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Problems on Bearing

Capacity
Example # 01
• A square footing 2.5 m by 2.5 m is
built in a homogenous bed of sand
density 2.0 t/m3 and having an
angle of shearing 38o . The depth of
a base of the footing is 1.5 m below
the ground surface. Calculate the
safe load that can be carried by a
footing with a factor of safety 3
against complete shear failure. Use
Terzaghi’s analysis.
Solution:
Given:
 B = 2.5 m D = 1.5 m  = 2 t/m3

 = 38o which is greater than 36o so general
shear failure will occur.
 Values of bearing capacity factors from Fig.
 Nq = 47 N = 64
 Since c = 0  qf =  D Nq + 0.4  B N
 qnf =  D (Nq -1) + 0.4  B N
 = 2 x 1.5 (47-1) + 0.4 x 2 x 2.5 x
64 = 138 + 128 = 366 t/m2
 qs = qnf /F + D = 366/3 + 2 x 1.5
= 122 + 3 = 125 t/m2
  Maximum safe load = B2 x qs = (2.5)2 x 125 =
780 t.
Example # 02
• A strip footing 1 m wide at its base is
located at a depth of o.8 m below
the ground surface. The properties
of the foundation soil are :  = 1.8
t/m3 and  = 20o and c = 3 t/m2 .
Determine the safe bearing
capacity, using a factor of safety 3 .
Use Terzaghi’sanalysis. Assume
soil’s local shear failure.
Solution:
 qf = 2/3 c Nc +  D Nq  + 0.5  B
N
 For  = 20o From table: Nc= 9.5,
Nq= 3.5 N = 1.7
 qf = (2/3 x 3 x 9.5) + (1.8 x 0.8 x
3.5) + 0.5 (1.8 x 1 x 1.7) = 19 + 5.04 +
0.9 = 24.94 t/m2
 qnf = qf -  D = 24.9- 1.8 x 0.8 =
23.5 t/m2
 qs = qnf /F +  D = 23.5/3 + (1.8 x
2
• Solve above example if the water table
is located at a depth of 1.5 m below
the ground level.
• Rw1= 1 Rw2 =?
• Zw2= depth of water table below the
base of footing.
• = 1.5 – 0.8 = 0.7
∴ Rw2 = 0.5 (1+Zw2 /B ) = 0.5 (1+ 0.7/1)
= 0.85
q = 2/3 c N
f c +  D Nq Rw1 + 0.5 
B NRw2
 = 2/3 x 3 x 9.5 + (1.8 x 0.8 x 3.5 x 1)
• qnf = qf -  D = 24.8 – 1.44 = 23.36
• qs = qnf /F +  D = 23.36/3 + 1.44
 = 7.76 + 1.44
 = 9.2 t/m2
Example # 03
• An R.C column having square in shape
is to rest 1.5 m below ground level.
The total load to be transmitted
including the weight of the column is
200 tons. As the area is subjected to
frequent flooding, the friction of the
footing along the sides is to be
neglected and a factor of safety 2.5 is
to be allowed. If the saturated density
of the sand be 2.4 g/cc, angle of
internal friction 33o and value of N
= 33, Nq = 32, find the suitable size of
the footing for the above condition.
Solution:
Assume the size of footing as 2m x 2m.
 B = 2 m and D = 1.5 m  B>D, foundation is
shallow.
 qf =1.3 cNc +  D Nq + 0.4  B N
Now c = 0 , N
q = 32, N= 33  = 2.4 g/cc (2.4 t/m3)
B = 2.
 qf = 0 + 2.4 x 1.5 x 32 + 0.4 x 2.4 x 2 x 33.
 = 115.2 + 63.4 = 178.6
 qs= 178.6/2.5 = 71.4 (F.S = 2.5)
Now area of footing 2x 2.

∴ Total load = 4 x 71.4 = 285.6 tones


 It is higher than the required 200 tones.
  it is safe. We can make it more economical by
reducing the section and retrial may be made.
Example # 04
• Size of an isolated footing is to be
limited to 1.5 m square. Calculate
the depth at which the footing
should be placed to take a load of
200 tonnes with a factor of safety
3.The soil is having angle of
internal friction  = 30o ,  = 2.1
g/cc, weight of footing 5% of the
external load. Nq= 22, N =
20.
Solution:
A soil is sandy so no cohesion
Allowable bearing capacity for square footing:

q
s = 1/F { 1.3 cNc + D (Nq – 1) + 0.4  B N } +
D
Now total load = 200 + 5/100 x 200 = 210 tonnes

q = 210/1.5 x 1.5.
s
Put values in the above eq.

210/1.5 x 1.5 = 1/3 { 2.1 x D (22-1) + 0.4 x 2.1 x

1.5 x 20} + 2.1 x D


 = 1/3 {2.1 x 21 x D + 25.2} 2.1 D
 = 14.7D + 8.4 + 2.1D
 16.8D = 93.4 – 8.4 = 85
∴ D = 85/16.8 = 5.6 meters
∴ The footing will be placed at 5.6 m below the
Example # 05
 A 3.0 m strip footing rests 2.5 m
below ground level over sandy clay
having unit weight of 2250 kg/m3 .
Quick tests in a shear box apparatus
gave shear strength of 0.37 and 0.50
kg/cm2 for normal stress of 0.75 and
1.5 kg/cm2 respectively. Find out
cohesion and angle of internal
friction. From Terzaghi’s formula,
calculate the ultimate load per meter
run of the foundation.
Solution:
• As per Coulomb’s eq.  = c +  tan  -------(A)
• c = ? And  = ?
• Two equations can determine c and .
• Given: 1 = 0.37 kg/cm2 2 = 0.5 kg/cm2
• 1= 0.75 kg/cm2 2= 1.5 kg/cm2
Put values in eq. (A)

 0.37 = c + 0.75 tan. ----------(i)


 0.5 = c + 1.5 tan.------------(ii)
Solve simultaneously.

 c = 0.25 kg/cm2 tan  = 0.1733   =


o
9.83  10 . o

Assume local shear failure.

∴ Nc  = 8 , Nq= 1.9 N  = 0.5


 qf = 2/3 c Nc  + D Nq  + 0.5  B N 
• qf = 2/3 x 0.25 x 8 + 2250/109 x 2.5
x 102 x1.9 + 0.5 x 2250/109 x
3.0x102 x0.5
• = 1.333 + 0.01069 + 0.001688 =
1.345 kg/cm2 = 13.45 t/m2
• Ultimate load per meter run of
foundation = 13.45 x 3 = 40.37
Tonnes/meter length.
Example # 06
• Compute the allowable bearing
pressure using the Terzaghi’s
equation for the footing and soil
parameters shown in Fig. Use factor
of safety 3 to obtain qa . The soil
data are obtained from a series of
γ = 110
U-triaxial tests.
D
ft
=Is the soil saturated
4 pcf
o
B  = 20
? C = 300
psf
Solution:
• Since a U –test gives a  angle. The soil is not
saturated.
• For  = 20o , Assuming square foundation general
shear failure.
• qult =1.3 cNc + q Nq + 0.4  B N
• Now for  = 20o , Nc= 17.7, Nq= 7.4 N = 5.0
• Put values.
• qult =1.3 x 300/1000 x 17.7 + 4 x 110/1000 x 7.4 +
0.4 x 110/1000 x B x 5.0 = (10.2 + 0.22B) ksf
• Qa = qult /F.S = 10.2 0.22B /3 = (3.4 + 0.07B) ksf
• Normally B varies between 5 to 10 ft.
• For B = 5ft , 3.4 + 0.07 x 5 = 3.75 ksf
• = 10 ft, 3.4 +0.07 x 10 = 4.10 ksf
•  Recommended is : 3.5 ksf
Example # 07
• The results of full scale tests
conducted by H.Muhs in Berlin
reported by J.B.Hansen. The
pertinent data associated with this
test as reported by Hansen are
footing dimension L = 2 m, B 0.5 m
, D = 0.5 m dense sand  = 0.95
t/m3 , c = 0 . Failure load Q 190
Ton.  = 47o .
• Compare the results with Terzaghi
Analysis and Hansen.
Solution:
• Terzaghi’seq. As 4P = 2/0.5 =4, use strip
footing formula.
• qu = c Nc +  D Nq + 1/2  B N.
• For  = 47o , Nq = 246 , N = 585
• = 0 + 0.95 x 0.5 x 246 + ½ x 0.95 x 0.5
x 585
• =116.85 + 138.9 = 255.78 t/m2. More
than actual.
• Test result = Q/A =190/2 x 0.5 = 190 T/m2
 same if checked by Hansen eq. = 180.6
ton/m2
Example # 08
• A series of large scale footing bearing
capacity tests were performed on soft
Bangkok clay (Brand et al 72). One of
the tests consisted of a 1.05 m square
footing at a depth of 1.5 m. at a 1
inch settlement the load was
approximately 14.1 Tons. From the
interpretation of the given load –
settlement curve. Uncofined
compression and vane shear tests on
the same soil gave a strength values
and other properties as follows:
• qu = 3.0 t/m2 Su van = 2.4 t/m2
• Plasticity data: wL= 80% and wp = 35%
• Compute the ultimate bearing capacity by
Terzaghi’s eq. and compare with load test
values.
• For field van , su design =  suvan =
reduction factor. ,  from graph Ip vs
(farmula)
• For Ip= 80 – 35 = 45,  = 0.8
•  Su design (c) = 0.8 x 2.4 = 1.92 t/m2.
• For  = 0 , Nc=5.7, Nq=1 N = 0
• qu(net) = 1.3 c Nc = 1.3 x 1.92 x 5.7 = 10.94
2
• Correction qu= 1.3 c Nc
 = 2.4 x 5.7 x 1.3 = 13.68 x 1.3 =
17.78
• From unconfined compression test , qu
= 1.3 c Nc c = ½ qu = 3.0/2 = 1.5
t/m2
• qu = 1.5 x 5.7 x 1.3 = 11.115 t/m2
• From load test Load/Area = 14.1/
(1.05)2 =12.8 t/m2
• Load Test Unconfined comp.
Vane shear
q t/m 2 12.8 11.115
u
Example # 09
• A given series of values for qu
(unconfined) in the of interest from SPT
samples from a boring log gives
average 200 kpa. Estimate the
allowable bearing capacity for
square footing by
Terzaghi’sformula. Use F.S =3.
(unconfined only for clay)

Solution:
• Now c = qu /2 = 200/2 = 100 kPa.
• Terzaghi’seq. for square footing- 
=0
• qu = 1.3 c Nc = 1.3 x 100 x
5.7
 = 741 kPa
• qa= 741/3 = 247 kPa
• Normally qu from SPT is not reliable.
UDS are taken.
• Or in case of SPT qu result F.S = 4 to
Example # 10
• A 30 cm square bearing plate settles
by 1.5 cm in a plate loading test on
a cohesion less soil when the
intensity of loading is 2 kg/cm2.
What will be the settlement of a
prototype shallow footing 1.0 m
square under the same intensity of
loading.

Solution:
• Given Bp= 30 cm B = 100 cm
• p= 1.5 cm.(settlement of
plate)
•  = 1.5 [ 100 (30 + 30.5)/30
(100 + 30.5)]2 = 3.6 cm
Example # 11
• The results of a plate load test in a
sandy soil are given below. The size
of the plate is 0.305 x .305 m.
determine the size of square
footing of column foundation that
should carry a load of 2500 kN with
a maximum
Load/unit area settlement
200 400 of
60025700
mm.
kN/m2
• Settlement (mm)5 12.5 28 60
Solution:
 Given:
 Size of the plate 0.305 x 0.305 m.
 Load v/s settlement , draw a curve or plot
the data.
Load
 Load on footing------2500 kN
200 400 600 800 kN/m
2

 Max. settlement = 25mm


10

Settlement( mm )
30

50

70
80
Now settlement of footing:
Now by trial and error

Procedure assume the

size of footing and find the


(Size in m)
amount of settlement
 B   ( B + 30.48) 
2 2

where the trial agrees


SF = S p   F 
 p
 
  B   ( B + 30.48) 
with the conditions
 p   F 
Or
given will be the size

 B   ( 3.2 B + 1) 
2
of footing. 2

S F = S p  F   
p
•  B p   ( 3.2 BF + 1) 
 
Qo , kN Assumed qo Sp SF from
width, BF Qo /BF 2 , correspondi above Eq.
2500 400
(cm) 156.252 4ng to Q 13.8
(mm)
2500 300 kN/m
277.8 8 o 26.35
2500 320 244.10 6.8
(mm) 22.70
2500 310 260.10 7.2 23.86
Qo , kN Assumed qo Sp SF from
width, BF Qo /BF 2 , correspondi above Eq.
2500 400
(cm) 156.252 4ng to Q 13.8
(mm)
2500 300 kN/m
277.8 8 o 26.35
2500 320 244.10 6.8
(mm) 22.70
2500 310 260.10 7.2 23.86


Example # 12
• The results of two plate load tests
are given in the following table:
• Plate dia. (B) Total Load, Q Settlement
(m) (kN) (mm)
• 0.305 32.2 20
0.610 71.8 20

• Determine the size of square footing
to carry a load of 715 kN with
tolerable settlement as 20mm.
Solve for foundation.

Solution:
• Qo = Am + Pn
 Put the values in the above Eq. to find m
and n
 32.2 = /4 (0.305)2 m + (0.305)n.---------(i)
 71.8 = /4 (0.610)2 m + (0.610)n.---------
(ii)
 By solving simultaneously we can find:
 m = 50.68 kN/m2
 n = 29.75 kN/m2.
Now again use the above Eq.with these values to

find the size of square footing.


 Load on foundation = 715 kN
 A = Bf2 , P = 4 Bf ; Put values
715 = B 2 x 50.68 + 4 B
f f x 29.75
∴ 50.68 B 2 + 119B – 715 =0
Example # 13
• Plate load test performed on a uniform
deposit of sand and the following
observations were recorded.
• Load t/m2 5 10 20 30 40 50 60
Settlement 4.5 8.5 16 31.3 50 74 104
• (mm)

• The size of the plate was 30 x30cm.
Plot the load-settlement curve and
determine the load on a footing 1.5m
x 1.5m. Can it carry safely if the
settlement is not to exceed 50 mm.
Solution:
• Given:
• Size of plate 30 x 30 cm
• Footing size 1.5 x 1.5 m
• Settlement of footing 50 mm
• Plot Load vs settlement
Load t/m2
10 20 30 40 50 60

10
( mm )

30
Settlement

50

70

90
2
 B f  B p + 30.48 
SF = S p   
 B p  B f + 30.48 
or put the values to calculate S p .
2
150  30 + 30.48 
50 = S p   
 30  150 + 30.48 
S p = 18 mm

• Now from load – settlement curve the load


corresponding to this settlement = 20 t/m2.
•  Safe on this footing for 50mm settlement =
1.5 x 1.5 x 20 = 45 tons.
Example # 14
• A load test was made with a 35 cm
square plate at a depth of one meter
below the ground level in soil with 
= 0. The water table was located at a
depth of 5m below the ground level.
Failure occurred at a load of 5200 kg.
What would be the ultimate bearing
capacity per unit area for a 1.6m wide
continuous footing with its base
loaded at the same depth in the same
soil. Unit weight of soil was 1.9 g/cc
above water table. For  = 0,
• Nc= 5.7, Nq= 1 , N = 0. Assume
general shear failure.
Solution:
• For square footing,
 qf =1.3 c Nc + D Nq + 0.4  B N
 Taking the case of load test,
 B = 0.35cm , D = 1.
 Since  = 0 , Nq= 1 and N = 0
 qu=1.3 c Nc + D Nq
 5200/.35 x .35 x1000 = 1.3 x c x 5.7 + 100 x
1.9 x1.0.
 7.42 c = 42.5 – 1.9 = 40.6
 c = 40.6/7.42 = 5.47
tonnes/m2 .
 Now for contineous footing strip of width 1.0m
 qf = c Nc + D Nq + 0.5  B N
 = 5.47 x 5.7 + 1.9 x 1 x 1 + 0

= 31.2 + 1.9 = 33.1 ton/m2 .
Example # 15
(with inclination and
eccentricity)
• A 24 m long retaining wall has a 6m
wide foundation at a depth of 1.5m
in a silty sand having c = 1.5 t/m2 ,
 = 25o , = 2 t/m3 . The wall
carries a horizontal load of 25
ton/m run at a point 2m above the
base and a centrally applied load of
100 t/m run. Determine the safety
factor against general shear failure
of the wall, (take Nc = 20.7 , Nq =
Solution:
• e/Z = tan = H/V = 25/100 = 0.25 , Z =2 m.
• e/Z = 0.25 , e = 0.25 x 2 = 0.5 ,  = 14o
• B = B- 2e = 5 , L = 24m A = 5 x24
=120 m2 2
 H 
• I c = I q = 1 − 
 V + A′ c cot φ 



• H = 25 x 24 V =100 x 24
•  Ic = Iq = 0.616
• I = Iq2 = 0.379
 qf = c Nc Ic+ D Nq Iq+ 0.5  B N I
 = 52
Example # 16
• At a certain site subsoil soil consists of
a thick layer of soft clay (cu = 20
kN/m2, u = 0) which is overlain by a
stiffer clay (cu = 87.5 kN/m2, u = 0)
of a variable thickness. The ground
surface is horizontal and the water
table is at a considerable depth.
• It is proposed to install widely spaced
footings 1.5 m square at a depth of 1
m below ground level in the upper
clay material. Estimate the net
working load on the footings, using a
load factor of 3.
• If the footings are fully loaded at this
pressure, estimate the thickness of
stiff clay required below them in order
to ensure that the load factor against
shear failure in the soft clay is at least
3.
• (Ignore settlement effects and assume
a load dispersion at 30oto the vertical.
Take Nc = 7.5 on the lower clay and
assume Terzaghi’s bearing capacity
equation to apply)
Solution:
• Upper layer
G.L
cu = 87.5 kN/m2

u = 0
• Lower layer: cu = 87.5 kN/m2
1 m
u = 0
• cu = 20 kN/m2
u = 0 Z
• 30o

• Nc = 7.5 Z/3 1.5m Z/3


cu = 20 kN/m2
• B = 1.5m square footing. u = 0

• F.S = 3
• Terzaghi’sEq. qnf =1.3 c Nc where
Nc = 5.7
• For upper layer qnf =1.3 x 87.5 x 5.7
= 648.375 kN/m2  648 kN/m2
• Net unit working load = 648/3 = 216
kN/m2
•  Net working load on footing
(1.5m)2 = 216 x 1.5 x 1.5 = 486
kN.
• This load is dispersed at 30o angle,
•  Pressure on top of lower clay stratum
• Load /Area = 486/
(1.5 + 2Z/ 3)2
• Now allowable pressure on lower
stratum:
• Qf/F = cNc /F = 20 x 7.5/3 =50
• Equating these two pressures:
• 50 = 486/ (1.5 + 2 Z/3)2
• 112.5 + 173.2 Z + 66.7 Z2= 486
• Z2 + 2.6 Z – 5.6 = 0
• Z = 1.4 m
Example # 17
• Determine the net bearing pressure
for a 3m x 3m footing at a depth of
2 m in a medium dense sand so
that the total settlement does not
exceed 25mm. The average SPT
blows below the footing (upto B )
3m are 28/30 cm. the average
moist density is 1.75 t/m3. The
water table is more than 3 m below
the footing.
Solution:
• o at B/2 below footing
1.75(2+1.5) = 6.125 t/m2
• Cn = 0.77 log 200/ o = 0.77 log
200/ 6.125 = 1.165
• Nn = Cn N = 1.165 x 28 =33
• q25 = 0.041 Nn S = 0.041 x 33 x 25 =
33.8 t/m2
Example # 18
• A water tank has a concrete foundation
slab, 5m wide by 20m long,
constructed at a depth of 1m in
medium dense sand where water
table is 2m below the ground surface.
The depth of the water in the tank is
8m. The density of sand above the
water table is 1.7 t/m3 and the
submerged density is 0.9 ton/m3
• The SPT blows in a bore hole are given
in table below. Examine whether the
total settlement will not exceed
Depth N  o t/m2 Cn Nn Average
below
1 G.S 6 1.7 1.59 10 Nn
(m)
2(W.T) 8 3.4 1.36 11
3 10 4.3 1.28 13
4 12 5.2 1.22 15 13
5 12 6.1 1.17 14
6 14 7.0 1.12 16
Solution:
• Cw = 0.5 + 0.5 Dw/D + B = 0.67 { Dw
=2 , D = 1, B = 5}
• q25 = 0.041 Nn Cw S = 0.041 x 13 x
0.67 x 25 = 8.9 ton/m2
• Actual net pressure = q- o = 8 x 1 – 1x
1.7 = 6.3 t/m2.
• Net pressure applied is less than the
allowable net pressure for 25mm
settlement.
• Hence the settlement will remain less
than 25mm.
Example # 19
• Determine the net and gross bearing
pressure for a raft, 8m x 15m placed
at a depth of 3 m in coarse sand
underlain by fine silty sand below a
depth of 7.5 m. The water table is 3m
below ground surface. SPT was
performed in 5 bore holes. The SPT
blows for one of the bore holes
representing the wekest spot are
given below.  above water table =
1.9 t/m3 , sub = 1.12 t/m3 (coarse
sand below water table) sub = 1.05
t/m3 for silty sand. The maximum
settlement is limited to 50 mm. Use
Solution:
Depth below N  o t/m2 Cn = 0.77 log Nn N =
G.S (m) ( D)
200/ o (Cn x N) 15+
3 W.T {coarse sand} 8 5.7 {1.9 x 3} 1.19 10 ½(N-
10

15)
3.75 10 {(+1.12x0.75 6.54 1.14 11 11
=0.84}

4.50 12 7.38 1.10 13 13


5.25 10 8.22 1.07 11 11
6.00 14 9.06 1.03 14 14
6.75 15 9.90 1.00 15 15
7.50(silty sand) 18 10.74 0.98 18 17
8.25 20{(+1.05x0.75=0 11.53 0.95 19 17
.788}
9.0 18 12.32 0.93 17 16
9.75 22 13.10 0.91 20 18
10.5 20 13.90 0..89 18 17
11.25 24 14.68 0.87 21 18
• N = correction applied for submergence
(corrected value)
• N = 15 + ½ (N-15)
• This correction is applied on very fine or
silty sand below water table when the
measured N value is greater than 15
(overburden correction is applied first if
both corrections are applied).
• Now Total N = 177
•  Average blows = 177/12 =15
• Cw = 0.5 + 0.5 (3)/3+8 = 0.64
• q50 = 2.05 x N x Cw = 2.05 x 15 x 0.64 =
19.68 t/m2
• q (Gross) = 19.68 +  D = 2538 t/m2
Example # 20
• A proposed strip footing that is 4
ft(1.2m) wide will be located 2
ft(0.6m) below ground surface. The
soil type is uniform dense sand that
has a friction angle  = 35o. The total
unit weight of the soil is equal to 125
pcf (19.7 kN/m3). The ground is water
table is well below the bottom of the
footing and will not be a factor in the
bearing capacity analysis. Using a
factor of safety of 3, calculate the
allowable bearing pressure using Figs.
6.5 and 6.6.
Solution:
• From Fig. 6.5, for  = 35o, N=37 and Nq =
33. Using Eq. 6.1 with c = 0:
• qult = ½ t B N +  t Df Nq = ½ (125)(4)
(37) + (125)(2)(33) = 17500 psf (840
kPa)
• Using F = 3, qall = qult /3 = 17500/3 = 5800
psf (280 kPa)
• From Fig.6.6, for  = 35o , N= 40 and Nq
= 36 Using Eq. 6.1 with c = 0:

• qult = ½  t B N +  t Df Nq = ½ (125)
(4)(40) + (125)(2)(36) = 19000 psf (910
kPa)
Using F = 3, q = q /3 = 19000/3 = 6300
Example # 21
• Use the same data as the above
example problem, but assume silty
sand with a friction angle  of 30o.
Also assume the footing will not
punch into the soil.
Solution:
• From Fig. 6.5, for  = 30o, N=15 and Nq = 19.
Using Eq. 6.1 with c = 0:
• qult = ½ t B N +  t Df Nq = ½ (125)(4)(15)
+ (125)(2)(19 = 8500 psf (400 kPa)
• Using F = 3, qall = qult /3 = 8500/3 = 2800 psf
(130 kPa)
• From Fig.6.6, for  = 30o , N = 17 and Nq = 20.
Using Eq. 6.1 with c = 0:

• qult = ½  t B N +  t Df Nq = ½ (125)(4)(17
+ (125)(2)(20) = 9250 psf (440 kPa)
• Using F = 3, qall = qult /3 = 9250/3 = 3100 psf
(150 kPa)
Example # 22
• Refer to Fig. 3.21. a foundation 1.5m x 1m is
located at a depth, Df , of clay. A soft clay
layer is located at a depth, H, of 1 m
measured from the bottom foundation. For
the top clay layer
 Undrained shear strength = 120
kN/m2

Unit weight = 16.8 kN/m3 = 16.kN/m3
 and for the bottom clay layer
 Undrained shear strength = 148 kN/m2
 Unit weight = 16.2 kN/m3
• Determine the gross allowable load for the
foundation with an FS of 4.
Solution:
  B   B   2c a H 
qu = 1 + ( 0.2)    cu ( 2 ) N c + 1 +   + γ 1D f
  L   L  B 
Where B = 1 m H = 1m
L = 1 .5 m N c = 5.14 Df

D f = 1m γ 1 = 16.8 kN / m3 B x L
B
From Figure 3.23, H=1 m 
1 =1 0 Su 1 Layer No: 1
for cu ( 2 ) / cu (1) = 48 / 120 = 0.4,
 2= 0 Su Layer No: 2
the value of ca ( 2 ) / cu (1) ≈ 0.9. So 2
2

ca = (0.9)(120) = 108 kN / m 2
Fig. 3.21
and
  B   B  2ca H 
qu = 1 + ( 0.2)    cu ( 2) N c +  1 +   + γ 1D f
  L   L  B 
  1   1  (2)(108)(1) 
qu = 1 + ( 0.2)    (48)(5.14) +  1 +   + (16.8)(1)
  1.5    1.5  1 
= 279.6 + 360+ 16.8 = 656.4 kN / m 2
Check :
  B 
qu = 1 +( 0.2 )  cu (1) N c ++γ1 D f
  L 
  1 
= 1 +( 0.2 ) (120 )(5.14 ) +(16 .8)(1)
 1.5 
= 699 +16 .8 =715 .8 kN / m 2
• Thus qu = 656.4 kN/m2 (that is
smaller of the two values
calculated above) and
• qall = qu/FS = 656.4/4 =
164.1 kN/m2
• The total allowable load is
• (qall )(1 x 1.5) = 246.15
kN/m2
Example # 23
• Refer to Figure 3.24. For sand
•  = 117 lb/ft3
•  = 40o
• and for clay
• cu = 400 lb/ft2
• For the foundation
• B = 3 ft
• L = 4.5 ft
• Df = 3 ft
• H = 4 ft
• Determine the gross ultimate bearing capacity
of the foundation.
Qu

Sand Df
 = 40o
c = 0 B
Sand
 = 40o
H c = 0

Clay
 = 0 Clay
cu= 400  = 0
lb/ft2 cu= 400
lb/ft2

FIGURE 3.24
Solution:
• The foundation is rectangular the
following equations will apply:
•  B  B  2  2 D f  tanφ
qu =  1 + 0.2  cu N c +  1 + γ H  1 +  K s + γ Df
•  L  L  H  B
• 1  B 
qu = 1 − ( 0.4)    γ BNγ + γ D f N q
• 2  L 
• For  = 40o , from table 3.4, N =
109.41 and
• cu N c
=
( 400 )( 5.14 )
= 0.107
0.5γBN γ (0.5)(117)(3)(109.41)
• From Fig. 3.25, for cuNc/0.5BN =
0.107 and  = 40o , the value of Ks
 2.5
• Above Equation gives:
  B   B  2  2 D f  tan φ
• qu = 1 + ( 0.2)  L  cu N c + 1 + L  γH 1 + H  K s B + γD f
  3   3 
= 1 + ( 0.2)   (400)(5.14) + 1 +  (117)(4)
2

  4.5   4.5 
 (2)(3)  tan 40 o
× 1 + (2.5) + (117)(3)
 4  3
= 2330 + 5454 + 351 = 8135 lb / ft 2
• Again, from Eq.2
• 1  B 
qu = 1 − ( 0.4 )   γBN γ + γD f N q
• 2  L 
For φ = 40o N q = 64.20 (table) and
1  3 
qu = 1 − ( 0.4 )   (117)(3)(109.41)
2  4.5 
+ (117)(3)(64.20)
= 14081 + 22534 = 36615 lb / ft 2

Hence,
qu = 8135 lb / ft 2
Example # 24
• A rectangular footing, with a plan area
of 1.4 m x 2 m is to be placed at a
depth of 2 m below the ground
surface. The footing would be
subjected to a load inclined at 10o to
the vertical. The subsoil is clayey,
sandy silt with saturated unit weight
of 18 kN/m3, and c= 10 kN/m2 and
= 30o. Assuming the rate of loading
is such that drained condition
prevails, compute the magnitude of
load the footing can carry if the water
table is at the base of the footing.
Take FS = 3.
Solution:
 qnd = cNc sc dc ic + q(Nq -1)sq dq iq
+ 0.5  BN s d i W
 Here c = c= φ10 kN/m2,  =  =
= (e )  
30Noq
π tan φ
tan  45 +  =18 .38
2 o

 2
N c = ( N q −1) cot φ =17 .38 cot 30 o = 30 .10
Nγ = 2( N q +1) tan φ = 22 .37
B
sc =1 + 0.2 =1.14
L
B
sq =1 + 0.2 =1.14
L
B
sγ =1 − 0.4 = 0.72
L
Df 2
d c =1 + 0.2 tan( 45 o +φ / 2) =1 + 0.2 ×1.732 =1.5
B 1. 4
0.35
d q = d γ =1 +0.1D f tan( 45 +φ / 2) =1 + =1.25
1.4
α
ic = iq = (1 − ) 2 = 0.79
90
iγ = 0.44
W ′ = 0.5

qnd = (10 × 30 .1×1.14 ×1.5 × 0.79 ) +


(18 × 2 × (18 .32 −1) ×1.14 ×1.25 × 0.79 ) +
( 0.5 ×18 ×1.4 × 22 .37 × 0.72 ×1.25 × 0.44 × 0.5)
= 406 .6 + 704 .4 + 55 .8 = 1166 .8 kN .
∴ ( qnet ) safe = 1166 .8 / 3 = 388 .9 ≅ 380 kN/m 2
Hence , safe load = 380 ×1.4 × 2 = 1064 ≅ 1060 kN
Example # 25
• What will be the safe load in Example # 24
if undrained condition prevails? Take cu
=30 kN/m2, u = 0, Nc = 5.14, Nq = 1,
and N = 0.
• Solution:
• qnd = cu Nc sc ds is
• = 30 x 5.14 x 1.14 x 1.5 x
0.79
• = 208.3 kN/m2
•  (qnet )safe = 208.3/3 = 69.4  70 kN/m2
•  Safe load = 70 x 1.4 x 2 = 196 kN 
200 kN
TEST
Bearing capacity
Method
D = 0.0 m 0.5 1 2 0.5 3
0.5 0.4 4
0.5 0.0 5 0.3
B =60.5m 0.5 7 8
0.5 1.0 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71
L = 2.0 m 2.0 2.0 1.0 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71
 = 15.69 16.38 17.06 17.06 17.65 17.65 17.06 17.06
= 3
kN/m 35.5(36.2 38.5(40.75 38.5 22 25 20 20
5)
c37=o(38.5o) 3.92 )
7.8 7.8 12.75 14.7 9.8 9.8
6.37kPa

Contd…
Contd…
Milovic 4.1
qult, kg/cm2 = 5.5 2.2 2.6
(tests)
Muhs qult, =10.8 12.2 24.2 33.0
(tests)
Terzaghi qkg/cm
ult = 9.4*
2 9.2 22.9 19.7 4.3* 6.5* 2.5 2.9*
Meyerho 8.2* 10.3 26.4 28.4 4.8 7.6 2.3 3.0
fHansen 7.2 9.8 23.7* 23.4 5.0 8.0 2.2* 3.1
Vesic 8.1 10.4* 25.1 24.7 5.1 8.2 2.3 3.2
Balla 14.0 15.3 35.8 33.0* 6.0 9.2 2.6 3.8

tes : 1.  = triaxialvalues( ) = value adjusted as ps = 1.5 tr -17.


2. Values to nearest 0.1.
3. , c converted from given units to above values.
4. All values computed using computer program with subroutines
for each method. Values all use ps for L/B >1.
5. * = best  Terzaghi = 4; Hansen = 2; Vesic and Balla = 1 each
Example # 26
• A square column foundation to be
constructed on a sandy soil to carry
a gross allowable total load of 150
kN. The depth of the foundation will
be 0.7 m. the load will be inclined
at an angle of 20o to the vertical
(Figure). The standard penetration
resistances NF , obtained from field
Depth(m) 1.5 3 4.5 6 7.5 9
exploration
NF are
3 6 9 10 10 8

• Assume that the unit weight of the
soil is 18kN/m3. Determine the
width of the foundation, B . Use Eq.
(3.17) and a factor of safety of 3.

20o

0.7 m
c = 0
= 30o
= 18 kN/m3
B
Example # 27
• The subsoil at a building site consists
of medium sand with  = 18 kN/m3
, c = 0,  = 32o and water
table at the ground surface. A 2.5
m square footing is to be placed at
1.5 m below ground surface.
Compute the safe bearing capacity
of the footing. What would be safe
bearing pressure if the water table
goes down to 3 m below G.L?
Solution:
• Since  lies between local and
general shear failure conditions.
• Referring to Fig. 6.7, for  =32o,Nq
= 28, Nq = 10, N = 30, N = 6
 18( 32 − 28) 
N q = 10 +   = 20.3
 35 − 28 
 24( 32 − 28) 
Nγ = 6 +   =19.7
 35 − 28 
• Case I (water table at ground level)
• Using Eq. (6.27) modified for square footing,
ultimate gross bearing capacity
• (qult )gross =  Df Nq + 0.4  B N
• = 8.0 x 1.5 x 20.3 + 0.4 x 8.0 x2.5 x
19.7 = 243.6 + 157.6 = 401.2 kN/m2.
• and ultimate net bearing capacity,
• (qult )net = (qult )gross - Df
• = 401.2- 18 x 1.5 = 384.2
kN/m2
• Safe net bearing capacity,
• (qsafe )net = 384/2.5 = 152
kN/m2 (Fs = 2.5)
 and gross bearing capacity,
• (qsafe )gross = 152 + 18 x 1.5
 Case II (Water table at 3 m below
G.L., that is at a depth greater than
width of footing)
 (qult )gross = 18 x 1.5 x 20.3 + 0.4(14 x 2.5)19.7
 = 548.1 + 275.8 = 823.9 kN/m2
 (qult )net = 823.9 – 18 x 1.5 = 796 .9
kN/m2
  Safe net bearing capacity,
 (qsafe )net = 796.9/2.5 = 319  320
kN/m2
 and safe gross bearing capacity,
 (qsafe )gross = 320 + 18 x 1.5 = 347 
2