Materials | Heat Treating | Steel

3/13/2014

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Alloy Cast Steel Designation and Chemistry

Moly-Telastic is a medium carbon, chromium-molybdenum type cast steel which is similar to an AISI 4135 specification, except with reduced chromium content. It can be heat treated by annealing or normalizing and tempering to an approximate hardness of 180 HB for all section sizes.

No. 1 Gearalloy is a medium carbon, chromium-nickel-molybdenum type cast steel used for applications requiring higher harden ability than Falk Moly-Telastic. It is similar to an AISI 8630 steel, but higher in alloy content.

No. 2 Gearalloy is a low carbon (0.20% nominal), chromium-nickel-molybdenum type cast steel containing 0.04-0.06% vanadium for grain refinement in gear castings. Chemistry is similar to an AISI 8620 steel, but higher in alloy content. This is our standard cast steel for carburized and hardened gears and has comparable harden ability to an AISI 4320 H steel. It is also used in the through-hardened, quenched, and tempered heat treat condition to a maximum hardness range of 245-285 HB for impact applications (this condition is not intended for gearing or wear applications).

No. 3 Gearalloy has higher carbon and molybdenum content than No. I Gearalloy This results in higher harden ability for increased section size or higher hardness ranges for quench and temper heat treatment. It is similar to an "8633" steel (not a standard AISI designation) but higher in alloy content.

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37 0.aspx?platformkey=1&businessunitkey=80570&nodekey=-44003 .40-0.60-0. 6 Gearalloy is not intended to be quench hardened because of quench cracking susceptibility. 2 Gearalloy** AISI 8120 No.43 0.30-0.60-0.27-0. 6 Gearalloy has the same carbon content as No.23 0.00 0. I through No.40-0.30-0.28-0.70 0.90 0. 0.70-1. 4 Gearalloy but has increased alloy content.60-0.30-0..60 0.com/sites/process/steelcastings/Pages/Materials.90 0.25 0.70-0. Chemistry is similar to an AISI 8640 steel but higher in alloy content.65 0.38 0.90 0.90 0. This enables hardening by normalize and temper heat treatment to higher hardness ranges (325-365 HB maximum) than can be achieved with No.rexnord. 6 Gearalloy % Carbon 0. 4 and No.3/13/2014 www.33-0.25 0.70-1.17-0.rexnord.70 0. This results in the highest harden ability alloy cast steel (maximum section size or maximum hardness) intended for hardening by quench and temper The harden ability is equivalent to an AISI 4340.30-0.40 0.. 3 Gearalloy.90 0. 4 Gearalloy normalized and tempered.60-0.40 0.50 0.15-0.15-0.40-0. 3 Gearalloy AISI 8633*** No.05-1. conform to specific standard SAE or AISI steel designations regarding carbon and alloy content.25 0.80-1.00 0. 6 Gearalloy grades of alloy cast steel do not.40-0.60-0. by intent.60 0.60 2/9 http://www.90-1.40 0.90 0.70 0.90 0.15-0. TABLE 1 .70-0.75-1.18-0.60-0.Chemical Analyses of Our Alloy Steels* Type Moly Telastic AISI 4135 No. but contain modified carbon and generally higher alloy content for improved depth of hardening (harden ability).15-0.40-0.45 % Manganese 0.70-1..90 % Molybdenum 0.70-0.40-0. 4 Gearalloy has higher carbon content than No.60-0.23 0. Moly-Telastic and No.60-0.40-0. No..aspx?platformkey=1&businessunitkey=80570&nodekey=-44003 No.70-1. The chemical analyses for our Moly-Telastic and Gearalloy grades of alloy cast steels are shown in Table 1.15-0.33 0.40-0.40-0.60-0.10 0.90 0.90 0.45 0.35 % Chromium 0.00 0.70-0.90 0.40-0. . 1 Gearalloy AISI 8630 No.38-0.50 0.00 0.70-1 00 0.38-0.30-0.90 0. No.37 0.00 1.70 0.25 0.15-0.60 0.20 % Nickel .90 0.40-0.25 0.37 0.38-0.com/sites/process/steelcastings/Pages/Materials. 4 Gearalloy AISI 8140 No.60 0.25 0.55-0.

due to our ladle deoxidation practice which uses primarily calcium and not aluminum. Vanadium additions are also available for other grades when required.rexnord. strength and design considerations.38-0.com/sites/process/steelcastings/Pages/Materials. 2 Gearalloy also contains 0. We utilize sweep or pit molding. Machinability and Processing Alloy grades of cast steels (Moly-Telastic and Gearalloy grades) are readily machinable and ductile.06%. Beyond 150'*. TABLE 10 . hardness.55-0. respectively. This high grade material requires no oven curing. A well equipped sand laboratory monitors sand molding and core making practices.Machinability Index Hardness. Other alloy cast steels which meet your specifications can be furnished for special pressure. is based on hardness and is related to machinability of B1112 steel (100%). Aluminum content used is less than 0.35 0. We will assist you in the proper selection of the appropriate grade to meet your design requirements. Our alloy cast steels can be heat treated to meet the strength requirements of ASTM A148 (High Strength Steel Castings for Structural Purposes) up to grade 165-150. This.60-0. can easily result in lowering machining costs by as much as 15%.aspx?platformkey=1&businessunitkey=80570&nodekey=-44003 . *** "8633" is not a standard AISI designation.20 0. in itself. The largest pits measure 24' x 50' x 7. and drastically reduces potential metal solidification defects. 5 Gearalloy .5' and 36' x 36'x 10'.90 0. is environmentally safe. HB 210-250 225-265 245-285 265-305 Per Cent Index 66 57 50 43 3/9 http://www.3/13/2014 www. shown in Table 10.05% and 0.04-0.05-1.90-1.030% max. A sodium silicate sand binder is exclusively used in our core making process.) are less than ASTM A148 permitted maximums of 0. Minimum tensile ductility values (elongation and reduction of area) for corresponding strength levels are shown in Table 2. The selection of the appropriate alloy cast steel depends upon specified chemistry. Pattern molding can accommodate items up to 150" in diameter or diagonal.06% vanadium for grain refinement. The index of machinability.aspx?platformkey=1&businessunitkey=80570&nodekey=-44003 No.45% ** No. The use of aluminum is limited to castings less than 8T finish weight. as it develops aluminum oxides and decreases machinability.com/sites/process/steelcastings/Pages/Materials. 6 Gearalloy No Similar AISI Grade No.020%. Silicon content is typically 0. low temperature and high temperature applications.Discontinued 0.60 * Percent phasphorus and sulfur (both 0.45 1.rexnord.

aspx?platformkey=1&businessunitkey=80570&nodekey=-44003 4/9 .000 110.000 70.000 60. as well as hardness.000 85. Mechanical Properties Mechanical properties of steel castings are generally determined from test bars machined from standard ASTM A781 test coupons.rexnord.000 70.000 15 15 35 33 No.000 45.000 60. Minimum tensile properties.3/13/2014 www.aspx?platformkey=1&businessunitkey=80570&nodekey=-44003 285-325 300-340 335-375 350-390 38 33 28 25 Although microstructure considerations. determine machinability.000 90.000 130.com/sites/process/steelcastings/Pages/Materials.000 115.000 23 35 210-250 225-265 245-285 Qenched & Tempered 245-295@ 265-305@ 270-310@ 285-325@ 300-340@ 90.000 110.000 100.000 100. obtained from standard cast test coupons. our machinability rating system is based on tool life as a function of cutting speed (surface feet per minute).000 95.000 15 14 13 12 11 11 10 9 35 33 31 29 28 28 26 23 Moly-Telastic 210-250 225-265 90.000 100. These test coupons may be attached to the casting or cast separately.1 Normalized & http://www.Minimum Tensile Properties of Our Alloy Cast Steel TYPE Heat Treatment Hardness HB Tensile Minimum Tensile Properties Yield % Elongation in % Reduction in Area Strength PSI Strength PSI 2 Inches Annealed or Moly-Telastic Normalized & Tempered 160 (Minimum) 80.000 80.000 135. for our alloy cast steels are shown in Table 2. Table 2 .com/sites/process/steelcastings/Pages/Materials.rexnord.000 120.000 118.

000 135.000 120.000 90.3/13/2014 www.000 90.000 13 12 11 31 29 28 245-285** 255-295** 265-305** No.000 90.aspx?platformkey=1&businessunitkey=80570&nodekey=-44003 .000 85. 3 Gearalloy Normalized & Tempered 255-295 265-305 285-325 110.000 135.000 115.000 115.000 150.000 130.000 95.000 118.000 130.000 80.000 120.000 90.000 11 11 10 9 9 8 7 28 27 26 23 22 20 16 5/9 http://www.000 80.000 13 12 11 11 10 9 9 8 31 29 28 28 26 24 23 20 No.000 115. 2 # Gearalloy Water Quenched & Tempered 210-250 225-265 245-285 90.000 100.000 100.000 100.000 80.000 125.000 157.rexnord.000 118.000 100.000 140.1 Gearalloy Quenched & Tempered 270-310 285-325 300-340 310-350 335-375 110.000 95.rexnord.000 80.000 115.000 150.aspx?platformkey=1&businessunitkey=80570&nodekey=-44003 Gearalloy Tempered 245-285 255-295 265-305 110.000 140.com/sites/process/steelcastings/Pages/Materials.000 13 12 11 10 31 29 28 26 265-305** 270-310** 285-325** 300-340 310-350 No.000 125.000 115.000 20 20 18 45 45 42 245-285 No.000 70.000 85.000 110.000 130. 3 Gearalloy Quenched & Tempered 335-375 350-390 118.000 60.000 118.000 110.000 85.000 110.000 130.com/sites/process/steelcastings/Pages/Materials.

000 180.com/sites/process/steelcastings/Pages/Materials. endurance or fatigue strength.000 100. Strength properties such as tensile.rexnord.000 90.000 140.000 145.000 140.000 157.000 130.000 125. # Unless carburized hardened.000 135.000 9 8 6 22 18 15 310-350 335-375 No. For further information regarding the limitations of test bar data.000 110.000 175.000 110.000 9 8 6 6 5 5 22 20 12 12 10 10 300-340 No.com/sites/process/steelcastings/Pages/Materials. ** This hardness can also be obtained by normalizing and tempering.aspx?platformkey=1&businessunitkey=80570&nodekey=-44003 6/9 .000 160.000 145. yield.000 150. I through No. Impact Properties Typical Charpy V-Notch impact strengths for Moly-Telastic and No. No.000 175.aspx?platformkey=1&businessunitkey=80570&nodekey=-44003 360-400 375-415 390-430 400-445 160. Test bar results for tensile ductility (per cent elongation and reduction of area) and impact strength may not be representative of actual castings due to harden ability and section size considerations.3/13/2014 www.000 140. 4 Gearalloy Normalized & Tempered 285-325 300-340 118. 6 Gearalloy Normalized & Tempered 310-350 325-365 135.000 170. 4 Gearalloy Oil Quenched & Tempered 350-390 360-400 375-415 390-430 140.000 6 5 5 5 12 10 10 10 265-305 No.000 115. provided hardnesses are equivalent.000 115.000 135.000 170. 2 Gearalloy is for through hardened impact applications and not for gearing or wear applications. please contact our Materials Technology Department through your local Rexnord account executive.000 150.rexnord.000 145. 4 Gearalloys are shown in Tables 3 http://www.000 135.000 130. show better correlation between test bars and actual castings.000 120. and to a lesser degree.000 6 5 4 15 13 9 @ Rough machine before heat treating.

No.aspx?platformkey=1&businessunitkey=80570&nodekey=-44003 through 6.0 inch test sections. 2 Gearalloy is recommended depending on the specified hardness. lbs.0" Section) Impact Strength Heat Treat Hardness. Impact strength is also a function of heat treatment.com/sites/process/steelcastings/Pages/Materials.0 test section in the normalized and tempered (N&T) condition at 160-200 HB.) 65 55 207 Water Quenched & Tempered 217-223 http://www. Impact properties were evaluated at T/3 depth for test sections. TABLE 3 .aspx?platformkey=1&businessunitkey=80570&nodekey=-44003 7/9 .3/13/2014 www. 1 Gearalloy Cast Steel Keel Blocks (2. -20oF 7 0oF 11 70oF 22 150oF 44 212oF 52 Impact strength in the quenched and tempered condition is higher than for the normalized and tempered condition. as a function of heat treatment and specified hardness. due to shock loading and/or low ambient temperatures. Table 3 is the typical Charpy V-Notch impact strength for Moly-Telastic cast steel in a 5. Table 4 shows the typical Charpy V-Notch impact strength (ft-lbs.Moly-Telastic Cast Steel (5.com/sites/process/steelcastings/Pages/Materials. 2 Gearalloy cast steel at 70*F in the water quenched and tempered condition at 207-223HB.0" section) Normalized & Tempered 160-200HB Temperature Ft-lbs. TABLE 4 . I Gearalloy cast steel.0 & 10.0" section) Heat Treat Hardness. For applications requiring higher impact strength. hardness and test temperature. TABLE 5 .) for keel blocks of No.rexnord.No. HB 225-265 Quenched and Tempered 265-305 300-340 -50oF -20oF 0oF 70oF 150oF 212oF 37 21 16 49 26 21 58 35 24 67 51 39 69 55 46 77 57 48 Table 5 shows the typical Charpy V-Notch impact strength for No. Specific data may be obtained upon request. No.rexnord. I or No. These values were obtained from separate cast keel blocks and 5. HB (ft. 2 Gearalloy Cast Steel (5.

which vary according to ASTM grain size.com/sites/process/steelcastings/Pages/Materials.9 5. 4 Gearalloy Cast Steel (5" and 10" section thickness) Hardness. Cast (Di) harden ability ranges.Cast Hardenability Range Inches Grade Moly-Telastic No. are available in literature and from the Materials Technology Department. 2 Gearalloy No. lbs.3/13/2014 www.3 7.8 4.com/sites/process/steelcastings/Pages/Materials.) 5" 5" 10" 10" 16 38 18 16 Heat Treat Metallurgical Considerations Harden Ability Control of melting is accomplished through computer-aided harden ability (Di) calculations. coupled with statistical process control in order to ensure uniform response to heat treatment. 6 Gearalloy (DI) Range.0-6.4 13. and individual alloy content.rexnord. 4 Gearalloy No.aspx?platformkey=1&businessunitkey=80570&nodekey=-44003 Table 6 shows the typical Charpy V-Notch impact strength for No.2 The harden ability ranges are presented for reference purposes only and should not be considered as part of a material specification. They are intended to illustrate the degree of control used during manufacturing to assist in the production http://www. HB 311 Quenched and Tempered 277 302 326 Test Temperature 70oF 212oF 70oF 212oF Impact Size Strength (ft.3-7.1-4. established in our Melt Shop as acceptance criteria for our heats.aspx?platformkey=1&businessunitkey=80570&nodekey=-44003 8/9 .4-9. The multiplication factors for calculating (Di) harden ability. carbon.6-19. are shown in Table 7. The ideal critical diameter (Di) is defined as the diameter of a round that can be quenched under ideal conditions (ice brine) in order to obtain a 50% martensitic microstructure at the center of the section. 1 Gearalloy No. TABLE 7 .2 6. 3 Gearalloy No. 4 Gearalloy cast steel (5" and 10" section thickness) according to hardness in the oil quenched and tempered condition.9-11. TABLE 6 .No.rexnord. Inches 3.

e. For the same reason cited above for (Di). Weldability Moly-Telastic and Gearalloy grades can be welded satisfactorily. 4 Gearalloy..com/sites/process/steelcastings/Pages/Materials.aspx?platformkey=1&businessunitkey=80570&nodekey=-44003 and heat treatment of castings. 3 Gearalloy No. selected on the basis of the required strength. The choice of electrodes and welding techniques is normally governed by the nature and position of the weld and the mechanical properties required.3/13/2014 www. The stress relieving temperature should be 1000-1250°F for annealed castings and 50-1 00°F below the final tempering temperature for normalized and tempered or quenched and tempered castings of all grades. furnace preheating and post-heating are preferred to local heating with large torches. is recommended. providing that necessary preheating and post-heating precautions are followed. Low hydrogen type manual arc weld rods. Minimum preheat temperature should be maintained during welding by torch heating and monitored by temperature indicating pencils or a surface pyrometer. The maximum preheat temperature should not be greater than 200 F above the minimum required. and may be subject to slight modification. these Jominy end quench curves should not be part of a material specification.com/sites/process/steelcastings/Pages/Materials. Minimum preheating temperatures are shown in Table 9. TABLE 9 .Minimum Preheat Temp. 4 Gearalloy No. 6 Gearalloy is not quench hardened. Jominy End Quench Jominy end quench harden ability ranges from testing alloy cast steels per ASTM A255 are shown in Figures I through 4.g.rexnord. or CO2 shielded flux core process wire. using heat treatable electrodes. oF 300oF* 350oF 200oF 350oF 400oF 400oF * In most instances. harden ability ranges in Figures I through 4 are narrower than those for wrought AISI designations. Jominy end quench curves were not developed for No. are recommended. http://www. as illustrated in Figure 4 for No. GRADE Moly-Telastic No. When the deposited weld metal is designed to meet the tensile properties of the casting. Higher preheat temperature is not necessary unless extensive welding is required. 6 Gearalloy Minimum Preheat Temp.rexnord. 4340. 2 Gearalloy No. 6 Gearalloy as the curves were expected to be nearly horizontal and No. 1 Gearalloy No.aspx?platformkey=1&businessunitkey=80570&nodekey=-44003 9/9 . a 300oF minimum preheat is sufficient. Whenever possible. welding before heat treating.

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