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Meaning & Why Research Objectives and Motivation in Research. Characteristics of Good Research. Types of Research. Research Approaches. Research Process. Criteria For Good Research Limitations
Discovery of facts , Development of facts and verification of facts. Discover answers to questions through the application of scientific procedures. Find the truth which is hidden & not discovered yet. Systematic inquiry to provide information to solve managerial problem. Art of scientific investigation. “Systematic effort to gain new knowledge” Movement from known to unknown.
Clover and Balsely: “Process of systematically obtaining accurate answers to significant and pertinent questions by the use of scientific method of gathering and interpreting information. Research comprises Defining and refining problems Formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions Collecting, Organizing & Evaluating data Making deductions and reaching conclusions & at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis
Characteristics of Research
Prediction for future occurrences. Direction towards solution. Accuracy in observation and description. Basis of research is experience . Gathering of data. It is a scientific program. Patient activity. Quest for answers. Objective and logical. Carefully designed procedures. Need Expertise. Careful critical enquiry.
Environmental factors demanding managers to have more & better information for decision making. More variables to consider in every decision. Knowledge increment in the field of management . Global and Domestic competition. Quality of theories and decision models getting increased. Increased role of govt. Growth of commercial sites on web.
Workers, shareholders and customers wants to have their share in decision making. Data mining or extraction of knowledge from internal database. Use of technology (computers). Tools used to conduct research have increased.
Objectives in research
Description Explanation Forecasting Control Modeling
Objectives in Research
To gain familiarity or to achieve new insights to the phenomenon. Exploratory or Formulative Studies. To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group Descriptive Studies. To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else. Diagnostic Studies. To test a hypothesis of a casual relationship between variables. Hypothesis testing Studies
Types of Study
Most elementary level To generate some statistics Who, What, When, Where and sometimes How. Describe a subject by creating profile of problems, people or events. Explains the reason . Use of theories or hypothesis to study the forces that caused the event to occur. Predict when and in what situation the event will occur.
Descriptive Study- Observation
Explanatory Study: Why
Predictive Study: Forecasting
Motivation In Research
Research Degree & its benefits. Face challenges in solving unsolved problems. Joy of doing something creative. To serve the society. To get respect. Government directives. Employment conditions. Curiosity about new things. Social thinking and awakening.
Types of Research
1.Descriptive To describe the event as it exists in present. Survey and fact finding enquiries of different kind No control over the variable. Report what has happened or happening. Most ex- post facto projects . E.g.. Frequency of shopping, Preferences of people.
2. Analytical Research Use of facts and information already present to make the critical evaluation of the event. 3. Applied Research To find solution for an immediate problem being faced by a society or business organization. 4. Fundamental Research Concerned with generalization & formulation of a theory. 5. Quantitative Research Measurement of quantity or amount
6. Qualitative Research Based on qualitative analysis. 7. Conceptual Based on abstract idea or theory, Used to develop new concepts or to reinterpret the existing ones. 8. Empirical Research Relies on experience and observation alone without due regards for system or theory. Data based research with conclusions which are capable of being verified by observation or experiments.
9. Exploratory Research
Development of hypothesis rather than its testing
10. Formularized Research These studies are with substantial structure & with specific hypothesis to be tested. 11. Diagnostic Studies To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else. 12. Historical Research Utilizes historical sources like documents , remains etc to study events & ideas of past.
Quantitative Approaches Deals with numerical measurements (i.e. quantities). Quantitative approaches aim to test hypotheses, and usually to identify numerical differences between groups. Qualitative approaches Deals with how people understand their experiences (i.e. qualities).
Quantitative approaches 'Simple' numeric data Measurement Explanation Prediction Generalisable account Representative population sample Hypothesis-testing Claims objectivity Closed system (experimental control)
Qualitative approaches 'Complex' rich data Meaning Understanding Interpretation Contextual account Purposive/ representative perspective sample Exploratory Accepts subjectivity Open system (ecological validity)
Discover the Management Dilemma Define the Management Question Define the research Question Refine the research Question Exploration Research Proposal Research Design Research Strategy Type, Purpose, Time frame, Scope, Environment Exploration
Data Collection Design Question & Instrument Pilot Testing
Researc h Process
Instrument Revision Data Collection & Preparation
Data Analysis & Interpretation
Research Reporting Management Decision
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.
Formulating the research Problem Extensive Literature Survey Development of working Hypothesis Preparing of research design Determining the sample design Collecting the data Execution of the project Analysis of data Hypothesis testing Generalization & interpretation Preparation of Report
Process Begins with Management Dilemma “Usually symptom of actual Problem” Rising Cost Declining Sales Absenteeism Turnover Management Research Question Hierarchy Management Dilemma Management Question Research Question Investigate Question Measurement Question Management Decision
Formulating the research Understanding the nature of problem Problem
thoroughly Difference between Problem & symptom Discuss with who raised it. Pilot Survey. Surveying available literature. Academic Journals, Conference Proceedings, government reports, books , internet etc.
Development of working Hypothesis
Working Hypothesis is tentative assumption made in order to draw out and test its logical and empirical consequences. Discuss with colleagues & experts. Examination of data & records. Review of similar studies. Personal investigations.
Preparing the Research Blueprint Design for fulfilling objectives & answering questions
Blueprint for collection , measurement & analysis of data. Collecting relevant evidence with minimal expenditure of effort, time & money. Four design Categories 5. Exploration 6. Description 7. Diagnosis 8. Experimentation.
Determining The Sample Design
Target Audience . A sample is a part of the target population, carefully selected to represent that population. Who and how many people to interview What and how many events to observe What and how many records to inspect.
Collecting The Data
By observation Personal Interview Telephone Interviews Mailing of Questionnaire Etc.
Execution and Analysis .
Data analysis involves Reducing accumulated data to manageable size, Developing summaries, Looking for patterns and Applying statistical techniques.
Testing of Hypothesis Generalization and interpretation Preparation of report
Criteria For Good Research
Purpose Clearly Defined Research Process described in detail for further enhancement Research Design Thoroughly Planned( Procedure , sample, Data collection) High Ethical Standards Applied Limitations frankly revealed Sufficient Analysis Findings presented unambiguously. Conclusion justifies Researcher's experience reflected.
Problems Encountered by Researchers in India
Lack of training Insufficient interaction between government, Business organization and research dept. Less confidence among business units regarding misuse of there data. No code of conduct. Overlapping researches. Library availability. Timely availability of published data.
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