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Windows NT® Server Server Operating System White Paper
With Windows NT Server 4.0, the implementation and configuration of routing has become much easier. Windows NT Server 4.0 is well-suited for branch office deployments, as well as for use in edge routing where a corporate networ connects to the !nternet or other wide area networ "W#N$. !n these scenarios, the configuration of the router is often left to a networ administrator, rather than a networ infrastructure specialist. This paper is designed to provide a technical overview of the principles of unicast routing, the routing of pac ets with a unicast destination address, for those who are e%pected to design and configure routing for their organi&ations. The principles in this paper apply to all commonly used internetwor ing protocols such as !nternet 'rotocol "!'$, !nternetwor 'ac et (%change "!')$, #ppleTal , and others.
*nicast routing is the process of forwarding unicasted traffic from a source to a destination on an internetwor . *nicasted traffic is destined for a uni+ue address. To understand the details of routing protocols such as ,outing !nformation 'rotocol ",!'$ and -pen Shortest 'ath .irst "-S'.$ and their implementation in Windows NT Server version 4.0 with the ,outing and ,emote #ccess Service, it is important to have a solid foundation in the principles of unicast routing. /ecause Windows NT, with the ,outing and ,emote #ccess Service ",,#S$, is an open platform that can conceivably host any internetwor ing protocol and routing protocol, this whitepaper provides an overview of protocolindependent unicast routing principles. The !nternet 'rotocol "!'$ and the !nternetwor 'ac et (%change "!')$ protocol are used as the e%ample protocols where appropriate.
This whitepaper is intended for networ engineers and support professionals who are already familiar with internetwor ing protocols such as Transmission 0ontrol 'rotocol1!nternet 'rotocol "T0'1!'$ and !').
The following terms are essential to your understanding of routing2
End S ste!s" #s defined by the !nternational Standards -rgani&ation "!S-$, end systems are networ devices without the ability to forward pac ets between portions of a networ . (nd systems are also nown as hosts.
Inter!ediate S ste!s" Networ devices with the ability to forward pac ets between portions of a networ . /ridges, switches, and routers are e%amples of intermediate systems. Network" # portion of the networ ing infrastructure "encompassing repeaters1hubs and bridges13ayer 4 switches$ that is bounded by a networ layer intermediate system and is associated with the same networ layer address. -n !' internetwor s, a networ is also called a subnet.
• • •
Router" # networ layer intermediate system used to connect networ s together based on a common networ layer protocol. #ardware Router" # router that performs routing as a dedicated function and has specific hardware designed and optimi&ed for routing. So$tware Router" # router that is not dedicated to performing routing but performs routing as one of multiple processes running on the router computer. # Windows NT Server version 4.0 computer running the ,outing and ,emote #ccess Service is an e%ample of a software router. Note that there are some hybrid routers where some routing is done in hardware and where system configuration and routing table management is done in software. # good e%ample of hybrid routers are the e%poneNT switches from /er eley Networ s which use optimi&ed hardware for routing and Windows NT for system configuration and management.
Internetwork" #t least two networ s connected using routers. .igure 5 illustrates an internetwor .
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which contains a destination networ address and destination host address.%igure & An e'a!ple o$ an internetwork" Addressing in an Internetwork The following internetwor addressing terms are also important to your understanding of routing2 • Network address" #lso nown as a network ID. which contains a source networ address and source host address. # #op )ount. . . . which either starts at 0 and is incremented for each router crossed to a ma%imum value. The number assigned to a single networ in an internetwor . Networ addresses are used by hosts and routers when routing a pac et from a source to a destination in an internetwor . the sending host must decide whether to forward the pac et to the destination or to a router. • Internetwork address" The combination of the networ address and the host address that uni+uely identifies a host on an internetwor . The hop count is used to prevent the pac et from endlessly circulating on the internetwor . #n e%ample of an internetwor address is an !' address that contains a networ !7 and a host !7. Routing )oncepts Routing is the process of transferring data across an internetwor from a source host to a destination host. host routing and router routing. /ased on the destination networ address. or starts at a ma%imum value and is decremented to &ero for each router crossed. # host address can either be the host6s physical address "the address of the networ interface card$ or an administratively assigned address that uni+uely identifies the host on its networ .outing can be understood in terms of two processes. • • The (estination Internetwork Address. !n .igure 4. • #ost address" #lso nown as a host ID or a node ID. Host routing occurs when the sending host forwards a pac et. see the 8!ntroduction to T0'1!'8 whitepaper.or detailed information on how !' implements networ !7 and host !7 addressing. the networ layer header of the pac et contains2 • The Source Internetwork Address. When a pac et is sent from a source host to a destination host on an internetwor .
. Router routing occurs when a router receives a pac et that is to be forwarded. The destination internetwor address is obtained through an address resolution process whereby the sending host obtains the destination internetwor address by referencing its logical name.outer 5.or e%ample. -nce the destination internetwor address has been obtained. . it must first obtain the internetwor address of the destination. 0onversely. This is nown as a direct delivery. Novell NetWare wor stations +uery the bindery "a database stored on a NetWare server$ or the NetWare directory tree of their default server to resolve a server name to its !') internetwor address. The pac et is forwarded between routers "when the destination networ is not directly attached to the router$ or between a router and the destination host "when the destination networ is directly attached$. the destination internetwor address and the destination physical address are for the same end system. the pac ets to the .igure 4.outer 4.outer 5 forwards the pac et to . when the source and destination hosts are on different networ s. the source networ and the destination networ addresses are compared. !n a direct delivery. clic here to view on a separate page. When the source and destination hosts are on the same networ . The source host sends the pac et to the destination by addressing the pac et to the destination6s physical address. the pac ets are sent directly to the destination host by the source without the use of a router. !f your browser does not support inline frames. %igure * The routing process" #ost Routing When a host using a routable protocol wants to send data to another host.outer 4 forwards the pac et to the 7estination 9ost. . T0'1!' hosts use 7omain Name System "7NS$ name resolution to resolve a 7NS domain name to an !' address.the Source 9ost forwards the pac et destined for the 7estination 9ost to . !n .
!n an indirect delivery. !f your browser does not support inline frames. #n e%ample is the !' routing table on a :icrosoft T0'1!' host. 7uring an indirect delivery. Eavesdropping T0'1!' hosts have the ability to listen to the routing protocol traffic used by routers. The better route becomes a host route in the routing table.outing Tables8 later in this whitepaper for a detailed definition of a routing table. %igure + #ost routing process" #ost (eter!ination o$ the %irst #op !' and !') sending hosts determine the physical address of the first hop router using one of the following processes2 #ost Routing Table # routing table on the host will yield the forwarding address of the router to be used to reach the desired destination networ !7. "See 8.$ ( na!ic Updates o$ #ost Routing Table T0'1!' has a facility to dynamically update the host routing table with better routes as pac ets are sent to destinations. This is nown as .destination cannot be directly delivered by the source. !nstead.edirect :essage is a message sent by an !' router to a sending host informing it of a better route to a destination host. This is nown as an indirect delivery. The !nternet 0ontrol :essage 'rotocol "!0:'$ . the sending host forwards the pac et to a router on its networ by determining the router corresponding to the first hop or by discovering the entire path from the source to the destination. clic here to view on a separate page. the destination internetwor address and the destination physical address are not for the same end system. the source delivers them to an intermediate router by addressing the pac et to the router6s physical address.
(avesdropping hosts have the same detailed routing information as the routers. #n e%ample of a default router is the 7efault =ateway configuration parameter for T0'1!' hosts.!' for !' routing traffic e%changed by . !') routers on the sending host6s networ that can reach the destination !') networ !7 send a response to the sending host. !' routing is normally done through routing decisions made by sending hosts and !' routers based on local routing tables.0 and Service 'ac 4 and later support Silent . .uer ing the Network $or the -est Route .!' responses from the local routers. Source route discovery processes tend to be traffic intensive and slow. 9owever..outing !nformation protocol ". a sending host is configured with a single default route. for the networ administrator to specify an e%act route through the !' internetwor that overrides the path that would normally be ta en. #n e%ample of this +uerying process is the .eavesdropping or wiretapping. in networ testing and debugging situations. the sending host does more than determine the first hop. This is nown as IP source routing.<5 and Service 'ac 4 and later and Windows NT Wor station 4.!'. #ost (eter!ination o$ the Entire Path When using some routable protocols. /ased on the . This process is nown as source routing. Silent . !n source routing.or hosts without a routing table or a configured default router. . (e$ault Router To simplify the configuration of hosts and routers and to reduce the overhead associated with each host having routes for all the networ s in the internetwor .!'$ =et3ocalTarget message sent by an !') host. Windows NT Server . The . The responses from the routers are analy&ed by the sending host and the best router is chosen.!' routers and update its routing table. the sending host chooses the best router to forward the !') pac et. the routers are only acting as store and forward devices because the routing decisions have already been made by the sending host.!'. The default route and its forwarding address to the default router is used when no other routes to the destination networ are found. The list of networ s or routers is then included in the networ layer header and is used by the routers to forward the pac et along the indicated path. the sending host can determine the physical address of the first hop router by +uerying the routers on the networ . #n e%ample of eavesdropping is Silent .!' is the ability of a T0'1!' host to listen to . Source routing is not typically implemented as a method of routing because the path either needs to be nown or discovered.!' =et3ocalTarget message contains a desired destination !') networ !7. The source host either already nows the path or goes through a route discovery process and determines the path between the sending host and the destination. it is sometimes desired. # +uery for the best route to a specified destination networ address is sent as a broadcast or multicast pac et.
The intermediate router chosen is based on the forwarding address of the optimal route in the routing table. The first type is loose source routing. The router forwards the pac et by addressing the pac et to the intermediate router6s physical address. in which the !' address of the ne%t router can be one or more routers away "multiple hops$. !f your browser does not support inline frames. !' supports two types of source routing. clic here to view on a separate page. Note that To en .!n !' source routing. #t each !' router. The second type is strict source routing. • 0onversely. the router forwards the pac et to an intermediate router. The router performs an indirect delivery to the ne%t router in the path to the destination. if the destination networ is not directly attached. the router must either deliver it to the destination host or to another router. • !f the destination networ matches a networ to which the router is attached. the !' datagram is addressed to the ne%t router using the 7estination !' address field of the !' header. the router forwards the pac et to the destination host by addressing the pac et to the destination host6s physical address. the entire route is specified by the sending host through the !' addresses of successive !' routers between the source and destination. . Router Routing When a router is forwarded a pac et that is not destined for that router.ing source routing is a :edia #ccess 0ontrol ":#0$-sublayer routing scheme and has no relation to the internetwor -based source routing discussed above. in which the ne%t router must be a neighboring router "single hop$. The router performs a direct delivery to the destination.
!' hosts have a routing table. Router routing process" Routing Tables 7uring the routing process.igure <. hosts may also have a routing table that may be used to decide the best router for the pac et to be forwarded. entries in the routing table usually consist of the following fields2 Network I( . The routing table is not e%clusive to a router.%igure . !') hosts do not have a routing table. if a router or host cannot find a networ route or host route for the destination. the routing decisions of hosts and routers are aided by a database of routes nown as the routing table. • (e$ault Route" # route that is used when no other routes for the destination are found in the routing table. the default route is used. #ost Route" # route to a specific internetwor address "Networ !7 and 9ost !7$. the default route is used to simplify the configuration of end systems or routers.or e%ample. 7epending on the routable protocol. 9ost routes allow intelligent routing decisions to be made for each internetwor address.ather than being configured with routes for all the Networ !7s in the internetwor . 9ost routes are typically used to create custom routes to control or optimi&e specific types of internetwor traffic. . The types of possible entries in a routing table include2 • • Network Route" # route to a specific Networ !7 in the internetwor . the routing decision is based on the combination of networ !7 and host !7. Routing Table Structure #s illustrated in . . !nstead of ma ing a routing decision based on >ust the networ !7.
Some routing algorithms only store a single route to any Networ !7 in the routing table even when multiple routes e%ist. the . :etrics can indicate different ways of e%pressing a route preference2 • #op )ount" # common metric. . . the interface for a . This is a port number or other type of logical identifier. the metric is used by the router to decide which route to store in the routing table. 3earned routes have a finite lifetime.or networ !7s to which the end system or router is directly attached. in the routing table. The forwarding address can be a physical address or an internetwor address. Throughput is not necessarily a reflection of the bit rate of the lin .The Networ !7 field contains the networ address for a networ route or an internetwor address for a host route. therefore the lowest metric is the preferred route.-0-: (therlin !!! networ interface card may be referred to as (3N?. 0i$eti!e The lifetime field indicates the lifetime that the route is considered valid.or e%ample. the metric is used to decide which route is to be ta en. with W#N lin s. To eep a learned route in the routing table. • Throughput" The effective amount of data that can be sent along the path per second.or e%ample. .orwarding #ddress field may be blan . leased lines are more reliable than dial-up lines. the route must be refreshed through a . !ndicates the number of routers "hops$ in the path to the networ !7. !f multiple routes e%ist to a given networ !7. /etric The metric field indicates the preference for a route. • Reliabilit " # measure of the path constancy. Some types of lin s are more prone to lin failures than others. • (ela " # measure of time that is re+uired for the pac et to reach the networ !7. 7elay is used to indicate the speed of the path "3#N lin s have a low delay. as a very busy (thernet lin may have a lower throughput than an unutili&ed @4-?bps W#N lin . The metric is an indication of the cost of the route. !n this case. Inter$ace The interface field indicates the networ interface that will be used when forwarding pac ets to the Networ !7. W#N lin s have a high delay$ or a congested condition of a path. %orwarding Address The forwarding address field contains the address to which the pac et is to be forwarded. When routes are learned through the e%change of information with other routers. this is an additional field that is used.
or information on the !' routing table.periodic process. The lifetime field is typically not visible in routing tables. see the 8!ntroduction to T0'1!'8 whitepaper. #ctual fields in the routing tables for different routable protocols may vary. Troubleshooting routing problems may involve the analysis of the routing tables of the end systems "source and destination$ and all the routers forwarding pac ets between them. 0ocalit o$ the Routing Table #ll the routing decisions made by the end system or the router are based on information in a local routing table that physically resides on the system ma ing the routing decision. then routing problems can result. There is no single. !f a learned route6s lifetime e%pires. holistic view of the internetwor that is being gathered by a server and downloaded to each end system and router so that all users have the same view of the internetwor and all traffic flows along predictable pathways. it is removed from the routing table. (ach router in a path between a source and destination ma es a local routing decision based on its local routing table. The timing out of learned routes provides a way for routers to reconfigure themselves when the topology of an internetwor changes due to a downed lin or a downed router. Static and ( na!ic Routers . %igure 1 Routing table structure This list of fields is a representative list in the routing tables. . !f the information in the local routing tables of the end systems or routers is incorrect due to misconfiguration or changing networ conditions. The path ta en from the source to the destination may not be the same as the path for response pac ets from the destination bac to the source.
outing !nformation 'rotocol ".!'$ and -pen Shortest 'ath . can scale to larger internetwor s. 7ynamic routing consists of routing tables that are built and maintained automatically through an ongoing communication between routers.or routing between routers to wor efficiently in an internetwor . therefore. dynamic routers re+uire little ongoing maintenance and. manually builds and updates the routing table. !f a router or lin goes down.0 and the . the routing tables must be maintained so that the traffic always travels along optimal paths. # networ administrator. ( na!ic Routing # router with dynamically configured routing tables is nown as a dynamic router. # good e%ample of a dynamic router is a computer with Windows NT Server version 4.$ routing protocols for !' and . and very large internetwor s.. Static routers can wor well for small internetwor s but do not scale well to large or dynamically changing internetwor s due to their manual administration. large. and enabling !' routing. a series of periodic or on-demand messages containing routing information that is e%changed between routers.!' for !'). with nowledge of the internetwor topology. This change can then be propagated to other routers so that all the routers on the internetwor become aware of the new internetwor topology. The ability to scale and recover from internetwor faults ma es dynamic routing the better choice for medium. -n large internetwor s. (%cept for their initial configuration. 7ynamic routing is fault tolerant. programming all routes in the routing table. 7ynamic routes learned from other routers have a finite lifetime. # good e%ample of a static router is a multihomed computer "a computer with multiple networ interface cards$ running Windows NT. configuring T0'1!'. .outing and .emote #ccess Service running the . the routers sense the change in the internetwor topology through the e%piration of the lifetime of the learned route in the routing table. 9ow the routing tables are maintained defines the distinction between static and dynamic routing2 Static Routing # router with manually configured routing tables is nown as a static router. The lifetime of a manually configured static route is infinite and. 0reating a static !' router with Windows NT is as simple as installing multiple networ interface cards. This communication is facilitated by a routing protocol. routers must have nowledge of other networ !7s or be configured with a default route.irst "-S'. therefore. Static routers are not fault tolerant. static routers do not sense and recover from downed routers or downed lin s.
#ccording to the routing table on . the optimal route to Networ 50 is through . . # routing loop is a path through the internetwor for a networ !7 that loops bac onto itself. if any routing table entries are not correct. it either increases or decreases the hop count.outer 5. the pac et ta es the optimal path from the source to the destination.. !f your browser does not support inline frames. When the TT3 is 0. 9owever.. Windows NT 4. the optimal route to Networ 50 is through . (ach . This is nown as a silent discard. When !' hosts send !' pac ets. clic here to view on a separate page. pac et is discarded without notifying the sending host.!' for !') router increases the hop count by one.outer 4. the optimal route to Networ 50 is through . Routing 0oops 7uring the router routing process. !f the hop count reaches its ma%imum value "when increasing$ or is 0 "when decreasing$.outer .Routing Proble!s . either though a misconfiguration or through learned routes that do not accurately reflect the topology of the internetwor . (ach !' router encountered decreases the TT3 by one.igure @ illustrates a routing loop in which2 • • • #ccording to the routing table on . !') hosts send !') pac ets with a 0 hop count. When it reaches 5@. the !' router discards the pac et and sends an !0:' Time (%ceeded message bac to the sending host.outing problems can occur when either the host or router6s routing tables contains information that does not reflect the correct topology of the internetwor . /y default. the pac et is discarded by the router. then routing loops can form. The hop count in the networ layer header is used to prevent the pac et from perpetually looping. #ccording to the routing table on . !f the routing table entries on all the routers are correct.0 T0'1!' hosts set the TT3 to 54A. (ach time a router passes the pac et from one networ to another.outer . .or e%ample. . they set a ma%imum hop count in the Time-to-3ive "TT3$ field in the !' header.outer 4.outer 5. the pac et will be forwarded in the optimal direction according to the information in the local routing table.
%igure 2 An e'a!ple o$ a routing loop" -lack #oles 0ommon internetwor ing protocols such as !' and !') are connectionless. an area of the internetwor in which pac ets are lost. . !f your browser does not support inline frames. /ecause the failed downstream router does not receive them.outer 4. unac nowledged delivery to the ne%t hop or the final destination. The failed . The upstream router is sending pac ets to a black hole. clic here to view on a separate page. the upstream router will still forward the pac ets to the downed router. . !n . !f a downstream router goes down and its absence is not detected by the upstream router.outer 4 has failed and continues to forward pac ets to . the pac ets forwarded by the upstream router are dropped from the internetwor . datagram-based protocols. !' and !') attempt a best effort. This behavior can lead to conditions on the internetwor in which data is lost.igure B. They do not guarantee a successful delivery.outer 5 has not been informed that .outer 4 is a blac hole.
possibly crippling the entire internetwor . #n e%ample is a blac hole 'ath :a%imum Transmit *nit "':T*$ !' router that silently discards !' pac ets that need to be fragmented when the 7on6t .outers. !n a static routing environment. blac holes persist until the lin or router is brought bac up or the static routers are reconfigured by the networ administrator. to reach all the hosts on an internetwor .ragment bit in the !' header is set. Net/!-S applications on an !') internetwor use a Net/!-S over !') broadcast to perform name registration. 9owever. !n a dynamic routing environment. #n e%ample of an internetwor -level broadcast is the Networ /asic !nput--utput System "Net/!-S$ over !') broadcast. !f the routers forward this traffic. and release. /lac holes can also be created when routers silently discard pac ets. unli e bridges. When the Net/!-S over !') broadcast pac et is received by an !') router.outers must be configured to pass internetwor -level broadcast traffic. some routable protocols support the use of internetwor -level broadcasts. Routers and -roadcast Tra$$ic !nternetwor -level broadcasts are :#0-level broadcast frames with a special destination internetwor address that informs the router that the pac et is to be forwarded to all other networ s e%cept the networ on which it was received. . The inherent danger of forwarding internetwor -level broadcasts is the possibility of an internetwork-level broadcast storm in which a host malfunctions and continuously sends out the same internetwor -level broadcast pac et. # :#0-level broadcast frame is used to reach all the hosts on a networ .%igure 3 A routing black hole" /lac holes form when a lin or router fails. the router records the networ on which the pac et was received in the Net/!-S over !') . routers sense downed lin s or routers through the e%piration of the lifetime of learned routes in their routing tables. . resolution. and the failure is not yet detected. do not forward :#0-level broadcast traffic. the result is that all the hosts on the internetwor process each broadcast frame. Note This section discusses routing blac holes in terms of a downed router or a downed lin .
The !') internetwor path is only used to prevent the broadcast pac et from being forwarded on the same !') networ more than once. transmission.igure A$. !f your browser does not support inline frames. The entire process of encapsulation. !nstead of sending the frame as it is produced by the originating host. 9owever. the frame is de-encapsulated and forwarded to its final destination. the !') router chec s the internetwor path information in the Net/!-S over !') header to prevent the forwarding of the Net/!-S over !') broadcast onto a networ on which it has already traveled. #s an additional safeguard. The additional header provides routing information so the encapsulated payload can traverse an intermediate internetwor "also nown as a transit internetwork$. Note #n !') internetwor path is recorded in a similar fashion to the :#0-sublayer routing information in a To en . also nown as encapsulation. Net/!-S over !') broadcast pac ets can only propagate across eight networ s using seven routers. the frames "or pac ets$ of another protocol "see . the frame is encapsulated with an additional header. Tunneling Tunneling. unli e To en . is a method of using an internetwor infrastructure of one protocol to transfer a payload. This prevents the broadcast from looping and causing more broadcast traffic. /efore being forwarded. the !') internetwor path is not used in the subse+uent communication. #t the eighth router. Thus. the pac et is silently discarded.ing source routing. the internetwor path is recorded in the Net/!-S over !') header as it traverses the !') internetwor . -nce the encapsulated payload pac ets reach their destination on the transit internetwor . The logical path through which the encapsulated pac ets travel through the transit internetwor is called a tunnel.ing source routing (%plorer frame.header. clic here to view on a separate page. The encapsulated pac ets are then routed between tunnel endpoints over the transit internetwor . and de-encapsulation of pac ets is tunneling. .
There are also many e%amples of tunnels that are carried over corporate internetwor s. or #T:. • IP Securit 5IPSec6 Encapsulating Securit Pa load 5ESP6 Tunnel /ode" !'Sec (ncapsulating Security 'ayload "(S'$ Tunnel :ode allows !' datagrams to be encrypted and then encapsulated in an !' header to be sent across a corporate !' internetwor or public internetwor s . !'). !'). ).elay. or Net/(*! traffic to be encrypted and then sent over any medium that supports point-to-point datagram delivery such as !'.. • IP Tunneling $or Novell NetWare" !') pac ets are sent to a NetWare server or !') router that wraps the !') pac et with a *7' and !' header and sends them across an !' internetwor .rame .4<. or Net/!-S (%tended *ser !nterface "Net/(*!$ traffic to be encrypted and encapsulated in an !' header to be sent across a corporate !' internetwor or public internetwor s li e the !nternet. • 0a er * Tunneling Protocol 50*TP6" 34T' allows !'. This is nown as 7ata 3in Switching "73Sw$ and is described in . Some common types of tunneling2 • SNA Tunneling over IP Internetworks" To send System Networ #rchitecture "SN#$ traffic across a corporate !' internetwor . the SN# frame is encapsulated with a *ser 7atagram 'rotocol "*7'$ and !' header. The !nternet is a good e%ample as the most widely nown public internetwor .4.%igure 4 Tunneling" The transit internetwor can be any internetwor . The destination !' router removes the *7' and !' header and forwards them to the appropriate !') destination. . • Point to Point Tunneling Protocol 5PPTP6" ''T' allows !'.0 54.
:icrosoft SN# Server provides support for the SN# tunneling described above. %oundations o$ Routing Protocols 7ynamic routers use routing protocols to facilitate the ongoing communication and dynamic updating of routing tables. #n important element of a routing protocol implementation is its ability to sense and recover from internetwor faults. . such as . When all the routers on the internetwor have the correct routing information in their routing tables. the internetwor is in a stable state and all routing occurs along optimal paths. and how the routing information is propagated through the internetwor . This additional traffic can become an important factor in planning W#N lin usage.outing protocols represent additional networ traffic overhead on the networ .outers use distance vector-based routing protocols to periodically advertise the routes in their routing tables. 9ow +uic ly it can recover is determined by the type of fault. The periodic advertisement contains a hop count "the distance$ and a direction in which the route is . When convergence is achieved. . The time it ta es for the internetwor to reconverge is nown as the convergence time.outing !nformation 'rotocol$ and -S'. Note Windows NT Server version 4. how it is sensed.!' ". "-pen Shortest 'ath .0 only ships with support for the ''T' tunneling discussed above.li e the !nternet. the internetwor must reconfigure itself to reflect the new topology. the internetwor has converged. *ntil the internetwor reconverges. Non-!nternet bac bone routing protocols are based either on a distance vector or lin state technology.!' ". !n some cases.irst$ for !'. it is in an unstable state in which routing loops and blac holes can occur. When a lin or router fails. the routing information is e%changed using :#0-level broadcasts. !nformation in routing tables must be updated. The main differences between distance vector and lin state routing protocols are in2 • • • What routing information is e%changed 9ow the information is e%changed 9ow +uic ly the internetwor can recover from a downed lin or a downed router (istance 7ector .outing !nformation 'rotocol$ and N3S' "NetWare 3in Services 'rotocol$ for !'). (%amples of routing protocols include such protocols as .!' for !' "version 5$ and . The convergence time varies based on the routing protocol and the type of failure "downed lin or downed router$.!' for !').
• Eas to con$igure" !n its simplest incarnation. (oes not scale" /etween the si&e of the routing table and the high overhead. .!' "version 5$ for !'.outers using lin state-based routing protocols e%change lin state advertisements "3S#s$ which consist of . distance vectorbased routing protocols do not scale well to large and very large internetwor s. Windows NT Server version 4.located "the vector$. #igh convergence ti!e" 7ue to the unsynchroni&ed and unac nowledged way that distance vector information is e%changed. 7isadvantages of distance vector-based routing protocols2 • 0arge routing tables" :ultiple routes to a given networ !7 can be reflected as multiple entries in the routing table.emote #ccess Service provides the .oute advertising is done periodically even after the internetwor has converged.outing !nformation 'rotocol$ .T:' for #ppleTal routing protocols. configuring a distance vector-based routing protocol is as easy as enabling it on the router interfaces.!' for !'). • • • #igh network tra$$ic overhead" . convergence of the internetwor can ta e several minutes.outing !nformation 'rotocol$ !=.!' "version 4$ for !' routing protocol.!' ".0 with the . and .outing Table :aintenance 'rotocol$ !') #ppleTal Windows NT Server version 4.0 provides the provides the . routing loops and blac holes can occur.outing information e%changed between typical distance vector-based routers is unsynchroni&ed and unac nowledged. While converging.!' ".outing 'rotocol$ . 0ink State .outing and . .' "!nterior =ateway . !n a large internetwor with multiple paths.T:' ". #dvantages of distance vector-based routing protocols2 • Si!pler" 7istance vector-based routing protocols are simple router advertisement processes that are easy to understand. Table 5 lists some distance vector-based routing protocols2 Table & E'a!ples o$ (istance 7ector8based Routing Protocols Routable Protocol !' (istance 7ector8based Routing Protocols . the routing table can have hundreds or thousands of entries.
7isadvantages of lin state routing protocols2 • )o!ple'" 3in state-based routing protocols are much more comple% and difficult to understand and troubleshoot than distance vector-based routing protocols. Table 4 lists some lin -state routing protocols2 Table * E'a!ples o$ 0ink State8based Routing Protocols Routable Protocol !' !') 0ink State8based Routing Protocol -S'.outing and . 3in state routers build a database of 3S#s and use the database to calculate optimal routes which are added to the routing table.emote #ccess Service provides the -S'. Abilit to scale" /etween the smaller routing tables and low overhead.0 with the . 3S#s are sent using directed or multicast traffic rather than broadcasting. 0ower convergence ti!e" 3in state-based routing protocols have a much lower convergence time and the internetwor is converged without routing loops.irst$ N3S' "NetWare 3in Services 'rotocol$ Windows NT Server version 4. • /ore di$$icult to con$igure" # lin state-based routing protocol implementation re+uires additional planning and configuration. #dvantages of lin state routing protocols2 • S!aller routing tables" -nly a single optimal route for each networ !7 is stored in the routing table.a router6s attached networ !7s and interface costs. The infrastructure has important attributes to consider when you are deciding on which routable protocols and routing protocols to . • • • 0ow network overhead" 3in state-based routers do not e%change any routing information when the internetwor has converged. 3S#s are advertised upon startup and when changes in the internetwor topology are sensed. . lin state-based routing protocols scale well to large and very large internetwor s. "-pen Shortest 'ath .outing information e%changed between lin state-based routers is synchroni&ed and ac nowledged. for !' routing protocol. Routing In$rastructure The routing infrastructure is the entire structure of the routed internetwor .
can balance the load of networ traffic across multiple paths with the same metric value. :ulti-path internetwor s. # fault can be sensed with a dynamic router. While this may simplify the routing tables and the pac et flow paths. single-path internetwor s are not fault tolerant. !n a hierarchical routing infrastructure. The networ !7s have no networ 1subnetwor structure and cannot be summari&ed. can be more comple% to configure and can have a higher probability of routing loops during convergence when using distance vector-based routing protocols. however. !nter-domain routing is performed by domain routers connected to the bac bone. !' implements hierarchical networ addressing. Autono!ous S ste!s !n very large internetwor s. %lat vs" #ierarchical !n a flat routing infrastructure. it is necessary to divide the internetwor into separate entities nown as autonomous systems. and some routing protocols.outing domains are connected by a common routing domain called the backbone. !n a multi-path routing infrastructure. !n hierarchical routing infrastructures. multiple paths e%ist between networ s in the internetwor . and !' internetwor s can have a hierarchical routing structure.!'-based !') internetwor s use flat networ addressing and have a flat routing infrastructure. The networ !7s in a hierarchical internetwor have a networ 1subnetwor 1sub-subnetwor structure. # routing domain is a collection of contiguous networ s connected by routers that share the routing information for the routes within the domain. . # routing table entry for the highest level "the networ $ is also the route used for the subnetwor s and sub-subnetwor s of the networ . but they re+uire more planning. groups of networ !7s can be represented as a single routing table entry through route summari&ation. the internetwor can be divided into routing domains "also nown as regions or areas$. Single8path vs" /ulti8path !n a single-path routing infrastructure. # downed lin or a downed router must be brought bac up before pac ets can be delivered successfully across the downed lin or router. :ultipath internetwor s are fault tolerant when dynamic routing is used. but the networ s across the failure are unreachable for the duration of the fault. each networ !7 is represented individually in the routing table. such as -S'. only a single path e%ists between any two networ s in the internetwor . 9ierarchical routing infrastructures simplify routing tables and lower the amount of routing information that is e%changed. . !ntra-domain routing is performed by the routers within the domain.. #n autonomous system "#S$ is a portion of the internetwor under the same .use.
!f your browser does not support inline frames. or areas that define a hierarchy within the #S.Ps6 !='s are intra-#S routing protocols. The contiguous portion of an !' internetwor that is using -S'.atewa Protocols 5I. The administrative authority can be an institution or corporation but can also be defined by the use of a routing protocol such as -S'. an -S'. !='s distribute routes within the #S in either a flat or hierarchical manner. !terior Gateway Interior . to distribute routing information is under -S'. .administrative authority. regions. therefore. clic here to view on a separate page. %igure 9 Autono!ous s ste!s: interior gatewa protocols: and e'terior gatewa protocols " The protocols used to distribute routing information within an #S are nown as Interior Gateway Protocols "!='s$. The protocols used to distribute routing information between #Ss are nown as Protocols "(='s$. administrative authority and is.. #S. The #S may be further divided into domains.
(%amples of !='s for !' internetwor s are2 • • • RIP $or IP" #n . /=' overcomes the wea nesses of (='.microsoft. Interior . (='s define the way that all of the networ s within the #S are advertised outside of the #S.0 with the .emote #ccess Service provides the ..0-based lin state !='.0-based (=' that was developed for use between #Ss on the !nternet. !nc.0 with the .or more information on using Windows NT Server as a networ ing and communications platform.atewa Protocol 5-.P6" #n . %or /ore In$or!ation . (='s can facilitate the e%change of routes between #Ss that use different !='s..outing "0!7.outing and .com1communications1 .Ps6 (='s are inter-#S routing protocols. chec out http211www.W-..orum on the :icrosoft Networ "=. • -order .emote #ccess Service does not provide the (=' and /=' routing protocols. This can include a list of networ routes in a flat routing infrastructure or a list of summari&ed networ routes in a hierarchical routing infrastructure.com1ntserver the Windows NT Server . E'terior . chec out . (%amples of (='s for !' internetwor s are2 • E'terior .!' for !' and -S'.emote #ccess Service. (=' is no longer used on the !nternet due to its lac of support for comple%.0-based (=' that is currently used between #Ss on the !nternet.atewa Protocols 5E.. .or the latest information on Windows NT Server. To download the . Routing Protocol 5I.0-based distance vector !='.RP6" # distance vector !=' developed by 0isco Windows NT Server version 4. Windows NT Server version 4. (='s are independent of the !='s used within the #S. <SP%" #n .outing and . multi-path environments and 0lassless !nter-7omain .microsoft.$.atewa Protocol 5E.P6" #n .outing and . routing protocols. chec out :icrosoft TechNet or our World Wide Web site at http211www.72 :SNTS$.atewa Systems. The current version of /=' being used on !nternet bac bone routers is /='4.
htm .com1communications1routingCras.) 62$. D-'4& 1T( The *ack-ffice logo+ &icrosoft+ .)RR)1TI . -R I&P3I D+ I1 THI.hite Paper is for informational purposes only( &I'R-.indows 1T are registered trademarks of &icrosoft 'orporation( -ther product or company names mentioned herein may be the trademarks of their respective owners( &icrosoft 'orporation 5 -ne &icrosoft .-/T &)0 .microsoft.ay 5 Redmond+ ..) $%678-9:$$ 5 4. Part no( 6$%-22222 ..indows+ and . " #$$% &icrosoft 'orporation( )ll rights reserved( The information contained in this document represents the current view of &icrosoft 'orporation on the issues discussed as of the date of publication( *ecause &icrosoft must respond to changing market conditions+ it should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of &icrosoft+ and &icrosoft cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information presented after the date of publication( This .+ 2PR . 1.http211www.
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