Fire Fighting Robot

Supervisor:Dr. Jayanthi Sivaswamy Dr. Bipin Indurkhia

Submitted by:Rishi Gupta- !!"#!! ! Sandeep Saini- !!"#$!!%


(ontent )g. 1 2 3 4 5 % & 1' 11 12 13 14 15 16 1 Aim of the project Desired Specifications Apparatus Block Diagram Circuit Diagram !orking of "o#ot Comparator Darlington pair Source (ollo)er *ot using transistors +ono sta#le 555 Difficulties faced and solutions Applications .'o.'o.Inde& S.imitations and future e-tension !hat !e . 3 3 4 5 6 $% & & 1' 1' 11 12$13 14 14 15 16 2 .earnt Bi#liograph.

ends4 the ro#ot should keep on mo1ing in the direction it last mo1ed until the #lack line is again there0 40 3t should stop and e-tinguish fire and restart onl. cells #ecause of the current re5uirement0 Design Spe-i+i-ations 3 . of a#out 5032 and current a#out '0 A0 20 /he ro#ot should #e a#le to distinguish #et)een the )hite and the #lack surface0 30 3f the #lack surface suddenl. after making sure that the fire has #een e-tinguished0 50 /his could not #e run using the dr.0 10 (or proper functioning of the ro#ot needs a 1oltage suppl. /hus the ro#ot can act as a path guider in normal case and as a fire e-tinguisher in emergenc.*im o+ the )ro.e-t /he aim of the project is to make a ro#ot )hich can follo) a #lack strip on a )hite floor and can e-tinguish the fire on the path0 /he ro#ot can #e used in the rescue operation.

+35% *9555 S.D" 3" "ecei1er 32C Description Dual 8p$Amp /imer *:* transistor :*: transistor A*D 3C 8" 3C <..1'' S.ight dependent resistance= <for heat= :o)er *:* transistor 7uantit.ateria/ Re0uired /he component list for making the ro#ot is as follo)s6$ S0*o 1 2 3 4 5 6 % & 1' 11 +aterial "e5uired .1'' 4'% 432 2ector Board DC motors . 3 1 % 1 1 1 1 3 3 1 2 4 .

B/o-k Diagram (ir-uit Diagram 5 .

6 .

from the #lack line0 But as the other .D" stops4 the other making it mo1e a)a. of light falling on it increases0 3n our case4 the light reflected from the )hite surface is more than that from the #lack surface0 /herefore4 the 1oltage in positi1e terminal of the comparator remains high as long as the ro#ot is mo1ing on )hite surface0 3f the #lack surface come under one of the t)o .D" crosses the #lack line4 its motor stops4 the other forcing it in other direction4 resulting in its follo)ing the #lack line0 /hus 4the output 1oltage of the 8p$Amp has #een 1aried according to the need4#ut the current flo)ing through the output of 8p$Amp is in some mA 0/hus there )as need for current amplification0 /he Darlington ?pair )as used for the same0 /he resistance of the motor )as 5$1'ohms4thus source follo)er circuit )as used0 7 . of t)o different su#$circuits0 /he first part comprises of making the ro#ot follo) a #lack strip0 /his )as done using a comparator circuit using the .1orking o+ the Robot /he circuit implemented consists mainl.D">s the motor corresponding to that .D" decreases as the intensit.D" )hose reference 1oltage )as fi-ed using the potentiometer0 /his )as #ased on the phenomenon that the resistance of the .

D"4 the )orking )as same4 #ut for 3" recei1er the 1oltage and not the resistance 1ar. of light decreases and hence the t)o motors start again and there is a chance that the motor starts #efore the fire is e-tinguished 0/he 555 helps in generating a high pulse of a#out 4 seconds )hich )ill remain high and )ill not depend on the intensit. of light0 /hus the t)o ends of 3"$recei1er )ere connected to ground and positi1e terminal of the comparator 0/he output of these t)o )ere 8"ed and gi1en to a monosta#le 555 timer )ith time period of 4 sec0555 )as used #ecause )hen the ro#ot sees the fire 4the fan starts and the motors stop #ut )hen fan starts the intensit.D">s and 3"$recei1ers to detect flame 0/he dual 8p$Amp . of light for the same duration 0/hus 4 this )ill make sure that the fire is e-tinguished #efore mo1ing ahead0 8nce the fire is e-tinguished it )ill retain its original motion0 8 .+35% )as used for the same0 /he t)o comparator circuits )ere used 0(or . according to the intensit./he second part comprised of using .

/he indi1idual )orking of each of the su#$circuits is gi1en #elo)6$ $. (omparator (ir-uit:- 2out is high for 2in greater than 2ref and is lo) for 2in less than 2 ref0 . Dar/ington )air:- A darlington pair #eha1es as a single transistor )ith current gain e5ual to product of current gain of t)o transistors 9 .

ono-stab/e '2333:- 10 ..30 Sour-e Fo//ower:- VCC 5V R1 22kohm Q1 2N2222A IO1 R3 18kohm R2 2kohm /he source follo)er is used to a1oid 1oltage drop due to lo) output impedance0 3t supplies the same amount of 1oltage and current #ut can dri1e lo) resistance de1ices0 #.

"1 . interface to C+8S or //.@ere the popular 555 timing 3C4 is )ired as a mono sta#le0 /he timing period is precise and e5ui1alent to6$ !A101 .0 40 'ot using ')' transistor:- VDD 5V R1 640ohm output input R2 450ohm Q1 BJT_NPN_VIRTUAL 11 . 101msec0/he output duration is independent of the input trigger pulse4 and the output from the 555 is #uffered and can directl. 1oltages match that of the logic famil. 3CBs4 pro1iding that the suppl.C1 !ith component 1alues sho)n this )orks out at appro-imatel.

+$35% )as used to o1ercome the difficult.0 3ts logic high is 30%2 and logic lo) is '20 20 /he output of the comparator gi1es 1er. less output current )hich can not dri1e the motor0 /hus4 the Darlington pair )as used to increase the current0 30 /he current gain of different S. 32C0 12 .1'' of the source follo)er circuit e-ceeded the ma-imum limit0 /hus4 S.1'' had to #e replaced #.Di++i-u/ties +a-ed and steps taken 10 (irst )e used 41 for the comparator circuit #ut the output of the comparator )as around 4052 )hen high and 10% 2 )hen lo)0 /he A*D 3C used considered this as a logic high and hence the circuit did not )ork according to the logic0.1'' transistors used 1aried from 1'' to 5' 0/hus num#er of transistors used in the Darlington circuit )ere 3 on one side and four on the other0 40 /he output impedance of the motor is fe) ohms0 /hus to run the motor one re5uired a source follo)er circuit0 50 /hough the line follo)er #egan to )ork4 the current flo)ing through S.

of light and heat go1erned the speed of the fan0 But as the fan tried to e-tinguish the fire4 the intensit. of light for a fi-ed duration after )hich it continued on its path0 0 /he main pro#lem )hich could not #e o1ercome )as that it could not #e dri1en #. of light decreased and hence the ro#ot started to mo1e )ithout e-tinguishing the fire0 /he mono$sta#le 555 )as used to sol1e this pro#lem 03t made the fan to rotate for a fi-ed duration )ithout depending on intensit.60 /he fire e-tinguishing part of the ro#ot also faced the pro#lem0 /he ro#ot used the fan to e-tinguish the fire0 /he intensit. #atteries0 /he po)er re5uirement of the circuit could not #e recei1ed using the #atteries0 %0 Selecting the #est chassis )as a time consuming process0 13 .

e-tinguishing fire in a #uilding 0 4imitations and +uture 2&tensions:3n the present condition it can e-tinguish fire onl. and not in all the rooms0 3t can #e e-tended to a real fire e-tinguisher #. replacing the fan #. in the )a. a car#on$ di$o-ide carrier and #. making it to e-tinguish fires of all the room using microprogramming0 Also the ro#ot could not #e run through the #atteries #ecause at some conditions the current re5uirement for the circuit rises to a#out 0%A )hich is 1er. the medicines from one )ard to another 0 30 /he main purpose is to rescue the people #. high and can not #e o#tained using #atteries0 14 .*pp/i-ations:10 /he ro#ot can #e used as a guider to guide the 1isitors from the entrance to the main office 0 20 3t can help doctors to carr.

1hat 1e 4earnt 10 /he first )orking ro#ot )as in itself a great pleasure and satisfaction0 20 !e learnt the implementation of the #ig circuit using the #asic small circuits0 30 /he step )ise e-ecution of the circuit helps to reach the goal 5uickl.0 40 /he team )ork is the most important thing )e learnt0 50 *e1er lose hope0 60 /here is a huge difference #et)een the theoretical and the practical )orld 0 !e learnt to )ork under the super1ision and guidelines of our professors0 15 . and more accuratel.

Bib/iography /hese are some of the sites )e 1isited6$ http6CC)))0ho##.engineering0comCrmap3nde-0html http6CC)))0ridgesoft0comC#uilding#ots0htm http6CC)))0seattlero#otics0orgCguideCinfrared0html http6CC)))0ro#otroom0comC"B(B0html CCline follo)ing ro#ot http6CC)))0mstrace. )eek http6CC)))0ro#otics0comCro#omenuCinde-0html 16 .0#tinternet0co0ukCinterest0htm http6CC)))0dudi3'0repu#lika0plCgaleriaCinde-0html CC*e) ro#ot e1er.

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