Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

9.3K views

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Undrained and Drained Shear Strength
- Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundation
- Problems on Piles
- Calculation of Consolidation Settlement
- Problem Solving in Soil Mechanics
- Principles and Practices of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering by v N S Murthy
- BEARING CAPACITY
- 300-Solved-Problems
- Basics of Foundation Engineering With Solved Problems
- Advanced Foundation Engineering (57011)
- Problems on Settlement
- 300 Solved Problems in Geotechnical Engineering
- TEST PAPER OF GEOTECH1.docx
- bearing capacity of soil
- Problems in Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering
- Calculate Bearing Capacity From Spt n Value
- Soil Mechanics Question and Answers
- Chapter 10 Slope Stability
- Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundation
- Lecture10 Mat Foundations

You are on page 1of 82

Capacity

Example # 01

• A square footing 2.5 m by 2.5 m is

built in a homogenous bed of sand

density 2.0 t/m3 and having an

angle of shearing 38o . The depth of

a base of the footing is 1.5 m below

the ground surface. Calculate the

safe load that can be carried by a

footing with a factor of safety 3

against complete shear failure. Use

Terzaghi’s analysis.

Solution:

Given:

B = 2.5 m D = 1.5 m = 2 t/m3

= 38o which is greater than 36o so general

shear failure will occur.

Values of bearing capacity factors from Fig.

Nq = 47 N = 64

Since c = 0 qf = D Nq + 0.4 B N

qnf = D (Nq -1) + 0.4 B N

= 2 x 1.5 (47-1) + 0.4 x 2 x 2.5 x

64 = 138 + 128 = 366 t/m2

qs = qnf /F + D = 366/3 + 2 x 1.5

= 122 + 3 = 125 t/m2

Maximum safe load = B2 x qs = (2.5)2 x 125 =

780 t.

Example # 02

• A strip footing 1 m wide at its base is

located at a depth of o.8 m below

the ground surface. The properties

of the foundation soil are : = 1.8

t/m3 and = 20o and c = 3 t/m2 .

Determine the safe bearing

capacity, using a factor of safety 3 .

Use Terzaghi’sanalysis. Assume

soil’s local shear failure.

Solution:

qf = 2/3 c Nc + D Nq + 0.5 B

N

For = 20o From table: Nc= 9.5,

Nq= 3.5 N = 1.7

qf = (2/3 x 3 x 9.5) + (1.8 x 0.8 x

3.5) + 0.5 (1.8 x 1 x 1.7) = 19 + 5.04 +

0.9 = 24.94 t/m2

qnf = qf - D = 24.9- 1.8 x 0.8 =

23.5 t/m2

qs = qnf /F + D = 23.5/3 + (1.8 x

2

• Solve above example if the water table

is located at a depth of 1.5 m below

the ground level.

• Rw1= 1 Rw2 =?

• Zw2= depth of water table below the

base of footing.

• = 1.5 – 0.8 = 0.7

∴ Rw2 = 0.5 (1+Zw2 /B ) = 0.5 (1+ 0.7/1)

= 0.85

q = 2/3 c N

f c + D Nq Rw1 + 0.5

B NRw2

= 2/3 x 3 x 9.5 + (1.8 x 0.8 x 3.5 x 1)

• qnf = qf - D = 24.8 – 1.44 = 23.36

• qs = qnf /F + D = 23.36/3 + 1.44

= 7.76 + 1.44

= 9.2 t/m2

Example # 03

• An R.C column having square in shape

is to rest 1.5 m below ground level.

The total load to be transmitted

including the weight of the column is

200 tons. As the area is subjected to

frequent flooding, the friction of the

footing along the sides is to be

neglected and a factor of safety 2.5 is

to be allowed. If the saturated density

of the sand be 2.4 g/cc, angle of

internal friction 33o and value of N

= 33, Nq = 32, find the suitable size of

the footing for the above condition.

Solution:

Assume the size of footing as 2m x 2m.

B = 2 m and D = 1.5 m B>D, foundation is

shallow.

qf =1.3 cNc + D Nq + 0.4 B N

Now c = 0 , N

q = 32, N= 33 = 2.4 g/cc (2.4 t/m3)

B = 2.

qf = 0 + 2.4 x 1.5 x 32 + 0.4 x 2.4 x 2 x 33.

= 115.2 + 63.4 = 178.6

qs= 178.6/2.5 = 71.4 (F.S = 2.5)

Now area of footing 2x 2.

It is higher than the required 200 tones.

it is safe. We can make it more economical by

reducing the section and retrial may be made.

Example # 04

• Size of an isolated footing is to be

limited to 1.5 m square. Calculate

the depth at which the footing

should be placed to take a load of

200 tonnes with a factor of safety

3.The soil is having angle of

internal friction = 30o , = 2.1

g/cc, weight of footing 5% of the

external load. Nq= 22, N =

20.

Solution:

A soil is sandy so no cohesion

Allowable bearing capacity for square footing:

q

s = 1/F { 1.3 cNc + D (Nq – 1) + 0.4 B N } +

D

Now total load = 200 + 5/100 x 200 = 210 tonnes

q = 210/1.5 x 1.5.

s

Put values in the above eq.

= 1/3 {2.1 x 21 x D + 25.2} 2.1 D

= 14.7D + 8.4 + 2.1D

16.8D = 93.4 – 8.4 = 85

∴ D = 85/16.8 = 5.6 meters

∴ The footing will be placed at 5.6 m below the

Example # 05

A 3.0 m strip footing rests 2.5 m

below ground level over sandy clay

having unit weight of 2250 kg/m3 .

Quick tests in a shear box apparatus

gave shear strength of 0.37 and 0.50

kg/cm2 for normal stress of 0.75 and

1.5 kg/cm2 respectively. Find out

cohesion and angle of internal

friction. From Terzaghi’s formula,

calculate the ultimate load per meter

run of the foundation.

Solution:

• As per Coulomb’s eq. = c + tan -------(A)

• c = ? And = ?

• Two equations can determine c and .

• Given: 1 = 0.37 kg/cm2 2 = 0.5 kg/cm2

• 1= 0.75 kg/cm2 2= 1.5 kg/cm2

Put values in eq. (A)

0.5 = c + 1.5 tan.------------(ii)

Solve simultaneously.

o

9.83 10 . o

qf = 2/3 c Nc + D Nq + 0.5 B N

• qf = 2/3 x 0.25 x 8 + 2250/109 x 2.5

x 102 x1.9 + 0.5 x 2250/109 x

3.0x102 x0.5

• = 1.333 + 0.01069 + 0.001688 =

1.345 kg/cm2 = 13.45 t/m2

• Ultimate load per meter run of

foundation = 13.45 x 3 = 40.37

Tonnes/meter length.

Example # 06

• Compute the allowable bearing

pressure using the Terzaghi’s

equation for the footing and soil

parameters shown in Fig. Use factor

of safety 3 to obtain qa . The soil

data are obtained from a series of

γ = 110

U-triaxial tests.

D

ft

=Is the soil saturated

4 pcf

o

B = 20

? C = 300

psf

Solution:

• Since a U –test gives a angle. The soil is not

saturated.

• For = 20o , Assuming square foundation general

shear failure.

• qult =1.3 cNc + q Nq + 0.4 B N

• Now for = 20o , Nc= 17.7, Nq= 7.4 N = 5.0

• Put values.

• qult =1.3 x 300/1000 x 17.7 + 4 x 110/1000 x 7.4 +

0.4 x 110/1000 x B x 5.0 = (10.2 + 0.22B) ksf

• Qa = qult /F.S = 10.2 0.22B /3 = (3.4 + 0.07B) ksf

• Normally B varies between 5 to 10 ft.

• For B = 5ft , 3.4 + 0.07 x 5 = 3.75 ksf

• = 10 ft, 3.4 +0.07 x 10 = 4.10 ksf

• Recommended is : 3.5 ksf

Example # 07

• The results of full scale tests

conducted by H.Muhs in Berlin

reported by J.B.Hansen. The

pertinent data associated with this

test as reported by Hansen are

footing dimension L = 2 m, B 0.5 m

, D = 0.5 m dense sand = 0.95

t/m3 , c = 0 . Failure load Q 190

Ton. = 47o .

• Compare the results with Terzaghi

Analysis and Hansen.

Solution:

• Terzaghi’seq. As 4P = 2/0.5 =4, use strip

footing formula.

• qu = c Nc + D Nq + 1/2 B N.

• For = 47o , Nq = 246 , N = 585

• = 0 + 0.95 x 0.5 x 246 + ½ x 0.95 x 0.5

x 585

• =116.85 + 138.9 = 255.78 t/m2. More

than actual.

• Test result = Q/A =190/2 x 0.5 = 190 T/m2

same if checked by Hansen eq. = 180.6

ton/m2

Example # 08

• A series of large scale footing bearing

capacity tests were performed on soft

Bangkok clay (Brand et al 72). One of

the tests consisted of a 1.05 m square

footing at a depth of 1.5 m. at a 1

inch settlement the load was

approximately 14.1 Tons. From the

interpretation of the given load –

settlement curve. Uncofined

compression and vane shear tests on

the same soil gave a strength values

and other properties as follows:

• qu = 3.0 t/m2 Su van = 2.4 t/m2

• Plasticity data: wL= 80% and wp = 35%

• Compute the ultimate bearing capacity by

Terzaghi’s eq. and compare with load test

values.

• For field van , su design = suvan =

reduction factor. , from graph Ip vs

(farmula)

• For Ip= 80 – 35 = 45, = 0.8

• Su design (c) = 0.8 x 2.4 = 1.92 t/m2.

• For = 0 , Nc=5.7, Nq=1 N = 0

• qu(net) = 1.3 c Nc = 1.3 x 1.92 x 5.7 = 10.94

2

• Correction qu= 1.3 c Nc

= 2.4 x 5.7 x 1.3 = 13.68 x 1.3 =

17.78

• From unconfined compression test , qu

= 1.3 c Nc c = ½ qu = 3.0/2 = 1.5

t/m2

• qu = 1.5 x 5.7 x 1.3 = 11.115 t/m2

• From load test Load/Area = 14.1/

(1.05)2 =12.8 t/m2

• Load Test Unconfined comp.

Vane shear

q t/m 2 12.8 11.115

u

Example # 09

• A given series of values for qu

(unconfined) in the of interest from SPT

samples from a boring log gives

average 200 kpa. Estimate the

allowable bearing capacity for

square footing by

Terzaghi’sformula. Use F.S =3.

(unconfined only for clay)

•

Solution:

• Now c = qu /2 = 200/2 = 100 kPa.

• Terzaghi’seq. for square footing-

=0

• qu = 1.3 c Nc = 1.3 x 100 x

5.7

= 741 kPa

• qa= 741/3 = 247 kPa

• Normally qu from SPT is not reliable.

UDS are taken.

• Or in case of SPT qu result F.S = 4 to

Example # 10

• A 30 cm square bearing plate settles

by 1.5 cm in a plate loading test on

a cohesion less soil when the

intensity of loading is 2 kg/cm2.

What will be the settlement of a

prototype shallow footing 1.0 m

square under the same intensity of

loading.

Solution:

• Given Bp= 30 cm B = 100 cm

• p= 1.5 cm.(settlement of

plate)

• = 1.5 [ 100 (30 + 30.5)/30

(100 + 30.5)]2 = 3.6 cm

Example # 11

• The results of a plate load test in a

sandy soil are given below. The size

of the plate is 0.305 x .305 m.

determine the size of square

footing of column foundation that

should carry a load of 2500 kN with

a maximum

Load/unit area settlement

200 400 of

60025700

mm.

kN/m2

• Settlement (mm)5 12.5 28 60

Solution:

Given:

Size of the plate 0.305 x 0.305 m.

Load v/s settlement , draw a curve or plot

the data.

Load

Load on footing------2500 kN

200 400 600 800 kN/m

2

10

Settlement( mm )

30

50

70

80

Now settlement of footing:

Now by trial and error

(Size in m)

amount of settlement

B ( B + 30.48)

2 2

SF = S p F

p

B ( B + 30.48)

with the conditions

p F

Or

given will be the size

B ( 3.2 B + 1)

2

of footing. 2

S F = S p F

p

• B p ( 3.2 BF + 1)

Qo , kN Assumed qo Sp SF from

width, BF Qo /BF 2 , correspondi above Eq.

2500 400

(cm) 156.252 4ng to Q 13.8

(mm)

2500 300 kN/m

277.8 8 o 26.35

2500 320 244.10 6.8

(mm) 22.70

2500 310 260.10 7.2 23.86

Qo , kN Assumed qo Sp SF from

width, BF Qo /BF 2 , correspondi above Eq.

2500 400

(cm) 156.252 4ng to Q 13.8

(mm)

2500 300 kN/m

277.8 8 o 26.35

2500 320 244.10 6.8

(mm) 22.70

2500 310 260.10 7.2 23.86

Example # 12

• The results of two plate load tests

are given in the following table:

• Plate dia. (B) Total Load, Q Settlement

(m) (kN) (mm)

• 0.305 32.2 20

0.610 71.8 20

•

• Determine the size of square footing

to carry a load of 715 kN with

tolerable settlement as 20mm.

Solve for foundation.

•

Solution:

• Qo = Am + Pn

Put the values in the above Eq. to find m

and n

32.2 = /4 (0.305)2 m + (0.305)n.---------(i)

71.8 = /4 (0.610)2 m + (0.610)n.---------

(ii)

By solving simultaneously we can find:

m = 50.68 kN/m2

n = 29.75 kN/m2.

Now again use the above Eq.with these values to

Load on foundation = 715 kN

A = Bf2 , P = 4 Bf ; Put values

715 = B 2 x 50.68 + 4 B

f f x 29.75

∴ 50.68 B 2 + 119B – 715 =0

Example # 13

• Plate load test performed on a uniform

deposit of sand and the following

observations were recorded.

• Load t/m2 5 10 20 30 40 50 60

Settlement 4.5 8.5 16 31.3 50 74 104

• (mm)

•

• The size of the plate was 30 x30cm.

Plot the load-settlement curve and

determine the load on a footing 1.5m

x 1.5m. Can it carry safely if the

settlement is not to exceed 50 mm.

Solution:

• Given:

• Size of plate 30 x 30 cm

• Footing size 1.5 x 1.5 m

• Settlement of footing 50 mm

• Plot Load vs settlement

Load t/m2

10 20 30 40 50 60

10

( mm )

30

Settlement

50

70

90

2

B f B p + 30.48

SF = S p

B p B f + 30.48

or put the values to calculate S p .

2

150 30 + 30.48

50 = S p

30 150 + 30.48

S p = 18 mm

corresponding to this settlement = 20 t/m2.

• Safe on this footing for 50mm settlement =

1.5 x 1.5 x 20 = 45 tons.

Example # 14

• A load test was made with a 35 cm

square plate at a depth of one meter

below the ground level in soil with

= 0. The water table was located at a

depth of 5m below the ground level.

Failure occurred at a load of 5200 kg.

What would be the ultimate bearing

capacity per unit area for a 1.6m wide

continuous footing with its base

loaded at the same depth in the same

soil. Unit weight of soil was 1.9 g/cc

above water table. For = 0,

• Nc= 5.7, Nq= 1 , N = 0. Assume

general shear failure.

Solution:

• For square footing,

qf =1.3 c Nc + D Nq + 0.4 B N

Taking the case of load test,

B = 0.35cm , D = 1.

Since = 0 , Nq= 1 and N = 0

qu=1.3 c Nc + D Nq

5200/.35 x .35 x1000 = 1.3 x c x 5.7 + 100 x

1.9 x1.0.

7.42 c = 42.5 – 1.9 = 40.6

c = 40.6/7.42 = 5.47

tonnes/m2 .

Now for contineous footing strip of width 1.0m

qf = c Nc + D Nq + 0.5 B N

= 5.47 x 5.7 + 1.9 x 1 x 1 + 0

= 31.2 + 1.9 = 33.1 ton/m2 .

Example # 15

(with inclination and

eccentricity)

• A 24 m long retaining wall has a 6m

wide foundation at a depth of 1.5m

in a silty sand having c = 1.5 t/m2 ,

= 25o , = 2 t/m3 . The wall

carries a horizontal load of 25

ton/m run at a point 2m above the

base and a centrally applied load of

100 t/m run. Determine the safety

factor against general shear failure

of the wall, (take Nc = 20.7 , Nq =

Solution:

• e/Z = tan = H/V = 25/100 = 0.25 , Z =2 m.

• e/Z = 0.25 , e = 0.25 x 2 = 0.5 , = 14o

• B = B- 2e = 5 , L = 24m A = 5 x24

=120 m2 2

H

• I c = I q = 1 −

V + A′ c cot φ

•

•

•

• H = 25 x 24 V =100 x 24

• Ic = Iq = 0.616

• I = Iq2 = 0.379

qf = c Nc Ic+ D Nq Iq+ 0.5 B N I

= 52

Example # 16

• At a certain site subsoil soil consists of

a thick layer of soft clay (cu = 20

kN/m2, u = 0) which is overlain by a

stiffer clay (cu = 87.5 kN/m2, u = 0)

of a variable thickness. The ground

surface is horizontal and the water

table is at a considerable depth.

• It is proposed to install widely spaced

footings 1.5 m square at a depth of 1

m below ground level in the upper

clay material. Estimate the net

working load on the footings, using a

load factor of 3.

• If the footings are fully loaded at this

pressure, estimate the thickness of

stiff clay required below them in order

to ensure that the load factor against

shear failure in the soft clay is at least

3.

• (Ignore settlement effects and assume

a load dispersion at 30oto the vertical.

Take Nc = 7.5 on the lower clay and

assume Terzaghi’s bearing capacity

equation to apply)

Solution:

• Upper layer

G.L

cu = 87.5 kN/m2

•

u = 0

• Lower layer: cu = 87.5 kN/m2

1 m

u = 0

• cu = 20 kN/m2

u = 0 Z

• 30o

cu = 20 kN/m2

• B = 1.5m square footing. u = 0

• F.S = 3

• Terzaghi’sEq. qnf =1.3 c Nc where

Nc = 5.7

• For upper layer qnf =1.3 x 87.5 x 5.7

= 648.375 kN/m2 648 kN/m2

• Net unit working load = 648/3 = 216

kN/m2

• Net working load on footing

(1.5m)2 = 216 x 1.5 x 1.5 = 486

kN.

• This load is dispersed at 30o angle,

• Pressure on top of lower clay stratum

• Load /Area = 486/

(1.5 + 2Z/ 3)2

• Now allowable pressure on lower

stratum:

• Qf/F = cNc /F = 20 x 7.5/3 =50

• Equating these two pressures:

• 50 = 486/ (1.5 + 2 Z/3)2

• 112.5 + 173.2 Z + 66.7 Z2= 486

• Z2 + 2.6 Z – 5.6 = 0

• Z = 1.4 m

Example # 17

• Determine the net bearing pressure

for a 3m x 3m footing at a depth of

2 m in a medium dense sand so

that the total settlement does not

exceed 25mm. The average SPT

blows below the footing (upto B )

3m are 28/30 cm. the average

moist density is 1.75 t/m3. The

water table is more than 3 m below

the footing.

Solution:

• o at B/2 below footing

1.75(2+1.5) = 6.125 t/m2

• Cn = 0.77 log 200/ o = 0.77 log

200/ 6.125 = 1.165

• Nn = Cn N = 1.165 x 28 =33

• q25 = 0.041 Nn S = 0.041 x 33 x 25 =

33.8 t/m2

Example # 18

• A water tank has a concrete foundation

slab, 5m wide by 20m long,

constructed at a depth of 1m in

medium dense sand where water

table is 2m below the ground surface.

The depth of the water in the tank is

8m. The density of sand above the

water table is 1.7 t/m3 and the

submerged density is 0.9 ton/m3

• The SPT blows in a bore hole are given

in table below. Examine whether the

total settlement will not exceed

Depth N o t/m2 Cn Nn Average

below

1 G.S 6 1.7 1.59 10 Nn

(m)

2(W.T) 8 3.4 1.36 11

3 10 4.3 1.28 13

4 12 5.2 1.22 15 13

5 12 6.1 1.17 14

6 14 7.0 1.12 16

Solution:

• Cw = 0.5 + 0.5 Dw/D + B = 0.67 { Dw

=2 , D = 1, B = 5}

• q25 = 0.041 Nn Cw S = 0.041 x 13 x

0.67 x 25 = 8.9 ton/m2

• Actual net pressure = q- o = 8 x 1 – 1x

1.7 = 6.3 t/m2.

• Net pressure applied is less than the

allowable net pressure for 25mm

settlement.

• Hence the settlement will remain less

than 25mm.

Example # 19

• Determine the net and gross bearing

pressure for a raft, 8m x 15m placed

at a depth of 3 m in coarse sand

underlain by fine silty sand below a

depth of 7.5 m. The water table is 3m

below ground surface. SPT was

performed in 5 bore holes. The SPT

blows for one of the bore holes

representing the wekest spot are

given below. above water table =

1.9 t/m3 , sub = 1.12 t/m3 (coarse

sand below water table) sub = 1.05

t/m3 for silty sand. The maximum

settlement is limited to 50 mm. Use

Solution:

Depth below N o t/m2 Cn = 0.77 log Nn N =

G.S (m) ( D)

200/ o (Cn x N) 15+

3 W.T {coarse sand} 8 5.7 {1.9 x 3} 1.19 10 ½(N-

10

15)

3.75 10 {(+1.12x0.75 6.54 1.14 11 11

=0.84}

5.25 10 8.22 1.07 11 11

6.00 14 9.06 1.03 14 14

6.75 15 9.90 1.00 15 15

7.50(silty sand) 18 10.74 0.98 18 17

8.25 20{(+1.05x0.75=0 11.53 0.95 19 17

.788}

9.0 18 12.32 0.93 17 16

9.75 22 13.10 0.91 20 18

10.5 20 13.90 0..89 18 17

11.25 24 14.68 0.87 21 18

• N = correction applied for submergence

(corrected value)

• N = 15 + ½ (N-15)

• This correction is applied on very fine or

silty sand below water table when the

measured N value is greater than 15

(overburden correction is applied first if

both corrections are applied).

• Now Total N = 177

• Average blows = 177/12 =15

• Cw = 0.5 + 0.5 (3)/3+8 = 0.64

• q50 = 2.05 x N x Cw = 2.05 x 15 x 0.64 =

19.68 t/m2

• q (Gross) = 19.68 + D = 2538 t/m2

Example # 20

• A proposed strip footing that is 4

ft(1.2m) wide will be located 2

ft(0.6m) below ground surface. The

soil type is uniform dense sand that

has a friction angle = 35o. The total

unit weight of the soil is equal to 125

pcf (19.7 kN/m3). The ground is water

table is well below the bottom of the

footing and will not be a factor in the

bearing capacity analysis. Using a

factor of safety of 3, calculate the

allowable bearing pressure using Figs.

6.5 and 6.6.

Solution:

• From Fig. 6.5, for = 35o, N=37 and Nq =

33. Using Eq. 6.1 with c = 0:

• qult = ½ t B N + t Df Nq = ½ (125)(4)

(37) + (125)(2)(33) = 17500 psf (840

kPa)

• Using F = 3, qall = qult /3 = 17500/3 = 5800

psf (280 kPa)

• From Fig.6.6, for = 35o , N= 40 and Nq

= 36 Using Eq. 6.1 with c = 0:

•

• qult = ½ t B N + t Df Nq = ½ (125)

(4)(40) + (125)(2)(36) = 19000 psf (910

kPa)

Using F = 3, q = q /3 = 19000/3 = 6300

Example # 21

• Use the same data as the above

example problem, but assume silty

sand with a friction angle of 30o.

Also assume the footing will not

punch into the soil.

Solution:

• From Fig. 6.5, for = 30o, N=15 and Nq = 19.

Using Eq. 6.1 with c = 0:

• qult = ½ t B N + t Df Nq = ½ (125)(4)(15)

+ (125)(2)(19 = 8500 psf (400 kPa)

• Using F = 3, qall = qult /3 = 8500/3 = 2800 psf

(130 kPa)

• From Fig.6.6, for = 30o , N = 17 and Nq = 20.

Using Eq. 6.1 with c = 0:

•

• qult = ½ t B N + t Df Nq = ½ (125)(4)(17

+ (125)(2)(20) = 9250 psf (440 kPa)

• Using F = 3, qall = qult /3 = 9250/3 = 3100 psf

(150 kPa)

Example # 22

• Refer to Fig. 3.21. a foundation 1.5m x 1m is

located at a depth, Df , of clay. A soft clay

layer is located at a depth, H, of 1 m

measured from the bottom foundation. For

the top clay layer

Undrained shear strength = 120

kN/m2

Unit weight = 16.8 kN/m3 = 16.kN/m3

and for the bottom clay layer

Undrained shear strength = 148 kN/m2

Unit weight = 16.2 kN/m3

• Determine the gross allowable load for the

foundation with an FS of 4.

Solution:

B B 2c a H

qu = 1 + ( 0.2) cu ( 2 ) N c + 1 + + γ 1D f

L L B

Where B = 1 m H = 1m

L = 1 .5 m N c = 5.14 Df

D f = 1m γ 1 = 16.8 kN / m3 B x L

B

From Figure 3.23, H=1 m

1 =1 0 Su 1 Layer No: 1

for cu ( 2 ) / cu (1) = 48 / 120 = 0.4,

2= 0 Su Layer No: 2

the value of ca ( 2 ) / cu (1) ≈ 0.9. So 2

2

ca = (0.9)(120) = 108 kN / m 2

Fig. 3.21

and

B B 2ca H

qu = 1 + ( 0.2) cu ( 2) N c + 1 + + γ 1D f

L L B

1 1 (2)(108)(1)

qu = 1 + ( 0.2) (48)(5.14) + 1 + + (16.8)(1)

1.5 1.5 1

= 279.6 + 360+ 16.8 = 656.4 kN / m 2

Check :

B

qu = 1 +( 0.2 ) cu (1) N c ++γ1 D f

L

1

= 1 +( 0.2 ) (120 )(5.14 ) +(16 .8)(1)

1.5

= 699 +16 .8 =715 .8 kN / m 2

• Thus qu = 656.4 kN/m2 (that is

smaller of the two values

calculated above) and

• qall = qu/FS = 656.4/4 =

164.1 kN/m2

• The total allowable load is

• (qall )(1 x 1.5) = 246.15

kN/m2

Example # 23

• Refer to Figure 3.24. For sand

• = 117 lb/ft3

• = 40o

• and for clay

• cu = 400 lb/ft2

• For the foundation

• B = 3 ft

• L = 4.5 ft

• Df = 3 ft

• H = 4 ft

• Determine the gross ultimate bearing capacity

of the foundation.

Qu

Sand Df

= 40o

c = 0 B

Sand

= 40o

H c = 0

Clay

= 0 Clay

cu= 400 = 0

lb/ft2 cu= 400

lb/ft2

FIGURE 3.24

Solution:

• The foundation is rectangular the

following equations will apply:

• B B 2 2 D f tanφ

qu = 1 + 0.2 cu N c + 1 + γ H 1 + K s + γ Df

• L L H B

• 1 B

qu = 1 − ( 0.4) γ BNγ + γ D f N q

• 2 L

• For = 40o , from table 3.4, N =

109.41 and

• cu N c

=

( 400 )( 5.14 )

= 0.107

0.5γBN γ (0.5)(117)(3)(109.41)

• From Fig. 3.25, for cuNc/0.5BN =

0.107 and = 40o , the value of Ks

2.5

• Above Equation gives:

B B 2 2 D f tan φ

• qu = 1 + ( 0.2) L cu N c + 1 + L γH 1 + H K s B + γD f

3 3

= 1 + ( 0.2) (400)(5.14) + 1 + (117)(4)

2

4.5 4.5

(2)(3) tan 40 o

× 1 + (2.5) + (117)(3)

4 3

= 2330 + 5454 + 351 = 8135 lb / ft 2

• Again, from Eq.2

• 1 B

qu = 1 − ( 0.4 ) γBN γ + γD f N q

• 2 L

For φ = 40o N q = 64.20 (table) and

1 3

qu = 1 − ( 0.4 ) (117)(3)(109.41)

2 4.5

+ (117)(3)(64.20)

= 14081 + 22534 = 36615 lb / ft 2

Hence,

qu = 8135 lb / ft 2

Example # 24

• A rectangular footing, with a plan area

of 1.4 m x 2 m is to be placed at a

depth of 2 m below the ground

surface. The footing would be

subjected to a load inclined at 10o to

the vertical. The subsoil is clayey,

sandy silt with saturated unit weight

of 18 kN/m3, and c= 10 kN/m2 and

= 30o. Assuming the rate of loading

is such that drained condition

prevails, compute the magnitude of

load the footing can carry if the water

table is at the base of the footing.

Take FS = 3.

Solution:

qnd = cNc sc dc ic + q(Nq -1)sq dq iq

+ 0.5 BN s d i W

Here c = c= φ10 kN/m2, = =

= (e )

30Noq

π tan φ

tan 45 + =18 .38

2 o

2

N c = ( N q −1) cot φ =17 .38 cot 30 o = 30 .10

Nγ = 2( N q +1) tan φ = 22 .37

B

sc =1 + 0.2 =1.14

L

B

sq =1 + 0.2 =1.14

L

B

sγ =1 − 0.4 = 0.72

L

Df 2

d c =1 + 0.2 tan( 45 o +φ / 2) =1 + 0.2 ×1.732 =1.5

B 1. 4

0.35

d q = d γ =1 +0.1D f tan( 45 +φ / 2) =1 + =1.25

1.4

α

ic = iq = (1 − ) 2 = 0.79

90

iγ = 0.44

W ′ = 0.5

(18 × 2 × (18 .32 −1) ×1.14 ×1.25 × 0.79 ) +

( 0.5 ×18 ×1.4 × 22 .37 × 0.72 ×1.25 × 0.44 × 0.5)

= 406 .6 + 704 .4 + 55 .8 = 1166 .8 kN .

∴ ( qnet ) safe = 1166 .8 / 3 = 388 .9 ≅ 380 kN/m 2

Hence , safe load = 380 ×1.4 × 2 = 1064 ≅ 1060 kN

Example # 25

• What will be the safe load in Example # 24

if undrained condition prevails? Take cu

=30 kN/m2, u = 0, Nc = 5.14, Nq = 1,

and N = 0.

• Solution:

• qnd = cu Nc sc ds is

• = 30 x 5.14 x 1.14 x 1.5 x

0.79

• = 208.3 kN/m2

• (qnet )safe = 208.3/3 = 69.4 70 kN/m2

• Safe load = 70 x 1.4 x 2 = 196 kN

200 kN

TEST

Bearing capacity

Method

D = 0.0 m 0.5 1 2 0.5 3

0.5 0.4 4

0.5 0.0 5 0.3

B =60.5m 0.5 7 8

0.5 1.0 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71

L = 2.0 m 2.0 2.0 1.0 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71

= 15.69 16.38 17.06 17.06 17.65 17.65 17.06 17.06

= 3

kN/m 35.5(36.2 38.5(40.75 38.5 22 25 20 20

5)

c37=o(38.5o) 3.92 )

7.8 7.8 12.75 14.7 9.8 9.8

6.37kPa

Contd…

Contd…

Milovic 4.1

qult, kg/cm2 = 5.5 2.2 2.6

(tests)

Muhs qult, =10.8 12.2 24.2 33.0

(tests)

Terzaghi qkg/cm

ult = 9.4*

2 9.2 22.9 19.7 4.3* 6.5* 2.5 2.9*

Meyerho 8.2* 10.3 26.4 28.4 4.8 7.6 2.3 3.0

fHansen 7.2 9.8 23.7* 23.4 5.0 8.0 2.2* 3.1

Vesic 8.1 10.4* 25.1 24.7 5.1 8.2 2.3 3.2

Balla 14.0 15.3 35.8 33.0* 6.0 9.2 2.6 3.8

2. Values to nearest 0.1.

3. , c converted from given units to above values.

4. All values computed using computer program with subroutines

for each method. Values all use ps for L/B >1.

5. * = best Terzaghi = 4; Hansen = 2; Vesic and Balla = 1 each

Example # 26

• A square column foundation to be

constructed on a sandy soil to carry

a gross allowable total load of 150

kN. The depth of the foundation will

be 0.7 m. the load will be inclined

at an angle of 20o to the vertical

(Figure). The standard penetration

resistances NF , obtained from field

Depth(m) 1.5 3 4.5 6 7.5 9

exploration

NF are

3 6 9 10 10 8

•

• Assume that the unit weight of the

soil is 18kN/m3. Determine the

width of the foundation, B . Use Eq.

(3.17) and a factor of safety of 3.

20o

0.7 m

c = 0

= 30o

= 18 kN/m3

B

Example # 27

• The subsoil at a building site consists

of medium sand with = 18 kN/m3

, c = 0, = 32o and water

table at the ground surface. A 2.5

m square footing is to be placed at

1.5 m below ground surface.

Compute the safe bearing capacity

of the footing. What would be safe

bearing pressure if the water table

goes down to 3 m below G.L?

Solution:

• Since lies between local and

general shear failure conditions.

• Referring to Fig. 6.7, for =32o,Nq

= 28, Nq = 10, N = 30, N = 6

18( 32 − 28)

N q = 10 + = 20.3

35 − 28

24( 32 − 28)

Nγ = 6 + =19.7

35 − 28

• Case I (water table at ground level)

• Using Eq. (6.27) modified for square footing,

ultimate gross bearing capacity

• (qult )gross = Df Nq + 0.4 B N

• = 8.0 x 1.5 x 20.3 + 0.4 x 8.0 x2.5 x

19.7 = 243.6 + 157.6 = 401.2 kN/m2.

• and ultimate net bearing capacity,

• (qult )net = (qult )gross - Df

• = 401.2- 18 x 1.5 = 384.2

kN/m2

• Safe net bearing capacity,

• (qsafe )net = 384/2.5 = 152

kN/m2 (Fs = 2.5)

and gross bearing capacity,

• (qsafe )gross = 152 + 18 x 1.5

Case II (Water table at 3 m below

G.L., that is at a depth greater than

width of footing)

(qult )gross = 18 x 1.5 x 20.3 + 0.4(14 x 2.5)19.7

= 548.1 + 275.8 = 823.9 kN/m2

(qult )net = 823.9 – 18 x 1.5 = 796 .9

kN/m2

Safe net bearing capacity,

(qsafe )net = 796.9/2.5 = 319 320

kN/m2

and safe gross bearing capacity,

(qsafe )gross = 320 + 18 x 1.5 = 347

2

- Undrained and Drained Shear StrengthUploaded byetecham
- Bearing Capacity of Shallow FoundationUploaded byEngineer fozeb ali
- Problems on PilesUploaded byEngineer fozeb ali
- Calculation of Consolidation SettlementUploaded byaijcin
- Problem Solving in Soil MechanicsUploaded byRemmy Cornelius
- Principles and Practices of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering by v N S MurthyUploaded byBavleK
- BEARING CAPACITYUploaded byhact72
- 300-Solved-ProblemsUploaded byVenketaramani Tiruchirapalli
- Basics of Foundation Engineering With Solved ProblemsUploaded bymogesi
- Advanced Foundation Engineering (57011)Uploaded byAnonymous wByqieJ
- Problems on SettlementUploaded bySHAN NUHRIO
- 300 Solved Problems in Geotechnical EngineeringUploaded bymote34
- TEST PAPER OF GEOTECH1.docxUploaded byjhacademyhyd
- bearing capacity of soilUploaded byaminjoles
- Problems in Soil Mechanics and Foundation EngineeringUploaded byCharilyn Echeverre
- Calculate Bearing Capacity From Spt n ValueUploaded bysu1705
- Soil Mechanics Question and AnswersUploaded bysatydevsinghnegi
- Chapter 10 Slope StabilityUploaded byhare krishna
- Bearing Capacity of Shallow FoundationUploaded bySHAN NUHRIO
- Lecture10 Mat FoundationsUploaded byCao_Thanh_4708
- Ceng 3204 Lecture NoteUploaded byDanielKibretTeshome
- Design of Shallow FootingUploaded byDeepak Singh
- Foundation Engineering - VargheseUploaded bySurja Gain
- Solved Problems in Soil Mechanics 1Uploaded byDianne M. Depositario
- Raft Foundation Analysis and Design ExampleUploaded byEng Obadah Harastani
- Soil Mechanics & Foundation Engineering by K R Arora_6th EditionUploaded byShubham
- Foundation SettlementUploaded bynivarn
- Foundation SettlementUploaded bySHAN NUHRIO
- Foundation Analysis and Design 5th Edition Joseph E. BowlesUploaded byAizaz Shaikh

- Unit-6Uploaded byAbraham Chanko
- 3 Meteorology and Air QualityUploaded byBadar Rasheed
- AJSAT Vol.3 No.1 Jan June 2014pp.1 4Uploaded bySaRaN sv
- GeostreamerUploaded byJohn Murtagh
- MSDS CSL2Uploaded byRadeni Bo'i
- Principles of Size Reduction by CrushingUploaded byArifo Gunawan Cahyanegoro
- GETP -31 - Piping PresentationUploaded bynasiramzan
- Us 8409542Uploaded byulfah nur khikmah
- act_wp_synopsis_060211.pdfUploaded bywiwins
- Doc1 Water ActivityUploaded byArchana Ganesan Archana Ganesan
- FEL PrincipleUploaded byDavid Diering
- Cement and Its TypesUploaded bysujay85
- stars and galaxies unit 4 2 test reviewUploaded byapi-327567606
- Atom Practice TestUploaded byJohn Van Dave Taturo
- ASME 2153Uploaded byVarma Dantuluri
- 6f0be46eaaa3363dddc6d015f4ba4c50Uploaded byHiten Chudasama
- Effect of Coarse Aggregate Size on the Compressive Strength and the Flexural Strength of Concrete BeamUploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- Chapter 9 HomeworkUploaded byitsheartmoving
- Synthesis and Pharmacological Evaluation of Ring-Methylated Derivatives of 3,4-(Methylenedioxy)Amphetamine (MDA)Uploaded bygeovani2
- Bio RemediationUploaded byBenedict Paul
- Experiment 6Uploaded byLa Dolce Aisya Ain
- 10.1Chemistry.shipleyUploaded bylawla
- Moving normal ShockwaveUploaded byWaqas Shamraiz
- Using Time WaveformUploaded byfranksuai
- ETP Operation ManualUploaded byM112
- 6-SyrupsUploaded by鄭宇揚
- Tablas Referenciales Para Revestidores (Csg)Uploaded byginozky
- P kodoviUploaded bydelanlazarevski
- Allium Cepa ReferenceUploaded byAlfie16
- 2002 - Signaling Pathways Directing the Movement and Fusion of Epithelial Sheets - HardenUploaded byalexz0912