History of Kapangan

a. Creation of the Municipality The Municipality of Kapangan already existed during the Spanish regime. Its legal existence was made during the American Civil Government through the Act No. 48 passed and approved on November 22, 1919. Republic Act No. 4695 passed on June 18, 1966 better known as the Division Law separating the Province of Benguet from its mother province “Mountain Province”, making now Benguet comprise of thirteen (13) municipalities, among which is the Municipality of Kapangan. b. Geographical Location The Municipality of Kapangan is located at the west portion of Benguet. It is located at 16 degrees, 33 minutes (min.) to 16 degrees min. latitude and 120 degrees, 40 min. to 120 degrees min. longitude. Geographical boundaries of the municipality are the Municipality of Kibungan on the north, Municipality of Atok on the east, the Province of La Union on the west, and Municipalities of Sablan and Tublay on the South. Kapangan is 35 kilometers from the City of Baguio and 29 kilometers from the Provincial Capitol of Benguet, located at La Trinidad. c. Accessibility Access to the Municipality of Kapangan is through land transportation using buses, jeepneys, trucks, and other vehicles. There are two (2) entry points going to Kapangan, namely: 1. Acop – Kapangan – Kibungan National Road from Tublay, Benguet; and 2. Halsema to Bakun – Kibungan – Kapangan Road. These roads are bounded to Baguio City. Passing through the Acop – Kapangan – Kibungan National Road going to Kapangan from the starting point on Saint Louis University Main Campus will take you 2 to 3 hours of land travel, which could be longer depending on the weather and traffic build-up at La Trinidad Plaza. Roads bounding to Kapangan are prone to landslides during rainy days because it is just beside and below the mountains. Roads going to Kapangan are under construction, which you could pass to cemented roads and others on rocky, muddy, and dusty roads. a. Land Area Kapangan has a land area of 17,327 hectares, representing 6.68 percent of the total land area of Benguet. It has fifteen (15) barangays, namely: Balakbak, Beleng-Belis, Boklaoan, Cayapes, Cuba, Datakan, Gadang, Gaswiling, Lubueg, Kapangan Central,, Paykek, Pongayan, Pudong, Sagubo, and Taba-ao. Gadangis the largest barangay in the municipality, with a land area of 2,925 hectares (16.88%), followed by Barangay Gaswiling with 2,825 hectares (16.30%). Barangay Cayapes is the smallest barangay in the municipality, measuring to 287 hectares (1.66%). Table 1 shows the land areas of the different barangays comprising the Municipality of Kapangan. Table 1 Land Area of the Different Barangays in Kapangan LAND AREA PERCENTAGE TO TOTAL

BARANGAY

(HECTARES) 1. Balakbak 2. Beleng-belis 3. Boklaoan 4. Cayapes 5. Cuba 6. Datakan 7. Gadang 8. Gaswiling 9. Labueg 10. Kapangan Central 11. Paykek 12. Pongayan 13. Pudong 14. Sagubo 15. Taba-ao TOTAL Source: Municipal Engineering Office a. Topography 725 1,326 825 287 989.75 600 2,925 2,825 500 725 325 625 1,850 2,325 475 17,327.25

MUNICIPALITY AREA (%) 4.18 7.65 4.76 1.66 5.71 3.46 16.88 16.30 2.89 4.18 1.88 3.61 10.68 13.42 2.74 100%

Being on a mountainous area, Kapangan is comprised of rolling terrains used for farming. However, you could find some flat areas there also used for farming like in Barangay Paykek, Balakbak, Cayapes, Sagubo, Pongayan, and Dakatan. Also there are places with irregular, rugged terrain and towering mountains. The highest point of Kapangan is elevated at 1,700 meters above sea level, located at the boundary of Municipality of Kibungan. The lowest point is at 200 meters above sea level, located at the boundary of Kapangan to the Province of La Union. Two-thirds (2/3) of the total land area is made up of mountains and hills which are very steep, rough, and rugged. The remaining one-third (1/3) of the area is devoted for agricultural purposes like farming and foresting. Kapangan has several creeks and rivers found all over the place. These are the Amburayan River, Baguionas-Catiaoan River, Naguilian River, and Sali-o-aso River. Amburayan River flows to the north draining at the South China Sea. Baguionas-Catiaoan River is located on the Southwestern part of the municipality. It flows west to the Copias River. Naguilian River is the continuation of Balili River in La Trinidad, also located on the southwest

part of Kapangan. Sali-o-aso River is also located on the southwester part of Kapangan and joins the Balili River. b. Climate Kapangan has a Type 1 Climate as classified in the Coronas System of Classification with two distinct seasons: dry from November to April and wet during May to October. Temperature in the municipality ranges from 14 degrees Celsius as the coldest and can reach up to 25 degree Celsius being the hottest. Generally, the municipality has a temperate climate. From December until February, the municipality experiences its coolest months. c. Soil Types According to the socio-economic profile of the Province of Benguet, these are the three types of soil in the municipality of Kapangan, namely: ➢ Atok Sandy Loam – the soil under this was developed from highly gnarled materials. The relief is steep. External drainage is good to excessive while internal drainage is good. Surface oil is dark reddish brown, medium granular friable firm sandy loam. Depth is 0-13 centimeters from the surface. Dry is brown slightly hard and wet is dusky red and slightly sticky. Subsoil is dark reddish crown, blocky clay lam and depth is 13-38 centimeters from the surface. The dry part is reddish yellow and slightly hard while we part is yellowish, red sticky and plastic. Few very fine pores and few small roots. Sub stream is 65-150 centimeters depth. This soil is red course sub-angular blocky friable loam. Dry is light red, slightly hard while wet is red, slightly sticky and slightly plastic. ➢ Puguis Gravely Loam – this is developed from conglomerates and diorites. This surface soil is 0-20 centimeters deep. It is strong fine friable gravely loam. Gravel is about 20% by volume. Dry is brown and soft. Wet part is reddish brown. Subsoil is reddish brown to yellowish red fine granular and friable loam with gravels 7-10% by volume. Depth is 20-80 centimeters from the surface. Dry is brown and soft. Wet part is reddish brown. Substratum is yellowish red sandy loam with 15% gravel volume. It is 80-150 centimeters in depth from the surface. Dry is brown and soft. Wet is dark yellowish brown. ➢ Annam Clay Loam – the surface is brown, grayish brown, reddish brown fine granular friable firm clay loam. Fine pebbles 5-30 mm. Diameters 5% by volume are present. Depth is 0-35 centimeters from the surface. The soil is dark brown to reddish brown, medium sub-angular blocky friable firm clay. Few pebbles 5% by volume are present in this layer. Hard when dry, sticky and plastic when wet. Depth is 35-70 centimeters from the surface. The substratum is brown to dark brown, medium, sub-angular blocky friable firm clay. Coarse skeleton 5% by volume is present. Hard when dry. Sticky, and plastic when wet. Depth is 70-150 centimeters from the surface. a. Land Use Table 2a Existing Urban Land Use in the Municipality of Kapangan

LAND USE Built-up area
Residential Institutional Commercial

EXISTING AREA (Hectares) 53.02
31.86 20.96 0.20

PERCENTAGE (%) 16.055
9.647 6.347 0.061

Cemeteries Agricultural Rivers and Creeks Road Network Non-Suitable for Agriculture

0.06 271.81 0.85 4.50 0.01

0.018 82.304 0.257 1.363 0.003

TOTAL
Source: Municipal Engineering Office

330.025

100

LAND USE Built-up area
Residential Institutional Commercial

Table 2b Existing General Land Use in the Municipality EXSITING AREA (Hectares) PERCENTAGE (%) 136.00
79.50 56.00 0.50

0.79
0.46 0.32 0.01

Forest Agricultural Road Network Creeks and Rivers Cemeteries

3,213.00 13,711.27 88.58 114.50 4.85

18.65 79.13 0.51 0.66 0.63

TOTAL
Source: Municipal Engineering Office

17,327.00

100

Table 2c

Land Use Classification 1. Urban Residential Institutional Commercial Agricultural Infrastructures/Utilities 2. General Built-up area Agricultural Forest Agro-Forest Open Grasslands Infrastructures (Roads & Bridges)

Existing Land Use Classification of Kapangan Existing Proposed Area % Area %

Difference Area %

47.49 31.444 0.375 237.319 13.312

14.47 9.52 0.12 71.86 4.03

52.47 31.444 1.51 285.934 14.092

13.01 8.16 0.39 74.18 3.68

4.63 None 1.135 48.615 0.78

0.79 0.00 302.67 20.49 5.83

136.00 13,711.27 3,231.30 88.58

0.78 79.13 18.65 0.51

136 13,370.645 1,251.025 1,980.20 96.03

0.87 77.16 7.22 11.43 0.55

none 340.63 1,980.28 1,980.20 7.50

0.00 21.84 61.23 8.47

Source: Municipal Engineering Office b. Socio-cultural Development Sector The early people of Kapangan were migrants coming from Tinac, Buguias, which is also a town in Benguet. They were called “Tacdang” because they came from the direction where the sun rises, the east. Also, there were migrants from Bontoc, Mountain Province, as hunters in the place. They reached the Amburayan River thought their pathway from Buguias then to Naguey in Atok. They built their first relocations in this river. They get their food by planting rootcrops like gabi & camote in the forests. The major dialects in Kapangan is Kankana-ey and Ibaloi. Kankana-ey is spoken mostly in Barangays Balakbak, Pudong, and Paykek. Ibaloi is spoken in Barangays Taba-ao and Datakan which were originally part of the Municipality of Tublay. Some old folks said that both Kankana-ey and Ibaloi came from a mother language called Kalangoya. The two said dialects share common traditions and customs like the caňao. c. Political / Administrative / Economic Development The Municipality of Kapangan was established in 1898. During this time, Pimentel Espiritu Cariňo was appointed as mayor of the municipality. Four years after this reign, in 1902, Kilaban Gilao of Taba-ao was the first elected mayor of Kapangan. A year after, Braddlo Palaez of Balakbak was then elected as mayor. During Palaez’s administration, he transferred the government office from Barangay Taba-ao to his Barangay, Balakbak. The office stayed there for 14 years with an almost yearly turnover of leadership. Until in 1916 where the government

office was moved to Codal, the former name of Kapangan Central. Government activities lasted for 54 years in Kapangan Central until the office was permanently settled to Lomon in January of 1970. Up to date, the Municipal Office is still situated in Lomon. d. Roles of the Town in Relation to other Towns, the Province, Region, and Country Kapangan played a significant role in the past as it served as a camp for Filipino and American soldiers during the World War II. It was the Camp Utopia that served as the headquarters of the 66th Infantry and the United States Armed Forces – Northern Luzon (USAFNL). At present, Kapangan serves as a satellite town to La Trinidad, Baguio City, and other neighboring towns in the province of Benguet. e. Education a. Performance Indicators i. Elementary Level Table 3a Elementary Level Performance of the Municipality PERFORMANCE INDICATORS RATING (2001-2002) Participation Rate Survival Rate Retention Rate Transition Rate Repetition Rate Completion Rate Drop-out Rate Graduation Rate Achievement Rate Source: DepEd, District of Kapangan b. Names of Schools Operating in the Locality and the Grades, Years, and Courses Table 3b Municipal School Distribution and Accommodation, 2003 NAME OF SCHOOL YEARS GRADES COURSES OFFERED 1. Beling-Belis Barrio School 2. Catiaoan School 3. Cayapes Barrio School 4. Cuba Barrio School I – II I – II I – VI I – II 99.51% 67.70% 98.00% 99.18% 5.57% 72.44% 7.23% 99.11% 79.89%

5. Gaswilling Barrio School 6. Katiwaga Barrio School 7. Laoangan Barrio School 8. Liblibang Barrio School 9. Pacawan Barrio School 10. Pongayan Barrio School 11. Tadayan Barrio School 12. Tawang Barrio School 13. Toplac Barrio School 14. Ubad Barrio School 15. Baguicpas Barrio School 16. Ampagoi Barrio School 17. Balakbak Elementary School 18. Baklaon Elementary School 19. Datakan Elementary School 20. Gadang Elementary School 21. Central Elementary School 22. Lomon Elementary School 23. Longboy Elementary School 24. Paykek Elementary School 25. Pudong Elementary School 26. Sagubo Elementary School 27. Taba-ao Elementary School 28. St. Theresita High School 29. Kapangan National High School 30. GBDAIS (High School) 31. GHDAIS (College/Tech) 1st – 4th 1st – 4th 1st – 4th 1st – 4th

I – VI I – II I - IV I – III I – II I – VI I – II I – III I – VI I – IV I–V I – VI I – VI I – VI I – VI I – VI I – VI I – VI I – VI I – VI I – VI I – VI I – VI

Technical / Vocational BS Education

Source: DepEd, District of Kapangan

a. Health 1. Health indices Crude Birth Rate Crude Death Rate Infant Mortality Rate Maternal Mortality Rate 2.9/1000 population 2.9/1000 population 13.4/1000 population 0/1000 live births

2. Leading Causes of Morbidity, 2003 1. Hypertension (419 cases) 2. Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infection including Pneumonia (213 cases) 3. Influenza (154 cases) 4. Scabies (82 cases) 5. Bronchitis (46 cases) 6. Acute bloody diarrhea (34 cases) 7. Acute water diarrhea (34 cases) 8. Parasitism (34 cases) 9. Goiter (26 cases) 10. Tonsillitis (20 cases) 11. Chicken pox (17 cases) 12. Asthma (16 cases) 13. Dog Bite (14 cases 14.Conjunctivitis (2 cases) 1. Nutritional Status of Children CATEGORY Table 3c Operation Timbang Results of Pre- School Students 2001 2002 # of children Severe Moderate Mild Normal Overweight TOTAL 0 20 232 1674 40 1966 % 0 1.02 11.80 85.15 2.03 100 # of children 3 25 222 1455 41 1746 % 0.17 1.43 12.72 83.33 2.35 100 2003 % 0.12 1.47 14.03 81.38 3.00 100

# of children 2 24 229 1323 49 1632

Source: Nutrition Office, Kapangan 2. Medical Health Facilities NAME OF HOSPITAL Table 3d Medical Health Facilities HEALTH FACILITIES # OF BEDS AREAS SERVED

Kapangan Medicare Community Hospital

Pharmacy, Laboratory, Delivery Room, Medical/Pedia Ward, Surgical Ward, One (1) Unit Ambulance, One (1) unit radio

15 beds

Municipal wide and other nearby municipalities like Kibungan and Tublay

Source: KMCH, Central Kapangan, Benguet Table 3e Medical Health Personnel PERSONNEL Doctor Nurse Nursing Attendant Medical Technologist Pharmacist Administrative Personnel Cook Driver Utility Laundry Worker Source: KMCJ, Central Kapangan, Benguet a. Social Welfare a. Social Welfare Center: b. Orphanages c. Rehabilitation Center : d. Day Care Centers one (MSWDO, Mun. Bldg.) : none none : 37 NUMBER 3 4 3 1 1 2 1 1 2 1

LOCATION / BARANGAY 1. Cayapes 2. Labaeg

Table 4 Municipal Day Care Centers NAME OF DAY CARE CENTER Cayapes DCC Longboy DCC1 Longboy DCC2

# OF PUPILS 15 15 12

3. Datakan

Datakan Proper DCC

Datakan Blue DCC 4. Balakbak Balakbak DCC Mangga DCC 5. Cuba Ca-ew DCC Pakawan DCC Cuba DCC 6. Taba-ao Taba-ao DCC1 Taba-ao DCC2 Ubod DCC 7. Central Central DCC1 Central DCC2 Salat DCC 8. Pongayan 9. Beleng-Belis Pongayan DCC Beleng-Belis DCC Tawang DCC 10. Boklaoan Taba-an DCC Boklaoan DCC 11. Gaswiling Gaswiling Proper DCC Catlaoan DCC Baguionas DCC 12. Pudong Tadayan DCC Topiac DCC 13. Gadang Gadang Proper DCC Namat-ican DCC Namon-ao DCC 14. Sagubo Sagubo DCC Timoc DCC Ampongot DCC

11

14 12 8 10 25

8 5 5 8 12 6 10 5 5 14

12 12 10 15 8 8 26 8 3

TOTAL Source: MSWDO, Kapangan, 2003 a. Public Safety 1. Peace & Order

33 Day Care Centers

Table 5a Peace & Order in the Municipality 2002 Total Non-Index Crime Total Crime Volume Total Crime Solved Total Crime unresolved Crime Rate Crime Solution Efficiency # of Police Community Precincts Source: PNPO Kapangan, 2003 2. Fire Safety Fire Incidence Fire damages Total persons injured Total casualties Total firemen force Fire equipments Table 5b Fire Safety in the Municipality, 2003 3: (1) Electrical, (1) Open Flames, (1) LPG Php 705,600.00 1 Negative 1 1 WS Darley & Company / 18 HPtwin Cylinder Fire Pump Source: Bureau of Fire Protection Office a. Sports and Receation Table 6 Sports and Recreation Facilities RECREATION / FACILITIES LOCATION Municipal Open Gym Basketball / Volleyball Courts Lomon, Kapangan Various Schools 0 12 7 0 66.61% 58.33% 1

2003 0 5 3 0 16.65% 100% 1

AREA SERVED Municipal Wide Barangays

Playgrounds Athletic Ground

Various Schools Balakbak. Kapangan

Barangays Various Schools/Places

Source: Kapangan Municipal Profile, 2003

History of Barangay Cayapes
a. Location Barangay Cayapes is located on the northern part of the Municipality of Kapangan. Its distance from the municipal hall is about 7 kilometers and from the City of Baguio, it has a distance of 37 kilometers, with an average of 3 hours drive from the city. The barangays surrounding Cayapes are Pudong on the north, Paykek to the east, Kapangan Central on the south, and Sagubo on the west. b. Land Area Barangay Cayapes is the smallest barangay in the town of Kapangan. It has a land area of 287 hectares, giving a share of 1.66% of the total land area of Kapangan. Cayapes consist of 8 Sitios, namely, Upper Cayapes, Lower Cayapes, Upper Dagao, Lower Dagao, Sadel, Salidet, Illi, and Locot. c. Topography Cayapes is generally mountainous. They took advantage of these mountains by making the sides of it terraced and made for planting crops like rice, beans, bell pepper, and others. d. Climate The climate in the Barangay is temperate. You could experience heat as high as 25 degrees Celsius and the minimum temperature could be as low as 14 degrees Celsius. The months starting November until February are considered the cool months in the barangay. It has a Type A Climate experiencing two seasons, dry season from November to April and wet season during the rest of the year. e. Soil Type Soils like sandy and loam are found in the barangay which the people use for agricultural purposes. Existing Land Use The land in Cayapes are used for several purposes. They are classified according to use, whether agricultural land, grass or pasture land, and build-up areas. Agricultural land comprises 90.6% of Cayapes’s land area, 5.23% for grass or pasture land for cows and carabaos, and the remaining 4.2% lies for built-up areas. g. Education The barangay has a Day Care Center located at Upper Cayapes. It serves as a starting and training ground for fresh students before entering formal elementary schooling. It is a onestorey building with one room. Only a teacher holds the day care students. It also serves as the barangay hall where different assemblies are done by the barangay officials. The barangay also has one primary school located just beside the day care center. It is named as Cayapes Barrio School. It has three one-storey buildings and has a total of 4 classrooms. It handles for Grades I to VI students. Grades II and III are combined in one f.

classroom. Same is through with the grades IV and V. The school also has a ground used for school assemblies and flag ceremonies. h.

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