“Fazer ou não fazer algo só depende de nossa vontade e perseverança.


Albert Einstein
MATERIAL DE APOIO DE INGLÊS INSTRUMENTAL
CURSOS: TECNOLOGIA EM REDES DE COMPUTADORES
Material organizado pelas professoras:
Adriana Soeiro Pino
Chafia Laszkiew
Silvana Vieira Elias Satyro
Verusca Praciano de Paula
Yara Marisol Contipelli
2008
1
APRESENTAÇÃO DO CURSO
O que é ingIês instrumentaI? Como surgiu?
"English for Specific Purposes¨ (E.S.P), que em português quer dizer: Ìnglês com Objetivos
Específicos, também chamado de ingIês instrumentaI ou técnico, ou seja, é a habilidade de entender
textos em língua inglesa usando estratégias específicas de leitura.
Surgiu com a necessidade de comunicação rápida e eficaz em vários contextos mundiais. Como
por exemplo: durante a guerra, os soldados precisavam aprender o idioma do inimigo para sobreviverem,
este vocabulário básico era visto no avião, navio, nos campos de batalha.
Com o passar do tempo, outros contextos sociais foram surgindo, como: a necessidade de leitura
de livros, revistas, catálogos, instruções operacionais, manuais escritos em inglês que precisavam ser
compreendidos pelos usuários, etc. Sendo assim, torna-se necessário uma abordagem específica da
língua Ìnglesa, que atenda as necessidades profissionais dos estudantes, que são leitura e compreensão
de livros.
E assim, o Ìnglês Ìnstrumental possui o objetivo de desenvolver a habilidade de leitura, isto é, de
compreensão de textos de diversas áreas do conhecimento escritos em língua inglesa, utilizando para
isso estratégias de leitura, a fim de tornar o aluno capaz de compreender um texto da sua área de
estudo.
Nesse enfoque, a leitura conta com o conhecimento prévio dos leitores. O inglês instrumental
consiste no "treinamento instrumental¨ dessa língua, em que as habilidades têm por objetivo extrair
conhecimentos para áreas específicas de estudo.
Vale lembrar que o inglês instrumental ou técnico pode ou não visar a comunicação oral em
inglês, entretanto, para os cursos de WEB e REDES sua principal habilidade a ser trebalhada será a
leitura e o estudo de gramática, restringindo-a a um mínimo necessário, ou seja, associando-a ao texto.

Método
Desenvolve a leitura ("reading") de forma limitada a um objetivo específico, através da habilidade
de manipular textos em língua inglesa, tentando assimilar a compreensão geral e inferir informações
específicas. A gramática é ensinada de forma contextualizada a um objetivo específico.
Tradução os textos
Para nosso curso não há tradução, porém outros métodos são utilizados como, por exemplo:
dedução, contexto semântico, reconhecimento de afixos, cognatos e vocabulário da área.

Como serão as auIas?
As aulas serão ministradas em português, pois no curso não serão trabalhadas as habilidades da
fala, de compreensão oral e de escrita.
Não haverá tradução literal, outras estratégias serão utilizadas como por exemplo, dedução,
cognatos, familiares, dicas tipográficas e outros.
Muitos exercícios de leitura e compreensão de textos, os quais vocês poderão aplicar as
estratégias de leitura que serão ensinadas.
O inglês instrumental poderá abrir seus horizontes de leitura e assim você se manterá mais informado e
próximo ao mundo globalizado
2
TESTE: COMO ESTÁ O SEU INGLÊS?
Leia atentamente o texto abaixo e assinale a opção correta para cada questão.
1 A computer is a programmable machine that stores and retrieves data and performs high-speed
logical and mathematical operations. However, it is not able to think. Ìt accepts data and instructions as
input, and after processing them, it outputs the results.
4 When we talk about computers, we have to consider the hardware and the software. The
hardware consists of all the electronic and mechanical parts that make up a computer system, and the
software is the collection of data and programs needed to solve problems with a computer.
QUESTÕES DE 1 A 11
1) O melhor título para o texto seria:
a) The history of Computers
b) What is a computer?
c) Hardware x Software
2) É uma idéia presente no texto:
a) o computador resolve problemas através do seu próprio raciocínio.
b) o hardware é mais importante para o computador do que o software.
c) o processamento de dados é composto de três etapas.
3) Do texto, podemos inferir que:
a) o computador se presta a diversas aplicações por causa da sua versatilidade.
b) o computador está se tornando cada dia menor e mais barato.
c) o computador é a invenção humana que mais evoluiu nas últimas décadas.
4) "(...) the software is the collection of data and programs needed to solve problems with a computer.¨ A
idéia contida na oração acima está associada a:
a) Ìt basically consists of the systems analysts, the programmers, the operators and the technical
managers.
b) Ìt is the collection of man-written solutions, as well as all documents to guide the operation of a
computer.
c) Ìt consists of several units: the CPU, the main memory, and the peripherals known as input and output
devices.
5) No trecho selecionado para a questão 4, a palavra "programs¨ pode ser entendida como:
a) canais
b) jogos
c) instruções
6) A pergunta que pode ser respondida com base nas informações contidas no texto é:
a) Quem inventou o computador?
b) O que significa software?
c) O que é um dispositivo de entrada?
7) A opção na qual a palavra computer exerce a função de modificador é:
a) computer (Ì. 1)
b) computers (Ì. 4)
c) computer (Ì. 5)
8) O melhor parágrafo para finalizar o texto seria:
a) Fourth-generation computers are rather faster than third-generation computers and can complete
thousands of instructions at a time.
b) On the backside of the computer, there are several slots into which we can connect a wide range of
peripherals.
c) Ìn only a short time, the computer has changed the way in which many jobs are done and has become
part of our everyday lives.
3
9) De acordo com o texto e com as informações abaixo faça a correspondência entre as palavras (à
esquerda) e as definições (à direita)
a) computer game ( ) The study and development of computer systems, hardware and software.
b) computer graphics ( ) All of the hardware and software that can interact with a particular computer.
c) computer science ( ) Charts, graphs, diagrams, or pictures produced with the aid of a computer.
d) computer security ( ) A computer program designed for amusement or instruction.
e)computer system ( )The process of protecting a computer system from access by virus or
unauthorized persons.
10) Os fatos abaixo estão relacionados com a história do computador. Numere-os de 1 a 5, partindo do
mais antigo para o mais recente.
( ) Ìn the 17
th
and 18
th
centuries, many ways of calculating were invented.
( ) The first analog computer was used in World War ÌÌ.
( ) The primitive calculating device was the fingers of a man's hands.
( ) Howard Aiken invented the first digital computer, called Mark 1.
( ) The first real calculating machine appeared in 1820.
11) Ìdentifique as partes componentes do computador abaixo:
Monitor ÷ Screen ÷ Keyboard ÷ Mouse ÷ CD-Rom Drive ÷ Disk Drive ÷ Scanner ÷ Printer ÷ CD-Rom - Floppy
Disk/Diskette
12) o!plete a "oluna de e#e!plos da tabela "o! as partes identifi"adas na figura$
Type Description ExampIe
Storage devices Provide permanent storage for data and programs. a) _________________________
Ìnput devices Enable data to go into the computer's memory.
b) _________________________
c) _________________________
Output devices
Enable users to extract information from the
system.
d) _________________________
e) _________________________
13) A oração que melhor resume as idéias contidas no texto, na figura e na tabela é:
a) Most computers are equipped with data communication facilities.
b) Computers are also used in education and business.
c) A computer is not only a machine but also a system.
%
ABILITIES AND OTHER FACILITATORS
Cognates: são palavras de origem grega ou latina bem parecidas com as do português.
Ex. different ÷ diferente, infection ÷ infecção.
Obs.: Atenção com os falsos cognatos. Ex. pretend não significa pretender, mas sim, fingir; é
importante observar se a palavra se encaixa no contexto.
Repeated words: se uma palavra aparece várias vezes no texto, isto significa que ela é importante para
a compreensão do mesmo.
TypographicaI Evidences: são símbolos, letras maiúsculas, negrito, itálico, etc., que dão dicas úteis
sobre o texto.
SeIectivity: leitura seletiva, isto é, selecionar os trechos onde se quer encontrar uma determinada
informação (parágrafos, por exemplo).
Dictionary: o di"ion&rio deve ser utilizado "o!o 'lti!o re"urso para se des"obrir o signifi"ado de u!a palavra ou
e#pressão des"on(e"ida. )sso para *ue a leitura não se+a lenta de!ais, e para *ue o leitor não desani!e tendo *ue
parar toda vez *ue en"ontrar algo des"on(e"ido.
ESTRATÉGIAS DE LEITURA
Skimming: leitura rápida para ter-se uma idéia central do texto.
Scanning: leitura com objetivo de encontrar algumas informações específicas no texto.
Prediction: significa inferir o conteúdo de um texto através de seu conhecimento prévio sobre o tema
(background); através do contexto semântico (palavras de um mesmo grupo, por exemplo: hospital,
nurse, doctor, ambulance); contexto lingüístico (pistas gramaticais); contexto não-lingüístico (gravuras,
gráficos, tabelas, números, etc.); conhecimento sobre estrutura do texto (lay out, título, subtítulo, divisão
de parágrafos, etc.).
Vale ressaltar a importância do conhecimento prévio do leitor e das suas expectativas e deduções em
relação ao texto.
COGNATOS
Muito comuns na Língua Ìnglesa, os cognatos são palavras de procedência grega ou latina, bastantes
parecidas com as da Língua Portuguesa, tanto na forma, como no significado.

Os cognatos podem ser:
• Idênticos:
Exs.: radio, piano, hospital, hotel, sofa, nuclear, social, total, particular, chance, camera, inventor, etc.
• Bastante parecidos:
Exs.: gasoline, banks, inflation, intelligent, population, revolution, commercial, attention, different,
products, secretary, billion, dramatic, deposits, distribution, automatic, television, public, events, models,
etc.
• Vagamente parecidos:
Exs.: electricity, responsible, explain, activity, impossible, lamp, company, etc.
-
PALAVRAS FAMILIARES (ESTRANGEIRISMOS)
Familiares são palavras conhecidas pela maioria das pessoas que vive em um país altamente
influenciado pela cultura dos países de Língua Ìnglesa. Não têm a mesma origem das palavras da Língua
Portuguesa.
AIguns exempIos de FamiIiares:
Software Windows Hot dog Diet
Fast food Video game Credit card Mouse
Delivery Dollar Marketing Light
Shows Moto/Office Boy Site Drive-thru
Hamburguer Play DVD / CD Record
COGNATOS
• Leia os segmentos abaixo e selecione todas as palavras que se pareçam com o Português e
aquelas que são usadas da mesma forma tanto na Língua Ìnglesa como na Língua Portuguesa.
a. Computers are electronic machines that process information. They can perform complex
operations in a fraction of time. But, they can´t think.
b. Computers are divided into two parts: hardware and software. Hardware refers to the actual
equipment and software refers to the programs that control and coordinate the activities of the computer.
c. The CPU is the part of a computer that executes the arithmetic and logic operations. Ìt controls all
the computer activities.
d. Memory is the storage area where a computer saves or retrieve data. Ìt is expressed as
quantities of K. For example, each K is equal to 1,024 bytes and each byte is equal to 8 bits.
e. A mouse is a device that has a ball underneath. Ìt is used to point the cursor at different parts of
the screen or at specials symbols called icons.
f. There are many different high-level languages. Each one has its advantage or disadvantage.
COBOL, BASÌC, FORTRAN, ALGOL and PASCAL are examples of high-level languages.
g. Data put into a computer is ÌNPUT. The input is processed according to the program that is being
used. The results of processing are called OUTPUT.
h. Film transparent de qualité supérieure. Faites de votre imprimante couleur HP Deskjet une
machine à fabriquer lãs transparents pour rétroprojecteur. (Hewlett Packard)
SKIMMING
• Leia os segmentos abaixo e utilizando os cognatos e famiIiares identifique o assunto abordado
em cada um deles:
1) One of the most impressive sights in Paris, this construction was built in the second half of the 19th
century as an ornament, presumably to show the possibilities of steel, and to allow Parisians to see their
own city from above. Now a major tourist attraction for visitors from all over the world and a site for TV
and radio transmissions. Ìt is linked in the world´s mind with the image of France and Paris.
- ____________________________________________.
.
2) Ìn computer science, a popular pointing input device, used mostly for playing computer games but used
for other tasks as well. Ìt usually has a square or rectangular plastic base to which is attached a vertical
stem. Control buttons are located on the base and sometimes on top of the stem. The stem can be moved
to control the movement of an object on the screen.
- ____________________________________________.
3) A computer peripheral that puts text or image on paper or on another medium, such as a transparency.
They can be categorized in any of several ways. The most common distinction is impact x, non impact.
Ìmpact physically strike the paper and are exemplified by dot-matrix; non impact include every other type
of print mechanism including laser, ink-jet and thermal.
- ____________________________________________.
4) Alcoholic drink produced originally in Scotland, Ìreland and USA, by fermenting certain cereal grains
and then distilling to produce a light-colored liquid containing about 40% alcohol. Ìt is drunk with or without
ice, soda or according to taste.
- ____________________________________________.
5) A common pointing device. Ìts basic features are a casing with a flat bottom, designed to be gripped by
one hand; one or more buttons on the top; a ball on the bottom; and a cable connecting it to the computer.
By moving it on a surface, the user typically controls a cursor. To select items or choose commands on
the screen, the user presses one of the buttons, producing a
"click¨._________________________________.
Scanning
• Complete the chart using the information from the texts below:
1. Czechoslovakia´s minister of Finance, 2. Last week Mexican poet and
Vaclav Klaus, an advocate of free-market essayist Octavio Paz, 76, was
economic reforms, has emerged as his awarded this year´s Nobel Prize
country´s fastest-rising politician. At a in Literature. A day after the
recent congress of the Civic Forum, the announcement, Paz met with
the coalition that toppled the Communist Newsweek´s Sarah Crichton in
regime, Klaus was elected chairman, over- New York.
whelming the candidate supported by
President Vaclav Havel. Last week in
Prague, Klaus, 49, talked with News-
Week´s Andrew Nagorski about the
Significance of his upset victory.
3. Chilean novelist Ìsabel Allende, 48, a 4. Jean-Luc Godard, 60, is widely
niece of the late President Salvador considered one of the world´s great
Allende, is one of the most celebrated film directors. A founder of the
authors writing in Spanish. While visiting French New Wave film movement,
Rome to promote the release of her latest along with François Truffaut and
book, "Stories of Eva Luna¨, she talked to Eric Rohmer, Godard has directed
Newsweek´s Anne Whaley. such modern classics as "Contempt¨
Starring Brigitte Bardot and others.
His latest film, "New Wave¨ features
Alain Delon. Recently, Godard spoke
with Newsweek´s Benjamin Ìury at
at his office in Rolle, Switzerland.
/
Name Age Nationality Occupation
Ìsabel Allende
76
Czech
Film Director

PREDICTION
• orrespond0n"ia
a) 1upon(a!os *ue vo"0 a"aba de re"eber u! "artão2postal de u! a!igo *ue est& via+ando. 3
"artão pegou "(uva e algu!as palavras desapare"era!. 4ente des"obrir *ue palavra foi apagada
e! "ada la"una atrav5s da previsibilidade forne"ida pelo "onte#to.
6uerido_________________________,
A viage! est& sendo __________________ .4en(o7777 divertido
bastante por a*ui. 8& !uitas ______________ para fazer durante
a noite$ v&rios bares, restaurantes, "ine!as e teatros e
_______________ variedade de s(o9s. A "idade 5
________________ bonita, "o! u!a geografia en"antadora.
3nte! __________o :ão de Aç'"ar "o! !eus pri!os. A subida
do bondin(o d& u! __________na barriga, !as vale a pena
ven"er o !edo. A _________ l& do alto do !orro 5 fant&sti"a;
Espero ________ tudo esteja bem aí com vocês. Volto
__________ uma semana. Um grande abraço e até a
________________
b) Como você descobriu as palavras que faltavam? ______________________________________
c) Apesar de o nome da cidade visitada pelo seu amigo não estar mencionada no cartão, ela pode
ser facilmente reconhecida. Que meios você utilizou para a dedução? _____________________
d) De que modo seu conhecimento de mundo pode ajudá-lo a fazer inferências? _______________
______________________________________________________________________
1- Quais os diferentes tipos de texto que você conhece?
______________________________________________________________________
2- Que estratégias você utiliza para deduzir o assunto de um texto nas seguintes situações:
<
a) Você encontra um grupo de amigos conversando e descobre que perdeu metade da conversa.
______________________________________________________________________
b) Você liga a televisão e ouve a notícia que lhe interessa pela metade.
______________________________________________________________________
c) Você chega atrasado ao cinema e perde os primeiros minutos do filme.
___________________________________________________________________
What is a browser, and what browsers are avaiIabIe?
A browser is a software program used to access and display pages and files on the web. Browsers
require a connection to the Ìnternet (e.g., through a cable modem, a direct Ethernet connection, or a
modem).
Popular web browsers include the following: Mozilla Firefox, Netscape, Ìnternet Explorer, and Safari
Mozilla Firefox, Ìnternet Explorer, Netscape, and Safari are graphical web browsers that can access text,
graphics, sound, and other media. These browsers offer a graphical user interface in which you use a
mouse to navigate. Firefox, Ìnternet Explorer, and Netscape are available for both Windows and
Macintosh computers; Safari is available only for Mac OS X.
Firefox is available to Ìndiana University users in all of the Student Technology Centers (STCs). Netscape
and Ìnternet Explorer are available in the Windows STCs; Safari is available in the Macintosh STCs. All
are available via ÌUware at: http://iuware.iu.edu/
1) O que é um Browser e para que é usado? (Resposta em português)
____________________________________________________________________________________
2) De acordo com o texto, quais são os Browsers mais populares? (Resposta em português)
____________________________________________________________________________________
3) O que estes browsers oferecem?
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
4) Para onde o Firefox está disponível? ___________________________________________________
5) Para onde o Safari está disponível? ____________________________________________________
6) Qual é o tipo de texto?_______________________________________________________________
7) Circule todas as palavras cognatas no texto.
8) Relacione todas as palavras familiares do texto e dê a tradução.
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
=
FALSOS COGNATOS
Também chamados de falsos amigos, os falsos cognatos são palavras normalmente derivadas
do latim, que têm portanto a mesma origem e que aparecem em diferentes idiomas com
ortografia semelhante, mas que ao longo dos tempos acabaram adquirindo significados
diferentes.
Abaixo está a tabeIa de faIsos cognatos.
EM INGLÊS
SIGNIFICA EM
PORTUGUÊS MAS PARECE SER QUE EM INGLÊS É
ACTUAL REAL ATUAL PRESENT
ACTUALLY NA VERDADE ATUALMENTE
NOWADAYS,
TODAY
ADVERTÌSE ANÚNCÌO ADVERTÌR WARN
ALUMNUS EX-ALUNO ALUNO PUPÌL
AMASS ACUMULAR AMASSAR
WRÌNKLE, DENT,
CRUSH
APPLÌCATÌON ÌNSCRÌÇÃO APLÌCAÇÃO ÌNVESTMENT
APPOÌNTMENT HORA MARCADA APONTAMENTO NOTE
ARGUMENT DÌSCUSSÃO ARGUMENTO REASONÌNG
ASSÌST AJUDAR ASSÌSTÌR ATTEND
ATTEND FREQUENTAR ATENDER ANSWER, SERVE
AUDÌENCE PLATÉÌA, PÚBLÌCO AUDÌÊNCÌA
COURT
APPEARENCE
AVAÌLABLE DÌSPONÍVEL AVALÌAR EVALUATE
BALCONY SACADA BALCÃO COUNTER
BARRACS QUARTEL BARRACA HUT, TENT
BATON BATUTA, CACETETE BATOM LÌPSTÌCK
BEEF CARNE DE GADO BÌFE STEAK
BOND LAÇO, LÌGAÇÃO BUNDE
STREERCAR,
TRAM
CAFETERÌA REFEÌTÓRÌO CAFETERÌA COFFEE SHOP
CAMERA MÁQ. FOTOGRÁFÌCA CÂMARA CHAMBER, TUBE
CARTON CAÌXA DE PAPELÃO CARTÃO CARD
CASUALTY FATALÌDADE CASUALÌDADE CASUALLNESS
CÌGAR CHARUTO CÌGARRO CÌGARETTE
COLLAR GOLA, COLARÌNHO COLAR NECKLACE
COLLEGE FACULDADE COLÉGÌO HÌGH SCHOOL
COMMODÌTY ARTÌGO, MERCADORÌA COMODÌDADE COMFORT
COMPASS BÚSSOLA COMPASSO
A PAÌR OF
COMPASSES
COMPETÌTÌON CONCORRÊNCÌA COMPETÌÇÃO CONTEST
COMPREHENSÌVE COMPLETO, TOTAL COMPREENSÌVO UNDERSTANDÌNG
CONDUCTOR COBRADOR CONDUTOR DRÌVER
CONTEST
COMPETÌÇÃO,
CONCURSO CONTEXTO CONTEXT
CONVENÌENT PRÁTÌCO CONVENÌENTE APPROPRÌATE
CONVÌCT CONDENADO CONVÌCTO CERTAÌN
COSTUME ROUPA, FANTASÌA COSTUME CUSTOM, HABÌT
DATA DADOS, ÌNFORMAÇÕES DATA DATE
DECEPTÌON LOGRO, FRAUDE DECEPÇÃO DÌSAPPOÌNTMENT
DECORATE DECORAR(ORNAMENTAR) DECORAR(SABER DE COR) MEMORÌZE
DEFENDANT RÉU DEFENDER DEFEND
DESÌGN
PROJETO, CRÌAÇÃO,
ESTÌLO DESÌGNAR APPOÌNT
1>
DÌSGUST NÁUSEA DESGOSTO GRÌEF
DÌVERT DESVÌAR DÌVERTÌR ENJOY
EDÌTOR REDATOR EDÌTOR PUBLÌSHER
EDUCATED ÌNSTRUÍDO EDUCADO POLÌTE
EMÌSSÌON DESCARGA EMÌSSÃO ÌSSUE
ENROLL ALÌSTAR-SE ENROLLAR WÌND, CURL
ESTATE PROPRÌEDADE, ÌMÓVEL ESTADO STATE
EXCÌTÌNG EMPOLGANTE EXCÌTANTE THRÌLLÌNG
EXÌT SAÍDA ÊXÌTO SUCCESS
EXPERT PERÌTO ESPERTO SMART
EXQUÌSÌTE APURADO ESQUÌSÌTO WEÌRD
FABRÌC TECÌDO FÁBRÌCA FACTORY
FAMÌLÌAR CONHECÌDO FAMÌLÌAR
MEMBER OF THE
FAMÌLY
FÌLE ARQUÌVO FÌLA LÌNE, QUEUE
GRÌP AGARRAR FÌRME GRÌPE COLD
ÌNCOME TAX
RETURN
DECLARAÇÃO DE
ÌMPOSTO DE RENDA
DEVOLUÇÃO DE ÌMPOSTO
DE RENDA
ÌNCOME TAX
REFUND
ÌNGENÌOUS CRÌATÌVO, ENGENHOSO ÌNGÊNUO NAÌVE
ÌNGENUÌTY ENGENHOSÌDADE ÌNGENUÌDADE NAÌVETY
ÌNJURY FERÌMENTO ÌNJÚRÌA ÌNSULT
ÌNJURY FERÌMENTO ÌNJURÌA ÌNSULT
ÌNSCRÌPTÌON RAVAÇÃO EM RELEVO ÌNSCRÌÇÃO APPLÌCATÌON
ÌNTEND PRETENDER ENTENDER UNDERSTAND
ÌNTOXÌCATÌON EMBRÌAGUEZ ÌNTOXÌCAÇÃO POÌSONÌNG
ÌNTRODUCE APRESENTAR ÌNTRODUZÌR ÌNSERT
JOURNAL PERÌÓDÌCO JORNAL NEWSPAPER
JUST
NUM DADO MOMENTO,
APENAS
JUSTO(APERTADO - DE
JUSTÌÇA) TÌGHT - FAÌR
LAMP LUMÌNÁRÌA LÂMPADA LÌGHT BULB
LARGE GRANDE LARGO WÌDE
LECTURE PALESTRA LEÌTURA READÌNG
LEGEND LENDA LEGENDA SUBTÌTLE
LÌBRARY BÌBLÌOTECA LÌVRARÌA BOOKSTORE
LUNCH ALMOÇO LANCHE SNACK
LUXURY LUXO LUXÚRÌA LUST
MAGAZÌNE REVÌSTA MAGAZÌNE
DEPARTMENT
STORE
MANAGE
ADMÌNÌSTRAR,
CONSEGUÌR MANEJAR HANDLE
MAYOR PREFEÌTO MAÌOR BÌGGER
MOÌSTURE UMÌDADE MÌSTURE MÌXTURE
MOROSE RABUGENTO MOROSO SLOW
NOTÌCE PERCEBER NOTÍCÌA NEWS
NOVEL ROMANCE NOVELA SOAP OPERA
OFFÌCE ESCRÌTÓRÌO OFÌCÌAL OFFÌCÌAL
ORDÌNARY COMUM ORDÌNÁRÌO VULGAR
ORE MÌNÉRÌO OURO GOLD
PARENTS PAÌS PARENTES RELATÌVES
PARTÌCULAR ESPECÍFÌCO PARTÌCULAR PRÌVATE
PASTA MASSA PASTA FOLDER, PASTE
PHYSÌCÌAN MÉDÌCO FÍSÌCO PHYSÌCAL
POLÌCY POLÍTÌCA, NORMA POLÍCÌA POLÌCE
PORT PORTO PORTA DOOR
PORTER CARREGADOR PORTEÌRO DOORMAN
PREJUDÌCE PRECONCEÌTO PREJUÍZO DAMAGE
PRESCRÌBE RECEÌTAR PRESCREVER EXPÌRE
PRESENTLY LOGO, EM BREVE PRESENTEMENTE NOW
PRETEND FÌNGÌR PRETENDER ÌNTEND
11
PREVENT ÌMPEDÌR PREVENÌR WARN
PROCURE CONSEGUÌR, ADQUÌRÌR PROCURAR LOOK FOR
PROFESSOR
PROFESSOR DE
UNÌVERSÌDADE PROFESSOR TEACHER
PROPAGANDA DÌVULGAÇÃODE ÌDÉÌAS PROPAGANDA ADVERTÌSEMENT
PROPER
APROPRÌADO,
ADEQUADO PRÓPRÌO OWN
PULL PUXAR PULAR JUMP
PUSH EMPURRAR PUXAR PULL
RANGE VARÌAR, COBRÌR RANGER
CREAK, GUARDA
FLORESTAL
REALÌZE PERCEBER REALÌZAR ACCOMPLÌSH
RECLAÌM RECUPERAR RECLAMAR COMPLAÌN
RECORD GRAVAR, DÌSCO RECORDAR
REMEMBER,
RECALL
REPORT RELATÓRÌO REPÓRTER REPORTER
REQUÌREMENT REQUÌSÌTO REQUERÌMENTO
REQUEST,
PETÌTÌON
RESPÌTE ÌNTERVALO, PAUSA RESPEÌTO RESPECT
RESUME RECOMEÇAR RESUMÌR SUMMARÌZE
RÉSUMÉ CURRÍCULO RESUMO SUMMARY
RETÌRE APOSENTAR RETÌRAR WÌTHDRAW
SCHOLAR ERUDÌTO, LETRADO ESCOLAR SCHOOLBOY
SENSÌBLE SENSATO SENSÌVEL SENSÌTÌVE
SORT ESPÉCÌE, ESCOLHER SORTE LUCK
STABLE FÌRME, ESTÁVEL ESTÁBULO BARN
STRANGER DESCONHECÌDO ESTRANGEÌRO FOREÌGNER
STUPÌD BURRO ESTÚPÌDO RUDE
SUPPORT SUSTENTAR, APOÌAR SUPORTAR
BEAR, STAND,
TOLERATE
SYMPATHETÌC
COMPREENSÌVO,
SOLÌDÁRÌO SÌMPÁTÌCO
NÌCE, PLEASANT,
FRÌENDLY
TAX ÌMPOSTO TAXA FEE
TEMPER TEMPERAMENTO, GÊNÌO TEMPERO CONDÌMENT
TENANT ÌNQUÌLÌNO TENENTE LÌEUTENANT
TENTATÌVE PROVÌSÓRÌO TENTATÌVA ATTEMPT, TRY
TURN VEZ, VOLTA TURNO SHÌFT
TUTOR
PROFESSOR
PARTÌCULAR TUTOR GUARDÌAN
UNÌQUE DÌFERENTE, SEM ÌGUAL ÚNÌCO THE ONLY ONE
USE UTÌLÌZAR, USAR USAR (VESTÌR) WEAR
VEGETABLES VERDURAS, LEGUMES VEGETAÌS PLANTS
VÌNE VÌNHA, VÌDEÌRA VÌNHO WÌNE
VOYAGE
VÌAGEM DE BARCO, NAVE
ESPACÌAL VÌAGEM
JOURNEY, TRÌP,
TRAVEL
 Exercite no texto abaixo alguns falsos cognatos:
A DAY AT WORK
Ìn the morning Ì attended a meeting between management and union representatives. The
discussion was very comprehensive, covering topics like working hours, days off, retirement
age, etc. Both sides were interested in an agreement and ready to compromise. The secretary
recorded everything in the notes. EventuaIIy, they decided to set a new meeting to sign the
final draft of the agreement.
12
Back at the office, a colleague of mine asked me if Ì had reaIized that the proposed agreement
would be partially against the company poIicy not to accept workers that have already retired. Ì
pretended to be really busy and late for an appointment, and left for the cafeteria. ActuaIIy, Ì
didn't want to discuss the matter at that particuIar moment because there were some
strangers in the office.
After Iunch Ì attended a Iecture given by the mayor, who is an expert in tax legislation and
has a graduate degree in political science. He said his government intends to assist welfare
programs and senior citizens, raise funds to improve coIIege education and build a public
Iibrary, and establish tougher limits on vehicle emissions because he assumes this is what the
people expect from the government.
• Escreva o verdadeiro significado das palavras em destaque:
___________________ ___________________ _________________
___________________ ___________________ _________________
___________________ ___________________ _________________
___________________ ___________________ _________________
___________________ ___________________ _________________
___________________ ___________________ _________________
___________________ ___________________ _________________
___________________ ___________________ _________________
___________________ ___________________ _________________
Texto e lista extraídos do site www.sk.com.br , autor Ricardo Schütz, 1999
USO DO DICIONÁRIO
O dicionário é uma font d muito! ti"o! d informa#$! !o%r "a&a'ra!(
)*a o +m"&o a%ai+o:
COMPUTER:
(KAM'PJULTER). An electronic machine that can be supplied with a program.
Você pode notar que podemos encontrar:
- A representação fonética das palavras
- Abreviaturas
- Significado das palavras
- Classe gramatical das palavras
Veja o exemplo seguinte e responda:
1. Qual é a representação fonética da palavra "Iook¨?
2. Quantos significados ela pode ter como substantivo? E como verbo?
3. Qual é a primeira expressão mencionada?
4. Qual é o significado de "to Iook for?
Adaptado do di"ion&rio )ngl0s?:ortugu0s @i"(aellis
)r%o!
Quando você procura um verbo no dicionário geralmente encontra a base do verbo, por exemplo: look,
work, teach. Mas, quando lemos textos encontramos os verbos sob diferentes formas: looking, worked,
teaches. Quando o verbo é irregular encontramos a seguinte explicação no dicionário: Fell/fel/ v. passado
de fall. Assim, terá que procurar o verbo na sua forma base (fall), para encontrar a definição da palavra.
Observe os seguintes exemplos em Português e Ìnglês. Quais as semelhanças na forma de utilização
das palavras no Português e no Ìnglês?
1. Ele apagou as veIas.
2. Tenho que limpar as veIas do carro.
13
AooB CluB) s. 1. 3l(ar !., ol(adela f. 2. E#pressão f. aspe"to !?? v. 1 3l(ar 2.
onte!plar, observar. 3. ?"onsiderar. %. :restar atenção. -. 4er vista para. .. :are"er. /.
)nspe"ionar, e#a!inar
8ave a D at )t d0 u!a ol(ada nisto. )t Ds liBe rain est& "o! aspe"to de "(uva, a!eaça
"(over. D out se+a "uidadoso. 4o D after 1. :ro"urar 2. uidar de. 4o D do9n upon
3. O marinheiro levantou as veIas do barco.
4. Eu não vou ao cinema com eles porque detesto segurar veIa.
É claro que o contexto é sempre importante para a compreensão das palavras que têm vários
significados diferentes. Em Ìnglês também o contexto é muito importante para a interpretação adequada
dos vocábulos.
1. The waiter fills their gIasses with champagne.
2. She went to the optician for a new pair of gIasses.
3. This window is made of gIass.
4. Ì Iike computers.
5. OS2 operating system is Iike Ms DOS
Você precisa ter em mente que na leitura de textos técnicos você encontrará várias palavras em inglês
que talvez já façam parte de seu vocabulário, mas que nesse contexto irão adquirir novos significados.
Qual é a tradução mais adequada para os vocábulos em negrito?
1. Ì will substitute my computer by a notebook.
2. Ì need a new notebook for my English classes
3. Ì need the key to open the door.
4. To enter the program, press any key.
5. Ì have to save money to by a new car.
6. Don't forget to save the file before turning off the computer.
(Atividade adaptada da apostila elaborada pelas professoras Márcia C. Bonamim e Magali N. de Paula)
Abreviaturas mais comuns encontradas nos dicionários
f. feminino
m. masculino
m. pl = masculino plural
p.p. = particípio passado
pl = plural
pop. = popular
pref. = prefixo
prep. = preposição
pret. = pretérito
pron. = pronome
s. substantivo
s.pl = plural
sg. = singular
sup. = superlativo
v. = verbo
var. = variante de
SímboIos Comuns:
¶ separação da categoria morfológica
~ substitui a palavra de entrada (ou seja, a palavra que se está consultando)
SímboIos fonéticos: Formas de pronúncia
Vogais / Ditongos / Semivogais / Consoantes
Sinal ' que significa acentuação
Sinal : que significa prolongação
E34A$ 3bservar se!pre a organização do di"ion&rio Cguia fon5ti"o)
1%
DOUBLE SENSE WORDS
É comum a todas as línguas a ocorrência de palavras com significado ou função gramatical múltiplos.
Freqüentemente este múltiplo sentido em um idioma não tem correspondente em outro. Quer dizer: os
termos nem sempre cobrem as mesmas áreas de significado entre diferentes idiomas. Este fenômeno,
também chamado de polissemia, ocorre com qualquer idioma; assim como o português, o inglês também
tem inúmeras palavras de múltiplo significado. É, entretanto a ocorrência do fenômeno na língua mãe do
aluno que causa maior dificuldade. Partir do geral para o particular é sempre mais difícil do que o inverso.
Portanto, sempre que diferentes idéias representadas pela mesma palavra na língua mãe do aluno
corresponderem a diferentes palavras na segunda língua, o mesmo terá dificuldades em expressar-se
corretamente. As diferentes palavras do inglês que correspondem aos diferentes significados da palavra
do português podem eventualmente funcionar como sinônimos, portanto neutralizando o contraste entre
os dois idiomas. O objetivo, entretanto, é mostrar os contrastes nas ocorrências mais usuais do
vocabulário inglês moderno.
Inglês Primeiro significado
Segundo
significado
Abstract Abstrato Resumo
Affiliate Filiar-se
Determinar
Paternidade
Affluent Afluente Rico
Ambulant
Paciente de
Ambulatório
Capaz de Caminhar
Apology Apologia Desculpas
Application Aplicação Reuerimento
Apply Aplicar !nscre"er-se
Argument Argumento Discussão
Arm Arma #raço
#achelor #acharel $olteiro
#alance #alança %uil&brio
#all #ola #aile' #ala (pro)*til+
#ar #ar #arra
#at #astão de beisebol ,orcego
Cancel Cancelar Carimbar
Capital Capital ,ai-scula
Case Caso %sto)o
Cell C*lula Cela
Character Car.ter
Personagem'
caractere
China China Porcelana
Class Classe Aula
Classified Classificado Confidencial
Club Clube /aco de golfe
Coll Fresco 0egal
1-
Collect Colecionar Cobrar' coletar
Compass Compasso #-ssola
Confirmed Confirmado !n"eterado
Consistent Consistente Compat&"el
Content Contente Conte-do
Date Date /1mara' %ncontro
Directory Diretoria 0ista telef2nica
%asy F.cil %m Paz 3 Confort."el
%ffecti"e %feti"o 4erdadeiro
%ntertain %ntreter Receber "isitas
Faculty Faculdade (mental+ Corpo Docente
Figure Figura 5-mero
Fi6 Fi6ar Consertar
7eneral 7eneral 7eral
!ndi"idual !ndi"idual !ndi"&duo
!nterest !nteresse 8uros
8ust 8usto Apenas
0egend 0egenda 0enda
0etter 0etra Carta
,atch 0igar (Relacionar+ Partida (8ogo+
,a)or ,a)or Principal
,anifest ,anifesto 9b"io
,ar: ,arca 5ota
,ass ,assa ,issa
,atter ,at*ria Assunto
,edicine ,edicina Rem*dio
,o"e ,o"er ,udar
;bser"e ;bser"ar Celebrar
;fficial ;ficial Autoridade
;il 9leo Petróleo
;perator ;perador /elefonista
;rder ;rdem Pedido
Par: Parue %stacionar
Period Per&odo ,enstruação
Plant Planta F.brica
Principal Principal Diretor da escola
Pupil Pupila Aluno
Race Raça Corrida
Rare Raro ,al passado (carne+
Record Recorde 7ra"ar
Rest Resto Descansar
Retire Retirar Aposentar
Roll Rolo 0ista
$a"e $al"ar %conomizar
$cale %scala #alança
$euel $euela $euencia
1.
$pectacles %spet.culos 9culos
$pirits %sp&ritos #ebida alcóolica
$tory %stória Pa"imento' andar
$ub)ect $u)eito Assunto
/o Play 8ogar3 #rincar /ocar 3 !mitar
/ur:ey /uruia Peru
4ice 4ice 4&cio
EXERCÍCIOS
A) Assinale o significado correto das palavras em destaque nas sentenças:
1) Ì need to canceI your documents.
( ) cancelar ( ) carimbar
2) She is the principaI of the school.
( ) diretora ( ) principal
3) His mark was terrible.
( ) marca ( ) nota
4) The operator (a) gave me the wrong number of the pIant (b).
a- ( ) operador ( ) telefonista
b- ( ) planta ( ) fábrica
5) We are lost. We need a compass now.
( ) bússola ( ) compasso
6) He is the most famous bacheIor of the party.
( ) bacharel ( ) solteirão
7) Do you know the capitaI (a) of China (b)?
a- ( ) capital ( ) principal
b- ( ) porcelana ( ) China
8) Brasilia is the capitaI of Brazil.
( ) capital ( ) maiúscula
9) Ì use capitaI letter to write my name.
( ) capital ( )maiúscula
10) Ì appreciate Chinese china.
( ) porcelana ( ) China
11) John coIIects caps.
( ) coleciona ( ) cobrou
B) Dê os respectivos significados das palavras repetidas em cada segmento:
1) a) Mike is not married. He is a bacheIor.
b) He finished the college last year. Now, he is a bacheIor in Biology.
2) We have a directory in order to look for the telephone numbers of the students. This directory is in the
directory of the school.
3) The character of this film has a bad character.
%) Fou (ave to 9rite t(e na!es of t(e ca"ita&! 9it( ca"ita& letters.
1/
MOUSE MEMORIES
Ìn 1968 Douglas Engelbart demo'ed a strange device called a mouse. Last week 1.500 people gathered
at Stanford University to honor him. Speakers stressed that Engelbart's contributions went beyond the
mouse.
His Stanford computer was the second one to hook up to ARPAnet, the Ìnternet's predecessor, and he
developed the first use of multiple "windows¨. More important, Engelbart strove to enhance human
intelligence, thus improving our ability to solve problems.
We'll click to that.
(Newsweek, December 28, 1998)
(SCANNING) Responda as questões abaixo:
1) O que aconteceu:
a) em 1968?
______________________________________________________________________________
b) durante a semana anterior a 28 de dezembro de 1998?
______________________________________________________________________________
2) Na frase: "We'll cIick to that¨, o termo em destaque passa a idéia de:
a) discordar
b) aprovar
c) rejeitar
d) aplaudir
3) Verdadeiro ou Falso:
Segundo os oradores, o trabalho de Engelbart restringiu-se à criação do mouse. (cite a linha do texto em
que se encontra essa informação)
______________________________________________________________________
4) De onde foi retirado o texto lido?
a) de um jornal
b) da internet
c) de um livro
d) de uma revista
5) Faça, em português, um breve resumo sobre o texto.
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
A HISTORY OF THE COMPUTER: NETWORK
1<
Timesharing, the concept of linking a large numbers of users to a single computer via remote terminals, is
developed at MÌT in the late 50s and early 60s.
1962: Paul Baran of RAND develops the idea of distributed, packet-switching networks.
ARPANET goes online in 1969.
Bob Kahn and Vint Cerf develop the basic ideas of the Ìnternet in 1973.
Ìn 1974 BBN opens the first public packet-switched network - Telenet.
A UUCP link between the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Duke University establishes
USENET in 1979. The first MUD is also developed in 1979, at the University of Essex.
TCP/ÌP (Transmission Control Protocol and Ìnternet Protocol) is established as the standard for
ARPANET in 1982.
1987: the number of network hosts breaks 10,000.
1989: the number of hosts breaks 100,000.
Tim Berners-Lee develops the World Wide Web. CERN releases the first Web server in 1991.
1992: the number of hosts breaks 1,000,000.
The World Wide Web sports a growth rate of 341,634% in service traffic in its third year, 1993.
The main U.S. Ìnternet backbone traffic begins routing through commercial providers as NSFNET reverts
to a research network in 1994.
The Ìnternet 1996 World Exposition is the first World's Fair to be held on the internet.
1) Quando a ARPANET foi ao ar? ________________________________________________________
2) O que fizeram Bob Kahn and Vint Cerf? _________________________________________________
3) Escreva um parágrafo informando o assunto tratado no texto.
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
4) O que é TCP/ÌP em inglês? (traduza para o português)
5) Qual é o significado do termo World Wide Web?
CONECTORES
1. ADIÇÃO:
- and : e
- in addition, furthermore, besides, moreover: além disso
- as well as: assim como
- also: também
- apart from: com exceção de
- both....and: ambos; tanto como
- not only ... but also: não apenas...mas também
2. CONTRASTE/CONCESSÃO/ADVERSATIVA:
- but: mas
- however, neverthless: entretanto
- yet: entretanto, ainda
- although, even though, though: embora
1=
- nonetheless, notwithstanding: não obstante
- despite that, in spite of: apesar de
- rather than, instead of: em vez de
- whereas: enquanto
3. PROPÓSITO: - in order to: a fim de
- so as to: de modo que
4. CONSEQUÊNCIA/CONCLUSÃO:
- therefore: portanto
- consequently, as a result: consequentemente
- accordingly: de acordo, adequadamente
- hence: pois, então, daí
- thus: assim
- thereby: assim, desse modo
- then: então
- so: então, pois
- finally: finalmente
5. ALTERNATIVA - otherwise: por outro lado
- or: ou
- or else: ou então, ou ainda
- either ... or: ou... ou
- while, whereas: enquanto
6. REITERAÇÃO:
- that is: isto é
- in other words: em outras palavras
- in short, in brief: em resumo
- i.e. : (do latim) isto é
- that is to say: quer dizer
7. COMPARAÇÃO:
- like, as: como
- than: do que
8. ILUSTRAÇÃO:
- e.g. : (do latim) por exemplo
- for instance, for example: por exemplo
- such as: tal como
- namely: a saber
- viz: (do latim) quer dizer
9. CONDIÇÃO:
- if: se
- unless: se não, a menos que
- provided that: uma vez que
- on condition that: desde que
- as long as: uma vez que
- subject to: sujeito a
- wether: se
10. CAUSA:
- because: porque
- due to: devido a
- as: porque
- since: uma vez que
11. DÚVIDA OU HIPÓTESE: - perhaps, maybe: talvez
- possibly: possivelmente
2>
12. TE,POR-.$ 2 9(en$ *uando 9(ile$ en*uanto
/RUPOS NO,IN-IS
São grupos de palavras, compostos por duas ou mais palavras que estão relacionadas entre si, sendo
que uma é a palavra principal; o substantivo (núcleo), e as outras são os modificadores; palavras que
caracterizam o substantivo.
Exs.: Electric Energy = Energia Elétrica
Private Investors = Investidores Privados
State Government = Governo Estadual
Observe que nos grupos nominais em Ìnglês a palavra principal, ou seja, o substantivo (núcleo) é
sempre a última palavra do grupo, ao passo que em português nós começamos o grupo com ela. Assim,
temos:
United Kingdom Parliamentary Vote
Reino Unido Voto Parlamentar
Os grupos nominais podem ter mais de um modificador:
Red Cross EmbIem = EmbIema da Cruz Vermelha
Várias siglas são iniciais de Grupo Nominais:
VÌP = Very Ìmportant Person = ________________________________________________
WTC = World Trade Center = _________________________________________________
WHO = World Health Organization = ___________________________________________
NASA = National Air and Space Administration = _________________________________
USAF = United States Air Force = ______________________________________________
USA = United States of America________________________________________________
FBÌ = Federal Bureau of Ìnvestigation_______________________________________________
Outros Exemplos:
• Confirma-se então que a ordem dos grupos nominais em Ìnglês é ÌNVERSA à ordem em
Português:
21
@odern "o!puter G o!putador !oderno
entral pro"essor G :ro"essador "entral
Aaser printer G )!pressora H laser
:ersonal "o!puter G o!putador pessoal
)n"redible !"d G velo"idade in"rIvel
Cn'"leo)
8ard di!0 G dis"o rIgido
Cn'"leo)
)nput d'ic! G dispositivos de entrada
Jata Proc!!in1 G Proc!!amnto de dados
entral :ro"essing Unit G Unidad entral de :ro"essa!ento
Arit(!eti" and Aogi" O"ration! G O"ra#$! lógi"as e arit!5ti"as
O"ra#$! arit!5ti"as e lógi"as
Ele"troni" mac2in G ,á3uina eletrKni"a
Pense nas seguintes estruturas: Como elas seriam traduzidas para o Português?
Exercícios
1) QuaI o significado das sigIas e as suas respectivas traduções:
a. ÌMF (Ìnternational Monetary Fund): ______________________________________
b. NATO (North-Atlantic Treat Organization): _________________________________
c. EEC (European Economic Community): ____________________________________
d. UNO (United Nations Organization): ______________________________________
e. USA (United States of America):
__________________________________________
f. CPU (______________________________________________________________):
________________________________________________________________
g.RAM(________________________________________________________________
____):_________________________________________________________________
h.ROM(_______________________________________________________________
_____):________________________________________________________________
i. CD (________________________________________________________________):
______________________________________________________________________
j.ALU(_________________________________________________________________
___):__________________________________________________________________
k. ALGOL (____________________________________________________________):
______________________________________________________________________
l.BASÌC(_______________________________________________________________
_____)
m.COBOL(_____________________________________________________________
________)_____________________________________________________________
n. CRT (______________________________________________________________):
_____________________________________________________________________
o. DDD (______________________________________________________________):
______________________________________________________________________
p. DOS (______________________________________________________________):
______________________________________________________________________
22
ar ra"e G 777777777777777777777777
La"e "ar G 777777777777777777777777
q. ÌBM (______________________________________________________________):
______________________________________________________________________
r.Ì/ODevices(___________________________________________________________
_________):____________________________________________________________
s. MVS (______________________________________________________________):
______________________________________________________________________
t. PC (________________________________________________________________):
_____________________________________________________________________
u.HTML(_______________________________________________________________
_____):________________________________________________________________
v.WWW(_______________________________________________________________
______)_______________________________________________________________
2) Analisando a tela a seguir, indique todos os grupos nominais encontrados, determinando o Modifier e
Head Word. Dê a tradução de cada um deles:
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
23
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
3) Passe os seguintes grupos nominais para o Português:
a. Data Communication Processor - ____________________________________________
b. Artificial Ìntelligence - ____________________________________________________
c. Backup System - _________________________________________________________
d. Secondary Memory - _____________________________________________________
e. Control Structure - _______________________________________________________
f. Central Processing Unit - __________________________________________________
g. Magnetic Tape - _________________________________________________________
h. Operating System - ______________________________________________________
i. Access Control - _________________________________________________________
j. Data Processing Department - _______________________________________________
k. Auxiliary Equipment - ____________________________________________________
l. Control Circuits - _________________________________________________________
m. Automatic electronic devices -______________________________________________
n. Last generation program - ________________________________________________________
o. correctly programmed data - ________________________________________________________
p. Computer integrated circuits. - ______________________________________________________
OBS: Os exemplos dados nas atividades a seguir foram adaptados do livro: Ìnfotech English for
Computer Users.
I) Os grupos nominais a seguir são bastante simpIes. São formados peIo núcIeo (head word
= HW) que é o substantivo e um modificador = Modifier (M), que pode ser adjetivo ou
substantivo. Grife o núcIeo (HW) e faça a tradução.
1) Disabled worker = trabalhador incapacitado
2) Rehabilitation engineer =
3) Employ's abilities =
4) Pointing device =
5) Speech synthesizer =
6) Disk controller =
ÌÌ) Nesta segunda atividade temos: o núcleo e dois modificadores (um artigo e um adjetivo ou
substantivo):
1. the major informations = as informações principais
2. a brief introduction = uma breve introdução (ou uma introdução breve)
2%
3. the English language =
4. the principal program =
5. the file areas =
ÌÌÌ) Agora vamos trabalhar com grupos um pouco maiores, compostos de um núcleo mais dois, três ou
mais adjetivos e/ou substantivos. Esses grupos podem ou não vir precedidos de artigos.
1. ARP -- (Advanced Research Projects) =
2. ASP -- (Application Service Provider) =
3. AT&T ÷ American Telephone & Telegraph Company =
4. CDMA -- (Code Division Multiple Access) =
5. CRM - - (Customer Relationship Management) =
6. DHCP -- (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) =
7. DHTML -- (Dynamic HyperText Markup Language) =
8. DNS ÷ (Domain Name System) =
9. DSL -- (Digital Subscriber Line) =
10. Email -- (Electronic Mail) =
11. ERP - - (Enterprise Resource Planning) =
12. FAQ -- (Frequently Asked Questions) =
13. FTP -- (File Transfer Protocol) =
14. HDD ÷ Hard Disk Drive =
15. HTML -- (HyperText Markup Language) =
16. HTTP -- (HyperText Transfer Protocol) =
17. ÌMAP -- (Ìnternet Message Access Protocol) =
18. ÌP ÷ Ìnternet Protocol =
19. ÌSP -- (Ìnternet Service Provider) =
20. ÌT -- (Ìnformation Technology) =
21. JPEG -- (Joint Photographic Experts Group) =
22. LAN ÷ Local Area Network =
23. MAC Address ÷ (Media Access Control Address) =
24. MUD -- (Multi-User Dungeon or Dimension) =
25. OCR ÷ Optical Character Recognition =
26. OSÌ ÷ (Open Source Ìnitiative) =
27. PDF -- (Portable Document Format) =
28. PPP -- (Point to Point Protocol) =
29. SEO -- (Search Engine Optimization) =
30. SMTP -- (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) =
31. SQL -- (Structured Query Language) =
32. Sysop -- (System Operator) =
33. TCP ÷ Transmission Control Protocol =
34. URÌ -- (Uniform Resource Ìdentifier) =
35. URL ÷ Uniform Resource Locator =
36. URN -- (Uniform Resource Name) =
37. VOÌP -- (Voice Over ÌP) =
2-
38. VPN -- (Virtual Private Network) =
39. WAN -- (Wide Area Network) =
40. Wi-Fi -- (Wireless Fidelity) =
IV) Há também os grupos nominais com a paIavra "of", onde a ordem das paIavras continua iguaI
em português. Observe que o núcIeo do grupo nominaI vem antes da preposição "of".
1. The performance of program = a performance de programa
2. A long history of personal computers = uma longa história de computadores pessoais
3. An essential part of a printer =
4. A important group of personal files =
5. Different languages of the same families =
6. POP = Point of Presence =

Storing data in computer programs
For those new to computer programming, data and code go hand in hand. You cannot write a program of
any real value without lines of code, or without data. A Word Processor program has logic that takes what
the user types and stores it in data. Ìt also uses data to control how it stores and formats what the user
types and clicks.

Data is stored in the memory of the computer when the program runs (it can also be stored in a file, but
that is another matter beyond the scope of this tutorial). Each memory 'slot' is identified by a name that
the programmer chooses. For example LineTotaI might be used to name a memory slot that holds the
total number of lines in a Word Processor document.

The program can freely read from and write to this memory slot. This kind of data is called a Variable. Ìt
can contain data such as a number or text. Sometimes, we may have data that we do not want to change.
For example, the maximum number of lines that the Word Processor can handle. When we give a name
to such data, we also give it its permanent value. These are called constants.
Leia o texto acima e responda:
1) Retire do texto todos os grupos nominais que conseguir identificar. (traduza-os)
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
2) Explique o que tem um programa processador de palavras e o que ele faz..
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
3) Que nome é dado ao tipo de dado que o programa pode ler livremente e escrever para a memória
slot? __________________________________________________________
4) Explique como pode ser usada a LineTotaI.
_____________________________________________________________________________
2.
______________________________________________________________________________
5) Qual é a correta tradução do título do texto?
a) Dados armazenados em programas de computador
b) Armazenamento de dados em programas de computador.
c) Programas de computador em armazenamento de dados
6) Complete a tradução da frase. "Data is stored in the memory of the computer when the program runs”
Dado é ______________ na ___________ do computador ___________o programa _________.
FORMAÇÃO DE PALAVRAS - AFIXOS
(Material extraído do livro: Técnicas de Leitura em Inglês. Eiter Otavio Guandalini. p. 37-39.)
Algumas palavras que aparecem nos textos demandam um pouco mais de atenção para inferi-las e
reconhecê-las durante a leitura. São as chamadas palavras derivadas, ou seja, palavras que apresentam
componentes denominados genericamente de afixos ÷ que podem ser prefixos ou sufixos. O
conhecimento da formação das palavras é muito útil, sem dúvida, para sua compreensão. Ìsto significa
que é necessário reconhecer os afixos mais comumente usados na língua que se que aprender e,
naturalmente, seu significado.
Sufixos e prefixos podem ser acrescentados às palavras dando-lhes novos significados e, quase sempre,
alternando sua classe gramatical. Portanto, atenção: habitue-se a descobrir ou reconhecer o significado
de palavras e expressões através de prefixos e sufixos, da nova posição que ocupam na frase, como
também na alteração da classe gramatical.
A fim de facilitar sua identificação, colocamos a seguir uma lista com os afixos mais usados na língua
inglesa.
Prefixação ÷ o prefixo muda o significado da palavra primitiva, mas não muda a cIasse gramaticaI.
a (sem) Amoral apolitical asexual
anti (contra) Anti-clockwise anti-nuclear Antichrist
dis (oposto) Disagree dishonest disIoyal
il, ir, im, in (não) IIIegal irregular imperfect /incomplete
mis (errado) Misunderstand misdirect misaddress
non (não) Nonsense non-fiction non-programable
un (não) Unmagnetized uncommon unprofessional
over (excesso, além) Overdose overeat
pre (antes) Premarital prefix prehistory
Mini, micro Minicomputer Microcomputer
Macro, mega Macroeconomics Megabyte
Ìnter (entre) Interface Interactive
Sufixação - o sufixo pode mudar a cIasse gramaticaI da palavra sem mudar-lhe o sentido primitivo.
Formação de verbos:
- en Freshen blacken Harden
- ify Simplify solidify
- ize Centralize modernize computerize
Formação de advérbios
- ly (mente) LogicalIy comparabIy YearIy annualIy
2/
- ward (em direção) Downward homeward Ìnward
Formação de substantivos:
- ance / ence Tolerance Preference Performance
- or Operator Accumulator
- er Trainer Employer programmer
- ee Trainee Employee
- ist Economist Scientist Dentist
- ion Education Collision Compilation
- ment Ìnvestment development
- ity Sincerity Generosity
- ism Modernism Buddhism Magnetism
- ness Happiness Darkness
- dom Freedom Kingdom
- hood Childhood Brotherhood
- ship Friendship Partnership relationship
Formação de adjetivos:
- able, ible ProgrammabIe AdmirabIe DivisibIe
- an, ian American Sagitarian suburban
- ful PowerfuI HopefuI wonderfuI/beautifuI
- y Tasty Healthy
- ic Poetic Democratic
- ical/al SociologicaI MagicaI
- less HomeIess ChildIess Wireless
Ex.: COMFORT = Substantivo = Conforto
UNCOMFORT = Substantivo = Desconforto
CONFORTABLE = Adjetivo = Confortável
Selecione no texto as palavras que são formadas por sufixos:
CAREERS IN THE COMPUTERS FIELD
Computer specialists include System Analysts, Programmers and Operators. Systems Analysts
develop methods for computerizing business. They also improve the efficiency of systems in use.
Application Programmers write commercial programs to be used by business, science center and home.
System Programmers write the complex programs that control the inner working of the computer.
Computer operators handle several types of computers.
Other people who work in the computer field include Computer Scientists, who conduct research and
teach at universities; Hardware Designers and Engineers, who work in areas such as microchip and
peripheral equipment design; Ìnformation Center Administrators or Data Base Administrators, who
manage the information collections of business or data banks.
Excerpted from Compton´s Interactive EncycIopedia - 1993, 1994.
Agora, escreva em Português as especialidades que são mencionadas no texto:
____________________________________ - ___________________________________
____________________________________ - ___________________________________
____________________________________ - ___________________________________
____________________________________ - ___________________________________
____________________________________ - ___________________________________
2<
A PRÉ-HISTÓRIA DOS COMPUTADORES
AQUECIMENTO
Junte-se a um colega e, em cinco minutos, procure no texto da próxima página as respostas para as
seguintes perguntas. A dupla que acabar primeiro e apresentar todas as respostas corretas vence a
competição.
a) O que Lady Ada Lovelace inventou para a máquina de Babbage? __________________________
b) Quanto pesava o ENÌAC, o primeiro computador a válvula? _______________________________
c) Onde Charles Babbage exibiu "The Difference Engine¨ em 1855? __________________________
d) Qual foi o primeiro dispositivo de cálculo utilizado pelo homem? ___________________________
e) Até que século o ábaco foi utilizado como dispositivo de cálculo? __________________________
f) Quem inventou, em 1804, o tear "programado¨? ________________________________________
g) O que Blaise Pascal inventou em 1642? _____________________________________________
h) Quando ficou pronto o primeiro computador digital, o MARK 1? ____________________________
i) Quando Vannevar Bush construiu o primeiro computador analógico? ________________________
LEITURA E INTERPRETAÇÃO
a) Junte-se a outros colegas e discutam o que vocês sabem acerca da história do computador e dos
métodos de cálculo.
b) Depois da discussão, organize os parágrafos abaixo numerando os parênteses em ordem
crescente, conforme a cronologia. O título do texto já está marcado.
(A: _____) Ìt was during the Second World War that the modern age of computers began. Ìn 1930,
Vannevar Bush built the first analog computer, which was used to help aim guns in World War ÌÌ. Ìn the
period between 1938-1942, John V. Atanasoff and Clifford Berry designed and built the first electronic
digital computer, the ABC, which provided the basis for the development of the ENÌAC.
(B:_____) After that, in 1822, Charles Babbage built a machine called "The Difference Engine,¨ which he
showed at The Paris Exhibition in 1855. Next, Babbage envisioned and designed "The Analytical Engine¨,
a machine which could complete programmed arithmetic operations. Unfortunately, Babbage never
finished his work, but many of his ideas were used as the basis for the modern computer.
(C: _____) The modern computer as we know it today is a resuIt of lots of research and inventions of the
past. The foIIowing paragraphs will show you the evolution of this miraculous machine.
(D: _____) Ìn the period called the Scientific Revolution, which began circa 1540 and lasted untiI 1687,
many scientists tried to find ways of calculating. As a consequence, other computational devices were
invented. Ìn 1642, Blaise Pascal invented the first mechanical calculator. Ìn 1673, Gottfried von Leibniz
invented another calculating device.
(E: _____) The Scientific Revolution was foIIowed by the Ìndustrial Revolution, which started in England
and brought many advances in technology. Several machines were developed in this period, and these
machines Iater had a great impact on the development of computers.
2=
(F: _____) During the same period that Babbage was working on his machines, Lady Ada Lovelace
invented an arithmetic code for Babbage's machine based on a binary system similar to the one used with
modern computers. For this reason, she is considered to be the first programmer.
(G: _____) The first calculating device used by man was the ten fingers of his hands. This expIains why
we still count in tens and multiples of tens. Then the abacus was invented, a device which uses small
beads or stones to make calculations. This tool was used untiI the 16
th
century. Ìt is still used today in
some parts of the world to make arithmetical calculations.
(H: _____) Ìn 1804, Joseph Marie Jacquard invented a weaving loom which was "programmed¨ to make
certain patterns on cloth. This "program¨ was a series of holes punched in paper cards according to a
code, and it is very similar to the process used in punched cards of the first modern computers.
(Ì: 1 ) The Pre-History of Computers
(J: _____) Between 1943 and 1946, funded by the U.S. Army, John Mauchly and J. Eckert built the first
major eletronic digital computer using vacuum tubes. The ENÌAC (Electronic Numerical Ìntegrator and
Computer) was huge and weighed about 30 tons.
(K: _____) The developments which took place during World War ÌÌ led to the advances made in the
period that foIIowed the war. The period after the war led to the subsequent generations of computers,
which may be described as the modern age of computers.
(L: _____) Ìn 1944, Howard Aiken and some engineers from ÌBM completed MARK 1, an electro-
mechanical calculating device controlled by punched cards. This first digital computer could figure out
long lists of mathematical problems and was used military ballistics.
c) Responda as seguintes perguntas:
1) Das informações apresentadas no texto, quais você já conhecia?
_________________________________________________________________________________
2) Que informação nova sobre a história do computador você achou mais interessante?
_________________________________________________________________________________
3) Sabemos que o computador é uma máquina moderna. Por que o autor intitulou o texto The Pre-
History of Computers?
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
4) Das orações abaixo, qual você considera a idéia principal do texto? Por quê?
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
a) Os avanços tecnológicos da 2ª Guerra Mundial levaram a era moderna do computador.
b) MARK 1, o primeiro computador digital, possuía sistema de cartões perfurados e foi fabricado pela
ÌBM para fins militares.
c) Lady Lovelace é considerada a primeira programadora do mundo por ter inventado o código
binário.
d) As idéias de Charles Babbage foram usadas como base para os computadores modernos, o que o
torna o pai do computador.
e) A Revolução Ìndustrial teve um grande impacto na tecnologia usada para o desenvolvimento dos
computadores.
f) Antes da invenção do ábaco, o dispositivo de cálculo eram os dedos das mãos.
g) O primeiro computador digital a válvula foi o ENÌAC.
h) A era moderna do computador nasce em 1930 com o primeiro computador digital, de Vannevar
Bush, usado para fins militares na 2ª Guerra Mundial.
i) O tear "programado¨, inventado por Jacquard em 1804, tem o mesmo princípio dos cartões
perfurados dos primeiros computadores.
j) O computador atual é o resultado de várias pesquisas e invenções do passado.
k) A Revolução Científica (1540-1687) levou a invenção de vários dispositivos de cálculo.
5) A partir do exercício anterior, como você definiria o que deve ser a idéia principal de um texto?
3>
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
LEITURA E INTERPRETAÇÃO - SKIMMING
a) Utilizando essa técnica, procure no texto What is a Computer? as seguintes informações. Nos espaços
em branco, escreva os números das linhas em que elas se encontram:
1) ________ O computador processa dados e fornece os resultados em forma de informação.
2) ________ É um erro acreditar que todo mundo hoje em dia saiba usar o computador.
3) ________ O processo de computação envolve três etapas básicas.
4) ________ O mundo da computação criou uma linguagem própria.
5) ________ Hoje em dia quase todo mundo tem uma idéia do que seja um computador.
6) ________ Algumas dessas palavras vêm sendo usadas pelo mundo afora, pois foram tomadas de
empréstimo da língua inglesa por várias outras línguas.
7) ________ Algumas sociedades contemporâneas desconhecem o computador.
8) ________ A etapa final permite ao usuário ver os resultados do processamento.
9) ________ Mesmo nos países ditos desenvolvidos, existem pessoas que não sabem o que é um
computador e não se importam em saber.
WHAT'S IS A COMPUTER?
1
Nowadays, in most modern societies, almost everybody has an idea about what a computer is.
We depend on computers in every aspect of our lives whether we know how to use one or not.
But does everyone really know how a computer works inside?
A computer is an electronic machine which processes data and provides the results of the
processing as information. There are three basic steps in the computing process. The first one is
input, which consists of feeding data into the computer's memory. Then comes the processing:
the program is run and the computer processes the data by performing a set of instructions. The
third and final step is the output furnished by the computer, which allows the user to see the
results either in printed from or on the screen.
5
10 The world of computers has created a specific language of its own. English words such as
software and hardware are used worldwide and have been borrowed by many different
languages. Software is information in the form of data and programs, and hardware refers to
the electronic and mechanical parts that make up a computer system.
Despite the constant presence of computers in most modern societies, it is a great mistake to
believe that everybody in the world is computer-literate, i.e., is familiar with computers and
knows how to use them properly. Ìn some contemporary societies, many people still have no
idea about the existence of computers, and even in the so-called developed countries, there are
lots of people who do not know or do not care about what a computer is.
15
b) O autor conclui o texto afirmando que algumas sociedades contemporâneas e muitas pessoas dos
países desenvolvidos desconhecem o computador ou não ligam para ele, sem dar exemplos. Em sua
opinião, quais seriam essas sociedades e essas pessoas?
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
c) Escreva na primeira coluna os números correspondentes às palavras definidas na segunda.
a) ________ computer 1) Data fed into the computer's memory.
b)_________ input 2) Ìnformation.
c) _________ processing 3) Machine that processes data.
d) _________ output 4) Electronic and mechanical parts of a computer.
e) _________ screen 5) Device that shows the results of the processing.
31
f) _________ software 6) The results shown on the screen or in printed form.
g) _________ hardware 7) Programs.
h) _________ data 8) Series of actions that a computer performs to arrive at a
OS USOS DO ING
Palavras cuja formação é composta por ÌNG podem apresentar diferentes cIasses gramaticais:
LEARNING = Pode significar aprendendo; aprender ou aprendizagem, dependendo de como é
apresentada na sentença.
(gerúndio)
They are Iearning how to get more information. = (após o verbo to be)
Eles estão aprendendo como conseguir mais informações.

(verbo/infin.)
This is a way of Iearning about management. = (após preposições)
Esta é uma maneira de aprender sobre gerenciamento.
(Adjetivo)
This is part of the Iearning process. = (parte de um grupo nominal)
Ìsto é parte do processo de aprendizagem.
(Substantivo)
Learning is essencial to life.
Aprendizagem é essencial à vida.
EXERCÍCIOS
Classifique em cada frase as palavras formadas por ÌNG como:
(substantivo, gerúndio, adjetivo ou verbo infinitivo)
a. They are Iearning Computer Science.
__________________________.
b. TeIeprocessing is the use of a telecommunication system by a computer.
__________________________.
c. The caIcuIating machine was invented many years ago.
__________________________.
d. The recording surface of a disk has concentric circles called tracks.
__________________________.
e. He works 10 hours without stopping.
__________________________.
f. The printer is printing documents.
__________________________.
g. Ì prefer typing to writing.
77777777777777777777777777.
32
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EXERCÍCIOS
Grife todas as paIavras cognatas encontradas no texto, circuIe as famiIiares e responda:
1) Sobre o que trata o texto? __________________________________________________________
2) Qual é o produto em questão? _____________________________________________________
3) Após baixar o arquivo com sucesso, o que acontecerá com seu Número de Licença?
_________________________________________________________________________
4) Qual produto é oferecido caso você esteja procurando mais características, funcionalidade e
flexibilidade?____________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
5) Quando a empresa recebeu o Boletim de Vírus?__________________________________
6) Em qual programa o Boletim foi recebido? _____________________________________
7) Qual é o percentual do padrão de detecção do Sistema anti-vírus?___________________
33
MARCADORES DE SUBSTANTIVOS
Substantivo é a palavra que designa pessoa, lugar, objeto, evento, substância.

É possível localiza-la no texto prestando atenção em certas palavras que acompanham substantivo.
Emprega-se antes de substantivo:
Artigos:
a, an = um, uma
the = o, a, os, as
Pronomes Possessivos a!etivos
MY Meu, minha, meus, minhas
Your seu, sua, seus, suas
His dele (para pessoa)
Her dela (para pessoa)
Ìts dele, dela (para coisas ou animais
Our nosso, nossa, nossos, nossas
Their deles, delas
Emprega-se geralmente antes de substantivos:
Numerais Cardinais:
One, two, three, etc.
Pronomes Demonstrativos:
This este, esta, isto
These estes, estas
That esse, essa, isso, aquele, aquela, aquilo
Those esses, essas, aqueles, aquelas
QUANTIDADES
Many muitos, muitas
(a) few poucos, poucas
much muito, muita
(a) little pouco, pouca
some algum, alguns, alguma, algumas
any qualquer, quaisquer
every todo, toda, todos, todas, cada
a lot of !uito Ca), !uitos Cas)
3%
RE4ER5NCI- CONTE6TU-.
A referência contextual também representa um recurso auxiliar na compreensão das idéias de um texto.
As chamadas palavras de referência substituem palavras que estão no texto (ou fora dele) e podem
classificar-se da seguinte maneira:
• pronomes (pessoais, possessivos, demonstrativos, relativos e indefinidos);
• numerais ordinais;
• palavras que indicam ordem e exemplificação.
Quando queremos nos referir a alguma coisa (ou idéia) que já foi mencionada, ou ainda vai ser
mencionada numa determinada sentença, geralmente utilizamos recursos lingüísticos para não tornar a
sentença repetitiva.
Exemplos:
The magazine which is on the desk is old.
A revista que está sobre a mesa é velha.
PauI and Sue are good friends. They always help us.
Paul and Sue são bons amigos. EIes sempre nos ajudam.
John works in my office. We like him very much.
John trabalha em meu escritório. Nós gostamos muito deIe.
• Pode-se observar que podemos nos referir a uma idéia anterior ou posterior utilizando diferentes
PRONOMES;
Exercícios
7o2n 9orBs in !M offi"e. Ne liBe 2im verM !u"(.
Oo(n trabal(a e! !eu es"ritório. Eós gosta!os !uito d&.
• :ode2se observar *ue pode!os nos referir a u!a id5ia anterior ou posterior utilizando diferentes
PRONO,ES.
Su%*ct Pronoun! O%*ct Pronoun! Po!!!!i' -d*cti'! Po!!!!i'
) @e @M @ine
Fou Fou Four Fours
8e 8i! 8is 8is
1(e 8er 8er 8ers
)t )t )ts )ts
Ne Ps 3ur 3urs
Fou Fou Four Fours
4(eM 4(e! 4(eir 4(eirs
Su%*ct O%*ct
I Bno9 Ann. Ann Bno9s m.
8ou Bno9 Ann. Ann Bno9s you.
9 Bno9s Ann. Ann Bno9s 2im.
S2 Bno9s Ann. Ann Bno9s 2r.
: Bno9 Ann. Ann Bno9s u!.
T2y Bno9 Ann. Ann Bno9s t2m.
Po!!!!i' -d*cti'! Po!!!!i' Pronoun!
3-
)tQs my !oneM. )tQs min.
)tQs your !oneM. )tQs your!.
)tQs 2i! !oneM. )tQs 2i!.
)tQs 2r !oneM. )tQs 2r!.
)tQs our !oneM. )tQs our!.
)tQs t2ir !oneM. )tQs t2ir!.
Exercícios
A) Finish the sentences with mine/yours/ours/theirs/hers/his:
1. Ìt´s your money. Ìt´s _______________ 5. Ìt´s their house. Ìt´s _______________
2. Ìt´s my bag. Ìt´s ________________. 6. They´re your books. They´re ________.
3. Ìt´s our car. Ìt´s ________________. 7. They´re my glasses. They´re ________.
4. They´re her shoes. They´re ____________. 8. Ìt´s his coat. Ìt´s ______________.
B) Classifique os pronomes grifados e indique as respectivas palavras a que eles se referem:
1. Most people are happy in their jobs.
_________________________________________________________________________.
2) Mr. Baker lives in London. His son lives in Australia.
_________________________________________________________________________.
3) Where are the tickets? Ì can´t find them.
_________________________________________________________________________.
4) We are going out. You can come with us.
_________________________________________________________________________.
5) Margaret likes music. She plays the piano.
_________________________________________________________________________.
6) Ann is going out with her friends tonight.
_________________________________________________________________________.
7) Ì like tennis. Ìt is my favorite sport.
_________________________________________________________________________.
8) Ì am talking to you. Please, listen to me.
_________________________________________________________________________.
PRONOMES RELATIVOS (Who / Which / That)
• Who is for people (not things)
A Programmer is a person who writes programs.
The man who phoned will call you later again.

Ì know everybody who work in my company.
• Which is for things (not people)
This is the printer which you asked me.
3.
Ì don´t have the CD-Rom which you need.
Ìs this the new computer which you bought?
• That is for things or people:
Ì know everybody that work in my company.
(You can use that for people, but who is more usual)
This is the printer that you asked me.
• Portanto, temos:
(Para pessoas)
Who
He is the system anaIyst who/that prepares instructions.
That (pessoa)
(Para coisas)
Which
This is the manuaI which/that you need.
That (coisa)
EXERCÍCIOS
1. Complete com who ou which:
a. Ì met a woman who can speak six languages.
b. What´s the name of the man ________ lives next door?
c. What´s the name of the river ________ flows through the town?
d. Where is the picture ________ was hanging on the wall?
e. Do you know anybody _______ wants to buy a car?
f. You always ask questions _______ are difficult to answer.
g. Ì have a friend _________ is very good at repairing cars.
h. Ì think everybody ________ went to the party enjoyed it a lot.
2. Volte ao texto "Virtual Reality¨ e retire 1 pronome relativo do 1º parágrafo, 1 pronome relativo do 2º
parágrafo e 3 pronomes do 3º parágrafo, e indique as respectivas palavras a que eles se referem:
1º parágrafo: pronome: _____________
refere-se a: _______________
2º parágrafo: pronome: _____________
refere-se a: _______________
3º parágrafo: pronome refere-se a
_________ _____________
_________ _____________
_________ _____________
3/
T9E POSSESSI)E C-SE O4 NOUNS
 Quando o substantivo/possuidor designa um ser vivo (pessoa ou animal, as expressões
possessivas (caso possessivo ou genitivo) são formadas do seguinte modo:
a) Acrescentando-se 's ao substantivo/possuidor, quando ele estiver no singular.
The body of the man. The man's body. (O corpo do homem)
b) Acrescentando-se 's também no caso em que o substantivo/possuidor estiver no plural mas não
terminar em s.
The family of the children. The children's family. (A família das crianças)
c) Acrescentando-se apenas um apóstrofo ao substantivo/ possuidor, quando ele estiver no plural
terminado em s.
The school of the girls. The girls' school. (A escola das garotas)
 Quando o substantivo/ possuidor designa um ser inanimado, não se usa a expressão com 's
mas sim a que é feita com de (of) como em português:
The door of the car, the trees of the garden, etc.
No entanto, a expressão com 's pode ser usada (assim com o of) quando o substantivo/
possuidor tiver um sentido nobre, caso principalmente dos nomes geográficos, como a Terra, o
Sol, o mar, nomes de países, cidades, etc.
f.e. The population of the world = The world population

CompIete as frases com a forma possessiva dos substantivos entre parênteses, conforme o
modeIo:
ExempIo:
Richard is the boss of John. Richard is John's boss.
Geralmente usamos -´s para pessoas:
; Mary´s computer ÷ O computador da Mary.
; Mary´s personaI computer ÷ O PC da Mary.
; John´s Iaser printer ÷ A impressora do John.
; The manager´s equipment ÷ O equipamento do gerente.
• Friend´s or Friends´ :
A casa do meu amigo = My friend´s house.
A casa dos meus amigos = My friends´ house.
Portanto, temos: My mother´s car
• Usamos of para coisas, lugares, etc.
The high technology of Brazil. ÷ Tecnologia de ponta do Brasil.
What´s the name of this village? ÷ Qual é o nome desta vila?
Madrid is the Capital of Spain. ÷ Madrid é a Capital da Espanha.
The memory of the computer. ÷ (not ÷ the computer´s memory)
DriII - Faça a correção da sentença quando necessário:
1. Ì stayed at the house of my sister. - my sister house
3<
My father´s car
My parents´ car
2. What is the name of this viIIage? - Ok__________
3. Do you like the coIor of this coat? - _____________________
4. Do you know the phone number of BiII? - ________________________
5. The job of my brother is very interesting. - _______________________
6. Write your name at the top of the page. - _________________________
7. When is the birthday of your mother? - _________________________
8. The house of my parents isn´t very big. - ________________________
9. The waIIs of this house are very thin. - __________________________
10. The manager of the hoteI is on holiday. - _______________________
• Passe as sentenças para o Caso Genitivo:
The laptop of my sister.
______________________________________.
The computer of my secretary.
______________________________________.
The printer of my boss.
______________________________________.
TEXTO PARA LEITURA, COMPREENSÃO E EXERCÍCIOS DE VOCABULÁRIO
HARDWARE
The centraI processing unit, or CPU, is the heart of a computer. Ìn addition to performing arithmetic and
logic operations on data, it controls the rest of the system.
Most CPU chips and microprocessors have four functional sections:
(1) the arithmetic/logic unit;
(2) temporary storage locations;
(3) the control section;
(4) the internal bus.
Input devices let the users enter commands, data, or programs. Computer keyboards are the most
common input devices. Another common input device, the mouse, is a mechanical device with buttons on
the top and a rolling ball in its base. Other input devices include joysticks and trackballs. Light pens can
be used to draw or to point to items or areas on the display screen. A digitizer pad translates images
drawn on it with an electronic pen. Touch screens allow users to point to items or areas on the screen.
Optical scanners "read¨ characters on a printed page and translate them into binary numbers that the
CPU can use. Voice-recognition circuitry digitizes spoken words and enters them into the computer.
Memory-storage devices. Most digital computers store data both internally (main memory) and
externally (auxiliary storage units). A computer temporarily stores information internally on silicon random-
access memory, or RAM, chips. Another type of internal memory consists of a series of read-only
memory, or ROM, chips. Some auxiliary storage devices floppy disks, hard disks and magnetic tape store
data by magnetically rearranging metal particles on disks and tapes.
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Output devices let the user see the results of the computer´s data processing. The most common output
device is the video display terminal (VDT), or monitor, which uses a cathode-ray tube (CRT) to display
characters and graphics on a screen. Modems (modulator-demodulators) and disk drives are input/output
devices. Printers generate hard copy, a printedversion of information stored in one of the computer´s
memory systems.
Excerpted from Compton´s Ìnteractive Encyclopedia ÷ 1993, 1994.
SCANNING
• Encontre no texto acima as informações que completam o diagrama.
NETWORK LAST MODIFIED: THURSDAY, OCTOBER 10, 2002
A group of two or more computer systems linked together. There are many types of computer
networks, including:
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IocaI-area networks (LANs) : The computers are geographically close together (that is, in the
same building).
wide-area networks (WANs) : The computers are farther apart and are connected by telephone
lines or radio waves.
campus-area networks (CANs): The computers are within a limited geographic area, such as a
campus or military base.
metropoIitan-area networks MANs): A data network designed for a town or city.
home-area networks (HANs): A network contained within a user's home that connects a person's
digital devices.
Ìn addition to these types, the following characteristics are also used to categorize different types of
networks:
topoIogy : The geometric arrangement of a computer system. Common topologies include a bus,
star, and ring. See the Network topology diagrams in the Quick Reference section of Webopedia.
protocoI : The protocol defines a common set of rules and signals that computers on the network
use to communicate. One of the most popular protocols for LANs is called thernet. Another popular
LAN protocol for PCs is the I!M to"en#ring networ" .
architecture : Networks can be broadly classified as using either a peer#to#peer or client/ser$er
architecture.
Computers on a network are sometimes called nodes. Computers and devices that allocate
resources for a network are called ser$ers.
Questões sobre o texto e estudo do vocabuIário:
1. Encontre no texto os seguintes Grupos Nominais em Ìnglês:
a. Sistema de computador - ______________________________
b. Rede de computadores - ______________________________
c. Linhas telefônicas - __________________________________
d. posição geométrica - _________________________________
e. As seguintes características - __________________________
2. Retire do texto as duas expressões que estão no Caso Genitivo e dê as suas traduções:
a. __________________________ - _________________________
b. __________________________ - _________________________
3. De acordo com o texto, o que é "Network¨ e quais são os tipos de redes de computadores?
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
4. O que é a "Local-area Network¨ e "Campus-area Network¨?
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
5. Cite as três características que categorizam diferentes tipos de Rede?
___________________ - ____________________ - __________________
6. Em que consiste o "Protocol¨?
____________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
7. Traduza: Computers and devices that allocate resources for a network are called "servers¨.
___________________________________________________________________________________
%1
PESQUISA DE VOCABULÁRIO
1. The part of a computer system that carries the instructions and programs; the opposite of hardware:
______________________.
2. All the physical part of a computer such as monitor, CPU, drives, keyboard, printer, the opposite of
software: ______________________.
3. Language that programmers use to give the computer its basic instructions:
________________________.
4. A step-by-step series of instructions that tells the computer how to perform a task:
________________________.
5. The object that prints out the paper copies of documents: ________________________.
6. Ìt is an input device similar to a typewriter: _________________________.
7. Ìt is similar to a TV and displays information: _______________________________,
__________________________ or ___________________________.
8. Consist of monitors, keyboards and printer divided by two or more people:
________________________.
9. Collective term for hard disk, floopy disk, tapes, cards on which computers store information:
_________________________.
10. A thin flexible disk that stores data magnetically: ______________________________.
11. Storage midia located into the CPU: _____________________or _________________.
12. A person who writes the software programs: ____________________________.
13. An automated means of creating and editing texts: _____________________________.
14. Refers to printed copies on paper: ____________________________.
15. The information that appears on the screen before it is printed out: ________________.
16. The place where you insert the floopy disk or CD-ROM: ________________________.
PRINTING CONCEPTS
When users print, the computer completes several steps that involve a set of components including
executable files, drivers, device interfaces, and dynamic-link libraries, which work together to create the
printed output. Understanding how this process works helps you understand what happens when you print
a document and how to solve printing problems. Printing has two parts: printing process and the print
components% The two parts make the printing process possible. When printing to an Ìnternet print server,
the print server adds to the standard print process by creating an interface for users.
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VOCABULARY
To print = imprimir
Print = impressão
Printer = impressora
Set = jogo, conjunto, grupo,
To set up = iniciar, instalar, estabelecer-se
Drive = unidade de disco
Standar = padrão
Device = dispositivo
1) Leia o texto "PRINTING CONCEPTS" e responda as questões a seguir:
a) Sobre o que trata o texto? ________________________________________________________
b) Quais são as duas partes da impressora?____________________________________________
c) O que estas partes possibilitam? ___________________________________________________
d) Qual e o conjunto de componentes citados no texto? ___________________________________
e) O que o servidor de impressão adiciona quando imprime para um servidor de impressão de
Ìnternet?
____________________________________________________________________________________
2) Localize as palavras familiares no texto acima e dê a tradução.
____________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
3) Circule todas as palavras cognatas.
What´s an AIgorithm?
An algorithm is a sequence of instructions that tells how to solve a particular problem. Once the problem
has been identified, the next step is to select the best method for solving it. Ìf the problem is a familiar
one, standardized algorithms may be available from program libraries. But if standard algorithms are not
available or suitable, a new algorithm must be written and then added to the program library. An algorithm
must be specified exactly, so there can be no doubt about what to do next, and it must have a finite
number of steps. A computer program is an algorithm that is written in a language that a computer can
understand, but the same algorithm could be written in several different languages.
• Observe a sentença: "&nce the pro'lem has 'een identified( the ne)t step is to select the 'est
method for sol$ing it”%
1) A classificação da palavra "sol$ing¨ é:
a) substantivo (solução)
b) gerúndio (resolvendo)
c) particípio (resolvido)
d) verbo/infinitivo (resolver)
2) O pronome "it¨ (última palavra) refere-se a:
a) problem
b) identified
%3
c) select
d) method
3) Observando o uso do verbo modaI "must¨ a tradução apropriada da sentença a seguir é: "it must
ha$e a finite num'er of steps”%
a) ele (algoritmo) poderia ter um número finito de passos.
b) ele (algoritmo) não precisa ter um número finito de passos.
c) ele (algoritmo) deve ter um número finito de passos.
d) ele (algoritmo) não pode ter um número finito de passos.
e) ele (algoritmo) talvez tenha um número finito de passos.
Mainframe, Minicomputer and Microcomputer
A mainframe is a large computer system comprised of a large central processing unit, separate memory
banks, multiple data-storage devices and peripherals. Ìt is found in computer installations which process
immense amounts of data. This powerful machine has a larger repertoire of more complex instructions
which can be executed more quickly.
A minicomputer is much smaller than the mainframe computer. Ìt was developed to perform limited
functions in scientific environments with less computing capacity. Ìt became possible to reduce the size of
the computer with the replacement of vacuum tubes by transistors and the development of multicircuit
`chips´.
A microcomputer is the smallest of the three sizes of computers. The central processor of a micro, called
the microprocessor, is built as a single semiconductor device, that is, the elements necessary to perform
all the logical and arithmetic functions are manufactured as a single chip. The microprocessor literally
contains a computer on a chip that can pass through the eye of a needle.
4) Complete as sentences com mainframe/minicomputer/microcomputer:
a) _________________________ is the smallest of all.
b) _________________________ has less computing capacity.
c) _________________________ performs limited functions.
d) _________________________ is a large computer system.
e) _________________________ executes instructions more quickly.
5) Retire do texto dois pronomes reIativos (um da definição de mainframe, e outro da definição de
microcomputer) e indique as respectivas palavras a que se referem:
a) ______________ -- ________________________
b) ______________ -- ________________________
6) Assinale a alternativa em que há um Grupo NominaI:
a) executed more quickly
b) multiple data-storage devices
c) perform limited
d) tubes by transistors
e) called the microprocessor
%%
Magnetic Tape and Magnetic Disk
Magnetic tape ÷ it is one of the principal input/output recording media used with computers and is mainly
used for storing intermediate results of computations and for compact storing of large amounts of data, in
an ordered sequence. Ìt is much cheaper to store information on tape than in the computer main memory
or on a disk memory device, but it takes longer to locate a particular data item if it is stored on tape: data
must be stored and accessed sequentially.
Magnetic disk ÷ it consists of a series of concentric paths or tracks each capable of storing data in
magnetically coded form. Ìt looks like a phonograph record and a series of disks is mounted on a vertical
shaft. One or more access arms move into the disk to read or write the data stored on it. Disks may be
hard (made out of aluminum) or floppy (made out of plastic). Disks may be permanently attached to the
drive unit or they may be made up as removable disk packs. Disks may be made even more efficient by
using laser beam to read and write data.
As questões 7 e 8 devem ser respondidas em Português.
7) Qual é a definição, conforme o texto, de Disco Magnético?
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________.
8) Quais são os dois principais usos das Fitas Magnéticas?
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________.
9) Ìndique a ordem em que essas idéias ocorrem no texto: Magnetic Disk
( ) disks may be hard or floppy.
( ) disks may be more efficient.
(1 ) disks consists of a series of concentric paths.
( ) disks may be made up as removable disk packs.
( ) disks may be mounted on a vertical shaft.
( ) disks may be permanently attached to the drive unit.
10) Ìndique se as afirmações são verdadeiras (V) ou falsas (F):
a) Magnetic tape is the only way for inputting data. ( )
b) Ìt is used for storing data sequentially. ( )
c) Ìt is much cheaper to store data on disks. ( )
d) Ìt takes longer to locate data stored on tapes. ( )
e) Data on tape is stored in an ordered sequence. ( )
11) Ìndique os dois erros do Presente SimpIes com círculos e dê as formas verbais corretas:
"Some mail systems uses a large disk space, but they doesn´t determine any amount before its use.¨
Formas corretas: a) _________________
b) ___________________
12) Destaque das frases abaixo, os verbos na Voz Passiva:
"Disks may be permanently attached to the drive unit and they may be made up as removable disk
packs.¨
_____________________________ - _____________________________
%-
13) Circule na sentença a palavra que se encontra no Comparativo e dê o seu significado em Português:
"Ìt is much cheaper to store information on tapes than in the computer main memory¨
_________________ = ____________________________
14) Observe o segmento abaixo:
"Magnetic Tape is mainly used for storing(1) intermediate results of computations and for compact
storing(2) of large amounts of data.¨
A palavra storing (1) significa: A palavra storing (2) significa:
a) armazenar a) armazenar
b) armazenando b) armazenando
c) armazenamento c) armazenamento
d) armazenado d) armazenado
Third-Generation-1964-1971:Integrated-Circuits
The development of the integrated circuit was the hallmark of the third generation of computers.
Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors, which drastically
increased the speed and efficiency of computers.
Ìnstead of punched cards and printouts, users interacted with third generation computers through
keyboards and monitors and interfaced with an operating system, which allowed the device to run many
different applications at one time with a central program that monitored the memory. Computers for the
first time became accessible to a mass audience because they were smaller and cheaper than their
predecessors.
Fourth-Generation-1971-Present:Microprocessors
The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers, as thousands of integrated circuits were
built onto a single silicon chip. What in the first generation filled an entire room could now fit in the palm of
the hand. The Ìntel 4004 chip, developed in 1971, located all the components of the computer - from the
central processing unit and memory to input/output controls - on a single chip.
Ìn 1981 ÌBM introduced its first computer for the home user, and in 1984 Apple introduced the Macintosh.
Microprocessors also moved out of the realm of desktop computers and into many areas of life as more
and more everyday products began to use microprocessors.
As these small computers became more powerful, they could be linked together to form networks, which
eventually led to the development of the Ìnternet. Fourth generation computers also saw the development
of GUÌs, the mouse and handheld devices.
Exercícios sobre o texto
1) Na 3º geração de computadores; o que aconteceu com os "Transistors¨?
____________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
2) O que o Sistema Operacional permitia fazer nos computadores da 3º geração?
____________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
3) Na sentença: "Computers for the first time became accessible to a mass audience because they were
smaller and cheaper than their predecessors.¨; destaque as palavras que estão no Comparativo e dê os
seus significados na frase: ____________________ = _____________________
____________________ = _____________________
%.
4) No segmento " The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers, as thousands of
integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip.¨; transcreva um verbo no Passado SimpIes e um
na Voz Passiva e dê os seus significados:
Passado Simples: __________________ = __________________________.
Voz Passiva: ______________________ = __________________________.
5) O que fazia o chip Ìntel 4004, desenvolvido em 1971?
___________________________________________________________________________________
6) Retire do segmento abaixo: uma expressão no Comparativo e uma na Voz Passiva: "As these small
computers became more powerful, they could be linked together to form networks, which eventually led to
the development of the Ìnternet.¨
_____________________ = _____________________________
_____________________ = ____________________________
DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Last modified: Wednesday, September 25, 2002
A collection of programs that enables you to store, modify, and extract information from a database.
There are many different types of DBMSs, ranging from small systems that run on personal
computers to huge systems that run on mainframes. The following are examples of database
applications:
• computerized library systems
• automated teller machines
• flight reservation systems
• computerized parts inventory systems
From a technical standpoint, DBMSs can differ widely. The terms relational, networ", flat( and
hierarchical all refer to the way a DBMS organizes information internally. The internal organization
can affect how quickly and flexibly you can extract information.
Requests for information from a database are made in the form of a *uery, which is a stylized
question. For example, the query
SELECT ALL WHERE NAME = "SMÌTH" AND AGE > 35
requests all records in which the NAME field is SMÌTH and the AGE field is greater than 35.
The set of rules for constructing queries is known as a *uery language. Different DBMSs support
different query languages, although there is a semi-standardized query language called +,L
-structured *uery language.. Sophisticated languages for managing database systems are called
fourth#generation languages, or /0Ls for short.
The information from a database can be presented in a variety of formats. Most DBMSs include a
report writer program that enables you to output data in the form of a report. Many DBMSs also
include a graphics component that enables you to output information in the form of graphs and charts.
Exercícios sobre o texto
1) De acordo com o texto, o que é o "Sistema de Gerenciamento de Banco de Dados¨ ?
____________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________.
2) Cite, em Português, os 4 exemplos de Aplicativos de Banco de Dados mencionados no texto:
• ____________________________________________
• ____________________________________________
• ____________________________________________
%/
• ____________________________________________
3) No trecho abaixo:
"From a technical standpoint, DBMSs can differ widely. The terms relational, networ", flat( and
hierarchical all refer to the way a DBMS organizes information internally. The internal organization can
affect how quickly and flexibly you can extract information.¨;
Ìdentifique o verbo modaI que aparece 3 vezes e dê os seus respectivos sujeitos.
________ = ____________________
________ = ____________________
________ = ____________________
4) O que é a query Ianguage e qual o significado em Português?
___________________________________________________________________________________
5) No segmento "Sophisticated languages for managing database systems are called fourth#generation
languages¨; a palavra managing significa:
a) gerenciando
b) gerenciar
c) gerenciamento
d) gerenciado
6) Passe a sentença do exercício acima para o Português:
____________________________________________________________________________________
ABOUT CHIPS
"Does anybody here know anything about chips?¨
Nobody expected such a question during an art class. Not from an old teacher of music. And he added, " Ì
must confess that Ì know nothing about chips. Ì really don´t know anything at all. Sometimes Ì feel like a
Jurassic teacher.
A quiet girl with curly hair asked shyly, "What do you want to know, professor? Ì have some information
about it.¨
Lucy was her name. Everybody remained silent. No one sang. Nobody played. Lucy stood up and spoke
up; "A computer consists of hundreds of parts, including a monitor, a mouse, disk drives and a keyboard.
Ìnside the computer is a circuit board. Ìt houses all sorts of microchips, including those for ROM (read-only
memory) and RAM (random-access memory). Mounted on the circuit board is a microprocessor, which is
housed n a protective container and connected to rows of gold-plated pins. Ìnside the microprocessor
package is the chip itself. This tiny square of silicon is packed with transistors that process instructions
and data for the computer. A chip can process 500 million instructions every second and it has the size of
a fingernail.
After this explanation everybody clapped their hands. The teacher said. Where have you learned all this,
Lucy, my dear?
"Well¨, she said, Ì´ve read it from an old magazine at the library.
VOCABULARY
to remain = permanecer
to house = conter/armazenar
gold-plated = coberto com ouro
tinM G !uito pe*ueno
%<
Questões
1) Assinale a alternativa correta:
a) Os alunos ficaram surpresos com a pergunta da menina.
b) O professor não sabia nada sobre tecnologia.
c) A menina ficou decepcionada com o professor.
d) O antigo professor gostaria de deixar a escola.
2) O professor se considera:
a) ignorante sobre computação
b) um especialista em computação
c) muito antiquado sobre música
d) um grande leitor de revista de informática
3) Lucy ensinou seu professor sobre chips provavelmente porque ela:
a) Lê muito livros na biblioteca
b) Tem algum interesse em computadores
c) studou o assunto em outra escola
d) queria se "aparecer¨
4) O material básico do chip é:
a) silicone
b) transistor
c) silicon
d) gold-plated pin
e) data
5) Na sentença: "1 chip can process 233 million instructions e$ery second and it has the si4e of a
fingernail”%; o pronome "it¨ refere-se a:
a) million
b) second
c) instructions
d) chip
e) fingernail
6) Na sentença: "Does anybody here lnow anything about chips?¨
destaque os pronomes indefinidos e dê os seus significados:
________________________ = __________________________________
________________________ = __________________________________
7) Destaque os verbos modais das sentenças abaixo e passe-as para o Português:
"Ì must confess that Ì know nothing about chips.¨
_______________________________________________________________
"A chip can processo 500 million instructions every second.¨
_______________________________________________________________
8) Relacione as informações numerando as colunas:
a) The list on the screen which shows the ( ) e-mail
%=
things that you can do.
b) A small sign on a computer screen which ( ) virus
shows your position in a text
c) A system for sending written messages by ( ) menu
computer
d) A number of computers connected together ( ) cursor
in a larger system
e) Ìnstructions that are put into a computer in ( ) network
order to cause mistakes and destroy information
MODAL VERBS (VERBOS MODAIS)
Há uma série de verbos em inglês que expressam idéias gerais. Já que o objetivo do inglês instrumental
é diferente (estratégias de leitura), atenha-se às regras e traduções abaixo, pois elas serão suficientes
para nosso propósito.
CAN: Usamos CAN (do) para dizer que alguma coisa é possível ou que alguém tem a
habiIidade/capacidade para fazer algo. Podemos usar com a forma negativa (CAN NOT / CANNOT ou
CAN'T).
Exemplo: Can you swim very fast? No Ì can't, but Ì can play chess.
COULD: algumas vezes o COULD é o passado do CAN. Nós usamos Could para dizer que alguém
tinha habiIidade geral para fazer alguma coisa. Podemos usar com a forma negativa (COULD NOT ou
COULDN'T). Usamos Could especialmente com os seguintes verbos:
TO SEE TO HEAR TO SMELL TO
TASTE
TO FEEL TO REMEMBER TO UNDERSTAND
ExempIo: My grandfather couId speak five Ianguages.
MUST / MUSTN'T: Usamos MUST para dizer que nós temos certeza que alguma coisa é certa.
Exemplos: 1. Fish must live in water. (necessidade)
2. Everybody must uphold laws. (obrigação)
3. He must be your father. (Dedução forte)
4. You mustn't tell anyone what Ì said. (proibição)
MAY: Usamos MAY e MÌGHT para dizer que alguma coisa é possível ou seja, com 50% de certeza..
Também usamos para pedir permissão (de algo incerto, com baixa probabilidade ou mais formal). Não
existe diferença importante entre MAY e MÌGHT. Podemos dizer, por exemplo:
"Paul may be in his office.¨ OU "Paul might be in his office.¨ (probabilidade)
May Ì dance with your girlfriend? No, you may not. (permissão com baixa probabilidade)
->
SHOULD / SHOULDN'T: Geralmente usamos SHOULD quando pedimos ou damos uma opinião sobre
alguma coisa. (frequentemente usamos I think/I don't think/do you think).
Exemplos:
Ì don't think you should work so hard.
Mike shouldn't drive really. He is too tired.
EXERCISES:
Traduza as seguintes sentenças para o português e escreva nos parênteses a idéia expressada
peIos verbos modais em destaque.
1. We might have several problems in case inflation rises sharply. (_________________)
_______________________________________________________________________
2.They can manufacturer high-tech equipment, but they may have problems to ship it.
(_________________) (___________________)
__________________________________________________________________________
3.How much shouId we purchase from that supplier?
(_________________)
__________________________________________________________________________
4.A foreign company can encourage its employments to study languages.
(_________________)
__________________________________________________________________________
5.We mustn`t do this because it`s against the laws.
(_________________)
__________________________________________________________________________
6.Some terms may be included in such exemptions.
(_________________)
__________________________________________________________________________
7.She must be in trouble in the traffic because she never comes to work late.
(_________________)__________________________________________________________________
________
8.People shouId be in contact with a foreign language more often, otherwise they won`t memorize new
vocabulary and structures.
(_________________) ____________________________________________________
9.Companies shouId develop equipment, processes and goods that are "ecologically clean¨.
(_________________)
__________________________________________________________________________
-1
PUZZLE
Existem dezessete palavras no quadro abaixo. Encontre-as e indique a tradução de cada uma delas,
relacionando as colunas (as que não souber deixe em branco).
Comece localizando os cognatos.
E A T O P E R F O R M T T Ì S
N O T E L A R R Q B A R O Y Ì
G P D D U X C F D R T B O T N
Ì R E B T T O S T O R E T M C
N Ì V M A B M V Ì D R A H A E
E C E E R V P C E S A D E R T
N E L W M A U U U S L S D E H
T C O S D A T A E S F S W S E
R A P P A C E A C M E D H O N
Ì R E M G P R O G R A M E U M
E R D K V F O R E Ì T N E R L
S Ì A D E V Ì C E S U G L C O
V E R Y M U C H S E R U S E Ì
M S R T O H A N D L E N T S F
O E N V Ì R O N M E D Ì G Ì T
-2
VOCABULARY
1) COMPUTER ( ) rodas dentadas; engrenagens
2) DATA ( ) contas (pequenas bolas com orifício
3) FEATURE ( ) características; traço
4) TO STORE ( ) dados
5) TO PERFORM ( ) muito; bastante
6) BEADS ( ) máquina; motor; mecanismo
7) RODS ( ) computador
8) DEVÌCES ( ) guardar; armazenar
9) TOOTHED WHEELS ( ) desenvolvido
10) TO HANDLE ( ) dígito; qualquer numeral de 0 a 9
11) CARRÌES ( ) manipular; lidar com
12) DÌGÌT ( ) desempenhar
13) ENGÌNE ( ) varetas; hastes
14) PROGRAM ( ) desde essa época
15) SÌNCE THEN ( ) programa (série de instruções)
16) DEVELOPED ( ) transportes; transferências
17) VERY MUCH ( ) dispositivos
COMPUTERS: START POINT
A computer is a machine capable of executing computations on data. The distinguishing feature of a
computer is its ability to store its own instructions and to performance thousands of operations each
second.
The Abacus, on which information is stored by moving beads along rods, was one of the earliest
calculating devices. Blaise Pascal developed an adding machine in 1642 that used toothed wheel to
handle carries from on digit to the next. Charles Babbage developed the concept of a stored program
computer when he designed a calculating engine in 1833.
The first electronic digital computer was ENÌAC (Electronic Numerical Ìntegrator and Calculator), which
was built for the U.S. Army in 1945. Ìn the same year John Von Neumann introduced the modern concept
of a stores program computer, in which the computer memory can store both programs and data.
Since then computer technology has developed very much.
(Adaptado de Galante, Inglês '5sico para inform5tica,1992, p.9)
Lesponda Hs *uestRes de a"ordo "o! o te#to$
1) Quem desenhou uma máquina calculadora e em que ano? ________________________________
2) Qual foi o primeiro computador eletrônico digital e em que ano foi construído? _________________
3) Ligue as colunas de acordo com a tradução.
Dados ( ) Hard disk
Teclado ( ) Floppy disk
Disquete ( ) Data
Disco rígido ( ) Memory
Memória ( ) Keyboard
4) Coloque verdadeiro (V) ou falso (F): No grupo nominal "electronic digital computer¨ podemos afirmar
que:
a) computer e digital são modificadores ( )
b) electronic e digital são modificadores ( )
c) electronic e computer são modificadores ( )
d) computer é o núcleo ( )
e) electronic é o núcleo ( )
5) Escreva um breve resumo relatando sobre o que trata o texto.
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
6) Retire do texto cinco (05) palavras cognatas com tradução:
-3
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
7) Retire do texto um (01) falso cognato e sua tradução.___________________________
8) Assinale abaixo, o único facilitador e/ou estratégia que NÃO foi utilizada na leitura do texto. Justifique sua resposta.
Dicas tipográficas;
Cognatos e palavras familiares;
Scanning;
Skimming;
Conhecimento de mundo.
9) Dê a tradução da sigla ENÌAC.
7777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777
1) Relacione os cognatos e falsos cognatos encontrados no texto:
COGNATOS FALSOS
2) Qual o assunto principal abordado no texto?_____________________________________________
3) Qual é a definição de computador?_____________________________________________________
4) Cite as siglas existentes no texto.______________________________________________________
5) Em que ano Charles Babbage desenhou uma máquina calculadora?__________________________
6) Qual foi um dos primeiros dispositivos de calcular e como funcionava?
____________________________________________________________________________________
7) Qual foi o primeiro computador eletrônico digital?______________________________
8) Em que ano foi construído?________________________________________________

IMPERATIVO
A forma imperativa, utilizada para ordenar ou pedir algo, possui a mesma forma do infinitivo do verbo,
sem to:
To repair: consertar Repair the terminal.
Please repair the equipment.
Repair the engine, please.
Para formar o imperativo negativo, coloca-se do not (don't) antes do verbo:
To press: pressionar Don't press this button.
Please don't press the button.
Don't press this button, please
Com Let us (Let's) = vamos:
Usado antes do infinitivo do verbo, sem to, para sugerir ou convidar alguém para uma ação conjunta.
Let's load the peripherals.
Let's stop.
Let's go.
EXERCISES:
ReIacione as coIunas de acordo com a tradução:
-%
1) DRAG ( ) ÌNCLUA
2) PRESS ( ) MUDE
3) CLÌCK ( ) PRESSÌONE
4) CLOSE ( ) APAGUE
5) MOVE ( ) ARRASTE
6) GRAB ( ) PUXE
7) SELECT ( ) ABRA
8) OPEN ( ) CLÌQUE
9) PUSH ( ) EXECUTE
10) PULL ( ) CANCELE
11) DELETE ( ) FECHE
12) RUN ( ) MOVA
13) ÌNSTALL ( ) ÌNSÌRA
14) ÌNSERT ( ) EMPURRE
15) ÌNCLUDE ( ) SELECÌONE
16) CHANGE ( ) PEGUE
17) CANCEL ( ) ÌNSTALE
WHAT IS DESKLOOP?
Ìmagine yourself at the center of a virtual loop where all the windows you use are spread out around you.
Whichever window you need to view can be centered in front of you with a click of a button.
Take this idea and zoom into your pc environment. With Deskloops, all the windows you have open are
aligned side by side in a loop-like order. No more countless windows arranged one on top of the other in
a confusing manner. You can access all the information you need and navigate through it easily.
The loop can be rotated clockwise and countercIockwise simply by moving the cursor to the edge of the
screen and using right click.
Think of the loop as a dynamic rubber band; with each newly opened window the loop automatically
grows. With every closed or minimized window, the loop becomes smaller.
Anytime you want to return to the desktop, double click on Deskloops tray icon and the windows will shift
aside in one swift motion.
http://www.xilokit.com/deskloops/deskloops.html
http://www.xilokit.com/deskloops/Deskloops_UserGuide.pdf
--
EXERCISE
Leia o texto acima e faça os exercícios a seguir:
a) Circule todos os verbos na forma imperativa.
b) De a tradução de todas as palavras em negrito, inclusive o titulo.
c) Relacione os cognatos e familiares encontrados no texto.
SOFTWARE
SOFTWARE (Computer), computer program; instructions that cause the hardware (machine) to do work.
Software can be divided into a number of categories based on the types of work done by programs. The
two primary software categories are operating system which control the workings of the computer, and
application software which addresses the multitude of tasks for which people use computers. Operating
System includes programming languages and utility programs. Application Software includes software
that executes accounting, word processing, data management, communications and graphics. Two
additional categories are network software which enable groups of computers to communicate and
language software which provide programmers the tools they need to write programs. See also
OPERATÌNG SYSTEM; PROGRAMMÌNG LANGUAGE.
Excerpted from "Microsoft Encarta 96 Encyclopedia
1993-1995 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Complete o diagrama com informações retiradas do texto:
CATEGORIAS

-.
SO4T:-RE
SISTE,-
OPER-CION-.
SO4T:-RE DE
.IN/U-/E,
Fonte$ 1iste!a 3pera"ional Nindo9s 1erver 2>>>.
CARACTERÍSTICAS



SOFTWARE PIRACY
Software piracy is the unauthorized and illegal duplication of copyrighted computer software. The most
common forms include copying for personal use, for use among employees of a company, and for resale.
The latter includes manufacturing of counterfeit packages that pretend to be originals.
Piracy is the most widespread computer crime. The Software Publishers Association (SPA), the principal
trade group of the personal computing software industry, estimated that in 1994 the industry lost $8.08
billion worldwide due to illegal copying of operating systems, education, entertainment, or personal
productivity software.
Excerpted from The 1996 GroIier MuItimedia EncycIopedia.
1995 Grolier Ìncorporated. All rights reserved.
Questões sobre o texto:
1. Quais foram todos os tipos de pirataria mencionados no texto? _______________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
2. De acordo com o texto, a pirataria é considerada um crime? Retire do texto a sentença que afirma ou
nega isso? ___________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
3) O que é a SPA? O que esta sigla significa? _______________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
4) Observe a palavra grifada: "The latter includes the manufacturing of counterfeit packages that pretend
to be originals.¨ Ela é um cognato ou um falso-cognato? Qual o seu real significado? ________________
______________________________________________________________.
Text:
VIRTUAL REALITY
Researchers in computer imaging technology are developing systems by which users can experience
a simulated three-dimensional reality (3D). This simulated reality is known as virtual reality (VR).
Sometimes the term cyberspace is used as synonym with VR.
Since the 1970s, technologists have learned how to produce animated computer images of objects
that exhibit colors, textures and special changings. The images can also be subjected to changing light
conditions and to simulated effects of gravity and other forces. The results can look as real as actual
motion pictures.
The further aim of technologists is to make it for person t "enter¨ and actually manipulate VR. This is
being achieved by having an observer who wears a headgear through which computer images are
-/
7777777777777777
7777777777777777
7777777777777777
7777777777777777
7777777777777777
7777777777777777
CO,UNIC-ABO 7777777777777
displayed on small screens in front of the eyes. At the same time, gloves that are equipped with sensors
are transmitting apparent changes of body orientation in VR. A simpler form of these VR techniques is
seen in the flight simulators used for training pilots.
Adapted from: GroIier EIectronic PubIishing, Inc., 1996
• Questões sobre o texto: (Compreensão)
1) O que os pesquisadores da área de tecnologia de imagem computacional estão desenvolvendo?
____________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________.
2) O que é Realidade Virtual? Qual é a sua sigla (em Ìnglês)?
____________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________.
3) Dê um sinônimo de "Virtual Reality¨? _____________________________________
4) Quando iniciaram-se as pesquisas com VR? Como eram feitas? ______________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
5) O que pretendiam as pesquisas posteriores?
____________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
VocabuIário Técnico
6) Encontre no texto as palavras ou expressões que se referem às seguintes definições:
a. People who work in technology area: ____________________________
b. Three-dimensional reality: ____________________________________
c. Another name for monitor or display: ___________________________
Gramática ContextuaIizada ING
7) Classifique os ÌNGs encontrados no texto em gerúndio, substantivo ou verbo:
a. Researchers in computer imaging technology are deveIoping systems.
_____________________________ __________________________
b. . images of objects that exhibit colors, textures and special changings.
__________________________
c. This is being achieved by having an observer who.
____________________ ______________________
d. . gloves that are equipped with sensors are transmitting changes.
____________________
e. .flight simulators used for training pilots.
_______________________
-<
OPERATING SYSTEM
The most important program that runs on a computer. Every general-purpose computer must have an
operating system to run other programs. Operating systems perform basic tasks, such as recognizing
input from the keyboard, sending output to the display screen, keeping track of files and directories on
the disk, and controlling peripheral devices such as disk drives and printers.
For large systems, the operating system has even greater responsibilities and powers. Ìt is like a
traffic cop -- it makes sure that different programs and users running at the same time do not interfere
with each other. The operating system is also responsible for security, ensuring that unauthorized
users do not access the system.
Operating systems can be classified as follows:
muIti-user : Allows two or more users to run programs at the same time. Some operating systems
permit hundreds or even thousands of concurrent users.
muItiprocessing : Supports running a program on more than one CPU.
muItitasking : Allows more than one program to run concurrently.
muItithreading : Allows different parts of a single program to run concurrently.
reaI time: Responds to input instantly. General-purpose operating systems, such as DOS and
UNÌX, are not real-time.
Operating systems provide a software platform on top of which other programs, called application
programs( can run. The application programs must be written to run on top of a particular operating
system. Your choice of operating system, therefore, determines to a great extent the applications you
can run. For PCs, the most popular operating systems are DOS, OS/2, and Windows, but others are
available, such as Linux. As a user, you normally interact with the operating system through a set of
commands. For example, the DOS operating system contains commands such as COPY and
RENAME for copying files and changing the names of files, respectively. The commands are
accepted and executed by a part of the operating system called the command processor or command
line interpreter. Graphical user interfaces allow you to enter commands by pointing and clicking at
objects that appear on the screen.
VocabuIário
1. Passe para o Português as expressões abaixo retiradas do texto:
a. General-purpose computer - ___________________________________
b. Operating system - __________________________________________
c. Basic tasks - ________________________________________________
d. Peripheral devices - __________________________________________
e. Different programs and users - _________________________________
2. Encontre no texto as seguintes palavras em Ìnglês:
a. Teclado - _______________
b. Tela - __________________
c. Usuários - _______________
d. Diretórios - ______________
-=
e. Segurança - ______________
f. Acessar - ________________
g. Aplicativos - _____________
h. Processador - _____________
.>
3. O que é um Sistema Operacional, de acordo com a definição do texto?
____________________________________________________________________________________
4. Quais são as funções do Sistema Operacional?
- ___________________________________________________________
- ___________________________________________________________
- ___________________________________________________________
- ___________________________________________________________
5. Como ele pode ser classificado?
2 ________________________________
2 ________________________________
2 ________________________________
2 ________________________________
6. O que faz o multi-user?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________.
7. Quais são os mais populares Sistemas Operacionais para PCs?
8. Como são aceitos e executados os comandos do Sistema Operacional?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
9. Passe a seguinte sentença do texto para o Português: "The Operating System is also responsible for
security, ensuring that unauthorized users do not access the system¨.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
10) O que possui o Sistema Operacional DOS e para que serve?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
FILME: PIRATES OF SILICON VALLEY
Vamos falar um pouco da história de grandes empresas como a Microsoft e Apple, que estão
relacionadas a sua área de estudo. Para isso, faremos uma análise e comentaremos as partes principais
do filme "Pirates of SiIicon VaIIey". Posteriormente, você o assistirá !
Os Piratas do Vale de Silício (1999) é um "docudrama¨ dirigido por Martyn Burke, baseado no livro: "Fogo
no Vale¨, que documenta a ascensão do computador doméstico ou PERSONAL COMPUTER. Mostra a
rivalidade entre os computadores da Apple (Apple ÌÌ e o Apple Macintosh) e os da Microsoft (Altair de
MÌTS, DOS, PC da ÌBM, e Windows).
A história central do filme começa nos anos 70, no campus de Berkeley UC durante o período do
movimento livre do discurso e as atribulações do estudante Bill Gates, dos trabalhos de Steve, dos amigos
de infância (Noah Wyle) e do Steve Wozniak (Joey Slotnick), que daria forma ao computador da Apple, o
do amigo Paul Allen (Josh Hopkins), que iniciaria a Microsoft.
Na primeira cena, Steve Jobs e Steve Wosniak aparecem nos preparativos da produção de um
comercial que ficou muito famoso nos EUA. Trata-se do lançamento do Machintosh. Esse comercial foi
exibido uma única vez, num evento de visibilidade muito grande (uma final de campeonato esportivo); o
equivalente no Brasil seria uma final de campeonato nacional de futebol.
Steve Jobs , vivido pelo ator Noah Wyle, olha para a câmera com um ar maníaco e diz: "Não quero que
você pense nisso só como um filme. Nós estamos reescrevendo a história da humanidade.¨
6irates of +ilicon 7alley, de 1999, conta a história do computador pessoal de um jeito muito divertido,
apesar de conter exageros. Retrata com precisão as diferenças entre os grandes inventores do
computador pessoal: Jobs, Bill Gates e a ÌBM.

Assista agora ao fiIme e anote os aspectos reIevantes da história. Posteriormente, você responderá
aIgumas questões sobre eIe; portanto, fique atento!

1) Qual foi o primeiro microcomputador comercialmente lançado?Por qual empresa? Esse computador teve
sucesso? Por quê?
2) Cite uma cena empreendedora do filme que para ser descrita use-se o termo
capitalismo de risco.
3) Cite duas cenas em que empresas grandes observaram tecnologias inovadoras e não lhes deram valor
(cite a empresa e a tecnologia). Por que essas empresas foram incapazes de
reconhecer o potencial dessas tecnologias?
4) Quem disse a frase "O lucro está no hardware, e não no software? Descreva a cena em que isso foi
dito.Comente essa frase.
5) Por que a mudança de percepção de valor que o mercado dava para hardware e software mudou tanto
do momento em que essa frase foi dita para o momento atual?
6) Cite cenas do filme que para serem descritas use-se o termo
inteIigência competitiva.
7) Cite alguns comentários feitos por Bill Gates sobre estratégias comerciais. O que você acha delas?
8) Descreva as expectativas de Paul Alen e do dono da Seatle Computers no momento em que ele
pretendia comprar DOS dele.
9)Qual era o risco de Paul Alen no caso de não conseguir comprar o produto? Qual era a percepção de
valor que o dono da Seatle Computers tinha sobre o DOS?
10) Quem era o autor da frase:¨Bons artistas copiam, grandes artistas roubam?¨ Comente essa frase.
11) Com relação à Direito e Ética, o que podemos concluir sobre o filme?
12) No decorrer do filme apareceram vários grupos nominais, escreva cinco deles.
13) Justifique a frase: " O grande sucesso de Bill Gates e Steve Jobs se deu através de suas habiIidades
comunicativas.¨

Programming Languages
Just as there are many human languages, so there are many computer languages. Ìn the early days,
people programmed using the computer´s binary code, or what we call `machine language´. When this
became difficult, mnemonics were used to make life easier. This is called `assembly language´
programming. Finally, there are the high-level languages like BASÌC, FORTRAN, and ALGOL. These are
much more similar to everyday language, and are translated directly or indirectly into the computer´s
machine code using the computer´s firmware.
BASÌC is the language most often used to introduce programming.
• Some heIp
just as = assim como
in the earIy days = no princípio, no início
mnemonics = arte de desenvolver a memória mediante processos auxiliares como a associação.
to make easier = tornar mais fácil
high-IeveI = alto nível
firmware = ´software` armazenado em ROM em vez de disco
1) Sabendo-se que a expressão "computer´s binary code¨ está no Caso Genitivo; a
correspondente em Português é:
a) computador de código binário
b) computação binária de código
c) código de computação binária
d) código binário do computador
2) Retire do texto outras duas expressões que estejam no Caso Genitivo:
a) _________________________________________________.
b) _________________________________________________.
Machine Language
This is the language which the computer actually understands inside itself. Machine language
statements are written in a binary code, and each statement corresponds to one machine action.
A program written in high-level language is often called a `source program´, and it cannot be directly
processed by the computer until it has been compiled, which means interpreted into machine code. Usually
a single instruction written in a high-level language, when transformed into machine code, results in several
instructions. But some computers can be programmed directly in machine code.
• Some heIp
statements = programas são compostos por `statements´, isto é, instruções, comandos.
compiIed = traduzido em linguagem de máquina; compilado.
a singIe = um única
3) Transcreva da sentença o Grupo NominaI nela existente e passe toda a sentença para o
Português:
"But some computers can be programmed directIy in machine code".
Grupo NominaI:
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________.
De acordo com o texto, um programa escrito em linguagem de alto nível é freqüentemente chamado de:
a) machine code
b) machine language
c) source program
d) several instructions
4) Assinale a alternativa que preenche a afirmação de acordo com o texto:
" Cada comando corresponde a _____________________________.
a) um programa fonte
b) um código binário
c) um código de máquina
d) um ação da máquina
AssembIy Languages
Assembly language is a programming language that talks fairly directly to the computer. Unlike machine
language, which is what the computer understands, assembly language is mnemonic, so that it can be
understood and remembered more easily by a human being; in fact, assembly language is really just
machine language in mnemonic form.
Assembly languages are specific to a given CPU chip and are named after it (8080 assembly language,
6809 assembly language, etc.) 8hey are harder to program than a high#le$el language( 'ut they produce
programs that are more efficient and run faster%
• Some heIp
fairIy = quase
unIike = ao contrário de, diferente de
just = apenas, justamente
CPU = Central Processing Unit
are named = recebem o nome
after it de acordo com ele (chip
5) Na sentença do texto que está sublinhada, o pronome "They¨ refere-se à palavra:
a) languages
b) CPU
c) programs
d) chip
6) Assinale a alternativa em que há um Grupo NominaI:
a) directly to the computer
b) machine language
c) more easily
d) the computer understand
7) Complete as sentences com some ou any:
a) There are ______________ complex Mathematical problems.
a) Ì can´t find ______________ texts on `Time-sharing`.
b) There isn´t ______________ time for transmitting new data.
c) Do you have _____________ good marks?
d) There are ______________ printers in this room.
High-LeveI Languages
A high-level languages is a computer programming language designed to allow people to write programs
without having to understand the inner workings of the computer.
They are fairly close to natural languages like English and most have been written for one particular type
of application or another. For example, ALGOL has been written for general applications, COBOL for
business applications, FORTRAN for mathematics work and BASÌC for general purpose introductory
programming.
High-level languages are easier to program than assembly languages, but generally produce programs
that are less efficient and run slower.
• Some heIp
designed to = pIanned to = planejada, projetada
inner workings = trabalhos internos, o que se passa dentro.
cIose to = near = perto de, parecidas
most = a maioria
generaI-purpose = objetivo geral
8) Na expressão "computer programming language¨ a palavra em destaque é:
a) gerúndio (programando)
b) verbo (programar)
c) substantivo (programação)
d) particípio(programado)
9) Assinale a alternativa correta, de acordo com o texto:
a) Linguagens de alto nível são _______________________ de programar do que linguagem assembly.
1) mais difíceis
2)mais fáceis
b) Linguagens de alto nível produzem programas que são _________________________ do que
linguagem assembly.
1-menos eficientes
2-mais eficientes
c) Programas em linguagem de alto nível `rodam´ ________________________.
1-mais rápido
2-mais lento
Internet
Ìnternet started in 1969, in a military project in which 21 computers were linked. This means that a person in
one oh those computers could read the files of any other computer in the same network. This project was
called ARPANET. During the 70´s and 80´s, computer technology developed vary fast. Networks were
developed, like the ARPANET.You will do everything through Ìnternet: shopping, electronic forums, debates
etc. The Ìnternet will be the necessary basis for our everyday life. (Adapted from Sun, Amos)
Questions
Leia o texto acima, apIique as estratégias de Ieitura e responda:
1) O que o texto afirma sobre a Internet? EscoIha apenas uma aIternativa correta e traduza na Iinha
abaixo.
a) will be a military reality in the future
b) will be important for everyone
c) is made of 21 computers
d) can be used to develop technology very fast
e) teachers computer skills
tradução:
_______________________________________________________________________________
2) Explique o que é ARPANET. Resposta em português.
____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
3) De acordo com o texto a frase "computers were linked¨ pode ser traduzida como:
a) computadores estão ligados
b) computadores eram desligados
c) computadores não eram conectados
d) computadores estão conectados
e) computadores estavam conectados
4) Explique o que aconteceu entre os anos 70 e 80? ________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
5) traduza a frase: "a person in one of those computers could read the files of any other computer in the
same network.¨ _______________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
JAVA
Who is the champion in the world about plataforms! Ìf you said windows, you're wrong. The
champion in technology is Java. Ìt was created by "sun¨ to work in receptors of cable TV, adapted for
Ìnternet and later to PDAs, cell phones and similars.
Java is a program language. Softwares that are writen in this "language¨ can be executed in any
dispositive, since it has the operational system.
This independence is possible due to the fact that this technology is based in a complex software
that permits to execute any order.
The name arose from a conversation among programmers in a coffee shop ÷ Java is one kind of
coffee from Java island. From the name, others have arisen at the same time: Java beans ÷ Hot Java- only
to exemplify. The stylistic cup is the famous reference. And there is one thing that only programmers know.
The first four bytes of any file class are in hexadecimal, OXCAFEBABE.
Finally, about micro Edition, we have Java me, more known as Jame.
Java logo (created by sun)
(adapted from Ìnternet Magazine, by Niuza Barone Peres, June, 2006)
Comprehension questions.
1. Who is the champion in technology? ___________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
2. What is Java? ______________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
3. Como surgiu a marca e aonde?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
4. Em que esta tecnologia é baseada?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
5. Circule os Cognatos e relacione as familiares encontradas no texto.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
6. Qual empresa criou a tecnologia mencionada no texto?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
HOW IS COMPUTER USED?
A computer is used first as a number processor, to continue to perform accurate and quick computations.
Second, as data processor, to handle, process, and print huge quantities of data. Third, as an information
analyzer, to aid and improve decision-making. And finally, as a knowledge processor, to make available to
the public vast banks as information through electronic channels called networks.
Examples of these four major users are:
• Adding up the daily transactions at a bank (number processing)
• Printing the charge account statements of a major department store (data processing)
• Projecting sales for an industrial manufacturer (information analyzing);
• Planning a vacation schedule (knowledge processing).
Source: (Galante, Ìnglês para informática.)
"O#A$ULAR%
Accurate = careful and exact = precisas, certeiras.
Quick = speedy, rapid = velozes, rápidas.
Huge = immense, enormous = enormes, colossais, imenso, vasto.
Decision-making = tomada de posição / tomada de decisão.
Available = acessible = disponíveis, acessíveis.
Networks = redes (de comunicação).
Adding up = achar a soma de
Charge account statements = relatórios de contas de crédito e débito.
Vacation schedule = escala ou programação de férias.
Aid = auxiliar.
Major = principal
To handle = manipular
EXERCISES
1) Escreva abaixo os principais usos de um computador.
First as___________________________________________________________________
Second as_________________________________________________________________
Third as__________________________________________________________________
Finally as_________________________________________________________________
2) Ligue os exempIos e os usos.
(a) planning a vacation schedule ( ) data processing
(b) printing the charge account statements ( ) number processing
(c) projecting sales for an industrial manufacturer ( ) knowledge processing
(d) Adding up the daily transactions at a bank ( ) information analyzing
3) Escreva as paIavras famiIiares encontradas no texto e suas traduções.
FAMILIAR TRADUÇÃO
4) Siga o exempIo. (to process, processor, processing)
a) to analyse,_______________________________________________________________
b) to project, ______________________________________________________________
c) to print, ________________________________________________________________
d) to plan, ________________________________________________________________
5) Dê a tradução das paIavras do exercício anterior.
6) QuaI é a fonte do texto?
1) Escreva um breve parágrafo expIicando o que você entendeu sobre o texto.
How to remove maIicious software from your computer? Published: August 30, 2005
Finding and extracting unwanted program
Despite your best efforts, you may occasionally download a program you don't want.
Here are some ways to remove it. (Note that you may not be able to remove some programs.)
Run the MaIicious Software RemovaI TooI
Make sure your anti-spyware software is current, and then scan your system, following the instructions on
your screen.
Ìf you've downloaded something that's wreaking havoc on your system÷slowing it to a crawl, causing it to
crash frequently, etc.÷try using the Malicious Software Removal Tool. This tool checks computers using
Windows XP, Windows 2000, and Windows Server 2003 for specific malicious software and helps you
remove it.
DisabIe a program by using Add-On Manager (Windows XP Service Pack 2 onIy)
Ìf your anti-spyware program and the Malicious Software Removal Tool don't solve the problem, you may
be able to disable the troublemaker through Add-On Manager.
1.Open Ìnternet Explorer.
2.On the Tools menu, click Manage Add-ons.
3.Ìn the list of add-ons, click to select the one you want to disable, and then click Disable in the Settings
section in the bottom half of the Manage Add-ons box. Look for add-ons you didn't accept or don't
recognize.
4.Click OK.
Tip: Add-ons are programs that extend the capabilities of Ìnternet Explorer, for example, toolbars or
programs that let you accomplish tasks such as making hotel reservations or searching the Ìnternet. But
there are also add-ons you wouldn't want, such as those that redirect your search to their own Web site or
change your homepage.
© 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All
rights reserved
1) Aplicando a técnica de "skimming¨ responda sobre que o texto trata?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
2) O que é: MaIicious Software RemovaI TooI? Responda em português.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
3) De acordo com o texto, o que é Add-ons: responda em português.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
4) Por quais dois motivos um usuário pode não querer algum tipo de Add-ons? Em português.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
5) Quais as sugestões que o texto apresenta para solucionar o problema? Cite todos. Responda em
português.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
COBOL
COBOL is a third-generation programming language , and one of the oldest programming languages
still in active use. Ìts name is an acronym for COmmon Business-Oriented Language, it´s defining its
primary domain in business, finance, and administrative systems for companies and governments. The
COBOL 2002 standard includes support for object-oriented programmin g and other modern language
features.
&istory an speci'ication
Ìn a meeting held at the Pentagon on May 28 and 29, 1959, organized by Charles Phillips, COBOL was
initially created in 1947 by The Short Range Committee, that was formed to recommend a short range
approach to a common business language.
Ìt was made up of members representing six computer manufacturers and three government agencies.
Ìn particular, the six computer manufacturers were Burroughs Corporation, ÌBM, Minneapolis-Honeywell
(Honeywell Labs), RCA, Sperry Rand, and Sylvania Electric Products. The three government agencies
were the US Air Force, the David Taylor Model Basin, and the National Bureau of Standards (Now NÌST).
This committee was chaired by a member of the NBS. An Ìntermediate-Range Committee and a Long-
Range Committee were proposed at the Pentagon meeting as well. However although the Ìntermediate
Range Committee was formed, it was never operational; and the Long-Range Committee was never even
formed. Ìn the end a sub-committee of the Short Range Committee developed the specifications of the
COBOL language.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/COBOL
Leia o texto acima, apIique as estratégias de Ieitura e responda:
1) Segundo o texto, qual é o conceito de COBOL? Responda em português.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
2) Observe a frase: ".recommend a short range approach to a common business Ianguage.¨
Qual é tradução de common business Ianguage?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
3) O que ocorreu em 28 e 29 de maio de 1959:
________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
3) O que inclui o Padrão COBOL 2002? Responda em português.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
5) A que se define o domínio primário do COBOL?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
6) Quais são os seis fabricantes de computadores mencionados no texto?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________

LOADING THE DOCUMENT
Up to 20 pages can be placed in the feeder at one time. The pages will be automatically fed into the fax
starting from the page on the bottom.
• Ìf you need to send or copy more than 20 pages, place the additional pages gently and carefully in
the feeder just before the last page is scanned. Do not try to force them in, as this may cause
double-feeding or jamming.
• Ìf your document consists of several large or thick pages which must be loaded one at a time,
insert each page into the feeder as the previous page is being scanned. Ìnsert gently to prevent
double-feeding.
1 Adjust the document guide on the
right side of the feeder to the width
of your document.
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
2 Place the document face down and
push it gently into the document
feeder. The top edge of the docu-
ment should enter the fax first.
The feeder will draw the leading
edge of the document into the fax.
READY TO SEND will appear in
the display.
3 You can now make resolution and/
or contrast settings as described in
the following section, or dial the
other party as described in the sec-
tion, " Dialing and transmission¨.
Important
Ìf you need to remove the document from the feeder before the transmission or copying, first open the
operation panel by pulling the front edge up and then remove the document. Ìf you try to pull out the
document without opening the operation panel, you may damage the feeder mechanism.
Source: FACSIMILE OPERATION MANUAL / SHARP
• Questões sobre o texto:
1) Como você deve proceder se precisar enviar ou copiar mais de 20 páginas?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________.
2) Qual deve ser o primeiro passo para se carregar o aparelho?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________.
3) Qual é o segundo passo?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________.
4) O que pode acontecer se você abrir puxar o documento sem abrir o painel de operação?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________.
5) Grife no texto a seguir 5 verbos modais e os seus verbos principais.
WireIess Networking
The term wireless networking refers to technology that enables two or more computers to communicate
using standard network protocols, but without network cabling. Strictly speaking, any technology that does
this could be called wireless networking. The current buzzword however generally refers to wireless LANs.
This technology, fuelled by the emergence of cross-vendor industry standards such as ÌEEE 802.11, has
produced a number of affordable wireless solutions that are growing in popularity with business and schools
as well as sophisticated applications where network wiring is impossible, such as in warehousing or point-
of-sale handheld equipment.
There are two kinds of wireless networks:
a. An Hoc or Peer-to Peer wireless network consists of a number of computers each equipped
with a wireless networking interface card. Each computer can communicate directly with all of the other
wireless enabled computers. They can share files and printers this way, but may not be able to access
wired LAN resources, unless one of the computers acts as a bridge to the wired LAN using special
software. (This is called "bridging")
Figure 1: Ad-Hoc or Peer-to Peer Networking.
Each computer with a wireless interface can communicate directly with all of the others.
b. A wireless network can also use an access point, or base station. Ìn this type of network the
access point works like a hub, providing connectivity for the wireless computers. Ìt can connect (or "bridge")
the wireless LAN to a wired LAN, allowing wireless computer access to LAN resources, such as file servers
or existing Ìnternet Connectivity.
There are two types of access points:
i. Dedicated hardware access points (HAP) such as Lucent's WaveLAN, Apple's
Airport Base Station or WebGear's AviatorPRO. (See Figure 2). Hardware access points offer
comprehensive support of most wireless features, but check your requirements carefully.
ii. Software Access Points which run on a computer equipped with a wireless
network interface card as used in an ad-hoc or peer-to-peer wireless network. (See Figure 3) The Vicomsoft
ÌnterGate suites are software routers that can be used as a basic Software Access Point, and include
features not commonly found in hardware solutions, such as Direct PPPoE support and extensive
configuration flexibility, but may not offer the full range of wireless features defined in the 802.11 standard.
With appropriate networking software support, users on the wireless LAN can share files and printers
located on the wired LAN and vice versa. Vicomsoft's solutions support file sharing using TCP/ÌP.
Figure 2: Hardware Access Point.
Wireless connected computers using a Hardware Access Point.
Figure 3: Software Access Point.
Wireless connected computers using a Software Access Point.
.ia o t+to r!"onda:
1) O que é uma rede de trabalho sem fio?
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
2) Em que consiste a rede de trabalho sem fio Hoc ou Peer ÷ to peer?
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
3) Uma rede de trabalho sem fio pode também usar um ponto de acesso, ou uma estação base.
Como este ponto de acesso trabalha?
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
4) Quantos tipos de rede de trabalho sem fio existem, de acordo com o texto?
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
5) Escreva o que as figuras 1, 2 e 3, respectivamente representam?
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
6) Retire do texto dez 10 cognatas e 10 familiares.
7) Circule abaixo todos os facilitadores e/ou estratégias utilizados na análise e interpretação do texto.
a) Dicas tipográficas d) Skimming
b) Cognatos e palavras familiares e) Conhecimento de mundo
c) Scanning
9) Com base no texto, circule a alternativa em que todas as palavras são falsos cognatos.
a) refers, term
b) more, file
c) using, interface
a) directly, generally
e) business, wireless
10) Retire do texto cinco (05) afixos (prefixos ou sufixos) com tradução.
AFIXO TRADUÇÃO
11) Retire do texto cinco (05) grupos nominais com tradução.
GRUPO NOMINAL TRADUÇÃO
12) De acordo com o texto, a quem os pronomes em destaque se referem?
That:______________________________________________________________________
They:______________________________________________________________________
Which:_____________________________________________________________________
13) Dê a tradução das palavras abaixo
1. To change
____________________________
2. To connect
___________________________
3. To develop
___________________________
4. To
feed______________________________
5. To handle
____________________________
6. To have
______________________________
7. To improve
___________________________
8. To perform
___________________________
9. To plan
______________________________
10. To run
_______________________________
11. To save
______________________________
12. To set up
_____________________________
13. To supply
____________________________
14. Tool
________________________________
15. User
________________________________
16. Very much
___________________________
17. Way
________________________________
18. Wireless
_____________________________
19. Wizard
______________________________
20. Workgroup
___________________________
Your CV
ExampIe:
NAME: Gavin H Alvarez
_____________________________________________________________________________________
ADDRESS: 26 Dryfield Road
Cambridge CB2 2DS
_____________________________________________________________________________________
TELEPHONE NUMBER: 01223 3268452
_____________________________________________________________________________________
E-MAÌL ADDRESS: gavinhalvarez@btinternet.com
_____________________________________________________________________________________
DATE OF BÌRTH: 14 June 1984
_____________________________________________________________________________________
EDUCATION
1995 ÷ 2000 Graves High School for Boys
Graves Avenue
Cambridge CB3 4RG
_____________________________________________________________________________________
2000- 2002 Cam College of Engineering and Technology
Birch Road
Cambridge CB6 7YT
_____________________________________________________________________________________
QUALIFICATIONS
2000 GCSEs: English, Maths, General Science, Design and Technology, French,
Spanish, Art, and History
_____________________________________________________________________________________
2001 Level 1 Engineering and Technology foundation course
_____________________________________________________________________________________
2002 Level 2 Computing course specializing in software development
_____________________________________________________________________________________

Photo
WORK EXPERIENCE
AUGUST ÷ SEPTEMBER 2000 Temporary job as ÌT assistant
at Norris´s Aeronautics, Cambridge.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
OCTOBER 2000 ÷ JUNE 2002 Saturday and holiday job testing computer games at Silicompany,
Cambridge.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
OTHER ÌNFORMATÌON Bi-lingual in Spanish and English; clean driving licence
ÌNTERESTS Developing computer games, member of college football team,
photography, and playing the guitar
_____________________________________________________________________________________
REFEREE Ms Daisy Valentine (course tutor)
Cam College of Engineering and Technology Birch Road -
Cambridge CB6 7YT
_____________________________________________________________________________________
Before you start
1 ÷ Have you ever had a part-time or work experience job? Tell your class:
• what your job was
• how you got it
Reading
2- Read the curriculum vitae (CV) quickly and choose the correct answers to the questions below.
1 What is a CV?
a) A description of someone´s family, education, likes and dislikes.
b) A description of someone´s education, work experience, and skills.
2 How is a CV arranged?
a) under headings
b) like a letter
3 Read the CV again and decide if the sentences (1-7) below are true (T) or faIse (F).
1 Gavin Alvarez lives in Cambridge. ( )
2 He is a student at Cam College. ( )
3 He passed his GCSEs in 2001. ( )
4 He has had Saturday and holiday jobs since 2000. ( )
5 He left Cam College in 2000. ( )
6 He is quite good at languages. ( )
7 He isn´t interested in technology. ( )
Writing
4 Write your own CV in English using qualifications you already have, or ones that you think you might get
in the future. Use Gavin´s CV as a model for your writing.
Name
Address
Telephone number
e-mail address
Date of birth
Education
Qualifications
Work experience
Other information
Ìnterests
Referee
VOCABULARY APPROACH: KEYBOARD SYMBOLS AND PUNCTUATION MARKS
A) Look at the keys across the top of the computer keyboard and complete the sentences.
1. ~ This is called a ______________________________________
2. ` This is called a ______________________________________
3. ! This is called an ______________________________________
4. @ This symbol means a______________________________________
5. # This symbol means ______________________________________
6. $ This is called a ______________________________________
7. % This symbol means ______________________________________
8. ^ This symbol is called a ______________________________________
9. & This symbol is called an _____________________ and means _______________
10. * This symbol is called an ______________________________________
11. ( ) These two marks are called ______________________________________
12. - This is called a ______________________________________
13. + This symbol is called a ______________________________________
14. = This symbol is called an ______________________________________
B) Look around the computer keyboard and compIete the sentences.
15. { } These marks are called ______________________________________
16. [ • These marks are called ______________________________________
17. : This is called a ______________________________________
18. ; This is called a ______________________________________
19. " " These marks are called ______________________________________
20. " " Ìn British English, these marks are called ______________________________________
21. ' This is called an ______________________________________
22. , This is called a ______________________________________
23. . This is called a period ______________________________________
24. . Ìn British English, this is called a ______________________________________
25. ... Three periods together are called an ______________________________________
26. ? This is called a ______________________________________
27. / This is called a ______________________________________
28. € This is called a ______________________________________
29. • > These marks are called ______________________________________
CROSSWORD
VERTÌCAÌS HORÌZONTAÌS
1) ampersand 2) and
3) angle brackets 4) apostrophe
5) asterisks 6) at
7) back slash 8) braces
9) brackets 10) circumflex
11) colon 12) comma
13) dollar sign 14) ellipsis
15) equal sign 16) exclamation mark
17) forward slash or virgule 18) full stop
19) grave or grave accent 20) hyphen
21) inverted commas 22) number
23) parentheses 24) per cent
25) period 26) plus sign
27) question mark 28) quotation marks or quotes
29) semicolon 30) tilde
CompIete com as paIavras da tabeIa acima(1/5/11/21/23/29 e 4/8/10/15/28)
CompIete as Iacunas com as paIavras abaixo:
BLOGGER / COMPUTER / CHAT / USER / END USER / BLOG
A _______________ is a website in which items are posted on a regular basis and displayed in reverse
chronological order. This term is a shortened form of weblog. Ìt comprises text, hypertext, images, and links
(to other web pages and to video, audio and other files). Ìt uses a conversational style of documentation. A
person who posts these entries is called a ___________.
_____________is a real-time communication between two users via computer. Once has been initiated,
either user can enter text by typing on the keyboard and the entered text will appear on the other user's
monitor. Most networks and online services offer its feature.
___________ is an individual who uses a computer. This includes expert programmers as well as novices.
An _________is any individual who runs na application program.
A programmable machine. The two principal characteristics of a ___________________ are:
• Ìt responds to a specific set of instructions in a well-defined manner.
• Ìt can execute a prerecorded list of instructions (a program)
Referências
BOECKNER, Keith & BROWN, P. Charles. &)ford nglish for Computing%&)ford:Oxford University Press, 1996.
CASTLEMAN, R. K. Digital Image 6rocessing. USA: Prentice Hall, 2000.
CRUZ, Décio Torres & SÌLVA, Alba Valéria & ROSAS, Marta. Inglês%com%te)tos para inform5tica. Salvador: O Autor ,
2001.
GALANTE, T. P. Inglês para 6rocessamento de Dados. São Paulo: Atlas, 1996.
MARTÌNS, Elisabeth P. & PASQUALÌN, Ernesto & AMOS, Eduardo. 0raded nglish. São Paulo: Moderna,1993.
MUNHOZ, Rosângela. Inglês Instrumental 9 strat:gias de Leitura. Módulo Ì. São Paulo: TEXTO NOVO, 2000.
________.Inglês Instrumental 9 strat:gias de Leitura. Módulo ÌÌ. São Paulo: TEXTO NOVO, 2001.
Ìnternet: sites diversos

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