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History of Kapangan

a. Creation of the Municipality

The Municipality of Kapangan already existed during the Spanish regime. Its legal
existence was made during the American Civil Government through the Act No. 48 passed and
approved on November 22, 1919. Republic Act No. 4695 passed on June 18, 1966 better
known as the Division Law separating the Province of Benguet from its mother province
“Mountain Province”, making now Benguet comprise of thirteen (13) municipalities, among
which is the Municipality of Kapangan.

b. Geographical Location

The Municipality of Kapangan is located at the west portion of Benguet. It is located at

16 degrees, 33 minutes (min.) to 16 degrees min. latitude and 120 degrees, 40 min. to 120
degrees min. longitude. Geographical boundaries of the municipality are the Municipality of
Kibungan on the north, Municipality of Atok on the east, the Province of La Union on the west,
and Municipalities of Sablan and Tublay on the South. Kapangan is 35 kilometers from the City
of Baguio and 29 kilometers from the Provincial Capitol of Benguet, located at La Trinidad.

c. Accessibility

Access to the Municipality of Kapangan is through land transportation using buses,

jeepneys, trucks, and other vehicles. There are two (2) entry points going to Kapangan, namely:

1. Acop – Kapangan – Kibungan National Road from Tublay, Benguet; and

2. Halsema to Bakun – Kibungan – Kapangan Road.

These roads are bounded to Baguio City. Passing through the Acop – Kapangan –
Kibungan National Road going to Kapangan from the starting point on Saint Louis University
Main Campus will take you 2 to 3 hours of land travel, which could be longer depending on the
weather and traffic build-up at La Trinidad Plaza.

Roads bounding to Kapangan are prone to landslides during rainy days because it is just
beside and below the mountains. Roads going to Kapangan are under construction, which you
could pass to cemented roads and others on rocky, muddy, and dusty roads.

a. Land Area

Kapangan has a land area of 17,327 hectares, representing 6.68 percent of the total
land area of Benguet.

It has fifteen (15) barangays, namely: Balakbak, Beleng-Belis, Boklaoan, Cayapes,

Cuba, Datakan, Gadang, Gaswiling, Lubueg, Kapangan Central,, Paykek, Pongayan, Pudong,
Sagubo, and Taba-ao. Gadangis the largest barangay in the municipality, with a land area of
2,925 hectares (16.88%), followed by Barangay Gaswiling with 2,825 hectares (16.30%).
Barangay Cayapes is the smallest barangay in the municipality, measuring to 287 hectares

Table 1 shows the land areas of the different barangays comprising the Municipality of

Table 1
Land Area of the Different Barangays in Kapangan

1. Balakbak 725 4.18

2. Beleng-belis 1,326 7.65

3. Boklaoan 825 4.76

4. Cayapes 287 1.66

5. Cuba 989.75 5.71

6. Datakan 600 3.46

7. Gadang 2,925 16.88

8. Gaswiling 2,825 16.30

9. Labueg 500 2.89

10. Kapangan Central 725 4.18

11. Paykek 325 1.88

12. Pongayan 625 3.61

13. Pudong 1,850 10.68

14. Sagubo 2,325 13.42

15. Taba-ao 475 2.74

TOTAL 17,327.25 100%

Source: Municipal Engineering Office

a. Topography

Being on a mountainous area, Kapangan is comprised of rolling terrains used for

farming. However, you could find some flat areas there also used for farming like in Barangay
Paykek, Balakbak, Cayapes, Sagubo, Pongayan, and Dakatan. Also there are places with
irregular, rugged terrain and towering mountains.

The highest point of Kapangan is elevated at 1,700 meters above sea level, located at
the boundary of Municipality of Kibungan. The lowest point is at 200 meters above sea level,
located at the boundary of Kapangan to the Province of La Union.

Two-thirds (2/3) of the total land area is made up of mountains and hills which are very
steep, rough, and rugged. The remaining one-third (1/3) of the area is devoted for agricultural
purposes like farming and foresting.

Kapangan has several creeks and rivers found all over the place. These are the
Amburayan River, Baguionas-Catiaoan River, Naguilian River, and Sali-o-aso River.
Amburayan River flows to the north draining at the South China Sea. Baguionas-Catiaoan River
is located on the Southwestern part of the municipality. It flows west to the Copias River.
Naguilian River is the continuation of Balili River in La Trinidad, also located on the southwest
part of Kapangan. Sali-o-aso River is also located on the southwester part of Kapangan and
joins the Balili River.

b. Climate

Kapangan has a Type 1 Climate as classified in the Coronas System of Classification

with two distinct seasons: dry from November to April and wet during May to October.

Temperature in the municipality ranges from 14 degrees Celsius as the coldest and can
reach up to 25 degree Celsius being the hottest. Generally, the municipality has a temperate
climate. From December until February, the municipality experiences its coolest months.

c. Soil Types

According to the socio-economic profile of the Province of Benguet, these are the three
types of soil in the municipality of Kapangan, namely:

➢ Atok Sandy Loam – the soil under this was developed from highly gnarled
materials. The relief is steep. External drainage is good to excessive while
internal drainage is good. Surface oil is dark reddish brown, medium granular
friable firm sandy loam. Depth is 0-13 centimeters from the surface. Dry is
brown slightly hard and wet is dusky red and slightly sticky. Subsoil is dark
reddish crown, blocky clay lam and depth is 13-38 centimeters from the
surface. The dry part is reddish yellow and slightly hard while we part is
yellowish, red sticky and plastic. Few very fine pores and few small roots. Sub
stream is 65-150 centimeters depth. This soil is red course sub-angular blocky
friable loam. Dry is light red, slightly hard while wet is red, slightly sticky and
slightly plastic.

➢ Puguis Gravely Loam – this is developed from conglomerates and diorites. This
surface soil is 0-20 centimeters deep. It is strong fine friable gravely loam.
Gravel is about 20% by volume. Dry is brown and soft. Wet part is reddish
brown. Subsoil is reddish brown to yellowish red fine granular and friable loam
with gravels 7-10% by volume. Depth is 20-80 centimeters from the surface.
Dry is brown and soft. Wet part is reddish brown. Substratum is yellowish red
sandy loam with 15% gravel volume. It is 80-150 centimeters in depth from the
surface. Dry is brown and soft. Wet is dark yellowish brown.

➢ Annam Clay Loam – the surface is brown, grayish brown, reddish brown fine
granular friable firm clay loam. Fine pebbles 5-30 mm. Diameters 5% by
volume are present. Depth is 0-35 centimeters from the surface. The soil is
dark brown to reddish brown, medium sub-angular blocky friable firm clay. Few
pebbles 5% by volume are present in this layer. Hard when dry, sticky and
plastic when wet. Depth is 35-70 centimeters from the surface. The substratum
is brown to dark brown, medium, sub-angular blocky friable firm clay. Coarse
skeleton 5% by volume is present. Hard when dry. Sticky, and plastic when
wet. Depth is 70-150 centimeters from the surface.

a. Land Use

Table 2a
Existing Urban Land Use in the Municipality of Kapangan

Built-up area 53.02 16.055

Residential 31.86 9.647

Institutional 20.96 6.347

Commercial 0.20 0.061

Cemeteries 0.06 0.018

Agricultural 271.81 82.304

Rivers and Creeks 0.85 0.257

Road Network 4.50 1.363

Non-Suitable for Agriculture 0.01 0.003

TOTAL 330.025 100

Source: Municipal Engineering Office

Table 2b
Existing General Land Use in the Municipality

Built-up area 136.00 0.79

Residential 79.50 0.46

Institutional 56.00 0.32

Commercial 0.50 0.01

Forest 3,213.00 18.65

Agricultural 13,711.27 79.13

Road Network 88.58 0.51

Creeks and Rivers 114.50 0.66

Cemeteries 4.85 0.63

TOTAL 17,327.00 100

Source: Municipal Engineering Office

Table 2c
Existing Land Use Classification of Kapangan
Land Use Existing Proposed Difference
Area % Area % Area %

1. Urban

Residential 47.49 14.47 52.47 13.01 4.63 0.79

Institutional 31.444 9.52 31.444 8.16 None 0.00

Commercial 0.375 0.12 1.51 0.39 1.135 302.67

Agricultural 237.319 71.86 285.934 74.18 48.615 20.49

Infrastructures/Utilities 13.312 4.03 14.092 3.68 0.78 5.83

2. General

Built-up area 136.00 0.78 136 0.87 none 0.00

Agricultural 13,711.27 79.13 13,370.645 77.16 340.63 21.84

Forest 3,231.30 18.65 1,251.025 7.22 1,980.28 61.23

Agro-Forest - - 1,980.20 11.43 1,980.20 -

Open Grasslands 88.58 0.51 96.03 0.55 7.50 8.47

Infrastructures (Roads
& Bridges)

Source: Municipal Engineering Office

b. Socio-cultural Development Sector

The early people of Kapangan were migrants coming from Tinac, Buguias, which is also
a town in Benguet. They were called “Tacdang” because they came from the direction where
the sun rises, the east. Also, there were migrants from Bontoc, Mountain Province, as hunters in
the place. They reached the Amburayan River thought their pathway from Buguias then to
Naguey in Atok. They built their first relocations in this river. They get their food by planting
rootcrops like gabi & camote in the forests.

The major dialects in Kapangan is Kankana-ey and Ibaloi. Kankana-ey is spoken mostly
in Barangays Balakbak, Pudong, and Paykek. Ibaloi is spoken in Barangays Taba-ao and
Datakan which were originally part of the Municipality of Tublay. Some old folks said that both
Kankana-ey and Ibaloi came from a mother language called Kalangoya. The two said dialects
share common traditions and customs like the caňao.

c. Political / Administrative / Economic Development

The Municipality of Kapangan was established in 1898. During this time, Pimentel
Espiritu Cariňo was appointed as mayor of the municipality. Four years after this reign, in 1902,
Kilaban Gilao of Taba-ao was the first elected mayor of Kapangan. A year after, Braddlo Palaez
of Balakbak was then elected as mayor. During Palaez’s administration, he transferred the
government office from Barangay Taba-ao to his Barangay, Balakbak. The office stayed there
for 14 years with an almost yearly turnover of leadership. Until in 1916 where the government
office was moved to Codal, the former name of Kapangan Central. Government activities lasted
for 54 years in Kapangan Central until the office was permanently settled to Lomon in January
of 1970. Up to date, the Municipal Office is still situated in Lomon.

d. Roles of the Town in Relation to other Towns, the Province, Region, and Country
Kapangan played a significant role in the past as it served as a camp for Filipino and
American soldiers during the World War II. It was the Camp Utopia that served as the
headquarters of the 66th Infantry and the United States Armed Forces – Northern Luzon (USAF-

At present, Kapangan serves as a satellite town to La Trinidad, Baguio City, and other
neighboring towns in the province of Benguet.

e. Education
a. Performance Indicators
i. Elementary Level
Table 3a
Elementary Level Performance of the Municipality

Participation Rate 99.51%

Survival Rate 67.70%

Retention Rate 98.00%

Transition Rate 99.18%

Repetition Rate 5.57%

Completion Rate 72.44%

Drop-out Rate 7.23%

Graduation Rate 99.11%

Achievement Rate 79.89%

Source: DepEd, District of Kapangan

b. Names of Schools Operating in the Locality and the Grades, Years, and
Table 3b
Municipal School Distribution and Accommodation, 2003

1. Beling-Belis Barrio School I – II

2. Catiaoan School I – II

3. Cayapes Barrio School I – VI

4. Cuba Barrio School I – II

5. Gaswilling Barrio School I – VI

6. Katiwaga Barrio School I – II

7. Laoangan Barrio School I - IV

8. Liblibang Barrio School I – III

9. Pacawan Barrio School I – II

10. Pongayan Barrio School I – VI

11. Tadayan Barrio School I – II

12. Tawang Barrio School I – III

13. Toplac Barrio School I – VI

14. Ubad Barrio School I – IV

15. Baguicpas Barrio School I–V

16. Ampagoi Barrio School I – VI

17. Balakbak Elementary School I – VI

18. Baklaon Elementary School I – VI

19. Datakan Elementary School I – VI

20. Gadang Elementary School I – VI

21. Central Elementary School I – VI

22. Lomon Elementary School I – VI

23. Longboy Elementary School I – VI

24. Paykek Elementary School I – VI

25. Pudong Elementary School I – VI

26. Sagubo Elementary School I – VI

27. Taba-ao Elementary School I – VI

28. St. Theresita High School 1st – 4th

29. Kapangan National High School 1st – 4th

30. GBDAIS (High School) 1st – 4th

31. GHDAIS (College/Tech) 1st – 4th Technical / Vocational

BS Education

Source: DepEd, District of Kapangan

a. Health

1. Health indices
Crude Birth Rate 2.9/1000 population
Crude Death Rate 2.9/1000 population
Infant Mortality Rate 13.4/1000 population
Maternal Mortality Rate 0/1000 live births

2. Leading Causes of Morbidity, 2003

1. Hypertension (419 cases)
2. Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infection including Pneumonia (213 cases)
3. Influenza (154 cases)
4. Scabies (82 cases)
5. Bronchitis (46 cases)
6. Acute bloody diarrhea (34 cases)
7. Acute water diarrhea (34 cases)
8. Parasitism (34 cases)
9. Goiter (26 cases)
10. Tonsillitis (20 cases)
11. Chicken pox (17 cases)
12. Asthma (16 cases)
13. Dog Bite (14 cases
14.Conjunctivitis (2 cases)

1. Nutritional Status of Children

Table 3c
Operation Timbang Results of Pre- School Students
CATEGORY 2001 2002 2003

# of % # of % # of %
children children children

Severe 0 0 3 0.17 2 0.12

Moderate 20 1.02 25 1.43 24 1.47

Mild 232 11.80 222 12.72 229 14.03

Normal 1674 85.15 1455 83.33 1323 81.38

Overweight 40 2.03 41 2.35 49 3.00

TOTAL 1966 100 1746 100 1632 100

Source: Nutrition Office, Kapangan

2. Medical Health Facilities

Table 3d
Medical Health Facilities
Kapangan Medicare Pharmacy, 15 beds Municipal wide and
Community Hospital Laboratory, Delivery other nearby
Room, Medical/Pedia municipalities like
Ward, Surgical Ward, Kibungan and Tublay
One (1) Unit
Ambulance, One (1)
unit radio

Source: KMCH, Central Kapangan, Benguet

Table 3e
Medical Health Personnel

Doctor 3

Nurse 4

Nursing Attendant 3

Medical Technologist 1

Pharmacist 1

Administrative Personnel 2

Cook 1

Driver 1

Utility 2

Laundry Worker 1

Source: KMCJ, Central Kapangan, Benguet

a. Social Welfare
a. Social Welfare Center: one (MSWDO, Mun. Bldg.)
b. Orphanages : none
c. Rehabilitation Center : none
d. Day Care Centers : 37

Table 4
Municipal Day Care Centers

1. Cayapes Cayapes DCC 15

2. Labaeg Longboy DCC1 15

Longboy DCC2 12

3. Datakan Datakan Proper DCC

Datakan Blue DCC 11

4. Balakbak Balakbak DCC

Mangga DCC 14

5. Cuba Ca-ew DCC 12

Pakawan DCC 8

Cuba DCC 10

6. Taba-ao Taba-ao DCC1 25

Taba-ao DCC2

Ubod DCC 8

7. Central Central DCC1 5

Central DCC2 5

Salat DCC 8

8. Pongayan Pongayan DCC 12

9. Beleng-Belis Beleng-Belis DCC 6

Tawang DCC 10

10. Boklaoan Taba-an DCC 5

Boklaoan DCC 5

11. Gaswiling Gaswiling Proper DCC 14

Catlaoan DCC

Baguionas DCC 12

12. Pudong Tadayan DCC 12

Topiac DCC 10

13. Gadang Gadang Proper DCC 15

Namat-ican DCC 8

Namon-ao DCC 8

14. Sagubo Sagubo DCC 26

Timoc DCC 8

Ampongot DCC 3
TOTAL 33 Day Care Centers

Source: MSWDO, Kapangan, 2003

a. Public Safety

1. Peace & Order

Table 5a
Peace & Order in the Municipality
2002 2003

Total Non-Index Crime 0 0

Total Crime Volume 12 5

Total Crime Solved 7 3

Total Crime unresolved 0 0

Crime Rate 66.61% 16.65%

Crime Solution Efficiency 58.33% 100%

# of Police Community 1 1

Source: PNPO Kapangan, 2003

2. Fire Safety
Table 5b
Fire Safety in the Municipality, 2003
Fire Incidence 3: (1) Electrical, (1) Open Flames, (1) LPG

Fire damages Php 705,600.00

Total persons injured 1

Total casualties Negative

Total firemen force 1

Fire equipments 1 WS Darley & Company / 18 HPtwin

Cylinder Fire Pump

Source: Bureau of Fire Protection Office

a. Sports and Receation

Table 6
Sports and Recreation Facilities

Municipal Open Gym Lomon, Kapangan Municipal Wide

Basketball / Volleyball Courts Various Schools Barangays

Playgrounds Various Schools Barangays

Athletic Ground Balakbak. Kapangan Various Schools/Places

Source: Kapangan Municipal Profile, 2003

History of Barangay Cayapes

a. Location
Barangay Cayapes is located on the northern part of the Municipality of Kapangan. Its
distance from the municipal hall is about 7 kilometers and from the City of Baguio, it has a
distance of 37 kilometers, with an average of 3 hours drive from the city. The barangays
surrounding Cayapes are Pudong on the north, Paykek to the east, Kapangan Central on the
south, and Sagubo on the west.

b. Land Area
Barangay Cayapes is the smallest barangay in the town of Kapangan. It has a land area
of 287 hectares, giving a share of 1.66% of the total land area of Kapangan. Cayapes consist of
8 Sitios, namely, Upper Cayapes, Lower Cayapes, Upper Dagao, Lower Dagao, Sadel, Salidet,
Illi, and Locot.

c. Topography
Cayapes is generally mountainous. They took advantage of these mountains by making
the sides of it terraced and made for planting crops like rice, beans, bell pepper, and others.

d. Climate
The climate in the Barangay is temperate. You could experience heat as high as 25
degrees Celsius and the minimum temperature could be as low as 14 degrees Celsius. The
months starting November until February are considered the cool months in the barangay. It has
a Type A Climate experiencing two seasons, dry season from November to April and wet
season during the rest of the year.

e. Soil Type
Soils like sandy and loam are found in the barangay which the people use for agricultural

f. Existing Land Use

The land in Cayapes are used for several purposes. They are classified according to
use, whether agricultural land, grass or pasture land, and build-up areas. Agricultural land
comprises 90.6% of Cayapes’s land area, 5.23% for grass or pasture land for cows and
carabaos, and the remaining 4.2% lies for built-up areas.

g. Education
The barangay has a Day Care Center located at Upper Cayapes. It serves as a starting
and training ground for fresh students before entering formal elementary schooling. It is a one-
storey building with one room. Only a teacher holds the day care students. It also serves as the
barangay hall where different assemblies are done by the barangay officials.

The barangay also has one primary school located just beside the day care center. It is
named as Cayapes Barrio School. It has three one-storey buildings and has a total of 4
classrooms. It handles for Grades I to VI students. Grades II and III are combined in one
classroom. Same is through with the grades IV and V. The school also has a ground used for
school assemblies and flag ceremonies.

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