Involves operation of the crane in normal or heavy service with abnormal operating conditions.

of course. and one that has check boxes at the bottom of the page for the operator to initial that he has performed a pre-shift inspection. This is a good time to go out to one of the cranes in your facility and do an inspection of it.INSPECTION CHECK LIST MONTH ___________________ Date Completed:_______ Inspected by: ___________ INSPECTION AREA Sat. 4. You can print one out for every crane. N/A Comments 1. 2. Pre-shift inspections do not have to be lengthy. Monthly or yearly inspections. A S E L P M 6 . should be thorough and performed by a competent individual. this one. You are basically looking for obvious things that might be wrong with the crane. Supporting Structure Welds Bolts Bridge Rails & Alignment Trucks & Wheels Motor & Drive Train Brakes Stops & Limit Controls Trolley Wheels Motor & Drive Train Brakes Stops & Limit Controls Rails & Alignment Hoist Wire Rope Condition Rope Reeving Chain Condition Brakes & Ratchets Equalizer Sheaves Hoist Limit Control Functional Operation Electrical Control Markings Control Functions Warning Alarms Power Disconnect Control Pendants Festoons Load Block Sheaves Pins Swivel Hook INSPECTION RESULTS Unsat. 3. This is a sample of the inspection booklet found on your CD. There are two versions.

SUPPORTING STRUCTURE

CHECKING FOR TIGHTNESS

Cracks In Paint Or Dirt Build-up Often Is Caused By Loose Bolts.

1. Check all fasteners for loose, stretched, missing, or broken fasteners.

2. A good clue is checking for cracked paint around the fastener that shows there has been movement. 3. Sometimes a build up of dirt or grease can do the same thing. 4. Using a torque wrench to check for tightness does not always work. Corrosion could give you a false reading.

5. Replace a loose or stretched bolt rather than tighten it. It probably has been damaged. 6. Be sure to replace the bolt with a grade 8 or better.

7. If there are other bolts near by that show signs of looseness, then replace them all.

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Note The Accumulation Of Dirt And/or Paint

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CRACKED WELDS

Inspect Welds For Cracks

1. Check cracks in the structure and in all welds.

2. A crack in a weld will always start on the end and work itself along the entire weld until it fails completely. 3. Many times a crack in the paint will be a clue to a weld that is failing. 4. If caught early, the crack many times can be ground out and re-weld.

5. Before welding on any part of the crane, make sure you have a certified welder and if it is on a structural part of the crane you should get the manufactures procedure.

6. Also, try to determine why it cracked in the first place. Is the crane being overloaded or used improperly.

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BRIDGE SYSTEM
Bridge Trucks

Support System

Span Structure

Bridge Rails

1. Climbing up a and checking the bridge system is normally not part of the daily inspection. Use these slides to familiarize the student with the components of the bridge crane and how they work together to make a successful lift. 2. Many of these components can be inspected from the ground as the crane is being operated. If something seems wrong, then a closer look would be warranted.

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then a closer look would be warranted. Use these slides to familiarize the student with the components of the bridge crane and how they work together to make a successful lift.BRIDGE TRUCK DRIVE Final Drive Shaft Motor Brake Drive Motor 1. Climbing up a and checking the bridge system is normally not part of the daily inspection. A S E L P M Drive Wheels 10 . Many of these components can be inspected from the ground as the crane is being operated. If something seems wrong. 2.

Use these slides to familiarize the student with the components of the bridge crane and how they work together to make a successful lift. If something seems wrong. then a closer look would be warranted. Climbing up a and checking the bridge system is normally not part of the daily inspection. Many of these components can be inspected from the ground as the crane is being operated. A S E L P M 11 .DRIVE COUPLINGS Check Couplings for: • Loose bolts • Loose or missing keys • Cracks 1. 2.

A S E L P M Brake Solenoid 12 .DRIVE MOTOR BRAKE Brake Drum Brake Shoes 1. then a closer look would be warranted. Climbing up a and checking the bridge system is normally not part of the daily inspection. Use these slides to familiarize the student with the components of the bridge crane and how they work together to make a successful lift. If something seems wrong. 2. Many of these components can be inspected from the ground as the crane is being operated.

Use these slides to familiarize the student with the components of the bridge crane and how they work together to make a successful lift. A S E L P M WHEELTREAD WEAR AT AN ANGLE WHEEL FLANGE WEAR 13 . Many of these components can be inspected from the ground as the crane is being operated. Climbing up a and checking the bridge system is normally not part of the daily inspection. then a closer look would be warranted.WHEEL ALIGNMENT FOR BRIDGE CRANE HEAVY WEAR 1. 2. If something seems wrong.

Use these slides to familiarize the student with the components of the bridge crane and how they work together to make a successful lift.TROLLEY SYSTEM Trolley Trucks 1. If something seems wrong. then a closer look would be warranted. A S E L P M Hoist Machinery mounted on trolley 14 . 2. Many of these components can be inspected from the ground as the crane is being operated. Climbing up a and checking the bridge system is normally not part of the daily inspection.

MONORAIL CRANE TROLLEY TROLLEY WHEELS CENTERED ON BEAM TROLLEY WHEELS FUNCTION SMOOTHLY 1. A S E L P M WHEELS IN GOOD CONTACT WITH BEAM FLANGE 15 . If something seems wrong. 2. Use these slides to familiarize the student with the components of the bridge crane and how they work together to make a successful lift. Many of these components can be inspected from the ground as the crane is being operated. Climbing up a and checking the monorail system is normally not part of the daily inspection. then a closer look would be warranted.

3. WIRE STRAND PROPER WAY TO MEASURE WIRE ROPE DIAMETER 1. the crane manufacturer's recommendation shall be followed. up to & including 5/16” 1/32” for dia. IWRC is recommended because it resist crushing. or three broken wires in one strand in one lay. The strands of a wire rope are made up of several wires twisted together. 6. 2. Several strands are twisted together to form the wire rope. not counting the core. For lifting purposes. 9/16” to & including 3/4” 29 CFR 1910.WIRE ROPE CONSTRUCTION WIRE ROPE Wire Rope Replacement Broken Wires: 6 randomly distributed broken wires in one lay. A S E L P M Loss in Diameter: Reduction from nominal diameter of: 1/64” for dia. that are used in the rope. Wire rope comes in various sizes and construction. make sure to measure across the stands and not the flat area between the strands. When measuring the diameter of wire rope. 6X19. refers to the basic construction. The rated load divided by the number of parts of rope shall not exceed 20 percent of the nominal breaking strength of the rope. 4. (or a 5:1 safety ratio) 16 . Common wire rope will have either a fiber core or an independent wire rope core or IWRC. The ‘19’ refers to the number of wire in each strand. 5. The ‘6’ stands for the number of strands. The designation. 3/8” to & including 1/2” 3/64” for dia.176(h)(2)(i) In using hoisting ropes. The most common is the right regular lay wire rope of the 6X19 class.

5 “MOBILE CRANES” Minimum Ratios ABRASION RESISTANCE Increases with larger wires Decreases with smaller wires FATIGUE RESISTANCE Decreases with fewer wires Increases with more wires 1. Point out the trade-offs between abrasion and fatigue resistance. Show how sheave size and wire rope diameter relate to each other and the effects they have on wire rope life. 2. A S E L P M 17 Load Hoist Boom Hoist Load Block Drum 18 15 Sheave 18 15 16 . 3.WIRE ROPE STANDARDS FOR SHEAVE & DRUM RATIOS D = Diameter of drum or sheave d = Diameter of wire rope Ratio = D / d ASNE/B30. Review how sheaves are dimensioned.

(v) Corroded. (vi) Severe kinking. A S E L P M Sudden tension release HIGH STRAND Improper socketing. or unstranding. crushing. or improperly applied end connections. resulting in appreciable loss of original strength. internal or external corrosion. shall be carefully observed and determination made as to whether further use of the rope would constitute a safety hazard. (ii) A number of broken outside wires and the degree of distribution or concentration of such broken wires. the signature of the person who performed the inspection and an identifier for the ropes which were inspected shall be kept on file where readily available to appointed personnel. (iv) Corroded or broken wires at end connections. normal loads BIRDCAGE Accentuated with heavy loads KINKED WIRE ROPE Crossed lines on drum 29 CFR – 1910. (iii) Worn outside wires. Any deterioration. kinks 18 . Some of the conditions that could result in an appreciable loss of strength are the following: (i) Reduction of rope diameter below nominal diameter due to loss of core support.179(m)(1) Running ropes. cutting. worn. bent. cracked. A thorough inspection of all ropes shall be made at least once a month and a certification record which includes the date of inspection.WIRE ROPE INSPECTION FATIGUE FAILURE FATIGUE BREAKS Heavy loads over small sheaves STRAND KNICKING Repeated bending. or wear of outside wires.

make sure the rope hasn’t jumped a groove which could damage the rope. Check oil often. 3. Check to make sure the wire rope is spooled properly on the drum. A S E L P M 19 . On lagged drums. 2. 4. Check to make sure the dead end is secured properly.DRUM INSPECTION 1. Never hoist down to the point that there would be less than 2 wraps left on the drum. 5.

On lagged drums. Never hoist down to the point that there would be less than 2 wraps left on the drum.HOIST MACHINERY HOIST DRIVE 1. Check to make sure the wire rope is spooled properly on the drum. make sure the rope hasn’t jumped a groove which could damage the rope. Check oil often. A S E L P M CHECK DRUM GROOVES FOR WEAR TROLLEY TRUCK 20 . 4. 3. 5. Check to make sure the dead end is secured properly. 2.

3. Check the oil often. Check running and equalizing sheaves for wear and free movement. especially if you detect any leakage. 2.HOIST MACHINERY CHECK RUNNING SHEAVE FOR WEAR CHECK CLEVIS WEAR VERIFY FUNCTIONING LIMIT SWITCH SINGLE REEVED DRUM 1. A S E L P M DOUBLE REEVED DRUM CHECK EQUALIZING SHEAVE FOR WEAR 21 . Check the limit switch to make sure it stops the hook or load if two-blocked.

3. GREASE. 2. CRACKS.INSPECTING SHEAVES CHECK FLANGES FOR CHIPS. 4. Show how to use a sheave gauge. WEAR CHECK GROOVE WEAR CHECK BEARINGS FOR WOBBLE. A S E L P M 150º CONTACT MEASURE GROOVE PROPER SIZE GROVE 22 . Check the flanges and treads. EASE OF ROTATION WORN GROVES 1. Check for bearing wear and lubrication. Sheaves can only be repaired per manufacture’s procedures.

A S E L P M Stretched Links Worn Links 23 . Stretched links. If the crane is in a corrosive atmosphere. 3. Also. The links will be sucked in slightly on the sides. Chain should not be rusted or brown. Bent links (Usually a sign that it has been used to wrap around a load and bent on sharp corners) 2. be sure to oil it often. measure 5 links and check that measurement during your annual inspection.CHAIN HOIST Pocket Wheel Chain Guide Bent Links The chain hoist should be checked for the following: 1.

Wear in excess of 5% in the neck of the hook and 10% in other areas including the bow of the hook is cause for removal. A S E L P M Wear & Cracks 24 . 1990. Accident 014504732 . 2. Hooks with threads and nuts need to have threads inspected periodically. employee #1 was working on a large steel panel weighing approximately 2. resulting in his death. The hook safety latch should be present and function properly.Employee Killed When Struck By Loose Crane Hook At approximately 8:15 am on January 29. The hook slipped off of the steel panel and struck employee #1 on the head. 3. 6.608 pounds and measuring 22 feet long and 6 feet wide.HOOK INSPECTION CHECK FOR: [ Wear [ Deformation [ Cracks & Sharp Nicks [ Modifications [ Safety Latches [ Swivel Wear & Lubrication [ Hook Shackle Mousing Wear & Deformation Cracks & Twisting “Opening Up” 1. 5. 4. Hooks can only be repaired per manufacturer’s procedures. An increase in the hook throat opening of more than 15% is cause for removal. The panel was supported by an overhead crane chain and hook and was set on metal horses at an angle. Any twist in the hook of more than 10% is cause for removal.

4. 3. 2. Hooks can only be repaired per manufacturer’s procedures. A S E L P M 15% 25 . Hooks with threads and nuts need to have threads inspected periodically. Wear in excess of 5% in the neck of the hook and 10% in other areas including the bow of the hook is cause for removal. The hook safety latch should be present and function properly.HOOK INSPECTION Throat Opening 10 o Twisted Hook 10 percent Maximum Allowable Wear 1. An increase in the hook throat opening of more than 15% is cause for removal. Any twist in the hook of more than 10% is cause for removal. 6. 5.

CRANE BLOCK SHEAVE GROOVE NOT WORN. Check for excessive movement. 2. 5. The side plates and any additional weights attached to the their sides need to be inspected for loose or missing bolts or other fasteners. 3. A S E L P M SAFETY LATCH FUNCTIONING CHECK FOR DISTORTIONS OR WEAR HOOK ROTATION & SWIVEL SMOOTH & TIGHT HOOK NUT TIGHT & THEADS INSPECTED PERIODICALLY 26 . 4. The hook should rotate freely on the swivel bearing. The safety latch must be in place and functioning properly. The lose of more than 20% of the treaded area due to corrosion is cause for removal. SHEAVES TURN FREELY SIDE PLATE BOLTS TIGHT SHEAVE PIN & BEARING TIGHT SHEAVE PIN KEEPER IN PLACE AND TIGHT 1. The hook shank and nut should be separated periodically and the threads inspected for corrosion and other damage. The sheaves and bearings need to be inspected as discussed earlier.

A S E L P M Current Collectors ride on this surface 27 .ELECTRICAL CONDUCTORS Check Conductors for: • Loose fasteners • Burned surfaces • Dirt and corrosion • Electrical connections Always lock out the crane before working around the electrical conductors.

CURRENT COLLECTORS Electrical Conductors Check Collectors for: • Good spring tension • Collector surfaces are not corroded or burned • Electrical connections • Ease of movement Always lock out the crane before working around the electrical conductors. A S E L P M Current Collectors ride against conductors 28 .

Festoons need to be checked for proper cable tension. A S E L P M ELECTRICAL CONNECTORS TIGHT INSULATORS IN GOOD CONDITION STRAIN RELIEF ADJUSTED FOR CORRECT LENGTH 29 . 2.FESTOON SYSTEMS CABLE TERMINATION PROPER CABLE TENTION FREE TROLLEY MOVEMENT 1. free trolley movement and wire connections. make sure there are no pinch points during bridge or trolley movement. Also.

6. 3. Use a strain relief chain or cable to protect the wires from pulling out. A S E L P M 30 . 4. Many times the pendant controls get dropped or banged up during operation.PENDANT AND CONTROLS ALL CONTROL FUNCTIONS CLEARLY LABELED 1. Never use the pendant to pull the crane around. Always check the emergency stop button on the pendant. Make sure all controls are marked and legible. 5. Check for buttons that are broken or stick. 2.

it should reflect the 5 ton rating. each hoist shall have its rated load marked on it or its load block and this marking shall be clearly legible from the ground or floor. 2. SWL 10. but the beam that it was hung under was good for 7 ½ tons. All warning labels on the crane including crane operation instructions must be on the crane and legible.SAFE CRANE OPERATIONS MAX. The safe working load would be the maximum load of the “weakest link” on the crane. A S E L P M 31 . The rated load of the crane shall be plainly marked on each side of the crane. and if the crane has more than one hoisting unit. the SWL of the crane could not exceed 5 tons and if stenciled on the beam.179(b)(5) Rated load marking. 29 CFR 1910.000 lbs Know the SWL of the crane and never exceed it ACME ACME 5 5 TON TON Follow all placards. 3. warning labels and signs on machine 1. then the SWL. The safe-working-load of the crane should be easily visible to the operator. For example: If the maximum SWL of the hoist was 5 tons. SWL 10.000 lbs MAX.

179(l)(2)(i)(a) The crane to be repaired shall be run to a location where it will cause the least interference with other cranes and operations in the area.179(l)(2)(ii) After adjustments and repairs have been made the crane shall not be operated until all guards have been reinstalled. (b) All controllers shall be at the off position.LOCK -OUT TAG -OUT LOCK-OUT TAG-OUT ALWAYS DE-ENERGIZE ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS BEFORE INSPECTING AND WORKING ON THEM. safety devices reactivated and maintenance equipment removed. (d) Warning or "out of order" signs shall be placed on the crane.1910. also on the floor beneath or on the hook where visible from the floor. 1910. rail stops or other suitable means shall be provided to prevent interference with the idle crane. DANGER DO NOT OPERATE Before adjustments and repairs are started on a crane the following precautions shall be taken: 29 CFR . (c) The main or emergency switch shall be open and locked in the open position. A S E L P M 32 . The emergency shut off musts be visible and accessible. 1. (e) Where other cranes are in operation on the same runway.

SAFE CRANE OPERATIONS Acme Bridge Crane Operation and Maintenance Manual Read and understand the operators manual ACME CORPORATION The Operator and Maintenance Manual should be available and every person that operates the crane should have read the safe operations section. A S E L P M 33 .

Severe damage could result in trying to lift a load that exceeds the SWL. of course. The most accurate is. go ahead and make the lift. be sure to mark the weight somewhere on the load for the next guy that has to lift it. 3. it is within 75% of the capacity of the crane. come up with an estimate and then double it. With mobile cranes. There are many ways to learn the weight of a load. Using the best calculations that you can. A S E L P M Bill of lading (be careful) Stamped or written on the load Approved calculations Never use word of mouth to establish the weight of and item! Weigh the item. 2. Shipping receipts.SAFE CRANE OPERATIONS Acceptable methods of determining weight You may find the weight from: Data on manufacturing label plates. There will be times when you just have to make an a guess. then you should weigh it. 34 . Not so with overhead cranes. Blueprints or drawings. If you do weigh an item. 4. 1. Determine the weight of the load from accurate sources Manufacturer documentation. If by doubling it. picking up a load that is too heavy could cause the crane to tip. It it is well within the capacity of the crane. weighing it yourself. Knowing the weight of the load is essential to safe overhead crane operations.

1. It could also put stress on the trolley causing damage.000 lbs MAX. Side pulling on a crane may cause the wire rope on the drum to cross and be susceptible to kinks and crushing. 5 TON 29 CFR . A S E L P M 35 .000 lbs ACME 5 TON Cranes shall not be used for side pulls except when specifically authorized by a responsible person who has determined that the stability of the crane is not thereby endangered and that various parts of the crane will not be overstressed. 2. SWL 10.179(n)(3)(iv) Cranes shall not be used for side pulls except when specifically authorized by a responsible person who has determined that the stability of the crane is not thereby endangered and that various parts of the crane will not be overstressed. SWL 10.SAFE CRANE OPERATIONS MAX.1910.

Never allow a rigger to stand under a load as it descends for the purpose of controlling it. SWL 10. A S E L P M 36 .SAFE CRANE OPERATIONS MAX. Use a tag line instead.000 lbs 5 TON Never hoist a load over the heads of employees 29 CFR – 1910. 2. SWL 10.179(n)(3)(vi) The employer shall require that the operator avoid carrying loads over people.000 lbs ACME 5 TON MAX. 1.

Always put the load down and secure it before leaving the area. SWL 10.SAFE CRANE OPERATIONS MAX. SWL 10.000 lbs ACME 5 TON The employer shall insure that the operator does not leave his position at the controls while the load is suspended.000 lbs MAX.179(n)(3)(x) The employer shall insure that the operator does not leave his position at the controls while the load is suspended. 1. A S E L P M 37 . 5 TON 29 CFR – 1910.

The brakes shall be tested by raising the load a few inches and applying the brakes.750 lbs 38 .1910.179(n)(3)(vii) The operator shall test the brakes each time a load approaching the rated load is handled. 29 CFR .000 lbs MAX.000 lbs ACME ACME 5 5 TON TON The operator shall test the brakes each time a load approaching the rated load is handled.SAFE CRANE OPERATIONS MAX. they may stop a smaller load. The brakes shall be tested by raising the load a few inches and applying the brakes. 2. It is good practice to load test your crane at least every 3-4 years. A S E L P M 8. As brakes become worn. SWL 10. but not one at or near capacity. SWL 10. 1.

SWL 10. Many cranes have automatic stops that can be set so this will not happen. SWL 10.179(n)(3)(viii) The load shall not be lowered below the point where less than two full wraps of rope remain on the hoisting drum. Still it is good practice to check you line when lowering loads down close to the limit of your line.000 lbs ACME 5 TON MAX.000 lbs The load shall not be lowered below the point where less than two full wraps of rope remain on the hoisting drum. 1.SAFE CRANE OPERATIONS MAX. You never want to run out of hoist line. 5 TON 29 CFR . A S E L P M 39 .1910.

Never use the limit switch to operate lower your load. Extreme care shall be exercised. 29 CFR .179(n)(4)(i) At the beginning of each operator's shift. possibly parting the line. 2.1910. the appointed person shall be immediately notified. If the switch does not operate properly. the block shall be "inched" into the limit or run in at slow speed. the upper limit switch of each hoist shall be tried out under no load. The upper limit switch will keep the load or hook from being pulled into to hoist. A S E L P M 40 .SAFE CRANE OPERATIONS At the beginning of each operator's shift. the upper limit switch of each hoist shall be tried out under no load. 1.

warning labels and signs on machine Know the SWL of the crane and never exceed it Determine the weight of the load from accurate sources If an estimate of the load is near the max.SAFE CRANE OPERATIONS • • • • • • • • • • • Read and understand the operators manual Follow all placards. then use a dynamometer to measure the exact weight Use a loud signal. horn or bell or verbal warning to alert employees of crane movement Never hoist a load over the heads of employees Never use limit switches or end stops as operating controls Begin each shift by testing the upper limit switches Avoid running the crane into the end stops or limit switches Never walk backward when guiding a load Summary of safe crane operations A S E L P M 41 . capacity of the crane. such as a whistle.

test the brakes after the load is raised a few inches • Suspend and transport loads at a level that allows the operator a clear view • Never drag slings. there should never be less than two wraps on lagged (grooved) drums and three wraps on unlagged • When lifting near or at capacity.SAFE CRANE OPERATIONS • Never hoist two or more separately rigged loads on a single hook even if the combined weight is within the capacity of the crane • Never wrap the hoist line around the load • Never electrical load and/or hoist-limit switches or warning devices • Start lifts slowly and avoid shock loading • Always place the hook directly over the center of gravity or the designated lifting point • Use taglines to help maneuver the load • Never use taglines to swing the load • Before hoisting the load. cables or chains across the floor Summary of safe crane operations A S E L P M 42 . check for loose parts that might shift or fall • On cranes with wire rope hoist lines.

place all controls in the OFF position Park the cab in an approved.SAFE CRANE OPERATIONS Cab-operated overhead cranes: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Enter and exit cab only through approved access ways Never walk along runway tracks Never climb or jump from one crane to another Use both hands to climb access ladder Keep unnecessary items out of the cab Complete the pre-shift inspection checklist before operation Know the location of emergency shutoff switches Know emergency evacuation routes Place all controls in the OFF position before turning the main switch ON Maintain a portable fire extinguisher in the cab Never move the cab without a signal from the designated signal giver Avoid bumping crane and carriage stop blocks If a power failure occurs. designated position Summary of safe crane operations A S E L P M 43 .

Anyone can give the emergency stop signal. 3. A S E L P M Stop Emergency Stop 44 . Use clear precise motions.HAND SIGNALS Multiple Trolleys Bridge Direction Trolley Direction Move Slowly Lower Load Raise Load 1. Review each hand signal and any other hand signals you might be using 5. 2. Always have one person designated as the signal giver. 4. Hand signal charts should be posted in the work area.

2. A S E L P M 45 .WIRE ROPE SLING INSPECTION 1. and basket hitches. choker. As of July 2000 wire rope slings are to have a tag which indicates the lifting capacities of the sling for vertical. Refer to the inspection card for inspection criteria. Wire rope slings are to be inspected on a regular basis and a record kept of these inspections.

3. A S E L P M 46 . It is not recommended using a wire rope sling in a tight choker.COMMON CAUSE FOR REMOVAL Severe wear. Using slings with thimbles in the eye will prevent this. abrasion or scraping Kinking 1. Kinking in the eyes and other parts of the wire rope sling is nearly always the result of it going around a pin or pick point that is of a less diameter than the rope itself. 2.

3 adjacent strands and 3 adjacent strands and core. The Flemish eye is also know as a “Molly Hogan” or a “Farmers” eye. These 2 parts are re-laid back in opposite directions to form an eye and the ends are secured with a pressed steel sleeve. . 2.FLEMISH EYE 1. The strength of the eye is in the wrap and not the steel sleeve. They may be used with a thimble also. 3. A S E L P M 47 Separate rope into 2 part.

3. Turnback eyes are made by bring the rope back onto itself and crushing a steel sleeve around it. 2.TURNBACK EYE PRESSED STEEL SLEEVE 1. Turnback eyes are not recommended for lifting. The strength of the eye is in the sleeve and if not done properly may pull out. A S E L P M 48 .

Slings should not be used that have eyes made with wire rope clips. A S E L P M 49 .TYPES OF TERMINATIONS 1. 2. Wedge sockets are very handy if you are changing blocks or hooks often. Eyes made with wire rope clips may be used to terminate the dead end of the hoist line. 3.

Always check to make sure no heat damage has occurred.CHAIN SLING INSPECTION 1. Chain slings are often used to hold steel while it is being welded. 2. Chain slings are to be inspected on a regular basis and a record kept of these inspections. A S E L P M 50 . Refer to the inspection card for inspection criteria. Heat damage can be detected by discolored metal.

This slide and the next two show the different types of sling damage that can occur. Refer to the inspection record of additional inspection criteria.SYNTHETIC SLING INSPECTION 1. Never use synthetic slings around high heat sources or hot work. Never tie a knot in a flat sling to shorten it. 3. If you don’t it may find its way back into service. 2. A S E L P M 51 . cut the eyes in it or destroy it. 5. When taking a sling out of service. Synthetic slings are required to be inspected on a regular basis and a record kept of such inspections. 4.

2. The manufacturer’s tag should be on the sling and contain the SWL. 3. Wet nylon slings can be used but lose 15% of their strength. 4. Always keep your slings out of the sun when not in use. A S E L P M 52 . Nylon slings are also susceptible to damage through ultra-violet light. This tag must also be legible.SYNTHETIC SLING INSPECTION 1.

Shackles must be load rated and have the WLL written on them along with the manufacturer and country where they were made. Only shackles of the screw pin or bolt type may be used for lifting. When inspecting them. 4. 3.SHACKLES DEFORMATION 1. Shackle that only use a cotter pin to keep the pin in are not legal for lifting. look for: • • • • • Wear Deformation A S Non-rated shackles E L P M BOLT SUBSTITUTION WEAR Pin or bolt substitution Worn threads on the pin 53 . If a shackle is used as a permanent part of the hoist line. 2. then it must be moused closed or use the bolt type with a cotter pin.

WLL..SHACKLES IN-LINE 45 DEGREES 90 DEGREES LOAD Side Loading Reduction Chart For Screw Pin & Bolt Type Shackles Only† Angle of Side Load 0° In-Line 45° from In-Line 90° from In-Line † DO NOT SIDE LOAD ROUND PIN SHACKLES 1. The working load limit. A S E L P M Adjusted Working Load Limit 100% of Rated Working Load Limit 70% of Rated Working Load Limit 50% of Rated Working Load Limit 54 . Round pin shackles are ones which do not have a nut on the end of the pin and should not be used for lifting. 2. shown on the shackle is for vertical loads.

The rated capacity of a eye bolt drops significantly when pulled other than vertically. Emphasize the dramatic drop to the students. Threading a sling through the eye bolts increases the stress on the eye bolts by two and should never be done. 55 . DIRECTION OF PULL In-Line 45 Degrees 60 Degrees ADJUSTED WORKING LOAD Full Rated Working Load 30% of Rated Working Load 60% of Rated Working Load 1.EYE BOLTS WRONG! DO NOT REEVE SLINGS ONE EYE BOLT TO ANOTHER. LOAD ON BOLT IS ALTERED. 2. 3. A S E L P M CAUTION! STRUCTURE MAY BUCKLE FROM COMPRESSION FORCES.

barrel clamps or hooks. including: spreader and lifting beams. 4. plate clamps. There are many more. Add pictures of the different types of lifting devices you have at your facility. These are a few of the types of below-the-hook lifting devices. Any lifting device must be load rated and have a manufacturer’s nomenclature plate on it indicating its weight and SWL. 2. Be careful of home-made lifting devices. A S E L P M TELESCOPIC COIL GRAB 56 . 3.BELOW-THE-HOOK LIFTING DEVICES BALANCED “C” HOOK COIL LIFTING HOOK BALANCED PALLET FORK 1.

2. A S E L P M Compression in load Sling Angle 57 . When slings are brought together and form a hitch arrange as shown above the stresses in the slings increase and a compression force on the load is created. As the sling angle decrease the stresses in the sling and on the load increase.SLING ANGLES Tension in slings Stresses in the slings and the load increase as the sling angle decreases 1.

SLING ANGLES 5l 57 1000 lbs 500 lbs 500 lbs 57 5 l bs bs 60° 1000 lbs 1000 lbs 1000 lbs lb s 70 5 70 5 lb 45° s 1000 lbs 1. 3. slings need to be selected based on the increased stress and not on the weight of the load. 2. it may be damaged. Depending on the structural strength of the load. Review each of the different sling angle configurations and point out the increase in the stresses. the compression loads which are crushing the load will be 866 lbs. A S E L P M l 00 10 bs 10 00 30° lbs s 5735 lb 5735 lb s 5° 1000 lbs 1000 lbs 58 . Sling angles of 60 degrees are the best to use because of the minimal increase of stress in the slings. When the sling angle is 30 degrees for a 1000 lbs load. When required to use smaller sling angles.

A S E L P M 59 . 2.000 30 Load On Each Leg Of Sling = (Load / 2) X Load Angle Factor 1. 2 X 500 = 1000 lbs which is the stress in the sling.305 45 1. the length of the sling is divided by the height of the sling connection to the top of the load.SLING ANGLES 500 lbs 500 lbs Load in each sling leg = 500 x Load Angle Factor L Factor of Angle “A” A H A 1000 lbs 1000 lbs 1000 lbs Load Angle Factor = L/H Sling Angle Degree (A) 90 1. Example: If my sling was 8 feet long and the height ‘H’ was 4 feet.000 1.414 2. 3. The answer is then multiplied by the portion of the load it is to support and this will be the stress in the sling. 8 divided by 4 equals 2. As shown in the slide above. All that is need to calculate these stress is the weight of the object and a measuring tape.155 60 50 1. The portion of the weight the sling is to support is half of 1000 lbs or 500 lbs.

Blueprints or drawings. 2. Manufacturer documentation. If the object is solid and made up primarily of one material then you could calculate the weight. 4. E L P M 60 .ESTIMATING WEIGHTS Acceptable methods of determining weight You may find the weight from: Data on manufacturing label plates. The surest way to find the weight is to weigh the load. Shipping receipts. A S Knowing the weight of the load is critical to a safe lift. 3. Weigh the item. Bill of lading (be careful) Stamped or written on the load Approved calculations Never use word of mouth to establish the weight of and item! 1. Not all information is reliable.

Anytime you calculate the weight it is really only an estimation. Always error on the safe side in your calculations.ESTIMATING WEIGHTS Calculating the weight To find the weight of any item you need to know its volume and unit weight. 1. But it will get you in the “ball park”. A S E L P M 61 . • Volume x Unit weight = Load weight • Unit weight is the density of the material • Unit weight is normally measured by pounds per cubic foot. 2.

reinforced MISC. Knowing the unit weight of different materials helps in weight estimation. 2. pressed Clay tile Rubble masonry Concrete. reinforced concrete (150 lbs). haydite Concrete. soft Brick. and wood (25-65 lbs) is useful. slag Concrete. wet Hemlock Maple Oak Pine Poplar Spruce White pine Railroad ties LIQUIDS Diesel Gasoline Water EARTH Earth. 3. wet Earth. seasoned Fir. Asphalt Glass 165 535 500 560 480 710 490 460 160 110 140 60 155 110 130 144 150 80 160 TIMBER Cedar Cherry Fir. wet Sand and gravel. It’s wise to have similar “cheat sheets” for materials that you handle frequently. A S E L P M 100 75 120 105 62 . cinder. dry 34 36 34 50 30 53 62 30 30 28 25 50 52 45 64 The unit weight is: pounds per cubic foot 1. Knowing the difference between steel (490 lbs).ESTIMATING WEIGHTS Here are some examples of common materials and their unit weight: METALS Aluminum Brass Bronze Copper Iron Lead Steel Tin MASONARY Ashlar masonry Brick. stone Concrete. dry Sand and gravel.

Cubes are easy to calculate. 2. Finding the weight is as simple as multiplying the volume of the cube by the unit weight of what it is made of. Unit weight x Volume = Weight 34 lbs.CALCULATING VOLUME Volume of a cube 8 ft long 2 ft high Length x Width x Height = Volume 8 ft x 4 ft x 2 ft = 64 cubic feet If the material was cedar. then all we would have to do to determine it’s weight would be to multiply the unit weight of cedar x 64. A S E L P M 63 4 ft wide .176 lbs. = 2. 1. X 64 cubic ft.

= 4. The volume of a cylinder is a little more difficult. then all we would have to do to determine it’s weight would be to multiply the unit weight of reinforced concrete x 31. just multiply the volume in cubic feet by the unit weight to find the weight of the load.4 cubic ft.14 x 1² ft x 10 ft = 31. 150 lbs. Again. Having a scientific calculator and knowing how to use it is a good idea.710 lbs. 2. but not rocket science.4 cubic ft If the material was reinforced concrete.4. X 31.CALCULATING VOLUME Volume of a cylinder 10 ft long Pi x Radius Squared x Length = Volume π x Radius² x Length = Volume 3. A S E L P M 64 2 ft wide . 1.

It is helpful to know how to change fractions into decimals. thick 3 ft wide 3.)² x 8 feet = volume of hole (50. 2.14 x (1ft 5 in.)² x 8 feet = total volume of pipe (56. You just have to do it twice and then subtract the volume of the hole from the total volume of the pipe.14 x (1 ½ ft. Finding the volume of a pipe is not too much different than finding the volume of a cylinder. three feet wide and 8 feet long.52 ft³) 1.11 ft³ Volume of material x unit weight = total weight If this pipe were steel then the unit weight would be 490 lbs.CALCULATING VOLUME 8 ft long Volume of pipe Calculating the volume of pipe is a bit trickier but it is just simply subtracting the volume of the hole from the volume of the pipe. 65 .9994 lbs. A S E L P M 3. 1 in. Calculators are a must for this. then we would figure the volume of the entire pipe and subtract the volume of the hole to get the the volume of the material. If the pipe were one inch thick.11 x 490 lbs = 2. simple divide 12 into 17 which would be 1.4266.41 ft³ = 6. 6.41 ft³) 56.52 ft³ – 50. To change 1 foot 5 inches (or 17/12ths) into a decimal.

Simply spit the pipe down the middle and open it up into a thin plate. A S E L P M 8 ft long 1/12 ft = 1 in. Then calculate the the volume of the cube that is created.08 ft) x 490 lbs = *3. so: π x diameter x length x thickness x unit weight = weight of object 3. multiply pi times the diameter.42 (width) 66 . 3. thick 3. The formula would be: π x diameter = width. To find the width.14 x 3 ft x 8 ft x 1/12 ft (or .CALCULATING VOLUME For thin pipe a quick way to *ESTIMATE the volume is to split the pipe open and calculate the volume like a cube.14 (π) x 3 ft diameter = 9. 2.077.2 lbs 1. This is only an estimate and should not be used with thick pipe. 4.

If it were 1 inch thick then it would be 80 lbs a linear ft. = 1.200 lbs. x 80 lbs.) A S E L P M 67 . square foot. then having a chart that gives you the weight per cubic foot. ft.WEIGHT TABLES WEIGHT TABLES Weight tables are an excellent way to calculate load weight. x 10 ft.600lbs. If it were 20 feet long at 1 inch thick then it would weigh about 1. STEEL I-BEAMS weigh approximately 40 lbs a linear ft. cubic yard. (8 x 10 x 40 lbs = 3. linear foot or per gallon. at 1/2 inch thick and 8 inches x 8 inches.600 lbs. (20 ft. A steel plate measuring 8 ft. ft. If you are handling certain materials often. 1/2 inch thick would then be about 20 lbs. Here are a few examples: METAL PLATES STEEL PLATES weigh approximately 40 lbs per sq. x 1/2 inch would then weigh about 3. per sq.200 lbs. at 1 inch thick.) BEAMS Beams come in all kinds of materials and shapes and lengths.

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