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• Armature Core or Stack The armature stack is made up thin magnetic steel laminations stamped from sheet steel with a blanking die. Slots are punched in the lamination with a slot die. Sometimes these two operations are done as one. The laminations are welded, riveted, bolted or bonded together.
• Armature Winding The armature winding is the winding, which fits in the armature slots and is eventually connected to the commutator. It either generates or receives the voltage depending on whether the unit is a generator or motor. The armature winding usually consists of copper wire, either round or rectangular and is insulated from the armature stack.
They also usually consist of copper wire are insulated from the poles. which are located on the poles and set up the magnetic fields in the machine. The field coils may be either shunt windings (in parallel with the armature winding) or series windings (in series with the armature winding) or a combination of both.• Field Coils The field coils are those windings. .
In many DC machines. the yoke also serves as the frame. poles mechanically and provides the necessary magnetic path between the pole. which supports the field. The yoke can be solid or laminated. .• Yoke The yoke is a circular steel ring.
Poles and pole shoe IF POLE SHOE ENLARGES. LARGER INDUCED EMF .
• Commutator The commutator is the mechanical rectifier. It consists of a number of segments normally equal to the number of slots. which changes the AC voltage of the rotating conductors to DC voltage. The segments or commutator bars are made of silver bearing copper and are separated from each other by mica insulation. .
• Brushes and Brush Holders Brushes conduct the current from the commutator to the external circuit. Each brush usually has a flexible copper shunt which extends to the lead wires. . The brush holder has a spring that holds the brush in contact with the commutator. There are many types of brushes. Often. the entire brush assembly is insulated from the frame and is made movable as a unit about the commutator to allow for adjustment. A brush holder is usually a metal box that is rectangular in shape.
• Interpoles Interpoles are similar to the main field poles and located on the yoke between the main field poles. . They eliminate the need to shift the brush assembly. Interpoles have the function of reducing the armature reaction effect in the commutating zone. They have windings in series with the armature winding.
They are normally lubricated by grease or oil. The armature is mounted on a steel shaft. End Bells. aluminum or magnesium castings used to enclose and support the basic machine parts.• Frame. The bearings are either sleeve. and Bearings The frame and end bells are usually steel. Shaft. ball or roller type. which is supported between two bearings. .
most often the commutator end. The opposite load end. . is the Front End of the motor.• Back End. Front End The load end of the motor is the Back End.
• Armature Windings .
WINDING TERMINOLOGIES LAP WINDING LAP WINDING CONNECTED TO COMMUTATOR BARS LAP WINDING .
The outermost connecting lines represent the end connections on the back of the armature and the inner connecting lines represent the connections on the front or commutator end of the armature.• When the end connections of the coils are brought to adjacent bars a lap or parallel winding is formed. high current ratings because of the number of parallel paths. . The lap winding is best suited for low voltage. there are as many paths through the armature as there are poles on the machine. there must be as many brushes as there are poles. In this type winding. Therefore. to obtain full use of this type winding. alternate brushes being positive and negative.
.LAP WINDING IN CIRCULAR FORM Lap Winding.
Wave Winding WAVE WINDING .
. low current ratings because of the number of parallel paths.• The WAVE winding is best suited for high voltage.
m.of revolutions/second = N/60 Time for one revolution.of generator poles A = No.m.of conductors/slot P = No.f generated in any one of the parallel paths i. dt = 60/N second Hence.e E. according to Faraday's Laws of Electromagnetic Induction.p. .E.of parallel paths in armature N = armature rotation in revolutions per minute (r.F Equation Let Φ = flux/pole in weber Z = total number of armature conductors = No.f Eg = e.m.f generated /conductor = dΦ/dt volt (n=1) Now.M.f induced in any parallel path in armature Generated e.m) E = e. Average e.of slots x No. flux cut/conductor in one revolution dΦ = ΦP Wb No.m.
of conductors (in series) in one path = Z/2 E.of conductors (in series) in one path = Z/P E.M.M.F.for simplex wave-winding = P .F.f where A = 2 .generated/path In general generated e.E.m.F generated/conductor is =e = Rate of cutting the flux For a simplex wave-wound generator No.of parallel paths = 2=A No.for simplex lap-winding .M. generated/path is For a simplex lap-wound generator No.of parallel paths = P=A No.
.A1-A2 ENDS OF ARMATURE F1-F2 FIELD WINDING SYMBOL REPRESENTATION OF DC GENERATOR.
TYPES OF DC GENERATORS .
Fleming’s Right hand rule .
e.SEPARATELY EXCITED GENERATOR The field wdg is supplied from external. separate dc supply (i. then the generator is called separately excited generator. .) excitation of field wdg is separate.
SEPARATELY EXCITED GENERATOR IF F1 A1 Ia=IL DC SUPPLY A2 F2 .
IaRa is minimum. . Some voltage drop at the contacts of the brush.Ia = IL Emf ‘e’ is not equal to Vt. So voltage equation is E=Vt+IaRa+Vbrush E=(ΦPNZ)/(60A) Vbrush is negligible.
SELF EXCITED GENERATOR 1. Three types – Shunt . possess some magnetic flux. series and compound Generator. further flux produces increasing field ct and flux. This is residual flux and property is residual magnetism. without any current through field wdg. The process is cumulative and continues till generator develops rated voltage across armature. . Though Generator does not work. 2. 3. Voltage building process – small emf drives small ct through field wdg.
SHUNT GENERATOR Ish F1 Ia A1 Vt F2 A2 .
VOLTAGE AND CURRENT RELATIONS • Ia=IL+Ish • Ish=Vt /Rsh Induced emf still supply IaRa voltage drop and brush contact drop. E=Vt+IaRa+Vbrush E=(ΦPNZ)/(60A) .
Series Generator S1 A1 Ia Vt A2 S2 .
VOLTAGE AND CURRENT RELATIONS Ia=Ise=IL E=Vt+IaRa+IaRse+Vbrush E=Vt + Ia(Ra+Rse)+Vbrush E=(ΦPNZ)/(60A) .
.Compound Generator • Long shunt Compound Generator Ia=Ise Ia=Ish+IL Ish=Vt/Rsh Rsh=Resistance of shunt field wdg E=Vt+IaRa+IaRse+Vbrush Rse=Resistance of series field wdg.
Long Shunt Compound Gr Ise S1 Ish F1 A1 S2 F2 A2 .
Short shunt Compound Gr S1 A1 S2 F1 F2 A2 Ia .
The drop is E-IaRa Ish=(E-IaRa)/Rsh E=Vt+IaRa+IseRse+Vbrush Ise=IL E=Vt+IaRa+ILRse+Vbrush E=Vt+IaRa+ILRse E-IaRa=Vt+ILRse Ish=(Vt+ILRse)/Rsh .Ia=Ise+Ish Ia=IL+Ish Ise=IL Drop across shunt field wdg is drop across armature only not on Vt.
Cumulative and Differential Compound Generator Φse Φsh Differential compound Generator .
two fluxes produced by shunt and series field may help or oppose each other. field winding Depending on the direction of the winding of the poles. then it is differential compound generator.ΦT=Φsh+Φse Φsh=Flux produced by shunt winding Φse = Flux produced by series . If the two fluxes help each other. ΦT=Φsh-Φse . then it is cumulative compound generator. If two fluxes oppose each other.
in order to compensate for the drop of voltage due to the resistance of transmission conductors. a constant terminal voltage can be maintained at all loads. • 2. since. • Cumulative compound generator. and for charging of batteries. since it is possible to keep on a constant voltage at the load end. by generating a larger voltage so as to overcome the line drop.Applications of DC generator • 1. . in conjunction with a field regulator. Shunt generators are extensively used for general light and power supply.used for domestic lighting purposes and to transmit energy over long distances. Series generators are mainly used as animation boosters in dc transmission system. • 3. • differential compound generator – are very rare and used for special application like electric arc welding. compounded generators find use in dc transmission.
motors are motors that run on Direct Current from a battery or D. • Direct Current is the term used to describe electricity at a constant voltage. power supply.C. . • D.C.DC Motor • A DC motor is a device which converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.
• The principle of operation is – when a current carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field. • Two fluxes are present. i) Flux produced by permanent magnet is called main flux ii) Flux produced by current carrying conductor . it experiences mechanical force.
Principles of Operation Force in DC Motor .
Magnetic Field in DC Motor .
Torque in DC Motor .
Current Flow in DC Motor .
• The magnitude of force experienced by conductor in a motor is given by • Force. current and the magnetic field are all in different directions. • I is the current in amperes and • l is the length of the coil in meter. F = B l I newton • Where B is the flux density due to flux produced by field winding in weber/m2. • The force. .
Fleming’s Left hand rule: .
.Back EMF in DC motor.
conductor cuts the magnetic flux. • This is Lenz law – direction of induced emf is always so as to oppose the cause producing it. So this is generating action in motor after motoring action. armature rotates and armature conductors cut the main flux. after motoring action.• In generating action. emf is induced in conductor. • In DC motor. . • Induced emf in rotating armature conductors according to Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction. • Induced emf in armature always act in opposite direction to supply voltage.
• Emf always opposes supply voltage . electrical i/p.back emf.• In DC motor. • The magnitude is determined by Eb= (ΦPNZ)/(60A). induced emf opposes supply voltage. . • Emf induced sets up the current through armature which is in opposite direction – supply voltage is forcing through conductor. supply voltage is cause for armature current and in motoring action. Eb.
Symbol of Eb in DC mtotr .
Voltage equation of DC motor • V=Eb+IaRa+Brush drop • Ia=(V-Eb)/Ra .
• This is the significance of back emf.Significance of back emf • Due to back emf. • So back emf regulates flow of Ia and Ia meets load requirement. • The motor speed stops increasing when Ia is enough to produce less torque by new load. • (V-Eb) cause to reduce. force experienced by conductors and torque on armature increases. reducing Ia. • Back emf α N • When there is load. So the speed of motor reduces. motor slows down. speed of motor increases. • Due to increased armature current. • When load of motor is decreased. DC motor is a regulating machine. So Eb increases. so Eb also reduces. • The increase in torque satisfy increase in load. . • The net voltage across armature (V-Eb) increases and motor draws more armature current.
Power input to armature – armature copper loss = Gross mech power developed in armature . Difference between Via and Ia2Ra is Input – Losses gives output of armature EbIa is equation of gross mech.Power Equation of DC motor • V=Eb+IaRa Multiplying by Ia on both sides. VIa=EbIa+Ia2Ra VIa=Net electrical power i/p to armature Ia2Ra=Power loss due to resistance of armature called armature copper loss. Power developed.
then Power in armature = Armature torque *ω EbIa=Ta*((2πN)/60 ) Eb in motor is.159 ΦIa*(PZ)/A Nm . then angular speed is ω = (2πN)/60 rad/sec. Ta.Torque equation of DC motor • • • The turning or twisting force about an axis is called torque. It is also called as armature torque. T= F*R The wheel rotating at a speed of N rpm. The work done in one revolution is W= F*Distance travelled in one revolution =F* 2πR Joules P = Power developed = Work done/ Time (=F* 2πR )/time for 1 rev. Eb = (ФPNZ)/(60A) (ФPNZ)/(60A) *Ia = Ta*((2πN)/60 ) Ta= (1/2π)ΦIa*(PZ)/A = 0. The gross mech. =(F* 2πR )/(60/N) =(F*R)*((2πN)/60 ) P=T*ω watts T = Torque in Nm ω= Angular speed in rad/sec.gross torque by armature of motor. The speed of motor is N rpm. Power developed in armature is EbIa.
windage and iron losses. • It is expressed in H.P.Types of torque in Motor: • There is power loss due to friction. Net output of motor = Pout = Tsh*ω watts. and is called H. • These losses are also called as stray losses. . rating of a motor. • The torque which overcome these losses is called lost torque denoted as Tf. • The maximum power a motor can deliver to the load is called output rating of motor. • The torque at the shaft does useful work is called Load torque or shaft torque denoted as Tsh. • Ta= Tf+Tsh • Ta = armature torque • Tsh<Ta • Speed of motor is in N rpm • Product of shaft torque Tsh and angular speed ω rad/sec is called power – net output of motor.P.
• Ia0 = (V – Eb0)/Ra • Eb0 – back emf on no load α to speed N0 • Ta α ФIa. Ta0 exists on no load (armature torque) • • • • Ta = Tf+Tsh Tsh = 0 Ta0 = Tf Power developed (Eb0*Ia0) = Friction . Tsh = 0 • So motor can rotate at a speed N0 rpm on no load. windage and iron losses. • Flux is present and Ia is present . .No Load condition of Motor • On no load. • The motor draws armature current Ia0. • The stray losses Eb0Ia0 is constant though the load on motor changes from 0 to full capacity of motor.