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I read two articles related to self-directed learning, a topic that is important in regards to student self-confidence and progress.

The first article I read, Teaching Learners To Be Self-Directed, focuses on the Staged Self-Directed Learning Model and the stages that learners progress through, including facilitation from a teacher. The second article on self-directed learning that I examined, Self-Directed Learning Strategies For Adult ELLs, discusses self-directed learning applied to English as a second language and encouragement for students in developing their own learning strategies. Self-directed learning is a topic that I have some nowledge of, therefore, I wanted to learn more. I feel that I have more insight on the topic now. I will descri!e m" findings, !ased on the two articles. #rom the article Teaching Learners To Be Self-Directed, the author explains how to communicate with students and to help them to !ecome self-directed learners. There is an emphasis on the readiness of students to !e self-directed, and the Staged Self-Directed Learning Model is introduced. Students ma" !e at different levels within self-directed learning, !ut there is alwa"s potential to help students to reach a more independent level of learning $%row, pp. &'(-&')*. The goal is to promote communication and learning !etween teachers and students. +ne area to focus on, is that of avoiding miscommunication. There could !e student resentment or teachers ma" !elieve their students are not interested, if the teacher is attempting to teach a stage of the Staged SelfDirected Learning model that is not at the current student level $%row, pp. &,--&./*. 0 teacher must now a!out their students in order to now the level of self-directed learning that is appropriate. 1ro!lems ma" arise if the student is mismatched in a classroom that is emphasi2ing a different stage of self-directed learning $%row, pp. &,(-

&,)*. It is explained that students must !e prepared to teach students at various learning levels, all in the same classroom. It should not !e expected that ever"one is at the same level. The stages are explained as dependent learners, learners who are interested and moderate in self-directed learning, involved learners who are at an intermediate level in self-direction, and finall" learners who are self-directed and confident in setting their own goals $%row, pp. &'-*. Teachers are encouraged to wor with their students and to help them advance to a level where the" are more independent and less reliant on a teacher3s assistance. This will help a student to have greater confidence, conduct learning outside of the classroom, and to !e more goal oriented. In addition to this, it is explained that there are multiple methods of teaching, as opposed to onl" one method that is successful $%row, pp. &')*. Teachers should also not expect a self-directed learner to !e at the same level for all su!4ects, as there ma" !e topics that the learner is more comforta!le with. This would !e an inconsistenc" in self-directed learning, however, it would ma e sense as information varies depending on the topic and how it is explained to students. In the first stage of this model, dependent learners are not self-directed and the" rel" heavil" on teacher instruction and involvement. This stage involves the teacher3s role as a coach, with students in need of direction on how to perform tas s $%row, pp. &'-&,/*. Some of this t"pe of learning ma" !e due to a lac of self-confidence, and although this stage ma" not necessaril" !e !ad for students, it is necessar" for students to ma e progress in order to not !e limited. 0t this first stage in the Staged Self-Directed Learning model, the teacher should esta!lish credi!ilit" in the classroom, in order to encourage success and also to help students to reach !e"ond their current level. Students who are

dependent on a teacher will need to ma e progress in order to ta e on more responsi!ilit". 1art of helping the student to ma e progress ma" involve discovering the areas that are holding the student !ac . 5hen students ma e progress on their own, the teacher should congratulate them, letting them now that the" can ma e positive changes without dependence on an instructor $%row, pp. &'--&,&*. Students who progress to the second stage of the model will !e moderatel" selfdirected learners. The teacher should continue to motivate students with enthusiasm, and students should reali2e the !enefit of the assignments. It is explained that students who are motivated will have the encouragement to wor on their own without as much dependence on an instructor. In addition to this, instructors should empower students to set their own goals $%row, pp. &,&-&,'*. In this second stage, students should learn a!out themselves. Teachers should have high standards and motivate students to surpass their own expectations. The students should !egin to help themselves. In the third and intermediate stage of the Staged Self-Directed Learning model, students should view themselves as an individual who ta es part in their own learning. There is still teacher guidance, !ut the student also provides their own guidance !ased on meeting goals the" have esta!lished. 0t this stage the student should !uild more selfconfidence !" wor ing with others in group pro4ects. 0nother part of this stage involves the student anal"2ing themselves, ma ing ad4ustments to what is and is not of value to them. #or group pro4ects, the students !egin to create their own plans, and in some cases the teacher ma" !e a participant to the learning $%row, pp. &,,*. Learning contracts ma" !e a part of the learning in stage four, and there ma" !e more negotiation !etween an instructor and a student. The student ma" thin of themselves as a future e6ual to an

instructor in regards to learning and creating goals that will lead to meaningful results $pp. &,.-&,7*. In the fourth stage that is most productive to self-directed learning, students ma" !e setting their own goals and standards without instructor help. This is a greater level of !eing a self-directed learner, a stage that one has reached after !uilding up to it. The student3s learning, direction, and productivit" is their own responsi!ilit". This is the stage where there is the least dependence on an instructor for guidance. Students will !e more li el" to evaluate themselves and also offer a criti6ue to their peers. 0lthough this is an independent stage, there ma" still !e occasions where the instructor3s expertise is needed. Students should !e finding their own wa" of approaching assignments and completing them on their own schedule $%row, pp. &,7-&,(*. In conclusion to the article on the staged self-directed learning model, instructors should now have a detailed model to follow, in order to encourage students to advance. There are warnings, such as avoiding a mismatched learning environment where a teacher wrongfull" assumes that a student is in a more advanced stage. 1ersonall", I feel that this is a good model for instructors to use. Students should !e approached on an individual !asis, and although there is room for changes !ased on individual learning st"les, I feel that students would !e successful with this model. I li e that it is a gradual process and that it slowl" transfers more independence to students. 0 ma4or part of this would involve ma ing a decision as to whether or not a student is read" to progress to the next stage. I thin that part of !eing a teacher involves creating self-confidence in students, and that !" the conclusion of a program, students should !e a!le to demonstrate their s ills without heav" reliance on instructor guidance. The stages of the model are

important, !ecause a teacher should not expect students to !ecome self-directed without the proper amount of time, nowledge, and encouragement. In addition to the article on the Staged Self-Directed Learning model, I also read Self-Directed Learning Strategies for Adult ELLs. This article explains that due to a lac of classroom time, students learning English as a second language should !ecome selfdirected. The reason for this is so that the" ma" teach themselves and ma e advancements in their learning. Teachers ma" help students to !ecome self-directed learners !" encouraging them to design their own learning strategies. In order to help students to have self-confidence, there is an example of immigrants who taught themselves to spea English. It is also detailed in the article that students should !e encouraged to approach situations outside the classroom where the" can enhance their understanding. This helps a student to have less dependence on a teacher, and more confidence in themselves, due to their own a!ilit". In regards to assignments, it is explained that teachers ma" allow students to have some freedom in what the" select, in order to eep students interested,. #or example, students ma" explore a topic that is of personal interest to them, or the" ma" !e given a choice of choosing a topic related to reading, video, or the internet. 0ll of the assignments would share the common theme of !ecoming more proficient in English. +verall, I feel that !oth of the articles that I read encourage student self-directed learning. 8oth of these articles offer productive suggestions that teachers ma" use to help students. 0n instructor could ta e the information from the article Teaching Learners To Be Self-Directed, and appl" it to Learning Strategies For Adult ELLs. The second article is specific to adults learning English as a second language, whereas the first article is less

specific to a su!4ect, and more focused on self-directed learning techni6ues. I am impressed !" the Staged Self-Directed Learning model, and I thin that if an instructor has an understanding of their students that it would !e effective. I thin that an important factor includes nowledge of the student, so the instructor will now when students are read" to ma e progress.

9eferences %row, %erald +. $&--&*. Teaching Learners To Be Self-Directed. 0dult Education :uarterl", ;ol. .&, <um!er ,, Spring, &--&, pp. &'.-&.-. http=>>alec'>grad?courses>(&&>Modules>Module'>Lesson'>%row/&.1D# Lowe, 0lexandra D. $'/&'*. Self-Directed Learning Strategies For Adult ELLs. TES+L International 0ssociation. http=>>>tesolc>issues>'/&'-/,-/&>'.html