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Human Resource Development (HRD) is a framework for helping employees, develop there personal and organizational skills, knowledge and abilities. Human Resource Development includes such opportunities as employee training, employee carrier development, coaching, succession planning, key employee identification, tuition assistance and organizational development.
Role of Human Resource Development:
• Human Resource Development reinforce the executive Skills by marketing people aware about the skills required for job performance and by outlining performance standards. • It uploads career planning and ensure all around growth of employees. • It makes utilization of manpower by employing right man to right job at right time. • It is two ways process and establishes congenital growth of employees.
It is action oriented. Employee’s contributions are rewarded handsomely.
• It facilitates human resource planning and control by maintaining update data about the manpower for present and future use. • It fights resistance to changes and employees become accommodating and willing to accept the change.
• It brings about an atmosphere of mutual trust and confidence leading to overall better performance. • It maintains transparency in administration. • It encourages people to show innovation while solving problems and also take calculated risks.
Responsibilities of Human Resource Development:
Fairness in the workplace:
One important managerial responsibility is making sure that all managers and staff apply personnel policies on a day-to-day basis and distribute tasks and responsibilities fairly and equitably among employees. When developing an integrated human resource management system, you should review your organization's job classifications and related salary scales to ensure that salaries are appropriate to the level of responsibility and are competitive when compared with local economic conditions.
Setting Work Priorities:
You should also review your organization's personnel policies, update them as needed, and make the updated information available to all staff. One of the steps you can take in strengthening an HRD system is to make sure that all staff has a current and up-to-date job description that provides them with information about their general duties and responsibilities. The job description provides the supervisor with a starting place in developing a work plan with the employee.
Encouraging Good Performance:
An important element of a work planning and performance review system is holding joint
work planning and performance review meetings on a regular basis. This system allows both the supervisor and the employee to evaluate performance and to plan ahead for training or other career development activities, if needed. A work planning and performance review system can improve individual staff performance and increase staff motivation. If you use the system as the basis for creating a staff development plan, it will also help you align staff development efforts more closely with your organization's goals.
Providing Meaningful Work:
Communicating to employees that their work matters is an important element in an HRD strategy. Engaging in systematic planning and taking steps to make sure that people's day-to-day work directly supports the priorities of the organization is critical to meeting your organization's objectives. These objectives represent the strategic areas in which your organization has decided to focus in a given year, as identified during your organization's annual planning process.
Staff Development Responsibility :
Making staff development a priority is an importance component of a comprehensive HRD system. A well-managed program of training and staff development can broaden the skills and competencies of your staff and reap many pay-offs. Formal, organized training is only one vehicle for staff development. Other staff development strategies include: • On-the-job learning through mentoring relationships; • Cross-functional assignments; • Membership in task forces and committees;
• Additional job assignments; • Technical presentations and discussions at staff meetings. These can all provide the challenge and opportunity needed for personal and professional growth as well as increase the knowledge that people have in common and expose them to new ways of thinking and doing.
Functions of Human Resource Development:
• Develop a HR philosophy for the entire organization and get the top management committed to it openly and consistently. • Keep inspiring the line managers to have a consistent desire to learn and develop. • Constantly plan and design new methods and systems of developing and strengthening the HRD climate. • Be aware of the business/social/other goals of the organizations and direct all their HRD effort to achieve these goals. • Monitor effectively the implementation of various HRD subsystems. • Work with unions and associations and inspire them. • Conduct human process research, organizational health surveys and renewal exercise regularly. • Influence human resource policies by providing necessary inputs to the human resource development/top management.
IMPORTANCE OF HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT:
Human Resource is the most Important and vital Factor of Economic Development or it can be said that humans are the agents of development. Some of the importance of Human Resource or Human Capital is as follows: 1) Country Develops if The Human Resource is Developed: To enhance economic development the state constructs roads, buildings bridges, dams, power houses, hospitals, etc. to run these units doctors, engineers, scientist, teachers, are required. So if the state invests in a human resource it pays dividend in response.
2) Increase in Productivity: The batter education,
improved skills, and provision of healthy atmosphere will result in proper and most efficient use of resources (non-natural & natural) which will result in increase in economic production.
3) Eradication of Social and Economic Backwardness: Human Resource development has an ample
effect on the backwardness economy and society. The provision of education will increase literacy which will produce skilled Human Resource. Similarly provision of health facilities will result in healthy Human Resource which will contribute to the national economic development.
4) Entrepreneurship Increase: Education, clean
environment, good health, investment on the human resource, will all have its positive effects. Job opportunities would be created in the country. And even business environment will flourish in the state which creates many job opportunities.
5) Social Revolution: Because of Human Resource
development the socio economic life of the peoples of a country changes drastically. Over all look changes thinking phenomena changes, progressive thoughts are endorsed in to the minds of peoples.
Q.2) What are the various techniques of job design? What are the various methods of job evaluation (in brief)? Definition:
It is the process of deciding on the content of a job in terms of its duties, on the methods to be used in carrying out the job, in terms of techniques, systems and procedures and on the relation between the employees.
Techniques of job design are as follows:
(1)Job simplification: In the job simplification technique the job is simplified. A given job is divided into small sub-parts and each part is assigned to different individual. Work simplification is introduced when job designer feels that the job is not specialized.
Job Enlargement: Job enlargement is a horizontal expansion of job tasks; that is, the worker is assigned more tasks at the same general skill level. In a manufacturing setting, job enlargement might mean having a worker do several tasks at a work station rather than only one or two. In a bank, it might mean training a person to write home loans, car loans, and installment loans rather than only one of these.
It involves vertical expansion of a job’s responsibilities and skills. It may mean that a production worker is involved in the design of the product or production process, is responsible for her own quality testing, handles customer complaints, or deals directly with suppliers. For job enrichment to be of greatest value, at least some of the added tasks and responsibilities should involve greater use of the worker’s capabilities, including creativity, pattern recognition, interpersonal communication, and problem solving. Vertical expansion of the job necessitates greater training and empowerment of line workers. Job Rotation: Job rotation can be used to make work more interesting while exploiting the efficiencies of narrowly defined, repetitive jobs is to have employees work in teams and exchange jobs on a periodic basis. Within a department or production line there may be three, four, or more different jobs, each involving a different level of interest for the workers. If workers take turns and rotate among the jobs, no one is stuck with an extremely boring or physically demanding job all the time; the desirable and undesirable jobs are equally shared.
How often rotation occurs will vary from job to job and will be affected by learning rates, the time needed to switch jobs, and the relative desirability of the jobs. Autonomous or Self-Directed Team: A self – directed work team is a group of committed employees who are responsible for a ‘whole’ work process or segment that delivers a product or service to an internal or external customer.
High-Performance Work Design: It is a means of improving performance in an environment where positive and demanding goals are set. It starts from the principle of autonomous group working and develops an approach which enables groups to work effectively together in situations where the rate of innovation is high. Employees are needed to gain and apply new skills quickly with minimum supervision for operational flexibility.
Concept Job Evaluation is the process of analysis and assessment of jobs to ascertain reliably their relative worth, using the assessment as a basis for a balanced wage structure.
Job Evaluation is used to establish a wage structure which is acceptable to both Management and Labour by providing a relative value of every job in a plant or industry.
Job Evaluation may be defined as “an attempt to determine and compare demands which the normal performance of a particular job makes on normal workers without taking into account into the individual abilities or performance of the workers concerned. Objectives of Job Evaluation The major objectives of job evaluation are to help management achieve: 1. Equitability of wage structure within the firm, and 2. Consistency of the firm’s overall wage structure with that of the industry in which the firm operates. Job evaluation methods are of two categories – non analytical and analytical Non-Analytical Methods: - These methods make no use of detailed job factors. Each job is treated as a whole in determining its relative ranking. Ranking Method Job – Grading Method Analytical Methods: Point Ranking Method Factor Comparison Method
This is the simplest and the most inexpensive method of evaluation. The evaluation is done by assessing the worth of each job on the basis of its title or on its contents, if the latter is available. The job is not broken down into elements or factors. Each job is compared with others and its place is determined.
Drawbacks – Job evaluation may be subjective, as the jobs are not broken into factors. It is hard to measure whole jobs.
Job – Grading method:
This method does not call for a detailed or quantitative analysis of job factors. It is based on the job as a whole. Under this method the number of grades if first decided upon and the factors corresponding to these grades are then determined. Facts about jobs are collected and are matched with the grades, which have been established. The essential requirements of this method are to frame grade descriptions to cover discernible differences in degree of skill, responsibility and other job characteristics. Job grades are arranged in the order of their importance in the form of a schedule. The lowest grade may cover jobs requiring greater physical work under close supervision, but carrying little responsibility. Each succeeding grade reflects a higher level of skill and responsibility, with less and less supervision. More job classification schedules need to be prepared because the same schedule cannot be used for all types of jobs. Point Ranking Method: This system starts with the selection of job factors, construction of degrees for each factor, and assignment of points to each degree. Different factors are selected for different jobs, with accompanying differences in degrees and points. The range of grades and scores is also predetermined- for example, from 210 to 230 points, the 5th grade; 231 to 251 points the 6th grade and so forth. A given fob is placed on a particular grade, depending on the number of points it scores. Factor Comparison Method: Under this method one begins with the selection of factors usually five of them- mental requirements, skill requirements, physical exertion, responsibility and job conditions. These factors are assumed to be constant for all the jobs. Each factor is ranked individually with other jobs.
For example – all jobs may be compared first by the factor ‘mental requirements’. Then the skills factor, physical requirements, responsibility and working conditions are ranked. Thus a job may rank near the top in skills but low in physical requirements. The total point values are then assigned to each factor. The worth of a job is then obtained by adding together all the point values.
Q.6) Explain the process of training program? What are the methods of training?
Definition of training: According to Edwin Flippo, training is “the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job.” Training may be defined as “a planned programme designed to improve performance and to being about measurable changes in technical knowledge and skills of employees for doing a particular job.” METHODS OF TRAINING. Two methods of training. A) ON THE JOB TRAINING: This type of training is also known as job instruction training, is the most commonly used method. Under this method the individual is placed on a regular job and certain skills are taught that are necessary to perform that job. The trainee learns under the supervision and guidance of a qualified worker or instructor. On the job training has the advantage of giving first hand knowledge and experience under the actual working conditions. On the job training method include job rotation, coaching, job instruction or training through step-by-step and committee assignments.
a) Job rotation: Job rotation involves movement of trainee from
one job to another. The trainee receives job knowledge and gains experience from the supervisors or trainers in each of different job assignment. This method gives on opportunity to the trainee to understand the problems of employees on other jobs and respect them. b) Coaching: In coaching superior plays an active role in training the subordinate by assigning him challenging tasks. The superior acts as a coach in training the subordinate by assisting and advising him to complete the assigned task.. c) Job instruction: This method is known as training through step by step. Under “ “trainer explains trainee the way of doing job, job knowledge and skills and allows him to do the job. The trainer appraises the performance of the trainee, provides feedback information and corrects the trainee. The process or the steps under job instruction method are as follows Step1: Prepare the employee for instruction. Put him at ease. Explain the job and its importance. Get him interested in learning the job. Step 2: Present the job. Follow your breakdowns. Explain and demonstrate one step at a time – tell why and how? Stress key points. Instruct clearly and patiently. Give everything you will want back, but no more. Step 3: have him do the job. Have him tell why and how and stress key points. Correct errors and omissions as he makes them. Encourage him. Get back everything you gave him in the step 2. Continue until you know he knows. Step 4: Follow through. Put him on his own. Encourage questions. Check frequently. Let him know how he is doing. If the learner has not learnt, correct him and teach him repeatedly.
d) Committee assignment: Under committee assignment group of
trainers are given and asked to solve an actual organizational problems. The trainee solves the problem jointly. It develops teamwork.
B) OFF THE JOB TRAINING: Under this method of training, trainee is separated from the job situation and his attention is focused upon learning the material related to his future job performance. Since the trainee is not distracted by the job requirements, he can place his entire concentration on learning the job rather than spending his time in performing it. Off – field job training methods are as follows:
1) Classroom method: Classroom method for training personnel includes lectures, discussions, role-playing and case study.
a) Lectures: It is common method to impart facts,
concepts, principles etc to a large group at one time. The main advantage of lectures is that it can be used for a very large group at one time and there is low cost per trainee. b) Discussion: Combining lectures with discussion eliminate the limitation of one-way communication. In this method the trainees interact with the lecturer and any doubts or misunderstanding of the concept and principles are cleared. c) Case study: In this technique, an actual or hypothetical problem is presented to a training group for discussion and solution. It is important to note that the problem is presented in cases is usually do not have a single solution, but narrow mindedness of trainees is reduced as problem-solving ability is increased.
2) Vestibule training: In this method, actual work conditions are
simulated in the classroom. Material, files and equipments those are used in actual job performance are also used in training. This type of training is commonly used for training personnel for clerical and semi-skilled jobs. The duration of this training ranges from days to a few weeks.
3) Committee conference: Committees can be a method of
training. The junior members of the committee can learn from the discussion and interaction with the senior member of the committee. The senior member can also learn from the opinions and views expressed by the junior members. Committees can serve the purpose of developing good social relations. In the case of conference, group discussions and the meetings are held to discuss various issues and to provide solutions to various problems. The chairperson leads the discussion and then the participants attempt to provide solutions. The conferences act as a group interaction and exchange of views and idea. It reshapes thinking and attitudes of t6he participants.
4) Reading, television and video instructions: Planned reading of
relevant and current management literature is one of the best methods of management development. It is essentially a selfdevelopment programme. A manager may be aided by training department, which often provide a list of valuable books. Also there are television programme that are features towards management development. Videotapes are also available whereby important managerial discussions, debates and talks can be viewed and listened.
5) Role playing: It is defined as a method of human interaction
that involves realistic behavior in imaginary situations. this method of training involves actions, doing and practice. The participants play the role of certain characters, such as production manager, mechanical engineer, superintendents, maintenance engineers, quality control inspectors, foreman, workers and the like. This method is mostly used for developing interpersonal interactions and relations.
TRAINING TRAINING :-
Every company has a specific training procedure, depending upon its requirements. A general training procedure is explained below along with diagram
PROCESS/PROCEDURE OF TRAINING Determining training need of employee Select a target group for training Preparing trainers Developing training packages Presentation Performance Follow up
1. Determining training needs of employee :In the very 1st step of training procedure, the HR department, identifies the number of people requiring training, specific area in which they need training, the age group of employee, the level in organization etc. in some cases the employee may be totally new to the organization. Here the general introduction training is required. Some employees may have problems in specific areas; here the training must be specific. This entire information is collected by HR department. 2. Selecting target group :Based on information collected in step 1 the HR department divides employee into groups based on the following. Age group of the employee to be trained The area in which training is required Level of the employee in the organization The intensity of training etc. 3. Preparing trainers :Once the employees have been divided into groups, the HR department arranges for trainers. Trainers can be in house trainers or specialized trainers from outside. The trainers are given details by HR department, like number of people in the group, their age, their level in organization, the result desired at the end of training, the area of training, the number of days of training, the training budget, facilities available etc. 4. Preparing training packages :Based on the information provided by trainers, he prepares entire training schedule i.e. number of days, number of sessions for each day, topics to be handled each day, depth of which the subject should be covered, the methodology for each session, the tests to be given foe each session, handout/printed material to be given in each session etc. 5. Presentation :On the first day of training program the trainer introduces himself and specifies the need and objective of the program. This is done so that employees get the right idea about the objectives. He then actually starts the program. The performance of each employee is tracked by the trained and necessary feedback is provided. 6. Performance :At the end of training program the participants reports back to their office or branches. They prepare report on the entire training program
and what they have learned. They the start using whatever they have learnt during their training. Their progress and performance is constantly tracked and suitable incentives are given if the participant is able to use whatever he has learnt in training. 7. Follow up :Based on the employee performance, after training, the HR department is able to identify what is exactly wrong with training program and suitable correction is made in the training programme in the future.
Q.7)Difference between training and development? Explain any five methods of Management development program?
Difference between training and development:
Nature Training Tangible in nature. Training is more specific, job-related information. Training is important because technology is improving and changing. Training deals with non- human skills. Training is normally directed at operative employees and relates Development Intangible in nature. Development is more general in nature, especially at the top level management level. Development is important to adapt to new technology and changing patterns in organization. Development deals with human skills. It is directed at managerial personnel to acquire conceptual and
Skills Directed towards
Who imparts Relevance
to technical aspects. Greater emphasis on ON-JOB methods Training is less frequent; it is carried out mostly at induction and every succeeding stage of the job. Mostly the supervisors impart training Training is of more relevance at juniorlevels. Imparting is less expensive Training courses are designed mostly for short term.
human skills. Greater emphasis on OFF the Job methods. It is more frequent and continuous in nature.
Supervisors, external experts and self undertake development. Development is of higher relevance at middle and senior levels. Imparting development is more expensive. It involves a broader long-term education for a long run term.
Cost involved Duration
Methods of training managers
On the job training Job rotation Planned progression Coaching and counseling Under study Junior boards
off the job training Classroom method Simulation Business games Committees Conferences Readings In-basket training
ON THE JOB METHOD: -
On the job method refers to training given to personnel inside the company. There are different methods of on the job training. 1. Job rotation This method enables the company to train managerial personnel in departmental work. They are taught everything about the department. Starting from the lowest level job in the department to the highest level job. This helps when the person takes over as a manager and is required to check whether his juniors are doing the job properly or not. Every minute detail is studied. 2. Planned progression :In this method juniors are assigned a certain job of their senior in addition to their own job. The method allows the employee to slowly learn the job of his senior so that when he is promoted to his senior’s job it becomes very easy for him to adjust to the new situation. It also provides a chance to learn higher level jobs.
3. Coaching and counseling :-
Coaching refers to actually teaching a job to a junior. The senior person who is the coach actually teaches his junior regarding how the work must be handled and how decisions must be taken, the different techniques that can be used on the job, how to handle pressure. There is active participation from the senior. Counseling refers to advising the junior employee as and when he faces problems. The counselor superior plays an advisory role and does not actively teach employees. 4. Under study :In this method of training a junior is deputed to work under a senior. He takes orders from the senior, observes the senior, attends meetings with him, learns about decision making and handling of day to day problems. The method is used when the senior is on the verge of retirement and the job will be taken over by the junior.
5. Junior board :-
In this method a group of junior level managers are identified and they work together in a group called junior board. They function just like the board of directors. They identify certain problems; they study the problem and provide suggestions. This method improves team work and decision making ability. It gives an idea about the intensity of problem
faced by the company. Only promising and capable junior level managers are selected for this method. OFF THE JOB TRAINING METHOD: Off the job training refers to method of training given outside the company. The different methods adopted here are 1. Classroom method :The classroom method is used when a group of managers have to be trained in theoretical aspects. The training involves using lectures, audio visuals, case study, role play method, group discussions etc. The method is interactive and provides very good results. 2. Simulation :Simulation involves creating an atmosphere which is very similar to the original work environment. The method helps to train managers in handling stress, taking immediate decisions, handling pressure on the jobs etc. An actual feel of the real job environment is given here.
3. Business games :-
This method involves providing a market situation to the trainee manager and asking him to provide solutions. If there are many people to be trained they can be divided into groups and each group becomes a separate team and play against each other. 4. Committee :A committee refers to a group of people who are officially appointed to look into a problem and provide solutions. Trainee managers are put in the committee to identify and study a problem in the organization and to provide suggestions on how they will solve the problem and to explain what they learnt from it. 5. Conference :Conferences are conducted by various companies to have elaborate discussions on specific topics. The company which organizes the conference invites trainee managers from different companies and calls for experts in different fields to give presentations or lectures. The trainee managers can ask their doubts to these experts and understand how problems can be solved on the job. 6. Readings :This method involves encouraging the trainee manager to increase his reading related to his subject and then asking him to make a
presentation on what he has learnt. Information can be collected by trainee manager from books, magazines and internet etc. 7. In basket training :The method is adopted from the ‘IN’ and ‘OUT’ baskets normally found in the manager’s cabin. In this method the training is given to the manager to handle files coming in and to finish his work and take decisions within a specified time limit. The trainee manager is taught how to prioritize his work, the activities which are important for his job and how to take decisions within limited time.
Q.3)Explain the process of HR planning? Show flow chart?
Definition: According to Geisler, “Manpower planning is the process –Including forecasting, developing and controlling by which a firm ensures that it has• The right number of people, • The right kind of people, • At the right places, • At the right time, doing work for which they are economically most useful”.
Process of HR planning:
1) Analyzing organizational plans. 2) Demand forecasting – forecasting overall human resources
requirements in accordance with the organizational plans.
3) Supply forecasting – obtaining the data & information about
present & future human resource.
4) Estimating the net human resources requirements.
5) Incase surplus, plan for redeployment, retrenchment and lay-off. 6) Incase deficit, forecast future supply of human resources. 7) Plan for recruitment, development if supply is more than or equal
to net human resource requirements.
8) Plan to modify or adjust the organizational plan if supply will be
inadequate with reference to future net requirements.
Q.4)What is the difference between recruitment and selection? What is induction? Write down its objectives, procedure and methods?
Recruitment is the process of searching the candidates for employment and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization
Selection involves the series of steps by which the candidates are screened for choosing the most suitable persons for vacant posts.
The basic purpose of recruitments is to create a talent pool of candidates to enable the selection of best candidates for the organization, by attracting more and more employees to apply in the organization
The basic purpose of selection process is to choose the right candidate to fill the various positions in the organization.
Recruitment is a positive process i.e. encouraging more and more employees to apply
Selection is a negative process as it involves rejection of the unsuitable candidates Selection is concerned with selecting the most suitable candidate through various interviews and tests.
Recruitment is concerned with tapping the sources of human resources.
There is no contract of recruitment
established in recruitment.
Selection results in a contract of service between the employer and the selected employee.
Induction is the process of the receiving and welcoming an employee when he first joins a company and giving him the basic information he needs to settle down quickly and happily and start work. It also known as a ‘Orientation’ orientation is therefore, the process of indoctrination, welcoming, acclimatization, acculturalisation and socialization. Objectives of Induction: i. ii. To help the newcomer overcome his natural shyness and nervousness in meeting new people in a new environment. To build up the new employee’s confidence in the organization and in himself so that he may become an efficient employee. To develop among the newcomers a sense of belonging and loyalty to the organization. To foster a close and cordial relationship between the newcomers and the old employees and there supervisors. To ensure that the newcomers do not from false impression and negative attitude towards the organization or the job because first impression is the last impression. To give the newcomers necessary information such as location of cafeteria, toilets and locker rooms; rest period and leave rules, etc
iii. iv. v.
Q) Short notes on:
MEANING OF CAREER PLANNING (WHAT IS CAREER PLANNING?):Career planning is one important aspect of human resource planning and development. Every individual who joins an organization desires to make a good career for himself within the organization. He joins the organization with a desire to have a bright career in terms of status, compensation payment and future promotions. From the point of view of an organization, career planning and development have become crucial in management process. An organization has to provide facilities/opportunities for the career development of individual employees. If the organizations want to get the best out of their employees, they must plan regularly the career development programme in their organizations. In brief, career planning refers to the formal programme that organizations implement to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the human resources available. Career planning and development is the responsibility of the HR department of the organization. As already noted, every person joining an organization has a desire to make career as per his potentiality, ability, skills and so on.
NEED/PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES OF CAREER PLANNING:1) To map out careers of employees as per their ability and willingness and to train and develop them for higher positions. 2) To attract and retain the right type of persons in the organization. 3) To utilize available managerial talent within the organization fully. 4) To achieve higher productivity and organizational development. 5) To provide guidance and assistance to employees to develop their potentials to the highest level. 6) To improve employee morale and motivation by providing training and opportunities for promotion. SCOPE OF ORGANISATIONAL CAREER PLANNING:The following activities/areas are covered within the scope of organizational career planning: a) HUMAN RESOURCE FORECASTING AND PLANNING b) CAREER INFORMATION c) CAREER COUNSELLING d) CAREER PATHING e) SKILL ASSESSMENT TRAINING
Succession planning is the process or activities connected with the filling of key positions in the organization hierarchy as vacancies arise. Succession planning focuses on identification of future vacancies and locating the probable successor. For example in succession planning the key concern can be who will be next CEO or what will happen if the Marketing Manager retires in coming March. Grooming a person to fill an important position may take years. Succession planning involves identification of key positions in the company and then scouting for people who can effectively fill those positions at short notice. Importance of Succession Planning 1. Succession planning helps when there is a sudden need due to job hopping/death of serious injury to a key employee. 2. There is little or no set back due to absence of key employee. 3. Acts as a motivator for the individual employee who comes to know of the impending promotion in advance.
Labour turnover is the rate at which an employer gains and loses employees. Simple ways to describe it are "how long employees tend to stay" or "the rate of traffic through the revolving door. “Turnover is measured for individual companies and for their industry as a whole. If an employer is said to have a high turnover relative to its competitors, it means that employees of that company have a shorter average tenure than those of other companies in the same industry. High turnover can be harmful to a company's productivity if skilled workers are often leaving and the worker population contains a high percentage of novice workers High Labour Turnover causes problems for a business. It is costly, lowers productivity and morale and tends to get worse if not dealt with. Labour Turnover does not just create costs, but some level of Labour Turnover is important to bring new ideas, skills and enthusiasm to the labour force.
Fringe benefits may be defined as wide range of benefits and services that employees receive as an integral part of their total compensation package. They are based on critical job factors and performance. Fringe benefits constitute indirect compensation as they are usually extended as a condition of employment and not directly related to performance of concerned employee. Fringe benefits are supplements to regular wages received by the workers at a cost of employers. They include benefits such as paid vacation, pension, health and insurance plans, etc. Such benefits are computable in terms of money and the amount of benefit is generally not predetermined. The purpose of fringe benefits is to retain efficient and capable people in the organization over a long period. They foster loyalty and acts as a security base for the employees.
TYPES OF FRINGES/ FRINGE BENEFITS: (1) Payment for time not worked by the employee: • Holidays. • Vacations. • Leave with pay and allowances. (2) Contingent and deferred benefits: • Pension payment. • Group life insurance benefit. • Group health insurance. • Sick leave, maternity leave, child care leave, etc.
• Suggestion/service award • Severance pay. (3) Legally required payments: • Old age, disability and health insurance • Unemployment compensation • Worker's compensation. (4) Misc. benefits: • Travel allowances. • Company car and membership of clubs, etc • Moving expenses. • Child care facilities.
• Tool expenses and meal allowances, etc
Wages and Salary
Wages represent hourly rates of pay, and salary refers to the monthly rate of pay, irrespective of the number of hours put in by an employee. Wages and salaries are subject to annual to small increments. They differ from employee to employee, and depend upon the nature of job, seniority, and merit.
Wages are compensation. This includes basic wages, allowances, bonuses etc. On the employers’ points of view, wages form that part of cost of production which is attributed as compensation paid to labor. Wages are paid in the form of time rate or piece rate to the workers, who are directly involved in the production or commercial activities.
This is compensation paid to the indirect labor in the form of cash. Indirect labor involves supervisors, managers and supporting staff like office assistants, clerks, etc. Salaries are paid in the form of time rate, mostly on monthly basis. ♦ On the basis of the employee needs and ability of the organization, there are various kinds of wages. Wages are generally four types: ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Subsistence wages Minimum Wages Fair Wages Living Wages
Q.5) What is 360 degree appraisal and write down its advantages and disadvantages. Explain its assessment center?
360 systems involve evaluation of a manager by every one above him, alongside and below him. Structured questionnaires are used to collect responses about the manager from his boss. Peers and subordinates. Several parameters relating to performance and behavior are used in the questionnaire. Each manager is assessed by a minimum of fifteen colleagues, at least two of then being his bosses, four of them peer, and six of them subordinates. The responses are presented collectively to the assesses in the form of charts and graphs. Comments and interpretations are presented later. Counseling sessions are arranged to solve the weakness identified in the 360 degree assessment. Several corporations like general electronics, reliance industries, Crompton graves, Godrej soaps, Wipro, Infosys, Thermax etc. are making use this technique. The 360 degree assessment program is effective when used from the top down. The fact that the manager at the top has also been administered the test convinces everyone and they are willing to go through it as well?
Advantages of 360 degree appraisal: i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. Greater self awareness of the top management. It reveals strength and weaknesses in there managing style. The gap between self assessment and the views of one’s colleagues is reduced. When peer group assessment is included teamwork thrives. Facts about organizational culture and ambiance are brought to light. Empowerment is facilitated. Inflexible managers are forced to initiate self-change.
Disadvantages of 360 degree appraisal: i. ii. iii. iv. v. The system may be utilized to humiliate people. Responses from colleagues trends to be biased. Linking rewards to finding can prove to be unfair. Ignores performance in terms of reaching goals. Assesses may deny the truth of negative feedback.
• Assessment centre: Definition: It may be define as a central location where managers may come together to have their participation in job related exercises evaluated by trained observer.
Features of assessment center:
• Assessment center is now used for performance appraisal of executive and supervisor staff. It is a modern and reliable method for assessment of staff. • Here, managers have to participate in job related exercises and their performance is judged by trained observer. • Assessment center developed first in the US but are now gaining universal popularity.
• Companies in India also used this technique but also help to determine training and development needs of employees. • It provides data for human resource planning. • Assessment centers not only useful as an appraisal technique but also help to determine training and development needs of employee