Grammar and Composition

Composition Practice
Grade 11

Acknowledgments Grateful acknowledgment is given authors, publishers, and agents for permission to reprint the following copyrighted material. Every effort has been made to determine copyright owners. In the case of any omissions, the Publisher will be pleased to make suitable acknowledgments in future editions. p. 3 from Covered Wagon Women: Diaries & Letters from the Western Trails 1840–1890 edited & compiled by Kenneth L. Holmes. Copyright © 1990 by Kenneth L. Holmes. Published by The Arthur H. Clark Company. p. 8 from Away Goes Sally by Elizabeth Coatsworth. Copyright © 1934 by The Macmillan Company. Published by The Macmillan Company. p. 21 from The Caine Mutiny Court-Martial by Herman Wouk. Copyright © 1954 by Herman Wouk. Used by permission of Doubleday, a division of Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group, Inc. p. 29 from Max Perkins, Editor of Genius by A. Scott Berg. Copyright © 1978 by A. Scott Berg. Used by permission of the publisher, Dutton, an imprint of New American Library, a division of Penguin Books USA Inc. p. 46 from Elements of Argument: A Text and Reader by Annette T. Rottenberg. Copyright © 1985 by St. Martin’s Press, Inc. Published by St. Martin’s Press. Reprinted by permission of the author. p. 52 from The Death of the Moth and Other Essays by Virginia Woolf. Copyright © 1942 by Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc. Published by Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Copyright © 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Permission is granted to reproduce material contained herein on the condition that such material be reproduced only for classroom use; and be provided to students, teachers, and families without charge; and be used solely in conjunction with Writer’s Choice. Any other reproduction, for use or sale, is prohibited without written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Send all inquiries to: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, Ohio 43240 ISBN 0-07-823291-0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 055 04 03 02 01 00

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Contents
Unit 1

Personal Writing
1.1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 Writing to Discover I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Writing to Discover II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Writing in a Journal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Writing to Learn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Writing a Letter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Writing a College Application Essay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Writing About Literature: Writing About Nonfiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Writing About Literature: Writing About Poetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Unit 2

The Writing Process
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.9 2.10 2.11 Writing: A Five-Stage Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Prewriting: Finding Ideas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Prewriting: Questioning to Explore a Topic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Prewriting: Audience and Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Prewriting: Observing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Drafting: Achieving Unity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Drafting: Organizing an Essay I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Drafting: Organizing an Essay II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Drafting: Writing with Coherence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Revising: Using Peer Responses I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Revising: Using Peer Responses II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Editing and Presenting: Completing Your Essay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Writing About Literature: Analyzing a Character in a Play . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Unit 3

Descriptive Writing
3.1 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Creating Vivid Description I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Creating Vivid Description II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Using Sensory Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Creating a Mood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Writing a Character Sketch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Describing an Event . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Writing About Literature: Writing About Mood in a Play. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

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Contents
Unit 4

Narrative Writing
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Characters in Biographical Narratives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Writing a Biographical Sketch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Structuring the Long Narrative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Writing About Literature: Identifying Theme in a Narrative . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Writing About Literature: Responding to Narrative Poetry . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

Unit 5

Expository Writing
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 Writing Expository Paragraphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Explaining a Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Analyzing Cause-and-Effect Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Writing an Essay to Compare and Contrast I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Writing an Essay to Compare and Contrast II. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Analyzing Problems, Presenting Solutions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Using Time Lines and Process Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Building a Reasonable Hypothesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Writing About Literature: Comparing and Contrasting Two Authors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Writing About Literature: Comparing and Contrasting Two Poems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

Unit 6

Persuasive Writing
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 Stating Your Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Sifting Fact from Opinion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Evaluating Evidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Inductive and Deductive Reasoning I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Inductive and Deductive Reasoning II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Recognizing Logical Fallacies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Writing and Presenting a Speech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Writing a Letter to an Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Writing About Literature: Evaluating a Speech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

iv

Composition Practice
Name ...................................................................................... Class .................................................. Date ................................

1.1

Writing to Discover I
Key Information In personal writing you may express your thoughts, feelings, and experiences for yourself or others. A life map, chart, or personal time line can help you find experiences from your life to generate writing ideas.

I A. Charting Significant Events

The left-hand column in the chart below lists general areas in which any writer might find ideas. Fill out the middle and right-hand columns for at least three areas as you recall significant events in your life. You may list more than one item in each column.

Area of Experience School Family Trips/Vacations Current Events Friendships Games/Sports
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Place/Time

Event

I B. Creating a Life Map

On a separate sheet of paper, map out the events from the chart in chronological order. Examine your life map, and write answers to the questions below.
1. Do you see a pattern of causes and effects? Any other type of pattern? ______________________

______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________
2. What specific events from the life map are part of the pattern(s) you identify?________________

______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice, Grade 11, Unit 1

1

Write the experience to be described on the “trunk” of the “tree” and supporting details on each of the “branches.Composition Practice Name ..... Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.........” Add as many branches as you need...... Date . Inc...................... Record your ideas in the graphic organizer below.. 2 Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice.... Unit 1 ...................... Sometimes one event can cause a string of reactions resulting in a great accomplishment...................... Grade 11.. 1. Planning Your Writing Select an event or chain of events that represents part of a pattern in your life............. Class ...1 Writing to Discover II Key Information Patterns connect events like a path that often cannot be seen until it has been traveled........................ Through personal writing you can gain a better understanding of your own path........................ Brainstorm for interesting details to include in a personal writing assignment..... Consider how the experience affected you and how you felt and reacted at the time.................

....... and events. We all slept in our wagons.. The wind being very high. the cattle being unruly and it raining.. Missouri...... Then answer the questions that follow... Grade 11...... 1... May 2 .... We passed through Memphis....... write a one-paragraph entry for your journal. a very pretty little town. This morning we started from Clark in company with two other families... .... Class ...... I A... Inc.... Keeping a Travel Journal Imagine you are keeping a journal during a trip. Literature Model C lark County..... 1... jot down some images or phrases that come to mind.... Ruth Shackleford.. .... we liked never to get supper [we thought we'd never get supper ready]. The children and I rode in At's horse wagon. turned the cattle in the lot and fed them..... On a separate sheet of paper. a day of travel by car.... landform. May 3 A beautiful morning..... ..... had to pry the wagon out with fence rails..... Date .. . 1865... I feel very uneasy about him... feelings. from Covered Wagon Women Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.......2 Writing in a Journal Key Information A diary or journal lets you record information... .... impressions. . May 1... . Unit 1 3 .... encountering severe weather conditions Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice... We travelled today over very rough... Why do you think Shackleford is keeping a journal? ______________________________________________________________________________ 2..... . . What you write in your journal is your choice.. ..... 1. I feel very sad and low spirited on account of Frankie being sick and seeing them part with their friends....... We are camped tonight by a house in a lot....Composition Practice Name ......... Circuit court was in session. . it being the first time we have cooked out of doors.. ... Frankie was sick all night with a pain in his side......... .. or well-known monument for the first time 2....... What does she record in her journal? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ I B. We had a big time getting the unruly cattle yoked... muddy roads. .... or plane 3.. Frank's team stalled twice.... seeing a city.. paid $1 for them... train. bus. We stopped there while Frank got two iron rods made to put in his wagon. It is still cloudy and the roads are awful muddy.. Identifying Features of a Journal Read this excerpt from the diary of Ruth Shackleford.... Every now and then the women and children have to get out and walk through a mud hole. who traveled from Missouri to California with her family in 1865. After choosing a situation from the list below..

........3 Writing to Learn Key Information People use primarily three basic learning styles: visual (seeing).. However...... Suppose. However. that you traveled west from Greenwich. You would be traveling as fast as the Earth is rotating. The calendar date on the east side of the International Date Line is 1 day earlier than it is to the west.. Grade 11.. Use a separate sheet of paper if necessary. Inc....... you lose time... and returned in 24 hours.. McGraw-Hill World Geography 1........ Moving west.Composition Practice Name .... and use them to summarize the material above in your own words. Keeping a Learning Log Evaluate your understanding of the International Date Line......... an auditory learner ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 3.. for example............. if you were to keep moving west.............. Describing Learning Styles Read the following excerpt from a geography textbook. a visual learner__________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.......... You would seem to be returning the same day you left. Literature Model L ook [at a time zone map......... Analyzing your primary learning style and keeping a learning log will help you get more out of the time you spend studying.. you would eventually lose time at the International Date Line. 2. Date .. in the space provided below..... in Greenwich it is 1 day later.. called the International Date Line... the day changes.......... At this line.......... explain how people with different learning styles would best learn and remember the information presented.. Read your summary.... auditory (hearing)............. you gain time.. Imagine the lines below are part of your learning log... and you can see that] moving east......... I A. Unit 1 . 4 Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice.. and tactile (doing or manipulating).. and then list facts or concepts you need to clarify....... 1.. starting at 12 noon on Thursday.......... a tactile learner _________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ I B. To avoid such confusion.. You would gain an hour in each of the 24 time zones you entered. Class .. Then... an imaginary line was established at 180 longitude....

.........4 Writing a Letter Key Information Your purpose and your audience should influence the language and tone of your personal letters............. Friend ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Parents _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ I B.. Date .. One list will include items you want to mention in a letter to your friend.. to the beach....... I A... and to a theme park.......... Unit 1 5 ............... Class ........ make two lists.... 1... During the vacation your hosts took you sightseeing.............................. Grade 11...... Think about the differences in language and tone for these two audiences..................... Writing a Letter Write a letter of thanks either to your friend or your friend’s parents................. Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice.... Inc..... The purpose of both letters is to thank your hosts for their hospitality....Composition Practice Name ..... Use the appropriate list from Part A to help you decide what to include in the letter... In the space provided......... The other list will include items you want to say in a letter to your friend’s parents..... to a baseball game. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Planning to Write Imagine that you have spent a month of your summer vacation visiting the family of a former neighborhood friend who now lives some distance away.

..... I could use words that were very broad and subject to a wide range of interpretations.... Superclastic means “adventurous around new people in new situations as well as always looking at the familiar with new eyes.. accomplished... Unit 1 . Unfortunately. 6 Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice.................. Inc.............. and skills. Jot down examples.. ________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 4.. making slight revisions if you wish.... Then add at least two sentences of your own to “personalize” the essay. I am very superclastic.Composition Practice Name ... Class .. because I’m very analytical.. I guess what I fear most is being described as ordinary. Aim for clarity as well as creativity..”____________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 2...... Preparing to Write a Self-Descriptive Essay List some adjectives that you think best describe yourself..... I am doomed to see eighteen solutions to every problem..... I A....... Choose the excerpt that comes closest to something you might write... I considered words such as industrious. 1. Before writing... Grade 11...... think about your personality traits.. six sides to every square........... _________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 3..... and motivated...5 Writing a College Application Essay Key Information A good college application essay reveals what is unique about you......... ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ I B. Highlighting Personality Traits A common type of college application question asks you to describe yourself... including one of your own creation..... Date ......... __________________________________ Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.... 1...... Below are examples from essays in which students were asked to describe themselves based on an adjective. experiences.. or other details you could use to back up this assessment of yourself....... accomplishments.................................

write a research paper on the same topic..... burns and facial tumors..500 raised by teenagers in Greensboro....... Grade 11. ...... cities and four countries... The things they deal with are misfortunes that brand the spirit as much as the flesh: cleft lips and palates... the cost of the Panama mission was offset in part by $6.... N.. The money—the existing missions require about $1. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.... To date. or fashion your thoughts into a poem... Inc... 14. If necessary..C.. Class .... short story.......000 volunteers. Richard Lacayo.. [Operation Smile] resembles a mini-Peace Corps.. who organized a bowlathon... or script.. and Kenya. . .. W R I T I N G A B O U T L I T E R AT U R E 1........... Date ......5 million in cash and $1 million in supplies each year—comes from private contributions and corporate gifts or just from bursts of inspiration...... Respond to the information presented by describing your initial reactions on the journal page that follows........ Vietnam.. You can respond to nonfiction by recording your reactions in a readerresponse journal. and chapters in a dozen U.... As you develop your response.. Ghana. the Magees have launched 32 medical missions to nine countries............ Colombia.... read the excerpt more than once. including China.... Literature Model [Bill and Kathy Magee are the founders of] Operation Smile..........” People magazine Quotation or paraphrase from text What text makes me think of Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice. congenital hand and foot deformities............Composition Practice Name ........... where a total of 4.800 children have been treated... Responding to an Article Read the excerpt below.... Unit 1 7 . with a $2 million annual budget... a non-profit organization that dispatches medical teams to developing countries to perform free corrective surgery on disfigured children............. For example... “No One Will Ever Laugh at Me Again...... you may want to write another article with a different perspective...6 Writing About Nonfiction Key Information Writing about what you have read is one way of organizing your thoughts and deepening your understanding of the information.........S....

..... analyzing the literary elements of the poem..... Wind in the wheat. _____________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 2................... Paraphrase the main idea or message of this poem. Inc.. Elizabeth Coatsworth. 1.. Unit 1 ... And slow things are beautiful: The closing of the day... The opening flower........ And the ox that moves on In the quiet of power... or by creating a poem of your own.. Class .Composition Practice Name ..... The strong-withered horse.. and then complete the activities below... Some are moved emotionally.......... I A. others take a more intellectual approach.. W R I T I N G A B O U T L I T E R AT U R E 1. by finding out more about the poet... The runner's sure feet...... what would their first lines be? ____________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 8 Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice....7 Writing about Poetry Key Information Readers may respond to the same poem in different ways.....” _______________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 4....” ______________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 3..... The pause of the wave That curves downward to spray. Rivers and meteors.............. Add images of your own to illustrate that “swift things are beautiful.. Date . You can enrich your responses by writing about your reactions to a poem...... Extending Your Response Read the poem again............... I B.......... What images came to mind as you read the poem? What words or features did you like? Literature Model S wift things are beautiful: Swallows and deer...... Add images of your own to illustrate that “slow things are beautiful................ Grade 11......... First Response On the lines provided.... If you were to add two more stanzas to this poem. And lightning that falls Bright-veined and clear...“Swift Things Are Beautiful” Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies..... The ember that crumbles.... describe your first response to the poem below...

Then under each stage..... Go back to ___________.. editing/proofreading. 5. Grade 11.... Go back to ___________...................... 2............ improve content...... set neatly in final form d. I B. Writers often go back to earlier stages to rework their material... 2. You are running for local office and discover that you have prepared your speech for tomorrow night’s audience instead of tonight’s. write the letters of the tasks that writers do in that stage.. Using the Writing Process Imagine that you are writing an essay or speech and you get stuck for the reasons described below.Composition Practice Name ......... Stage 5: FINISH Tasks a.... identify audience and purpose Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies....... Unit 2 9 .... organize material f...... and publishing/presenting....... Date .... You notice that your paper is full of typographical errors.......... Inc..... mechanics b.. revising.. You think of a new piece of evidence that would strengthen your position.... 1. I A... Go back to ___________. Go back to ___________....1 Writing: A Five-Stage Process Key Information The writing process consists of five stages: prewriting..... Go back to ___________......... 3............. To which earlier stage of the process would you return? Write your answers in the spaces provided.... 4... spelling... write first version Stage 1: START Stage 4: c... You are having trouble deciding what information to put in and what to leave out because you are not sure of your purpose... flow Stage 2: Stage 3: g... Class .. drafting.. Understanding the Components of the Writing Process Fill in the following flow chart by first writing the name of each stage in the writing process..... research topic e. find topic h... structure.. correct grammar..... Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice. Writers progress from one stage to the next and accomplish specific tasks within each stage.. Your friend reads your essay and gives you suggestions to make it flow better..........

Americans love to ........... ..... To help you get going in the freewriting process........... 1.. I B....... Grade 11... 2.. Inc........Composition Practice Name .. 3........... Date .... Then write specific ideas about the topic in the branches that grow out of the trunk... 2.......... If I were a famous .. and use the tree diagram below to explore it further.... .... Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies......... Begin writing about a word or subject and allow yourself to move freely from one idea to the next... you can use a writing starter like the ones in Part A.. When you have decided on a topic... Unit 2 ....... You may continue on another sheet of paper if you need more room..... I A.... 10 Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice... below. you can use a tree diagram to explore different ways of thinking about the topic.. ........2 Prewriting: Finding Ideas Key Information When you need a writing topic.... freewriting can help......... Class .. Using a Tree Diagram Take one of the topics that emerged from your freewriting above.. ...... Using Writing Starters Use one of the following starters to freewrite on the lines below. ... Write a word or a brief phrase to designate the topic at the base of the tree. ................... A perfect day would be . ......... The first thing I see when I wake up is .... 4..... ....

...... Exploring a Subject You are preparing to write a character sketch of a close friend or relative.......... Complete the chart below by identifying the type of question provided...... After nature’s long inertia in the winter.... exotic places with abundant color and vigorous life... Grade 11........... When I think about this person’s habits.............. analytical..... How does this person resemble a famous character or famous person? Type Answer I B.. ______ 4. The combination of increased temperature and moisture provides an environment suitable for plant growth.. Each type of question serves a different purpose in the search for information and perspective on a topic.. Unit 2 11 .. A for analytical.... or I for informational. Then choose your subject......... Streets that were drab and lifeless only weeks before have become almost tropical... Some flowers bloom when their sensors measure the lengthened day of spring.. C for creative... and informational.. What do I like about this person? 3.......... Inc.. In the spring I feel enthusiastic about the most mundane activities.. Class ... while others bloom in response to increased temperature... what patterns of behavior become evident? 4........... Identifying Questions to Generate Detail Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.. The details about spring in each of the following sentences were generated by different types of questions........... 2. the sudden activity in the spring is like the molecules in a pot of boiling liquid... I A. Identify the type of question that was most likely used with a P for personal.. ______ 3..3 Prewriting: Questioning to Explore a Topic Key Information To generate ideas for your writing...... ______ 2... Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice.. creative........Composition Practice Name ........ ______ 6......... you can ask four different types of questions: personal.. By midspring in the country...... ______ 1.. ______ 5..... the temperature can reach 75°.. Date .... and briefly answer each question... Question 1... What kinds of clothes does the person like to wear? 2....

Keep in mind the reader's or listener’s identity... the tone (serious.. consider your audience... I B....4 Prewriting: Audience and Purpose Key Information Before you can start to write about a topic.. Describe briefly the kinds of details (factual.......... Writing for Your Audience Choose one of the topics above in Part A.... b....... a.. decide whether your purpose in writing about your topic is to explain........ Topic the local newspaper roller-skating mall walking learning to drive Audience a...... a..Composition Practice Name ........ a... poetic.............. b. descriptive.... persuade.. write two possible audiences and two corresponding purposes for presenting the topic to those audiences.. Details Tone Word Choice 12 Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice.. Inc..... needs. Grade 11.... Adjusting Purpose to Fit the Audience For each topic listed in the chart........... a................ b.. 2.. Date ... entertain.. and the choice of words (technical..... simple....... I A. Class ..... b... slang) that you would use for each of the audiences you selected. Topic: Audience a... and interests. Unit 2 . casual)... b. describe.... b.. a........ Is your audience the general public or a highly specialized group? What is the average age of its members? How much does the audience know about your topic? After identifying the nature of your audience.... b.. b. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies..... a.. or narrate....... b...... Purpose a. fantastic)......... humorous.

.. animals.. In the second column is space for notes recording the sensory information learned from observation. hearing.... smell..... Unit 2 13 ...... In the first column is a list of subjects—people. Sensory Impressions I B.. impressions... Grade 11..... touch.... Developing Observations Choose one of the scenes from the chart above to focus on further. Then imagine the scene from a different perspective: inside the toy shop........ Record these additional impressions on the lines below............... places..................... Think about your own associations...... 2...... Date .. or outside the movie theater during the daytime.... Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice.. Inc.... emotions.. and taste........Composition Practice Name .5 Prewriting: Observing Key Information To create a sharp.. Then go beyond simple sensory details to record your own associations........... start by observing sensory details: sight.... I A.......... Recording Sensory Observations Examine the following observation chart............ Subject a rainy day in the city the window of a toy shop lunch with a friend in a restaurant inside a movie theater a favorite pet Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies............. and impressions in regard to the scene........ Class ..... and observations from different perspectives. Record details from as many of the five senses as possible for each category....... for instance. or situations—that are under observation. objects........... vivid description.

. carrying voice 4........... SET B SUBJECT: a navy flier’s rescue by dolphins 1........ Grade 11.......... Date ....Composition Practice Name .. sharks’ triangle-shaped fins were seen to infest the entire area 14 Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice.6 Drafting: Achieving Unity Key Information To achieve unity in your written work.. a clear.. first make sure that you have clearly stated the main idea in your topic sentence..... Writing Unified Paragraphs The following sets contain information about a subject for a paragraph....... a school of dolphins drives off sharks 5... 2.............. the ability to think quickly in a fast-paced auction Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies..... however... facts................... Be sure to state the main idea clearly in your topic sentence..... Then make sure that all the details... sharp eyes to spot bidders’ signals 3......... Each set. a navy flier is shot down over the ocean 2. comfortable shoes 5............ SET A SUBJECT: the characteristics of a good auctioneer 1... and examples you use support the main idea.. he loses blood and waits for an air-sea rescue 3.... a sense of humor to hold the audience's attention 2............ dolphins circle the flier until the rescue plane arrives 6........... Then use the remaining information to write a paragraph... Draw a line through the irrelevant detail in each set.. dolphins were considered sacred by ancient Greeks 4...... a talent for showmanship 7..... Class ..... Unit 2 ... contains one irrelevant detail that does not belong in the paragraph...... the ability to deal with large audiences 6...... Inc....

... work habits Organizing Technique: _______________________________________________________________ Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies..... pro and con.......... Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice.............. or chronological order.......... Grade 11... explanation of problems of waste disposal.... Select the best organizing technique for the purpose and data given in each set by writing compare and contrast.............. Date ..... spatial order....... likes and dislikes..... spatial order..... facts about low air pollution from nuclear power Organizing Technique: _______________________________________________________________ SET 2 Purpose: To provide instructions for putting a bicycle together Data: Suggestions for common household tools that can be used.... statistics on safe and unsafe performance........ pro and con.... order of importance....... diagrams Organizing Technique: _______________________________________________________________ SET 3 Purpose: To describe an old house in which a crime takes place Data: Details of the house’s location in relation to neighboring houses and to the nearby town... SET 1 Purpose: To give a balanced view of the benefits and dangers of nuclear power Data: Historical facts about accidents in nuclear power plants.Composition Practice Name ... Selecting an Organizing Technique Each set below contains a statement of purpose and a description of the data that will be used in an essay.7 Drafting: Organizing an Essay I Key Information Five techniques that you can use to organize the information you have gathered into an essay are compare and contrast.. 2.......... Unit 2 15 .. details of the locations of rooms and furnishings within the house Organizing Technique: _______________________________________________________________ SET 4 Purpose: To argue that a busy intersection needs the installation of a traffic light rather than a stop sign Data: Eyewitness accounts of motorists’ confusion at the intersection............ Inc............ temperament................. and chronological order. police statistics on the number of cars that have been caught speeding through the intersection......... Class . description of the exterior appearance of the house..... descriptions of each step in putting the bicycle together... statistics and descriptions of traffic accidents that have occurred at the intersection Organizing Technique: _______________________________________________________________ SET 5 Purpose: To describe common characteristics and differences among four siblings Data: Descriptions and examples of physical appearance.... order of importance...

...... c.... Which sentence is intended to capture the audience’s attention? ______ 3. Then answer the questions below. Class ....... Which sentence sets up the organizing technique? ______ 5....... heart....... and the echoes that bounce off the body’s internal structures are converted rapidly into a visual map... close-up view of the subject consistent with the general picture presented in the introduction.... What organizing technique is used? ____________________________________________ 8... Ultrasound enables us to see things that we could never see before.. What new perspective does the conclusion offer? _________________________________ Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.............. ______ 1. This is the miracle of the ultrasound transducer.. In medicine.... Inc..... Date .. Ultrasound provides clear views of the brain. or conclusion? 7.. Ultrasound is also used to seal plastic packaging and to clean minute crevices in jewelry and laboratory equipment... e......... a.. 2... The conclusion presents a new view of the material........7 Drafting: Organizing an Essay II Key Information An essay comprises three parts..... h. liver... Which sentences are part of the body? ______ 6... and glaucoma.... as well as easier and less painful treatments for kidney stones.... In the future........ Two and a half million pulses of sound per second are fired through the skin..... The body presents a long........ f....... and other internal organs...... 16 Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice. Which sentence states the main idea? ______ 4..... Unit 2 ..... d.. Grade 11........ b. Which sentence provides an overview.... Understanding the Parts of an Essay Read the following short text on ultrasound....... arteries. the list of ultrasound’s uses grows longer every year.. Which sentences are part of the introduction? ______ 2...... eye tumors.. The introduction presents a general picture of the essay’s subject and purpose... which already has changed medicine and promises to play a role in a wide range of human activity. All kinds of equipment could be inspected with ultrasound for cracks and other flaws.Composition Practice Name ..... g..... fishermen could use ultrasound to locate schools of fish deep below the ocean’s surface...

............... Date ..... in reverse order.... cryptographic analysts can and do break these ciphers......... For example.. Their work is as challenging as a game of chess but far more difficult to master than most games of skill.. B could stand for Y....... pronoun references... C for X.......8 Drafting: Writing with Coherence Key Information Coherent writing is writing that develops connections between sentences and paragraphs. Therefore..... Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice... are of two basic types— substitution and transposition. Identifying Words That Develop Connections Underline the transitional words and phrases...... I A.... recipients of such an enciphered message do not need to carry a heavy code book. Secret ciphers... secret codes that are based on a code book that lists code words with their decoded meanings are almost impossible to break....... each letter of the alphabet stands for another letter..... right below.. z xlwv yzhvw lm z xlwv yllp li z xrksvi? I B... You could quickly set up this substitution system yourself by printing the alphabet twice. Cryptographers who specialize in the breaking rather than the making of codes are known as cryptographic analysts.... the captain of a naval vessel threatened with capture must always jettison his lead-bound code book...... no matter how complex the systems by which they are enciphered.. HINT: If you can decipher this cryptographic question.......... which encipher the actual letters in a message. Add a sentence at the beginning of the second paragraph to serve as a transition from the first paragraph. Transitional words and phrases......Composition Practice Name .. first in the normal order and then.. Using a Transitional Statement The two following paragraphs could be found together as part of an essay........... Class . 2.. they need only to memorize the encoding system.......... However......... In a transposition cipher... pronoun references. Grade 11. it will give you a hint about the transitional sentence for the second paragraph: Dsrxs rh vzhrvi gl wvxrksvi. Inc.. The code book is the key... and repeated words and images will help to make your written work a coherent piece. In fact........ A could stand for Z.. Here is a simple example of transposition: Each word is written backward is changed to drawkcab nettirw si drow hcae. and repeated words and images in the sentences of the two paragraphs above. the letters of the message are scrambled in a systematic way. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.. Guided by clues rooted in the nature of the English language.... and so on... In substitution ciphers.... The science of devising and breaking secret ciphers and other secret codes is called cryptography..... their logical connection is weak.. Unit 2 17 .......... Of course..

....... directs criticism at the writing 2. decides on all final changes 11. Unit 2 ... Choosing the correct tasks for each person. Class ................ write a paragraph describing the role of the writer in the review process and another paragraph describing the role of the reviewer..........9 Revising: Using Peer Responses I Key Information A peer reviewer can give you an objective reading of your work..... Inc. takes careful notes 9...... 18 Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice...... seeks to understand the writer’s meaning 12................. Date ... seeks fresh insights into the work 3..... listens with an open mind Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies........ Describing the Roles of the Writer and the Reviewer The box below includes the tasks of both the writer and the peer reviewer.. asks for suggestions 6.... the writer and the reviewer understand their different roles........ seeks to understand the writer’s intentions 8.... suggests specific solutions 13..Composition Practice Name . Tasks 1......... questions confusing comments 5. In a successful peer review...... begins with praise 7.................. Grade 11....... tries to bring out the writer’s best work 4..................................... 2. directs criticism at the writing 10...

Grade 11. Which sentences in the paragraph do not support the topic sentence? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 5............... from repetition to sudden incongruities of behavior. to examine its content..Composition Practice Name ........... When they let their subconscious do the work............. Other times.... or examples... like shopping for groceries or taking the dog to the vet. Comedians say that their most effective lines occur to them when they are doing something else....... Ask two questions that will elicit new supporting details..... coherence.. What is the main idea of the paragraph? Where is it stated? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 4....... Reviewers should not be concerned with misspelled words or grammar problems but should ask themselves questions about the clarity of the thesis.................... to get an overall impression of the piece and... Is the ending strong? Can you suggest a better ending? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice...... Model H umor is not always easy to define.... Briefly describe your first impression of the paragraph.. facts. and then answer the questions below.. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 2.. 2.... Class . and the expression of the argument........... ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 6........... Does the opening make you want to keep reading? Can you suggest a better one? Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.... ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. the strength of the supporting evidence... written by a classmate......... Sometimes when you aren’t trying to be witty..... you come up with something that makes everyone laugh.. The best humor is usually spontaneous........ second.... and flow... Read the paragraph at least twice..... Date . Inc.. you find that your best jokes fall flat... 1...9 Revising: Using Peer Responses II Key Information Reviewers read a written work at least twice—first.. they think of their most successful jokes.... Unit 2 19 . Psychologists have identified many sources of humor. Reviewing a Written Piece You are asked to review the following paragraph....... What one person finds funny another person will not find funny at all...

.Composition Practice Name ....... Upon returning home. The injection resulted in a few days of illness ............. Note that all proper names have been spelled correctly.10 Editing and Presenting: Completing Your Essay Key Information Editing involves examining the construction of the sentences and paragraphs....... Unit 2 ....... Montagu experimented with this procedure and published a report of her findings. punctuation............. (If you wish. In 1796 physician Edward Jenner became interested in Montagu’s findings.......... Inc.. you may refer to pages 91 and 92 of your textbook............ Editing and Proofreading a Paragraph Read the following paragraphs first to edit them and then to proofread them.... his discovery of what we now call innoculation did not receive much attention.. His similar studies and publications made smallpox vaccinations a widely accepted practice.. Class ............... Use correct proofreading marks to indicate changes...... a disease that is desimating people back home.. The local method for avoiding smallpox... however... but afterward the patient will no longer be suggestible to the disease............ Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.. 2........ Grade 11......... especially fascinated her—injections of small doses of the smallpox virus... In the 1970s the World Health Organization declared the disease evaluated. Date ................. proofreading involves searching for errors in capitalization.... and spelling.........) Model When Lady Mary Montagu traveled to turkey from England in 1717 she was’nt planning to save thousands of lives............. Reducing the death rate in England by two thirds. 20 Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice.... She was simply a curious tourist observing people and customs..

... Herman Wouk... .............. ....... Now—here’s my dream come true.... Nevertheless. Class . and make it holler Uncle... And some poor joe would need defending... Took quite a shellacking at flight school from snotty ensign instructors four or five years younger than me... MARYK: (staring at him) Greenwald.. So just leave me be..... and I’m a pretty poor flyer. ... is there something eating you? GREENWALD: I don’t know. then....... You know something? I don’t look forward to twisting the Navy’s arm...... W R I T I N G A B O U T L I T E R AT U R E 2..... .... That makes us even....... from The Caine Mutiny Court-Martial Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies... I didn’t like it.. maybe I’d better— GREENWALD: (Crossing to desk and taking papers from briefcase) Maryk.. GREENWALD: Good.... I’d rather be prosecuting you than defending you.... Fill in the cluster diagram with adjectives or phrases about Greenwald......... Unit 2 21 .... good lawyer. and twist the Navy’s arm.. I believe I’m going to get you off..... Baby-faced kids couldn’t do such things to Greenwald the hot-shot lawyer..... Inc...... I’m defending you. Halts) I’m a ........ Greenwald Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice... .. Date .... Not one bit... (Paces in silence for a moment... Grade 11............ And I’d step in.11 Analyzing a Character in a Play Key Information Begin an analysis of a character in a play by freewriting or by creating a cluster diagram to focus on his or her character traits. Freewriting About a Character in a Play Read the following lines from a play about a fictitious Navy court-martial during World War II.........Composition Practice Name . MARYK: How’s that? GREENWALD: I don’t like handling you...... I told you that the first time we met... Literature Model MARYK: I don’ t like the way you’re handling me........ If you want a prediction.... But you can’t help me.. I used to daydream about a court-martial coming up on that base... Maryk.. If it’s humanly possible to win an acquittal in this case I’m going to win you an acquittal........ MARYK: What? Well... and take over.

along the right-hand wall.. 3.. Inc. use order of importance... use spatial order.. concentrating on those details an observer would be most likely to notice.......... 22 Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice. ______ 7. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.. In spite of its enormous size....... and a coffee table were grouped hospitably on a handsome Navaho rug..... and write the appropriate numbers on the lines provided for sentences 2–8.. Use order of impression. Class ......... ______ 5.. To show that some details are more important than others.... At the right of the hallway.... a stairway rose to the balcony.... Read the topic sentence below....... Both this balcony and the wall below it were lined with book-filled shelves..... You may omit one or two details you think are insignificant and add people to the scene to make it more effective....... Beyond the rug. which was broken by the kitchen door and a hallway to the rest of the house.. Supporting sentences: ______ 2.. From this corner.. Date ... Centered so that it seemed to fill the doorway......Composition Practice Name . Unit 3 .. ______ 4... Grade 11...... To the right of the table....... organize sensory details in one of the following ways: To show how details relate to one another in space... ______ 3. two couches... use order of impression................. To organize details according to the order in which you experienced them.......... the room had an intimate air.... a small fireplace flanked by two reclining chairs formed a cozy corner. ______ 6....... Topic sentence: ______ 1.... several straight-backed chairs.......... your eye traveled to the rear wall. Use additional paper if necessary..... I B.... ______ 8. I A.. Using Order of Impression Use the setting above as the basis for a paragraph describing how the room would impress you if you were entering it for the first time... Then rearrange the supporting sentences in logical spatial order... There was even space in front of the shelves for a library table and several chairs................1 Creating Vivid Description I Key Information When you write descriptions.... Understanding Spatial Order The sentences in the following description are out of order.. it will be sentence 1. the dining table glittered with crystal and china.

.. ______ 5... Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice.... The wall of shelves might provide some storage space for supplies......1 Creating Vivid Description II Key Information Two ways to organize descriptive writing are order of importance and order of impression. I A... I B...... Order of importance indicates the relative importance of each detail to the main idea of the description....... Imagine that you are the mother of the young artist who just rented the apartment described above.. ______ 1.... Use order of impression.... What’s more....... Grade 11.... and its window faced a brick wall.... 3........ ______ 4.... huge windows were complemented by a skylight. which she had been willing to sacrifice in order to have good studio light....... although it was dingy..... Using Order of Impression Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies..... Renumber the sentences to express a logical order of importance.......... placing what you consider the most important reason first.... Unit 3 23 ...Composition Practice Name ......... ______ 3....... Order of impression presents the details in the order in which they are noticed............. ______ 6.... ______ 2. Class . The eastern exposure promising morning sunlight was just what she had been looking for................ Even the kitchen would do....... The tiny bedroom offered the bonus of privacy........ Inc.......... Recognizing Order of Importance The six sentences below explain why an artist chose a particular apartment as a combination studio and living space.... Date .......... beginning with your entrance to the apartment through the kitchen door... The main room was large enough for a work space and to show prospective clients finished paintings... Describe your first visit to your daughter’s apartment in a letter to a friend..

............. When I arrived home from school yesterday..... Unit 3 ............ smell...... ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ What a birthday present that turned out to be! chugging pinging quiet sluggish creaky pitted rusty smooth dusty plush scratchy squeaky knocking purring shimmering threadbare lumpy quicksilver sizzling wheezy 24 Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ What a birthday present that turned out to be! Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies......... hearing............. 2..2 Using Sensory Details Key Information Descriptive writing creates a clear and vivid impression through sensory details that appeal to sight......... Grade 11..... In the first description....................... taste............ In the second... 1.. complete the paragraph using details that create a positive impression...... The opening and closing sentences are provided.. Class .......... 3.. complete the paragraph using details that create a negative impression. When I arrived home from school yesterday.. I noticed a red convertible parked in front of the building........ Using Contrasting Sensory Details Create two contrasting impressions by selecting different sensory details to fill out the descriptions below... Carefully chosen sensory details sharpen the focus on your subject and draw the reader into your writing........................Composition Practice Name ..... I noticed a red convertible parked in front of the building. You may wish to use some of the vivid adjectives provided in the box below.. Inc.. and touch.... Date ......

.... Grade 11..................Composition Practice Name .... and support your assessment with three specific examples of details and language that create the mood. Class ... staring timidly there in the dark passage in a strange town....... Literature Model 2 A n enormous brass band seemed to explode right at Miranda’s ear. Identifying Mood Read each of the following passages carefully.. Unit 3 25 ..... Date .. .... and the bald old man withered into a black hump with a white top.... .... Below each model identify the mood created in the passage... To me.............. She jumped................. the swarthy man appeared like a giant in a cage surrounded by clouds.. 3..... thrilled blindly and almost forgot to breathe as sound and color and smell rushed together and poured through her skin and hair and beat in her head and hands and feet and pit of her stomach..... Katherine Anne Porter......3 Creating a Mood Key Information The mood of a piece of writing gives the reader an overall feeling about a scene or event... and the roofs crouched down............... Literature Model 1 T he passage grew dark too suddenly.. quivered....... from “The Peaches” Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies....... Inc.. Mood is created through carefully selected details and vivid language........ the walls crowded in........... ................. Dylan Thomas. from “The Circus” Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice.. two white hands darted out of the corner..........

. and. acts.. Underlying personality: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ I B.. I A.. Date ... people had taken her for forty.4 Writing a Character Sketch Key Information A character sketch describes a person’s appearance.... behavior. behavior. write two or three sentences to continue the character sketch above....... 3... 3. Expanding a Character Sketch On the lines below........... her erect carriage and deliberate movements...... Some sentences and phrases describe more than one aspect of the character.... she gave the impression of a woman made of wood.................. moves......... from “A Simple Heart” 1.. movement..Composition Practice Name ........ and effect on others............ and how she dresses........... 26 Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice........ After she had reached fifty........ Gustave Flaubert... speaks..... speech.. Grade 11. what she says. Unit 3 . going through her work like an automaton...... Inc...... and affects others.... Class .. You may wish to describe what the character thinks... Appearance: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 2........ Literature Model H er face was thin and her voice sharp..... Behavior: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies....... and underlying personality by showing readers how the person looks...... with her silent ways.. she had ceased to show any signs of increasing age. thinks............. At twenty-five.. Analyzing a Character Sketch Read the following passage... On the lines below write the sentences and phrases Gustave Flaubert uses to describe the character’s appearance.

.. I A... I saw the steer chasing the boy around and around the tree..... Then she fell through the branches to the ground. or a participant in the event... 3......... trying to regain her balance........... write whether the narrator is a distant observer of the action. a close observer of the action. the boy became slower than the steer........... She swayed on the slender tree limb and clutched at the thin branches........ Identifying Vantage Point For each of the following passages... Model 1 F rom across the field............ I screamed too and kept my eyes fixed upward from my frozen position under the tree. logical.... Use a perspective that will make the event dramatic and effective for your readers.. Grade 11. Date .. Gradually......... the bees were all around her... Class .. Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice..........Composition Practice Name . and the steer lumbered in the direction of the dog..... and the distance between them began to close.. At first the boy managed to keep 180° of the circle between him and the steer.. Vantage point: ______________________________________________________________________ I B. Suddenly a barking dog ran toward them from somewhere behind the barn........ The boy scrambled up the tree. Unit 3 27 . Inc... Vantage point: ______________________________________________________________________ Model 2 I Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.. and rewrite it from a different vantage point..................... gasping for air.. however....... Suddenly........... Changing the Vantage Point Choose one of the passages above. They hesitated for an instant and then attacked.....5 Describing an Event Key Information Describing an event requires that movement of the action through time and space be clear....... and believable.... heard the branches crack and looked up to see that she had lost her balance and was falling toward the trunk.. It is also important to have a clear and consistent vantage point from which to describe the action......... She screamed and brushed frantically at her head and body..... Use additional paper if necessary....

......... scenery....... Identifying Dramatic Mood The descriptions of the opening moments of two plays appear below.. contribute to creating the mood in the opening moments of the play.. you fool! I told you these things take time.Composition Practice Name .. 1.......... and dialogue create a dramatic mood or emotional climate for a play...... both grim-faced and tense... Unit 3 ...... W R I T I N G A B O U T L I T E R AT U R E 3. Grade 11.. also an oldfashioned radio on a table Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. dancing slowly without speaking Mood: ________________________________________________________________________ I B........... facing each other dialogue: FIRST MAN: [shouting and pounding on desk top] You lied to me..................... Date .. Writing About Dramatic Mood Choose one of the plays above.. I backed you with ten thousand dollars....... Mood: ________________________________________________________________________ 2.. dressed “properly” for the 1940s............ Class ... Read them carefully....... Use additional paper if necessary.... lighting: soft and pink scenery: a living room decorated with floral patterns and a few touches of lace. lighting: glaring..... Write a brief paragraph explaining how the elements that are provided...... 28 Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice. and then identify the mood that has been established for each play.. as well as other elements you may supply from your imagination.6 Writing About Mood in a Play Key Information A playwright’s use of lighting... Inc. characterization.... and now I get nothing! SECOND MAN: It isn’t over yet... When you write about mood. consider all of these ele- I A...... [now shouting] I told you it would be awhile before it all came together.... with a reddish-orange tinge scenery: a very small office that is sparsely furnished with a desk and two chairs sound effects: only the dialogue characterization: two men.... sound effects: a love song of the 1940s plays softly characterization: a boy and girl..................... about seventeen years old.......... sound effects........

. but he turned them all down.. Scott Berg uses in the numbered sentences to reveal the character of Max Perkins.. (2) Max Perkins did not care much about the impression he gave. ______________________________________________________________________________ 3... which was just as well. What does this commentary reveal about Perkins? Write your overall impression of Perkins in a sentence or two. without quite facing his audience.. (4) Every year he received dozens of invitations...... ..... for the first one he made on this particular evening was of some Vermont feed-and-grain merchant who had come to the city in his Sunday clothes and got caught in the rain... Then his eyes shot upward and he removed his hat... a skillful writer shows the reader what the character is like.. ______________________________________________________________________________ 4..... (3) As he walked to the front of the room..... Identifying Strategies That Reveal Character Read the following selection about Max Perkins... and more so as Kenneth McCormick introduced him as "the dean of American editors.......... Scott Berg.. Literature Model (1) Perkins took off his sopping raincoat and revealed an unpressed...... “an editor does not add to a book.Composition Practice Name . ______________________________________________________________________________ 5.... write physical description. Grade 11...... the character’s actions....... Instead of telling the reader what to think about a character.....” A... (5) “The first thing you must remember.... from Max Perkins: Editor of Genius Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.." Perkins had never spoken to a group like this before......... or writer’s opinion... ______________________________________________________________________________ Overall Impression: ________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice.. ......1 Characters in Biographical Narratives Key Information A writer uses four strategies to reveal character: physical description................ Inc..... one of the most influential editors of early twentieth-century American literature. 4........... Unit 4 29 . character’s thoughts or words. ... Date .... character’s actions..... At best he serves as a handmaiden to an author....... the character’s thoughts or words.. Class ..... On the corresponding numbered lines below the model......... under which a full head of metallic-grey hair was combed straight back from a V in the center of his forehead... and the writer’s opinion.... Identify the strategy A. threepiece suit.... he seemed slightly bewildered......... pepper-and-salt..” he said...... 1.. ______________________________________________________________________________ 2.

Inc........... Eisenhower trained tank battalions in the army during World War I. thirtyfourth president of the United States and commander of the Allied forces in World War II........ To enforce the 1954 Supreme Court order to end segregation..... If the detail does belong.. If it does not belong...... Read each of the following details and indicate on the line below whether it should be included in the sketch.... Education..... 4. 7.... 6.... Kansas........ Eisenhower held a part-time job at the creamery where his father worked as a mechanic.. Arkansas.... 8.......... 4. 3.. 9... Eisenhower sent federal troops to Little Rock.......... 10..... Eisenhower’s high school classmates expected that he would become a history professor at Yale... 2...... Narrowing the Focus You are writing a biographical sketch about the personality of Dwight Eisenhower.. Eisenhower’s warm smile and congenial manner made him popular all over the world........ Eisenhower reluctantly agreed to run for president on the Republican ticket..... 30 Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice........... Class . The Department of Health.. She grew vegetables and fruit in a garden plot surrounding their house.. Unit 4 . and was the third of seven sons in a poor family.... 5.. explain what it reveals about Eisenhower’s personality. and Welfare was created during Eisenhower’s presidency. 1. discard the rest.................. decide which aspect of a historical figure’s life or personality you want to present.... in 1957........... Eisenhower’s mother taught her son to value frugality.... Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Then select only those details that fall within the focus you have chosen...2 Writing a Biographical Sketch Key Information To narrow the focus of your biographical sketch.. Eisenhower refused to sit down before his wedding ceremony because he did not want to crease the pants of his uniform..Composition Practice Name ........ suggest a focus within which the detail would work. keeping what the family needed and selling the rest......... While in high school.. Eisenhower was raised in Abilene. Date .. Grade 11.

.......... Date ......... In 1854 she rescued two of her brothers from a plantation in Maryland. What events led to her earning the name “Moses”? _____________________________________ Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice......... trends..Composition Practice Name ... New York.... 2. Grade 11....... Finally... she helped more slaves escape than any other person in the movement’s history and earned the name “Moses.. Harriet’s owner hired her out to a local family to work as a weaver. where she herself died in 1913.... In 1908 she built a home for sick and elderly African Americans in Auburn. a haven for many runaway slaves....... At the age of seven... in 1827.. New York.... Unit 4 31 . in 1849..... 7...... 3........... What do these achievements have in common? ________________________________________ 3. to live.... 4.. Developing a Time Line Use the information from the sentences below to develop a time line of the life of Harriet Tubman.... In 1857 she rescued her parents from Maryland and brought them to Auburn.. Inc...... where she remained until her escape in 1849. 8. Understanding Highlights and Trends Refer to the time line you developed to answer the following questions... I B.. Harriet escaped in the dead of night and fled north to Philadelphia... at the age of twenty-nine........... She began working on the Underground Railroad in 1850. and overall direction......... Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies........” 6...... In 1820 Harriet Tubman was born into slavery on a plantation in Maryland... Events that are linked to specific dates should be written above the time line... What events in Tubman’s early life influenced her later career? ____________________________ 4..... and from then until 1862....3 Structuring the Long Narrative Key Information Developing a time line of a person’s life can help reveal highlights... an antislavery activist. events or conditions that span several years should be written in boxes below it................. Class . 4... I A.... 5.... In 1825 at the age of five.. Harriet was hired out to another family and was so badly mistreated that she tried to run away. 1..... What are Harriet Tubman’s major achievements? ______________________________________ 2. 1.

..... of a narrative usually is not stated directly... 1.. Plot The husband brings home a ticket to a fancy ball.......... in shock. Examining Narrative Elements to Determine Theme Examine the notes below on the setting... or controlling idea. and she is wild with joy. Point of View The story is told from the point of view of a narrator who knows the characCopyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies...... What is the theme of the story? State it on the line below......... what are the wife’s values? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 2....Composition Practice Name .. She buys the dress and borrows a beautiful diamond necklace from a wealthy friend. not just the characters in the story?” ______________________________________________________________________________ 32 Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice. Setting The setting is Paris in the late 1800s. replies that the borrowed necklace was an imitation worth only 500 francs...... but the wife needs an expensive dress and jewelry before she will go.... does not care about money.......... plot. Check yourself by asking “Does this theme apply to all people. You can determine the theme by examining the setting. and the wife loses her youth and beauty..... The wife is beautiful but discontented because she can’t buy the clothes..... The husband. actions.. they use their life’s savings and borrow a large amount of money to replace the necklace.. characters............. Over the next ten years the couple work to pay off the debt of 36. The friend... how do you think the wife regards the values she had at the beginning of the story? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 4.. Characters The main characters are a young couple without much money......... Use a separate sheet of paper if necessary.......... her stunning beauty and fashionable dress make her the center of attention. At the end of the story.. Date .............. and words but is not a character in the story. a minor clerk in a government ministry...... Class .. they discover she has lost the necklace......4 Identifying Theme in a Narrative Key Information The theme. W R I T I N G A B O U T L I T E R AT U R E 4. Which events in the plot are caused by decisions made by the characters? Which are beyond the characters’ control? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 3.. Too proud to admit the loss. and the point of view from which the narrative is told.... When the couple return home.............. Each of these elements may reflect the theme.. plot..... Grade 11.. Inc... and point of view of “The Necklace..... characters.. At the ball... Unit 4 . and the wife returns the necklace to the unsuspecting friend... ters’ thoughts. At the beginning of the story...” a story by Guy de Maupassant. Then answer the questions below to help you determine the theme of the story... and furnishings of a wealthy woman.. house.... One day she encounters the friend from whom she borrowed the necklace and tells her the whole story...000 francs..

.. Saturn... No stir of air was there. Inc._______________________________ 3... quiet as a stone..... from “Hyperion” 1. John Keats... Literature Model D eep in the shady sadness of a vale Far sunken from the healthy breath of morn.......... and his children... What do the behavior of the character and the mood of the valley have in common? __________ Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Forest on forest hung about his head Like cloud on cloud......Composition Practice Name ........ ___________________________ 2.... Use one or two words to describe your own impression of each of the following elements that establish the scene.......... ........... Then write an example from the stanza to support each impression...... Name the character in this scene and identify what he is doing.... setting. Class ... ______________________________________________________________________________ 4..... Still as the silence round about his lair...... The poem begins after Saturn’s children have gained the upper hand and deposed their once mighty father..... .. there did it rest..... How has the character’s situation influenced the setting? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice...... point of view. Sound: ________________________________________________________________________ Movement:_____________________________________________________________________ Lighting: ______________________________________________________________________ Mood: ________________________________________________________________________ 5... Read the stanza and answer the questions below... W R I T I N G A B O U T L I T E R AT U R E 4. Describe the vale (valley) in which the character is located... and eve’s one star........ Date ... begin by jotting down your impressions of the characters..... Unit 4 33 .. Not so much life as on a summer’s day Robs not one light seed from the feather’d grass......... Far from the fiery noon.. Examine the last three lines of the stanza.. A stream went voiceless by...... ...... plot....5 Responding to Narrative Poetry Key Information To interpret a narrative poem... still deadened more By reason of his fallen divinity Spreading a shade.... Grade 11..... But where the dead leaf fell.......... and theme......... Examining Mood in a Narrative Poem The following stanza sets the mood for the opening of a narrative poem about the final stages of a war between the Greek god.... Sat gray-hair’d Saturn... ruler of Earth and Sky..

....... keep lilies of the valley in a vase within reach of a baby... determine the appropriate type of expository writing............. Read the model below.... For each topic...... The rhododendron....... Planning Expository Writing Imagine that you are going to write expository paragraphs about the topics below....... compare and contrast... warn youngsters not to put acorns into their mouths....... it is important for people to know and recognize these poisonous plants and to keep them away from children and pets.. Then you will be able to select the appropriate details and organization for your paragraph............. 34 Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice. Therefore......... the innocent-looking buttercup can cause stomach upset if eaten. ask a question that interests you.... Use transitions to link ideas in your paragraph.Composition Practice Name .. list four transitional words or phrases the writer has used. select your topic.. recycling programs in your community ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 4.... movies ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ I B. Choose from process explanation... Date .. 1. and then indicate the type of expository writing you would use to answer that question.... a common household shrub..... volcanoes ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 2.... poses an even greater threat.. can be dangerous. Unit 5 .. In addition.. and building a hypothesis.... On the lines below the model. and define your audience.. Model S ome plants...... Do not... 5....... For example.. the Battle of Saratoga ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 3.........1 Writing Expository Paragraphs Key Information To write an expository paragraph..... cause and effect.. Class . It can cause death............... lovely as they are... Identifying Transitions Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies....... problems and solutions....... Grade 11......... I A.... for instance.. Inc.

To write a clear and logical explanation.. which is made up of small particles of soil. a fan-shaped area of fertile soil..... and flood plain _____ 3........ Date .. deposit............... and gravel.......... Analyzing the Steps in a Process Read the paragraph below and then answer the questions that follow it...... At the river’s mouth—the place where a river enters a lake. a.... 1.. the river begins to deposit sediment...... Class .. Grade 11....... I A...... a newspaper audience c.. define silt. a college geology class _____ 1.......... Write the letter of the appropriate audience next to each numbered item... silt. I B.... Some of the sediment settles along the river’s banks and stream bed. delete definitions of sediment... Make no changes........ Understanding Audience Reread the paragraph above. 5..... it may also form a low-lying flood plain on either side of the river. What process is described in the paragraph? ______________________________________________________________________________ 2.... river mouth............. As a river travels.....Composition Practice Name .... and then decide how you might change it for each of the following audiences... or the ocean—the rest of the river’s sediment is deposited and forms a delta...... sand........ it picks up sediment... a larger river.. Whenever the water speed slows.. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Unit 5 35 ..2 Explaining a Process Key Information Explaining a process means telling how something works or how to accomplish a specific task........ Inc. a fourth-grade class b... List the three major steps in the process.. and delta Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice.... _____ 2.... you need to arrange the steps in chronological order and to include all the information your audience needs to know........... Model R ivers and streams create new land forms through the process called deposition.........

.... List the causes and effects of the island’s initial popularity....... What kind of cause-and-effect relationship explains why people first came to the island? ______________________________________________________________________________ 2. Then answer the questions that follow. To survive economically.... The more people liked it.3 Analyzing Cause-and-Effect Connections Key Information There are three types of cause-and-effect relationships: several causes producing one effect.. They also liked the idea that the island was a well-kept secret.. Causes:____________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Effects: ____________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Type of cause-and-effect relationship: ___________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 36 Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice........ _______________________________ Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.... Grade 11... Analyzing a Cause-and-Effect Relationship Imagine that you are one of the original visitors to the island described above. no movie theaters... Their ad campaigns were surprisingly successful: hordes of tourists flocked to the now not-so-unspoiled beauty of this not-so-quiet island.. ______________________________________________________________________________ 3.. and they didn’t mind the inconvenience of having hardly any shops....... Class ...... I A....... This latter group opened stores and inns—even a movie theater. and others even wanted to move here permanently............ the more they changed it.... they started to advertise........ They liked the quiet and natural beauty... Now our island is just like the places the original visitors were trying to get away from! 1.... and only one television station................. one cause producing several effects......... Model T his island is the victim of its own success.... What kind of cause-and-effect relationship explains why the island changed? ________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ I B.. List the causes and effects you would include in your letter and the type of cause-and-effect relationship you would use.. You are writing to the owner of the hotel where you have vacationed for years to explain why you have decided not to return.......................... 5.. and a causal chain in which each event in the chain is caused by an earlier one.. In fact. Inc..... Date ... People first started coming here because it was unspoiled and undiscovered. they liked it so much that some vacationers decided to build summer homes.......Composition Practice Name . Just because one event follows another in time doesn’t mean it was caused by the earlier event.... Unit 5 ......... Identifying Causes and Effects As you read the model below.......... look for cause-and-effect connections....

.... Then.4 Writing an Essay to Compare and Contrast I Key Information When you write an essay to compare and contrast subjects........... live music/recorded music suburban/urban neighborhoods poetry/songs dogs/cats two sports two movies Feature 1.......................... Unit 5 37 ..... Grade 11..Composition Practice Name ... Date ............ Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.................... decide whether you will organize the information in your essay by feature or by subject...... 5..... 4........ I A. Identifying Similarities and Differences Select one of the following topics or a topic of your own choice... identify similarities and differences by completing the chart below... Use additional paper if necessary................. Class .. Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice..... Decide whether you want to organize your essay by subject or by feature......... begin by identifying similarities and differences...... 5... First Subject Second Subject I B...... 2.......... 3........ Then.... Writing to Compare and Contrast Use the information in your chart to write an essay that compares and contrasts......... Inc..

.. while turtles live mostly near or in water and have webbed feet or legs that act as paddles. Their most basic similarity—and the reason for the confusion between them—is their hard. you can use a Venn diagram to sort the similarities and differences...... 5. On the lines below. Tortoises usually eat only plants....... ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 38 Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice............. Use transitions and the repetition of key words and phrases to link ideas in your essay..... Sorting the Elements of a Compare-and-Contrast Essay Read the following model and then complete the activities that follow.... lives one hundred to two hundred years..... or omnivorous.......... Tortoises live on land and have short........ Inc... Develop a thesis statement that expresses the essential similarities and differences between the two subjects.......... Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies..... Model A lthough many people confuse them... Date . stumpy legs with claws.. eating both plants and meat.. Tortoises and turtles lack teeth but instead have hard beaks.... How is the model above organized.. Both tortoises and turtles may have long life expectancies...........Composition Practice Name ......... Create a Venn diagram that compares and contrasts tortoises and turtles... 3... Grade 11.. Class ............. The giant Galápagos tortoise. for example. Unit 5 .........4 Writing an Essay to Compare and Contrast II Key Information When you write an essay to compare and contrast... by feature or by subject?______________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 2.......... turtles and tortoises are not the same........ eating just meat.. 1.. but turtles may be carnivorous.................. The shells of most tortoises and turtles are covered by plates that look like scales.... bony shells that offer very good protection but restrict movement...... list at least three transitions or repeated key words in the model above...

..... Presenting Solutions Key Information When writing an essay about a problem..... What are the advantages and disadvantages of each solution? I A.. Unit 5 39 . causes.. usually by a small child. Then brainstorm possible solutions to the problem...Composition Practice Name ... Below are some facts your manager gathered for a report on the complaints................. Inc..... begin by gathering information about the nature.. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies......................... Use a separate sheet of paper.. Cause Each Whatzit had been dropped on a hard surface.. Write a memo to the president in response to her request.... Your letter should analyze the problem.... extent...5 Analyzing Problems. no cause identified. Presenting Solutions Now imagine that you are a troubleshooter for Whatzit Products. Date .. offered to sell customers a second Whatzit... explaining how the situation affects both your store and Whatzit Products.... 3 Whatzits are said to have caused sleeplessness and hair loss. Grade 11.. Customer given refund.......... Identifying Problems Imagine that you own a small store that sells Whatzits produced by a nationwide company. you have had an unusually large number of customers returning Whatzits and demanding refunds.. Complaint 15 Whatzits lost their widgets............... and effects of the problem.. Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice.. 125 Whatzits stopped operating....... Use a separate sheet of paper if necessary............... Inspection revealed faulty dimox glitches as the probable cause......... Customer given refund or new Whatzit in exchange for faulty Whatzit...... Response Not covered by warranty.. 5... The company president has given you the analysis of the problem written by the store owner and asked you to explore a variety of solutions. Recently......... Hair loss confirmed......... Class ......... I B. Use the facts to write a letter to the president of Whatzit Products...

............... I B........ stick figures... I A.....” Use additional paper if necessary. Class ........ or sketches to illustrate each of the steps..........Composition Practice Name .. Inc.. Begin by labeling the illustrations. or a simple cooking procedure... and illustrate the sequence of events that makes up a process..... Grade 11... Using a Process Diagram Write a paragraph of instructions to accompany the process diagrams you created above. imagine that you can hire a professional artist to do the final art work once you have decided on the basic design.. List the important steps in the process. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 2........ 1. 5.......... and use diagrams............6 Using Time Lines and Process Diagrams Key Information A process diagram can help you identify...................... an exercise............. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies...... then you can refer to them in your paragraph by saying “as in step 1....... Don’t worry about the quality of your drawing. Developing a Process Diagram Choose a simple series of actions that you can explain using a process diagram. Date ........... Decide which of the steps might benefit from visual illustration.. Unit 5 ........ You might select a dance routine........... explain.......... 40 Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice...

........ or modify it as required............ If the hypothesis is correct. Identifying a Hypothesis The model below reports on a hypothesis that answers the question: What is causing the increased number of deaths of saguaro cactuses? As you read... determine the most reasonable explanation. and then answer the questions that follow...... and accept.................. reject.... Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.. however... 5.. that the saguaros first developed barking on the side that receives the most sunlight..7 Building a Reasonable Hypothesis Key Information The first step in building a hypothesis is to decide on the question you want to answer.. What is the hypothesis? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 2... They discovered.. Then......... considering the data............. Over the next few years.... What steps in the hypothesis-building process have already been taken? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 3...... look for evidence that seems to support the hypothesis.... Inc....... scientists ruled out several other causes for the increased incidence of bark- ing and saguaro cactus death... Next..... How is the hypothesis being tested? What results would disprove the hypothesis? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice...... Scientists will soon test their hypothesis by placing shields that block ultraviolet rays around healthy saguaros... Date . These included the possibility that the barking was a water-conserving response or the result of frost damage....... the shielded group will be compared with an unshielded group..... An unusually large number of saguaro cactuses in Arizona have died after developing a condition called barking—that is.. the shielded group will show little or no damage in comparison with the unshielded group. Class ..... While collecting data. Model S cientists believe they have found the first plant species to be affected by damage to the ozone layer........ 1........ Finally.. test your hypothesis.......... a browned and thickened outer layer of the plant’s trunk and branches............. Scientists have hypothesized that the thinned ozone layer no longer protects the saguaros from ultraviolet rays and that these rays are causing the barking and killing the cactuses. Grade 11...... Unit 5 41 .... collect data and look for patterns.Composition Practice Name ..

.... good deeds and spirituality..... W R I T I N G A B O U T L I T E R AT U R E 5.... examine such elements of their writing as topic.. if it be necessary..... and reduce other things in proportion. Why should we live with such hurry and waste of life? Henry David Thoreau........ Instead of three meals a day.. and not a hundred or a thousand... let your affairs be as two or three....... Comparing and Contrasting the “Simple Life” Read each of the following models... and keep your accounts on your thumbnail... ............ from Walden Literature Model 2 I n place of materialism......... What matters is having time for family and friends..... The first is an excerpt from Henry David Thoreau’s 1854 book. For others it can mean something as subtle as choosing a cheaper brand of running shoes or leaving work a little earlier to watch the kids in a soccer game... Walden. .... ..... .. many Americans are embracing simpler pleasures and homier values. Janice Castro. . eat but one.. ...... .......... Simplicity.. Inc.. position. simplify. word choice...... Class ....... rest and recreation. simplicity. or packing up and moving to a quieter place............. Feature Topic Position Tone and style Word choice and imagery When written Thoreau Castro 42 Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice.. Compare and contrast the two examples by completing the chart that follows.. Grade 11.8 Comparing and Contrasting Two Authors Key Information To compare and contrast two authors.. Also.. consider the period when each author lived and wrote..... ....... Date ....... The second model is from a 1991 Time magazine article by Janice Castro..... Simplify. Unit 5 .... Literature Model 1 O ur life is frittered away by detail......... and imagery. simplicity! I say........ living on less. instead of a million count half a dozen.... Time Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. For some people that means a radical step: changing one’s career....Composition Practice Name .. . tone.. and they’ve decided to make some changes..... instead of a hundred dishes.. five. They’ve been thinking hard about what really matters in their lives..

...... Class ... Writing About Poetry On the line below.... you know! How dreary to be Somebody! How public—like a frog— To tell one’s name the livelong June To an admiring bog! Emily Dickinson...... “Somebody being a nobody” 7.... 4...Composition Practice Name . Grade 11... write a sentence summarizing your feelings about and analysis of the two poems...... sound effects. and then fill in the chart that follows. and overall effect. 6... “Somebody being a nobody” Feature Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies...... Had you not known me a somebody. Would you have called me a nobody? Alfred... 12............... rhyme.... Unit 5 43 ....... Continue the essay on a separate sheet of paper.... line length.. Use it as the thesis statement of an essay comparing and contrasting the two poems... 9...........9 Comparing and Contrasting Two Poems Key Information Comparing and contrasting poems can help you explore your responses and increase the pleasure you find in poetry........ “I’m Nobody” Literature Model 2 Somebody being a nobody.. Literature Model 1 I’m Nobody! Who are you? Are you Nobody too? Then there’s a pair of us? Don’t tell! They’d advertise.... Lord Tennyson....... 3.. 2.... W R I T I N G A B O U T L I T E R AT U R E 5.... 10.. Consider meter... 5... “I’m Nobody” 1..... Said that he thought me a nobody: Good little somebody-nobody....... 8........... Inc. 11. theme............ I A... Thinking to look like a somebody. Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice.. Comparing and Contrasting Read each poem... Date .......... tone... imagery.... Subject of poem Tone Figurative language (including puns) Theme Sound effects: rhyme and meter Overall effect and personal reaction I B..... Include quotations from the poems to illustrate your points.......

... I B.. Thesis: Trash fees should be increased in order to offset the cost of recycling so that the town can continue the recycling program.. Always consider the attitudes and mood of your audience...... does not offer a solution.................... Class .... Grade 11. 1... Strengthening Thesis Statements Each of the following thesis statements is weak because it is too general..... express your opinion clearly in a strong thesis statement........ I A. Thesis: The historic building should not be torn down and replaced with an office development........ Each person in this country eats an average of 61....1 Stating Your Case Key Information When you write to persuade... or is a statement of fact rather than an opinion....... U if the audience would be unreceptive to it..... Thesis: The funding for music and art should be cut in order to balance the school budget.. Primary education in the United States needs to be improved....... 3.. Date ...... ______ Audience: Local Little League Council 4. Americans should not work so hard. ______ Audience: State safety board 6.. Thesis: Because of a lack of funds..Composition Practice Name .. Understanding the Audience You want to persuade each of the following audiences to accept the given thesis..... ______ Audience: Local environmental group 44 Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice............. ______ Audience: Real Estate Developers 3.... Unit 6 ............... Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies....... 1........ Inc.... Write R if the audience would be receptive to the subject of the thesis statement....6 pounds of refined sugar a year.... 2.. ______ Audience: Parents of students for whom English is a second language. 6..... special English classes for students who speak English as a second language will be sharply reduced. Thesis: The parking lot on the corner of Main and Elm should be turned into a Little League Baseball Field..... 2. Identify the defect in each thesis statement and then rewrite the statement to improve it.... ______ Audience: High school band 5.. Thesis: Potential drivers should not have to take both a written and a road test in order to receive their licenses...............

...... Archaeologists have unearthed stone tools of Neanderthal Man in the Near East and Europe that were made 35.. Although humans live longer today........ A blue whale must be more intelligent than a human because the weight of the blue whale’s brain in proportion to its total body is greater than the weight of the human brain in proportion to the human’s total body weight... According to many studies..... ______ 3..... it may be either an informed opinion based on the observations of an expert or an uninformed opinion based on hearsay or a hunch....... Class .000 to 100.....000 years ago. remember that facts can be proven or measured.............. Humans are an inherently selfish species............ However......... Because scientific studies of other primates have consistently observed that they eat their food where they find it...... ______ 1. Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice.... Inc. ______ 9..Composition Practice Name ......... ______ 4. ______10.. Unit 6 45 ..... ______ 8....... Grade 11. whose cave paintings are the only art archaeologists have discovered from any of the premodern human groups......... I if it is an informed opinion..... and U if it is an uninformed opinion.. 6..2 Sifting Fact from Opinion Key Information To recognize the difference between fact and opinion...... If it is an opinion. write F if the statement is a fact... Date .... ______ 5........... informed opinions can be reliable because they are based on facts and the experience of experts. For each statement....... humans seem to be the only primates who subject their food to a process of preparation..... Neanderthal Man must have believed in an afterlife because he is known to have buried his dead.... ______ 2... Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. food. the observations of psychologists suggest that they may not be happier.. ______ 7.... Humans are two-legged primates who move from place to place carrying tools... The human species has a huge capacity for cooperative behavior....... whereas opinions are less concrete and are open to interpretation... Uninformed opinions are unreliable because they are based on hearsay or instinct. ______ 6.. Identifying Reliable Evidence Each of the following statements is either a fact or an opinion.... and other possessions. we can conclude that humans are the only primates who gather food and bring it back to their home bases to consume it..... The dawn of art began with Cro-Magnon Man.

Literature Model T wo radioactive isotopes. But perhaps a little more emphasis should be placed on the real and present danger of cigarette smoking. Class ........000 Americans in 1982 and cause significant disability in many times this number.. anecdotes.... and reasons help your audience follow the logic of your argument.. 6....... . according to the U... Summarize Boguski’s argument in a one-sentence thesis statement.. Examples...... and analogies make your argument more vivid for the reader. Identifying and Assessing Types of Evidence The following argument was written by a medical scientist at Washington University.. What facts does Boguski give to support his position? Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. In a person smoking one and one-half packs of cigarettes per day. Boguski......... will kill 129...... In contrast a person standing for 25 hours directly downwind of the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant following the accident received the equivalent of one chest X-ray.. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 46 Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice.. opinions of experts are also effective......... Grade 11..... and observations are the most convincing types of evidence...... ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 2.......... “What a Cigarette Packs in Radiation” 1.....S........ the annual radiation dose is equivalent to that of 300 X-ray films of the chest......... The major source of polonium is the phosphate fertilizer used in growing tobacco.. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 5. Surgeon General.. and then answer the questions below. Read the excerpt................ statistics...................3 Evaluating Evidence Key Information Using a variety of evidence will strengthen your persuasive argument. What examples or analogies does he use to show the dangers of cigarette smoking? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 3.. Name the experts upon whose research or opinions this argument is based...... Mark S. are highly concentrated in particles in cigarette smoke....... Inc....... What opinions does he offer? Are they reliable? Why or why not? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 4. Facts......... ...... Caution and experience dictate that we remain vigilantly mindful of the potential hazards of nuclear power generation.. polonium-210 and lead-210. Date ..... . which..Composition Practice Name .... Unit 6 ....

. Therefore. and their shoes lasted three years.............. This car is a convertible....... Therefore. Inc...4 Inductive and Deductive Reasoning I Key Information In induction one assembles a series of facts and then finds a relationship among them that can be stated as a conclusion or generalization....... he feels invigorated... Therefore... consumers tend to save money.. House plants grow best in temperatures that range from 16° to 21° C.. This month the economy is weak.. Therefore......... People suffering from acute stage fright are unable to speak.. 6. When the economy is weak.S..... Vinegar is acidic....... Drawing Conclusions Fill in the conclusion for each of the following.... After he rides a bicycle. our basement floods.. One result of combat anxiety is stuttering or muteness.. Therefore.......... All people born in the United States are U... When the economy is strong...... _________________________________________________________________________ 7. _________________________________________________________________________ 4.. 6... Convertibles offer no protection from lightning.. After he runs.. Unit 6 47 ...... _________________________________________________________________________ 9... 1.. he feels invigorated. My mother and two of my friends have the same brand............. _________________________________________________________________________ Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice. Therefore. Then indicate if it is an example of inductive or deductive reasoning.. _________________________________________________________________________ 2........... he feels invigorated. All soaps are sodium salts....... These shoes lasted three years. _________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies..... _________________________________________________________________________ 3...Composition Practice Name . Therefore.. Grade 11...... citizens........ _________________________________________________________________________ 5. The first piece of blue litmus paper turned pink when dropped in vinegar....... Animals tend to become silent when frightened.... All sodium salts are water soluble substances.... Therefore. Class .. The temperature in our house falls to 11° C when we go on vacation and turn off the heat. After he goes swimming. The second and third pieces of blue litmus paper turned pink when dropped in vinegar.. _________________________________________________________________________ 10. _________________________________________________________________________ 8.. I was born in the United States. Every time it rains for more than twelve hours... In deduction one begins with a general principle and arrives at a conclusion about a specific example. Therefore. Therefore......... The weather forecast predicts that the rainstorm that arrived this morning will continue until tomorrow afternoon.. Date .. consumers tend to buy more...

Ed did an excellent job as sophomore class treasurer and an excellent job as class secretary our freshman year... ______________________________________________________________________________ 5. ______________________________________________________________________________ 4. The cactus is a plant.. Therefore.. All juniors in high school enjoy American literature... 1....4 Inductive and Deductive Reasoning II Key Information In inductive reasoning.. write S if the inductive reasoning is sound.......... Since computers are so widely used in businesses today..... Martha enjoys American literature. I am either Janet or Frederico..... explain what the fallacy is and suggest a correct argument.. U if it is unsound.... Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Janet and Frederico are both interested in going to law school... students who plan to enter a career in business should have a strong working knowledge of computers.... I B... I support him for vice president of the junior class. Class ....... The winner of the toss always has the choice of kicking or receiving.. Therefore........... Football players are not strong in academics.. or conclusions that go further than the evidence permits... Therefore........ Identifying Fallacies in Deductive Arguments If the deductive argument below is free of fallacy.............. ______________________________________________________________________________ 3....... Therefore.. Three members of this year’s football team are on academic probation. I do not care for any of the five brands of ketchup I have tried. All plants need moisture to survive. According to a survey taken in all homeroom classes...... write OK on the line provided... Identifying Hasty Generalizations On the line next to each induction... Grade 11..... ______________________________________________________________________________ 2. Therefore... avoid fallacies by making sure that both statements in the argument are true and that the specific example is linked with the correct group in the general statement.. Martha is a junior in high school... we have our choice of kicking or receiving...... ______ 5. ______ 4... ______________________________________________________________________________ 48 Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice. students are dissatisfied with the current exam schedule. Unit 6 . Date .... I A. the cactus needs moisture to survive. Inc.. ______ 1....Composition Practice Name .... We won the toss. She has a dull headache now....... 6. 80 percent of the students advocate changes in the exam schedule......... ______ 3.. Therefore.. try to avoid hasty generalizations.... I am interested in going to law school. Therefore........ she must just have gone grocery shopping......... the ketchup manufacturers do not spend enough effort on quality control.. If it contains a fallacy........ ______ 2... Grocery shopping always gives her a dull headache.. In deductive reasoning.

C for circular reasoning. Some common fallacies are the red herring.......... the bandwagon fallacy..... or E/O for an either/or fallacy..... ______ 5.... Bandwagon fallacy: I should spend a certain percentage of my income on clothes because Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies..... Class .... I’m going because everybody goes to Colorado to ski in the winter............ It is raining.... I’m sure Sam will do a wonderful job because he is so capable.. but I was thinking about what I would give to my mother for Mother’s Day. and the either/or fallacy... I B....... ______ 1.. Identifying Fallacies Write R for a red herring..... but he ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice.... the cause-and-effect fallacy... circular reasoning. I won’t get into college...Composition Practice Name ..... Therefore. If I don’t do well on this test.... Unit 6 49 . ______ 6........... Grade 11........... Inc. Red herring: It’s true that he didn’t fulfill his part of the bargain.......................... and therefore I am depressed....... It’s true that I wasn’t watching the road at that particular moment. Circular reasoning: We should control the funds because we ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 2.. Writing Logical Fallacies Complete the sentences below to create the designated fallacy... ______ 3..... ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 3.... B for a bandwagon fallacy..... ______ 4... ______ 2......... C-E for a causeand-effect fallacy..... 1..... Cause-and-effect fallacy: The last time I slept with my head pointing north on the night before an exam I got an A on the exam....... Date . I A. Either/or fallacy: Either you participate in the election process or ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 5. 6.5 Recognizing Logical Fallacies Key Information Learning to recognize logical fallacies can help you avoid fallacies in your writing and help you evaluate the validity of what you hear and read.. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 4.. I buy these shoes because the best basketball players wear them......

..... 50 Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice. 6.... a................. Date .......... List at least three points that support the topic you selected............................. _____ Compulsory education to age twenty-one safeguards the right of all citizens to learn the basics necessary for responsible participation in the democratic process. Select your position and audience.Composition Practice Name .. c. 4.) Position: _____ Roller-skating is among the most expensive.. Audience: _____ your classmates _____ a group of older people whose opinions you value 2.... Choose appropriate tone and language..... ______________________________________________________________________________ b............ Collect evidence...................6 Writing and Presenting a Speech Key Information You go through the same stages in writing a speech that you do in writing an essay................ Write a persuasive paragraph based on the notes above. Inc............ describe the tone and kind of language that will best suit the topic and audience you have chosen........... (Check one in each category.... and difficult-to-master solo sports to become popular in recent years....... 1... Use a separate sheet of paper if necessary.... Writing a Speech Complete the activities below to write a short speech... dangerous. ______________________________________________________________________________ 3.... On the lines below. In drafting use a tone and language appropriate to the audience and the occasion... Grade 11.... Class . ______________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies... Unit 6 .....

..Composition Practice Name .7 Writing a Letter to an Editor Key Information An effective letter to the editor states a problem clearly.......... ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 3.... It’s disgusting what politicians can get away with in this town............. Unit 6 51 ............. disrespectful.. Grade 11.......... provides strong supporting evidence.......... Just last night I saw someone who looked awfully like our own attorney general having dinner at the most expensive restaurant in town.............. Have any of you tried driving down Main Street after the spring thaw? The potholes must cause hundreds of thousands of dollars of damage every year........... I B.... and identify each error by writing one of the following in the space above it: unclear.. Model Dear Editor: I’m writing about this mess with the city roads.......... 1. like fancy lunches for the mayor and his cronies........ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice.. And I’ll bet there’s plenty of money in the budget for other things. and avoids disrespectful or overly casual language. or overly casual.. Identifying Weaknesses in a Letter to an Editor Underline the problematic sections in the letter below..... Correcting Problems in a Letter to an Editor On the lines below........................ 6... unsupported opinion... I couldn’t believe my eyes when I read that you clowns endorsed the cutbacks the governor is suggesting. Date ..... A Fed-Up Citizen Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.... Class .. Inc..... ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 2................. suggest how the first three problems that you identified in the letter above might be corrected..... I A.

. how are you going to decorate it? With whom are you going to share it. Virginia Woolf... Describe the language and tone of the speech.... credibility.. from “Professions for Women” Read the following excerpts from Virginia Woolf ’s address to a women’s group in 1930. You are earning your five hundred pounds a year. though not without great labor and effort... interest... W R I T I N G A B O U T L I T E R AT U R E 6..............8 Evaluating a Speech Key Information When you analyze the text of a speech.... Date ... as I believe.. How are you going to furnish it...... Then answer the questions below.............. What facts does Woolf offer? What opinions? How does she support her opinions? Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.. Analyzing the Text of a Speech Literature Model . a lawyer... For the first time in history you are able to ask them.... coherence.... the room is your own... .... . to pay the rent. and tone..... It has to be furnished.... ........... Grade 11... and upon what terms? These... Even when the path is nominally open— when there is nothing to prevent a woman from being a doctor............ it has to be shared........ What is the main point of the excerpt? _______________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 2..... How does it suit the audience and the occasion? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 4........ Inc. I think are questions of utmost importance and interest.. a civil servant—there are many phantoms and obstacles.... it has to be decorated. but it is still bare. You have won rooms of your own in the house hitherto exclusively owned by men. Woolf gave this address at a time when the women’s movement was just getting under way...... .. What methods does Woolf use to provide coherence in the excerpt? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 5..... looming in her way... You are able.......... 1....... But this freedom is only the beginning..... What analogy does Woolf use for women’s achievement in the professional world? How does she develop the analogy? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 52 Writer’s Choice: Composition Practice...... Class .. appropriateness.. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 3.. examine its purpose... Unit 6 .... ..Composition Practice Name .. for the first time you are able to decide for yourselves what the answers should be....

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