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System Analysis and Design Syllabus

SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN


Module 1: Data and Information (3)
Types of information: operational, tactical, strategic and statutory – why do we need
information systems – management structure – requirements of information at different
levels of management – functional allocation of management – requirements of
information for various functions – qualities of information – small case study.
Module 2: Systems Analysis and Design Life Cycle (3)
Requirements determination – requirements specifications – feasibility analysis – final
specifications – hardware and software study – system design – system implementation –
system evaluation – system modification. Role of systems analyst – attributes of a
systems analyst – tools used in system analysis
Module 3: Information gathering (3)
Strategies – methods – case study – documenting study – system requirements
specification – from narratives of requirements to classification of requirements as
strategic, tactical, operational and statutory. Example case study
Module 4: Feasibility analysis (3)
Deciding project goals – examining alternative solutions – cost – benefit analysis –
quantifications of costs and benefits – payback period – system proposal preparation for
managements – parts and documentation of a proposal – tools for prototype creation
Module 5: Tools for systems analysts (3)
Data flow diagrams – case study for use of DFD, good conventions – leveling of DFDs –
leveling rules – logical and physical DFDs – software tools to create DFDs
Module 6: Structured systems analysis and design (3)
Procedure specifications in structured English – examples and cases – decision tables for
complex logical specifications – specification oriented design vs procedure oriented
design
Module 7: Data oriented systems design (3)
Entity relationship model – E-R diagrams – relationships cardinality and participation –
normalizing relations – various normal forms and their need – some examples of
relational data base design.
Module 8: Data input methods (3)
Coding techniques – requirements of coding schemes – error detection of codes –
validating input data – input data controls interactive data input
Module 9: Designing outputs (2)
Output devices – designing output reports – screen design – graphical user interfaces –
interactive I/O on terminals.

V.Rajaraman/IISc, Bangalore V1/1-6-04/1


System Analysis and Design Syllabus

Module 10: Object oriented systems modeling (4)


What are objects? – Why objects? – Objects and their properties – classes – inheritance –
polymorphism – how to identify objects in an application – how to model systems using
objects – some cases of object oriented system modeling
Module 11: Control – audit and security of information systems (4)
Audit and security of information systems – why controls are needed – objectives of
control – techniques used in control – auditing information systems – auditing around,
through and with the computer – testing information systems – types of tests – how to
generate tests – security of information systems – disaster recovery – business process
continuity
Module 12: Systems analysis and design in the era of electronic commerce (3)
B2B, B2C and C2C e-commerce – advantages and disadvantages of e-commerce. E-
commerce system architecture – physical networks, logical network, World Wide Web,
web-services – html, XML.
Module 13: Electronic data interchange (2)
EDI standards – virtual private networks – XML and EDI.
Module 14: Security of e-commerce transactions, firewalls (3)
Encryption methods – symmetric and asymmetric encryption – digital signature –
certifying authorities for signatures – legal status of e-commerce transactions
Module 15: Payment systems in e-commerce (2)
Cheque payment, credit card payments, e-cash payments.
Module 16: Complete system analysis and design case studies (5)
A system for journal acquisition in libraries – walk through the entire life cycle

V.Rajaraman/IISc, Bangalore V1/1-6-04/2


System Analysis and Design Syllabus

Lecture Plan

Hours Total
Modules Learning Units per topic Hours
1. Data and 1. Types of information: operational, tactical, 0.5
Information strategic and statutory
2. Why do we need information systems,
management structure, requirements of 1
information at different levels of management 3
3. Functional allocation of management, 1
requirements of information for various
functions
4. Qualities of information– small case study 0.5
2. Systems 5. Systems Analysis and Design life Cycle:
Analysis and Requirements determination, requirements 1
Design Life specifications 3
Cycle 6. Feasibility analysis, final specifications,
hardware and software study, system design, 1
system implementation, system evaluation,
system modification.
7. Role of systems analyst – attributes of a 1
systems analyst – tools used in system analysis
3. Information 8. Information gathering, strategies, methods 1
gathering 9. Case study/documenting study, system
requirements specification, from narratives of 3
requirements to classification of requirements 2
as strategic, tactical, operational and statutory.
Example case study
4. Feasibility 10. How to formulate project goals and quantify 1
analysis them
11. Examining alternative solutions and evaluating
proposed solutions 3
a) Technical feasibility 1
b) Operational feasibility
c) Economic feasibility
12. Cost benefit analysis, Documenting feasibility 1
report
5. Tools for 13. Developing Data Flow Diagrams (DFD)
systems analysts a) What are DFDs?
b) Symbols used in DFD 1.5
c) Rules of data flow 3
d) Good style in drawing DFD
14. Describing systems with DFD & Leveling 1
DFD
15. Logical & Physical DFDs 0.5

V.Rajaraman/IISc, Bangalore V1/1-6-04/3


System Analysis and Design Syllabus

6. Structured 16. Structured English specification 1


systems analysis 17. Decision table based specification 1
and design 18. Detecting
19. Incompleteness
20. Ambiguity
21. Contradictions 1 4.5
22. Redundancy
23. in decision table specification
24. Eliminating redundancy in specifications 1
25. Decision trees for specification 0.5
7. Data oriented 26. Entity-relationship (E-R) modeling 1
systems design 27. of data elements of an application
28. Organization of data as relations 0.5
29. Normalization of relations 1 5
30. Creation of logical relational database 1
31. Objectives of database management system 1
(DBMS)
32. Overview of DBMS 0.5
8. Data input 33. Data input methods, coding techniques, 1
methods requirements of coding schemes
34. Error detection of codes, validating input data 1 3
35. Input data controls interactive data input 1
9. Designing 36. Designing outputs, output devices, designing 1
outputs output reports
37. Screen design, graphical user interfaces, 1 2
Interactive I/O on terminals.
10. Object 38. Object oriented systems modeling 0.5
oriented systems 39. What are objects? Why objects? 0.5
modeling 40. Objects and their properties, classes, 1
inheritance, polymorphism
4
41. How to identify objects in an application, how 1
to model systems using objects
42. Some cases of object oriented system 1
modeling
11. Control- 43. Control, audit and security of information 0.5
audit and system
security of 44. Why controls are needed, objectives of control, 0.5
information techniques used in control
systems 45. Auditing information systems, auditing 1 4
around, through and with the computer
46. Testing information systems, types of tests, 1
how to generate tests

V.Rajaraman/IISc, Bangalore V1/1-6-04/4


System Analysis and Design Syllabus

47. Security of information systems, disaster 1


recovery, business process continuity
12. Systems 48. Systems analysis and design in the era of 0.5
analysis and electronic commerce
design in the era 49. B2B, B2C and C2C e-commerce, advantages 0.5
of electronic and disadvantages of e-commerce. 4
commerce 50. E-commerce system architecture 1
51. Physical networks, logical network, world 2
wide web, web-services – html, XML
13. Electronic 52. Electronic data interchange, EDI standards 1
data interchange 53. Virtual private networks – XML and EDI. 1 2
14. Security of e- 54. Security of e-commerce transactions, firewalls,
commerce encryption methods, symmetric and 1.5
transactions, asymmetric encryption, 3
firewalls 55. Digital signature, certifying authorities for 1.5
signatures, legal status of e-commerce
transactions
15. Payment 56. Payment systems in e-commerce, cheque
systems in e- payment, credit card payments, e-cash 2 2
commerce payments.
16. Complete 57. Complete system analysis and design case
system analysis studies, a system for journal acquisition in 5 5
and design case libraries, walk through the entire life cycle
studies

V.Rajaraman/IISc, Bangalore V1/1-6-04/5


MODULE 1

INFORMATION FOR MANAGEMENT


OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS

There are 4 alternative answers to each question. One of them is correct. Pick
the correct answer. Do not guess. A key is given at the end of the module for you
to verify your answer

LEARNING UNIT 1

1.1 Information is
(a) Data (b) Processed Data
(c) Manipulated input (d) Computer output

1.2 Data by itself is not useful unless


(a) It is massive
(b) It is processed to obtain information
(c) It is collected from diverse sources
(d) It is properly stated

1.3 For taking decisions data must be


(a) Very accurate (b) Massive
(c) Processed correctly (d) Collected from diverse sources

1.4 Strategic information is needed for


(a) Day to day operations
(b) Meet government requirements
(c) Long range planning
(d) Short range planning

1.5 Strategic information is required by

(a) Middle managers


(b) Line managers
(c) Top managers
(d) All workers
1.6 Tactical information is needed for
(a) Day to day operations
(b) Meet government requirements
(c) Long range planning
(d) Short range planning

1.7 Tactical information is required by


(a) Middle managers
(b) Line managers
(c) Top managers
(d) All workers

1.8 Operational information is needed for


(a) Day to day operations
(b) Meet government requirements
(c) Long range planning
(d) Short range planning

1.9 Operational information is required by


(a) Middle managers
(b) Line managers
(c) Top managers
(d) All workers

1.10 Statutory information is needed for


(a) Day to day operations
(b) Meet government requirements
(c) Long range planning
(d) Short range planning

1.11 In motor car manufacturing the following type of information is strategic


(a) Decision on introducing a new model
(b) Scheduling production
(c) Assessing competitor car
(d) Computing sales tax collected

1.12 In motor car manufacturing the following type of information is tactical


(a) Decision on introducing a new model
(b) Scheduling production
(c) Assessing competitor car
(d) Computing sales tax collected
1.13 In motor car manufacturing the following type of information is operational
(a) Decision on introducing a new model
(b) Scheduling production
(c) Assessing competitor car
(d) Computing sales tax collected

1.14 In motor car manufacturing the following type of information is statutory


(a) Decision on introducing a new model
(b) Scheduling production
(c) Assessing competitor car
(d) Computing sales tax collected

1.15 In a hospital information system the following type of information is strategic


(a) Opening a new children’s ward
(b) Data on births and deaths
(c) Preparing patients’ bill
(d) Buying an expensive diagnostic system such as CAT scan

1.16 In a hospital information system the following type of information is tactical


(a) Opening a new children’s’ ward
(b) Data on births and deaths
(c) Preparing patients’ bill
(d) Buying an expensive diagnostic system such as CAT scan

1.17 In a hospital information system the following type of information is


operational
(a) Opening a new children’s’ ward
(b) Data on births and deaths
(c) Preparing patients’ bill
(d) Buying an expensive diagnostic system such as CAT scan
1.18 In a hospital information system the following type of information is statutory
(a) Opening a new children’s’ ward
(b) Data on births and deaths
(c) Preparing patients’ bill
(d) Buying an expensive diagnostic system such as CAT scan

LEARNING UNIT 2

1.19 A computer based information system is needed because


(i) The size of organization have become large and data is massive
(ii) Timely decisions are to be taken based on available data
(iii) Computers are available
(iv) Difficult to get clerks to process data

(a) (ii) and (iii) (b) (i) and (ii)


(c) (i) and (iv) (d) (iii) and (iv)

1.20 Volume of strategic information is


(a) Condensed
(b) Detailed
(c) Summarized
(d) Irrelevant

1.21 Volume of tactical information is


(a) Condensed
(b) Detailed
(c) Summarized
(d) relevant

1.22 Volume of operational information is


(a) Condensed
(b) Detailed
(c) Summarized
(d) Irrelevant
1.23 Strategic information is
(a) Haphazard
(b) Well organized
(c) Unstructured
(d) Partly structured

1.24 Tactical information is


(a) Haphazard
(b) Well organized
(c) Unstructured
(d) Partly structured

1.25 Operational information is


(a) Haphazard
(b) Well organized
(c) Unstructured
(d) Partly structured

LEARNING UNIT 3

1.26 Match and find best pairing for a Human Resource Management System
(i)Policies on giving bonus (iv)Strategic information
(ii)Absentee reduction (v)Tactical information
(iii)Skills inventory (vi)Operational Information

(a) (i) and (v)


(b) (i) and (iv)
(c) (ii) and (iv)
(d) (iii) and (v)

1.27 Match and find best pairing for a Production Management System
(i) Performance appraisal of machines (iv)Strategic information to decide on
replacement
(ii)Introducing new production (v)Tactical information technology
(iii)Preventive maintenance schedules (vi)Operational information for
machines

(a) (a)(i) and (vi)


(b) (ii) and (v)
(c) (i) and (v)
(d) (iii) and (iv)

1.28 Match and find best pairing for a Production Management System
(i) Performance appraisal of machines (iv)Strategic information to decide on
replacement
(ii)Introducing new production (v)Tactical information technology
(iii)Preventive maintenance schedules (vi)Operational information for
machines

(a) (iii) and (vi)


(b) (i) and (iv)
(c) (ii) and (v)
(d) None of the above

1.29 Match and find best pairing for a Materials Management System
(i) Developing vendor performance (iv) Strategic information measures
(ii) Developing vendors for critical (v) Tactical information items
(iii)List of items rejected from a vendor (vi)Operational information

(a) (i) and (v)


(b) (ii) and (v)
(c) (iii) and (iv)
(d) (ii) and (vi)

1.30 Match and find best pairing for a Materials Management System
(i)Developing vendor performance (iv)Strategic information measures
(ii)Developing vendors for critical (v)Tactical information items
(iii)List of items rejected from a vendor (vi)Operational information

(a) (i) and (iv)


(b) (i) and (vi)
(c) (ii) and (iv)
(d) (iii) and (v)
1.31 Match and find best pairing for a Materials Management System
(i)Developing vendor performance (iv)Strategic information measures
(ii)Developing vendors for critical (v)Tactical information items
(iii)List of items rejected from a vendor (vi)Operational information

(a) (i) and (vi)


(b) (iii) and (vi)
(c) (ii) and (vi)
(d) (iii) and (iv)

1.32 Match and find best pairing for a Finance Management System
(i)Tax deduction at source report (iv)Strategic information
(ii)Impact of taxation on pricing (v)Tactical information
(iii)Tax planning (vi)Operational information

(a) (i) and (v)


(b) (iii) and (vi)
(c) (ii) and (v)
(d) (ii)) and (iv)

1.33 Match and find best pairing for a Finance Management System
(i)Budget status to all managers (iv)Strategic information
(ii)Method of financing (v)Tactical information
(iii)Variance between budget and (vi)Operational information expenses

(a) (i) and (v)


(b) (iii) and (vi)
(c) (ii) and (v)
(d) (ii) and (iv)

1.34 Match and find best pairing for a Marketing Management System
(i)Customer preferences surveys (iv)Strategic information
(ii)Search for new markets (v)Tactical information
(iii)Performance of sales outlets (vi)Operational information

(a) (i) and (iv)


(b) (ii) and (v)
(c) (iii) and (vi)
(d) (ii) and (v)
1.35 Match and find best pairing for a Marketing Management System
(i)Customer preferences surveys (iv)Strategic information
(ii)Search for new markets (v)Tactical information
(iii)Performance of sales outlets (vi)Operational information

(a) (iii) and (iv)


(b) (i) and (vi)
(c) (i) and (v)
(d) (iii) and (v)

1.36 Match and find best pairing for a Research and Development Management
System
(i)Technical collaboration decision (iv)Strategic information
(ii)Budgeted expenses Vs actuals (v)Tactical information
(iii)Proportion of budget to be (vi)Operational information allocated to
various projects

(a) (i) and (iv)


(b) (ii) and (v)
(c) (iii) and (vi)
(d) (iii) and (iv)

1.37 Match and find best pairing for a Research and Development Management
System
(i)Technical collaboration decision (iv)Strategic information
(ii)Budgeted expenses Vs actuals (v)Tactical information
(iii)Proportion of budget to be (vi)Operational information allocated to
various projects

(a) (i) and (v)


(b) (iii) and (v)
(c) (ii) and (v)
(d) (i) and (vi)
1.38 Organizations are divided into departments because

(a) it is convenient to do so
(b) each department can be assigned a specific functional responsibility
(c) it provides opportunities for promotion
(d) it is done by every organization

1.39 Organizations have hierarchical structures because

(a) it is convenient to do so
(b) it is done by every organization
(c) specific responsibilities can be assigned for each level
(d) it provides opportunities for promotions

1.40 Which of the following functions is the most unlikely in an insurance company.
(a) Training
(b) giving loans
(c) bill of material
(d) accounting

1.41 Which of the following functions is most unlikely in a university


(a) admissions
(b) accounting
(c) conducting examination
(d) marketing

1.42 Which of the following functions is most unlikely in a purchase section of


an organization.
(a) Production planning
(b) order processing
(c) vendor selection
(d) training
1.43 Which is the most unlikely function of a marketing division of an organization.
(a) advertising
(b) sales analysis
(c) order processing
(d) customer preference analysis

1.44 Which is the most unlikely function of a finance section of a company.


(a) Billing
(b) costing
(c) budgeting
(d) labor deployment

LEARNING UNIT 4

1.45 Match quality of information and how it is ensured using the following list
QUALITY HOW ENSURED

(i) Accurate (iv) Include all data


(ii) Complete (v) Use correct input and processing rules
(iii)Timely (vi) Include all data up to present time

(a) (i) and (v)


(b) (ii) and (vi)
(c) (iii) and (vi)
(d) (i) and (iv)

1.46 Match quality of information and how it is ensured using the following list
QUALITY HOW ENSURED

(i) Accurate (iv) Include all data


(ii) Complete (v) Use correct input and processing rules
(iii) Timely (vi) Include all data up to present time

(a) (ii) and (v)


(b) (ii) and (vi)
(c) (ii) and (iv)
(d) (iii) and (iv)
1.47 Match quality of information and how it is ensured using the following list
QUALITY HOW ENSURED

(i)Up-to-date (iv) Include all data to present time


(ii) Brief (v) Give at right time
(iii) Significance (vi) Use attractive format and understandable
graphical charts

(a) (i) and (v)


(b) (ii) and (vi)
(c) (iii) and (vi)
(d) (i) and (vi)

1.48 Match quality of information and how it is ensured using the following list
QUALITY HOW ENSURED

(i)Up- to-date (iv) Include all data to present time


(ii)Brief (v) Give at right time
(iii) Significance (vi) Use attractive format and understandable
graphical charts

(a) (i) and (iv)


(b) (ii) and (v)
(c) (iii) and (iv)
(d) (ii) and (iv)

1.49 Match quality of information and how it is ensured using the following list
QUALITY HOW ENSURED

(i)Brief (iv) Unpleasant information not hidden


(ii)Relevant (v) Summarize relevant information
(iii) Trustworthy (vi) Understands user needs

(a) (i) and (iv)


(b) (ii) and (v)
(c) (iii) and (vi)
(d) (i) and (v)
1.50 Match quality of information and how it is ensured using the following list
QUALITY HOW ENSURED
(i)Brief (iv) Unpleasant information not hidden
(ii)Relevant (v) Summarize relevant information
(iii)Trustworthy (vi) Understands user needs

(a) (ii) and (vi)


(b) (i) and (iv)
(c) (iii) and (v)
(d) (ii) and (iv)

1.51 The quality of information which does not hide any unpleasant information is
known as
(a) Complete
(b) Trustworthy
(c) Relevant
(d) None of the above

1.52 The quality of information which is based on understanding user needs


(a) Complete
(b) Trustworthy
(c) Relevant
(d) None of the above

LEARNING UNIT 5

1.53 Every record stored in a Master file has a key field because
(a) it is the most important field
(b) it acts as a unique identification of record
(c) it is the key to the database
(d) it is a very concise field

1.54 The primary storage medium for storing archival data is


(a) floppy disk
(b) magnetic disk
(c) magnetic tape
(d) CD- ROM

1.55 Master files are normally stored in


(a) a hard disk
(b) a tape
(c) CD – ROM
(d) computer’s main memory

1.56 Master file is a file containing


(a) all master records
(b) all records relevant to the application
(c) a collection of data items
(d) historical data of relevance to the organization

1.57 Edit program is required to


(a) authenticate data entered by an operator
(b) format correctly input data
(c) detect errors in input data
(d) expedite retrieving input data

1.58 Data rejected by edit program are


(a) corrected and re- entered
(b) removed from processing
(c) collected for later use
(d) ignored during processing

1.59 Online transaction processing is used because


(a) it is efficient
(b) disk is used for storing files
(c) it can handle random queries.
(d) Transactions occur in batches

1.60 On-line transaction processing is used when


i) it is required to answer random queries
ii) it is required to ensure correct processing
iii) all files are available on-line
iv) all files are stored using hard disk

a) i ,ii b) i, iii c) ii ,iii, iv d) i , ii ,iii

1.61 Off-line data entry is preferable when


i) data should be entered without error
ii) the volume of data to be entered is large
iii) the volume of data to be entered is small
iv) data is to be processed periodically

a) i, ii b) ii, iii c) ii, iv d) iii, iv

1.62 Batch processing is used when


i) response time should be short
ii) data processing is to be carried out at periodic intervals
iii) transactions are in batches
iv) transactions do not occur periodically

a) i ,ii b) i ,iii,iv c) ii ,iii d) i , ii ,iii

1.63 Batch processing is preferred over on-line transaction processing when


i) processing efficiency is important
ii) the volume of data to be processed is large
iii) only periodic processing is needed
iv) a large number of queries are to be processed

a) i ,ii b) i, iii c) ii ,iii d) i , ii ,iii

1.64 A management information system is one which


(a) is required by all managers of an organization
(b) processes data to yield information of value in tactical management
(c) provides operational information
(d) allows better management of organizations

1.65 Data mining is used to aid in


(a) operational management
(b) analyzing past decision made by managers
(c) detecting patterns in operational data
(d) retrieving archival data

1.66. Data mining requires


(a) large quantities of operational data stored over a period of time
(b) lots of tactical data
(c) several tape drives to store archival data
(d) large mainframe computers

1.67 Data mining can not be done if


(a) operational data has not been archived
(b) earlier management decisions are not available
(c) the organization is large
(d) all processing had been only batch processing

1.68. Decision support systems are used for


(a) management decision making
(b) providing tactical information to management
(c) providing strategic information to management
(d) better operation of an organization

1.69 Decision support systems are used by


(a) line managers.
(b) top-level managers.
(c) middle level managers.
(d) system users

1.70. Decision support systems are essential for


(a) day–to-day operation of an organization.
(b) providing statutory information.
(c) top level strategic decision making.
(d) ensuring that organizations are profitable.
Key To Objective Questions

1.1 b 1.2 b 1.3 c 1.4 c 1.5 c 1.6 d

1.7 a 1.8 a 1.9 b 1.10 b 1.11 a 1.12 c

1.13 b 1.14 d 1.15 d 1.16 a 1.17 c 1.18 b

1.19 b 1.20 a 1.21 c 1.22 b 1.23 c 1.24 d

1.25 b 1.26 b 1.27 c 1.28 a 1.29 a 1.30 c

1.31 b 1.32 c 1.33 d 1.34 c 1.35 c 1.36 a

1.37 b 1.38 b 1.39 c 1.40 c 1.41 d 1.42 a

1.43 c 1.44 d 1.45 a 1.46 c 1.47 c 1.48 a

1.49 d 1.50 a 1.51 b 1.52 c 1.53 b 1.54 c

1.55 a 1.56 b 1.57 c 1.58 a 1.59 c 1.60 b

1.61 c 1.62 c 1.63 d 1.64 b 1.65 c 1.66 a

1.67 a 1.68 c 1.69 b 1.70 c


System Analysis and Design / Data and Information Motivation

Motivation

™ Large number of jobs today for computer science and engineering graduates is in

creating information systems for managing organizations we thus need methods to

design complex systems.

™ Students should know what information is and how it is different from data.

™ Should know types of information needed to manage organizations.

™ Should know nature of organizations and their structure to design appropriate

information system.

™ Should know management structure and needs of each level of management.

™ Should know functional areas of management information needs for each area.

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore //V1/July 04/1


MODULE 1

INFORMATION FOR MANAGEMENT

1.1 Data and Information, types of information : Operational, tactical,


strategic, Statutory
1.2 Why do we need information systems, management structure,
requirements of information at different levels of management
1.3 Functional allocation of management, requirements of information
for various functions.
1.4 Qualities of information
1.5 Varieties of information system

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman


MOTIVATION

ƒ Large number of jobs today for computer science


and engineering graduates is in creating information
systems for managing organizations

ƒ Students should know what is information and how


it is different from data

ƒ Should know types of information needed to


manage organizations

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 1 of 50


MOTIVATION

ƒ Should know nature of organizations and their


structure to design appropriate information system.

ƒ Should know management structure and needs of


each level of management

ƒ Should know functional areas of management and


information needs for each area

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 2 of 50


LEARNING GOALS

1. Distinction between Data and Information


2. Description of types of Information: Tactical,
Operational, Strategic, Statutory.
3. Division of Management into different hierarchical
levels.
4. Type of Information needed at different levels of
management.
5. Division of organizations into several functional
areas and their information requirements
6. Attributes of Information.

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 3 of 50


DATA AND INFORMATION

DATA : Raw Material


ƒ Data collection costs money
ƒ Collect only necessary and sufficient data
ƒ Data is generally used by machines
ƒ Data is useless unless it is processed to
create INFORMATION

1.1.1 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 4 of 50


DATA AND INFORMATION

INFORMATION : Processed data


ƒ Data processed by machines giving information
ƒ Information is used to run an organization efficiently
ƒ Information used by managers to initiate actions

1.1.2 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 5 of 50


EXAMPLE OF INFORMATION
NEEDED BY A SHOPKEEPER

ƒ Daily sales account


ƒList of low stock items to be re-ordered
ƒList of overstock items
ƒLong overdue payments
ƒProfit and loss account

Used to streamline day to day operations called


Operational information

1.1.3 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 6 of 50


EXAMPLE OF INFORMATION NEEDED
BY A SHOPKEEPER (CONTD)

ƒ Slow or fast moving items


ƒ Reliable supplier of items
ƒ Sales trends

Used to improve profitability of shop called


Tactical information

1.1.4 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 7 of 50


EXAMPLE OF INFORMATION NEEDED
BY A SHOPKEEPER (CONTD)

ƒ Whether to stock different varieties of items


ƒ Whether to diversify
ƒ Whether to start a new branch in a different
locality
ƒ Whether to start an e-shop
ƒ Information to expand business and explore
new opportunities
ƒ Known as Strategic Information

1.1.5 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 8 of 50


EXAMPLE OF INFORMATION NEEDED
BY A SHOPKEEPER (CONTD)

ƒ Income tax account


ƒ Sales tax account
ƒ Used to provide information to the government
ƒ Known as Statutory Information

1.1.6 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 9 of 50


TYPES OF INFORMATION

ƒ STRATEGIC : Needed for long range


planning and directions. This is less structured.

ƒ TACTICAL : Needed to take short range


decisions to improve profitability and performance.

1.1.7 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 10 of 50


TYPES OF INFORMATION

ƒ OPERATIONAL : Needed for day to day operations


of the organization.
Eg: Daily Sales, Billing.

ƒ STATUTORY : Needed by law to sent to government


authorities.
Eg: Sales tax return.

1.1.8 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 11 of 50


MANAGEMENT HIERARCHY AND
INFORMATION NEEDS

Volume of Type of
Information Information
Strategic-
Long range planning
Low Unstructured Top
condensed Managers
Tactical
Medium Moderately Middle Short range improvement
moderately structured Managers
processed
Highly Line managers Operational
Large structured Day to day policies
Detailed Reports

1.1.9 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 12 of 50


NEED FOR INFORMATION SYSTEMS

ƒ Increasing size of organizations thus data volume


increases
ƒ Timely processing for fast action
ƒ Better competitiveness with better information
ƒ. Increasing of complexity of organizations require
innovative processing
ƒ Distributed organizations
ƒ Same data can be processed in different ways

1.2.1 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 13 of 50


MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE

Chief Executive (Strategical)

(Tactical)
Human
Production Marketing Materials Finance
Resource
manager manager manager manager
manager

(Operational)
Line managers

1.2.2 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 14 of 50


MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE (CONTD)

TOP MANAGEMENT

ƒ Chief Executive known as CEO

ƒ Executive Directors for each functional areas such as


Production, Finance, HRD etc.

ƒ Take strategic decisions

1.2.3 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 15 of 50


MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE (CONTD)

MIDDLE MANAGEMENT

ƒ General managers, divisional managers,Vice presidents etc

ƒ Each functional area may have 2 to 3 middle level


managers reporting to top management

ƒ Take Tactical decisions

1.2.4 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 16 of 50


MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE (CONTD)

LINE MANAGERS

ƒ Group managers, Assistant Group managers, Assistant


managers

ƒ Each functional area may have several line managers


reporting to middle level managers.

ƒ Take Operational decisions

1.2.5 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 17 of 50


MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE (CONTD)

FUNCTIONAL AREAS

ƒ PRODUCTION
ƒ MARKETING
ƒ MATERIALS – purchase, stores
ƒ FINANCE –Accounts
ƒ HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT(HRD)
ƒ RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (R&D)

1.3.1 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 18 of 50


MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE (CONTD)

FUNCTIONAL AREAS

ƒ All organizations need not have identical functional areas


ƒ However some are common such as
- MARKETING
- FINANCE
- HUMAN RESOURCE DE VELOPMENT(HRD)

1.3.2 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 19 of 50


INFORMATION FOR MANAGEMENT
Production Management

Strategic Information

ƒ Yearly and monthly production quotas and alternate


schedules
ƒ Policies on machine replacement, augmentation,
and modernization.

ƒ Identifying best product mix.

1.3.3 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 20 of 50


INFORMATION FOR MANAGEMENT
Production Management

Tactical Information

ƒ Identifying and controlling areas of high cost.


ƒ Identifying critical bottlenecks in production.
ƒ Identifying alternate production schedules
based on tools, machines etc.
ƒ Performance measures of machines to decide
replacement.

1.3.4 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 21 of 50


INFORMATION FOR MANAGEMENT
Production Management

Operational Information
ƒ Monitoring up to date production information
by examining assemblies, detecting likely
shortages and giving early warning.
ƒ Scheduling better production dynamically.
ƒ Preventive maintenance schedules.
ƒ Monitoring tool, machine and personnel
availability

1.3.5 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 22 of 50


INFORMATION FOR MANAGEMENT
Marketing Management

Strategic Information

ƒ Search for new markets and marketing


strategies.
ƒ Analysis of competitors strategy.

ƒ Technology and demographic forecasts and


product changes.

1.3.6 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 23 of 50


INFORMATION FOR MANAGEMENT
Marketing Management

Tactical Information

ƒ Advertising techniques and analysis of their


impact.
ƒ Customer preference surveys.
ƒ Correlation of prices and sales.
ƒ Sales force deployment and targets.
ƒ Exploring alternate marketing channels.
ƒ Timing of special sales campaigns.

1.3.7 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 24 of 50


INFORMATION FOR MANAGEMENT
Marketing Management

Operational Information

ƒ Sales analysis by regions,customer class, sales


person.
ƒ Sales target versus achievement.
ƒ Market share and trends.
ƒ Seasonal variations.
ƒ Effect of model changes.
ƒ Performance of sales outlets
ƒ Costs of campaigns and benefit.

1.3.8 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 25 of 50


INFORMATION FOR MANAGEMENT
Material Management

Strategic Information

ƒ Developing vendors for critical items.


ƒ Determining optimal levels of inventory
ƒ Determining proportion of material needed
ƒ Reducing varieties of inventory.

1.3.9 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 26 of 50


INFORMATION FOR MANAGEMENT
Material Management

Tactical Information
ƒ Developing vendor performance measures.
ƒ Determining optimal reorder levels.
ƒ Determining issues of items to shops versus
standard needs.
ƒ Controlling high value of inventory.
ƒ Determining impact on material cost and
procurement with design changes and new
product introduction.

1.3.10 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 27 of 50


INFORMATION FOR MANAGEMENT
Material Management

Operational Information

ƒ List of excess & deficient items received.


ƒ List of items rejected.
ƒ Critical items received.
ƒ Stores in transit and in inspection.
ƒ Value of inventory in hand.
ƒ Goods received, rejected and issued.

1.3.11 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 28 of 50


INFORMATION FOR MANAGEMENT
Finance Management

Strategic Information

ƒ Methods of financing.
ƒ Pricing policies.
ƒ Tax planning.

1.3.12 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 29 of 50


INFORMATION FOR MANAGEMENT
Finance Management

Tactical Information

ƒ Variations between budget and expenses.


ƒ Large outstanding payments/Receipts.
ƒ Credit and payment status.
ƒ Cost increases and pricing.
ƒ Impact of taxation on pricing

1.3.13 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 30 of 50


INFORMATION FOR MANAGEMENT
Finance Management

Operational Information

ƒ Periodic financial report.


ƒ Budget status to all functional managers.
ƒ Tax returns.
ƒ Share transfers.
ƒ Profit and loss account.
ƒ Payments and receipts.
ƒ Payroll,provident fund accounts.

1.3.14 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 31 of 50


INFORMATION FOR MANAGEMENT
Human Resource Management

Strategic Information

ƒ Long range human resource requirements.


at different levels.
ƒ Policies on human resource development and training

ƒ Policies on personnel welfare and facilities

1.3.15 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 32 of 50


INFORMATION FOR MANAGEMENT
Human Resource Management

Tactical Information

ƒ Performance appraisal.
ƒ Demographic make-up of personnel and its
impact on retirement.
ƒ Production incentives.
ƒ Morale of personnel.
ƒ Absentee reduction.
ƒ Leave and overtime policies.
ƒ Personnel deployment policies.

1.3.16 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 33 of 50


INFORMATION FOR MANAGEMENT
Human Resource Management

Operational Information

ƒ Routine assessment.

ƒ Skills inventory.

ƒ Loan/advances and recoveries.

ƒ Leave record.

1.3.17 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 34 of 50


INFORMATION FOR MANAGEMENT
Research Design & development Management

Strategic Information

ƒ Which products are to be developed?


ƒ What types of improvements are required?
ƒ What long range research is more promising?

ƒ What technical collaboration would be appropriate?

1.3.18 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 35 of 50


INFORMATION FOR MANAGEMENT
Research Design & development Management

Tactical Information

ƒ Setting intermediate goals.


ƒ Checking availability of equipment &
appropriate selection
ƒ Determining proportions of resources to be
allocated to different projects.
ƒ Deployment of personnel to projects.
ƒ Information on similar and related research
projects undertaken by other companies

1.3.19 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 36 of 50


INFORMATION FOR MANAGEMENT
Research Design & development Management

Operational Information

ƒ Progress against goals.

ƒ Budgeted expenses versus actual expenses.

ƒ Status of outstanding orders for equipment and


components.

1.3.20 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 37 of 50


QUALITIES OF INFORMATION

Quality How to ensure quality

ƒ Accurate Ensure correct input


and processing rules.

ƒ Complete Include all data.

ƒ Timely Give at right time

1.4.1 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 38 of 50


QUALITIES OF INFORMATION

Quality How to ensure quality

ƒ Trustworthy Do not hide unpleasant


information.

ƒ Relevant Understand user needs.

ƒ Brief Summarize relevant


information.

1.4.2 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 39 of 50


QUALITIES OF INFORMATION

Quality How to ensure quality

ƒ Up-to-date Include all data up to


present time.

ƒ Significance Use attractive format &


graphical charts.

1.4.3 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 40 of 50


VARIETIES OF INFORMATION
SYSTEMS

ƒ Business Data processing


– Operational information
ƒ Management information system
– Tactical information
ƒ Decision support system(DSS)
– strategic information

1.5.1 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 41 of 50


Business data processing system

ƒ Enter data to be processed


ƒ Edit, check input data
ƒ Control check to see if the data is correct and
reasonable
ƒ Store clean data as an organized data base in a storage

1.5.2 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 42 of 50


Business data processing

There are 2 methods of business data processing


1. On-line transaction processing(OLTP)
2. Batch processing

OLTP is used for query processing and rapid actions to requests


Example: Finding balance in one’s bank account
Booking railway tickets
Batch processing used for periodic data processing of massive data
Example: Processing university exam results at the end of each
semester
Payroll computation each month

1.5.3 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 43 of 50


Online transaction processing

ƒ Database (or master file) available online on disk


ƒRequest in specified format accepted from requestor
ƒCheck request for validity
ƒRetrieve record from database
ƒTake appropriate action

1.5.4 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 44 of 50


Batch processing

ƒ Collect a batch of requests


ƒ Key in
ƒValidate
ƒCreate request file
ƒCalled transaction file
ƒUpdate master file using transaction file
ƒCreate result file
ƒPrint responses for requests

1.5.5 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 45 of 50


OLTP Vs BATCH

ƒ Response time - OLTP FAST


ƒ Throughput
(No of transaction/unit time) - BATCH HIGH
ƒ Enquiry systems - ONLINE
ƒ Periodic processing - BATCH

• Once a day - STORES ISSUES


• Once a month - PAYROLL

1.5.6 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 46 of 50


MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM

ƒ Analyse outputs of routine data processing using


statistical or operations research tools

Eg: -Observe periodic demands by statistical analysis &


use for tactical decisions

-Use operations research tools to decide product mix


using demand and cost data to maximize profit

1.5.7 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 47 of 50


DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM

ƒ Unstructured and difficult to obtain precise information


ƒ Use of analytical and simulation models
ƒ Aids to conceptualise through graphs ,animation etc
ƒ Use of archival data to infer trends and rules
ƒ Some artificial intelligence tools may be used

1.5.8 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 48 of 50


DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM

ƒ Data mining a useful tool


ƒ What is data mining?
ƒ Data collected during routine data processing archived
over a long period-massive amount(Tera Bytes)
ƒ Some hypothetical rules guessed by experienced managers
and correlated with archival data-called data mining

1.5.9 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 49 of 50


DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM

Example of data mining


ƒ From archival data a rule guessed by managers
that in some months there are long waiting lists for sleeper
berths is verified-Data mining gives precise quantitative data
Action
Increase number of sleeper coaches
or
Introduce special trains
ƒ Unexpected results of analysis of archival data more
valuable for DSS

1.5.10 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 50 of 50


MODULE 1

INFORMATION FOR MANAGEMENT

Motivation

Large number of jobs today for computer science and engineering graduates
is in creating information systems for managing organizations. Students
should know what is information and how it is different from data, should
know nature of organizations and their structure to design appropriate
information system, should know management structure and needs of each
level of management & should know functional areas of management and
information needs for each area
LEARNING UNIT 1

Data and Information, types of information : Operational,


tactical, strategic, Statutory

DATA AND INFORMATION

DATA is a raw material with which we begin. Collecting data costs money
and hence one must collect necessary and sufficient data. Data is generally
used by machines and is useless unless it is processed to create
INFORMATION.

INFORMATION is Processed data, used by managers to initiate actions and


to run the organization efficiently. The data processed by machines gives
information

TYPES OF INFORMATION

STRATEGIC : Needed for long range planning and directions. This is less
structured.

TACTICAL : Needed to take short range decisions to improve profitability


and performance.

OPERATIONAL : Needed for day to day operations of the organization.


Eg: Daily Sales, Billing.

STATUTORY : Needed by law to sent to government authorities.


Eg: Sales tax return.
MANAGEMENT HIERARCHY AND INFORMATION NEEDS

Volume of Type of
Information Information
Strategic-
Low
Unstructured Top Long range planning
condensed
Managers
Medium
moderately Moderately Tactical
structured Middle Short range improvement
processed
Managers

Large Highly Operational


Detailed Reports structured Line managers Day to day policies
LEARNING UNIT 2

Why do we need information systems, management structure,


requirements of information at different levels of management

NEED FOR INFORMATION SYSTEMS

Information systems are needed when timely processing for fast action is
needed, same data has to be processed in different ways and when
organizations require innovative processing.

MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE

Chief Executive (Strategical)

Production Marketing Materials Finance Human


manager manager manager manager Resource
manager

Line managers

Functional areas of management are as follows:


PRODUCTION
MARKETING
MATERIALS – purchase, stores
FINANCE –Accounts
HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT(HRD)
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (R&D)

INFORMATION FOR MANAGEMENT

A Production Management

The following type of information is needed in production management:

Strategic Information:
1)Yearly and monthly production quotas and alternate schedules
2)Policies on machine replacement, augmentation and modernization.
3)Identifying best product mix.

Tactical Information
1)Identifying and controlling areas of high cost.
2) Identifying critical bottlenecks in production.
3) Identifying alternate production schedules based on tools, machines etc.
4) Performance measures of machines to decide replacement.

Operational Information
1)Monitoring up to date production information by examining assemblies,
detecting likely shortages and giving early warning.
2) Scheduling better production dynamically.
3) Preventive maintenance schedules.
4) Monitoring tool, machine and personnel availability
B Marketing Management

Strategic Information:
1) Search for new markets and marketing strategies.
2) Analysis of competitors strategy
3) Technology and demographic forecasts and product changes

Tactical Information:
1)Advertising techniques and analysis of their impact.
2)Customer preference surveys.
3)Correlation of prices and sales.
4)Sales force deployment and targets.
5)Exploring alternate marketing channels.
6)Timing of special sales campaigns.

Operational Information:
1) Sales analysis by regions, customer class, sales person.
2) Sales target versus achievement.
3) Market share and trends.
4) Seasonal variations.
5) Effect of model changes.
6) Performance of sales outlets
7) Costs of campaigns and benefit.
C Material Management

Strategic Information:
1) Developing vendors for critical items
2) Determining optimal levels of inventory
3) Determining proportion of material needed
4) Reducing varieties of inventory

Tactical Information:
1) Developing vendor performance measures.
2) Determining optimal reorder levels.
3) Determining issues of items to shops versus
4) standard needs.
5) Controlling high value of inventory.
6) Determining impact on material cost and
7) procurement with design changes and new
8) product introduction.

Operational Information:
1) List of excess & deficient items received.
2) List of items rejected.
3) Critical items received.
4) Stores in transit and in inspection.
5) Value of inventory in hand.
6) Goods received, rejected and issued.

D Finance Management
Strategic Information:
1) Methods of financing.
2) Pricing policies
3) Tax planning.

Tactical Information:
1) Variations between budget and expenses.
2) Large outstanding payments/Receipts.
3) Credit and payment status.
4) Cost increases and pricing.
5) Impact of taxation on pricing

Operational Information:
1) Periodic financial report.
2) Budget status to all functional managers.
3) Tax returns.
4) Share transfers.
5) Profit and loss account.
6) Payments and receipts.
7) Payroll,provident fund accounts.

E Human Resource Management

Strategic Information:
1) Long range human resource requirements at different levels.
2) Policies on human resource development and training
3) Policies on personnel welfare and facilities

Tactical Information:
1) Performance appraisal.
2) Demographic make-up of personnel and its impact on retirement.
3) Production incentives.
4) Morale of personnel.
5) Absentee reduction.
6) Leave and overtime policies.
7) Personnel deployment policies.

Operational Information:
1) Routine assessment.
2) Skills inventory.
3) Loan/advances and recoveries.
4) Leave record.
System Analysis and Design / Data and Information Multiple Choice Questions

1.1 Information is
a. Data
b. Processed Data
c. Manipulated input
d. Computer output
1.2 Data by itself is not useful unless
a. It is massive
b. It is processed to obtain information
c. It is collected from diverse sources
d. It is properly stated
1.3 For taking decisions data must be
a Very accurate
b Massive
c Processed correctly
d Collected from diverse sources
1.4 Strategic information is needed for
a Day to day operations
b Meet government requirements
c Long range planning
d Short range planning
1.5 Strategic information is required by
a Middle managers
b Line managers
c Top managers
d All workers
1.6 Tactical information is needed for
a Day to day operations
b Meet government requirements
c Long range planning
d Short range planning
1.7 Tactical information is required by

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore //V1/July 04/1


System Analysis and Design / Data and Information Multiple Choice Questions

a Middle managers
b Line managers
c Top managers
d All workers
1.8 Operational information is needed for
a Day to day operations
b Meet government requirements
c Long range planning
d Short range planning
1.9 Operational information is required by
a Middle managers
b Line managers
c Top managers
d All workers
1.10 Statutory information is needed for
a Day to day operations
b Meet government requirements
c Long range planning
d Short range planning
1.11 In motor car manufacturing the following type of information is strategic
a Decision on introducing a new model
b Scheduling production
c Assessing competitor car
d Computing sales tax collected
1.12 In motor car manufacturing the following type of information is tactical
a Decision on introducing a new model
b Scheduling production
c Assessing competitor car
d Computing sales tax collected

1.13 In motor car manufacturing the following type of information is operational

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore //V1/July 04/1


System Analysis and Design / Data and Information Multiple Choice Questions

a Decision on introducing a new model


b Scheduling production
c Assessing competitor car
d Computing sales tax collected
1.14 In motor car manufacturing the following type of information is statutory
a Decision on introducing a new model
b Scheduling production
c Assessing competitor car
d Computing sales tax collected
1.15 In a hospital information system the following type of information is strategic
a Opening a new children’s ward
b Data on births and deaths
c Preparing patients’ bill
d Buying an expensive diagnostic system such as CAT scan
1.16 In a hospital information system the following type of information is tactical
a Opening a new children’s’ ward
b Data on births and deaths
c Preparing patients’ bill
d Buying an expensive diagnostic system such as CAT scan
1.17 In a hospital information system the following type of information is
operational
a Opening a new children’s’ ward
b Data on births and deaths
c Preparing patients’ bill
d Buying an expensive diagnostic system such as CAT scan
1.18 In a hospital information system the following type of information is
statutory
a Opening a new children’s’ ward
b Data on births and deaths
c Preparing patients’ bill
d Buying an expensive diagnostic system such as CAT scan

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore //V1/July 04/1


System Analysis and Design / Data and Information Multiple Choice Questions

1.19 A computer based information system is needed because


(i) The size of organization have become large and data is massive
(ii) Timely decisions are to be taken based on available data
(iii) Computers are available
(iv) Difficult to get clerks to process data
a (ii) and (iii)
b (i) and (ii)
c (i) and (iv)
d (iii) and (iv)
1.20 Volume of strategic information is
a Condensed
b Detailed
c Summarized
d Irrelevant
1.21 Volume of tactical information is
a Condensed
b Detailed
c Summarized
d relevant
1.22 Volume of operational information is
a Condensed
b Detailed
c Summarized
d Irrelevant
1.23 Strategic information is
a Haphazard
b Well organized
c Unstructured
d Partly structured
1.24 Tactical information is
a Haphazard

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore //V1/July 04/1


System Analysis and Design / Data and Information Multiple Choice Questions

b Well organized
c Unstructured
d Partly structured
1.25 Operational information is
a Haphazard
b Well organized
c Unstructured
d Partly structured
1.26 Match and find best pairing for a Human Resource Management System
(i)Policies on giving bonus (iv)Strategic information
(ii)Absentee reduction (v)Tactical information
(iii)Skills inventory (vi)Operational Information
a (i) and (v)
b (i) and (iv)
c (ii) and (iv)
d (iii) and (v)
1.27 Match and find best pairing for a Production Management System
(i) Performance appraisal of machines (iv)Strategic information to decide
on replacement
(ii)Introducing new production (v)Tactical information technology
(iii)Preventive maintenance schedules (vi)Operational information for
machines
a (i) and (vi)
b (ii) and (v)
c (i) and (v)
d (iii) and (iv)
1.28 Match and find best pairing for a Production Management System
(i) Performance appraisal of machines (iv)Strategic information to decide
on replacement
(ii)Introducing new production (v)Tactical information technology

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore //V1/July 04/1


System Analysis and Design / Data and Information Multiple Choice Questions

(iii)Preventive maintenance schedules (vi)Operational information for


machines
a (iii) and (vi)
b (i) and (iv)
c (ii) and (v)
d None of the above
1.29 Match and find best pairing for a Materials Management System
(i) Developing vendor performance (iv) Strategic information
measures
(ii) Developing vendors for critical (v) Tactical information items
(iii)List of items rejected from a vendor (vi)Operational information
a (i) and (v)
b (ii) and (v)
c (iii) and (iv)
d (ii) and (vi)
1.30 Match and find best pairing for a Materials Management System
(i)Developing vendor performance (iv)Strategic information measures
(ii)Developing vendors for critical (v)Tactical information items
(iii)List of items rejected from a vendor (vi)Operational information
a (i) and (iv)
b (i) and (vi)
c (ii) and (iv)
d (iii) and (v)
1.31 Match and find best pairing for a Materials Management System
(i)Developing vendor performance (iv)Strategic information measures
(ii)Developing vendors for critical (v)Tactical information items
(iii)List of items rejected from a vendor (vi)Operational information
a (i) and (vi)
b (iii) and (vi)
c (ii) and (vi)
d (iii) and (iv)

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore //V1/July 04/1


System Analysis and Design / Data and Information Multiple Choice Questions

1.32 Match and find best pairing for a Finance Management System
(i)Tax deduction at source report (iv)Strategic information
(ii)Impact of taxation on pricing (v)Tactical information
(iii)Tax planning (vi)Operational information
a (i) and (v)
b (iii) and (vi)
c (ii) and (v)
d (ii)) and (iv)
1.33 Match and find best pairing for a Finance Management System
(i)Budget status to all managers (iv)Strategic information
(ii)Method of financing (v)Tactical information
(iii)Variance between budget and (vi)Operational information expenses
a (i) and (v)
b (iii) and (vi)
c (ii) and (v)
d (ii) and (iv)
1.34 Match and find best pairing for a Marketing Management System
(i)Customer preferences surveys (iv)Strategic information
(ii)Search for new markets (v)Tactical information
(iii)Performance of sales outlets (vi)Operational information
a (i) and (iv)
b (ii) and (v)
c (iii) and (vi)
d (ii) and (v)
1.35 Match and find best pairing for a Marketing Management System
(i)Customer preferences surveys (iv)Strategic information
(ii)Search for new markets (v)Tactical information
(iii)Performance of sales outlets (vi)Operational information
a (iii) and (iv)
b (i) and (vi)
c (i) and (v)

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore //V1/July 04/1


System Analysis and Design / Data and Information Multiple Choice Questions

d (iii) and (v)


1.36 Match and find best pairing for a Research and Development Management
System
(i)Technical collaboration decision (iv)Strategic information
(ii)Budgeted expenses Vs actuals (v)Tactical information
(iii)Proportion of budget to be (vi)Operational information allocated
to various projects
a (i) and (iv)
b (ii) and (v)
c (iii) and (vi)
d (iii) and (iv)
1.37 Match and find best pairing for a Research and Development Management
System
(i)Technical collaboration decision (iv)Strategic information
(ii)Budgeted expenses Vs actuals (v)Tactical information
(iii)Proportion of budget to be (vi)Operational information allocated to
various projects
a (i) and (v)
b (iii) and (v)
c (ii) and (v)
d (i) and (vi)
1.38 Organizations are divided into departments because
a it is convenient to do so
b each department can be assigned a specific functional responsibility
c it provides opportunities for promotion
d it is done by every organization
1.39 Organizations have hierarchical structures because
a it is convenient to do so
b it is done by every organization
c specific responsibilities can be assigned for each level
d it provides opportunities for promotions

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore //V1/July 04/1


System Analysis and Design / Data and Information Multiple Choice Questions

1.40 Which of the following functions is the most unlikely in an insurance


company.
a Training
b giving loans
c bill of material
d accounting
1.41 Which of the following functions is most unlikely in a university
a admissions
b accounting
c conducting examination
d marketing
1.42 Which of the following functions is most unlikely in a purchase section of
an organization.
a Production planning
b order processing
c vendor selection
d training
1.43 Which is the most unlikely function of a marketing division of an
organization.
a advertising
b sales analysis
c order processing
d customer preference analysis
1.44 Which is the most unlikely function of a finance section of a company.
a Billing
b costing
c budgeting
d labor deployment
1.45 Match quality of information and how it is ensured using the following list
QUALITY HOW ENSURED
(i) Accurate (iv) Include all data

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore //V1/July 04/1


System Analysis and Design / Data and Information Multiple Choice Questions

(ii) Complete (v) Use correct input and processing rules


(iii)Timely (vi) Include all data up to present time
a (i) and (v)
b (ii) and (vi)
c (iii) and (vi)
d (i) and (iv)
1.46 Match quality of information and how it is ensured using the following list
QUALITY HOW ENSURED
(i) Accurate (iv) Include all data
(ii) Complete (v) Use correct input and processing rules
(iii) Timely (vi) Include all data up to present time
a (ii) and (v)
b (ii) and (vi)
c (ii) and (iv)
d (iii) and (iv)
1.47 Match quality of information and how it is ensured using the following list

QUALITY HOW ENSURED


(i) Up-to-date (iv) Include all data to present time
(ii) Brief (v) Give at right time
(iii) Significance (vi) Use attractive format and understandable
graphical charts

a (i) and (v)


b (ii) and (vi)
c (iii) and (vi)
d (i) and (vi)
1.48 Match quality of information and how it is ensured using the following list
QUALITY HOW ENSURED
(i)Up- to-date (iv) Include all data to present time
(ii)Brief (v) Give at right time

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore //V1/July 04/1


System Analysis and Design / Data and Information Multiple Choice Questions

(iii) Significance (vi) Use attractive format and understandable


graphical charts
a (i) and (iv)
b (ii) and (v)
c (iii) and (iv)
d (ii) and (iv)
1.49 Match quality of information and how it is ensured using the following list
QUALITY HOW ENSURED
(i)Brief (iv) Unpleasant information not hidden
(ii)Relevant (v) Summarize relevant information
(iii) Trustworthy (vi) Understands user needs
a (i) and (iv)
b (ii) and (v)
c (iii) and (vi)
d (i) and (v)
1.50 Match quality of information and how it is ensured using the following list
QUALITY HOW ENSURED
(i)Brief (iv) Unpleasant information not hidden
(ii)Relevant (v) Summarize relevant information
(iii)Trustworthy (vi) Understands user needs
a (ii) and (vi)
b (i) and (iv)
c (iii) and (v)
d (ii) and (iv)
1.51 The quality of information which does not hide any unpleasant information
is known as
a Complete
b Trustworthy
c Relevant
d None of the above
1.52 The quality of information which is based on understanding user needs

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System Analysis and Design / Data and Information Multiple Choice Questions

a Complete
b Trustworthy
c Relevant
d None of the above
1.53 Every record stored in a Master file has a key field because
a it is the most important field
b it acts as a unique identification of record
c it is the key to the database
d it is a very concise field
1.54 The primary storage medium for storing archival data is
a floppy disk
b magnetic disk
c magnetic tape
d CD- ROM
1.55 Master files are normally stored in
a a hard disk
b a tape
c CD – ROM
d computer’s main memory
1.56 Master file is a file containing
a all master records
b all records relevant to the application
c a collection of data items
d historical data of relevance to the organization
1.57 Edit program is required to
a authenticate data entered by an operator
b format correctly input data
c detect errors in input data
d expedite retrieving input data
1.58 Data rejected by edit program are
a corrected and re- entered

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System Analysis and Design / Data and Information Multiple Choice Questions

b removed from processing


c collected for later use
d ignored during processing
1.59 Online transaction processing is used because
a it is efficient
b disk is used for storing files
c it can handle random queries.
d Transactions occur in batches
1.60 On-line transaction processing is used when
i) it is required to answer random queries
ii) it is required to ensure correct processing
iii) all files are available on-line
iv) all files are stored using hard disk
a i ,ii
b i, iii
c ii ,iii, iv
d i , ii ,iii
1.61 Off-line data entry is preferable when
i) data should be entered without error
ii) the volume of data to be entered is large
iii) the volume of data to be entered is small
iv) data is to be processed periodically
a i, ii
b ii, iii
c ii, iv
d iii, iv
1.62 Batch processing is used when
i) response time should be short
ii) data processing is to be carried out at periodic intervals
iii) transactions are in batches
iv) transactions do not occur periodically

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System Analysis and Design / Data and Information Multiple Choice Questions

a i ,ii
b i ,iii,iv
c ii ,iii
d i , ii ,iii
1.63 Batch processing is preferred over on-line transaction processing when
i) processing efficiency is important
ii) the volume of data to be processed is large
iii) only periodic processing is needed
iv) a large number of queries are to be processed
a i ,ii
b i, iii
c ii ,iii
d i , ii ,iii
1.64 A management information system is one which
a is required by all managers of an organization
b processes data to yield information of value in tactical management
c provides operational information
d allows better management of organizations
1.65 Data mining is used to aid in
a operational management
b analyzing past decision made by managers
c detecting patterns in operational data
d retrieving archival data
1.66 Data mining requires
a large quantities of operational data stored over a period of time
b lots of tactical data
c several tape drives to store archival data
d large mainframe computers
1.67 Data mining can not be done if
a operational data has not been archived
b earlier management decisions are not available

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System Analysis and Design / Data and Information Multiple Choice Questions

c the organization is large


d all processing had been only batch processing
1.68 Decision support systems are used for
a Management decision making
b Providing tactical information to management
c Providing strategic information to management
d Better operation of an organization
1.69 Decision support systems are used by
a Line managers.
b Top-level managers.
c Middle level managers.
d System users
1.70 Decision support systems are essential for
a Day–to-day operation of an organization.
b Providing statutory information.
c Top level strategic decision making.
d Ensuring that organizations are profitable.

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore //V1/July 04/1


System Analysis and Design / Data and Information Multiple Choice Questions

Key to Objective Questions

1.1 b 1.2 b 1.3 c 1.4 c 1.5 c 1.6 d

1.7 a 1.8 a 1.9 b 1.10 b 1.11 a 1.12 c

1.13 b 1.14 d 1.15 d 1.16 a 1.17 c 1.18 b

1.19 b 1.20 a 1.21 c 1.22 b 1.23 c 1.24 d

1.25 b 1.26 b 1.27 c 1.28 a 1.29 a 1.30 c

1.31 b 1.32 c 1.33 d 1.34 c 1.35 c 1.36 a

1.37 b 1.38 b 1.39 c 1.40 c 1.41 d 1.42 a

1.43 c 1.44 d 1.45 a 1.46 c 1.47 c 1.48 a

1.49 d 1.50 a 1.51 b 1.52 c 1.53 b 1.54 c

1.55 a 1.56 b 1.57 c 1.58 a 1.59 c 1.60 b

1.61 c 1.62 c 1.63 d 1.64 b 1.65 c 1.66 a

1.67 a 1.68 c 1.69 b 1.70 c

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore //V1/July 04/1


MODULE 1

INFORMATION FOR MANAGEMENT


WORKED EXAMPLES

1.1) If an information system were to be designed for a hospital, what would be


the strategic and tactical information?

Strategic information in hospital


1.Cost-benefit of a new expensive diagnostic instrument. (Such as CAT scanner).
2. Long-term forecasts for opening a ward for old age patients.
3.Technical developments in routine diagnostic instruments and decision to
upgrade existing instruments.

Tactical information in hospital


1.Optimum replacement periods and use of expensive instruments.
2.Optimum level of drugs to be stocked keeping in view expiry dates of drugs.
3.Operation theatre utilization data for improved performance

1.2) For a hospital information system what would be the


Operational information required?

1. List of patients discharged, admitted in every department.


2. Occupancy of beds and schedules for admission of patients.
3. Absenteeism data of nurses and technicians.
4. Operation theatre allotment and schedules.

1.3) What is statutory information?


What statutory information is expected from a hospital?

Information and reports that are required by law to be sent to the government
authority is called statutory information.

Statutory Information for Hospital


1. Birth and death records.
2. Infectious diseases record.
3. Profit and loss account.
1.4) What type of Statutory information is to be provided by a
small-scale industry?

Any information required by law to be sent to government authorities such as:


1. Income Tax returns
2. Sales tax returns
3. Excise duty
4. Employee state Insurance

1.5) Is up-to-date information always timely? If not, give an example of up-to-


date but not timely information?

No, it is not necessary that up-to-date information is always timely.


For example giving the correct information about the casualties
and the damage caused due to earthquake after a week.
Another example is delivering a newspaper dated 16 June with information
Up-to-date a week late.
Module 1: Data and Information

1.1 Distinguish between data and information. Give two examples of data and

information obtained by processing data.

1.2 Give two examples of non-arithmetic data processing.

1.3 What is the main difference between strategic and tactical information? If an

information system is to be designed for a hospital, what would be the strategic

and tactical information?

1.4 What is operational information? In what way is it different from strategic

information? For hospital information system what would be the operational

information required?

1.5 What is statutory information? What statutory information is expected from a

hospital?

1.6 What type of statutory information is to be provided by a small scale industry?

1.7 What would you think are the strategic, tactical and operational information

needed by an Electric Power Generation Corporation?

1.8 What would be the strategic, tactical and operational information needs of a State

Road Transport Corporation?

1.9 What do you think are the functional management areas in a large University?

1.10 What do you think are the functional management areas in a large student hostel?

1.11 What would be the strategic, tactical and operational management responsibility

assignments in a large hostel? What type of information would be needed for

managing the kitchen of the hostel?

1.12 Give an example of incomplete information.

1.13 What is the difference between accuracy and trustworthiness of information?


1.14 Is uptodate information always timely? If not, give an example of uptodate but not

timely information.

1.15 Does an attractive format of a report necessarily imply that it is relevant?

1.16 Why are organizations divided into departments and sections?

1.17 What are the primary functions of a marketing department of an organization?

1.18 In what ways do different departments in an organization interact? Give an

example.

1.19 Enumerate some functions which are common among many organizations.

1.20 Enumerate some functions which are common between a hostel and a hospital.

1.21 Explain how data will be processed to meet the functional requirements of a

purchase department.

1.22 Explain how data will be processed in a bank when a cheque is presented by a

customer and payment made to him (assume that the bank uses computers).

1.23 Why is editing important in data entry?

1.24 What is the difference between on-line transaction processing and batch

processing?

1.25 When is batch processing preferred?

1.26 What is the basic difference between business data processing systems and MIS?

1.27 What type of information is provided by MIS?

1.28 What is the difference between MIS and DSS?

1.29 What will an MIS provide in a marketing function?

1.30 What will a DSS provide in a marketing function?

1.31 What do you understand by archival data? How can archival data be used?

1.32 What is data mining? Give an example of data mining.


System Analysis and Design/Information for Management Case Study

INFORMATION PROCESSING FOR A STORE - AN OVERVIEW – A Small

Case Example

In what follows we will present a broad overview of how data is processed to meet the

functional requirements of a store. The presentation below will be an overview.

The important functions of a store are:

• to keep an up to date ledger containing stock positions,

• cater to requisitions for issue of items from the store,

• initiate reorder of items whose stock is below a specified limit,

• update stock register when items are received, and

• answer enquiries regarding availability of items in stores.

In a computer based system the stock ledger is organized in a suitable form for easy

updating and retrieval and recorded on a magnetic disk. Magnetic disk storage is the

primary storage medium for storing large data bases. This is due to the fact that any

record can be directly accessed. Magnetic tapes are used primarily as a back-up storage

unit for keeping copies of data on disk. Tapes are also useful for storing old files and for

interchanging files between different computers.

In order to create a stock ledger for a computer-based system it is necessary to first assign

unique codes for each item in the store. The unique code assigned to each item is known

as the key of the item record and identifies the record. After that it is necessary to find

out what data fields are needed for each item in the stock. The fields are determined by

working backwards, that is, first asking what outputs are needed and based on that

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System Analysis and Design/Information for Management Case Study

determining the data needed. The fields are organized as a record and stored in a data

base. This data base is the primary or master file for the store. (It is the computer

readable version of a stock ledger used in a store). Once the record format for each item

in the store is determined, one record is created for each item in the store. These records

are entered manually by a data entry operator who enters the records using a keyboard of

a terminal connected to the computer. This is called on-line data entry. Data may also

be entered on a separate computer such as Personal Computer (PC) and stored on a

floppy disk. This is called off-line data entry.

In off-line data entry the data entry machine is a low cost machine. If the volume of data

to be entered is very large, then a number of machines can be used and data prepared,

checked and corrected. As opposed to this, an on-line data entry method uses terminals

connected to the computer. In such a case the computer should be timeshared. On-line

data entry is appropriate for inserting, deleting or correcting some records in fields.

The data on floppy disk can then be transferred to the disk connected to the computer.

Off-line entry is used when the data base is very large and the computer used is a server

or a mainframe computer. If the data base is small, the PC itself may be used for data

entry and for data processing.

Before data is stored in the disk-file it must be ensured that any errors made during data

entry is detected and corrected. This is done by a program called an edit program and a

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System Analysis and Design/Information for Management Case Study

control total checking program. Such programs are essential to ensure the validity of data

in a master file.

A procedure similar to the one used to create the master file is also used to keep the data

in the master file up-to-date when new items are received or new stock of items already

in the ledger are received. Table 1 summarizes the operations performed for other

functions. The format of a record for entering requests uses the same item codes assigned

in creating the master file. Other fields are determined based on what outputs are needed.

In this case a reasonable format for requests is:

(item code, item name, quantity requested)

Table 1 Operations Performed in Stores Information Processing

1. Create stock ledger


• Codify items
• Determine data fields needed for each item
• Create a record for each item
• Organize the records as a data base
2. Issues/Reorder
• Codify items
• Determine data fields required in each request
• Determine data fields required for each issue
• Create record format for requests and issues
• Create record format for reorder
3. Receipts
• Codify items
• Determine data fields required in each receipt
• Create record format for receipts

4. Enquiry
• Codify items
• Record format for enquiry
• Record format for response

The record format for a reorder request would be: item code, item name)

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System Analysis and Design/Information for Management Case Study

( The quantity to be reordered is normally stored in the file maintained by the Purchase

department)

The record format for issues would be : (item code, item name, quantity requested,

quantity issued)

The request record is entered through a keyboard by a requester. It is checked for

validity by a program. A valid request is forwarded to a retrieval program which

retrieves the data on the requested item from the Master file on disk. The item code in

the request is used as the key for retrieval. If the requested number of items is available,

then an issue slip is printed; otherwise a reorder request is printed. Care must, however,

be taken to ensure that once a reorder is requested it is not requested again till the item

reordered is taken into stock. Each request slip processed by the computer is called a

transaction. If each request is processed as and when it arrives and the terminal on which

the request is entered is connected to the computer, then the processing method is called

On-Line Transaction Processing (OLTP).

There is another method of processing requests. A number of requests arriving during a

day (for example) are collected and formed into a batch. The data in such a batch can be

keyed-in off-line and a floppy disk created. This floppy disk can then be used to enter

requests on the computer which has the Master file. The entire batch is processed and

outputs are printed. This mode of processing is called batch processing. Batch

processing is usually more efficient. It, however, is not as timely as on-line processing.

In operations such as payroll processing which is done periodically, batch processing is

more appropriate.

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System Analysis and Design/Information for Management Case Study

Enquiry system is normally an on-line transaction processing system as it is the most

natural way of answering users' queries. In an enquiry system also, a user's query is first

checked for validity of item code, etc. before it is processed.

A variety of information systems used in practice are primarily on-line transaction

processing systems. Common examples are airlines and railway ticket reservation

systems. Designing such systems require special care to ensure that response to enquiries

are fast and that the system has a “hot standby” if there is a failure. High reliability is

required as failures can be catastrophic (imagine many persons getting the same berth

reserved on a train). Similarly reliability and availability is essential in on-line banking

systems.

MIS and DSS for Stores

The processing methods presented in the last para are for routine data processing. The

information they provide is operational information. The system required to obtain

tactical information require further processing. Such systems are known as Management

Information Systems (MIS). In the stores processing case study, some tactical decisions

would be: at what stock level should reorder be initiated? How much should be

reordered? These are determined based on data such as rate of issue of each item, time

needed for delivery from date of order, transport cost, storage cost, shelf life, and loss

incurred if an item is out-of-stock. These data have to be collected separately over a

period of time, often as a byproduct of a routine data processing system. In the stores case

daily issues of some critical items can be abstracted and the average issue can be

computed. Data on delivery times, transport cost etc. can be separately collected. Well

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System Analysis and Design/Information for Management Case Study

known methods of operations research can then be used to compute stock level for

initiating reorder and the optimal quantity to be reordered.

Operational data collected over a period of time is called data archives and the process

of collecting it is called data archiving. With the availability of massive disks in which

terabytes (1012 bytes) of data can be stored, it has become feasible to analyse the

archived data. Analyzing archived data to observe patterns which assist in management

decision making is called data mining. A stores manager may, based on his experience,

think that in the months of October, December and April the sale of sugar is very high

compared to other months. This conjecture maybe verified by data mining. In data

mining a rule is formulated which may say that in October sugar sale is 1.5 times the

average, in December it is 1.3 times normal and in April it is 1.4 times normal. This rule

may be verified within a specified margin of error by examing the data archive. If the

rule turns out to be correct, a manager will be able to decide how much sugar is to be

stocked in these months. This is a simple example of the use of archival data and data

mining to assist in tactical management.

As another example of tactical information requirement, let us consider the question of

fixing credit limits for customers. In order to arrive at this, the following inputs would be

useful:

• Customer details such as income, occupation etc.

• Customer payment history

• Volume of purchase by customer

• Outstanding dues (if any) from the customer.

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System Analysis and Design/Information for Management Case Study

Using these one may formulate some rules to arrive at the credit limits and also predict

their possible effect such as:

• anticipated effect on sales caused by varying credit limits

• anticipated loss/profit due to credit limits.

By analyzing the impact of credit limits as specified above, a decision may be arrived at

to fix credit limits.

The primary point to note is that one has to formulate a model and sometimes simulate a

system to obtain tactical information. The operational information from routine

processing becomes an input to obtain tactical information.

Strategic information is obtained through what are known as Decision Support Systems

(DSS). In the stores example a strategic decision would be to reduce variety in inventory

by discontinuing some items in store, deciding what new items to introduce in the store,

and when to open a new branch. Decisions such as these require provisions for a variety

of data transformations and representations.

Strategic information is often unstructured. Strategic decisions are made after trying to

answer questions such as "What will be the profit if I take a decision and what will be the

long range loss if I don't take it?". In a complex decision many parameters will be

involved. Identifying these and predicting their impact on a decision needs judgements

coupled with analysis. For example, taking a strategic decision of whether to open a new

branch or not would require the following information:

• Projected demands in the new branch

• Impact on current branch

• Pricing in new branch

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System Analysis and Design/Information for Management Case Study

• Competition in new location

• Profitability of new branch

These have to be provided using analytical and simulation model known as decision

support models. These models are more difficult to evolve than those needed in tactical

information development. Decision support systems should also provide aids to the

manager for conceptualization such as charts, graphs, etc. They should also provide

facilities to ask a variety of queries on the data base. A variety of summary reports

should be made available on request. The overall purpose of decision support systems

is to aid in strategic, unstructured decision making. Developing such systems is much

more difficult than developing operational systems. They, however, are the ones

required by the top management of organizations.

V. Rajaraman/IISc M1/V1/July 2004/8


MODULE 1

REFERENCE BOOKS

1. Most of the material in this chapter has been taken from the book “Analysis and
Design of Information Systems” and the accompanying Self-Study guide written
by V.Rajaraman and published by Prentice Hall of India, new Delhi (2002)
(Permission of publisher taken).

2. The following books have a good treatment of Information Systems:

(i) Systems Analysis and Design, by K.E.Kendall and J.E.Kendall, Pearson


Education (Asia) India reprint 2003
Chapter 1 pp.1 to 4 and Chapter 2 pp. 29 to 45 deal with the topic of
understanding organizations. The examples are more relevant to U.S.A. rather
than our country.

(ii) Modern System Analysis and Design, by J.A.Hoffer, George J.F. and
Valacich J.S., Pearson Education (Asia) Indian Reprint 2002.
pp.15-17 have a very short treatment of what we give in Module1

(iii)Information Systems Today by LiJessup and J.Valacich, Prentice Hall of


India, 2003.
Chapter 6, pp.168 to 198 deal with organizational structure.

(iv) Management Information Systems (The Manager’s View), by R.Schultheis


and M.Sumners, Tata McGraw Hill, 1999.
Part III pp.356 to 457 have a very detailed discussion of operational, tactical and
strategic management and appropriate information systems.

(v) Management Information Systems, by K.E.Laudon and J.P.Laudon, Pearson


Education Asia, Indian Reprint 2004.
Chapter 2, pp. 36 to 71 cover the topics discussed in Module in great detail.
SUMMARY OF MODULE 1

1. Data and information are not synonymous. Information is processed data. Data

may be processed by performing arithmetic operations on them. Data may also be

processed by reorganizing them by applying appropriate rules such as sorting,

merging, selection, matching, filtering etc.

2. Information requirements for managing organizations may be classified as

strategic, tactical and operational.

3. Strategic information is needed for long range planning. It is less structured and

difficult to obtain by processing raw data.

4. Tactical information is used to take short range decisions and for better control of

the functioning of the organization. It requires complex and ingenious processing

of data.

5. Operational information is used for day-to-day management of organizations. It is

obtained by simple processing of data, it is well structured, and more voluminous.

6. Statutory information consists of reports to be sent to government by law.

7. Management of organizations is divided functionally. Depending on the size of

the organization, each function maybe delegated to different managers.

8. Large organizations would have a hierarchical management structure with top

level managers, middle level managers and line managers.

9. Top level managers are expected to make policies and need strategic information.

Middle level mangers direct and control the functioning of organization to achieve

optimal performance and need tactical information. Line managers supervise day-
to-day operations and steer operations to meet targets set by middle level

managers. They need operational information.

10. The primary functional areas of many organizations are: Human Resource

Development, Production, Materials, Finance, Marketing and Research, Design

and Development.

Organizations are divided into many departments, each with a specific set of
11.
functions.

12. Even though an organization may have some specialized functions, many

functions such as Accounts, Human resource development, Stores, Purchase are

common among organizations.

13. Each function in an organization needs operational, tactical and strategic

information.

14. The information given to managers must be accurate, complete and trustworthy. It

must also be uptodate and timely. It must be relevant, brief, attractively presented

and its significance understandable.

15. Operational data is codified and stored in a Master file (or a central data base).

16. A request for retrieving a record from a Master file is called a transaction.

17. The method of processing data in which transactions are grouped together and

processed as a batch is called batch processing.

18. The method of processing data in which transactions are processed by a computer

as and when they arise is called On-Line Transaction Processing (OLTP).

19. Routine data processing systems (DPS) are used to obtain operational information.

These are normally repetitive. We may call this operational information system.
20. Data abstracted from routine data processing are further processed using well

thought out rules to obtain tactical information. Such systems are called

Management Information Systems (MIS).

21. Information from multiple sources in an organization are normally presented in

summarised forms such as graphs and charts to aid top management to take

strategic decisions. Such systems are called Decision Support Systems (DSS).

22. Data used in operational data processing is normally stored in many organizations

as back up or for legal reasons. These are called data archives.

23. The archived data may be analysed to obtain tactical and strategic information.

This is called data mining.


MODULE 2

SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN LIFE


CYCLE
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS

There are 4 alternative answers to each question. One of them is correct. Pick the
correct answer. Do not guess. A key is given at the end of the module for you to
verify your answer

LEARNING UNIT 1

2.1 The major goal of requirement determination phase of information system


development is
a) determine whether information is needed by an organization
b) determine what information is needed by an organization
c) determine how information needed by an organization can be provided
d) determine when information is to be given

2.2 Information requirements of an organization can be determined by


a) interviewing managers and users and arriving at the requirements based on consensus
b) finding out what similar organizations do
c) telling organization what they need based on your experience
d) sending a questionnaire to all employees of the organization

2.3 It is necessary to prioritize information requirements of an organization at the


requirements determination phase as
a) it is always good to prioritize
b) there are conflicting demands from users
c) there are constraints on budgets, available time, human resource and requirement
d) all good organization do it
2.4 Requirement specification is carried out
a) after requirements are determined
b) before requirements are determined
c) simultaneously with requirements determination
d) independent of requirements determination

2.5 The role of a system analyst drawing up a requirements specification is similar


to
a) architect designing a building
b) a structural engineer designing a building
c) a contractor constructing a building
d) the workers who construct a building

2.6 It is necessary to consult the following while drawing up requirement


specification
a) only top managers
b) only top and middle management
c) only top, middle and operational managers
d) top, middle and operational managers and also all who will use the system

2.7. In order to understand the working of an organization for which a computer


based system is being designed, an analyst must
a) look at only current work and document flow in the organization
b) discuss with top level and middle level management only
c) interview top, middle, line managers and also clerks who will enter data and use the
system
d) only clerical and middle level staff who have long experience in the organization and
will be users of the system

LEARNING UNIT 2

2.8. A feasibility study is carried out


a) after final requirements specifications are drawn up
b) during the period when requirements specifications are drawn up
c) before the final requirements specifications are drawn up
d) at any time
2.9. The main objective of feasibility study is
a) to assess whether it is possible to meet the requirements specifications
b) to assess if it is possible to meet the requirements specified subject to constraints of
budget, human resource and hardware
c) to assist the management in implementing the desired system
d) to remove bottlenecks in implementing the desired system

2.10. It is necessary to carry out a feasibility study as


a) top management can not ensure that a project is feasible before calling a system
analyst
b) top management is not sure what they want from the system
c) even though top management is in favor of the system, technology may not be mature
for implementation
d) all organizations do it

2.11. Feasibility study is carried out by


a) managers of the organization
b) system analyst in consultation with managers of the organization
c) users of the proposed system
d) systems designers in consultation with the prospective users of the system

2.12. Initial requirements specification is


a) not changed till the end of the project
b)continuously changed during project implementation
c) only a rough indication of the requirement
d) changed and finalized after feasibility study

2.13. Final specifications are drawn up by


a) system analyst in consultation with the management of the organization
b) the managers of user organization
c) system analyst in consultation with programmers
d) system designers along with users

2.14. The main goal of arriving at a final specification is


a) to tell the organization’s managers how the system will function
b) to tell the organization’s managers what the proposed system will achieve in a
language understood by them
c) to compute the cost of implementing the system
d) to assist in designing the system
2.15. The final specifications are arrived at
a) after feasibility study
b) during feasibility study
c) just before implementation phase
d) when the system is being designed

2.16. System approval criteria are specified


a) when the final specifications are drawn up
b) during feasibility study
c) during the requirements specifications stage
d) during system study stage

2.17 System test plan is specified


a) when the final specifications are drawn up
b) during feasibility study
c) during the requirements specifications stage
d)during system study stage

2.18. Hardware study is required


a) to find out cost of computer system needed
b) to determine the type of computer system and software tools needed to meet the final
system specification
c) to make sure that the system does not become obsolete
d) to find how to implement the system

2.19. Hardware study is carried out


a) after the final system is specified
b) at the requirements specification stage
c) before the requirements are specified
d) whenever management decides it is necessary

2.20. System design is carried out


a) as soon as system requirements are determined
b) whenever a system analyst feels it is urgent
c) after final system specifications are approved by the organization
d) whenever the user management feels it should be done

2.21. The primary objective of system design is to


a) design the programs, databases and test plan
b) design only user interfaces
c) implement the system
d) find out how the system will perform
2.22. The primary objective of system implementation is
i) to build a system prototype
ii) to train users to operate the system
iii) to implement designed system using computers
iv) write programs, create databases and test with live data

a) i, iii b) i, ii, iii c) ii ,iii d) ii, iv

2.23. During system implementation the following are done


i) programs are written and tested with operational data
ii) user documentation is created and users trained
iii) programmers are recruited and trained
iv) the system is tested with operational data

a) i and iii b) ii and iii c) ii and iv d) i, ii & iv

2.24. System evaluation is carried out


a) after the system has been operational for a reasonable time
b) during system implementation
c) whenever managers of user organization want it
d) whenever operational staff want it

2.25. The main objective of system evaluation is


a) to see whether the system met specification
b) to improve the system based on operational experience for a period
c) to remove bugs in the programs
d) to asses the efficiency of the system

2.26.Systems are modified whenever


a) user’s requirements change
b) new computers are introduced in the market
c) new software tools become available in the market
d) other similar organization modify these system

2.27. The main objective of system modification is


a) to use the latest software tools
b) to meet the user’s new/changed needs
c) to use the latest hardware
d) to have the most modern system

2.28. To easily modify the existing system it is necessary to


a) use good software tools
b) use the best hardware available
c) design the system which can be changed at low cost
d) keep the programming team happy

2.29 .It is necessary to design an information system to easily accommodate change,


because
a) new computers are introduced every year
b) new computer languages become popular every year
c) organizations’ requirements change over a period of time
d) systems need continuous debugging

2.30. Changing an operational information system is


a) impossible
b) expensive and done selectively
c) never required
d) usually done

LEARNING UNIT 3

2.31. System analysts have to interact with


i) managers of organizations
ii) users in the organization
iii) programming team
iv) data entry operator

a) iii and iv b) i, ii and iii c) ii, iii and iv d) ii and iii

2.32. The primary responsibility of a systems analyst is to


a) specify an information system which meets the requirements of an organization
b) write programs to meet specifications
c) maintain the system
d) meet managers of the organization regularly

2.33. The responsibilities of a system analyst include


i) defining and prioritizing information requirement of an organization
ii) gathering data, facts and opinions of users in an organization
iii) drawing up specifications of the system for an organization
iv) designing and evaluating the system
a) i and ii b) i, ii and iv c) i, ii, iii and iv d) i, ii and iii
2.34 The most important attribute of a systems analyst is
a) excellent programming skills
b) very good hardware designing skills
c) very good technical management skills
d) very good writing skills

2.35 Among the attributes of a good systems analyst the following are essential
i) knowledge of organization
ii) analytical mind
iii) ability to communicate orally
iv) excellent mathematical abilities

a) i and ii b) i, ii and iii c) i, ii and iv d) i, iii and iv

2.36 Among the attributes of a systems analyst the following are most important
i) knowledge of computer systems and currently available hardware
ii) good interpersonal relations
iii) broad knowledge about various organizations
iv) very good accountancy knowledge

a) i, iii and iv b) i and iii c) i, ii and iv d) i, ii and iii

2.37. Managers in organizations should not design their own systems as


a) systems have to interact with other systems
b) they do not have the special skills necessary to design systems
c) it is not their job
d) they are always very busy

2.38 Systems analyst should use software tools in their work as


a) all analysts use them
b) they assist in systematic design of systems
c) they are inexpensive
d) they are easily available
Key To Objective Questions

2.1 b 2.2 a 2.3 c 2.4 a 2.5 a 2.6 d

2.7 c 2.8 c 2.9 b 2.10 c 2.11 b 2.12 c

2.13 a 2.14 b 2.15 a 2.16 a 2.17 a 2.18 b

2.19 a 2.20 c 2.21 a 2.22 d 2.23 d 2.24 a

2.25 b 2.26 a 2.27 b 2.28 c 2.29 c 2.30 b

2.31 b 2.32 a 2.33 d 2.34 c 2.35 b 2.36 d

2.37 b 2.38 b
MODULE 2

SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN LIFE CYCLE

Contents
2.1 Systems Analysis and Design life Cycle: Requirements
determination, requirements specifications

2.2 Feasibility analysis, final specifications, hardware and


software study, system design, system implementation,
system evaluation, system modification.

2.3 Role of systems analyst, attributes of system analyst, tools


used in system analysis

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman


MOTIVATION

ƒ Designing Information system for an organization is a


very complex job.

ƒ Students should know how to logically divide a complex


job into smaller manageable steps.

ƒ Each step must have a logical beginning and end and


must be self contained.

System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 1 of 23


MOTIVATION

ƒ Division of large jobs into logical steps will


• Enable one to assess progress at the end of each step
• Steps may be assigned to persons with
specialized competance
• Allocation of human and financial resources
appropriate for each step can be planned

System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 2 of 23


LEARNING GOALS

1. Nine Steps in designing Information Systems.

2. Tasks performed in each step.

3. Nature of tasks performed by Systems Analysts.

4. The attributes of Systems Analysts.

5. The tools used by Systems Analysts.

System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 3 of 23


LIFE CYCLE OF SYSTEMS
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

Steps involved in Analysis and Design


1. Requirements Determinations
2. Requirements Specifications
3. Feasibility Analysis
4. Final Specifications
5. Hardware Study
6. System Design
7. System Implementation
8. System Evaluation
9. System Modification

2.1.1 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 4 of 23


LIFE CYCLE OF SYSTEMS
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

Step 1 : Requirements Determination

ƒ Arrived at by a consensus among managers

ƒ Priorities among applications determined

ƒ Pick high priority applications.

2.1.2 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 5 of 23


LIFE CYCLE OF SYSTEMS
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

Step 2 : Requirements Specification

ƒ Known as System Requirements Specification (SRS)


ƒ Understand the existing System
ƒ Applications where a system is required are listed
ƒ Arrive at the specifications of the users’ Requirements
after discussions with the user
ƒ A system may encompass several applications

2.1.3 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 6 of 23


LIFE CYCLE OF SYSTEMS
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
Step 3 : Feasibility Analysis
ƒ Formulate Goals of the system and quantify goals
ƒ Find alternative methods of meeting the goals
ƒ For each alternative assess resources needed
- Human Resources
- Time and Money
- Equipment needed
ƒ Assess cost of each alternative

ƒ Find the best alternative method subject to resource constraints

2.2.1 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 7 of 23


LIFE CYCLE OF SYSTEMS
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

Step 4 : Final Specifications

ƒ Specifications would state what the system would


achieve.
ƒ Specification drawn up are improved for
implementation.
ƒ SRS written- given to user and agreement
reached

2.2.2 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 8 of 23


LIFE CYCLE OF SYSTEMS
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

Step 5 : Hardware Study

ƒ Determine Hardware and Software required


to execute the application.
ƒ Determine Response time,Volume of data to
be processed, Frequency of reports etc & then
pick the hardware.

2.2.3 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 9 of 23


LIFE CYCLE OF SYSTEMS
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

Step 6 : System Design

ƒ Logical Design of the System


ƒ Objects Identified
ƒ Database Designed
ƒ Program Specification drawn up
ƒ Implementation Plan Drawn up
ƒ Test Plan

2.2.4 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 10 of 23


LIFE CYCLE OF SYSTEMS
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

Step 7 : System Implementation

ƒ Write Programs
ƒ Create Database
ƒ Document System
ƒ Train Users
ƒ Trial run of the system
ƒ Test and Accept

2.2.5 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 11 of 23


LIFE CYCLE OF SYSTEMS
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

Step 8 : System evaluation

ƒ Find out from Users whether the System


meets specified requirements.
ƒ List areas of dissatisfaction and find reasons
ƒ Suggest if there has to be any improvements to
the system

2.2.6 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 12 of 23


LIFE CYCLE OF SYSTEMS
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

Step 9 : System Modification

ƒ Fix errors
ƒ Add/Delete features as required by users
ƒ Tune the System

ƒ Continuously monitor system and assess


performance

2.2.7 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 13 of 23


System Life Cycle Diagram
Revised Prioritized
User Requirements Specifications
Requirements
Requirements Requirements Feasibility
Determination Specification Analysis
Decision to Test Plan
Design Information Feasibility
System Logical Functional Study
Design Specifications System
System System
Implementation Design Specification
Analysis
System Configuration Physical
Data Requirements
System
Evaluation Hardware
Study Budget & schedule
Revised
Requirements

System
Maintenance Improved System

2.2.8 14 of 23
ROLE OF SYSTEMS ANALYST
ƒ Defining Requirements
- Involves Interviewing Users
ƒ Prioritizing Requirements
- Obtain Users Consensus
ƒ Fact Gathering
- Data, Facts, Opinions of Managers
- Lower level Users should be consulted

2.3.1 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 15 of 23


ROLE OF SYSTEMS ANALYST

ƒ Analysis and evaluation


- Arrive at appropriate system
ƒ Solving problems
- Hazy requirements converted into specific
requirements
- Suggest many alternative solutions
- Quantify cost and benefits

2.3.2 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 16 of 23


ROLE OF SYSTEMS ANALYST

ƒ Drawing up specifications
- FUNCTIONAL SPECIFICATIONS

- Understood by users and programmers


- Accepted by users
- Precise and detailed
- Account for possible changes

2.3.3 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 17 of 23


ROLE OF SYSTEMS ANALYST

SYSTEM DESIGN
ƒ Logical design of system
- Objects identification
- Normalizing database
- Test plan
ƒ Design must be modular to accommodate change

2.3.4 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 18 of 23


ROLE OF SYSTEMS ANALYST

ƒ Evaluating Systems
- Evaluation after use for sometime
- Plan periodicity for evaluation
- Modify as needed

2.3.5 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 19 of 23


ATTRIBUTES OF A SYSTEMS ANALYST

ƒ KNOWLEDGE OF ORGANISATION
- Knowing user’s jargon & practices
- Know Management functions.

ƒ KNOWLEDGE OF COMPUTERS AND


SOFTWARE
- Knowledge of system design tools
- Keep abreast of modern developments

2.3.6 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 20 of 23


ATTRIBUTES OF A SYSTEMS ANALYST

ƒ GOOD INTERPERSONNAL RELATIONS

- Need to work as team member


- Lead smaller teams
- Interface with programmers & Users
- Motivator.
ƒ ABILITY TO COMMUNICATE
- Oral Presentation
- Report Writing
- Answer queries

2.3.7 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 21 of 23


ATTRIBUTES OF A SYSTEMS ANALYST

ƒ ANALYTICAL MIND
- Problem solving attitude
- Ability to assess trade offs
- Sound commonsense
- Curiosity to learn about new organizations

ƒ BREADTH OF KNOWLEDGE
- Broad Liberal Knowledge
- Variety of jobs to be tackled in diverse organizations

2.3.8 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 22 of 23


TOOLS USED BY SYSTEMS ANALYST

ƒ Data Flow Diagram


ƒ Decision Tables
ƒ Modeling Language such as UML
ƒ Normalization of Databases
ƒ Testing tools
ƒ ISO/CMM procedure manuals

2.3.9 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 23 of 23


MODULE 2

SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN LIFE CYCLE

Contents

1. MOTIVATION AND LEARNING GOALS

2. LEARNING UNIT 1
Systems Analysis and Design life Cycle: Requirements
determination, requirements specifications

3. LEARNING UNIT 2
Feasibility analysis, final specifications, hardware and
software study, system design, system implementation,
system evaluation, system modification.

4. LEARNING UNIT 3
Role of systems analyst, attributes of system analyst, tools
used in system analysis

5. References
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN LIFE CYCLE

MOTIVATION

Students should know how to logically divide a complex job into smaller
manageable steps. Each step must have a logical beginning and end and
must be self contained. Division of large jobs into logical steps will enable
one to assess progress at the end of each step, each step may be assigned to
persons with specialized competence, and allocation of human and financial
resources appropriate for each step can be planned.

LEARNING GOALS

At the end of this module u will know:

1. Nine Steps in designing Information Systems.


2. Tasks performed in each step.
3. Nature of tasks performed by Systems Analysts.
4. The attributes of Systems Analysts.
5. The tools used by Systems Analysts.
LEARNING UNIT 1

Systems Analysis and Design life Cycle: Requirements


determination, requirements specifications

LIFE CYCLE OF SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

Steps involved in Analysis and Design

1.Requirements Determinations
2.Requirements Specifications
3.Feasibility Analysis
4.Final Specifications
5.Hardware Study
6.System Design
7.System Implementation
8.System Evaluation
9.System Modification

1.Requirements Determination:

This is arrived at by a consensus reached among managers in the


organization. Priorities among applications are determined and high priority
applications are selected.

2.Requirements Specifications

This is known as System Requirements Specification (SRS). Applications


where a system is required are listed, and specifications of the users
requirements are arrived at after discussion with the user.
LEARNING UNIT 2

Feasibility analysis, final specifications, hardware and


software study, system design, system implementation,
system evaluation, system modification.

3. Feasibility Analysis

Formulate Goals of the system and quantify them. Find alternative methods
of meeting the goals and for each alternative assess resources needed like
Human Resources, Time and Money, Equipment needed etc. Assess cost of
each alternative and find the best alternative

4.Final Specifications

Specifications would state what the system would achieve. Specifications


drawn up are then improved for implementation. SRS is written, which is
then given to user and agreement is reached

5.Hardware Study

Determine Hardware and Software required to execute the application.


Determine Response time, Volume of data to be processed, Frequency of
reports etc & then pick the hardware.
6.System Design

A logical Design of the System is implemented. Objects are identified,


Database is designed, and program specification and implementation plan is
drawn up.

7.System Implementation

In this phase programs are written, Database is created, user operational


document is created, users are trained and the system is tested with
operational data

8.System Evaluation

Find out from Users whether the System meets the specified requirements.
List areas of dissatisfaction and find reasons, suggest if there has to be any
improvements to the system

9.System Modification

Fix the errors, add/delete features as required by users, tune the system and
continuously monitor system and assess performance.
LEARNING UNIT 3

Role of systems analyst, attributes of system analyst, tools


used in system analysis

ROLE OF SYSTEMS ANALYST

The following are roles of systems analyst:

1. Defining Requirements: Involves Interviewing Users


2. Prioritizing Requirements: Obtain Users Consensus
3. Fact Gathering: Data, Facts and opinions of Managers are gathered,
Lower level Users should also be consulted
4.Analysis and evaluation -Arrive at appropriate system
5. Solving problems: Hazy requirements converted into specific
requirements, suggest many alternative solutions, and quantify cost and
benefits
6.Drawing up specifications: Draw up specifications which are understood
by users and programmers, which are accepted by users and which are
precise and detailed.
7. System design: Logical design of system is implemented and the design
must be modular
8.Evaluating Systems: Evaluate the system after it has been used for
sometime, Plan the periodicity for evaluation and modify the system as
needed
ATTRIBUTES OF A SYSTEMS ANALYST

Knowledge of organisation
Knowledge of computers and software
Good interpersonal relations
Ability to communicate
Analytical mind
Breadth of knowledge

TOOLS USED BY SYSTEMS ANALYST

ƒ Data Flow Diagram


ƒ Decision Tables
ƒ Modeling Language such as UML
ƒ Normalization of Databases
ƒ Testing tools
ƒ ISO/CMM procedure manuals

REFERENCES
Most of the material in the module is adapted from Chapter 3 of Analysis
and Design of Information Systems by V.Rajaraman published by Prentice
Hall of India 2002 with permission from publisher.

1. Information Systems Today by L.Jessup and J.Valacich. Topics in


this module treated from a slightly different perspective in Chapter
8, pp.240 to 256.

2. K.E.Kendall and J.E.Kendall, Systems Analysis and Design,


Pearson Education Asia, Indian Reprint 2002. pp.16-17 have a
very brief treatment of Systems Analysists’ role and Systems
Development life cycle.

3. Modern Systems Analysis and Design by J.E.Hoffer, J.F.George


and J.Valacich treat life cycle in pp.18-25. Role of various stake
holders in systems development is covered in pp.11 to 15.

4. Information Systems, S.Alter, Pearson Education Asia 2000 looks


at life cycle from a different perspective on pp. 4 to 16.
System Analysis and Design/Information Gathering Multiple Choice Questions

Systems Analysis and Design Life Cycle

2.1 The major goal of requirement determination phase of information system


development is
a. determine whether information is needed by an organization
b. determine what information is needed by an organization
c. determine how information needed by an organization can be provided
d. determine when information is to be given
2.2 Information requirements of an organization can be determined by
a. interviewing managers and users and arriving at the requirements based on
consensus
b. finding out what similar organizations do
c. telling organization what they need based on your experience
d. sending a questionnaire to all employees of the organization
2.3 It is necessary to prioritize information requirements of an organization
at the requirements determination phase as
a. it is always good to prioritize
b. there are conflicting demands from users
c. there are constraints on budgets, available time, human resource and
requirement
d. all good organization do it
2.4 Requirement specification is carried out
a. after requirements are determined
b. before requirements are determined
c. simultaneously with requirements determination
d. independent of requirements determination
2.5 The role of a system analyst drawing up a requirements specification is
similar to
a. architect designing a building
b. a structural engineer designing a building
c. a contractor constructing a building

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M2/V1/July 04/1


System Analysis and Design/Information Gathering Multiple Choice Questions

d. the workers who construct a building


2.6 It is necessary to consult the following while drawing up requirement
specification
a. only top managers
b. only top and middle management
c. only top, middle and operational managers
d. top, middle and operational managers and also all who will use the
system
2.7 In order to understand the working of an organization for which a computer
based system is being designed, an analyst must
a. look at only current work and document flow in the organization
b. discuss with top level and middle level management only
c. interview top, middle, line managers and also clerks who will enter data
and use the system
d. only clerical and middle level staff who have long experience in the
organization and will be users of the system
2.8 A feasibility study is carried out
a. after final requirements specifications are drawn up
b. during the period when requirements specifications are drawn up
c. before the final requirements specifications are drawn up
d. at any time
2.9 The main objective of feasibility study is
a. to assess whether it is possible to meet the requirements specifications
b. to assess if it is possible to meet the requirements specified subject to
constraints of budget, human resource and hardware
c. to assist the management in implementing the desired system
d. to remove bottlenecks in implementing the desired system
2.10 It is necessary to carry out a feasibility study as
a. top management can not ensure that a project is feasible before calling a
system analyst
b. top management is not sure what they want from the system

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M2/V1/July 04/2


System Analysis and Design/Information Gathering Multiple Choice Questions

c. even though top management is in favor of the system, technology may


not be mature for implementation
d. all organizations do it
2.11 Feasibility study is carried out by
a. managers of the organization
b. system analyst in consultation with managers of the organization
c. users of the proposed system
d. systems designers in consultation with the prospective users of the system
2.12 Initial requirements specification is
a. not changed till the end of the project
b. continuously changed during project implementation
c. only a rough indication of the requirement
d. changed and finalized after feasibility study
2.13 Final specifications are drawn up by
a. system analyst in consultation with the management of the organization
b. the managers of user organization
c. system analyst in consultation with programmers
d. system designers along with users
2.14 The main goal of arriving at a final specification is
a. to tell the organization’s managers how the system will function
b. to tell the organization’s managers what the proposed system will achieve
in a language understood by them
c. to compute the cost of implementing the system
d. to assist in designing the system
2.15 The final specifications are arrived at
a. after feasibility study
b. during feasibility study
c. just before implementation phase
d. when the system is being designed
2.16 System approval criteria are specified
a. when the final specifications are drawn up

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M2/V1/July 04/3


System Analysis and Design/Information Gathering Multiple Choice Questions

b. during feasibility study


c. during the requirements specifications stage
d. during system study stage
2.17 System test plan is specified
a. when the final specifications are drawn up
b. during feasibility study
c. during the requirements specifications stage
d. during system study stage
2.18 Hardware study is required
a. to find out cost of computer system needed
b. to determine the type of computer system and software tools needed to
meet the final system specification
c. to make sure that the system does not become obsolete
d. to find how to implement the system
2.19 Hardware study is carried out
a. after the final system is specified
b. at the requirements specification stage
c. before the requirements are specified
d. whenever management decides it is necessary
2.20 System design is carried out
a. as soon as system requirements are determined
b. whenever a system analyst feels it is urgent
c. after final system specifications are approved by the organization
d. whenever the user management feels it should be done
2.21 The primary objective of system design is to
a. design the programs, databases and test plan
b. design only user interfaces
c. implement the system
d. find out how the system will perform
2.22 The primary objective of system implementation is
i) to build a system prototype

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M2/V1/July 04/4


System Analysis and Design/Information Gathering Multiple Choice Questions

ii) to train users to operate the system


iii) to implement designed system using computers
iv) write programs, create databases and test with live data
a. i, iii
b. i, ii, iii
c. ii ,iii
d. ii, iv
2.23 During system implementation the following are done
i) programs are written and tested with operational data
ii) user documentation is created and users trained
iii) programmers are recruited and trained
iv) the system is tested with operational data

a. i and iii
b. ii and iii
c. ii and iv
d. i, ii & iv
2.24 System evaluation is carried out
a. after the system has been operational for a reasonable time
b. during system implementation
c. whenever managers of user organization want it
d. whenever operational staff want it
2.25 The main objective of system evaluation is
a. to see whether the system met specification
b. to improve the system based on operational experience for a period
c. to remove bugs in the programs
d. to asses the efficiency of the system
2.26 Systems are modified whenever
a. user’s requirements change
b. new computers are introduced in the market
c. new software tools become available in the market

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M2/V1/July 04/5


System Analysis and Design/Information Gathering Multiple Choice Questions

d. other similar organization modify these system


2.27 The main objective of system modification is
a. to use the latest software tools
b. to meet the user’s new/changed needs
c. to use the latest hardware
d. to have the most modern system
2.28 To easily modify the existing system it is necessary to
a. use good software tools
b. use the best hardware available
c. design the system which can be changed at low cost
d. keep the programming team happy
2.29 It is necessary to design an information system to easily accommodate
change, because
a. new computers are introduced every year
b. new computer languages become popular every year
c. organizations’ requirements change over a period of time
d. systems need continuous debugging
2.30 Changing an operational information system is
a. impossible
b. expensive and done selectively
c. never required
d. usually done
2.31 System analysts have to interact with
i) managers of organizations
ii) users in the organization
iii) programming team
iv) data entry operator

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M2/V1/July 04/6


System Analysis and Design/Information Gathering Multiple Choice Questions

a. iii and iv
b. i, ii and iii
c. ii, iii and iv
d. ii and iii
2.32 The primary responsibility of a systems analyst is to
a. specify an information system which meets the requirements of an
organization
b. write programs to meet specifications
c. maintain the system
d. meet managers of the organization regularly
2.33 The responsibilities of a system analyst include
i) defining and prioritizing information requirement of an organization
ii) gathering data, facts and opinions of users in an organization
iii) drawing up specifications of the system for an organization
iv) designing and evaluating the system
a. i and ii
b. i, ii and iv
c. i, ii, iii and iv
d. i, ii and iii
2.34 The most important attribute of a systems analyst is
a. excellent programming skills
b. very good hardware designing skills
c. very good technical management skills
d. very good writing skills
2.35 Among the attributes of a good systems analyst the following are essential
i) knowledge of organization
ii) analytical mind
iii) ability to communicate orally
iv) excellent mathematical abilities
a. i and ii
b. i, ii and iii

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M2/V1/July 04/7


System Analysis and Design/Information Gathering Multiple Choice Questions

c. i, ii and iv
d. i, iii and iv
2.36 Among the attributes of a systems analyst the following are most
important
i) knowledge of computer systems and currently available hardware
ii) good interpersonal relations
iii) broad knowledge about various organizations
iv) very good accountancy knowledge
a. i, iii and iv
b. i and iii
c. i, ii and iv
d. i, ii and iii
2.37 Managers in organizations should not design their own systems as
a. systems have to interact with other systems
b. they do not have the special skills necessary to design systems
c. it is not their job
d. they are always very busy
2.38 Systems analyst should use software tools in their work as
a. all analysts use them
b. they assist in systematic design of systems
c. they are inexpensive
d. they are easily available

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M2/V1/July 04/8


System Analysis and Design/Information Gathering Multiple Choice Questions

Key to Objective Questions

2.1 b 2.2 a 2.3 c 2.4 a 2.5 a 2.6 d

2.7 c 2.8 c 2.9 b 2.10 c 2.11 b 2.12 c

2.13 a 2.14 b 2.15 a 2.16 a 2.17 a 2.18 b

2.19 a 2.20 c 2.21 a 2.22 d 2.23 d 2.24 a

2.25 b 2.26 a 2.27 b 2.28 c 2.29 c 2.30 b

2.31 b 2.32 a 2.33 d 2.34 c 2.35 b 2.36 d

2.37 b 2.38 b

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M2/V1/July 04/9


Systems Analysis and Design Life Cycle

2.1 Who do you think should participate in determining the information requirements of
a student’s hostel?
• Warden of hostel
• Hostel Superintendent
• Accountant
• Student Representatives
• Principal of college is consulted at the beginning
2.2 What is the difference between information requirement determination and
specification?
• Information requirement determination attempts to find out what strategic,
tactical, operational information is needed to effectively manage an
organization.
• Information specification defines the manner in which the information will
be presented and what analyzed data it
2.3 Why is feasibility analysis necessary before designing a system?
Feasibility analysis mean to analyze whether there is a reasonable chance of the
project succeeding given the constraints of computing equipment, human
resources, data availability i.e. before investing money and time one should
know what resources are needed for it to succeed and whether the resources are
available. If the resources are limited, then the goals to be met by the system can
be curtailed. One should have a quantitative and qualitative idea of cost of the
system and what benefits one may gain from the system.
2.4 What benefits do you expect if an information system for a hostel is designed?

• Mess bills will be promptly generated and can give itemized details of
extras.
• Can control mess expenses by finding out consumption of various items
against an average.
• Can try to optimize daily menus based on cost of vegetables etc.
• Can find out the names of the students with large dues left and sending
them reminders.
• Can quickly find out which student stays in which room and his home
address when needed.

2.4) What activities will you carry out during implementation of a hostel
information System?

1. PROGRAMS WRITTEN FOR


• Mess accounting
• Billing
• Stores control
2. DATABASE CREATED
• Students
• Mess stores
• Mess finance
3.TRAINING
Hostel office staff will be trained to input data and generate queries
4.DOCUMENTATION
Documentation of the system will be created.
5.TESTING
The computerized system will be operated in parallel with the manual system
and tested.

2.6) When should a system be evaluated?

A rough thumb rule is to evaluate a system when the "transients” die down and it
reaches a quasi "steady-state". Transients are caused by changes made due to
errors in the system and when some minor changes are introduced. Normally a
system is evaluated after being in use for 6 months, but this period may
vary according to the application.

2.7) Are excellent programmers necessarily excellent system analysts? Justify


your answer.

An Programmer is not necessarily an excellent system analyst. A programmer is


given clear specification and designs efficient programs. He need not have good
communication skills and inter-personal relations. A programmer works with
clear specifications whereas an analyst has to arrive at clear specifications from
fuzzily stated requirements.

2.8) Why should a systems analyst be able to communicate well?

He has to understand users’ requirements mostly by interviewing them and thus


he has to ask the right questions, listen carefully and summarize orally the gist of
conversation. He also must be able to present and explain orally to the users
the system designed by him and clarify doubts they may have after the oral
presentation. His main job is to interact with the management, users’ and the
programmers so it is obvious that he must possess good communication skills.
QUESTION BANK

MODULE 2

2.1 How are information requirements arrived at in an organization?

2.2 Who do you think should participate in determining the information requirements

of a student hostel?

2.3 As a student what information would you consider as important in a students

hostel?

2.4 What is the difference between information requirement determination and

specification?

2.5 Specify the information requirement you stated in answer to Exercise 2.3

2.6 What do you understand by the term consensus?

2.7 Why is feasibility analysis necessary before designing a system?

2.8 In designing an information system for a hostel what constraints should be taken

into account during feasibility analysis?

2.9 What benefits do you expect if an information system for a hostel is designed?

2.10 What factors are taken into account in arriving at the final specifications of an

information system?

2.11 What should be the important characteristics of the final specifications?

2.12 What are the inputs and outputs of the system design phase?

2.13 What activities are carried out in the system implementation phase?

2.14 What activities will you carry out during implementation of a hostel information

system?

2.15 When should a system be evaluated?


2.16 What are the characteristics of a good information system?

2.17 What special skills should a systems analyst possess?

2.18 Why should a systems analyst be able to communicate well?

2.19 Are excellent programmers necessarily excellent systems analysts? Justify your

answer.

2.20 List eight tasks performed by systems analysts.

2.21 List six desirable attributes of a systems analyst.

2.22 Should managers design their own systems? What are the advantages and

disadvantages of such a decision?

2.23 What are the tools currently available to design systems? What are the

advantages of using these tools?


MODULE 2

REFERENCE BOOKS

Most of the material in the module is adapted from Chapter 3 of Analysis and Design of

Information Systems by V.Rajaraman published by Prentice Hall of India 2002 with

permission from publisher.

1. Information Systems Today by L.Jessup and J.Valacich. Topics in this

module treated from a slightly different perspective in Chapter 8, pp.240 to

256.

2. K.E.Kendall and J.E.Kendall, Systems Analysis and Design, Pearson

Education Asia, Indian Reprint 2002. pp.16-17 have a very brief treatment of

Systems Analysists’ role and Systems Development life cycle.

3. Modern Systems Analysis and Design by J.E.Hoffer, J.F.George and

J.Valacich treat life cycle in pp.18-25. Role of various stake holders in

systems development is covered in pp.11 to 15.

4. Information Systems, S.Alter, Pearson Education Asia 2000 looks at life cycle

from a different perspective on pp. 4 to 16.


SUMMARY OF MODULE 2

1. There are nine distinct phases in the development of an information system.


These phases constitute what is known as the system life cycle.

2. A summary of what is done in each phase and the outputs obtained at the end of
each phase is given below:

Phase What is Done During this Phase End Product of this


Phase

1. Requirements Determine requirements to be met by the Set of requirements


determination system being contemplated and their priorities.
2. Requirements Draw up understandable plan of what the Detailed
specification system will provide as outputs. Determine specifications of
needs and priority by consensus among end information to be
users. provided (revised
user requirement)
3. Feasibility Taking into account available resources Feasibility document
analysis such as human, computer, time and money specifying resource
find whether specified requirements can be needs and
met. availability,
expected cost vs.
benefits of system.
4. System Obtain functional specification based on Functional
specification revised user requirements and feasibility specification. Budget,
analysis time schedule.
Physical
requirements such as
storage and
processor.
5. Hardware study Determine hardware requirements for Hardware
system configuration - disk
space, CPU power.
6. System design Logical design of programs, design of data Logical design of
bases, test and implementation plan. programs, data bases
and test plan
7. System Writing programs, creating data bases, Programs, data bases
implementation testing programs and operation plans. user manual and
Documenting system. Training users. Data operational manual.
conversion if needed. Installing system.
Trial of system and parallel runs with
existing system. Tests to accept system.
8. System Find out from users if system meets their Evaluation report
evaluation needs with suggestion for
improvement
9. System Change system, adding or deleting features Improved system
modification/mai to satisfy users (modified) needs. containing
ntenance modifications and
improvements.

3. It should be remembered that in a design one may have to go back to an earlier


phase in the design based on results obtained in a later phase. The phases are
primarily intended an milestones to assess progress in design.

4. A systems analyst should interact with managers, users, and application


programmers in designing a system.

5. A systems analyst must, through discussions with users, determine their


information requirements, interact with them during the design phase and explain
to them what the system will provide. He must assign priorities among different
requirements, analyze and evaluate existing systems and improve them. An
analyst must be able to identify and solve management problems in organizations,
draw up specifications and oversee implementation. An analyst should evaluate
the designed system and modify it if needed.

6. A good system analyst must know the operation and management structure of
diverse organizations, must understand both hardware and software features of
computers, must exhibit good interpersonal relations, be able to express his/her
thoughts well, and be capable of life-long learning.

7. A system analyst should know the use of tools such as data flow diagrams,
decision tables, prototyping systems, spread-sheets, data base systems, report
generators and graphics systems.
MODULE 3

INFORMATION GATHERING
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS

There are 4 alternative answers to each question. One of them is correct.


Pick the correct answer. Do not guess. A key is given at the end of the
module for you to verify your answer

LEARNING UNIT 1

3.1.1 Information is gathered for computerization during


a) requirements determination phase
b) systems design phase
c) implementation phase
d) feasibility phase

3.1.2 Information is gathered by a system analyst in order to


a) find out whether a computer based system is required
b) find out how the organization works
c) find out how the current system works and what is expected from a new computer
based system
d) find out who will use the system

3.1.3 The most difficult information to gather in an organization is


a) that which is known to only few persons in an organization
b) that which is not written down in an organizational manuals
c) company confidential information
d) what is consumed as obvious by the managers in an organization

3.1.4 Gathering information in large and complex organizations is difficult and


takes time because
i) it is necessary to consult a large number of persons at various levels of hierarchy in the
organization
ii) one has to examine the current system in detail
iii) a clear strategy has to be evolved to gather information
iv) it is necessary to use an information flow model of an organization

a) i and iii b) iii and iv c) i and ii d) ii and iv


3.1.5 A strategy to gather information consists of
i) identifying information sources
ii) using information flow model of organization
iii) examining systems of other organizations
iv) rely on ones experience

a) i and ii b) i and iii c) ii and iv d) ii and iii

3.1.6 The following are good sources of information to design a system


i) forms and documents used in the organization
ii) users of the proposed system
iii) procedure manuals of the organization which explains how various activities of the
organization are carried out
iv) annual report of the organization

a) i ,ii and iii b) i, ii and iv c) i and ii d) i and iii

3.1.7 It is necessary to interview top level managers as the first step in information
gathering
a) otherwise you will not get cooperation
b) they can give you an overview of the organization and specify objectives of the system
c) they are usually not available
d) the number of persons to be interviewed at top level is small

3.1.8 It is necessary to gather


a) quantitative information only as qualitative information is usually biased
b) both qualitative and quantitative information
c) qualitative information only as it is easily available
d) qualitative information only as quantitative information is usually not correct

3.1.9 Among information gathering methods, interviewing is essential as


a) it gives an opportunity to question the interviewees and clarify details and doubts the
analyst may have
b) it can be easily arranged
c) it is recommended by senior analysts
d) it is necessary to meet everyone in the organization
3.1.10 All information required can be gathered in
a) one interview
b) two interviews
c) several interviews
d) several interviews and group discussions

3.1.11 Interviews are essential to gather


a) quantitative information
b) qualitative information
c) facts and figures
d) statistical information

3.1.12 During interviews an analyst must


a) gather information on user requirements, procedures and practices
b) tell the user what is good for organization
c) tell the user how to run the organization
d) tell the user what is wrong with the organization

3.1.13 It is good idea for a system analyst


a) to define the objectives of the information system
b) to tell the users what the objectives should be
c) to let the user formulate the objectives of the information system being designed
d) not to worry about the objective during the interviews

3.1.14 The following should be avoided during interviews with users


a) interrupting a user when something is not clear
b) taking note
c) using computer jargon
d) not laughing when user jokes

3.1.15 The following manners should be observed during interviews


i) make prior appointment for interviews
ii) not prolong interview beyond 30 to 40 minutes
iii) take notes after obtaining permissions
iv) interrupt the user often to show you are listening

a) i, ii and iv b) i, ii and iii c) i and ii d) i, iii and iv

3.1.16 It is a good idea to prepare for an interview by


i) studying background material and going with queries and checklist
ii) finding out what a user likes
iii) recapitulating and summarizing what transpired in previous interview(s)
iv) finding out what a user dislikes
a) i and ii b) ii and iv c) i and iii d) i, ii and iv

3.1.17 Sending questionnaires are the good means of gathering


a) quantitative data
b) qualitative data
c) both quantitative and qualitative data
d) data from top management

3.1.18 Questionnaires are used when


i) a large number of people’s responses are required
ii) manual data processing is required
iii) when a small number of people’s response is required
iv) it is difficult to personally interview people

a) i and ii b) ii and iii c) iii and iv d) i and iv

3.1.19 In order to get fast response when questionnaires are sent


i) the questionnaire must be simple to answer
ii) the questionnaire should be comprehensive
iii) the questionnaire should be short
iv) the questionnaire should be long

a) i, ii b) ii, iv c) i, iii d) i, iv

3.1.20 Besides interviewing following methods help in gathering facts


i) studying systems used by similar organization for the same purpose
ii) reading case studies reported for similar organization
iii) sending letters to all managers of the organization
iv) sending letters to the clients of the organization

a) i, ii iii b) i and ii c) i and iii d) iii and iv


LEARNING UNIT 2

3.2.1An organization requests an information system to be designed when


(a) there is a change in management
(b) it is dissatisfied with the current system as it does not meet their information
requirement
(c) the current system has been working for 2 years
(d) new software tools are introduced in the market

3.2.2The purpose of designing an information system is to


(a) modernize the functioning of an organization
(b) reduce the number of people employed by an organization
(c) provide operational, tactical and strategic information to efficiently manage an
organization
(d) improve the day-to-day working of an organization

3.2.3 The expansion of SRS is


(a) System Requirements Specification
(b) System Resources Statement
(c) Statement of Reliability of System
(d) Standard Requirements Statement

3.2.4 System Requirements Specification is developed by


(a) users of the proposed system
(b) top level managers of an organization
(c) examining the functioning of similar organizations
(d) systems analyst after information gathering phase in consultation with users

3.2.5 The main objective of System Requirements Specification is to


(a) enable a systems analyst to satisfy himself and the user that they have
mutually understand the user’s information requirements
(b) write down the requirements clearly
(c) estimate the cost of developing the system
(d) to make sure that it is possible to develop the system

3.2.6 Graphical tools used to arrive at SRS are:


(i) Data Flow Diagrams
(ii) Program Flow Charts
(iii) System Flow Charts
(iv) Document Flow Diagrams
(a) i and ii (b) ii and iii
(c) i and iv (d) ii and iv

3.2.7 Document Flow Diagrams are used to depict


(a) how and when documents flow in the organization
(b) various offices/entities of an organization and the documents as well as
physical items which flow between these entities
(c) what documents flow in an organization
(d) how documents are generated and flow in an organization

3.2.8 Document flow diagrams are usually developed during


(a) System design phase
(b) Feasibility study
(c) Implementation phase
(d) Fact gathering phase

3.2.9 Document flow diagrams are developed by


(a) systems analyst
(b) programmers
(c) system designers
(d) users and managers of an organization

3.2.10 In a document flow diagram entities are represented by


(a) circles
(b) rectangles with rounded edges
(c) diamond shaped boxes
(d) rectangles

3.2.11 In a document flow diagram a dashed line with an arrow depict


(a) flow of documents
(b) control flow
(c) flow of materials
(d) data flow

3.2.12 In a document flow diagram a solid line with an arrow depicts


(a) flow of documents
(b) control flow
(c) flow of materials
(d) data flow

3.2.13 In a document flow diagram arrows are necessary to depict


(a) how documents flow
(b) direction of flow of documents
(c) when documents flow
(d) whether documents flow or not
3.2.14 Data flow diagrams are used to depict
(a) how and when data flows in an organization
(b) what documents flow in an organization
(c) what data flows between entities and how they are processed
(d) how data are generated and flow in an organization

3.2.15 Data flow diagrams are usually developed during


(a) system design phase
(b) feasibility study
(c) implementation phase
(d) systems analysis phase

3.2.16 Data flow diagrams are developed by


(a) systems analyst
(b) programmers
(c) system designers
(d) users and managers of an organization
Key To Objective Questions

3.1.1 a 3.1.2 c 3.1.3 d 3.1.4 c 3.1.5 a 3.1.6 a

3.1.7 b 3.1.8 b 3.1.9 a 3.1.10 d 3.1.11 b 3.1.12 a

3.1.13 c 3.1.14 c 3.1.15 b 3.1.16 c 3.1.17 a 3.1.18 d

3.1.19 c 3.1.20 b 3.2.1 b 3.2.2 c 3.2.3 a 3.2.4 d

3.2.5 a 3.2.6 c 3.2.7 b 3.2.8 d 3.2.9 a 3.2.10 d

3.2.11 c 3.2.12 a 3.2.13 b 3.2.14 c 3.2.15 d 3.2.16 a


MODULE 3

INFORMATION GATHERING

Contents

3.1 Strategy to gather information


3.2 Methods of gathering information
3.3 Case study –hostel information system
3.4 Systems requirements specifications
3.5 Classifications of requirements to operational,tactical,strategic

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman


MOTIVATION
ƒ The Information system designed for an organization
must meet the requirements of the end users
of the organization.
ƒ To obtain what an end user expects from the Information
System the designer must gain complete knowledge of
the organization’s working.
ƒ It is important for the student to know the information
gathering techniques so that no information is
overlooked and the nature and functions of an
organization are clearly understood

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 1 of 30 of module3


MOTIVATION

ƒ The main purpose of gathering information is to determine


the information requirements of an organization

ƒ Information requirements are often not stated precisely


by management
ƒ Analyst’s responsibility to prepare a precise Systems
Requirements Specifications understood(SRS) by
users
ƒ SRS document is a vital document before starting a
project

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 2 of 30 of module3


LEARNING GOALS

ƒ Strategy to gather information for computerization.

ƒ Various sources of information.

ƒ Methods of searching for information.

ƒ Interviewing techniques to gather information from


line managers to top management.

ƒ Methods of consensus for formulating requirements.

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 3 of 30 of module3


LEARNING GOALS

ƒ Use of document flow diagrams to depict flow of


documents in an organization

ƒ Specification of Operational,Tactical and strategic


information which will be provided by the system

ƒ Use of dataflow diagrams to specify flow of records


and how they will be processed to create reports

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 4 of 30 of module3


INFORMATION GATHERING STRATEGIES

ƒ Identify Information sources

ƒ Evolve a method of obtaining information from


the identified sources.

ƒ Use Information flow model of organization.

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 5 of 30 of module3


INFORMATION SOURCES

ƒ Users of System
ƒ Forms and Documents used in the organization
ƒ Procedure manuals, rule books etc.
ƒ Reports used by the organization
ƒ Existing computer programs(If Any).

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 6 of 30 of module3


INFORMATION SOURCES

ƒ Interviews are very important


ƒ Use organization chart
ƒ Understand the importance of the people who
operate the system-Clerks,Line managers.
ƒ Gather information from Middle level persons who
have lot of experience
ƒ Gather both qualitative and quantitative
information & Observe how the organization works.
Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 7 of 30 of module3
INFORMATION GATHERING METHODS

Searching for information

ƒ Individual Interviews
ƒ Group discussions
ƒ Several Interviews needed.

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 8 of 30 of module3


PLANNING AN INTERVIEW

ƒ Make a list of people to be interviewed and in what order


ƒ Plan and note down a list of questions to be asked
ƒ Plan several interviews with same person-mainly to
clarify doubts
ƒ Interview groups as appropriate

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 9 of 30 of module3


INTERVIEWING TECHNIQUE

ƒ Make appointment
ƒ Allot time
ƒ Read background material
ƒ State purpose of interview
ƒ Be punctual and pay attention to what user says
ƒ Do not use computer jargon

SystemsAnalysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 10 of 30 of module3


INTERVIEWING TECHNIQUE

ƒ Obtain both quantitative and qualitative Information


ƒ Discriminate between essential and desirable requirements
ƒ State what you understand and get it confirmed
ƒ Do not prolong interview
ƒ Summarize information gathered and get it checked by the
interviewee

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 11 of 30 of module3


USE OF QUESTIONNAIRES

ƒ Questionnaires useful for statistical data collection


ƒ Useful when large number of persons have to respond
ƒ Make questionnaires short
ƒ Design questionnaires by enumerating objectives and
data needed to meet the objectives
ƒ Several follow-ups/personal interviews may be required to
get questionnaires back from respondents

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 12 of 30 of module3


INFORMATION GATHERING OTHER METHODS

ƒ Existing system(If any)


ƒ Systems in similar organization
ƒ Observe workflow in workplace
ƒ Case repository in own organization

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 13 of 30 of module3


SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS SPECIFICATION

ƒ System requirements specification specifies what


Information requirements will be provided.
ƒ It does not specify how the system will be designed
ƒ SRS is obtained after excessive discussions with the
user.
ƒ Developing SRS is most important and difficult task of
a Systems analyst

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 14 of 30 of module3


SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS SPECIFICATION

How SRS is Developed

ƒ Analyst examines the current system if any.


ƒ Analyst finds out the shortcomings of the system as
seen by the user.
ƒ Analyst’s aim is to develop SRS which is
understandable by the user and which can be used for
detailed design of the system.

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 15 of 30 of module3


SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS SPECIFICATION
Ideal characteristics of SRS
ƒ Complete and Unambiguous.
ƒ Specifies operational,tactical, and strategic
information requirements
ƒ Eliminates possible later disputes between users
and Analyst
ƒ Uses Graphical aids understood by users who are
not computer literate and will also be useful in
design.
ƒ Jargon Free.
Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 16 of 30 of module3
FROM WORD STATEMENT TO SRS

• Narratives of requirements by users too long and imprecise


• Needs conversion to precise specifications
• Step1: Analyse statement
Step2: Identify physical entities such as vendors,
receiving office, Inspection office etc.
Step3:Identify documents which are received/sent by
each office
Step4:Draw a physical document

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 17 of 30 of module3


DEVELOPING A DOCUMENT FLOW DIAGRAM

EXAMPLE WORD STATEMENT


“Our company receives many items from several vendors each
accompanied by a delivery note.A receiving office receives the
item and checks the delivery note with corresponding order.
Any discrepancy is reported to purchase office.The items received
along with items received note (with details of items) is sent to the
inspection office.”
ENTITIES IDENTIFIED-Vendors,Receiving office,Inspection office
DOCUMENTS IDENTIFIED-Delivery note,discrepancy note,Items
Received note.

Using these a document flow diagram is drawn

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 18 of 30 of module3


SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS SPECIFICATION

Graphical Specification Tools


ƒ Physical document flow diagram.
ƒ Logical Data flow Diagram (abbreviated as DFD)
ƒ Document flow diagram depicts various entities or offices &
documents generated/transmitted by these entities
ƒ Entities represented by Rectangles, Document flow by lines,
direction is shown by arrows.
ƒ Document flow lines are labeled by name of the document
ƒ Dashed lines used to depict flow of physical items.
ƒ Document flow diagram depicts various entities and documents
generated and/or transmitted by these entities
Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 19 of 30 of module3
DOCUMENT FLOW DIAGRAM

Delivered Items

Vendor Receiving Inspection office


Office
Delivery note Items
Discrepancy Received
note note

Purchase Office

ƒ Entities in the Document flow diagram given above are Vendor, Receiving
office, Inspection office and purchase office

ƒ Documents are:Delivery note,items received note and discrepancy note

ƒ Physical flows are delivered items

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 20 of 30 of module3


DOCUMENT FLOW DIAGRAM (CONTD)

Delivered Items Delivered Items

Vendor Receiving Inspection office


Office
Delivery note Items
Discrepancy Received
note note

Purchase Office

The diagram is interpreted as follows:


1) Vendors deliver items to receiving office accompanied by a delivery note
2) Receiving Office sends items to inspection office along with an items
received note
3) Receiving office sends discrepancy note to Purchase office
ENTITIES: Vendor,Receiving office,Inspection office and purchase office
DOCUMENTS : Delivery note,Items received note and discrepancy note

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 21 of 30 of module3


DATA FLOW DIAGRAM (DFD)

ƒ DFD also has entities and data flows


ƒ Besides this DFD specifies processing
performed by some of the entities
ƒ Data flow diagrams specify which entities
generate documents
ƒ Details of documents and their flow
ƒ Processing performed by some entities
ƒ Data stores which are referred while
processing data and in which processed data
may be written or stored

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 22 of 30 of module3


DATA FLOW DIAGRAM (DFD)

Inspection
Receiving Items Office
Vendor Process
Delivery Received
note note

Orders Purchase
Office
Discrepancy
note
•Entities are, originators of data and “consumers” of data
•Vendor,Inspection office and purchase office are entities in the above
diagram
•Data flows are delivery note,items received note and discrepancy note
•A circle is used to depict a process
•A pair of parallel lines depict a store

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 23 of 30 of module3


DATA FLOW DIAGRAM (CONTD)

Inspection
Receiving Items Office
Vendor Process
Delivery Received
note note

Orders Purchase
Office
Discrepancy
note
1) Data in a store may be read by a process
2) Processed data may also be written in a store
3) Circles depicting process are detailed separately using “ Structured English
Algorithms” Or decision tables
4) Data flows are expanded to detail the data elements
5) Contents of the data stores are also detailed

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 24 of 30 of module3


DATA ELEMENTS IN DATA FLOW & STORE

Delivery note:
Order no,Vendor code,Vendor name and address,Item name,
Item code,Delivery date,Quantity supplied,units.
Items Received note:
Order no,Item name,Item code,Delivery date,quantity
supplied,units.
Discrepancy note:
Order no,Vendor code,Vendor name and address,Item name,
Item code,Order date, Delivery date,quantity supplied,units,
excess/deficiency,No of days late/early.
Receiving office order file
Order no,Order date,Item name,Item code,Vendor code,Vendor
Name and address,Quantity ordered,delivery period.

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 25 of 30 of module3


PROCESSING RULE
English statement
1. Compare order no in delivery note with that in order file. If no
match return item to vendor.
2. If order no matches then compare item codes, if no match return
item to the vendor.
3. If order number matches compare qty delivered with quantity
ordered. If excess or deficient send discrepancy note to purchase
office.
4. If order number matches compare date of delivery with expected
date.If late or early send discrepancy note to purchase office.
5. In case3 and case4 send items received note to inspection office

The above statements are shown to the user for his approval.

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 26 of 30 of module3


OPERATIONAL,TACTICAL AND STRATEGIC
INFORMATION

For this simple examples are:

OPERATIONAL: Automatic checking of delivery against order and


create discrepancy note.Note discrepancy (if any) of each order.

TACTICAL:Evolve vendor performance index based on discrepancy


in supplies and quality inspection.

STRATEGIC:Use performance index to decide proportion of order for


an item to be placed with each vendor.Develop new vendors if all
existing vendors performance are poor.

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 27 of 30 of module3


STEPS IN SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

Study
User stated current
requirements system

Physical document flow diagram

Design
Logical
system

Logical data flow diagram

New
System New logical
Feasibility DFD
document model

Descriptive
Statement of Data Dictionary
Information Processing
rules

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 28 of 30 of module3


MODULARIZING REQUIREMENTS
SPECIFICATIONS
SRS Document

SRS Document now consists of:


ƒ Document flow diagrams(as many as needed).
ƒ Data Flow Diagrams.
ƒ Data elements of each data flow and Data Store

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 29 of 30 of module3


MODULARIZING REQUIREMENTS
SPECIFICATIONS

SRS Document ( Continued)

ƒ Processing rules carried out in each circle of DFD.


ƒ A descriptive statement of operational,tactical,strategic
information will be provided
ƒ A data dictionary which consolidates all data elements
in the document and data store.

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 30 of 30 of module3


MODULE 3

INFORMATION GATHERING

Contents

1. MOTIVATION AND LEARNING GOALS

2. LEARNING UNIT 1
Information gathering, strategies, methods

3. LEARNING UNIT 2
System requirements specification, classification of
requirements as strategic, tactical, operational and statutory

4. References
INFORMATION GATHERING

MOTIVATION

The Information system designed for an organization must meet the


requirements of the end users of the organization. To obtain what an end
user expects from the Information System the designer must gain complete
knowledge of the organization’s working. It is important for the student to
know the information gathering techniques so that no information is
overlooked and the nature and functions of an organization are clearly
understood. The main purpose of gathering information is to determine the
information requirements of an organization. Information requirements are
often not stated precisely by management. It is the analyst’s responsibility to
prepare a precise Systems Requirements Specifications (SRS), which is
easily understood (SRS) by users, as SRS document is a vital document
before starting a project

LEARNING GOALS

At the end of this module you will learn:


Strategy to gather information for computerization.
Various sources of information.
Methods of searching for information.
Interviewing techniques to gather information from line managers to top
management.
Methods of consensus for formulating requirements.
LEARNING UNIT 1

Information gathering, strategies, methods

INFORMATION GATHERING STRATEGIES

A strategy should be evolved by the analyst to gather information. The


strategy consists of identifying information sources, evolving a method of
obtaining information from the identified sources and using an information
flow model of organization

INFORMATION SOURCES

The main sources of information are users of the system, forms and
documents used in the organization, procedure manuals, rule books etc,
reports used by the organization and existing computer programs(If Any).

INFORMATION GATHERING METHODS

Searching for information


Information can be gathered by interviewing top-level management, middle
level management and operational staff. Besides Interviews group
discussions also help the analyst to gather information. It is not possible to
obtain all information in a single interview, more than one interview is thus
required.
PLANNING AN INTERVIEW

Before starting the interview the analyst must make a list of people to be
interviewed and in what order, plan and note down a list of questions to be
asked, plan several interviews with same person-mainly to clarify doubts
and interview groups as appropriate.

INTERVIEWING TECHNIQUE

There are some guidelines to ensure a successful interview:

Make an prior appointment with the person to be interviewed and meet him
at the allotted time. Read background material and go prepared with the
checklist. State purpose of interview. Be punctual and pay attention to what
user says. Do not use computer jargon. Obtain both quantitative and
qualitative Information. Discriminate between essential and desirable
requirements. State what you understand and get it confirmed. Do not
prolong interview and summarize the information gathered by you during
the interview and verify this with the user

USE OF QUESTIONNAIRES

Questionnaires are useful for collecting statistical data. Sometimes the


questionnaires are not promptly replied and several follow-ups/personal
interviews may be required to get questionnaires back from respondents
But if the questionnaires are short the probability of getting the reply is high
When data has to be collected form large number of people questionnaires
are useful.

OTHER METHODS OF INFORMATION GATHERING

Other methods of information search are:

Systems used in other similar organization


Observe workflow in workplace
Repository of systems developed for similar organizations available.
LEARNING UNIT 2

System requirements specification, classification of


requirements as strategic, tactical, operational and statutory

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS SPECIFICATION (SRS)

SRS is obtained after excessive discussions with the user.


System requirements specification specifies what Information requirements
will be provided. It does not specify how the system will be designed.
Developing SRS is most important and difficult task of a Systems analyst

How SRS is developed


Analyst examines the current system, finds out the shortcomings of the
system as seen by the user. He then develops an SRS which is
understandable by the user and which can be used for detailed design of the
system.

Ideal characteristics of SRS


Complete and Unambiguous.
Specifies operational, tactical, and strategic information requirements
Eliminates possible later disputes between users and Analyst
Uses Graphical aids understood by users who are not computer literate and
will also be useful in design.
Jargon Free.
DEVELOPING A DOCUMENT FLOW DIAGRAM

EXAMPLE WORD STATEMENT


“Our company receives many items from several vendors each accompanied
by a delivery note. A receiving office receives the item and checks the
delivery note with corresponding order. Any discrepancy is reported to
purchase office. The items received along with items received note (with
details of items) is sent to the inspection office.”

ENTITIES IDENTIFIED-Vendors, Receiving office, Inspection office


DOCUMENTS IDENTIFIED-Delivery note, discrepancy note, Items
Received note.

Using these a document flow diagram is drawn

Delayed Items Delivered Items

Vendor Receiving Inspection


Office office
Delivery note Items
Received
Discrepancy note Indicates Physical
note flow of items

Indicates Documents
Purchase
Office
The diagram is interpreted as follows:
1) Vendors deliver items to receiving office accompanied by a delivery note
2) Receiving Office sends items to inspection office along with an items
received note
3) Receiving office sends discrepancy note to Purchase office
ENTITIES: Vendor, Receiving office, Inspection office and purchase
office
DOCUMENTS: Delivery note, Items received note and discrepancy note
DATA FLOW DIAGRAM (DFD)

DFD has entities and data flows, DFD specifies processing performed by
some of the entities. It specifies which entities generate documents and also
indicate their flow. Data stores which are referred while processing data and
in which processed data may be written or stored are also represented in the
Diagram

Inspection
Receiving Office
Process Items
Vendor Received
Delivery
note note

Orders Purchase
Office
Discrepancy
note

•Entities are, originators of data and “consumers” of data


•Vendor, Inspection office and purchase office are entities in the above
diagram
•Data flows are delivery note, items received note and discrepancy note
•A circle is used to depict a process
•A pair of parallel lines depict a store
Data elements in the data flow:

Delivery note:
Order no,Vendor code,Vendor name and address,Item name, Item
code,Delivery date,Quantity supplied,units.

Items Received note:


Order no,Item name,Item code,Delivery date,quantity,supplied,units.

Discrepancy note:
Order no,Vendor code,Vendor name and address,Item name, Item
code,Order date, Delivery date,quantity supplied,units, excess/deficiency,No
of days late/early.

Receiving office order file


Order no,Order date,Item name,Item code,Vendor code,Vendor Name and
address,Quantity ordered,delivery period.
PROCESSING RULE

The statements given below are shown to the user for his approval.

English statement
1.Compare order no in delivery note with that in order file. If no match
return item to vendor.
2.If order no matches then compare item codes, if no match return item to
the vendor.
3. If order number matches compare qty delivered with quantity ordered. If
excess or deficient send discrepancy note to purchase office.
4. If order number matches compare date of delivery with expected date. If
late or early send discrepancy note to purchase office.
5.In case3 and case4 send items received note to inspection office

MODULARIZING REQUIREMENTS SPECIFICATIONS

SRS Document now consists of Document flow diagrams(as many as


needed), Data Flow Diagrams, Data elements of each data flow and Data
store, processing rules carried out in each circle of DFD, a descriptive
statement of operational,tactical,strategic information will be provided,
a data dictionary which consolidates all data elements in the document and
data store.
REFERENCES

1. Most of the material including the case study has been adapted
from Chapter 4, Analysis and Design of Information Systems by
V.Rajaraman published by Prentice Hall of India 2002 with
permission from publisher.

2. Systems Analysis and Design, by K.E.Kendell and J.E.Kendell


published by Pearson Education Asia 2002 discuss in detail fact
gathering in pp.117-196. They cover interviewing, questionnaire
use and observing an organization very thoroughly.
MODULE 3

INFORMATION GATHERING
WORKED EXAMPLES
3.1) Describe the general strategy an analyst should use to gather information.

Strategy consists of
i)identifying information sources.
ii)evolving a method of obtaining information from the identified source.
iii)using an information flow model of the organization

3.2) What are the main sources of information of an organization.

i) Users of systems.
ii) Forms and documents used in the organization.
iii) Procedure manuals and rule books (if any).
iv) Internal reports.
v) Any computer program of existing system.

3.3) How should an analyst prepare before an interview?

i) Make prior appointment with the person to be interviewed and


inform the purpose of the interview, and how much time you would require.
ii) An interview should be brief and not exceed 40 minutes.
iii)read the background material and go prepared with a checklist.

3.4) Are there some guidelines for good interviewing? Give reasons.

Yes. The guidelines for good interviewing are like


i)system analyst should state the purpose of the interview again to brush of the
problem.
ii) He should try to avoid using computer jargon because the person may not be
conversant with the technical terms.
iii)He should present good manners and introduce himself before taking
interview. If any thing is not understood it should be asked immediately to
avoid later confusion
3.5) When should questionnaires be used?

When quantitative data from number of persons is to be collected. Short


Questionnaires elicit quick response. Follow up needed to get questionnaires
back.

3.6) Before interviewing the chief warden, what checklist did the system analyst
make?

The checklist made by the system analyst before interviewing is

i) Find out what aspects of hostel operations he wants to analyze and improve.
ii) Find out why he wants this and what benefits he foresees.
iii) Find out his priorities.
iv) Find out how early he wants the system.
v) Find out about organization of the hostel administration.
vi) Find out with whom else he wants me to talk.
vii) Find out if any documentation on existing procedure exist.

5.8 What are the initial two steps followed by a systems analyst when he is requested
to design an information system?
Step 1: Find out what are the information requirements of the users of the system.
Step 2: Find out how these are at least partially met by the current systems used
in the organization.
3.9 What graphical tools are useful to a systems analyst to understand user’s
requirements?
• Document flow diagram
• Data flow diagram

3.10A hostel warden states the following requirements for a hostel information
system:
“Our hostel has 500 rooms and 4 messes. Currently, there are 1000 students in all
in 2-seated rooms. They eat in any one of the messes but can get a rebate if they
inform and do not eat for at least 4 consecutive days. Besides normal menu, extra
items are entered in the extras book. At the end of the month a bill is prepared
based on the normal daily rate and extras and given to each student. We find that
bill preparation is delayed. We are also not able to keep proper track of payments
and billing for extras. We need a system to streamline this.”
Obtain a document flow diagram for the problem described above.
a, b, c, d, represent students’ attendance and extras record.

Fig. 3.10 Figure for Solution 3.10


3.11 What are operational, tactical, and strategic information needed for Exercise
3.10?
Operational
• Regular billing
• Find if bills paid within specified period
• Total earnings
• Daily rate
Tactical
• Habitual late payments by students
• Predict days with large absentees and adjust food cooked
• Most popular extras
Strategic
• Extras pricing to reduce daily rates
• Whether to give rebate for absence
• Closing down mess on some days
System Analysis and Design/Information gathering Question Bank

QUESTION BANK

3.1 Describe the general strategy an analyst should use to gather information.

3.2 What are the main sources of information in an organization?

3.3 What are the methods of gathering information?

3.4 Why are interviews essential in gathering information?

3.5 How should an analyst prepare before an interview?

3.6 Are group discussions useful in information gathering? Give reasons.

3.7 Are there some guidelines for good interviewing? State them.

3.8 What is the advantage of using a questionnaire in fact gathering?

3.9 When should questionnaires be used?

3.10 When should questionnaires be not used?

3.11 State as many sources of information as you can think of.

3.12 What is the last step in information gathering?

V. Rajaraman/IISc M3/V1/July 2004/1


System Analysis and Design/Information gathering Question Bank

MODULE 3

CASE STUDY - HOSTEL INFORMATION SYSTEM – Fact Gathering and

Requirements Determination

System analyst's diary: "I was called at 9 a.m. today (18 March 04) by the chief Warden

of Raman Hostel, Prof.V.Ramakrishna. He wants to examine if computers can help in

hostel administration. I made an appointment to meet him tomorrow at 10 a.m. in the

hostel office. I told him I will need 40 minutes to get an overview of his requirements".

I made the following checklist before meeting him.

Checklist

• Find out what aspects of hostel operation he wants to analyze and improve.

• Find out why he wants this and what benefits he foresees.

• Find out his priorities

• Find out how early he wants the system.

• Find out about the organization of the hostel administration.

• Find out who else he wants me to talk to.

• Find out if any documentation on existing procedures exists.

I met Prof.V.Ramakrishna at 10 a.m. on 19 March 04 in his office in the hostel and asked

his permission to take notes. The summary of my notes which I made and sent to him on

20 March 04 for his comments are:

• The total mess expenses are divided among members. Policy is set by the Chief

Warden in consultation with a student mess committee.

V. Rajaraman/IISc M3/V1/July 2004/2


System Analysis and Design/Information gathering Question Bank

• He wants correct mess bills to be prepared and despatched within 5 days of the end

of the month to the accounts office for collection.

• He wishes to know which students have large unpaid bills.

• He is eager to control inventories to minimize stock.

• He intents to control issue of stores to cooks to minimize wastage.

• He wants to do some planning about purchase of vegetables and fruits to

minimize cost and wastage.

• He desires to have an up-to-date data base of students in hostel.

• The primary objective is to minimize students' mess bills, reduce outstanding

payments, and have ready information about residents.

• The priority order of the Chief Warden is: control inventory, control stores issues,

ensure speedy bill collection, student data base.

• He would like a new system to be implemented within 4 months.

• The organization chart of the hostel is given in Fig.3.1

• The Chief Warden wants me to talk to assistant wardens, mess supervisors and

students' mess committee members.

• There is no procedure manual. Most operation are done routinely using a

commonsense approach.

Professor Ramakrishna agreed that my notes, on the whole, reflected our conversation.

He added that the number of residents in the hostel was 400, all staying in single rooms.

He further indicated that he could afford to install a Personal Computer if benefits can

justify cost. I then made an appointment to meet Dr.M.N.Swamy, the assistant warden

V. Rajaraman/IISc M3/V1/July 2004/3


System Analysis and Design/Information gathering Question Bank

on 23 March 04 at 4 p.m. in his office. I requested half an hour of his time for

discussions. I made the following checklist before meeting him:

• Find out details of accounting and billing procedure currently used.

• Ascertain his ideas about the current system and improvements

• Try to know his ideas on deployment of personnel if a computer is used.

The following notes were prepared by me on 23 March 04 evening. I used the jottings in

my notebook made with Dr.Swamy's permission on 23 March 04 during the interview.

Dr.Swamy is in-charge of all hostel accounts and is assisted by Mr.R.Sampath whose

responsibilities are to collect mess dues from residents and issue receipts, prepare

cheques for vendors' payments and keep petty cash account. Besides Mr.Sampath, there

is Mr.K.S.Iyengar, an accountant, who keeps accounts of (a) daily purchases for the

mess, (b) periodical purchases for mess, and (c) employees salaries (total around 30

employees).

Presently there are three purchase payment procedures. These are:

Monthly payment. Milk, green vegetables, meat, bread, butter, and confectionery are

delivered daily. A delivery chalan with a bill is given. Delivery is checked by mess

supervisor (Mr.Viswam) and the bill is sent to Mr.Iyengar. The rates are checked by the

mess secretary (elected by residents) against market rates and negotiated with the vendor.

The bill with the negotiated rate are filed by Mr.Iyengar and a copy given to the vendor.

V. Rajaraman/IISc M3/V1/July 2004/4


System Analysis and Design/Information gathering Question Bank

At the end of the month they are verified by the secretary and Dr.Swamy, and payment

by cheque made to vendors.

Cash payment. Items such as gas, coal, kerosene, dry fruits are received at random and

immediate cash payment is made. Similarly, cash payment is made for cartage of goods

and for cleaning of grains. Cash payment bill copy is kept by Mr.Iyengar as authorised

by Dr.Swamy. Cash is paid by Mr.Sampath who keeps the cash accounts.

Biweekly payment. Once in two weeks items such as sugar, grain, pulses, condiments,

etc. are purchased from the wholesale market by a group consisting of mess secretary,

Mr.Iyengar and Mr.Viswam. Rates are fixed by negotiations and bulk delivery is made

to the hostel. Delivered quantities are checked by Mr.Viswam and bills filed by

Mr.Iyengar. Bills are approved by Dr.Swamy, and the payments are made within two

weeks by cheque.

The mess bill is calculated by Mr.Iyengar and his assistant Mr.Singh. To find the daily

rate, the total expenses are divided by the sum of the number of students who have their

food in the mess every day. If the total expenses are say Rs.5,60,000, and 400 students

eat on the first day, 395 on the second, and 406 on the third day, etc., then

Daily rate = Rs.5,60,000 (400 + 395 + 406 + … for 30 days)

= Rs.5,60,000/12043

= Rs.46.50

V. Rajaraman/IISc M3/V1/July 2004/5


System Analysis and Design/Information gathering Question Bank

Currently, the manual calculation of bills takes over 6 days and many errors are found.

Bills do not go on time to students. This needs a better system.

Students are allowed to claim rebate if they do not eat for 2 days consecutively in the

mess, provided they give minimum 3 days notice in writing in the register kept with the

mess supervisor. Students can bring guests for meals and they have to enter the number

of guests for meals (not more than 4 at a time) in a register. They can also order "extras"

such as milk and eggs, which are entered in a register. Such entries from a daily register

are transferred to another students extras/guests/rebate register which has one page for

each student, and all entries for a student are written date-wise in this by Mr.Singh. This

register is used in calculating individual bills.

Dr.Swamy feels that this procedure complicates bill preparation. The student body wants

this facility to be continued. Dr..Swamy feels that if a proper system is designed,

Mr.Iyengar and Mr.Singh can be easily trained to use it, as both are intelligent and also

know typing.

The above notes were sent to Dr.Swamy who approved them. He added that a speedier

and accurate billing method with full details will be welcomed by students. Currently

full details of extras/guests are not provided in the bill as manual entry is too slow.

Further follow-up with students who have not paid their mess bill is currently not

methodical.

V. Rajaraman/IISc M3/V1/July 2004/6


System Analysis and Design/Information gathering Question Bank

I then decided to meet Dr.Prasad who is the assistant warden in charge of mess affairs. I

fixed a meeting with him on 24 March 04 at 3 p.m. Before the interview the following

points were noted in the checklist:

• Find out how items are issued to cooks each day

• Find out if any inventory control is exercised

• Find out how wastage is reduced

• Find out his ideas for an improved system and its operation.

The following notes were prepared by me after the interview and sent to Dr.Prasad on 25

March 04. (Dr.Prasad oversees the work of Mr.Viswam, the mess manager, Mr.Garg, the

store keeper, and coordinates with the student mess committee).

Dr.Prasad is very unhappy with the way the inventory is controlled. The store keeper

waits till an item is exhausted and only then he tells the mess manager about this. It leads

to many trips to the city to order items and piecemeal arrival of items, leading to high

travel/transport cost. Rs.8000 is spent in this which can be considerably reduced. Items

are issued by the mess manager to the cooks based on nominal number of students in the

hostel. Proper care is not taken to reduce issues to cooks when many students are absent.

This leads to wastage. Over 100 different items are stocked in the store and a systematic

technique of replenishing stock should be used. Mess bill could be reduced by bulk

purchase of non-perishable items when their cost is low. This is not done. Dr.Prasad

feels that use of a computer in inventory control and issue control can be very effective.

V. Rajaraman/IISc M3/V1/July 2004/7


System Analysis and Design/Information gathering Question Bank

The above notes were approved by Dr.Prasad who suggested that I should meet the

secretary of the student mess committee Mr.A.Pramod. I found Mr.Pramod in his room

in the hostel on 26th morning and he invited me to have a breakfast meeting. (Mr.Pramod

was elected secretary 8 months ago and has 4 more months in his current term. He wants

improvements within that period). He reiterated the points made by Dr.Prasad and

Dr.Swamy on the need to systematize issues, inventory and billing. He pointed out one

of the main difficulties he faced. Currently the bill is calculated at the end of the month.

Till then he has no idea of what the daily rate will be. Very often the daily rate goes up

sharply from say Rs.46 to Rs.54 which the students do not like. This leads to hasty

economy measures in the mess without proper knowledge of the areas in which these

measures will be effective. The student body would like to have uniform rates. This can

be ensured if estimates of daily rates are available at the end of each week. If the rate

tends to become high, some planned economy can be effected. Weekly adjustment can

lead to uniform rates. The daily menu is decided by the mess manager in consultation

with the mess secretary. Currently it is somewhat repetitive. Students joke" It is beans

curry and therefor it is Wednesday". There must be some way of randomizing menus,

keeping nutritional balance, variety of items and of effectively using seasonal low cost

vegetables, thereby reducing the mess bill. He thinks aloud whether some operations

research techniques can be used in this problem. I am somewhat intrigued by this

suggestion.

V. Rajaraman/IISc M3/V1/July 2004/8


System Analysis and Design/Information gathering Question Bank

I summarized the above discussion and sent it to the mess secretary and Dr.Prasad for

their comments. I next met employees of the mess to get their views. I met Mr.Viswam,

the mess manager on 27 March morning. He explained his responsibilities as :

• Preparing daily menu based on advise from the mess committee.

• Preparing an "issue list" of items and quantities for each meal and sending it to the

hostel store for issue to the kitchen.

• Preparing a "return list" of items and quantities not used during the day by the

cooks to the store.

• Stock register updating based on issue and return list.

• Keeping track of rebates to students absent from mess and extras taken by

students which are to be separately charged. Relate rebates to stores issue.

• Ordering items when stock level is low. In practice, however, ordering is done

only when an item is exhausted. As delivery at door may be delayed, unnecessary

special trips are made to do cash pruchases.

Mr.Viswam felt that some help in automatically preparing issue list based on number of

persons who will eat in the mess will be very helpful. He would also appreciate assistance

in error free recording of rebates and extras. An automatic warning mechanism when

stocks become low would be useful. Consolidation of purchases to reduce trips would be

desirable.

A summary of the above discussion was sent to Mr.Viswam for his comments.

V. Rajaraman/IISc M3/V1/July 2004/9


System Analysis and Design/Information gathering Question Bank

Next I met Mr.Mathews, the assistant mess manager. His responsibilities include

supervising mess staff and day-to-day maintenance of the hostel. He also assists the

warden in room allotment by keeping a list of available rooms, preferences, applications

for change of rooms etc. He feels that mess bill preparation is time consuming as it takes

a week. Room allotment, on the other hand, is not difficult and the current system is

satisfactory.

I then met Mr.Garg, the store-keeper. He keeps the stores stock register and helps the

mess manager in preparing the issue and return lists. He prepares lists of items to be

bought and monitors quality of supplies.

I finally held a group meeting with the chief Warden, assistant wardens, mess manager,

assistant manager, mess secretary, accountant and store-keeper. I showed the data and

document flow diagrams (Figs. 3.2-3.4) prepared by me and got their approval. I then

listed the critical needs which various persons identified. These are given in Table 3.1.

Based on this a consensus was reached on what aspects needed.

Table 3.1 Critical Needs Identified by Various Persons

• Mess bills to be despatched within 5 days to students.

• Identify large outstanding bills from students.

• Correct billing of extras and rebates to students.

• Weekly calculation of daily rate.

• Prompt payment to vendors.

V. Rajaraman/IISc M3/V1/July 2004/10


System Analysis and Design/Information gathering Question Bank

• Issue of exact quantities of items to cooks based on menu and number of students.

• Reducing menu repetitions.

• Keeping a nutritionally balanced menu and minimizing cost.

• Forecasting requirement of stores based on menu and students.

• Consolidating purchases to reduce frequent trips for purchase and reducing cartage

charges.

• Student data base.

Computerization, and priority among them was also determined. The following priority

list was prepared as system to be computerised.

Preparation of mess bill

Stores issue and ordering system

Menu planning

Data base of hostel residents.

They requested me to begin a feasibility study and provide a cost-benefit analysis of the
above systems.

End of Fact Gathering and Requirements Specification Phase.

V. Rajaraman/IISc M3/V1/July 2004/11


MODULE 3

CASE STUDY - HOSTEL INFORMATION SYSTEM – Fact Gathering and

Requirements Determination

System analyst's diary: "I was called at 9 a.m. today (18 March 04) by the chief Warden

of Raman Hostel, Prof.V.Ramakrishna. He wants to examine if computers can help in

hostel administration. I made an appointment to meet him tomorrow at 10 a.m. in the

hostel office. I told him I will need 40 minutes to get an overview of his requirements".

I made the following checklist before meeting him.

Checklist

• Find out what aspects of hostel operation he wants to analyze and improve.

• Find out why he wants this and what benefits he foresees.

• Find out his priorities

• Find out how early he wants the system.

• Find out about the organization of the hostel administration.

• Find out who else he wants me to talk to.

• Find out if any documentation on existing procedures exists.

I met Prof.V.Ramakrishna at 10 a.m. on 19 March 04 in his office in the hostel and asked

his permission to take notes. The summary of my notes which I made and sent to him on

20 March 04 for his comments are:

• The total mess expenses are divided among members. Policy is set by the Chief

Warden in consultation with a student mess committee.

1
• He wants correct mess bills to be prepared and despatched within 5 days of the end of

the month to the accounts office for collection.

• He wishes to know which students have large unpaid bills.

• He is eager to control inventories to minimize stock.

• He intents to control issue of stores to cooks to minimize wastage.

• He wants to do some planning about purchase of vegetables and fruits to minimize

cost and wastage.

• He desires to have an up-to-date data base of students in hostel.

• The primary objective is to minimize students' mess bills, reduce outstanding

payments, and have ready information about residents.

• The priority order of the Chief Warden is: control inventory, control stores issues,

ensure speedy bill collection, student data base.

• He would like a new system to be implemented within 4 months.

• The organization chart of the hostel is given in Fig.3.1

• The Chief Warden wants me to talk to assistant wardens, mess supervisors and

students' mess committee members.

• There is no procedure manual. Most operation are done routinely using a

commonsense approach.

Professor Ramakrishna agreed that my notes, on the whole, reflected our conversation.

He added that the number of residents in the hostel was 400, all staying in single rooms.

He further indicated that he could afford to install a Personal Computer if benefits can

justify cost. I then made an appointment to meet Dr.M.N.Swamy, the assistant warden

2
on 23 March 04 at 4 p.m. in his office. I requested half an hour of his time for

discussions. I made the following checklist before meeting him:

• Find out details of accounting and billing procedure currently used.

• Ascertain his ideas about the current system and improvements

• Try to know his ideas on deployment of personnel if a computer is used.

The following notes were prepared by me on 23 March 04 evening. I used the jottings in

my notebook made with Dr.Swamy's permission on 23 March 04 during the interview.

Dr.Swamy is in-charge of all hostel accounts and is assisted by Mr.R.Sampath whose

responsibilities are to collect mess dues from residents and issue receipts, prepare

cheques for vendors' payments and keep petty cash account. Besides Mr.Sampath, there

is Mr.K.S.Iyengar, an accountant, who keeps accounts of (a) daily purchases for the

mess, (b) periodical purchases for mess, and (c) employees salaries (total around 30

employees).

Presently there are three purchase payment procedures. These are:

Monthly payment. Milk, green vegetables, meat, bread, butter, and confectionery are

delivered daily. A delivery chalan with a bill is given. Delivery is checked by mess

supervisor (Mr.Viswam) and the bill is sent to Mr.Iyengar. The rates are checked by the

mess secretary (elected by residents) against market rates and negotiated with the vendor.

The bill with the negotiated rate are filed by Mr.Iyengar and a copy given to the vendor.

3
At the end of the month they are verified by the secretary and Dr.Swamy, and payment

by cheque made to vendors.

Cash payment. Items such as gas, coal, kerosene, dry fruits are received at random and

immediate cash payment is made. Similarly, cash payment is made for cartage of goods

and for cleaning of grains. Cash payment bill copy is kept by Mr.Iyengar as authorised

by Dr.Swamy. Cash is paid by Mr.Sampath who keeps the cash accounts.

Biweekly payment. Once in two weeks items such as sugar, grain, pulses, condiments,

etc. are purchased from the wholesale market by a group consisting of mess secretary,

Mr.Iyengar and Mr.Viswam. Rates are fixed by negotiations and bulk delivery is made

to the hostel. Delivered quantities are checked by Mr.Viswam and bills filed by

Mr.Iyengar. Bills are approved by Dr.Swamy, and the payments are made within two

weeks by cheque.

The mess bill is calculated by Mr.Iyengar and his assistant Mr.Singh. To find the daily

rate, the total expenses are divided by the sum of the number of students who have their

food in the mess every day. If the total expenses are say Rs.5,60,000, and 400 students

eat on the first day, 395 on the second, and 406 on the third day, etc., then

Daily rate = Rs.5,60,000 (400 + 395 + 406 + … for 30 days)

= Rs.5,60,000/12043

= Rs.46.50

4
Currently, the manual calculation of bills takes over 6 days and many errors are found.

Bills do not go on time to students. This needs a better system.

Students are allowed to claim rebate if they do not eat for 2 days consecutively in the

mess, provided they give minimum 3 days notice in writing in the register kept with the

mess supervisor. Students can bring guests for meals and they have to enter the number

of guests for meals (not more than 4 at a time) in a register. They can also order "extras"

such as milk and eggs, which are entered in a register. Such entries from a daily register

are transferred to another students extras/guests/rebate register which has one page for

each student, and all entries for a student are written date-wise in this by Mr.Singh. This

register is used in calculating individual bills.

Dr.Swamy feels that this procedure complicates bill preparation. The student body wants

this facility to be continued. Dr..Swamy feels that if a proper system is designed,

Mr.Iyengar and Mr.Singh can be easily trained to use it, as both are intelligent and also

know typing.

The above notes were sent to Dr.Swamy who approved them. He added that a speedier

and accurate billing method with full details will be welcomed by students. Currently

full details of extras/guests are not provided in the bill as manual entry is too slow.

Further follow-up with students who have not paid their mess bill is currently not

methodical.

5
I then decided to meet Dr.Prasad who is the assistant warden in charge of mess affairs. I

fixed a meeting with him on 24 March 04 at 3 p.m. Before the interview the following

points were noted in the checklist:

• Find out how items are issued to cooks each day

• Find out if any inventory control is exercised

• Find out how wastage is reduced

• Find out his ideas for an improved system and its operation.

The following notes were prepared by me after the interview and sent to Dr.Prasad on 25

March 04. (Dr.Prasad oversees the work of Mr.Viswam, the mess manager, Mr.Garg, the

store keeper, and coordinates with the student mess committee).

Dr.Prasad is very unhappy with the way the inventory is controlled. The store keeper

waits till an item is exhausted and only then he tells the mess manager about this. It leads

to many trips to the city to order items and piecemeal arrival of items, leading to high

travel/transport cost. Rs.8000 is spent in this which can be considerably reduced. Items

are issued by the mess manager to the cooks based on nominal number of students in the

hostel. Proper care is not taken to reduce issues to cooks when many students are absent.

This leads to wastage. Over 100 different items are stocked in the store and a systematic

technique of replenishing stock should be used. Mess bill could be reduced by bulk

purchase of non-perishable items when their cost is low. This is not done. Dr.Prasad

feels that use of a computer in inventory control and issue control can be very effective.

6
The above notes were approved by Dr.Prasad who suggested that I should meet the

secretary of the student mess committee Mr.A.Pramod. I found Mr.Pramod in his room

in the hostel on 26th morning and he invited me to have a breakfast meeting. (Mr.Pramod

was elected secretary 8 months ago and has 4 more months in his current term. He wants

improvements within that period). He reiterated the points made by Dr.Prasad and

Dr.Swamy on the need to systematize issues, inventory and billing. He pointed out one

of the main difficulties he faced. Currently the bill is calculated at the end of the month.

Till then he has no idea of what the daily rate will be. Very often the daily rate goes up

sharply from say Rs.46 to Rs.54 which the students do not like. This leads to hasty

economy measures in the mess without proper knowledge of the areas in which these

measures will be effective. The student body would like to have uniform rates. This can

be ensured if estimates of daily rates are available at the end of each week. If the rate

tends to become high, some planned economy can be effected. Weekly adjustment can

lead to uniform rates. The daily menu is decided by the mess manager in consultation

with the mess secretary. Currently it is somewhat repetitive. Students joke" It is beans

curry and therefore it is Wednesday". There must be some way of randomizing menus,

keeping nutritional balance, variety of items and of effectively using seasonal low cost

vegetables, thereby reducing the mess bill. He thinks aloud whether some operations

research techniques can be used in this problem. I am somewhat intrigued by this

suggestion.

7
I summarized the above discussion and sent it to the mess secretary and Dr.Prasad for

their comments. I next met employees of the mess to get their views. I met Mr.Viswam,

the mess manager on 27 March morning. He explained his responsibilities as :

• Preparing daily menu based on advise from the mess committee.

• Preparing an "issue list" of items and quantities for each meal and sending it to the

hostel store for issue to the kitchen.

• Preparing a "return list" of items and quantities not used during the day by the cooks

to the store.

• Stock register updating based on issue and return list.

• Keeping track of rebates to students absent from mess and extras taken by students

which are to be separately charged. Relate rebates to stores issue.

• Ordering items when stock level is low. In practice, however, ordering is done only

when an item is exhausted. As delivery at door may be delayed, unnecessary special

trips are made to do cash purchases.

Mr.Viswam felt that some help in automatically preparing issue list based on number of

persons who will eat in the mess will be very helpful. He would also appreciate assistance

in error free recording of rebates and extras. An automatic warning mechanism when

stocks become low would be useful. Consolidation of purchases to reduce trips would be

desirable.

A summary of the above discussion was sent to Mr.Viswam for his comments.

8
Next I met Mr.Mathews, the assistant mess manager. His responsibilities include

supervising mess staff and day-to-day maintenance of the hostel. He also assists the

warden in room allotment by keeping a list of available rooms, preferences, applications

for change of rooms etc. He feels that mess bill preparation is time consuming as it takes

a week. Room allotment, on the other hand, is not difficult and the current system is

satisfactory.

I then met Mr.Garg, the store-keeper. He keeps the stores stock register and helps the

mess manager in preparing the issue and return lists. He prepares lists of items to be

bought and monitors quality of supplies.

I finally held a group meeting with the chief Warden, assistant wardens, mess manager,

assistant manager, mess secretary, accountant and store-keeper. I showed the data and

document flow diagrams (Figs. 3.2-3.4) prepared by me and got their approval. I then

listed the critical needs which various persons identified. These are given in Table 3.1.

Based on this a consensus was reached on what aspects needed.

Table 3.1 Critical Needs Identified by Various Persons

• Mess bills to be despatched within 5 days to students.

• Identify large outstanding bills from students.

• Correct billing of extras and rebates to students.

• Weekly calculation of daily rate.

• Prompt payment to vendors.

9
• Issue of exact quantities of items to cooks based on menu and number of students.

• Reducing menu repetitions.

• Keeping a nutritionally balanced menu and minimizing cost.

• Forecasting requirement of stores based on menu and students.

• Consolidating purchases to reduce frequent trips for purchase and reducing cartage

charges.

• Student data base.

Computerization, and priority among them was also determined. The following priority

list was prepared as system to be computerised.

Preparation of mess bill

Stores issue and ordering system

Menu planning

Data base of hostel residents.

They requested me to begin a feasibility study and provide a cost-benefit analysis of the
above systems.

End of Fact Gathering and Requirements Specification Phase.

10
MODULE 3

REFERENCE BOOKS

1. Most of the material including the case study has been adapted from Chapter

4, Analysis and Design of Information Systems by V.Rajaraman published by

Prentice Hall of India 2002 with permission from publisher.

2. Systems Analysis and Design, by K.E.Kendell and J.E.Kendell published by

Pearson Education Asia 2002 discuss in detail fact gathering in pp.117-196.

They cover interviewing, questionnaire use and observing an organization

very thoroughly.
Mini Project Suggestion (Module 3)

1. Talk to your medical shop owner and find out what his information requirements

are. Divide it into operational, tactical, strategic and statutory components.

Describe how his operational and tactical information needs could be satisfied if

he installs a PC.

2. Go to a small hospital or nursing home in your neighbourhood and find out what

their information needs are. Classify them into operational, tactical, statutory and

strategic components.

3. Talk to your college registrar/administrative officer and staff. Find out their

information needs. How are they currently fulfilled?


SUMMARY OF MODULE 3

1. It is necessary to gather all relevant information about an organization as a first step

in systems analysis.

2. The steps followed in gathering information are to first identify information sources

and then find an appropriate method of obtaining information from each identified

source.

3. The most important source of information, both qualitative and quantitative, are the

users of the system at all levels.

4. Other secondary sources are forms and reports used by the organization and any

procedure manual or book of rules.

5. Information is gathered from top down. An overview is obtained at the top. Details

are obtained from those at the working level. Gaining the confidence of working

level users is vital for the success of any project.

6. Interviewing techniques have to be learnt by an analyst as he or she has to conduct a

large number of interviews.

7. The key to a successful interview is to observe good manners, have an open mind,

and encourage the person being interviewed to reveal all important details.

8. Distribution of questionnaires is not a substitute for interviews. Questionnaires are

most useful when quantitative data are to be gathered from a large number of

persons.
MODULE 4

FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS

There are 4 alternative answers to each question. One of them is correct. Pick the correct
answer. Do not guess. A key is given at the end of the module for you to verify your
answer

LEARNING UNIT 1

4.1.1 Pick quantified goals from those given below


(i) payment should be made promptly
(ii) payment should be made before 5th of every month
(iii) the age of the persons should be below 35
(iv) the person to be recruited should be middle aged
(a) i and ii (b) i and iii
(c) ii and iii (d) ii and iv

4.1.2 Quantification of goals is required because


(a) without quantification no work can be done
(b) when goals are quantified it is possible to verify unambiguously whether they
have been fulfilled
(c) goals have to be quantified for a good system
(d) it facilitates designing a good system

4.1.3 Quantification of goals is done by


(a) converting subjective goal statements to ones with numbers
(b) converting subjective goal statements to objective goal statements
(c) converting objective goal statements to subjective goal statements
(d) removing all adjectives in a goal statement
4.1.4 Quantified version of the statement: “The inventory should be reduced
substantially“ is
(a) the inventory should be reduced effectively
(b) the inventory should be reduced significantly
(c) the inventory should be reduced very much
(d) the inventory should be reduced by 25%

4.1.5 Goals are identified by


(a) finding the deficiencies in the current system
(b) observing the current system
(c) analyzing competitor’s system
(d) finding the advantages in the current system

4.1.6 Deficiencies in a system are pinpointed by identifying


(i) missing function
(ii) excessive cost of operation
(iii) poor management
(iv) poor operation
(a) i and iii (b) i and ii
(c) i and iv (d) ii and iii
4.1.7 Goals are identified by
(a) discussion with all concerned
(b) pinpointing unsatisfactory performance
(c) finding poor management
(d) examining a variety of documents

4.1.8 Characteristics of good goals are that they


(i) are quantified
(ii) improve quality
(iii) are realizable within the constraints of the organization
(iv) aim at an ideal system
(a) i and ii (b) ii and iv
(c) ii and iii (d) i and iii

4.1.9 Goals should be agreeable to


(a) top management
(b) project leader
(c) all concerned, both management and operational staff
(d) programmers
4.1.10 Goals should be broken down to sub-goals as it
(a) expedites system design
(b) provides a convenient target to aim at during system design
(c) is recommended by experienced analysts
(d) is good idea to use

LEARNING UNIT 2

4.2.1 During feasibility analysis it is necessary to examine several alternative


solutions because
(i) a comparison of alternatives will lead to a cost-effective solution
(ii) a pre-conceived single solution may turn out to be unimplementable
(iii) it is always good to examine alternatives
(iv) management normally looks at alternatives
(a) i and iii (b) i and iv
(c) i and ii (d) ii and iv
4.2.2 A computer-based information system
(a) may require some tasks to be done manually
(b) should not have any manual tasks
(c) is always fully automated
(d) may use only computers

4.2.3 Among alternative solutions for an information system one may consider
(a) PC based solutions only
(b) an improved manual system
(c) only client-server based solutions as they are popular now-a-days
(d) whatever management decides

4.2.4 By technical feasibility of a solution we mean that


(a) technology is available to implement it
(b) persons are available to implement it
(c) persons have technical ability to implement it
(d) funds are available to implement it

4.2.5 By operational feasibility we mean


(a) the system can be operated nicely
(b) the system is unusable by operators
(c) the system can be adapted by an organization without major disruptions
(d) the system can be implemented

4.2.6 By economic feasibility of a system we mean that


(a) it is economical to operate
(b) it is expensive to operate
(c) it will be cost-effective if implemented
(d) finances are available to implement the system and it will be cost-effective
4.2.7 A solution is said to be feasible for implementation if
(i) it is cost-effective and finance is available to implement it
(ii) technology is available to implement it
(iii) it can be adapted to work in an organization’s environment
(iv) it has been implemented in another organization
(a) ii and iii (b) i, ii and iii
(c) i and iv (d) i, ii and iv

LEARNING UNIT 3

4.3.1 A cost-benefit analysis is performed to assess


(a) economic feasibility
(b) operational feasibility
(c) technical feasibility
(d) all of the above

4.3.2 The primary objective of cost-benefit analysis is


(a) to find out direct and indirect cost of developing the information system
(b) to determine the tangible benefits of the information system
(c) to determine if it is economically worthwhile to invest in developing the
information system
(d) to determine the intangible benefits of the information system

4.3.3 A cost-benefit analysis is performed as a part of


(a) system design
(b) system specification
(c) system performance assessment
(d) feasibility analysis

4.3.4 A cost benefit analysis consists of


(i) finding the direct and indirect cost of developing, implementing and running
the system
(ii) finding out the tangible and intangible benefit of the system
(iii) finding the investment to be made in the system
(iv) finding the profit which will accrue from the system
(a) iii and iv (b) i and iv
(c) ii and iii (d) i and ii
4.3.5 The tangible benefits in the following list are
(i) savings due to reducing investment
(ii) savings due to sending bills faster and consequent early collection
(iii) providing better service to the customers
(iv) improving quality of company’s products
(a) i and ii (b) ii and iii
(c) iii and iv (d) i and iii

4.3.6 The intangible benefits in the following list are


(i) savings due to reducing investment
(ii) savings due to sending bills faster and consequent early collection
(iii) providing better service to the customers
(iv) improving quality of company’s products
(a) i and ii (b) ii and iii
(c) iii and iv (d) i and iii

4.3.7 Intangible benefits are


(a) not very important
(b) as important as tangible benefits
(c) the most important benefits
(d) irrelevant in feasibility study

4.3.8 Pick the indirect cost from the following


(a) cost of new forms
(b) cost of training analysts and users
(c) cost of software to be brought
(d) cost of fact gathering

4.3.9 In payback method one finds out


(a) the period necessary to invest the cost of the system
(b) the time required for the full benefits to accrue
(c) the time at which benefits exceed cost
(d) whether the system is able to payback amount invested

4.3.10 In simple payback method one


(a) accounts for interest payments on benefits
(b) ignores interest payments
(c) only accounts for interest on capital investments
(d) only accounts for interest on recurring expenses

4.3.11In designing a system it is found that the cost of the system was Rs
1,50,000 and the benefit is Rs 10,000 per month. The interest is 1% per
month; the payback period using payback method with interest is
(a) 14 months
(b) 17 months
(c) 15 months
(d) 20 months
4.3.12 In designing a system it is found that the cost of the system was Rs
1,50,000 and the benefit is Rs 10,000 per month. The interest is 1% per
month; the payback period using the present value method is
(a) 14 months
(b) 17 months
(c) 15 months
(d) 20 months

4.3.13 In present value method one has to account for


(a) interest rate prevalent at a given time
(b) exchange rate prevalent at a given time
(c) sales tax rate prevalent at a given time
(d) both income and sales tax rates prevalent at a given time

4.3.14 At the end of the feasibility study the systems analyst


(a) meets the users for a discussion
(b) gives a summary feasibility report to the management
(c) gives a systems proposal to management
(d) tells the top management if the system is not feasible

4.3.15 The most important parts of a feasibility report are


(i) cost-benefit analysis
(ii) statement of the objective of the proposed system
(iii) who will supply equipment for implementing the system
(iv) organizational changes needed to successfully implement the system
(a) i and ii (b) i, ii and iii
(c) i and iv (d) i, ii and iv

4.3.16 A detailed system proposal is prepared by a systems analyst if


(a) management is not clear about what the system will do
(b) the analysts feels it is necessary to convince the management
(c) management approves the feasibility report
(d) the analyst feels it will be a challenging system to implement
4.3.17 The main objectives of a detailed system proposal are to
(i) convince management about the benefits of the proposed system
(ii) explain in detail to the management what to expect from the system and at
what cost
(iii) have a detailed plan on what the system will do and how it will be
implemented
(iv) make sure that it is possible to implement the system
(a) i and ii (b) ii and iii
(c) i and iv (d) ii and iv

4.3.18 The following are the most important points of a detailed system
proposal
(i) who will supply and install the required equipment
(ii) cost-benefit analysis
(iii) comparison of alternative solutions
(iv) implementation plan
(a) i, ii and iii (b) i, iii and iv
(c) ii, iii and iv (d) ii and iii
KEY TO OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS

4.1.1 c 4.1.2 b 4.1.3 a 4.1.4 d 4.1.5 a 4.1.6 b


4.1.7 b 4.1.8 d 4.1.9 c 4.1.10 b 4.2.1 c 4.2.2 a
4.2.3 b 4.2.4 a 4.2.5 c 4.2.6 d 4.2.7 b 4.3.1 a
4.3.2 c 4.3.3 d 4.3.4 d 4.3.5 a 4.3.6 c 4.3.7 b
4.3.8 d 4.3.9 c 4.3.10 b 4.3.11 c 4.3.12 b 4.3.13 a
4.3.14 b 4.3.15 d 4.3.16 c 4.3.17 b 4.3.18 c
MODULE 4
FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS

Learning Units
4.1 How to formulate project goals and quantify them
4.2 Examining alternative solutions and evaluating proposed
solutions
a) Technical feasibility
b) Operational feasibility
c) Economic feasibility
4.3 Cost benefit analysis.Documenting feasibility report.

System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman


MOTIVATION

• Before a management decides to implement a computer


based system they should know the goals which will be
met by the system
•These goals should primarily be quantitative goals so
that when the system is implemented it is possible to
compare quantitatively the achievements with the
original goals set.
•Analysts should also be able to estimate what hardware
and human resources will be needed to implement a
system to meet the goals
Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 1 of 30
MOTIVATION
• Analyst must examine alternative methods to
implement the system and their resource needs.
•A cost-benefit analysis should be carried out for each
alternative and given to the management
•This analysis will be essential for a management to
decide which solution they would like to implement
•Feasibility of meeting goals with available technology
and human resource and cost/benefit are important
parameters for informed management decision making.

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 2 of 30


LEARNING GOALS

• How to formulate the goals to be met by the information system to


be designed
•How to quantify the goals
•How to obtain alternative solutions to satisfy the goals
•How to assess the feasibility of implementing alternative solutions.
•How to compute cost vs benefits of each alternative feasible solution
•How to prepare a system proposal for the potential users of the
system

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 3 of 30


FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS

The following are the results of the Information gathering


phase:

ƒ Deficiency of the current system are found


ƒ Consensus is arrived at on requirements
ƒ SRS Document is prepared

4.1.1 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 4 of 30


STEPS IN FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS
• Note down deficiencies in current system found while
preparing SRS Document
• Set goals to remove deficiencies
• Quantify Goals
• Find alternative solutions to meet goals
• Evaluate feasibility of alternative solutions taking into
account constraints on resources.
• Rank order alternatives and discuss with user.
• Prepare a system proposal for management approval
4.1.2 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 5 of 30
FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS
ƒ Define the goals and sub-goals of the proposed system
ƒ Quantify the goals and sub-goals from the verbal
statement of goal
For example: Send bill soon after month end
Quantified statement of the same goal:
Send bill within 5 days of month end
ƒ Find out whether it is possible to meet these goals.
ƒ Determine the cost of meeting each goal
ƒ Find cost benefit if quantified
4.1.3 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 6 of 30
GUIDELINES FOR SEARCHING GOALS

ƒ Identify the deficiency by pinpointing


-Missing Functions
-Unsatisfactory performance
-Excessive cost of operations
ƒ Set Goals to remove deficiency and provide competitive
advantage

4.1.4 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 7 of 30


CHARACTERSTICS OF A GOAL

ƒ Must be quantified
ƒ Realizable with the constraints of the organization and
the system
ƒ Broken down into Sub-Goals
ƒ Agreeable to all concerned
ƒ In general goals must not only remove deficiency but
also give a system which is superior to those of the
competitors of the organization

4.1.5 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 8 of 30


CASE STUDY-HOSTEL INFORMATION
SYSTEM

(Detailed description of case is given in module3)


DEFICIENCIES OF CURRENT SYSTEM IDENTIFIED
MISSING FUNCTIONS
1.1 Stores requirement not forecast
1.2 Purchases not consolidated
1.3 Daily rate calculation not frequently updated
1.4 Menu not planned for balanced nutrition and low cost

4.1.6 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 9 of 30


CASE STUDY-HOSTEL INFORMATION
SYSTEM

DEFICIENCIES (BAD PERFORMANCE)


UNSATISFACTORY PERFORMANCE
2.1 Billing not accurate and prompt
2.2 Student bills not itemized
2.3 Stores issue to cooks arbitrary
2.4 Payments to vendors not prompt
2.5 Large variations in mess bills every month

4.1.7 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 10 of 30


CASE STUDY-HOSTEL INFORMATION
SYSTEM

DEFICIENCIES (HIGH OPERATIONAL COST)


3.1Unpaid and long outstanding bills from students
3.2 Extras and rebates not reflected in stores issues
3.3 Frequent small purchases at high cost
3.4 High transport cost due to not consolidating
stores requirements

4.1.8 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 11 of 30


CASE STUDY-HOSTEL INFORMATION
SYSTEM
FORMULATIOIN OF GOALS
MAIN GOALS

Ml . Send bill to students within 5 days of the end of


month
M2. Control inventory of items in stores & issues to
cooks to bring down mess bill by 10%
M3. Balance menu to meet nutritional requirements
M4. Cost of new menu not to exceed current cost

4.1.9 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 12 of 30


CASE STUDY-HOSTEL INFORMATION
SYSTEM
FORMULATION OF SUB-GOALS
S1.1 Itemize bills showing extras and rebates with dates
S1.2 Ensure less than 5% variations of bills from month
to month
SI.3 Bills not paid within 10 days of issue brought to the
attention of chief warden
S1.4 Update daily rates every day
Main goals M1 and sub-goals S1.1,S1.2,S1.3 remove
deficiencies 1.3,2.1,1.2.2,2.5,3.1
4.1.10 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 13 of 30
CASE STUDY-HOSTEL INFORMATION
SYSTEM
FORMULATIOIN OF SUB-GOALS
S2.1 Ensure payment to vendors within five days of supply of items
S2.2 Maximum 4 trips per month for purchases. Cartage less than 1%
of item cost
S2.3 Reduce inventory level. Level not more than 10% of
requirements in a month
S2.4 Issue to cooks every day not to exceed 5% of calculated values
Main goals M1& sub-goals above remove deficiencies
1.1,1.2,2.3,2.4,3.2,3.3,3.4

4.1.11 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 14 of 30


EXAMINING ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS

HOSTEL INFORMATION SYSTEM

ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS
A: Improve manual system
B: Use PC based periodic update system
C: An on-line system with server and several clients

4.2.1 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 15 of 30


SOLUTION A: MANUAL SYSTEM

Manual System may be improved as follows


• Keep up-to-date running total of extras and rebates for each student
• Use look up table to find material needed each day based on number
of extras
• Cost each day's issue and keep running total
• Calculate standard quantities needed and use for vendor order
• Track student payments to find overdue payments
• Solution does not ensure reduction in bill variations and prompt
payment to vendors
• Solution not scalable to large student population
4.2.2 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 16 of 30
SOLUTION B

Use a single PC to
• Prepare students bills-itemize bills
• Prepare number of members who will eat for next two days
• Alert warden when bill not paid within 10 days of issue
• Vendor order generation
• Inventory control of store
• Menu planning

4.2.3 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 17 of 30


SOLUTION B

PC configuration needed based on data base sizes


PC with 20 MB disk, 1.2 MB floppy sufficient
However minimum configuration available today(2004) is
PC with 128 MB main memory, 40 GB disk 1.2MB floppy
& CD R/W costs Rs. 25,000.Systems software(Windows
XP+MSOffice+anti-virus) will cost around Rs.25,000.
Total cost=Rs 50,000
Need PC+ printer+uninterrupted power supply cost Rs.
70,000
4.2.4 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 18 of 30
SOLUTION C

• Use a server which is accessed by 3 clients one each in the


mess, the stores and the accounts sections; perform on-line
transaction processing.
• Advantage: Up to the minute status can be found
•Number of transactions small and does not justify 4
computers
•Solution unnecessarily expensive and rejected

4.2.5 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 19 of 30


EVALUATING ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS

• Determine Technical feasibility of each solution,in other


words is technology mature to implement a solution
• Determine Operational feasibility of each solution.In
other words,for a given organizational structure will the
solution fit in.Will it provide right information at the right
time to users
• Determine Economic feasibility of each solution.In other
words, are finances available to implement system?Will it
be cost effective?Will the money spent be recovered by
savings or by better services to users

4.2.6 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 20 of 30


TECHNICAL AND OPERATIONAL
FEASIBILITY

•Solution B is selected for further consideration


• It is technically feasible as PC of necessary configuration
is easily available.
• It is also operationally feasible as clerks in hostel office
can be easily trained to use a PC. The necessary problems
will be written by system analyst/ programmer hired for
this purpose.

4.2.7 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 21 of 30


COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS

• Needed to find economic feasibility of proposed solution


• Objective to find whether returns by implementing a system
justify the cost
• Found by listing all costs direct and indirect
• Direct cost- Cost of computer, software, space, human resource,
material,travel, training etc.
• Indirect cost- Time spent by persons and data gathering
• Benefit- Tangible- measurable
Intangible- better management
-better user satisfaction
4.3.1 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 22 of 30
BENEFITS

Direct - Savings due to reduced inventory, early collection


of outstanding payments, reduced wastage,faster
production, increased production
Indirect –Increased work done with same human resource
Intangible - better service to customers
- superior product quality
- accurate,reliable,timely and up-to-date
strategic,tactical and operational information to
management
4.3.2 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 23 of 30
COST – BENEFITS ANALYSIS
CASE STUDY OF HOSTEL INFORMATION SYSTEM
COST : PC,UPS,Printer+Systems analyst+programmer
Capital 70,000 +60,000 =1,30,000
Cost(Recurring) : Stationery, maintenance,floppy etc.
Rs. 2000 per month
Benefits : - Inventory reduction 5% of mess bill of 400 students
Daily rate=Rs 45
Savings= 45*0.05*30*400=Rs 27,000
- Transport cost saving=Rs 800 per month
- Savings due to early payment
=material cost*1.2%=37.5*400*30*0.012=Rs 5400
- Savings due to early collection =40*1350*0.01=Rs 540
4.3.3 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 24 of 30
COST – BENEFITS ANALYSIS

Direct saving=33740
Indirect benefit : student satisfaction due to itemized bill,
predictable daily rate,better menu
Net Direct Saving per month= 33740-2000
=R31740
Total capital cost=l,30,000

4.3.4 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 25 of 30


PAY BACK PERIOD

SIMPLE: Cost 1,30,000


Saving 31,740 per month
Cost recovered in 130000/31740 = 4.1 months
Using interest on capital:
Monthly interest=0.015* 1,30,000
=Rs 1950 per month
Saving per month=31740-1950=29790
Cost recovered in 130000/29790 = 4.4 months
4.3.5 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 26 of 30
PRESENT VALUE METHOD

Accounts for the fact that a benefit accruing n months later


will be lower today as the money if available today would
have earned interest
If r = Interest rate in % per month.
n = number of months
x = benefit
Present value of benefit accruing n months later is:
Present value = x/(1+r)n

4.3.6 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 27 of 30


COST-BENEFIT
Present Value method
This account for the fact that benefits each month will also earn interest
Month Cost Net-Benefit present value cumulative Benefit
of Benefit
0 1,30,000 0 0
1 31,740 31271 ace@applabs.net
31271
2 31,740 30809 62080
3 31,740 30354 92434
4 31,740 29905 122339
5 31,740 29463 151802
This also give us less than 5 months as pay back period

4.3.7 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 28 of 30


STRUCTURE OF EXCUTIVE SUMMARY

Feasibility report
•What the proposed system will achieve
•Who will be involved in operating the system
•Organizational changes to implement system
•List of benefits of the system
•Cost of system - Capital +Recurring
•Cost-benefit analysis

4.3.8 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 29 of 30


SYSTEM PROPOSAL STRUCTURE
•Introduction with outline of proposal
•Data flow diagram of existing system
•Modified DFD of proposed system
•Discuss alternative solutions
•List new equipment to be installed (if any)
•Technical,operational feasibility of analysis
•Cost- Benefit analysis
•New procedures, human resources and training needed
•Anticipated problems
•Implementation plan
4.3.9 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 30 of 30
MODULE 4

FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS

Contents

1. MOTIVATION AND LEARNING GOALS

2. LEARNING UNIT 1
How to formulate project goals and quantify them

3. LEARNING UNIT 2
Examining alternative solutions and evaluating proposed solutions
a) Technical feasibility
b) Operational feasibility
c) Economic feasibility

4. LEARNING UNIT 3
Cost benefit analysis. Documenting feasibility report

5. REFERENCES
FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS

MOTIVATION
Before a management decides to implement a computer based system they
should know the goals which will be met by the system. These goals should
primarily be quantitative goals so that when the system is implemented it is
possible to compare quantitatively the achievements with the original goals
set. Analysts should be able to estimate what hardware and human resources
will be needed to implement a system to meet the goals. Analyst must
examine alternative methods to implement the system and their resource
needs. A cost-benefit analysis should be carried out for each alternative and
given to the management. This analysis will be essential for a management
to decide which solution they would like to implement. Feasibility of
meeting goals with available technology and human resource and
cost/benefit are important parameters for informed management decision-
making.

LEARNING GOALS

At the end of this module you will know


• How to formulate the goals to be met by the information system to be
designed
•How to quantify the goals
•How to obtain alternative solutions to satisfy the goals
•How to assess the feasibility of implementing alternative solutions.
•How to compute cost vs benefits of each alternative feasible solution
•How to prepare a system proposal for the potential users of the system
LEARNING UNIT 1

How to formulate project goals and quantify them

STEPS IN FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS

•Note down deficiencies in current system found while preparing SRS


Document
•Set goals to remove deficiencies
•Quantify Goals
•Find alternative solutions to meet goals
•Evaluate feasibility of alternative solutions taking into account constraints
on resources.
•Rank order alternatives and discuss with user.
•Prepare a system proposal for management approval
ƒ Quantify the goals and sub-goals from the verbal statement of goal
For example: Send bill soon after month end
Quantified statement of the same goal:
Send bill within 5 days of month end
ƒ Find out whether it is possible to meet these goals.
ƒ Determine the cost of meeting each goal
ƒ Find cost benefit if quantified
GUIDELINES FOR SEARCHING GOALS

Identify the deficiency by pinpointing missing functions, unsatisfactory


performance and excessive cost of operations. Set Goals to remove
deficiency and provide competitive advantage

CHARACTERSTICS OF A GOAL

Must be quantified, realizable with the constraints of the organization and


the system, broken down into Sub-Goals, agreeable to all concerned, in
general goals must not only remove deficiency but also give a system which
is superior to those of the competitors of the organization.

CASE STUDY-HOSTEL INFORMATION SYSTEM


(For details of this Case Study see Chapter 5 page 46-58 of book “Analysis
and design of Information Systems”, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi,2002
by V.Rajaraman)

MISSING FUNCTIONS
1.1 Stores requirement not forecast
1.2 Purchases not consolidated
1.3 Daily rate calculation not frequently updated
1.4 Menu not planned for balanced nutrition and low cost

UNSATISFACTORY PERFORMANCE
2.1 Billing not accurate and prompt
2.3 Student bills not itemized
2.3 Stores issue to cooks arbitrary
2.4 Payments to vendors not prompt
2.5 Large variations in mess bills every month

DEFICIENCIES (HIGH OPERATIONAL COST)


3.1Unpaid and long outstanding bills from students
3.2 Extras and rebates not reflected in stores issues
3.3 Frequent small purchases at high cost
3.4 High transport cost due to not consolidating stores requirements
FORMULATIOIN OF GOALS
MAIN GOALS

Ml . Send bill to students within 5 days of the end of month


M2. Control inventory of items in stores & issues to cooks to bring down
mess bill by 10%
M3. Balance menu to meet nutritional requirements
M4. Cost of new menu not to exceed current cost

FORMULATION OF SUB-GOALS
S1.1 Itemize bills showing extras and rebates with dates
S1.2 Ensure less than 5% variations of bills from month to month
SI.3 Bills not paid within 10 days of issue brought to the attention of chief
warden
S1.4 Update daily rates every day

Main goals M1 and sub-goals S1.1,S1.2,S1.3 remove deficiencies


1.3,2.1,1.2.2,2.5,3.1

S2.1 Ensure payment to vendors within five days of supply of items


S2.2 Maximum 4 trips per month for purchases. Cartage less than 1% of
item cost
S2.3 Reduce inventory level. Level not more than 10% of requirements in a
month
S2.4 Issue to cooks every day not to exceed 5% of calculated values
Main goals M1& sub-goals above remove deficiencies
1.1,1.2,2.3,2.4,3.2,3.3,3.4

LEARNING UNIT 2

Examining alternative solutions and evaluating proposed solutions


EXAMINING ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS

HOSTEL INFORMATION SYSTEM

ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS
A: Improve manual system
B: Use PC based periodic update system
C: An on-line system with server and several clients

SOLUTION A: MANUAL SYSTEM


Keep up-to-date running total of extras and rebates for each student, use look
up table to find material needed each day based on number of extras,
calculate standard quantities needed and use for vendor order, track student
payments to find overdue payments. Solution does not ensure reduction in
bill variations and prompt payment to vendors, solution not scalable to large
student population

SOLUTION B: USE PC BASED PERIODIC UPDATE SYSTEM

Use a single PC to prepare students bills and to itemize bills, prepare a list of
number of members who will eat for next two days, alert warden when bill is
not paid within 10 days of issue. Use a PC to generate Vendor order,
Inventory control of store and Menu planning.

The PC configuration needed based on data base sizes is:


PC with 20 MB disk, 1.2 MB floppy is sufficient. However minimum
configuration available today(2004) is PC with 128 MB main memory, 40
GB disk 1.2MB floppy & CD R/W costs Rs. 25,000.Systems software
(Windows XP, MSOffice, anti-virus) will cost around Rs.25,000.
So, the Total cost is Rs 50,000.
But a PC with printer and uninterrupted power supply costs Rs. 70,000
SOLUTION C: AN ON-LINE SYSTEM WITH SERVER AND
SEVERAL CLIENTS
Use a server which is accessed by 3 clients one each in the mess, the stores
and the accounts sections; perform on-line transaction processing. The
advantage is up to the minute status can be found

EVALUATING ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS

Determine Technical feasibility of each solution, in other words is


technology mature to implement a solution. Determine Operational
feasibility of each solution. In other words, for a given organizational
structure will the solution fit in. Will it provide right information at the right
time to users? Determine Economic feasibility of each solution. In other
words, are finances available to implement system? Will it be cost effective?
Will the money spent be recovered by savings or by better services to users.

TECHNICAL AND OPERATIONAL FEASIBILITY


Solution B is rejected, as it does not meet most of the requirements. Solution
C is rejected, as it is a high cost solution.
Solution B is selected for further consideration. It is technically feasible as
PC of necessary configuration is easily available. It is also operationally
feasible as clerks in hostel office can be easily trained to use a PC.
System analyst/ programmer hired for this purpose will write the necessary
problems.
LEARNING UNIT 3

Cost benefit analysis. Documenting feasibility report.

COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS
This is done to find economic feasibility of proposed solution and to find
whether returns by implementing a system justify the cost. This is found by
listing direct and indirect costs

Direct cost- Cost of computer, software, space, human resource, material,


travel, training etc.
Indirect cost- Time spent by persons and data gathering

BENEFITS
Tangible benefits are measurable.
Direct benefits are savings due to reduced inventory, early collection of
outstanding payments, reduced wastage, faster production, increased
production.
Indirect benefit is increased work done with same human resource.
Intangible benefits are like better service to customers, superior product
quality, accurate, reliable, timely and up-to-date strategic, tactical and
operational information to management
COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS

CASE STUDY OF HOSTEL INFORMATION SYSTEM

COST : PC,UPS,Printer+Systems analyst+programmer


Capital 70,000 +60,000 =1,30,000

Cost(Recurring) : Stationery, maintenance,floppy etc.


Rs. 2000 per month

Benefits : - Inventory reduction 5% of mess bill of 400 students


Daily rate=Rs 45
Savings= 45*0.05*30*400=Rs 27,000
- Transport cost saving=Rs 800 per month
- Savings due to early payment
=material cost*1.2%=37.5*400*30*0.012=Rs 5400
- Savings due to early collection =40*1350*0.01=Rs 540
Direct saving=33740
Indirect benefit : student satisfaction due to itemized bill,
predictable daily rate, better menu
Net Direct Saving per month= 33740-2000
= 31740
Total capital cost=l,30,000

PAY BACK PERIOD

SIMPLE: Cost 1,30,000


Saving 31,740 per month
Cost recovered in 130000/31740 = 4.1 months

Using interest on capital:


Monthly interest=0.015* 1,30,000 =Rs 1950 per month
Saving per month=31740-1950=29790
Cost recovered in 130000/29790 = 4.4 months

PRESENT VALUE METHOD


Accounts for the fact that a benefit accruing n months later will be lower
today as the money if available today would have earned interest
If r = Interest rate in % per month.
n = number of months
x = benefit
Present value of benefit accruing n months later is:
Present value = x/(1+r)n

COST-BENEFIT

Present Value method

This accounts for the fact that benefits each month will also earn interest

Month Cost Net-Benefit present value cumulative Benefit


of Benefit
0 1,30,000 0 0
1 31,740 31271 31271
2 31,740 30809 62080
3 31,740 30354 92434
4 31,740 29905 122339
5 31,740 29463 151802

This also give us less than 5 months as pay back period

STRUCTURE OF EXCUTIVE SUMMARY


Feasibility report
•What the proposed system will achieve
•Who will be involved in operating the system
•Organizational changes to implement system
•List of benefits of the system
•Cost of system - Capital +Recurring
•Cost-benefit analysis

SYSTEM PROPOSAL STRUCTURE


•Introduction with outline of proposal
•Data flow diagram of existing system
•Modified DFD of proposed system
•Discuss alternative solutions
•List new equipment to be installed (if any)
•Technical,operational feasibility of analysis
•Cost- Benefit analysis
•New procedures, human resources and training needed
•Anticipated problems
•Implementation plan

REFERENCES

1. This module is based on Chapter 6, “Feasibility Analysis”, of the book Analysis


and Design of Information Systems by V.Rajaraman, Prentice Hall of India. Parts
of the the book have been used in case studies.
2. J.E.Kandall and J.E.Kandall, Systems Analysis and Design, 5th Edition, Pearson
Education (Asia) 2003. Part of Chapter 3 pp.55-63 deal with feasibility analysis.
It is reasonably well treated but does not have any quantitative examples.

3. R.Schultheis and Mary Summer, Management Information Systems, Tata


McGraw Hill, 1999. Very short treatment of feasibility analysis as part of system
Life Cycle (pp.544-545).

4. S.Alter, Information Systems, 4th Edition, Pearson Education Asia, New Delhi,
2002. A brief discussion of feasibility analysis presented on pp.481 as part of
traditional life cycle method. In the same chapter there is a brief discussion of
prototype method which is used when users are not able to state their
requirements clearly.

5. K.C.Laudon and J.P.Laudon, Management Information Systems, Pearson


Education Asia, New Delhi, 2004. Very brief discussion (one para only) on
p.390)

6. J.A.Hoffer, J.F.George and J.S.Valacich, Modern Systems Analysis and Design,


Pearson Education Asia, New Delhi 2002. Has a good discussion of feasibility.
study on pp.168 to 181. Besides Technical, operational and Economic feasibility
they also include other parameters which are schedule, legal/contractual and
political feasibility which arise when one tries to develop a system.
System Analysis and Design/ Feasibility Analysis Multiple Choice Questions

4.1 Pick quantified goals from those given below


(i) payment should be made promptly

(ii)payment should be made before 5th of every month


(iii) the age of the persons should be below 35
(iv)the person to be recruited should be middle age
a. i and ii
b. i and iii
c. ii and ii
d. ii and iv
4.2 Quantification of goals is required because
a. without quantification no work can be done
b. When goals are quantified it is possible to verify unambiguously whether
they have been fulfilled
c. Goals have to be quantified for a good system
d. it facilitates designing a good system
4.3 Quantification of goals is done by
a. converting subjective goal statements to ones with numbers
b. converting subjective goal statements to objective goal statements
c. converting objective goal statements to subjective goal statements
d. removing all adjectives in a goal statement
4.4 Quantified version of the statement: “The inventory should be reduced
substantially“ is
a. the inventory should be reduced effectively
b. the inventory should be reduced significantly
c. the inventory should be reduced very much
d. the inventory should be reduced by 25%
4.5 Goals are identified by
a. finding the deficiencies in the current system
b. observing the current system
c. analyzing competitor’s system
d. finding the advantages in the current system

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M4/V1/July 04/1


System Analysis and Design/ Feasibility Analysis Multiple Choice Questions

4.6 Deficiencies in a system are pinpointed by identifying


(i)missing function
(ii)excessive cost of operation
(iii)poor management
(iv)poor operation
a. i and iii
b. i and ii
c. i and iv
d. ii and iii
4.7 Goals are identified by
a. discussion with all concerned
b. pinpointing unsatisfactory performance
c. finding poor management
d. examining a variety of documents
4.8 Characteristics of good goals are that they
(i)are quantified
(ii)improve quality
(iii)are realizable within the constraints of the organization
(iv)aim at an ideal system
a. i and ii
b. ii and iv
c. ii and iii
d. i and iii
4.9 Goals should be agreeable to
a. top management
b. project leader
c. all concerned, both management and operational staff
d. programmers
4.10 Goals should be broken down to sub-goals as it
a. expedites system design
b. provides a convenient target to aim at during system design

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M4/V1/July 04/2


System Analysis and Design/ Feasibility Analysis Multiple Choice Questions

c. is recommended by experienced analysts


d. is good idea to use
4.11 During feasibility analysis it is necessary to examine several alternative
solutions because
(i)a comparison of alternatives will lead to a cost-effective
solution
(ii)a pre-conceived single solution may turn out to be
unimplementable
(iii)it is always good to examine alternatives
(iv)management normally looks at alternatives
a. i and iii
b. i and iv
c. i and ii
d. ii and iv
4.12 A computer-based information system
a. may require some tasks to be done manually
b. should not have any manual tasks
c. is always fully automated
d. may use only computers
4.13 Among alternative solutions for an information system one may consider
a. PC based solutions only
b. an improved manual system
c. only client-server based solutions as they are popular now-a-days
d. whatever management decides
4.14 By technical feasibility of a solution we mean that
a. technology is available to implement it
b. persons are available to implement it
c. persons have technical ability to implement it
d. funds are available to implement it
4.15 By operational feasibility we mean
a. the system can be operated nicely

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M4/V1/July 04/3


System Analysis and Design/ Feasibility Analysis Multiple Choice Questions

b. the system is unusable by operators


c. the system can be adapted by an organization without major disruptions
d. the system can be implemented
4.16 By economic feasibility of a system we mean that
a. it is economical to operate
b. it is expensive to operate
c. it will be cost-effective if implemented
d. finances are available to implement the system and it will be cost-
4.17 A solution is said to be feasible for implementation if

(i)it is cost-effective and finance is available to implement it


(ii)technology is available to implement it
(iii)it can be adapted to work in an organization’s environment
(iv)it has been implemented in another organization

a. ii and iii
b. i, ii and iii
c. i and iv
d. i, ii and iv
4.18 A cost-benefit analysis is performed to assess
a. economic feasibility
b. operational feasibility
c. technical feasibility
d. all of the above
4.19 The primary objective of cost-benefit analysis is
a. to find out direct and indirect cost of developing the information system
b. to determine the tangible benefits of the information system
c. to determine if it is economically worthwhile to invest in developing the
information system
d. to determine the intangible benefits of the information system
4.20 A cost-benefit analysis is performed as a part of

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M4/V1/July 04/4


System Analysis and Design/ Feasibility Analysis Multiple Choice Questions

a. system design
b. system specification
c. system performance assessment
d. feasibility analysis
4.21 A cost benefit analysis consists of

(i)finding the direct and indirect cost of developing,


implementing and running the system
(ii)finding out the tangible and intangible benefit of the system
(iii)finding the investment to be made in the system
(iv)finding the profit which will accrue from the system
a. iii and iv
b. i and iv
c. ii and iii
d. i and ii
4.22 The tangible benefits in the following list are
(i)savings due to reducing investment
(ii)savings due to sending bills faster and consequent early
collection
(iii)providing better service to the customers
(iv)improving quality of company’s products
a. i and ii
b. ii and iii
c. iii and iv
d. i and iii
4.23 The intangible benefits in the following list are
(i)savings due to reducing investment
(ii)savings due to sending bills faster and consequent early
collection
(iii)providing better service to the customers
(iv)improving quality of company’s products

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M4/V1/July 04/5


System Analysis and Design/ Feasibility Analysis Multiple Choice Questions

a. i and ii
b. ii and iii
c. iii and iv
d. i and iii
4.24 Intangible benefits are
a. not very important
b. as important as tangible benefits
c. the most important benefits
d. irrelevant in feasibility study
4.25 Pick the indirect cost from the following
a. cost of new forms
b. cost of training analysts and users
c. cost of software to be brought
d. cost of fact gathering
4.26 In payback method one finds out
a. the period necessary to invest the cost of the system
b. the time required for the full benefits to accrue
c. the time at which benefits exceed cost
d. whether the system is able to payback amount invested
4.27 In simple payback method one
a. accounts for interest payments on benefits
b. ignores interest payments
c. only accounts for interest on capital investments
d. only accounts for interest on recurring expenses
4.28 In designing a system it is found that the cost of the system was Rs
1,50,000 and the benefit is Rs 10,000 per month. The interest is 1% per
month; the payback period using payback method with interest is
a. 14 months
b. 17 months
c. 15 months
d. 20 months

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M4/V1/July 04/6


System Analysis and Design/ Feasibility Analysis Multiple Choice Questions

4.29 In designing a system it is found that the cost of the system was Rs
1,50,000 and the benefit is Rs 10,000 per month. The interest is 1% per
month; the payback period using the present value method is
a. 14 months
b. 17 months
c. 15 months
d. 20 months
4.30 In present value method one has to account for
a. interest rate prevalent at a given time
b. exchange rate prevalent at a given time
c. sales tax rate prevalent at a given time
d. both income and sales tax rates prevalent at a given time
4.31 At the end of the feasibility study the systems analyst
a. meets the users for a discussion
b. gives a summary feasibility report to the management
c. gives a systems proposal to management
d. tells the top management if the system is not feasible
4.32 The most important parts of a feasibility report are
(i)cost-benefit analysis
(ii)statement of the objective of the proposed system
(iii)who will supply equipment for implementing the system
(iv)organizational changes needed to successfully implement the
system
a. i and ii
b. i, ii and iii
c. i and iv
d. i, ii and iv
4.33 A detailed system proposal is prepared by a systems anal
a. management is not clear about what the system will do
b. the analysts feels it is necessary to convince the management
c. management approves the feasibility report

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M4/V1/July 04/7


System Analysis and Design/ Feasibility Analysis Multiple Choice Questions

d. the analyst feels it will be a challenging system to implement


4.34 The main objectives of a detailed system proposal are to
(i)convince management about the benefits of the proposed
system
(ii)explain in detail to the management what to expect from the
system and at what cost
(iii)have a detailed plan on what the system will do and how it will
be implemented
(iv)make sure that it is possible to implement the system
a. i and ii
b. ii and iii
c. i and iv
d. ii and iv
4.35 The following are the most important points of a detailed system
proposal
(i)who will supply and install the required equipment
(ii)cost-benefit analysis
(iii)comparison of alternative solutions
(iv)implementation plan
a. i, ii and iii
b. i, iii and iv
c. ii, iii and iv
d. ii and iii

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M4/V1/July 04/8


System Analysis and Design/ Feasibility Analysis Multiple Choice Questions

Key to Objective Questions

4. 1 c 4.2 b 4.3 a 4.4 d 4.5 a 4.6 b


4.7 b 4.8 d 4.9 c 4.10 b 4.11 c 4.12 a
4.13 b 4.14 a 4.15 c 4.16 d 4.17 b 4.1 8 a
4.19 c 4.20 d 4.21 d 4.22 a 4.23 c 4.24 b
4.25 d 4.26 c 4.27 b 4.28 c 4.29 b 4.30 a
4.31 b 4.32 d 4.33 c 4.34 b 4.35 c

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M4/V1/July 04/9


MODULE 4

FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS
WORKED EXAMPLES

4.1 What is the difference between main goals and sub-goals? Illustrate with an
example.
Main goal is based on a primary objective and sub-goals are secondary or
subsidiary which are related to the main objective.
For example, the main goal and sub-goals of an inventory control system may be
as follows:
Main goal: Reduce total inventory cost by 10%
Sub-goals: (i) Find out items which are 50% above buffer level to take
appropriate action.
(ii)Find out items whose cost is 50% above average cost for closer
control.

4.2 Is it essential to use computers in all information systems?


No. Better systematization may sometimes be adequate to meet goals. However
with the reduction in the cost of computers most organizations use computers.

4.3 Distinguish between technical, operational, and economic feasibility.


A solution is technically feasible if technology is available to implement it. It is
operationally feasible if it can fit in within the existing organization with only
small changes. It is economically feasible if the investment made leads to
adequate returns. A solution which requires, say, a large mainframe computer
available in the market is technically feasible but may not be economically
feasible due to high cost of the computer relative to expected benefits. It may not
be operationally feasible due to lack of trained people to program the computer.

4.4 Give an example of a solution which is technically feasible, but not


operationally feasible.
It is technically feasible to computerize services in a bank by installing PCs with
clerks who can be trained to operate it. It is operationally not feasible in certain
banks due to agreement between management and union which do not allow use
of computers for certain customer services.
4.5 Is it essential that an operationally feasible solution should be technically
feasible? Discuss with examples.
No. A computerized enquiry system where enquiries are made using a telephone
and answers are automatically spoken out is operationally feasible. It is not
technically feasible due to non-availability of speaker independent natural speech
recognition technology.

4.6 Is it essential to have tangible benefits to justify an information system? If


your answer is no, justify your answer by giving an example.
No. A ticket reservation system in railways has not much tangible benefits.
However, intangible benefits such as customer satisfaction, and ease of checking
daily cash collection are sufficient reasons to implement the system.

4.7 A project costs Rs. 2 lakhs and the net benefits are Rs. 50,000 (1st year), Rs.
80,000 (2nd year), Rs. 90,000 (3rd year), Rs. 70,000 (4th year), Rs. 50,000 (5th
year) and Rs. 30,000 (6th year). Assuming 10% interest rate, would you
proceed with your project if your criterion is cost-benefit?

Year Cost Benefit Current value Cumulative


benefit
0 200,000 – – –
1 – 50,000 45,454 45,454
2 – 80,000 66,116 111,570
3 – 90,000 67,618 179,188
4 – 70,000 47,811 226,999
As payback period is 4 years, it is decided to proceed with the project.

4.8 A manager states the following as goals of a production planning system:


1. Reduce stocks of semi-finished products.
2. Provide better information for the production planning
3. Prevent overproduction.
How would you quantify the goals? How would you obtain sub-goals and
quantify them if appropriate?
(i) Goal: Reduce stocks of semi-finished products by 10%.
Sub-goal: Classify semi-finished products as due to non-availability of part,
non-availability of machine, non-availability of tool.
(ii) Goal: Give a table giving requirement of each product.
Sub-goal: Prepare list of tools needed and when they will be needed.
Prepare maintenance schedules of machines.
(ii) Goal: Ensure that production is not more than 5% of estimated demand of
each item.
4.9 A university administrator calls a systems analyst to improve the
administration of sponsored research projects. The main problems are delay
in obtaining latest financial position to project co-ordinators, reconciliation
of advances given to co-ordinators, prompt demands not sent to sponsors to
collect promised grants and lack of information to answer following
questions:
Which areas of research get maximum grants?
Which agency aids which type of projects?
What trends can be seen in the nature of grants?
Now:
1. Classify the above problems into missing functions, unsatisfactory perfor-
mance and excessive cost of operation.
2. How would you set the goals to meet the deficiencies?
3. How would you quantify them?
1.
(i) Missing Function: Analysis of types of grants and grant-giving agencies.
(ii) Unsatisfactory Performance: Delay in obtaining financial statements; non-
reconciliation of advances.
(iii) Excessive cost: Loss due to delay in receipt of grants (loans may have to be
taken to meet expenses).
2.
(i) Goals to improve performance
— Ensure financial statements are sent each month.
— Ensure reminders on advances are sent each month.
(ii) Goals to reduce cost
— Bring to the attention of accounts officer grants overdue by 10 days.
— Send reminder ad pre-receipt 10 days before grant is due.
(iii) Goals to incorporate missing functions
— Codify research areas and granting agencies.
— Introduce uniform formats to classify grants.
— Create a database of all possible granting agencies and their areas of
research.
3.All goals are quantified in 2.
Sub-goals
— Send list of periodicals received to interested readers within 2 days of
arrival of periodicals.
— Send for binding loose periodicals within 4 weeks of arrival of last issue.
(ii) A Fully manual using cardex system.
B Using a PC and a periodicals management information system.
C Using the central computing in the university and a remote terminal system
in the library dedicated to periodicals management.
4.10 What operational, tactical and strategic information should be provided by
the mess billing system mentioned in the text (case study)?
The information that will be provided to management by the mess billing system
is:
Operational
– Each student’s bill details.
– Details of inventory held.
– Details of issues to stores.
– Details of trips to town.
– Details of expenses each day.
Tactical
– Number of days taken to despatch bills after end of month.
– Variation of daily rate from month to month.
– Bills to students unpaid for 10 days after issue.
– Bills from vendors unpaid for 5 days.
– Inventory level of an item if 10% above average
– Issues to cooks if 5% above normal.
– Nutrition values of menus.
Strategic
– Daily rate seasonal trends.
– Extras/rebates and trends to enable better inventory planning.
Information on menu preferences.
System Analysis and Design/Feasibility Analysis Question Bank

QUESTION BANK 4

4.1 When are the goals of a project specified?

4.2 How are goals determined?

4.3 What should be the characteristics of goals?

4.4 What is the difference between main goals and sub-goals? Illustrate with an

example.

4.5 Once the goals are formulated, what is the next step followed by a system

analyst?

4.6 Is it essential to use computers in all information systems?

4.7 Distinguish between technical, operational and economic feasibility.

4.8 What do you understand by the term feasibility study of a solution?

4.9 Give an example of a solution which is technically feasible, but not operationally

feasible.

4.10 Give an example of a technically feasible solution which is not economically

feasible.

4.11 Give an example of an operationally feasible solution which is not economically

feasible.

4.12 Is it essential that an operationally feasible solution should be technically

feasible? Discuss with examples.

4.13 What is the difference between tangible and intangible benefits?

4.14 Give examples of tangible and intangible benefits.

4.15 For the problem of periodical information system (Exercise 4.23 below), specify

tangible and intangible benefits.

4.16 What is meant by cost-benefit analysis?

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System Analysis and Design/Feasibility Analysis Question Bank

4.17 A system costs Rs.1 lakh to install and Rs.10,000 per month as recurring

expenses. The benefit per year is Rs.1.5 lakhs. Assuming an interest rate of 12%,

what is the pay back period of the investment?

How does inflation affect pay back period?

Is it essential to have tangible benefits to justify an information system? If you

answer is no, justify your answer by giving an example.

4.18 A project costs Rs.2 lakhs and the net benefits are Rs.50,000 (1st year), Rs.80,000

2nd year),Rs.90,000 (3rd year), Rs.70,000 (4th year), Rs.50,000 (5th year), and

Rs.30,000 (6th year). Assuming 10% interest rate, would you proceed with this

project if your criterion is cost/benefit?

4.19 A manager states the following as the goals of a production planning system:

1 Reduce stock of semi-finished products.

2 Provide better information for the production planning.

3 Prevent overproduction.

How would you quantify the goals? How would you obtain sub goals and

quantify them if appropriate?

4.20 A university administrator calls a systems analyst to improve the administration

of sponsored research projects. The main problems are delay in obtaining latest

financial position to project coordinators, reconciliation of advances given to

coordinators, prompt demands not sent to sponsors to collect promised grants and

lack of information to answer following questions:

Which areas of research get maximum grants?

Which agency aids which type of projects?

What trends can be seen in the nature of grants?

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M4//V1/July 04/2


System Analysis and Design/Feasibility Analysis Question Bank

Now:

1. Classify the above problems into missing functions, unsatisfactory

performance and excessive cost of operation.

2. How would you get goals to meet the deficiencies?

3. How would you quantify them?

4.21 A library receives 1300 journals of varying periodicities. The journals received

have to be recorded and displayed. Action has to be taken when journals are not

received in time or lost in mail. Unless request for replacement is sent quickly, it

may not be possible to get the replacement. Periodicals have to be ordered at

different times during the year and subscriptions renewed in time. Late payment

of subscription may lead to non-availability of earlier issues or paying higher

amounts for those issues. Current manual system is not able to meet these

requirements.

1. Specify what should be the goals and sub-goals of an information system for

ordering periodicals.

2. Quantify these goals.

3. Suggest alternative means of achieving the goals specified by you.

4.22 What operational, tactical, and strategic information should be provided by the

mess billing system mentioned in the text? (Case study).

4.23 When is a detailed system proposal prepared? What are the contents of a system

proposal?

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M4//V1/July 04/3


System Analysis and Design/Feasibility Analysis Case Study

CASE STUDY – System Proposal


On a request from the Chief Warden of the student hostel, a study was initiated to find

out how the operation of the hostel could be improved by implementing better

information system. After lengthy discussion with various personnel in the hostel, it was

concluded that the problem which had to be tackled on a high priority basis was a better

information system for billing, accounting, inventory control and stores issues in the

students' mess. The deficiencies identified in the current system are as given below.

1. Missing functions.

1.1 Forecasting of stores requirements not done.

1.2 Purchases not consolidated.

1.3 Daily rate calculation not updated frequently.

1.4 Menu not planned for balanced nutrition and low cost.

2. Unsatisfactory performance.

2.1 Billing not accurate and prompt.

2.2 Student bills not itemized.

2.3 Stores issues to cooks not systematic.

2.4 Payments to vendors not prompt.

2.5 Large variations in mess bills every month.

3. Excessive cost of operations due to the following:

3.1 Unpaid long outstanding bills from students.

3.2 Extras and rebates not reflected in stores issues.

3.3 Frequent unplanned visits to city to buy out-of-stock items.

3.4 High transport cost (small purchases at high cost) due to not consolidating

stores requirements.

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M4//V1/July 04/1


System Analysis and Design/Feasibility Analysis Case Study

These deficiencies are to be removed in the proposed information system.

Goals of the proposed system. The main quantified goals and the sub-goals of the

proposed system are as given below:

Main goal

M1 Send the bills to students within 5 days of the end of the month.

Sub-goals

S1.1 Itemize bills indicating extras and rebates with dates.

S1.2 Ensure less than 5% variation of bills from month to month.

S1.3 Bring to the attention of the Chief Warden the bills which are not paid within 10

days of issue.

S1.4 Update daily rate. Calculate bills every day.

The main goals and sub-goals to remove deficiencies 1.1, 1.2, 2.3, 2.4 and 3.2-3.4

(mentioned above) are given below:

Main goal

M2 Control inventory of items and issues to cooks so as to bring down mess bill by

10%.

Sub-goals

S2.1 Ensure payment to vendors within five days of supply of items.

S2.2 Make sure that at most four trips per month are made to the town for purchase and

consequently transport cost is less than 1% of item cost.

S2.3 See that inventory levels are not more than 10% of monthly requirements.

S2.4 Make sure that cooks do not get more than 5% of calculated requirements.

Goals to add function 1.4.

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System Analysis and Design/Feasibility Analysis Case Study

Main Goals

M3.1 Balanced menu to meet nutritional requirements.

M3.2 Cost of food not to exceed current cost.

Sub-goal

S3.1 Randomize menu.

Alternative solutions examined. Three alternative solutions were examined. These are

given below:

Solution A: Improve the current manual system by improving procedures.

Solution B: Use a single PC in the hostel office

Solution C: Use three small client computers in the mess, stores and accounts office and

connect to a server in the hostel office.

Comparison of Solutions:

Solution A is feasible but is not scalable. In other words if the number of students

increase the system will be difficult to implement. It requires meticulous attention to

details by clerks. It is thus rejected.

Solution C is very expensive as it needs four computers. It does provide on-line updates

but this is not necessary in this problem.

Selected solution. Solution B is selected as it is technically and operationally feasible.

The cost/benefit of Solution B to assess economic feasibility is given below:

Consider Solution B of the hostel mess management problem. The direct costs are:

1. Cost of PC, printer, uninterrupted power supply and system software (Windows

XP Office 2000, anti virus and Turbo C) = Rs.70,000.

2. Cost of space (nil). No extra space allocated.

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System Analysis and Design/Feasibility Analysis Case Study

3. Cost of systems analysts/Programmers/Consultants for 3 months = Rs.60,000/-

4. Recurring costs:: Stationery cost, floppy cost, Maintenance/Electricity =

Rs.2000/- per month).

5. One time cost = Rs.1,30,000/-

Benefits (Direct savings)

1. Savings per month due to inventory reduction and wastage

= 5% of mess bill of 400 students

= 2.25 * 400 * 30

= Rs.27,000/-

(Assume Rs.45 bill per day per student. Savings per day is 2.25 per student. 30

days in a month).

2. Savings in transport cost (estimate) Rs.800 per month.

3. Savings due to early payment to vendors

= 1.2% of total billing to vendors

=37.5 * 400 * 30 * 0.012

= Rs.5400/- per month

(Rs.37.50 per day is assumed to be material cost in mess bill)

4. Savings due to better collection (40 defaulting students, 1% interest per month)

= 40 * 1350 * 0.01

= Rs.540 per month

Intangible benefits

1. Student satisfaction due to itemized bills and less variation.

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M4//V1/July 04/4


System Analysis and Design/Feasibility Analysis Case Study

2. Better menu planning

Total benefits = Rs.33740 per month

Recurring cost = Rs.2000 per month

Net benefit per month = Rs.31,740

Total capital cost = Rs.1,30,000/-

New equipment to be installed. PC and printer with the following features:

Hardware

IBM compatible PC

256 MB main memory

1.2MB floppy drive

40 GB hard disk

15" colour monitor

132 character 80 cps dot printer

Software Windows XP Operating System

MS Office 2000

antivirus software

Turbo C

Infrastructure 500 VA, Uninterrupted Power Supply

Need a dust-free room to locate PC

Benefits expected. (These were as given earlier)

Cost of the system. As calculated earlier, the cost of the new system will be

Capital cost hardware system software = Rs. 70,000

System analysis/design cost = Rs.60,000

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System Analysis and Design/Feasibility Analysis Case Study

Recurring cost = Rs. 2000 per month

New procedures to be implemented. Using simple pay back method and assuming 1%

interest per month we obtain the Table 4.1

Table 4.1 Cost-benefit –Present value method

Month Cost Net Benefit Present Value Cumulative


of benefit Present Value
0 1,30,000 - - -
1 31740 31426 31426
2 31740 31115 62541
3 31740 30806 93347
4 31740 30502 123849
5 31740 30200 154049

We see that the cumulative benefit exceeds cost of the system by the fifth month.

Thus we conclude that the proposed system is economically beneficial.

The subsystems involved in this solution are now described.

(i) Billing subsystem. An extras/rebates register will be maintained in the mess

for students to enter the requests. One page per student is assigned. The

register entries are codified for the use of computer processing. The register

pages are printed on the computer each month and stapled together and kept

in the mess for entries by students. Entries in the register are keyed into the

PC each day by the mess clerk. A program will check whether sufficient

notice has been given for rebates, whether number of days rebate asked is as

per rules. The data entered is used by a program to create a summary

statement giving expected number of meals to be prepared 48 hours from

now. This is passed on to the mess manager to control issues. This program

also updates each students' record with details of extras and dates of absence.

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M4//V1/July 04/6


System Analysis and Design/Feasibility Analysis Case Study

(ii) Subsystems in billing system. Subsystem for finding meals to be cooked.

INPUT: Extras/rebate requests of each student each day.

PROCEDURE

• Check each input record to see if rebate is admissible and extras are

correct.

• Enter admissible rebates and extras in student billing file.

• Find number of meals to be cooked two days from now. Print note to mess

manger.

OUTPUT: Note to mess manager giving number of members and meals to be

cooked 48 hours from now. (This subsystem runs daily on the PC)

(iii) Subsystem for mess bill calculation.

INPUT: Items issued each day (perishable and non-perishable)

PROCEDURE:

• From items issued each day find total expenses each day.

• Accumulate daily expense and add fixed overhead (salaries etc.)

• Using number of members calculate up-to-date daily rate.

• Using student billing information file an expense file, calculate the

itemized bill for each student at the end of the month.

• Enter in student billing file.

OUTPUT: Itemized bills to students.

(Updating daily rate is run each day whereas student billing system is run

once a month).

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M4//V1/July 04/7


System Analysis and Design/Feasibility Analysis Case Study

(iv) Subsystem for unpaid bills

INPUT: Payments information.

PROCEDURE

• Enter all payments in student billing file.

• Five days after last date for payment, examine this file and create a list of

students with unpaid bills.

OUTPUT: List of overdue bills sent to Chief Warden

(This system runs once a month)

The billing system described above satisfies main goal M1 and sub-goals S1.1

and S1.3. To satisfy sub-goal S1.2, the mess secretary who gets an updated

daily rate each day must adjust menu, using a menu planning system.

(i) System for stores issue and control

Subsystem for stores issues to cooks

INPUT

• Menu for (today's date + 2 i.e., if today's date is 20.04.03 menu is given

for 22.04.03).

• Number of meal to be cooked for (today's date + 2).

PROCEDURE: Using inputs find items to be issued on (today's date + 2).

OUTPUT: Items to be issued on (today's date + 2) sent to mess manager.

Subsystem for inventory control

INPUT: Daily use of stores items, perishables and vendor supplies.

PROCEDURE

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System Analysis and Design/Feasibility Analysis Case Study

• Based on past month's total consumption of each item, estimate

consumption of current month. Add 2 days consumption as buffer.

• Work out minimum amount (=4 days needs) of all critical items.

• Decide on order quantities, and place orders.

• When goods come in, check in order file and update inventory if items

accepted.

• Send the cheques to vendors on item acceptance.

• Update stores inventory after each issue.

• When critical items go below minimum level inform mess manager

OUTPUTS

• Orders to vendors

• Cheques to vendors

• Low item stock message to mess manager

(This system is run once a day)

This system satisfies main goal M2 and sub-goals S2.1-S2.4.

ii. System for menu planning

INPUT

• No. of items in menu

• Alternative for each item

• Cost of each item

• Maximum cost.

PROCEDURE

• Reduce total cost by trying alternative items in menu.

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System Analysis and Design/Feasibility Analysis Case Study

• Try an optimization package such as Linear Programming.

• Rank menus by cost and keep 14 different menus for each meal.

• Randomize menus each week.

OUTPUT: Balanced menu at reduced cost.

(This system is run once a month)

This system satisfied main goals M3.1, M3.2 and sub-goal S3.1.

Anticipated problems. Procedures should be set up to regularly back up all files and

store billing information on floppy disks. Power failure may lead to difficulties, if it is

very frequent. Hostel management may consider installing higher capacity batteries for 1

hour back up for the uninterrupted power supply system.

Implementation plan. Implementation may begin with the billing system first. It may be

followed by stores issues and inventory control and finally menu planning (see Table

below).

Table 4.2 Implementation Plan


Start Time Time Design Implement Test Parallel Run
Schedule in Manual
weeks System
0 Billing 3 3 1 4
system
0+3 week Stores issue 4 3 2 3
system
0+6 week Inventory 4 3 2 3
system
0+12 week Menu 5 3 2 2
planning

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System Analysis and Design/Feasibility Analysis Case Study

Conclusions
The proposed system will cost Rs.1,30,000 capital cost and will pay for itself within the

first five months of operation. It will meet all the main goals approved by the wardens

and can be implemented within 3 months. We are confident that it will fully meet the

expectations of the management.

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M4//V1/July 04/11


System Analysis and Design/Feasibility Analysis Pointers

References

1. This module is based on Chapter 6, “Feasibility Analysis”, of the book Analysis


and Design of Information Systems by V.Rajaraman, Prentice Hall of India. Parts
of the the book have been used in case studies.
2. J.E.Kandall and J.E.Kandall, Systems Analysis and Design, 5th Edition, Pearson
Education (Asia) 2003. Part of Chapter 3 pp.55-63 deal with feasibility analysis.
It is reasonably well treated but does not have any quantitative examples.
3. R.Schultheis and Mary Summer, Management Information Systems, Tata
McGraw Hill, 1999. Very short treatment of feasibility analysis as part of system
Life Cycle (pp.544-545).
4. S.Alter, Information Systems, 4th Edition, Pearson Education Asia, New Delhi,
2002. A brief discussion of feasibility analysis presented on pp.481 as part of
traditional life cycle method. In the same chapter there is a brief discussion of
prototype method which is used when users are not able to state their
requirements clearly.
5. K.C.Laudon and J.P.Laudon, Management Information Systems, Pearson
Education Asia, New Delhi, 2004. Very brief discussion (one para only) on
p.390)
6. J.A.Hoffer, J.F.George and J.S.Valacich, Modern Systems Analysis and Design,
Pearson Education Asia, New Delhi 2002. Has a good discussion of feasibility.
Study on pp.168 to 181. Besides Technical, operational and Economic feasibility
they also include other parameters which are schedule, legal/contractual and
political feasibility which arise when one tries to develop a system.

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M4//V1/July 04/1


SUMMARY OF MODULE 4

1. The goals of a project are formulated after gathering facts and having discussions

with users.

2. Goals are set by identifying deficiencies such as missing functions, unsatisfactory

performance or excessive cost of operation.

3. Goals must be quantified, realizable, agreed to by users and then broken down into

sub-goals.

4. After setting goals we look at alternative methods of meeting these goals.

5. Each alternative method is broadly formulated by specifying the inputs, outputs and

procedures to be used. Both manual and computer-based procedures are described.

6. How each method will meet the goal is examined.

7. Next the feasibility of implementing each method is examined.

8. A method must be technically, operationally and economically feasible.

9. Technical feasibility examines whether technology is available to carry out the

project.

10. Operational feasibility examines whether the proposed method can fit in with existing

operations or is easy to operate with a modified system.

11. Economic feasibility examines whether the returns (in terms of benefits from the

project) are commensurate with the cost of the project.

12. It is necessary to examine both tangible and intangible benefits of each alternative

solution before picking a solution.


13. At the end of feasibility analysis, a document consisting of an executive summary on

the feasibility of the project is submitted to the management which requisitioned the

study.

14. The executive summary will highlight what the proposed system will achieve, who

will be involved in operating the proposed system, the organizational changes needed

for successfully implementing the system, the estimated cost of the system and the

benefits which will accrue by using the system.

15. The detailed proposal will have the following items:

(i) An introduction with outline of proposal

(ii) A DFD of existing system

(iii) A modified DFD of proposed system

(iv) Alternative solutions

(v) Any new equipment to be installed

(vi) Cost/Benefit analysis

(vii) New procedures to be adopted with responsibility assigned to persons

(viii) Any anticipated problems

(ix) Implementation plan with time schedules


QUESTION BANK 4

4.1 When are the goals of a project specified?

4.2 How are goals determined?

4.3 What should be the characteristics of goals?

4.4 What is the difference between main goals and sub-goals? Illustrate with an

example.

4.5 Once the goals are formulated, what is the next step followed by a system

analyst?

4.6 Is it essential to use computers in all information systems?

4.7 Distinguish between technical, operational and economic feasibility.

4.8 What do you understand by the term feasibility study of a solution?

4.9 Give an example of a solution which is technically feasible, but not operationally

feasible.

4.10 Give an example of a technically feasible solution which is not economically

feasible.

4.11 Give an example of an operationally feasible solution which is not economically

feasible.

4.12 Is it essential that an operationally feasible solution should be technically

feasible? Discuss with examples.

4.13 What is the difference between tangible and intangible benefits?

4.14 Give examples of tangible and intangible benefits.


4.15 For the problem of periodical information system (Exercise 4.23 below), specify

tangible and intangible benefits.

4.16 What is meant by cost-benefit analysis?

4.17 A system costs Rs.1 lakh to install and Rs.10,000 per month as recurring

expenses. The benefit per year is Rs.1.5 lakhs. Assuming an interest rate of

12%, what is the pay back period of the investment?

4.18 How does inflation affect pay back period?

4.19 Is it essential to have tangible benefits to justify an information system? If you

answer is no, justify your answer by giving an example.

4.20 A project costs Rs.2 lakhs and the net benefits are Rs.50,000 (1st year), Rs.80,000

(2nd year),Rs.90,000 (3rd year), Rs.70,000 (4th year), Rs.50,000 (5th year), and

Rs.30,000 (6th year). Assuming 10% interest rate, would you proceed with

this project if your criterion is cost/benefit?

4.21 A manager states the following as the goals of a production planning system:

1. Reduce stock of semi-finished products.

2. Provide better information for the production planning.

3. Prevent overproduction.

How would you quantify the goals? How would you obtain sub goals and

quantify them if appropriate?

4.22 A university administrator calls a systems analyst to improve the administration

of sponsored research projects. The main problems are delay in obtaining latest

financial position to project coordinators, reconciliation of advances given to


coordinators, prompt demands not sent to sponsors to collect promised grants

and lack of information to answer following questions:

Which areas of research get maximum grants?

Which agency aids which type of projects?

What trends can be seen in the nature of grants?

Now:

1. Classify the above problems into missing functions, unsatisfactory

performance and excessive cost of operation.

2. How would you get goals to meet the deficiencies?

3. How would you quantify them?

4.23 A library receives 1300 journals of varying periodicities. The journals received

have to be recorded and displayed. Action has to be taken when journals are

not received in time or lost in mail. Unless request for replacement is sent

quickly, it may not be possible to get the replacement. Periodicals have to be

ordered at different times during the year and subscriptions renewed in time. Late

payment of subscription may lead to non-availability of earlier issues or paying

higher amounts for those issues. Current manual system is not able to meet these

requirements.

1. Specify what should be the goals and sub-goals of an information system for

ordering periodicals.

2. Quantify these goals.

3. Suggest alternative means of achieving the goals specified by you.


4.24 What operational, tactical, and strategic information should be provided by the

mess billing system mentioned in the text? (case study).

4.25 When is a detailed system proposal prepared. What are the contents of a system

proposal?
MODULE 4

CASE STUDY – System Proposal

On a request from the Chief Warden of the student hostel, a study was initiated to find

out how the operation of the hostel could be improved by implementing better

information system. After lengthy discussion with various personnel in the hostel, it was

concluded that the problem which had to be tackled on a high priority basis was a better

information system for billing, accounting, inventory control and stores issues in the

students' mess. The deficiencies identified in the current system are as given below.

1. Missing functions.

1.1 Forecasting of stores requirements not done.

1.2 Purchases not consolidated.

1.3 Daily rate calculation not updated frequently.

1.4 Menu not planned for balanced nutrition and low cost.

2. Unsatisfactory performance.

2.1 Billing not accurate and prompt.

2.2 Student bills not itemized.

2.3 Stores issues to cooks not systematic.

2.4 Payments to vendors not prompt.

2.5 Large variations in mess bills every month.

3. Excessive cost of operations due to the following:

3.1 Unpaid long outstanding bills from students.

3.2 Extras and rebates not reflected in stores issues.

3.3 Frequent unplanned visits to city to buy out-of-stock items.


3.4 High transport cost (small purchases at high cost) due to not consolidating

stores requirements.

These deficiencies are to be removed in the proposed information system.

Goals of the proposed system. The main quantified goals and the sub-goals of the

proposed system are as given below:

Main goal

M1 Send the bills to students within 5 days of the end of the month.

Sub-goals

S1.1 Itemize bills indicating extras and rebates with dates.

S1.2 Ensure less than 5% variation of bills from month to month.

S1.3 Bring to the attention of the Chief Warden the bills which are not paid

within 10 days of issue.

S1.4 Update daily rate. Calculate bills every day.

The main goals and sub-goals to remove deficiencies 1.1, 1.2, 2.3, 2.4 and

3.2-3.4 (mentioned above) are given below:

Main goal

M2 Control inventory of items and issues to cooks so as to bring down mess bill

by 10%.

Sub-goals

S2.1 Ensure payment to vendors within five days of supply of items.

S2.2 Make sure that at most four trips per month are made to the town for

purchase and consequently transport cost is less than 1% of item cost.

S2.3 See that inventory levels are not more than 10% of monthly requirements.
S2.4 Make sure that cooks do not get more than 5% of calculated requirements.

Goals to add function 1.4.

Main Goals

M3.1 Balanced menu to meet nutritional requirements.

M3.2 Cost of food not to exceed current cost.

Sub-goal

S3.1 Randomize menu.

Alternative solutions examined. Three alternative solutions were examined. These are

given below:

Solution A: Improve the current manual system by improving procedures.

Solution B: Use a single PC in the hostel office

Solution C: Use three small client computers in the mess, stores and accounts office and

connect to a server in the hostel office.

Comparison of Solutions:

Solution A is feasible but is not scalable. In other words if the number of students

increase the system will be difficult to implement. It requires meticulous attention to

details by clerks. It is thus rejected.

Solution C is very expensive as it needs four computers. It does provide on-line updates

but this is not necessary in this problem.

Selected solution. Solution B is selected as it is technically and operationally feasible.

The cost/benefit of Solution B to assess economic feasibility is given below:

Consider Solution B of the hostel mess management problem. The direct costs are:
1. Cost of PC, printer, uninterrupted power supply and system software (Windows

XP Office 2000, anti virus and Turbo C) = Rs.70,000.

2. Cost of space (nil). No extra space allocated.

3. Cost of systems analysts/Programmers/Consultants for 3 months = Rs.60,000/-

4. Recurring costs:: Stationery cost, floppy cost, Maintenance/Electricity =

Rs.2000/- per month).

5. One time cost = Rs.1,30,000/-

Benefits (Direct savings)

1. Savings per month due to inventory reduction and wastage

= 5% of mess bill of 400 students

= 2.25 * 400 * 30

= Rs.27,000/-

(Assume Rs.45 bill per day per student. Savings per day is 2.25 per student. 30

days in a month).

2. Savings in transport cost (estimate) Rs.800 per month.

3. Savings due to early payment to vendors

= 1.2% of total billing to vendors

=37.5 * 400 * 30 * 0.012

= Rs.5400/- per month

(Rs.37.50 per day is assumed to be material cost in mess bill)

4. Savings due to better collection (40 defaulting students, 1% interest per month)

= 40 * 1350 * 0.01

= Rs.540 per month


Intangible benefits

1. Student satisfaction due to itemized bills and less variation.

2. Better menu planning

Total benefits = Rs.33740 per month

Recurring cost = Rs.2000 per month

Net benefit per month = Rs.31,740

Total capital cost = Rs.1,30,000/-

New equipment to be installed. PC and printer with the following features:

Hardware

IBM compatible PC

256 MB main memory

1.2MB floppy drive

40 GB hard disk

15" colour monitor

132 character 80 cps dot printer

Software Windows XP Operating System

MS Office 2000

antivirus software

Turbo C

Infrastructure 500 VA, Uninterrupted Power Supply

Need a dust-free room to locate PC

Benefits expected. (These were as given earlier)

Cost of the system. As calculated earlier, the cost of the new system will be
Capital cost hardware system software = Rs. 70,000

System analysis/design cost = Rs.60,000

Recurring cost = Rs. 2000 per month

New procedures to be implemented. Using simple pay back method and assuming 1%

interest per month we obtain the Table 4.1

Table 4.1 Cost-benefit –Present value method

Month Cost Net Benefit Present Value Cumulative


of benefit Present Value
0 1,30,000 - - -
1 31740 31426 31426
2 31740 31115 62541
3 31740 30806 93347
4 31740 30502 123849
5 31740 30200 154049

We see that the cumulative benefit exceeds cost of the system by the fifth month.

Thus we conclude that the proposed system is economically beneficial.

The subsystems involved in this solution are now described.

(i) Billing subsystem. An extras/rebates register will be maintained in the mess

for students to enter the requests. One page per student is assigned. The

register entries are codified for the use of computer processing. The register

pages are printed on the computer each month and stapled together and kept

in the mess for entries by students.

Entries in the register are keyed into the PC each day by the mess clerk. A

program will check whether sufficient notice has been given for rebates,

whether number of days rebate asked is as per rules. The data entered is used
by a program to create a summary statement giving expected number of

meals to be prepared 48 hours from now. This is passed on to the mess

manager to control issues. This program also updates each students' record

with details of extras and dates of absence.

(ii) Subsystems in billing system. Subsystem for finding meals to be cooked.

INPUT: Extras/rebate requests of each student each day.

PROCEDURE

• Check each input record to see if rebate is admissible and extras

are correct.

• Enter admissible rebates and extras in student billing file.

• Find number of meals to be cooked two days from now. Print note

to mess manger.

OUTPUT: Note to mess manager giving number of members and meals to

be cooked 48 hours from now.

(This subsystem runs daily on the PC)

(iii) Subsystem for mess bill calculation.

INPUT: Items issued each day (perishable and non-perishable)

PROCEDURE:

• From items issued each day find total expenses each day.

• Accumulate daily expense and add fixed overhead (salaries etc.)

• Using number of members calculate up-to-date daily rate.

• Using student billing information file an expense file, calculate the

itemized bill for each student at the end of the month.


• Enter in student billing file.

OUTPUT: Itemized bills to students.

(Updating daily rate is run each day whereas student billing system is run

once a month).

(iv) Subsystem for unpaid bills

INPUT: Payments information.

PROCEDURE

• Enter all payments in student billing file.

• Five days after last date for payment, examine this file and create a list of

students with unpaid bills.

OUTPUT: List of overdue bills sent to Chief Warden

(This system runs once a month)

The billing system described above satisfies main goal M1 and sub-goals S1.1

and S1.3. To satisfy sub-goal S1.2, the mess secretary who gets an updated

daily rate each day must adjust menu, using a menu planning system.

(i) System for stores issue and control

Subsystem for stores issues to cooks

INPUT

• Menu for (today's date + 2 i.e., if today's date is 20.04.03 menu is given

for 22.04.03).

• Number of meal to be cooked for (today's date + 2).

PROCEDURE: Using inputs find items to be issued on (today's date + 2).

OUTPUT: Items to be issued on (today's date + 2) sent to mess manager.


Subsystem for inventory control

INPUT: Daily use of stores items, perishables and vendor supplies.

PROCEDURE

• Based on past month's total consumption of each item, estimate

consumption of current month. Add 2 days consumption as buffer.

• Work out minimum amount (=4 days needs) of all critical items.

• Decide on order quantities, and place orders.

• When goods come in, check in order file and update inventory if items

accepted.

• Send the cheques to vendors on item acceptance.

• Update stores inventory after each issue.

• When critical items go below minimum level inform mess manager

OUTPUTS

• Orders to vendors

• Cheques to vendors

• Low item stock message to mess manager

(This system is run once a day)

This system satisfies main goal M2 and sub-goals S2.1-S2.4.

ii. System for menu planning

INPUT

• No. of items in menu

• Alternative for each item

• Cost of each item


• Maximum cost.

PROCEDURE

• Reduce total cost by trying alternative items in menu.

• Try an optimization package such as Linear Programming.

• Rank menus by cost and keep 14 different menus for each meal.

• Randomize menus each week.

OUTPUT: Balanced menu at reduced cost.

(This system is run once a month)

This system satisfied main goals M3.1, M3.2 and sub-goal S3.1.

Anticipated problems. Procedures should be set up to regularly back up all files and

store billing information on floppy disks. Power failure may lead to difficulties, if it is

very frequent. Hostel management may consider installing higher capacity batteries for 1

hour back up for the uninterrupted power supply system.

Implementation plan. Implementation may begin with the billing system first. It may

be followed by stores issues and inventory control and finally menu planning (see Table

below).

Table 4.2 Implementation Plan

Start Time Time Design Implement Test Parallel Run


Schedule in Manual
weeks System
0 Billing 3 3 1 4
system
0+3 week Stores issue 4 3 2 3
system
0+6 week Inventory 4 3 2 3
system
0+12 week Menu 5 3 2 2
planning
Conclusions

The proposed system will cost Rs.1,30,000 capital cost and will pay for itself within the

first five months of operation. It will meet all the main goals approved by the wardens

and can be implemented within 3 months. We are confident that it will fully meet the

expectations of the management.


Annoted References

1. This module is based on Chapter 6, “Feasibility Analysis”, of the book Analysis


and Design of Information Systems by V.Rajaraman, Prentice Hall of India. Parts
of the the book have been used in case studies.
2. J.E.Kandall and J.E.Kandall, Systems Analysis and Design, 5th Edition, Pearson
Education (Asia) 2003. Part of Chapter 3 pp.55-63 deal with feasibility analysis.
It is reasonably well treated but does not have any quantitative examples.
3. R.Schultheis and Mary Summer, Management Information Systems, Tata
McGraw Hill, 1999. Very short treatment of feasibility analysis as part of system
Life Cycle (pp.544-545).
4. S.Alter, Information Systems, 4th Edition, Pearson Education Asia, New Delhi,
2002. A brief discussion of feasibility analysis presented on pp.481 as part of
traditional life cycle method. In the same chapter there is a brief discussion of
prototype method which is used when users are not able to state their
requirements clearly.
5. K.C.Laudon and J.P.Laudon, Management Information Systems, Pearson
Education Asia, New Delhi, 2004. Very brief discussion (one para only) on
p.390)
6. J.A.Hoffer, J.F.George and J.S.Valacich, Modern Systems Analysis and Design,
Pearson Education Asia, New Delhi 2002. Has a good discussion of feasibility.
Study on pp.168 to 181. Besides Technical, operational and Economic feasibility
they also include other parameters which are schedule, legal/contractual and
political feasibility which arise when one tries to develop a system.
MODULE 5

DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS


OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS

There are 4 alternative answers to each question. One of them is correct.


Pick the correct answer. Do not guess. A key is given at the end of the
module for you to verify your answer

LEARNING UNIT 1

5.1.1 In a DFD external entities are represented by a


(a) rectangle
(b) ellipse
(c) diamond shaped box
(d) circle

5.1.2 A data flow can


(a) only emanate from an external entity
(b) only terminate in an external entity
(c) may emanate and terminate in an external entity
(d) may either emanate or terminate in an external entity but not both

5.1.3 A rectangle in a DFD represents


(a) a process
(b) a data store
(c) an external entity
(d) an input unit

5.1.4 External Entities may be a


(a) source of input data only
(b) source of input data or destination of results
(c) destination of results only
(d) repository of data
5.1.5 By an external entity we mean a
(a) unit outside the system being designed which can be controlled by an analyst
(b) unit outside the system whose behavior is independent of the system being
designed
(c) a unit external to the system being designed
(d) a unit which is not part of a DFD

5.1.6 A data store in a DFD represents


(a) a sequential file
(b) a disk store
(c) a repository of data
(d) a random access memory

5.1.7 A data flow can


(a) only enter a data store
(b) only leave a data store
(c) enter or leave a data store
(d) either enter or leave a data store but not both

5.1.8 A data cannot flow between a store and


(i) a store
(ii) a process
(iii) an external entity
(a) i and iii (b) i and ii
(c) ii and iii (d) ii

5.1.9 Data cannot flow between two data stores because


(a) it is not allowed in a DFD
(b) a data store is a passive repository of data
(c) data can get corrupted
(d) they will get merged

5.1.10 Data cannot flow from an external entity to an external entity because
(a) it will get corrupted
(b) it is not allowed in DFD
(c) an external entity has no mechanism to read or write
(d) both are outside the context of the system

5.1.11 The following portion of a DFD is not correct as


(a) there is no output data flow from the process
(b) there are three data flow inputs to the process
(c) there is no external entity
(d) there is no data store
Quantity

Cost/unit 4.0
Billing
Process

Discount

5.1.12 The following portion of a DFD is not correct as


(a) there are many data flows out of the process
(b) there are no input data flows to the process
(c) the output does not go to an external entity
(d) there is no data store
Out of stock

Order to 4.0
vendor Billing Too much stock
Proces

5.1.13 The following portion of DFD is wrong as


(a) it has only one input
(b) it writes and reads from the same data store
(c) the process name is missing
(d) output data flows to two external entities

bill Customer
Invoice

Supplier
Advice

Book

Inventory
5.1.14 The following process diagram in a DFD is incorrect because
(a) the process is a single decision
(b) the process is not specified correctly
(c) there are too many input data flows
(d) the process does not refer to a data store
Gross pay>Min.taxable pay
Gross pay

2.0
Compare
Gross pay<=Min.taxable pay
Minimum
taxable pay

5.1.15 The following portion of a DFD is incorrect because


(a) the processes do not refer to a data store
(b) there is a loop between the two processes
(c) the processes are not specified correctly
(d) this structure is disallowed in a DFD

Gross pay
Employee record
1.0 2.0
Find next Calculate
pay tax
Tax deduction
Get next record
Deductions statement

5.1.16 Data flow in a DFD must have


(i) an arrow showing direction of flow of data
(ii) a meaningful name
(iii) a label such as: xyz
(iv) no arrows as they are confusing
(a) i and iii (b) ii and iv
(c) iii and iv (d) i and ii
LEARNING UNIT 2

5.2.1 A context diagram


(a) describes the context of a system
(b) is a DFD which gives an overview of the system
(c) is a detailed description of a system
(d) is not used in drawing a detailed DFD

5.2.2 A context diagram is used


(a) as the first step in developing a detailed DFD of a system
(b) in systems analysis of very complex systems
(c) as an aid to system design
(d) as an aid to programmers

5.2.3 By levelling a DFD we mean


(a) splitting it into different levels
(b) make its structure uniform
(c) expanding a process into one with more sub-processes giving more detail
(d) summarizing a DFD to specify only the essentials

5.2.4 A DFD is normally levelled as


(a) it is a good idea in design
(b) it is recommended by many experts
(c) it is easy to do it
(e) it is easier to read and understand a number of smaller DFDs than one large
DFD

5.2.5 A DFD is levelled by


(a) examining complex processes in a DFD and expanding them into new DFDs
with more processes which are easy to understand
(b) merging a number of simple processes in a DFD into a complex processes in a
new DFD
(c) expanding the functions of a number of external entities into simpler functions
(d) splitting a number of data flows into simpler data flows

5.2.6 When a DFD is levelled no new


(a) data stores may appear
(b) external entities may appear
(c) processes may appear
(d) data flows may appear
5.2.7 When a DFD is levelled
(a) new external entities may be required
(b) no new processes are allowed
(c) no new data flows are allowed
(d) new data stores may be necessary and are allowed

5.2.8 When a DFD is levelled it is a good idea not to


(a) be concerned about the number of new processes at the next level
(b) allow more than 5 to 10 new processes at the next level for each expanded
process
(c) allow new data stores at the next level
(d) allow any new processes at the next level

5.2.9 When a process is expanded during levelling


(a) data flows entering it are replaced
(b) all data stores used by it are replaced
(c) all data flows entering it must also enter the levelled DFD
(d) all external entities used by it are replaced

LEARNING UNIT 3

5.3.1 Before developing a logical DFD it is a good idea to


a) develop a physical DFD
b) develop a system flow chart
c) determine the contents of all data stores
d) find out user’s preferences

5.3.2 A physical DFD specifies


(a) what processes will be used
(b) who generates data and who processes it
(c) what each person in an organization does
(d) which data will be generated

5.3.3 A physical DFD


(a) has no means of showing material flow
(b) does not concern itself with material flow
(c) can show only stored material
(d) can show the flow of material
KEY TO OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS

5.1.1 a 5.1.2 c 5.1.3 c 5.1.4 b 5.1.5 c 5.1.6 c


5.1.7 c 5.1.8 a 5.1.9 d 5.1.10 d 5.1.11 a 5.1.12 b
5.1.13 c 5.1.14 a 5.1.15 b 5.1.16 d 5.2.1 b 5.2.2 a
5.2.3 c 5.2.4 d 5.2.5 a 5.2.6 b 5.2.7 d 5.2.8 b
5.2.9 c 5.3.1 a 5.3.2 b 5.3.3 d
MODULE 5
DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS

Learning Units

5.1 Developing Data Flow Diagrams(DFD)


a) What are DFDs?
b) Symbols used in DFD
c) Rules of data flow
d) Good style in drawing DFD
5.2 Describing systems with DFD & Levelling DFDs
5.3 Logical & Physical DFDs

System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman


LEARNING GOALS

In this module we will learn


1. What are Data Flow Diagrams (DFDs)?
2. Why they are useful?
3. How are they developed?
4. How to level DFDs?
5. Good style conventions in developing DFDs
6. Difference between Logical and Physical DFDs
7. Tools available to draw DFDs

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 1 of 26


MOTIVATION

WHY DFD ?

Provides an overview of
-What data a system processes
-What transformations are performed
-What data are stored
-What results are produced and where they flow

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 2 of 26


MOTIVATION

WHY DFD ?

Graphical nature makes it a good communication tool


between
-User and analyst
-Analyst and System designer

Structure of DFD allows starting from a broad overview


and expand it to a hierarchy of detailed diagrams

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 3 of 26


DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS

WHAT ARE DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS?

DFDs models the system by depicting


ƒ External entities from which the data flows and
where results terminate
ƒ Processes which transform data flows
ƒ Data stores from which the data are read or into
which data are written by the processes.

5.1.1 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 4 of 26


SYMBOLS USED IN DFD

PROCESS
Stores demand
note 1.
STORES Issue Advice

Delivery slip

ƒ A circle represents a process


ƒ Straight lines with incoming arrows are input data flows
ƒ Straight lines with outgoing arrows are output data flows
ƒ Processes are given serial numbers for easy reference
ƒ Labels are assigned to Data flow.These aid documentation

5.1.2 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 5 of 26


SYMBOLS USED IN DFD

EXTERNAL ENTITIES
Order
Invoice
VENDOR Customer
Bill

ƒ A Rectangle represents an external entity


ƒ They either supply data or receive data
ƒ They do not process data

5.1.3 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 6 of 26


SYMBOLS USED IN DFD

DATA STORES

Inventory Writing Reading


ƒ A Data Store is a repository of data
ƒ Data can be written into the data store
This is depicted by an incoming arrow
ƒ Data can be read from a data store
This is depicted by an outgoing arrow
ƒ External entity cannot read or write to the data store
ƒ Two data stores cannot be connected by a data flow
5.1.4 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 7 of 26
RULES OF DATA FLOW

• Data can flow from


-external entity to process
-process to external entity
-process to store and back
-process to process

• Data cannot flow from


-external entity to external entity
-external entity to store
-store to external entity
-store to store
5.1.5 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 8 of 26
DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS

An alternate notation is often used


3 Label
A Process
Store Name
Issue

A Data store DS1 Inventory Name

Label

5.1.6 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 9 of 26


GOOD STYLE IN DRAWING DFD

ƒ Use meaningful names for data flows, processes and


data stores.
ƒ Use top down development starting from context
diagram and successively levelling DFD

ƒ Only previously stored data can be read

ƒ A process can only transfer input to output.It cannot


create new data
ƒ Data stores cannot create new data
5.1.7 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 10 of 26
DESCRIBING A SYSTEM WITH A DFD

ƒ An entire system is represented by one DFD which gives


the system’s overview
ƒ It is called a context diagram
ƒ It gives little detail & is also known as the top level DFD

ƒ Context diagram of mess management is shown in the


next transparency

5.2.1 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 11 of 26


CONTEXT DIAGRAM OF MESS
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

Extras Note
Students Vendors
Requisitions
Payments
Payments Supplies
Mess
Bills Management Mess secretary
Daily rate
System
Menu
Perishable
Items Item needed
Each day Overdue Bills
Mess manager Overdue Chief warden
Payments

• Observe this diagram gives very little detail

5.2.2 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 12 of 26


LEVELLING DFD

ƒ A context diagram gives an overview


ƒ It should be split into major processes which give
greater detail.
ƒ Each major process is further split to give more detail.

ƒ Each major process is further split to give more detail

5.2.3 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 13 of 26


WHY LEVEL DFD?

ƒ If a DFD is too detailed it will have too many data


flows and will be large and difficult to understand

ƒ Start from a broad overview. Expand to details - Idea


similar to using procedures and linking these with a main
program

ƒ Each DFD must deal with one aspect of a big system

5.2.4 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 14 of 26


EXPANDED DFD FOR HOSTEL MESS
MANAGEMENT
Mess
Students Secretary Chief Warden

Payments Update daily


rate Unpaid bills

Itemized bills at end 1 Items used each day


of month Billing
system
Extras/Rebates
Student billing
Expenses Information + bills
No of meals Mess manager
(today +3)
• Going to next process (Continued in next slide)
5.2.5 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 15 of 26
EXPANDED DFD FOR HOSTEL MESS MANAGEMENT

•Continued Low stock (today+2)

Items to be issued
2 (today +2)
Vendor supplies Mess
Stores issue
Vendors and
Order non- Items used Manager
Control today
perishable system
Menu
(today +2)
Vendor data
Stores
inventory
Order data Mess
Secretary
Perishable order 3 Vegetables and perishable
Perishable requisition
Orders ordering
Vendor data
(perishable)
(perishable)
5.2.6 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 16 of 26
EXPANDED DFD-BILLING SYSTEM

Payments
Itemized 1.2
bills Calculate Unpaid
Bills 1.3 bills Chief
Mess Student’s
bills Reconcile warden
Secretary
payments
Students data
Extras/Rebates Students data
Daily rate average
1.4 (upto date)
Find no 1.1
Of meals Calculate
No of meals to cook Daily rate
(today + 2)
Expenses data
Mess
Students data Manager Items rate data
• Observe numbering of processes
5.2.7 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 17 of 26
LEVELLING RULES

ƒ If process p is expanded, the process at the next


level are labeled as p.1,p.2 etc.
ƒ All data flow entering or leaving p must also enter or
leave its expanded version.
ƒ Expanded DFD may have data stores
ƒ No external entity can appear in expanded DFD
ƒ Keep the number of processes at each level less
than 7.

5.2.8 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 18 of 26


ILLEGAL CONSTRUCTS IN DFD

ƒ No loops are allowed in DFD


ƒ A process cannot be a pure decision
Actual rate > Standard rate
Actual daily rate
Compare
Standard daily rate Actual rate <= Standard rate
ƒ A single data flow should not be split into many flows
with different labels

ƒ No data flow allowed between data stores

5.2.9 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 19 of 26


ILLEGAL CONSTRUCTS IN DFD

Record
Get students Calculate
extra/rebates Bill
record Ask for next record

Extra/rebate store
• Not correct as loop is formed
5.2.10 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 20 of 26
LEVELLING EXAMPLES
Low stock item
(today +2) No of meals to
be cooked
Mess manager (today +2)
Items to be used
on (today +2)

Items issued

Low message stock


2
Stores issue
Order for items Mess secretary
and
Menu for
control system
(Today +2)
Vendor supplies

Order

Stores inventory Vendor


Vendor

Stores issue control system process


5.2.11 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 21 of 26
LEVELLING EXAMPLES

2.1
2.2
Inventory update
Mess manager Create order
And
Low stock for vendor
Items used low stock warning
today item

Items needed
From 2.3
Vendor Stores inventory Order Vendor data
supplies
Vendor
Order to vendor

2.3 2.4
Calculate Items Check Item
needed availability
Mess secretary Items needed Low stock items
Menu
(today +2) (today+2)
No of meals to Stores
(today +2) inventory

5.2.11 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 22 of 26


LEVELLING EXAMPLES
Top
Ext A Ext B
Level process

Ext A 1 2 4 Ext B

F1 F4

Process 1 Process 2

Ext A 1.1 1.2 1.4 2.1 2.2 2.3

F1

1.3

3.1 3.2 3.4 Ext B 4.3 4.1 4.2

F4

3.3

5.2.12 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 23 of 26


LOGICAL AND PHYSICAL DFD

ƒ DFD’S considered so far are called logical DFDs


ƒ A physical DFD is similar to a document flow
diagram.
ƒ It specifies who does the operations specified by
the logical DFD
ƒ Physical DFD may depict physical movements of the
goods
ƒ Physical DFDs can be drawn during fact gathering
phase of a life cycle
5.3.1 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 24 of 26
PHYSICAL DFD FOR ENCASHING CHEQUE

Cash

Token
Clerk
Verify A/C Cashier
Signature Verify Token
Customer Cheque Update Cheque with Take Signature
Token Balance Token number

Store cheques Entry in


Day Book
Bad Cheque

Customer
Accounts

5.3.2 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 25 of 26


LOGICAL DFD FOR CHEQUE ENCASHMENT

Check Cheque with


Retrieve Store
Cheque Balance, Token
Customer Token no
Issue
Record & cheques
token

Token Slip Cheque store


Or cheque With token no.
Cheque Customer
accounts
Search Update
Customer & match Daily
token Cheque with cash book
token
Token Slip Day book
Cash

5.3.3 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 26 of 26


MODULE 5

DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS

Contents

1. MOTIVATION AND LEARNING GOALS

2. LEARNING UNIT 1
Developing Data Flow Diagrams(DFD)
a) What are DFDs?
b) Symbols used in DFD
c) Rules of data flow
d) Good style in drawing DFD

3. LEARNING UNIT 2
Describing systems with DFD & Levelling DFDs

4. LEARNING UNIT 3
Logical & Physical DFDs

5. References
DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS

MOTIVATION

DFD provides an overview of what data a system processes, what


transformations are performed, what data are stored, what results are
produced and where they flow. Graphical nature makes it a good
communication tool between
-User and analyst
-Analyst and System designer
Structure of DFD allows starting from a broad overview and expands it to a
hierarchy of detailed diagrams

LEARNING GOALS
At the end of this module you will know

1.What are Data Flow Diagrams (DFDs)?


2.Why they are useful?
3.How are they developed?
4.How to level DFDs?
5.Good style conventions in developing DFDs
6.Difference between Logical and Physical DFDs
7.Tools available to draw DFDs
LEARNING UNIT 1

Developing Data Flow Diagrams(DFD)

DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS

DFDs models the system by depicting external entities from which the data
flows and where results terminate, processes which transform data flows,
data stores from which the data are read or into which data are written by the
processes.

SYMBOLS USED IN DFD

PROCESS

Stores demand
note 1.
STORES
Issue Advice

Delivery slip

A circle represents a process


Straight lines with incoming arrows are input data flows
Straight lines with outgoing arrows are output data flows
Processes are given serial numbers for easy reference
Labels are assigned to Data flow. These aid documentation
EXTERNAL ENTITIES

Invoice
Order
VENDOR Customer
Bill

A Rectangle represents an external entity. They either supply data or receive


data. They do not process data

DATA STORES

Inventory Writing Reading


A Data Store is a repository of data
Data can be written into the data store and this is depicted by an incoming
arrow.
Data can be read from a data store and this is depicted by an outgoing arrow
External entity cannot read or write to the data store. Two data stores cannot
be connected by a data flow

RULES OF DATA FLOW

•Data can flow from


-external entity to process
-process to external entity
-process to store and back
-process to process

• Data cannot flow from


-external entity to external entity
-external entity to store
-store to external entity
-store to store

GOOD STYLE IN DRAWING DFD

Use meaningful names for data flows, processes and data stores.
Use top down development starting from context diagram and
successively levelling DFD
Only previously stored data can be read
A process can only transfer input to output.It cannot create new data
Data stores cannot create new data

LEARNING UNIT 2

Describing systems with DFD & Levelling DFDs


An entire system is represented by one DFD which gives the system’s
overview . It is called a context diagram. It gives little detail & is also known
as the top level DFD.

Context diagram of mess management is shown

Extras Note
Students Vendors
Requisitions
Payments
Payments Supplies
Mess
Bills Manage Mess
ment Daily rate Secretary
Menu
Perishable
Items Item needed
Each day Overdue Bills
Mess manager Overdue Chief warden
Payments

Note: This diagram gives very little detail

LEVELLING DFD

A context diagram gives an overview, it should be split into major processes


which give greater detail. Each major process is further split to give more
detail. Each major process is further split to give more detail
WHY LEVEL DFD?

If a DFD is too detailed it will have too many data flows and will be large
and difficult to understand. Therefore start from a broad overview. Expand
the details - Idea similar to using procedures and linking these with a main
program. Each DFD must deal with one aspect of a big system

EXPANDED DFD FOR HOSTEL MESS MANAGEMENT

Students Mess Chief Warden


Secretary

Payments Update daily


rate Unpaid bills

1
Itemized bills at end Items used each day
Billing
of month

Extras/Rebates
Student billing
Expenses Information + bills

No of meals Mess manager


(today +3)

•Going to next process (Continued in next page)

Continued Low stock (today+2)

Items to be issued
2 (today +2) Mess
Vendor supplies Manager
Stores issue
Vendors and
Order non- Control Items used
perishable system today
Menu
(today +2)
Vendor data

Stores
inventory Order data
Mess
Secretary

Perishable order
3
Perishable Vegetables and perishable
ordering requisition

Orders
(perishable) Vendor data
(perishable)

LEVELLING RULES

If process p is expanded, the process at the next level are labeled as p.1,p.2
etc.

All data flow entering or leaving p must also enter or leave its expanded
version.

Expanded DFD may have data stores


No new external entity can appear in expanded DFD

Keep the number of processes at each level less than 7.

ILLEGAL CONSTRUCTS IN DFD


No loops are allowed in DFD
A process cannot be a pure decision

Actual daily rate Actual rate > Standard rate

Compare

Standard daily rate Actual rate <= Standard rate


A single data flow should not be split into many flows with different labels
No data flow allowed between data stores
Record

Get students
extra/rebates Calculate
record Bill
Ask for next record

Extra/rebate store

Above DFD not correct as loop is


formed

LEVELLING EXAMPLES

Ext A Top Ext B


Level
process

Ext B
Ext A 1 2 4

F1 F4
3

Process 1 Process 2

Ext A 1.1 1.2 1.4 2.1 2.2 2.3

F1
1.3

3.1 3.2 3.4


Ext B 4.3 4.1 4.2

LEARNING UNIT 3
F4

3.3 Logical & Physical DFDs

LOGICAL AND PHYSICAL DFD

DFD’S considered so far are called logical DFDs.


A physical DFD is similar to a document flow diagram. It specifies who
does the operations specified by the logical DFD. Physical DFD may depict
physical movements of the goods. Physical DFDs can be drawn during fact
gathering phase of a life cycle.

PHYSICAL DFD FOR ENCASHING CHEQUE

Cash

Token
Clerk Cashier
Verify A/C Verify Token
Signature Take
Update Signature
Balance
Cheque
Customer Cheque with
Token number
Token

Store cheques Entry in


Day Book
Bad Cheque

Customer
Accounts

LOGICAL DFD FOR CHEQUE ENCASHMENT

Retrieve Cheque with


Check Store
Customer Cheque Token
Balance, Token no
Record Issue &
token cheques

Token Slip
Cheque store
Or cheque
With token no.
Cheque Customer
accounts

Search Update
Customer & match Daily
token cash
Cheque with book
token

Token Slip
Day book
Cash
REFERENCES

1. This module is based on Chapter 7 of Analysis and Design of


information systems, V.Rajaraman, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi,
2002.

2. Ian Sommerville, “Software Engineering”, 5th Edition, Addison-


Wesley, 1996, has a brief discussion of Data Flow Models on pp.101
to 103.

3. T.DeMarco, “Structured Analysis and System Specification”,


Yourdon Press, 1978. this book written by the original developer of
DFD modeling is a well written book. It is a good reference book.

4. E.Yourdon, “Modern Structured Analysis”, Prentice Hall of India,


New Delhi, 1996. Chapter 9 (pp.139 to 187) is a good treatment of
Data Flow Diagrams. All the topics covered in this module are
discussed in this chapter.

5. Hoffer, J.A., George, J.F. and Valacich J.S., “Modern Systems


Analysis and Design”, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Asia, New
Delhi, 2002. Chapter 8 (pp.241 to 271) has a good treatment of
DFDs with a running example of a quick service restaurant. Different
types of DFDs and logical checking of DFDs are discussed well.

6. K.E.Kendall and J.E.Kendall, “Systems Analysis and Design”, 5th


Edition, Pearson Eduation Asia, New Delhi, 2003. Chapter 9 is
devoted to Data Flow Diagrams (pp.241 to 285). Has a number of
problems at the end of the chapter which are quite interesting.
System Analysis and Design / Tools for Systems Analysts Multiple Choice Questions

5.1.1 In a DFD external entities are represented by a


(a) rectangle
(b) ellipse
(c) diamond shaped box
(d) circle
5.1.2 A data flow can
(a) only emanate from an external entity
(b) only terminate in an external entity
(c) may emanate and terminate in an external entity
(d) may either emanate or terminate in an external entity but not both
5.1.3 A rectangle in a DFD represents
(a) a process
(b) a data store
(c) an external entity
(d) an input unit
5.1.4 External Entities may be a
(a) source of input data only
(b) source of input data or destination of results
(c) destination of results only
(d) repository of data
5.1.5 By an external entity we mean a
(a) unit outside the system being designed which can be controlled by an analyst
(b) unit outside the system whose behavior is independent of the system being
designed
(c) a unit external to the system being designed
(d) a unit which is not part of a DFD
5.1.6 A data store in a DFD represents
(a) a sequential file
(b) a disk store
(c) a repository of data
(d) a random access memory
5.1.7 A data flow can
(a) only enter a data store
(b) only leave a data store
(c) enter or leave a data store
(d) either enter or leave a data store but not both
5.1.8 A data cannot flow between a store and
(i) a store
(ii) a process
(iii) an external entity
(a) i and iii
(b) i and ii
(c) ii and iii
(d) ii
5.1.9 Data cannot flow between two data stores because

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M5/V1/July 04/1


System Analysis and Design / Tools for Systems Analysts Multiple Choice Questions

(a) it is not allowed in a DFD


(b) a data store is a passive repository of data
(c) data can get corrupted
(d) they will get merged
5.1.10 Data cannot flow from an external entity to an external entity because
(a) it will get corrupted
(b) it is not allowed in DFD
(c) an external entity has no mechanism to read or write
(d) both are outside the context of the system
5.1.11 The following portion of a DFD is not correct as
(a) there is no output data flow from the process
(b) there are three data flow inputs to the process
(c) there is no external entity
(d) there is no data store
Quantity

Cost/unit 4.0
Billing
Process

Discount

5.1.12 The following portion of a DFD is not correct as


(a) there are many data flows out of the process
(b) there are no input data flows to the process
(c) the output does not go to an external entity
(d) there is no data store
Out of stock

Order to 4.0
vendor Billing Too much stock
Proces

5.1.13 The following portion of DFD is wrong as


(a) it has only one input
(b) it writes and reads from the same data store
(c) the process name is missing
(d) output data flows to two external entities

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M5/V1/July 04/2


System Analysis and Design / Tools for Systems Analysts Multiple Choice Questions

bill Customer
Invoice

Supplier
Advice

Book

Inventory

5.1.14 The following process diagram in a DFD is incorrect because


(a) the process is a single decision
(b) the process is not specified correctly
(c) there are too many input data flows
(d) the process does not refer to a data store
Gross pay>Min.taxable pay
Gross pay

2.0
Compare
Gross pay<=Min.taxable pay
Minimum
taxable pay

5.1.15 The following portion of a DFD is incorrect because


(a) the processes do not refer to a data store
(b) there is a loop between the two processes
(c) the processes are not specified correctly
(d) this structure is disallowed in a DFD

Gross pay
Employee record
1.0 2.0
Find next Calculate
pay tax
Tax deduction
Get next record
Deductions statement

5.1.16 Data flow in a DFD must have


(i) an arrow showing direction of flow of data
(ii) a meaningful name
(iii)a label such as: xyz
(iv) no arrows as they are confusing

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M5/V1/July 04/3


System Analysis and Design / Tools for Systems Analysts Multiple Choice Questions

(a) i and iii


(b) ii and iv
(c) iii and iv
(d) i and ii
5.2.1 A context diagram
(a) describes the context of a system
(b) is a DFD which gives an overview of the system
(c) is a detailed description of a system
(d) is not used in drawing a detailed DFD
5.2.2 A context diagram is used
(a) as the first step in developing a detailed DFD of a system
(b) in systems analysis of very complex systems
(c) as an aid to system design
(d) as an aid to programmers
5.2.3 By levelling a DFD we mean
(a) splitting it into different levels
(b) make its structure uniform
(c) expanding a process into one with more sub-processes giving more detail
(d) summarizing a DFD to specify only the essentials
5.2.4 A DFD is normally levelled as
(a) it is a good idea in design
(b) it is recommended by many experts
(c) it is easy to do it
(d) it is easier to read and understand a number of smaller DFDs than one large DFD
5.2.5 A DFD is levelled by
(a) examining complex processes in a DFD and expanding them into new DFDs with
more processes which are easy to understand
(b) merging a number of simple processes in a DFD into a complex processes in a
new DFD
(c) expanding the functions of a number of external entities into simpler functions
(d) splitting a number of data flows into simpler data flows
5.2.6 When a DFD is levelled no new
(a) data stores may appear
(b) external entities may appear
(c) processes may appear
(d) data flows may appear
5.2.7 When a DFD is levelled
(a) new external entities may be required
(b) no new processes are allowed
(c) no new data flows are allowed
(d) new data stores may be necessary and are allowed
5.2.8 When a DFD is levelled it is a good idea not to
(a) be concerned about the number of new processes at the next level
(b) allow more than 5 to 10 new processes at the next level for each expanded process

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M5/V1/July 04/4


System Analysis and Design / Tools for Systems Analysts Multiple Choice Questions

(c) allow new data stores at the next level


(d) allow any new processes at the next level
5.2.9 When a process is expanded during levelling
(a) data flows entering it are replaced
(b) all data stores used by it are replaced
(c) all data flows entering it must also enter the levelled DFD
(d) all external entities used by it are replaced
5.3.1 Before developing a logical DFD it is a good idea to
a) develop a physical DFD
b) develop a system flow chart
c) determine the contents of all data stores
d) find out user’s preferences
5.3.2 A physical DFD specifies
(a) what processes will be used
(b) who generates data and who processes it
(c) what each person in an organization does
(d) which data will be generated
5.3.3 A physical DFD
(a) has no means of showing material flow
(b) does not concern itself with material flow
(c) can show only stored material
(d) can show the flow of material

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M5/V1/July 04/5


System Analysis and Design / Tools for Systems Analysts Multiple Choice Questions

KEY TO OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS

5.1.1 a 5.1.2 c 5.1.3 c 5.1.4 b 5.1.5 c 5.1.6 c


5.1.7 c 5.1.8 a 5.1.9 d 5.1.10 d 5.1.11 a 5.1.12 b
5.1.13 c 5.1.14 a 5.1.15 b 5.1.16 d 5.2.1 b 5.2.2 a
5.2.3 c 5.2.4 d 5.2.5 a 5.2.6 b 5.2.7 d 5.2.8 b
5.2.9 c 5.3.1 a 5.3.2 b 5.3.3 d

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M5/V1/July 04/6


MODULE 5

DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS


WORKED EXAMPLES

5.1 What is the main merit of DFD?


The main merit of DFD is that it provides an overview of what data flows in a
system, what transformations are done on the data, what files are used and where
results flow.

5.2 What is the role of DFD as a documentation aid?


It is a good documentation aid which is understood by both programmers and
non-programmers (i.e., laypersons). As DFD specifies only what processes are
performed and not how they are performed it is easily understood by a non-
programming user.

5.3 What is a context diagram?


A diagram giving an entire system’s data flows and processing with a single
Process (circle) is called a context diagram.

5.4 What do you understand by levelling of DFD?


A context diagram is expanded into a number of inter-related processes. Each
process may be further expanded into a set of inter-connected sub processes. This
procedure of expanding a DFD is known as levelling.

5.5 What is a physical DFD?


A physical DFD specifies from where data flows and who processes the data and
to whom the processed data is sent.

5.6 In what way is physical DFD useful?


It is easy to develop during fact gathering stage of systems analysis. Such a
physical DFD is easily understood by a lay user who can verify the DFD drawn
by an analyst and tell whether such a DFD corresponds to a particular operation
taking place in an organization. Physical DFD is the starting point for developing
the logical DFD.
5.7 What are the mistakes in each of the DFDs of Fig. 5.7(a)–5.7(e)? Correct
these mistakes.

Employee No
1
Compute
Fig 5.7(a) Gross pay
Gross pay

Hours worked

Leave granted
Fig 5.7(b)
1
Check if
Application returned
Employee leave
available
&update
Leave application

Fig 5.7(c)

1 Store
Compute amount Employee
net pay paid
Gross Net pay Pay
pay cheque

Deductions Net pay & deductions


Fig 5.7(d)

a b e
A 1 2 B
P1 P2
c
d
3 C
P3
f

Roll No and student


Fig 5.7(e) Marks Pass
Find out
if pass or
fail
Fail

(i) To compute gross pay we need hours worked and hourly wage rate. This data
flow is missing.
(ii) A data flow cannot have two arrows pointing in opposite directions. A
separate data flow line should be drawn for “application returned”.
(iii) A data flow connects two distinct data stores without an intermediate
processing step. (See also answer to Exercise 7.5)
(iv) Process P2 has all input data flow and no output data flow.
(v) The same data flow cannot be given two names.
System Analysis and Design / Tools for Systems Analysts Question Bank

QUESTION BANK
5.1 What is the difference between an external entity and a process in a DFD?

5.2 What are the main merits of using a DFD?

5.3 What is the role of DFD as a documentation aid?

5.4 What is the difference between a source and a sink in a DFD?

5.5 Why is data flow between data stores not allowed in DFD?

5.6 Is data flow allowed between an external entity and a data store. If your answer is

"no", explain why.

5.7 What is a context diagram?

5.8 What do you understand by leveling of DFD?

5.9 What is the main difference between a flow chart and a DFD?

5.10 What do you understand by top down development of a DFD?

5.11 What is a physical DFD?

5.12 What is the difference between a physical and a logical DFD?

5.13 In what way is physical DFD useful?

5.14 Prepare physical and logical DFDs for the following activities:

i. Issuing out a book from the library

ii. Returning a book to the library

iii. Getting a ticket reserved for a train journey

iv. Getting an item issued from a store

v. Getting your mark-sheet from a University office.

5.15 Admission procedure in a University is as follows:

An advertisement is issued giving essential qualifications for the course, the last date

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M5/V1/July 04/1


System Analysis and Design / Tools for Systems Analysts Question Bank

for receipt of application, and the fee to be enclosed with the application. A clerk in

the Registrar's office checks the received applications to see if mark-sheet and fee are

enclosed and sends valid applications to the concerned academic department. The

department checks the application in detail and decides the applicants to be admitted,

those to be put in the waiting list, and those rejected. Appropriate letters are sent to

the Registrar's office which intimates the applicant. Give physical and logical DFDs

corresponding to the above problem.

5.16 A magazine is published monthly and is sent by post to its subscribers. Two months

before the expiry of subscription, a reminder is sent to the subscribers. If subscription

is not received within a month, another reminder is sent. If renewal subscription is not

received up to two weeks before the expiry of the subscription, the subscriber's name

is removed from the mailing list and the subscriber informed. Obtain logical DFDs

for this problem

5.17 Obtain a flowchart for Exercise 5.17 and state in what way it differs from the DFD.

5.18 Obtain a physical DFD for a simple payroll system described below. A list of

employees with their basic pay is sent to a clerk. He calculates the gross pay using

standard allowances which are known for each pay slab. Deduction statements such

as loan repayment, subscription to association etc. are also sent to another clerk who

matches these slips with the slips of gross pay and calculates net pay. This slip is used

by a third clerk to write out pay cheques for each employee and sent to respective

employees. The total pay bills paid are also computed.

5.19 If the procedure of Exercise 5.19 is to be computerised, obtain a logical DFD for the

computer-based system.

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M5/V1/July 04/2


System Analysis and Design / Tools for Systems Analysts Pointers

Annotated References

1. Ian Sommerville, “Software Engineering”, 5th Edition, Addison-Wesley, 1996,


has a brief discussion of Data Flow Models on pp.101 to 103.
2. T.DeMarco, “Structured Analysis and System Specification”, Yourdon Press,
1978. this book written by the original developer of DFD modeling is a well
written book. It is a good reference book.
3. E.Yourdon, “Modern Structured Analysis”, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi,
1996. Chapter 9 (pp.139 to 187) is a good treatment of Data Flow Diagrams. All
the topics covered in this module are discussed in this chapter.
4. Hoffer, J.A., George, J.F. and Valacich J.S., “Modern Systems Analysis and
Design”, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Asia, New Delhi, 2002. Chapter 8
(pp.241 to 271) has a good treatment of DFDs with a running example of a quick
service restaurant. Different types of DFDs and logical checking of DFDs are
discussed well.
5. K.E.Kendall and J.E.Kendall, “Systems Analysis and Design”, 5th Edition,
Pearson Eduation Asia, New Delhi, 2003. Chapter 9 is devoted to Data Flow
Diagrams (pp.241 to 285). Has a number of problems at the end of the chapter
which are quite interesting.

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M5/V1/July 04/1


SUMMARY OF MODULE 5

1. Data flow diagrams (DFDs) are used to depict the flow and transformation of data

in an information processing system.

2. DFDs give an overview to an analyst specifying where data originates, how it is

processed and where the results go.

3. DFDs act as a graphical communication aid between a user and an analyst. It is

also useful as a communication aid between an analyst and a system designer.

4. The procedure to develop a DFD starts with one DFD giving an overview of the

system to be de designed. This is called a context diagram.

5 The context diagram is expanded into a series of DFDs, each describing a specific

function. This method of top down analysis and breaking down DFDs to give

more and more detail is known as levelling.

6. Some style convention is developing DFDs are:

i. Data flows, processes and data store must have meaningful names.

ii. A DFD should not have more than 7-9 processes.

iii. A DFD should not have any loops, crossing lines or pure decisions as

processes.

iv. Data should be conserved in a DFD.

7. In practice, DFDs are used for representing logical data flow and processing of

data. It is, however, useful to evolve a logical DFD after first developing a

physical DFD which shows the persons performing various operations and how

data flows between persons performing operations.


QUESTION BANK MODULE 5

5.1 What is the difference between an external entity and a process in a DFD?

5.2 What are the main merits of using a DFD?

5.3 What is the role of DFD as a documentation aid?

5.4 What is the difference between a source and a sink in a DFD?

5.5 Why is data flow between data stores not allowed in DFD?

5.6 Is data flow allowed between an external entity and a data store. If your answer is

"no", explain why.

5.7 What is a context diagram?

5.8 What do you understand by levelling of DFD?

5.9 What is the main difference between a flow chart and a DFD?

5.10 What do you understand by top down development of a DFD?

5.11 What is a physical DFD?

5.12 What is the difference between a physical and a logical DFD?

5.13 In what way is physical DFD useful?

5.14 Prepare physical and logical DFDs for the following activities:

i. Issuing out a book from the library

ii. Returning a book to the library

iii. Getting a ticket reserved for a train journey

iv. Getting an item issued from a store

v. Getting your marksheet from a University office.

5.15 Admission procedure in a University is as follows:


An advertisement is issued giving essential qualifications for the course, the last

date for receipt of application, and the fee to be enclosed with the application. A

clerk in the Registrar's office checks the received applications to see if marksheet

and fee are enclosed and sends valid applications to the concerned academic

department. The department checks the application in detail and decides the

applicants to be admitted, those to be put in the waiting list, and those rejected.

Appropriate letters are sent to the Registrar's office which intimates the applicant.

Give physical and logical DFDs corresponding to the above problem.

5.16 A magazine is published monthly and is sent by post to its subscribers. Two

months before the expiry of subscription, a reminder is sent to the subscribers. If

subscription is not received within a month, another reminder is sent. If renewal

subscription is not received up to two weeks before the expiry of the subscription,

the subscriber's name is removed from the mailing list and the subscriber

informed. Obtain logical DFDs for this problem

5.17 Obtain a flowchart for Exercise 5.17 and state in what way it differs from the

DFD.

5.18 Obtain a physical DFD for a simple payroll system described below. A list of

employees with their basic pay is sent to a clerk. He calculates the gross pay

using standard allowances which are known for each pay slab. Deduction

statements such as loan repayment, subscription to association etc. are also sent to

another clerk who matches these slips with the slips of gross pay and calculates

net pay. This slip is used by a third clerk to write out pay cheques for each

employee and sent to respective employees. The total pay bills paid are also
computed.

5.19 If the procedure of Exercise 5.19 is to be computerised, obtain a logical DFD for

the computer-based system.


Annotated References

1. Ian Sommerville, “Software Engineering”, 5th Edition, Addison-Wesley, 1996,


has a brief discussion of Data Flow Models on pp.101 to 103.
2. T.DeMarco, “Structured Analysis and System Specification”, Yourdon Press,
1978. this book written by the original developer of DFD modeling is a well
written book. It is a good reference book.
3. E.Yourdon, “Modern Structured Analysis”, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi,
1996. Chapter 9 (pp.139 to 187) is a good treatment of Data Flow Diagrams. All
the topics covered in this module are discussed in this chapter.
4. Hoffer, J.A., George, J.F. and Valacich J.S., “Modern Systems Analysis and
Design”, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education Asia, New Delhi, 2002. Chapter 8
(pp.241 to 271) has a good treatment of DFDs with a running example of a quick
service restaurant. Different types of DFDs and logical checking of DFDs are
discussed well.
5. K.E.Kendall and J.E.Kendall, “Systems Analysis and Design”, 5th Edition,
Pearson Eduation Asia, New Delhi, 2003. Chapter 9 is devoted to Data Flow
Diagrams (pp.241 to 285). Has a number of problems at the end of the chapter
which are quite interesting.
6.
MODULE 6

PROCESS SPECIFICATION
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS

There are 4 alternative answers to each question. One of them is correct.


Pick the correct answer. Do not guess. A key is given at the end of the
module for you to verify your answer

LEARNING UNIT 1

6.1.1 Structured English is used to describe


(a) how programs are to be written
(b) processes in a DFD in a reasonably precise manner
(c) how DFDs are used in data processing
(d) data flows in DFD

6.1.2 Structured English is a


(a) structured programming language
(b) description of processes in simple English
(c) method of describing computational procedures reasonably precisely in
English
(d) natural language based algorithmic language

6.1.3 The objective of using structured English is to


(a) describe computational procedures reasonably precisely which can be
understood by any user
(b) expand a DFD so that a user can understand it
(c) develop algorithms corresponding to processes in a DFD
(d) ease writing programs for DFDs

6.1.4 Structured English description of processes


(i) should be understandable to a user of a computer based system
(ii) should be understandable to a programmer
(iii) can be descriptive in nature
(iv) should be translatable by a compiler
(a) i and iii (b) ii and iv
(c) i, ii and iv (d) i and ii
6.1.5 A decision table is
(a) a truth table
(b) a table which facilitates taking decisions
(c) a table listing conditions and actions to be taken based on the testing of
conditions
(d) a table in a Decision Support System

6.1.6 A decision table


(a) has a structured English equivalent representation
(b) cannot be represented using structured English
(c) does not have an equivalent algorithmic representation
(d) cannot be used to represent processes in a DFD

6.1.7 A decision table is preferable when the number of


(a) conditions to be checked in a procedure is small
(b) conditions to be checked in a procedure is large
(c) actions to be carried out are large
(d) actions to be carried out are small

6.1.8 Select from the following list which are appropriate to use in structured
English description of a process
(i) process inventory records
(ii) find the sum of outstanding billed amounts
(iii) check if outstanding amount >= Rs. 5000
(iv) check if stock is low
(a) i and ii (b) i and iii
(c) iii and iv (d) ii and iii

6.1.9 Structured English statements must be


(a) short and clear
(b) specified quantitatively
(c) specified qualitatively
(d) detailed and descriptive

6.1.10 Select statements from the following list which may be used in structured
English
(i) if marks are too low fail student
(ii) if marks >=60 enter first class
(iii) if average height select candidate
(iv) if weight < 40 kg. reject candidate
(a) i and ii (b) ii and iii
(c) iii and iv (d) ii and iv
6.1.11 Select correct decision structures from the following
(i) if total marks>=75
then enter distinction in student record
end if
(ii) if total marks >=50
then enter pass in student record
else enter fail in student record
end if
(iii) if total marks >=60
then enter first class in student record
else if total marks>= 50
then enter second class in student record
else
enter fail in student record
end if
end if
(iv) if attendance <30%
then
do not admit in examination
else
(a) ii and iii (b) i and ii
(c) iii and iv (d) i and iv

6.1.12 The following structured English procedure is incorrect because


if balance in account <=0
then
{issue exception note to dept.
mark “stop future issues” in
departments record}
else
if balance in account <minimum balance
then
{ issue item to dept.
issue warning to dept.}
end if
end if
(a) end if in second if is not needed
(b) nesting of ifs is not correct
(c) no action is specified when balance in account >=minimum balance
(d) the value of minimum balance is not specified
6.1.13 The following structural English is incorrect because
case (income slab)
Income slab =1 : tax= 10%
Income slab =2 or 3 : tax= 20%
Income slab =5 : tax= 30%
end case
(a) no action is specified for income slab of 4
(b) income slab has to be rupees
(c) income slab =2 or 3 is wrong
(d) number of cases is too small

6.1.14 The following structured English procedure is incorrect because


case (code)
Code=2 : if purchase amount >=5000
then discount=5%
Code=1 : discount=2%
Code=3 : if purchase amount >=4000
then discount =2%
else if code=4
then discount =5%
end if
None of the above codes : discount=0
end case
(a) code=2 should appear after code=1
(b) if statement cannot be used within a case
(c) code=4 should not be used in the action for code=3
(d) The statement is correct

6.1.15 The following while structure is wrong because


balance =500
while balance <=1000 do
Write (amount due – balance)
Read next record
end while
(a) read must appear before write
(b) this loop will never terminate
(c) no read allowed in a loop
the contents of next record is not known
LEARNING UNIT 2

6.2.1 Structured English description of data processing is a


(a) non-procedural specification
(b) procedural specification
(c) purely descriptive specification
(d) very imprecise specification

6.2.2 Decision table description of data processing is


(a) non-procedural specification
(b) procedural specification
(c) purely descriptive specification
(d) very imprecise specification

6.2.3 In the following word statement the conditions are:


“if a student gets 50 marks or more in mathematics and 40 marks or more in
English he passes the examination, otherwise he fails”
(a) student passes the examination
(b) student fails the examination
(c) student gets 50 marks or more in mathematics
(d) student mathematics marks >= 50 and student English marks >= 40

6.2.4 In the following word statement the actions are


“if a student gets 50 marks or more in mathematics and 40 marks or more in
English he passes the examination, otherwise he fails”
(i) student passes the examination
(ii) student fails the examination
(iii) student gets 50 marks or more in mathematics
(iv) student mathematics marks >= 50 and student English marks >= 40
(a) i and ii (b) i and iii
(c) ii and iii (d) iii and iv

6.2.5 In a limited entry decision table the condition stub


(a) lists X or – corresponding to actions to be executed
(b) lists the conditions to be tested
(c) has Y or N or – entries
(d) lists the actions to be taken

6.2.6 In a limited entry decision table the condition entries


(a) list X or – corresponding to actions to be executed
(b) list the conditions to be tested
(c) have Y or N or – entries
(d) list the actions to be taken
6.2.7 In a limited entry decision table the action stub
(a) lists X or – corresponding to actions to be executed
(b) lists the conditions to be tested
(c) has Y or N or – entries
(d) lists the actions to be taken

6.2.8 In a limited entry decision table the action entries


(a) list X or – corresponding to actions to be executed
(b) list the conditions to be tested
(c) have Y or N or – entries
(d) list the actions to be taken

6.2.9 In a limited entry decision table the condition entries may be


(a) Y or N only
(b) Y, N or –
(c) A binary digit
(d) Any integer

6.2.10 In a limited entry decision table a—entry against a condition signifies that
(a) the outcome of testing the condition is irrelevant
(b) it is an important condition
(c) the condition should be tested
(d) the condition is a Boolean condition

6.2.11 A rule in a limited entry decision table is a


(a) row of the table consisting of condition entries
(b) row of the table consisting of action entries
(c) column of the table consisting of condition entries and the corresponding
action entries
(d) columns of the tables consisting of conditions of the stub

6.2.12 The conditions in the condition stub of a limited entry decision table
(a) must be in sequential order
(b) must be in the order in which they are to be tested
(c) may be in any order
(d) must be in the order in which they are to be executed

6.2.13 The actions in the action stub of a limited entry decision table
(a) must be in sequential order
(b) must be in the order in which they are to be tested
(c) may be in any order
(d) must be in the order in which they are to be executed
6.2.14 A X against an action in an action row signifies that the
(a) action is not to be taken
(b) action is to be taken
(c) action is important
(d) action is not important

6.2.15 A—against an action in an action row signifies that the


(a) action is not to be taken
(b) action is to be taken
(c) action is important
(d) action is not important

6.2.16 An extended entry decision table has


(a) only Y, N or – entries
(b) entries which extend the condition
(c) questions asked extended into the condition entry part of the table
(d) only numerical entries

6.2.17 An extended entry decision table


(a) has no limited entry equivalent
(b) cannot be replaced by a table with only Y, or – entries
(c) may have Yes, No answers to conditions
(d) can always be converted to an equivalent limited entry decision table

6.2.18 An extended entry decision table is


(a) very difficult to understand
(b) quite concise compared to a limited entry decision table developed for the
same task
(c) large compared to a limited entry table developed for the same task
(d) is not very often used

6.2.19 A mixed entry decision table


(a) may have some conditions with Y, N, or – entries
(b) may not have any Y, N, or – entry
(c) may have only non-numerical entries
(d) may mix numerical and non-numerical entries
Given a decision table “test” shown below
R1 R2 R3
C1 Y N Y
C2 N – Y

A1 X –– Decision table–“test”
A2 – X –
A3 X – X
Answer the following questions:

6.2.20 Rule R1 is interpreted as follows:


(a) If C1 is TRUE and C2 is FALSE then perform action A2
(b) If C1 is TRUE and C2 is FALSE then perform action A1 and then action A2
(c) If C1 is TRUE and C2 is FALSE then perform action A3 and then action A1
(d) If C1 is TRUE and C2 is FALSE then perform action A1 and then action A3

6.2.21 Rule R3 is interpreted as follows:


(a) If C1 is TRUE and C2 is TRUE then perform action A1 and A2
(b) If C1 is TRUE or C2 is TRUE then perform action A3
(c) If C1 is TRUE and C2 is TRUE then perform action A1 or A2
(d) If C1 is TRUE and C2 is TRUE then perform action A3

6.2.22 Structured English equivalent of the decision table “test” are given below
(i) if C1 TRUE
then if C2 TRUE
then do A3
else do A1 and A3
end if
else do A2
end if
(ii) if C1 FALSE
then do A2
else if C2 TRUE
then do A3
else do A1 and A3
end if
end if
(iii) if C2 TRUE
then if C1 TRUE
then do A3
else do A2
end if
else do A1 and A3
end if

(iv) if C2 FALSE
then if C1 TRUE
then do A1 and A3
else do A2
end if
else do A3
end if
Which of the following are correct?
(a) i and iii (b) i and ii
(c) iii and iv (d) ii and iv

6.2.23 Structured English equivalents of decision table “test” are given below. Pick
the right ones
(i) if C1 TRUE and C2 FALSE then R=1 end if
if C1 FALSE then R=2 end if
if C1 TRUE and C2 TRUE then R=3 end if
case (R)
R=1; perform actions A1 and A3
R=2; perform action A2
R=3; perform action A3
end case
(ii) if C1 TRUE and C2 FALSE then perform actions A1, A3 end if
if C1 FALSE then perform action A2 end if
if C1 TRUE and C2 TRUE then perform action A3 end if
(iii) case (C1 TRUE and C2 FALSE) Rule R1
case (C1 FALSE) Rule R2
case (C1 TRUE and C2 TRUE) Rule R3
end case
(iv) if C1 TRUE and C2 TRUE then do Rule R3 end if
if C1 TRUE and C2 FALSE then do Rule R1 end if
if C1 TRUE then do Rule R2 end if
(a) i and ii (b) i and iii
(c) ii and iii (d) iii and iv

6.2.24 The Elementary Rule Decision Table equivalent of decision table “test” is
(a) C1 Y N Y
C2 N N Y

A1 X – –
A2 – X –
A3 X – X

(b) C1 Y N Y
C2 N Y Y

A1 X – –
A2 – X –
A3 X – X
(c) C1 Y N N Y
C2 N N Y Y

A1 X – – –
A2 – X X –
A3 X – – X

(d) C1 Y N N Y
C2 N N Y Y

A1 X – – –
A2 – X – –
A3 X – X X

LEARNING UNIT 3

6.3.1 The decision table “test” is


(a) ambiguous
(b) contradictory
(c) incomplete
(d) complete
Answer the following referring to the decision table “test2”
R1 R2
C1 : x <= 50 N –
C2 : x >= 70 – N

A1 X –
A2 – X

Decision Table: “test2”

6.3.2 Decision table “test2” is


(a) really incomplete
(b) complete
(c) apparently incomplete
(d) apparently complete

6.3.3 Decision table “test2”


(a) has a real ambiguity
(b) has an apparent ambiguity
(c) is logically correct
(d) is incomplete
C1 N –
C2 – N

A1 Y –
A2 – Y

DECISION TABLE “testing”

6.3.4 Decision table “testing” can be made complete


(i) by putting an ELSE rule
(ii) is as it is complete and does not need any more rules
(iii) by specifying actions when C1 = Y and C2 = Y
(iv) by specifying actions when C1 = N and C2 = N
(a) (i), (ii) (b) (i), (iii)
(c) (ii), (iii) (d) (ii), (iv)

6.3.5The K-map equivalent of decision table “test2” is

C1 C1

a) Y N b) Y N
C2 C2
Y A1 Y A1 A2

N A2 A1 N A2 A1

c) C1 d) C1
Y N Y N
C2 C2
Y A1 Y A1

N A2 A1,A2 N A2 A2
6.3.6 The decision table equivalent of the following structured English statement
is
if C2 TRUE
then if C1 TRUE
then do A3
else do A2
end if
else do A1 and A3
end if

(a) C1 Y Y N
C2 Y N –

A1 – – X
A2 – X –
A3 X – X

(b) C2 Y Y N
C1 Y N N

A1 – – X
A2 – X –
A3 X – X

(c) C1 Y N –
C2 Y Y N

A1 – – X
A2 – X –
A3 X – X

(d) C1 Y N Y
C2 Y Y N

A1 – – X
A2 – X –
A3 X – X
6.3.7 The decision table equivalent of the following structured English statement is
if balance in account <=0
then {issue exception note to dept. and mark “stop future issues”}
else if balance in account <min. balance
then {issue item to dept.
issue warning to dept.}
else {issue item to dept.}
end if
end if

C1=balance in account <=0;


C2=balance in account < min. balance
A1=issue exception note and mark “no future issues”
A2=issue item to dept
A3=issue warning to dept.
(a) C1 Y N N
C2 – Y N

A1 X – –
A2 – X X
A3 – X –

(b) C1 Y N N Y
C2 N Y N Y

A1 X – – –
A2 – X X X
A3 – X – –

(c) C1 N N N
C2 – Y N

A1 X – –
A2 – X X
A3 – X –

(d) C1 Y N Y
C2 N Y N

A1 X – –
A2 – X X
A3 – X –
6.3.8The decision table given in answer (a) of question 9.4.3 is
(a) incomplete
(b) apparently ambiguous
(c) has contradictory specifications
(d) logically complete

6.3.9 The rule C1=Y, C2=Y in the decision table given in answer (a) of question
6.3.7 is
(a) logically impossible
(b) logically possible
(c) has no action specified
(d) has multiple actions specified

6.3.10 If min. balance > 0 then the rule C1=Y, C2= – in the decision table given in
answer (a) of question 6.3.7 may be replaced by the rule
(a) C1=Y, C2=N
(b) C1=Y, C2=Y
(c) C1= –, C2=Y
(d) C1= –, C2=N

LEARNING UNIT 4

6.4.1 The actions of a decision table are mapped on a K-map shown below:
The boxes marked X denote impossible rules

C1C2
C3 NN NY YY YN
Y A1 A1 A2

N A1 A2 A2

The rule for action A1 may be represented by the following minimal Boolean expression

(a) C1.C2 + C1.C2.C3


(b) C1.C2.C3 + C1.C3
(c) C1.C3 + C2
(d) C1.C3 + C2.C1
6.4.2 The following decision table may be replaced by its best equivalent shown
below:
C1 N N N N Y Y Y Y
C2 N N Y Y Y Y N N
C3 Y N N Y Y N N Y

A1 X – – X – – X X
A2 – X X – X X X X

(a) C1 N N Y Y
C2 – – Y N
C3 Y N – –

A1 X – – X
A2 – X X X

(b) C1 – Y N Y
C2 – – – N
C3 N – Y –

A1 – – X X
A2 X X – X

(c) C1 N – Y N Y
C2 – Y Y – N
C3 N N – Y –

A1 – – – X X
A2 X X X – X

(d) C1 Y N N Y
C2 – – – N
C3 – N Y –

A1 – – X X
A2 X X – X
6.4.3 The following decision table may be replaced by its best equivalent shown
below:

C1 N Y Y N N Y N Y N N Y Y N Y N Y
C2 N N N N Y Y Y Y N N N N Y Y Y Y
C3 N N Y Y N N Y Y N Y N Y N N Y Y
C4 N N N N Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N N N N

A1 X X X X – – – – – – – – – – – –
A2 – – – – X X X X – – – – – – – –
A3 – – – – – – – – X X X X – – – –
A4 – – – – – – – – – – – – X X X X

(a) C1 Y N N N N Y – –
C2 N N – – N N Y Y
C3 – – N Y – – N Y
C4 N N Y Y Y Y N N

A1 X X – – – – – –
A2 – – X X – – – –
A3 – – – – X X – –
A4 – – – – – – X X

(b) C2 N Y N Y
C4 N Y Y N

A1 X – – –
A2 – X – –
A3 – – X –
A4 – – – X

(c) C1 – N Y – –
C2 – N N Y –
C3 N – – – Y
C4 N Y Y Y N

A1 X – – – X
A2 – – – X –
A3 – X X – –
A4 X – – – X
(d) C2 – N Y –
C3 – – – Y
C4 N Y Y N

A1 X – – X
A2 – – X –
A3 – X – –
A4 X – – X

Given the decision table “test 3”answer the following questions:


R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8
x>=20 Y Y Y Y N N N N
x<=30 Y Y N N Y Y N N
y>=x Y N Y N Y N Y N

A1 X X X X – – – –
A2 – – – – X X – –
A3 – – – – – – X X

6.4.4 (a) Rules R7, R8 are logically impossible


(b) Rules R5, R6 are logically impossible
(c) Rules R3, R4 are logically impossible
(d) Rules R1, R2 are logically impossible

6.4.5 Pick the correct equivalent of “test 3”


(a) C1 Y N (b) C1 Y N N
C2 – Y N
A1 X –
A2 – X A1 X – –
A2 – X –
A3 – – X

(c) C1 Y Y N N (d) C1 Y N N
C3 N Y N Y C2 – Y N
C2 – – – –

A1 X X – – A1 X – –
A2 – – X X A2 – X –
A3 – – X
6.4.6 The decision table “test 3“ is
(a) incomplete
(b) ambiguous
(c) incorrect
(d) has redundancies
6.4.7 The decision table equivalent of the following Boolean expression is

A1= C3.C1.C2 + C2.C3.C1

A2= C1.C3 + C3.C2.C1+ C1.C2.C3

(a) C1 Y Y Y N N
C2 Y N – N N
C3 N Y Y Y N

A1 X X – – –
A2 – – X X X

(b) C1 Y Y Y N N
C2 Y N N N N
C3 Y Y – Y N

A1 X X – – –
A2 – – X X X

(c) C2 Y Y Y N N
C1 Y N – N N
C3 N Y Y Y N

A1 X X – – –
A2 – – X X X

(d) C1 Y Y Y N N
C2 Y N – N N
C3 N Y Y Y N

A1 X X – – –
A2 X X X X X
6.4.8 A decision table “test 4” is given below

C1 Y Y N – – N Y N
C2 Y – N Y – N N –
C3 Y Y Y – Y N N N
C4 – Y – Y N – – N

A1 X X X – – – – –
A2 – – – X X – – –
A3 – – – – – X X –
? – – – – – – – I

where I indicates impossible rule

The contradictory rules are


(a) YYYY, NYYY, NNYY
(b) YYYN, NYYN, NNYN
(c) YYYY, YYYN, NNYN
(d) There are no contradictory rules
6.4.9 In “test 4” the contradictory actions are:
(a) A1, A3
(b) A1, A2
(c) A2, A3
(d) A2, I

6.4.10 In “test 4” missing rule is:


(a) NYNN
(b) NYYN
(c) YYNN
(d) YNYN

6.4.11 If in “test 4” the rules where the contradictory actions or unspecified actions
are present, the action is replaced by A2 only, the reduced decision table
using impossible rules also for reduction is:
(a) C1 – – – – – N
C2 N – Y Y – N
C3 Y Y – Y N N
C4 Y N Y – N –

A1 X – – – – –
A2 – X X X – –
A3 – – – – X X
(b) C1 N Y – – – N N
C2 N N Y Y – – N
C3 Y Y N Y Y N N
C4 Y Y Y – N N –

A1 X X – – – – –
A2 – – X X X – –
A3 – – – – – X X

(c) C1 – – – – N
C2 N – Y – N
C3 Y Y – N N
C4 Y N Y N –

A1 X – – – –
A2 – X X – –
A3 – – – X X

(d) C2 N Y – N
C3 Y – Y N
C4 Y – N –

A1 X – – –
A2 – X X –
A3 – – – X

6.5.1 Decision Trees are preferred when


a) Too many conditions need to be tested
b) Sequencing of testing conditions is important
c) When there are many loops to be performed
d) When too many actions are to be taken

6.5.2 Decision Tables are preferred when


a) Too many conditions need to be tested
b) Sequencing of testing conditions is important
c) When there are many loops to be performed
d) When too many actions are to be taken
6.5.3 Structured English is preferred when
a) Too many conditions need to be tested
b) Sequencing of testing conditions is important
c) When there are many loops to be performed
d) When too many actions are to be taken

6.5.4 The objective of using decision trees is to


a) Expand a DFD so that a user can understand it
b) To specify sequence of conditions to be tested and actions to be taken
c) Describe a computational procedure that can be easily understood by a person
c) Use it as a tool in decision support system

6.5.5 Decision trees are superior to decision tables when


a) The number of conditions to be tested is very large
b) When sequence of testing conditions is not particularly important
c) When sequence of testing conditions is not particularly important
c) When a large number of actions are to be specified

6.5.6 Logical correctness of a specifications can be systematically checked by


a) Using decision trees
b) Using structured English
c) Using DFD’s
d) Using decision tables

6.5.7 The decision tree equivalent of the following structured English is

if C2 then
if C1
then A3
else A2
endif
else A1,A3
endif

A3
Y
Y C2
a) N A2
C1

N A1, A3
Y A3
b)
Y C1
A2
C2 N
A1
N Y
C1

N A3

Y A3

Y C1
c) N A2

C2

A1, A3
N

A2

d) C1

A3
C2

A1A3

6.5.8 Decision tables are better then Decision trees when


a) Conditions are to be isolated from actions in a word statement
b) Condition sequences are to be found from a word statement
c) Logical correctness of a word statement is to be established
d) Large number of actions is to be performed
6.5.9 The decision table equivalent of the Decision tree of choice (a) of 6.5.7 is

a)
C2 Y N N Y
C1 N Y N Y

A1 X - X -
A2 - X X -
A3 X - - X

b)
C1 Y Y N
C2 Y N -

A1 - - X
A2 - X -
A3 X - X

c)
C1 Y Y N
C2 Y N Y

A1 - - X
A2 - X -
A3 X - X

d)
C1 Y Y N
Else
C2 Y N Y

A1 - - X Error
A2 - X -
A3 X - X
KEY TO OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS

6.1.1 b 6.1.2 c 6.1.3 a 6.1.4 d 6.1.5 c 6.1.6 a


6.1.7 b 6.1.8 d 6.1.9 b 6.1.10 d 6.1.11 a 6.1.12 c
6.1.13 a 6.1.14 c 6.1.15 b 6.2.1 b 6.2.2 a 6.2.3 d
6.2.4 a 6.2.5 b 6.2.6 c 6.2.7 d 6.2.8 a 6.2.9 b
6.2.10 a 6.2.11 c 6.2.12 c 6.2.13 d 6.2.14 b 6.2.15 a
6.2.16 c 6.2.17 d 6.2.18 b 6.2.19 a 6.2.20 d 6.2.21 d
6.2.22 b 6.2.23 a 6.2.24 c 6.3.1 d 6.3.2 c 6.3.3 a
6.3.4 b 6.3.5 c 6.3.6 c 6.3.7 a 6.3.8 d 6.3.9 b
6.3.10 b 6.4.1 c 6.4.2 a 6.4.3 b 6.4.4 a 6.4.5 a
6.4.6 d 6.4.7 a 6.4.8 c 6.4.9 b 6.4.10 c 6.4.11 d
6.5.1 b 6.5.2 a 6.5.3 c 6.5.4 b 6.5.5 c 6.5.6 d
6.5.7 c 6.5.8 c 6.5.9 b
MODULE 6
PROCESS SPECIFICATION

Learning Units
6.1 Structured English specification
6.2 Decision table based specifications
6.3 Detecting
-Incompleteness
-Ambiguity
-Contradictions
-Redundancy
in decision table specification
6.4 Eliminating redundancy in specifications
6.5 Decision trees for specifications

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman


LEARNING GOALS

In this module we will learn


1. How to use structured English to precisely specify
processes
2. The terminology used in structured English
3. Terminology of decision tables and how it is used to
specify complex logic
4. How to detect errors in decision table specifications
5. Terminology and use of decision trees
6. Comparison of structured English, decision tables and
decision trees

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 1 of 54


MOTIVATION

ƒ Before designing a system an analyst must clearly


understand the logic to be followed by each process
block in a DFD

ƒ An analyst’s understanding must be cross checked


with the user of the information system.

ƒ A notation is thus needed to specify process block in


detail which can be understood by a user.

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 2 of 54


MOTIVATION

ƒ Notation used must be appropriate for the type of the


application to be modelled.

ƒ Different notations are needed to represent repetition


structures,complex decision situation and situations
where sequencing of testing of conditions is important

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 3 of 54


MOTIVATION

ƒ For complex logical procedures a notation is needed


which can also be used to detect logical errors in the
specifications.

ƒA tabular structure for representing logic can be used


as a communication tool and can be automatically
converted to a program.

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 4 of 54


PROCESS SPECIFICATION

ƒ Once a DFD is obtained the next step is to precisely


specify the process.
ƒ Structured English, Decision tables and Decision Trees
are used to describe process.

ƒ Decision tables are used when the process is logically


complex involving large number of conditions and
alternate solutions
ƒ Decision Trees are used when conditions to be tested
must follow a strict time sequence.
6.1.1 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 5 of 54
STRUCTURED ENGLISH

ƒ Structured English is similar to a programming


language such as Pascal
ƒ It does not have strict syntax rules as programming
language
ƒ Intention is to give precise description of a process

ƒ The structured English description should be


understandable to the user

6.1.2 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 6 of 54


STRUCTURED ENGLISH

if customer pays advance


then
Give 5% Discount
else
if purchase amount >=10,000
then
if the customer is a regular customer
then Give 5% Discount
else No Discount
end if
else No Discount
end if
end if

6.1.3 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 7 of 54


DECISION TABLE-EXAMPLE

ƒ Same structured English procedure given as decision table

CONDITIONS RULE1 RULE2 RULE3 RULE4


Advance payment made Y N N N
Purchase amt >=10,000 - Y Y N
Regular Customer? - Y N -

ACTIONS
Give 5% Discount X X - -
Give No Discount - - X X

6.1.4 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 8 of 54


DECISION TABLE-EXPLANATION

ƒ Conditions are questions to be asked


ƒ ‘Y’ is yes,’N’ is no & ‘-’ is irrelevant
ƒ A ‘X’ against the action says the action must be
taken
ƒ A ‘-’ against the action says the action need not
be taken

Rule 2 in decision table DISCOUNT states:

if no advance payment and purchase amount >=10000


and regular customer then give 5% discount
6.1.5 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 9 of 54
STRUCTURED ENGLISH
ƒ Imperative sentences- Actions to be performed should be
precise and quantified
Good Example: Give discount of 20%
Bad Example: Give substantial discount
ƒ Operators -Arithmetic : +, -, /, *
Relational : >, >=, <, <=, =, !=
Logical : and, or, not
Keywords : if, then, else, repeat, until, while, do, case,
until, while, do, case, for, search, retrieve, read, write

ƒ Delimiters – {, }, end, end if, end for


6.1.6 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 10 of 54
DECISION TREE-EXAMPLE

ƒ The structured English procedure given in 6.1.3 is expressed as a


Decision tree below
Give 5% Discount

Y Y Give 5% Discount
C1 C3
N Y N
No Discount
C2 N
No Discount

C1: Advance payment made Y = Yes


C2: Purchase amount >=10,000 N = No
C3: Regular Customer

6.1.7 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 11 of 54


STRUCTURED ENGLISH-DECISION STRUCTURES

If condition
then
{ Group of statements }
else
{ Group of statements }
end if

Example: if(balance in account >= min.balance)


then honor request
else reject request
end if

6.1.8 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 12 of 54


STRUCTURED ENGLISH-CASE STATEMENT

Case (variable)
Variable = P: { statements for alternative P}
Variable = Q: { statements for alternative Q}
Variable = R: { statements for alternative R}
None of the above: { statements for default case}
end case

Example : Case(product code)


product code =1 : discount= 5%
product code =2 : discount =7%
None of the above : discount=0
end case

6.1.9 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 13 of 54


STRUCTURED ENGLISH-REPETITION STRUCTURE

for index = initial to final do


{ statements in loop }
end for

Example : Total =0
for subject =1 to subject =5 do
total marks=total marks +marks(subject)
write roll no,total marks
end for

6.1.10 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 14 of 54


STRUCTURED ENGLISH-WHILE LOOP

while condition do
{ statements in loop }
end while

Example : while there are student records left to do


read student record
compute total marks
find class
write total marks, class, roll no
end while

6.1.11 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 15 of 54


EXAMPLE

Update inventory file

for each item accepted record do


{ search inventory file using item code
if successful
then { update retrieved inventory record;
write updated record in inventory file using accepted record}
else { create new record in inventory file;
enter accepted record in inventory file}
end if
end for

6.1.12 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 16 of 54


DECISION TABLE-MOTIVATION

ƒ A procedural language tells how data is processed

ƒStructured English is procedural

ƒMost managers and users are not concerned how data is processed-
they want to know what rules are used to process data.

ƒSpecification of what a system does is non-procedural.

ƒDecision Tables are non-procedural specification of rules used in


processing data

6.2.1 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 17 of 54


ADVANTAGES OF DECISION TABLE

•Easy to understand by non-computer literate users and managers

•Good documentation of rules used in data processing.

•Simple representation of complex decision rules .

•Tabular representation allows systematic validation of


specification
detection of redundancy,incompleteness & inconsistency of rules

•Algorithms exist to automatically convert decision tables to


equivalent computer programs.

• Allows systematic creation of test data


6.2.2 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 18 of 54
METHOD OF OBTAINING DECISION TABLE
FROM WORD STATEMENT OF RULES

EXAMPLE

A bank uses the following rules to classify new accounts


If depositor's age is 21 or above and if the deposit is Rs 100 or more,
classify the account type as A If the depositor is under 21 and the deposit
is Rs 100 or more, classify it as type B If the depositor is 21 or over and
deposit is below Rs 100 classify it as C If the depositor is under 21 and
deposit is below Rs 100 do-not open account

Identify Conditions: Age >= 21 Cl


Deposits >= Rs 100: C2

Identify Actions : Classify account as A, B or C


Do not open account

6.2.3 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 19 of 54


DECISION TABLE FROM WORD STATEMENT
Condition Stub

CODITIONS Rule 1 Rule 2 Rule 3 Rule 4


C1 : Age >= 21 Y N Y N

C2: Deposit >=100 Y Y N N

ACTIONS

A1: Classify as A X - - -

A2: Classify as B - X - -

A3: Classify as C - - X -

A4: Do not open


Account - - - X
Action Stub

6.2.4 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 20 of 54


DECISION TABLE NOTATION EXPLAINED

CONDITION
STUB CONDITION ENTRIES

ACTION
ACTION ENTRIES
STUB
RULE

• 4 Quadrants-demarcated by two double lines


•CONDITION STUB LISTS ALL CONDITIONS TO BE CHECKED
•ACTION STUB LISTS ALL ACTIONS TO BE CARRIED OUT
•LIMITED ENTRY DECISION TABLE:ENTRIES ARE Y or N or -.Y-YES,N-
NO,-IRRELEVANT(DON’T CARE)
•X against action states it is to be carried out.
•-against action states it is to be ignored.
•Entries on a vertical column specifies a rule

6.2.5 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 21 of 54


DECISION TABLE NOTATION -CONTD

•ORDER OF LISTING CONDITIONS IRRELEVANT


i.e. CONDITIONS MAY BE CHECKED IN ANY ORDER

•ORDER OF LISTING ACTIONS IMPORTANT

•ACTIONS LISTED FIRST CARRIED OUT FIRST

SEQUENTIAL EXECUTION OF ACTIONS

•RULES MAY BE LISTED IN ANY ORDER

6.2.6 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 22 of 54


INTERPRETING DECISION TABLE-ELSE RULE
R1 R2
C1: Is applicant sponsored Y Y ELSE
C2: Does he have min Y Y
qualification
C3: Is fee paid? Y N

A1: Admit letter X - -


A2: Provisional Admit
letter - X -
A3: Regret letter - - X

Interpretation
R1: If applicant sponsored and he has minimum qualifications
and his fee is paid –Send Admit letter

R2: If applicant sponsored and has minimum qualifications


and his fee not paid send provisional admit letter

ELSE: In all cases send regret letter.The else rule makes a decision table complete
6.2.7 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 23 of 54
DECISION TABLE FOR SHIPPING RULES

R1 R2 R3 R4
C1: Qty ordered <= Quantity Y Y N N
in stock?
C2: (Qty in stock-Qty
ordered)<=reorder level N Y - -
C3: Is the partial - - Y N
shipment ok?
A1:Qty shipped=Qty ordered X X - -
A2:Qty shipped=Qty in stock - - X -
A3:Qty shipped=0 - - - X
A4:Qty in stock=0 - - X -
A5:Back order=qty ordered-
qty shipped - - X X

A6:Initiative reorder procedure - X X X


A7: Qty in stockÅQty in stock X X - -
-Qty shipped

6.2.8 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 24 of 54


EXTENDED ENTRY DECISION TABLE
ƒ Condition Entries not necessarily Y or N
ƒ Action entries not necessarily X or -
ƒ Extended Entry Decision Tables(EEDT) more concise
ƒ EEDT can always be expanded to LEDT

Example R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6
C1 : Product code 1 1 1 1 1 2

C2 : Customer code A B A B C -

C3 : Order amount <=500 <=500 >500 >500 - -

Discount = 5% 7.5% 7.5% 10% 6% 5%

6.2.9 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 25 of 54


MIXED ENTRY DECISION TABLE

Can mix up Yes, No answers with codes

Rl R2 R3 R4 R5 R6

Cl : Product code = 1? Y Y Y Y N
C2: Customer code = A B A B C -
C3: Order amount < 500? Y Y N N - -

Discount = 5% 7 5% 7 5% 10% 6% 5%

Choice of LEDT, EEDT, MEDT depends on ease of communication with user,


software available to translate DTs to programs, ease of checking etc.

6.2.10 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 26 of 54


LINKED DECISION TABLE
Decision table 1 Decision table 2

Salary point=6 N e Salary point>2 N N N Y


Conduct OK? Y l 1 yr as class 1 Y N - -
Diligence OK? Y s officer
Efficiency OK? Y e Departmental test Y - N -
Passed?
Go to table 2 X - Advance to next
No promotion - X salary point X - - -
No promotion - X X -
Decision table3 Go to Table3 - - - X
Complete departmental Y
Course else
Y 1.Observe that one can branch between
1 yr since last increment
tables
Advance to next salary X - 2. Whenever complex rules are given it
point
No promotion - X is a good idea to break them up into
manageable parts
6.2.11 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 27 of 54
LOGICAL CORRECTNESS OF DECISION TABLE
Consider decision table DTI:

Rl R2
Cl: x>60 Y -
C2:x<40 - Y
We can expand decision table by
Al X - replacing each –by Y & N
A2 : - X

DT2: R11 R12 R21 R22

Cl: x>60 Y Y N Y
C2:x<40 Y N Y Y A rule which has no – is an
Elementary rule
Al X X - -
A2 : - - X X

DT2 is an Elementary Rule Decision Table (ERDT)

6.3.1 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 28 of 54


LOGICAL CORRECTNESS OF DECISION TABLE
(CONTD)

ƒ A decision table with 1 condition should have 2 elementary rules


ƒ Each elementary rule must be distinct
ƒ Each elementary rule must have distinct action
ƒ If a decision table with k conditions does not have 2k rules specified
it is said to be incomplete
For example : DT2 does not have the elementary rule C1:N, C2:N.
ƒ It is thus incomplete.
ƒIf the decision table has the same elementary rule occurring more
than once it is said to have multiplicity of specifications
For Example:In DT2 The rule C1:Y,C2:Y occurs twice.Thus it has
multiplicity of specification

6.3.2 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 29 of 54


LOGICAL CORRECTNESS OF DECISION TABLE
(CONTD)
ƒ If action specified for multiple identical rules are different then it
is called ambiguous specifications
DT2 has an ambiguity.Rules R11 and R21 are identical but have
different actions

ƒ Ambiguity may be apparent or real

ƒ It is said to be apparent if the rule leading to the ambiguity is


logically impossible

ƒFor example,(x>60)=Y and (x<40)=Y cannot occur simultaneously.


Thus in DT2 rules R11 and R22 are apparently ambiguous rules

ƒ Apparently ambiguous rules is not an error

6.3.3 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 30 of 54


LOGICAL CORRECTNESS OF DECISION TABLE
(CONTD)

If an apparently ambiguous specification is real then it is a


contradiction
For example : If C1:(X > 60) = Y and C2:(X > 40) = Y then X = 70
will satisfy both inequalities.
As two actions are specified for (Cl = Y, C2 = Y) and they are
different the rule is really ambiguous and is called Contradictory
Specification.

6.3.4 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 31 of 54


LOGICAL CORRECTNESS OF DECISION TABLE
(CONTD)

• If all 2k elementary rules are not present in a k condition decision


table is said to be incomplete.

•DT2 (PPT 6.3.1) is incomplete as rule C1:N, C2:N is missing

•Rule C1=N, C2:=N is logically possible as C1=N is X<=60


and C2=N is X >= 40. A value of X = 50 will make C1=N,C2=N
Thus DT2 has a real incomplete specification

•A decision table which has no real ambiguities or real


incompleteness is said to be logically correct

•A decision table with logical errors should be corrected

6.3.5 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 32 of 54


USE OF KARNAUGH MAPS

ƒ KARNAUGH map abbreviated K-map is a 2 dimensional diagram


with one square per elementary rule
ƒ The k-map of DT2 is

C1 N Y
C2
? Al
N
Y A2 A1,A2

ƒ If more than one action is in one square it is an ambiguous rule


ƒ If a square is empty it signifies incomplete specification

6.3.6 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 33 of 54


USE OF KARNAUGH MAPS

Structured English procedure:

If carbon content<0.7
then if Rockwell hardness>50
then if tensile strength>30000
then steel is grade 10
else steel is grade 9
end if
else steel is grade 8
end if
Decision table-Grading steel
else steel is grade 7
end if C1:Carbon content <0.7 Y Y Y N Y N N N
C2:Rockwell hardness>50 Y Y N N N Y Y N
C3 tensile strength>30000 Y N N N Y Y N Y

Grade 10 9 8 7 ? ? ? ?

6.3.7 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 34 of 54


KARNAUGH MAPS – GRADING STEEL

C1 C2
C3 NN NY YY YN
N 7 ? 9 8
Y ? ? 10 ?

ƒThe 3 conditions are independent

ƒThe decision table is thus incomplete

ƒObserve that in the Structured English specifications


the incompleteness is not obvious

6.3.8 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 35 of 54


DECISION TABLE-ARREARS MANAGEMENT

R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6

C1:Payment in current month Y N N - - -


>min.specified payment
C2:Payment in current month>0 - Y Y - N N
C3:Any payment in last 3 months - - - N Y Y
C4: Actual arrears > 3(min.
Specified payment per month) - Y N Y N Y

A1 : Send letter A X - - - - -
A2 : Send letter B - X - - - -
A3 : Send letter C - - X - - -
A4 : Send letter D - - - X - X
A5 : Send letter E - - - - X -

6.3.9 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 36 of 54


KARNAUGH MAP
C1C2
C3C4 NN NY YY YN
NN
? A3 A1 A1*
NY A4 A2A4+ A1A4+ A1A4* K – Map for decision table
YY A4 A2 A1 A1A4*
YN A5 A3 A1 A1A5*
C1 : x>m C2:x>0 C3:y>0 C4:z>3m m>0
C3,C4 independent of C1,C2 C1,C2 dependent
C1: Y C2: Y x>m, x>0 possible
C1: Y C2: N x>m, x<=0 not logically possible
C1: N C2: Y x<=m,x>0 possible
C1: N C2: N x<=m,x<=0 possible
Thus C1,C2,C3 C4:NNNN incomplete specification
BOXES MARKED * NOT LOGICALLY POSSIBLE
Rules C1 C2 C3 C 4 : NYNY and YYNY logical errors
Errors to be corrected after consulting users who formulated the rules
6.3.10 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 37 of 54
CORRECT DECISION TABLE

• If users say that for rules C1C2C3C4:NYNY AND YYNY


(marked with + in k-map) the action is A4 and for
C1C2C3C4:NNNN also it is A4, the corrected map is

C1C2
C3C4 NN NY YY YN
NN
A4 A3 A1
NY A4 A4 A4 Impossible rules

YY A4 A2 A1
YN A5 A3 A1

6.3.11 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 38 of 54


CORRECTED DECISION TABLE

C1 Y Y Y N N N N Y N N N N

C2 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N N N N

C3 N Y Y Y N Y N N Y N N Y

C4 N Y N Y N N Y Y Y Y N N

Action A1 A1 A1 A2 A3 A3 A4 A4 A4 A4 A4 A5

Question: Can the number of rules be reduced


Answer : Yes, by combining rules with the same action

Action A1 can be represented by the Boolean expression:

C1C2C3C4 + C1C2C3C4 + C1C2C3C4 = C1C2C3C4 + C1C2C3 (C4+C4)


=C1C2C3C4+C1C2C3 = C1C2C4 + C1C2C3
6.3.12 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 39 of 54
REDUNDANCY ELIMINATION

•Redundancy can be eliminated by systematically applying


four identities of Boolean Algebra
• These identities are
A + A=1
l.A = A
A+A=A
1+A=1
•K-map assists in identifying Boolean terms in which One or
more variables can be eliminated
•K-map is constructed in such a way that two boxes which
are physically adjacent in it are also logically adjacent

6.4.1 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 40 of 54


KARNAUGH MAP REDUCTION
C1 C2 C1 C2
NN NY YY YN C3 C4 NN NY YY YN
C3 C4 A4
NN NN
A4 A4 A4 A4 A4
NY NY

YY YY

YN YN

A4=C1C2C3(C4+C4)=C1C2C3 A4=C3C4(C1C2+C1C2+C1C2+C1C2)=C3C4

•Combining 2 adjacent boxes eliminates 1 variable


•Combining 4 adjacent boxes eliminates 2 variable
•Combining 8 adjacent boxes eliminates 3 variable
•First and last columns of k-map are logically adjacent
•First and last rows are also logically adjacent

6.4.2 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 41 of 54


KARNAUGH MAP REDUCTION
C1C2 C1C2 C1C2
NN NY YY YN C3 C4 NN NY YY YN
C3 C4 C3 C4 NN NY YY YN
A1 A1 A2 A2
NN NN NN
A1 A1 A2 A2 A3 A3
NY NY NY

A1 A1 A2 A2 A3 A3
YY YY YY
A1 A1 A2 A2
YN YN YN

A1=(C3C4+C3C4+C3C4+C3C4).(C1C2+C1C2)=C2(C3+C3)=C2
A2=(C1C2+C1C2)(C3C4+C3C4+C3C4+C3C4)=C2

A3=C1C2C3C4+C1C2C3C4+C1C2C3C4+C1C2C3C4

=C2C3C4(C1+C1)+C2C3C4(C1+C1)

=C2C4(C3+C3)=C2C4

6.4.3 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 42 of 54


REDUCING DECISION TABLES-USE OF K-MAP
This is the K-map corresponding to DT of 6.3.12

C1C2
C3C4 NN NY YY YN Boxes marked X correspond to impossible rules.
NN A4 A3 A1 They can be used if they are useful in reducing rules

A4 A4 A4 Using k-map reduction rules we get


NY

YY A4 A2 A1 A1 : C1C4+C1C3
A2 : C1C2C3C4
YN A5 A3 A1 A3 : C1C2C4
A4 : C3C4+C2C3+C2C4
A5 : C2C3C4

6.4.4 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 43 of 54


REDUCING DECISION TABLES

REDUCED DECISION TABLE for DT of 6.3.12

C1: Payment in current month > Y Y N N - - - -


min specified payment
C2: Payment in current month>0 - - Y Y - N N N
C3: Any payment in last 3 months - Y Y - N N - Y
C4: Actual arrears> 3(minimum specified
payment per month) N - Y N Y - Y N

A: Send letter A X X - - - - - -
B: Send letter B - - X - - - - -
C: Send letter C - - - X - - - -
D: Send letter D - - - - X X X -
E: Send letter E - - - - - - - X

6.4.5 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 44 of 54


EXAMPLE-REDUCTION OF RULES IN WORD
STATEMENT

Rules : Insure Driver if following rules are satisfied

1. Drivers annual income > 20000 & is married male


2. Drivers annual income > 20000 & is married and over 30
3. Drivers annual income <= 20000 & she is married female
4. Driver is male over 30
5. Driver is married and age is not relevant
Else do not insure

Conditions:
C1 : Annual income > 20000
C2 : Male
C3 : Married
C4: Age > 30

Action: Insure or do not insure

6.4.6 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 45 of 54


DECISION TABLE FOR INSURANCE RULES

Cl : Annual income> 20000 Y Y N - - E


C2: Male Y - N Y - L
C3: Married Y Y Y - Y S
C4: Age > 30 - Y - Y N E

A1:Insure X X X X X -
A2 :Do not insure - - - - - X

C1C2
NN NY YY YN
C3C4
NN

NY A1 A1
A1=C3+C2.C4
YY A1 A1 A1 A1
A1 A1 A1 A1
YN

6.4.7 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 46 of 54


REDUCED DECISION TABLE

- Y
C2 : Male
C3 : Married Y - ELSE

C4 : Age > 30 - Y

Al : Insure X X -

A2 : Do not Insure - - X

Reduced rules : Insure if married or male over 30


Observe 5 rules simplified to 2 and 1 condition removed

6.4.8 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 47 of 54


DECISION TREES

ƒ Used when sequence of testing condition is important

ƒ It is more procedural compared to Decision tables

6.5.1 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 48 of 54


EXAMPLE – DECISION TREE TO BOOK TRAIN
TICKET
Book by II AC on 4/8/04 if available else book by II AC on 5/8/04.If both not
available book by sleeper on 4/8/04 if available else book on
5/8/04 by sleeper.If none available return.
Y Book II AC

C1 Book II AC
N Y
C2 Book sleeper
N Y
C3 Book ticket
N Y
C1: Is II AC ticket available on 4/8/04 C4
C2: Is II AC ticket available on 5/8/04 N
C3: Is sleeper available on 4/8/04
Return
C4: Is sleeper available on 5/8/04
Observe in the tree sequencing of conditions which is important in this example

6.5.2 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 49 of 54


DECISION TREES

ƒ Decision trees are drawn left to right


ƒ Circles used for conditions
ƒ Conditions labelled and annotation below tree
ƒ Conditions need not be binary
For example:
>=60
GRADE A

C1
>=50
GRADE B

>=40
GRADE C
else
GRADE F

ƒ Sometimes Decision trees are more appropriate to


explain to a user how decisions are taken

6.5.3 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 50 of 54


DECISION TREES

Decision tree for decision table of 6.2.9 [Slide number 25]


YES Discount=7.5%
C3 NO
A Discount=5%
C2 B YES Discount=10%
1 C3
NO Discount=7.5%
C1 C
Discount=6%
2 Discount=5%
C1: PRODUCT CODE
C2 : CUSTOMER CODE
C3: ORDER AMOUNT >500?

• Observe that the 3 alternatives for connection C2 shown as three branching


lines

SOME PEOPLE FIND DECISION TREE EASIER TO UNDERSTAND


6.5.4 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 51 of 54
DECISION TREES
Decision tree equivalent of structured English procedure of 6.3.7
(SLIDE 37) is given below
NO Grade 7
C1
Grade 8
YES NO
C1
YES Grade 9
NO
C1
YES
C1 : Carbon < 0.7 Grade 10
C2 : Rockwell hardness > 50
C3: Tensile strength > 3000

• Observe incompleteness evident in the equivalent Decision Table is not evident


in the Decision tree
• If the testing sequence is specified and is to be strictly followed the Decision tree
is simple to understand.

6.5.5 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 52 of 54


COMPARISON OF STRUCTURED ENGLISH,
DECISION TABLES AND DECISION TREES

CRITERION STRUCTURED DECISION DECISION


FOR ENGLISH TABLES TREES
COMPARISON

ISOLATING
CONDITIONS NOT GOOD BEST GOOD
& ACTIONS

SEQUENCING
CONDITIONS GOOD NOT BEST
BY PRIORITY GOOD

CHECKING FOR
COMPLETENESS
NOT GOOD BEST GOOD
,
CONTRADICTIO
N&
AMBIGUITIES

6.5.6 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 53 of 54


WHEN TO USE STRUCTURED ENGLISH,DECISION
TABLES AND DECISION TREES

ƒ Use Structured English if there are many loops and actions


are complex

ƒ Use Decision tables when there are a large number of


conditions to check and logic is complex

ƒ Use Decision trees when sequencing of conditions is important


and if there are not many conditions to be tested

6.5.7 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 54 of 54


MODULE 6

PROCESS SPECIFICATION

Contents

1. MOTIVATION AND LEARNING GOALS

2. LEARNING UNIT 1
Structured English specification

3. LEARNING UNIT 2
Decision table based specifications

4. LEARNING UNIT 3
Detecting
-Incompleteness
-Ambiguity
-Contradictions
-Redundancy
in decision table specification

5. LEARNING UNIT 4
Eliminating redundancy in specifications

6. LEARNING UNIT 5
Decision trees for specifications
7. REFERENCES
PROCESS SPECIFICATION

MOTIVATION

Before designing a system an analyst must clearly understand the logic to be


followed by each process block in a DFD. An analyst’s understanding must
be crosschecked with the user of the information system. A notation is thus
needed to specify process block in detail, which can be understood by a user.
Notation used must be appropriate for the type of the application to be
modelled. Different notations are needed to represent repetition structures,
complex decision situation and situations where sequencing of testing of
conditions is important. For complex logical procedures a notation is needed
which can also be used to detect logical errors in the specifications. This is
called Decision Table. A tabular structure for representing logic can be
used as a communication tool and can be automatically converted to a
program.

LEARNING GOALS

At the end of this module you will know

1.How to use structured English to precisely specify processes


2.The terminology used in structured English
3.Terminology of decision tables and how it is used to
specify complex logic
4.How to detect errors in decision table specifications
5.Terminology and use of decision trees
6.Comparison of structured English, decision tables and
decision trees
LEARNING UNIT 1

Structured English specification

PROCESS SPECIFICATION

Once a DFD is obtained the next step is to precisely specify the process.
Structured English, Decision tables and Decision Trees are used to describe
processes. Decision tables are used when the process is logically complex
involving large number of conditions and alternate solutions. Decision trees
are used when conditions to be tested must follow a strict time sequence.

STRUCTURED ENGLISH

Structured English is similar to a programming language such as Pascal. It


does not have strict syntax rules as in programming languages as the
intention is only to give precise description of a process. The structured
English description should be understandable to the user.

Example:
if customer pays advance
then
Give 5% Discount
else
if purchase amount >=10,000
then
if the customer is a regular customer
then Give 5% Discount
else No Discount
end if
DECISION TABLE-EXAMPLE
else No Discount

Same structured Englishend if


procedure given as decision table
end if
CONDITIONS RULE1 RULE2 RULE3 RULE4
Advance payment made Y N N N
Purchase amt >=10,000 - Y Y N
Regular Customer? - Y N -

ACTIONS
Give 5% Discount X X - -
Give No Discount - - X X

DECISION TABLE-EXPLANATION

Conditions are questions to be asked


‘Y’ is yes,’N’ is no & ‘-’ is irrelevant
A ‘X’ against the action says the action must be taken
A ‘-’ against the action says the action need not be taken

Rule 2 in decision table DISCOUNT states:


if no advance payment and purchase amount >=10000
and regular customer then give 5% discount

In Structured English, imperative sentences, actions to be performed should


be precise and quantified
Good Example: Give discount of 20%
Bad Example: Give substantial discount

The operators and keywords in Structured English are as follows:

Operators -Arithmetic : +, -, /, *
Relational : >, >=, <, <=, =, !=
Logical : and, or, not
Keywords : if, then, else, repeat, until, while, do, case,
until, while, do, case, for, search, retrieve, read, write
Delimiters – {, }, end, end if, end for

The structured English procedure given above is expressed as a Decision


tree below

Give 5% Discount

Y Y Give 5% Discount
C1 C3
N Y N
No Discount
C2
N
No Discount

C1: Advance payment made Y = Yes


C2: Purchase amount >=10,000 N = No
C3: Regular Customer

STRUCTURED ENGLISH-DECISION STRUCTURES


If condition
then
{ Group of statements }
else
{ Group of statements }
end if

Example: if(balance in account >= min.balance)


then honor request
else reject request
end if

STRUCTURED ENGLISH-CASE STATEMENT

Case (variable)
Variable = P: { statements for alternative P}
Variable = Q: { statements for alternative Q}
Variable = R: { statements for alternative R}
None of the above: { statements for default case}
end case

Example : Case(product code)


product code =1 : discount= 5%
product code =2 : discount =7%
None of the above : discount=0
end case

STRUCTURED ENGLISH-REPETITION STRUCTURE


for index = initial to final do
{ statements in loop }
end for

Example : Total =0
for subject =1 to subject =5 do
total marks=total marks +marks(subject)
write roll no,total marks
end for

STRUCTURED ENGLISH-WHILE LOOP

while condition do
{ statements in loop }
end while

Example : while there are student records left do


read student record
compute total marks
find class
write total marks, class, roll no
end while

EXAMPLE

Update inventory file


for each item accepted record do
{ search inventory file using item code
if successful
then { update retrieved inventory record;
write updated record in inventory file using accepted record}
else { create new record in inventory file;
enter accepted record in inventory file}
end if
end for
LEARNING UNIT 2

Decision table based specifications

ADVANTAGES OF DECISION TABLE


Easy to understand by non-computer literate users and managers. Good
documentation of rules used in data processing. Simple representation of
complex decision rules. Tabular representation allows systematic validation
of specification detection of redundancy, incompleteness & inconsistency of
rules. There exist algorithms to automatically convert decision tables to
equivalent computer programs.

METHOD OF OBTAINING DECISION TABLE


FROM WORD STATEMENT OF RULES

EXAMPLE
A bank uses the following rules to classify new accounts
If depositor's age is 21 or above and if the deposit is Rs 100 or more,
classify the account type as A If the depositor is under 21 and the deposit
is Rs 100 or more, classify it as type B If the depositor is 21 or over and
deposit is below Rs 100 classify it as C If the depositor is under 21 and
deposit is below Rs 100 do-not open account
Identify Conditions: Age >= 21 Cl
Deposits >= Rs 100: C2
Identify Actions : Classify account as A, B or C
Do not open account

DECISION TABLE FROM WORD STATEMENT


Condition Stub

CODITIONS Rule 1 Rule 2 Rule 3 Rule 4

C1 : Age >= 21 Y N Y N

C2: Deposit >=100 Y Y N N

ACTIONS
A1: Classify as A X - - -

A2: Classify as B - X - -

A3: Classify as C - - X -

A4: Do not open


Account - - - X

Action Stub

DECISION TABLE NOTATION EXPLAINED

CONDITION
STUB CONDITION ENTRIES

ACTION
ACTION ENTRIES
STUB
• 4 Quadrants-demarcated by two double lines
• CONDITION STUB LISTS ALL CONDITIONS TO BE CHECKED
• ACTION STUB LISTS ALL ACTIONS TO BE CARRIED OUT
• LIMITED ENTRY DECISION TABLE:ENTRIES ARE Y or N or -.Y-
YES,N- NO,-IRRELEVANT(DON’T CARE)
• X against action states it is to be carried out.
• - against action states it is to be ignored.
• Entries on a vertical column specifies a rule
•order of listing actions important while order of listing conditions is not
important
•actions listed first carried out first
sequential execution of actions
•rules may be listed in any order

INTERPRETING DECISION TABLE-ELSE RULE

C1: Is applicant sponsored? Y Y

C2: Does he have min Y Y ELSE


Qualification?
C3: Is fee paid? Y N

A1: Admit letter X - -


A2: Provisional Admit
letter - X -
- - X

Interpretation
R1: If applicant sponsored and he has minimum qualifications
and his fee is paid –Send Admit letter
R2: If applicant sponsored and has minimum qualifications
and his fee not paid send provisional admit letter
ELSE: In all other cases send regret letter.The else rule makes a decision
table complete

DECISION TABLE FOR SHIPPING RULES

R1 R2 R3 R4

C1: Qty ordered <= Quantity Y Y N N


in stock?
C2: (Qty in stock-Qty
ordered)<=reorder level N Y - -

C3: Is the partial shipment ok? - - Y N

A1:Qty shipped=Qty ordered X X - -


EXTENDED ENTRY DECISION TABLE

Condition Entries not necessarily Y or N


Action entries not necessarily X or - Extended Entry Decision
Tables(EEDT) more concise
EEDT can always be expanded to LEDT
Example R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6

C1 : Product code 1 1 1 1 1 2

C2 : Customer code A B A B C -

C3 : Order amount <=500 <=500 >500 >500 - -

Discount = 5% 7.5% 7.5% 10% 6% 5%

MIXED ENTRY DECISION TABLE

Can mix up Yes, No answers with codes

Rl R2 R3 R4 R5 R6

Cl : Product code = 1? Y Y Y Y Y N
C2: Customer code = A B A B C -
C3: Order amount < 500? Y Y N N - -

Discount = 5% 7.5% 7.5% 10% 6% 5%


Choice of LEDT, EEDT, MEDT depends on ease of communication with
user. Softwares are available to translate DTs to programs.DT’s are easy to
check.

LINKED DECISION TABLE

Decision table 1 Decision table 2


Salary point=6 N e Salary point>2 N N N Y
Conduct OK? Y l 1 yr as class 1 Y N - -
Diligence OK? Y s officer
Efficiency OK? Y e Departmental test Y - N -
Passed?

Go to table 2 X -
No promotion - X Advance to next X - - -
salary point
No promotion - X X -

Decision table3 Go to Table3 - - - X

Complete departmental Y
Course else
1 yr since last increment Y
1.Observe that one can branch between tables
2. Whenever complex rules are given it is a good idea to break them up into
manageable parts

LOGICAL CORRECTNESS OF DECISION TABLE

Consider decision table DTI:

Rl R2
Cl: x>60 Y -
C2:x<40 - Y
We can expand decision table by
replacing each –by Y & N
Al X -
A2 : - X

DT2: R11 R12 R21 R22

Cl: x>60 Y Y N Y
C2:x<40 Y N Y Y
A rule which has no – is an
Al X X - - Elementary rule
A2 : - - X X

DT2 is an Elementary Rule Decision Table (ERDT)


From this table we see that the rule YY has two contradictory actions. Thus we need to
examine the table further and make sure it is not a serious mistake. Also the rule
C1=C2=N is missing which needs further examination

LEARNING UNIT 3

Detecting- Incompleteness, Ambiguity,Contradictions & Redundancy in


decision table specification

LOGICAL CORRECTNESS OF DECISION TABLE (CONTD)

A decision table with 1 condition should have 2 elementary rules, each


elementary rule must be distinct, each elementary rule must have distinct
k
action, if a decision table with k conditions does not have 2 rules specified
it is said to be incomplete.
For example : DT2 does not have the elementary rule C1:N, C2:N. It is thus
incomplete.
If the decision table has the same elementary rule occurring more than once
it is said to have multiplicity of specifications
For Example: In DT2 The rule C1:Y,C2:Y occurs twice. Thus it has
multiplicity of specification.

If action specified for multiple identical rules are different then it is called
ambiguous specifications
DT2 has an ambiguity. Rules R11 and R22 are identical but have
different actions. Ambiguity may be apparent or real. It is said to be apparent
if the rule leading to the ambiguity is logically impossible
For example,(x>60)=Y and (x<40)=Y cannot occur simultaneously.
Thus in DT2 rules R11 and R22 are apparently ambiguous rules
Apparently ambiguous rules is not an error
If an apparently ambiguous specification is real then it is a
contradiction
For example : If C1:(X > 60) = Y and C2:(X > 40) = Y then
X = 70 will satisfy both inequalities.
As two actions are specified for (Cl = Y, C2 = Y) and they are
different the rule is really ambiguous and is called Contradictory
Specification.

If all 2k elementary rules are not present in a k condition decision


table is said to be incomplete.
DT2 is incomplete as rule C1:N, C2:N is missing
Rule C1=N, C2:=N is logically possible as C1=N is X<=60
and C2=N is X >= 40. A value of X = 50 will make C1=N,C2=N
Thus DT2 has a real incomplete specification
A decision table which has no real ambiguities or real incompleteness is said
to be logically correct. Decision table with logical errors should be corrected

USE OF KARNAUGH MAPS

KARNAUGH map abbreviated K-map is a 2 dimensional diagram with one


square per elementary rule

The k-map of DT2 is

C1 N Y
C2
? Al
N

Y A2 A1,A2

If more than one action is in one square it is an ambiguous rule


If a square is empty it signifies incomplete specification.

USE OF KARNAUGH MAPS

Structured English procedure:


If carbon content<0.7
then if Rockwell hardness>50
then if tensile strength>30000
then steel is grade 10
else steel is grade 9
end if
else steel is grade 8
end if
else steel is grade 7
end if

DT3:

Decision table-Grading steel

C1:Carbon content <0.7 Y Y Y N Y N N N


C2:Rockwell hardness>50 Y Y N N N Y Y N
C3 tensile strength>30000 Y N N N Y Y N Y

Grade 10 9 8 7 ? ? ? ?

KARNAUGH MAPS – GRADING STEEL

C1 C2
C3 NN NY YY YN
N 7 ? 9 8

? ? 10 ?
Y

Observe that the fact that the specification is incomplete is obvious in the
Decision table whereas the structured English specification seems complete
which is not.
DT4: DECISION TABLE-ARREARS MANAGEMENT

R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6
C1:Payment in current month Y N N - - -
>min.specified payment
C2:Payment in current month>0 - Y Y - N N
C3:Any payment in last 3 months - - - N Y Y
C4: Actual arrears > 3(min.
Specified payment per month) - Y N Y N Y

A1 : Send letter A X - - - - -
A2 : Send letter B - X - - - -
A3 : Send letter C - - X - - -
A4 : Send letter D - - - X - X
A5 : Send letter E - - - - X -
KARNAUGH MAP

C1C2
C3C4 NN NY YY YN
NN ? A3 A1 A1*

NY A4 A2A4+ A1A4+ A1A4*

YY A4 A2 A1 A1A4*

C1
A5: x>m C2:x>0 C3:y>0
A3 C4:z>3m A1 m>0 A1A5*
YN C3,C4 independent of C1,C2 C1,C2 dependent
C1: Y C2: Y x>m, x>0 possible
C1: Y C2: N x>m, x<=0 not logically possible
C1: N C2: Y x<=m,x>0 possible
C1: N C2: N x<=m,x<=0 possible
Thus C1,C2,C3 C4:NNNN incomplete specification
BOXES MARKED * NOT LOGICALLY POSSIBLE
Rules C1 C2 C3 C 4 : NYNY and YYNY logical errors
Errors to be corrected after consulting users who formulated the rules
CORRECT DECISION TABLE

If users say that for rules C1C2C3C4:NYNY AND YYNY


(marked with + in k-map) the action is A4 and for
C1C2C3C4:NNNN also it is A4, the corrected map is

C1C2
C3C4 NN NY YY YN
NN A4 A3 A1

IMPOSSIBLE
NY A4 A4 A4 RULES

YY A4 A2 A1

A5 A3 A1
YN

CORRECTED DECISION TABLE DT4

C1 Y Y Y N N N N Y N N N N

C2 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N N N N

C3 N Y Y Y N Y N N Y N N Y

C4 N Y N Y N N Y Y Y Y N N
Question: Can the number of rules be reduced?
Answer : Yes, by combining rules with the same action

Action A1 can be represented by the Boolean expression:


C1C2C3C4 + C1C2C3C4 + C1C2C3C4 = C1C2C3C4 + C1C2C3 (C4+C4)
=C1C2C3C4+C1C2C3 = C1C2C4 + C1C2C3

LEARNING UNIT 4

Eliminating redundancy in specifications

REDUNDANCY ELIMINATION

Redundancy can be eliminated by systematically applying four identities of


Boolean Algebra

These identities are


KARNAUGH MAP REDUCTION

C1C2
NN NY YY YN NN NY YY YN
C3 C4 C3 C4 NN NY YY YN C3 C4
A1 A1 A2 A2
NN NN NN
A1 A1 A2 A2 A3 A3
NY NY NY

A1 A1 A2 A2 A3 A3
YY YY YY
A1 A1 A2 A2
YN YN YN
A3=C1C2C3C4+C1C2C3C4+C1C2C3C4+C1C2C3C4

=C2C3C4(C1+C1)+C2C3C4(C1+C1)

=C2C4(C3+C3)=C2C4

REDUCING DECISION TABLES-USE OF K-MAP


C1C2
C3C4 NN NY YY YN
NN A4 A3 A1

NY A4 A4 A4

YY A4 A2 A1

YN A5 A3 A1
Boxes marked X correspond to impossible rules.
They can be employed if they are useful in reducing rules

Using k-map reduction rules we get

A1 : C1C4+C1C3
A2 : C1C2C3C4
A3 : C1C2C4
A4 : C3C4+C2C3+C2C4
A5 : C2C3C4
REDUCING DECISION TABLES

C1: Payment in current month > Y Y N N - - - -


min specified payment
C2: Payment in current month>0 - - Y Y - N N N
C3: Any payment in last 3 months - Y Y - N N - Y
C4: Actual arrears> 3(minimum specified
payment per month) N - Y N Y - Y N

A: Send letter A X X - - - - - -
B: Send letter B - - X - - - - -
C: Send letter C
EXAMPLE-REDUCTION OF RULES-IN WORD - -STATEMENT
X - - - -
D: Send letter D - - - - X X X -
E: Send letter
Rules E Driver if following rules are- satisfied
: Insure - - - - - - X
1.Drivers annual income > 20000 & is married male
2.Drivers annual income > 20000 & is married and over 30
3.Drivers annual income <= 20000 & she is married female
4.Driver is male over 30
5.Driver is married and age is not relevant
Else do not insure
Conditions:
C1 : Annual income > 20000
C2 : Male
C3 : Married
C4: Age > 30
Action: Insure or do not insure

DECISION TABLE FOR INSURANCE RULES


Cl : Annual income> 20000 Y Y N - - E
C2: Male Y - N Y - L
C3: Married Y Y Y - Y S
C4: Age > 30 - Y - Y N E

A1:Insure X X X X X -
A2 :Do not insure - - - - - X

C1C2
NN NY YY YN
C3C
NN

NY A1 A1
A1=C3+C2.C4
YY A1 A1 A1 A1
A1 A1 A1 A1
YN
REDUCED DECISION TABLE

C2 : Male - Y
C3 : Married ELSE
Y -
C4 : Age > 30 - Y

Al : Insure X X -
A2 : Do not Insure LEARNING UNIT 5
- - X

Decision trees for specifications


Reduced rules : Insure if married or male over 30
DECISION
Observe TREES to 2 and 1 condition removed
5 rules simplified
Decision Trees is used when sequence of testing condition is important. It is
more procedural compared to Decision tables.

EXAMPLE – DECISION TREE TO BOOK TRAIN TICKET


Book by II AC on 4/8/04 if available else book by II AC on 5/8/04.If both
not available book by sleeper on 4/8/04 if available else book on 5/8/04 by
sleeper. If none available return.
Y Book II AC

C1
Book II AC
N Y

C2 Book sleeper
N Y

C3 Book sleeper
N Y

C4
N
Return

C1: Is II AC ticket available on 4/8/04


C2: Is II AC ticket available on 5/8/04
C3: Is sleeper available on 4/8/04
C4: Is sleeper available on 5/8/04

Observe in the tree sequencing of conditions which is important in this


example

CONDITIONS

Decision trees are drawn left to right


Circles used for conditions
Conditions labelled and annotation below tree
Conditions need not be binary
For example:

GRADE A
>=60

C GRADE B
>=50
GRADE C
>=40
else GRADE F
Sometimes Decision trees are more appropriate to explain to a user how
decisions are taken

COMPARISON OF STRUCTURED ENGLISH, DECISION TABLES


AND DECISION TREES

CRITERION FOR STRUCTURED DECISION DECISION


COMPARISON ENGLISH TABLES TREES

ISOLATING
CONDITIONS & NOT GOOD BEST GOOD
ACTIONS

SEQUENCING
CONDITIONS BY GOOD NOT GOOD BEST
PRIORITY

CHECKING FOR
COMPLETENESS, NOT GOOD BEST NOT GOOD
CONTRADICTION
WHEN TO USE STRUCTURED ENGLISH,DECISION TABLES AND
DECISION TREES

Use Structured English if there are many loops and actions are complex

Use Decision tables when there are a large number of conditions to check
and logic is complex

Use Decision trees when sequencing of conditions is important and if there


are not many conditions to be tested

REFERENCES

1. V.Rajaraman, “Analysis and Design of Information Systems”, 2nd Edition,


Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi, 2002. Most of the material in this module is
based on Chapter 8 and 9 of the above book. The book is perhaps the only one
which has extensive discussion on error detection in Decision Tables.

2. K.E. Kendall and J.E.Kendall, “Systems Analysis and Design”, 5th Edition,
Pearson Education Asia, Delhi, 2003. Has a brief discussion of structured
English, Decision Tables and Decision Trees (pages 353 to 369). Website
www.prenhall.com/kendall has a lot of support material and case study for
students.

3. J.A.Hoffer, J.F.George, J.S.Velacich, “Modern Systems Analysis and Design”,


Third Edition, Pearson Education Asia, 2002. Chapter 7 (pages 282 to 303) cover
the topics in this module. The book has a number of interesting case studies and a
good problem set. The web site http://prenhall.com/hoffer has material to assist
students who use this text book.
4. E.Yourdon “Modern Structured Analysis”, Prentice Hall of India, 1996. Chapter
11 (pages 203 to 232) describes structured English and Decision Tables. There is
a larger set of exercises at the end of the chapter.
System Analysis and Design/Structured Systems Analysis and Design Multiple Choice Questions

6.1 Structured English is used to describe


a. how programs are to be written
b. processes in a DFD in a reasonably precise manner
c. how DFDs are used in data processing
d. data flows in DFD
6.2 Structured English is a
a. structured programming language
b. description of processes in simple English
c. method of describing computational procedures reasonably precisely
in English
d. natural language based algorithmic language
6.3 The objective of using structured English is to
a. describe computational procedures reasonably precisely which can be
understood by any user
b. expand a DFD so that a user can understand it
c. develop algorithms corresponding to processes in a DFD
d. ease writing programs for DFDs
6.4 Structured English description of processes
(i) should be understandable to a user of a computer based system
(ii) should be understandable to a programmer
(iii) can be descriptive in nature
(iv) should be translatable by a compiler
a. i and iii
b. ii and iv
c. i, ii and iv
d. i and ii
6.5 A decision table is
a. a truth table
b. a table which facilitates taking decisions
c. a table listing conditions and actions to be taken based on the testing of
conditions

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M6/V1/July 04/1


System Analysis and Design/Structured Systems Analysis and Design Multiple Choice Questions

d. a table in a Decision Support System


6.6 A decision table
a. has a structured English equivalent representation
b. cannot be represented using structured English
c. does not have an equivalent algorithmic representation
d. cannot be used to represent processes in a DFD
6.7 A decision table is preferable when the number of
a. conditions to be checked in a procedure is small
b. conditions to be checked in a procedure is large
c. actions to be carried out are large
d. actions to be carried out are small
6.8 Select from the following list which are appropriate to use in structured
English description of a process
(i)process inventory records
(ii)find the sum of outstanding billed amounts
(iii)check if outstanding amount >= Rs. 5000
(iv)check if stock is low
a. i and ii
b. i and iii
c. iii and iv
d. ii and iii
6.9 Structured English statements must be
a. short and clear
b. specified quantitatively
c. specified qualitatively
d. detailed and descriptive
6.10 Select statements from the following list which may be used in structured
English
(i)if marks are too low fail student
(ii)if marks >=60 enter first class
(iii)if average height select candidate

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M6/V1/July 04/2


System Analysis and Design/Structured Systems Analysis and Design Multiple Choice Questions

(iv)if weight < 40 kg. reject candidate


a. i and ii
b. ii and iii
c. iii and iv
d. ii and iv
6.11 Select correct decision structures from the following

(i)if total marks>=75


then enter distinction in student record
end if
(ii) if total marks >=50
then enter pass in student record
else enter fail in student record
end if
(iii) if total marks >=60
then enter first class in student record
else if total marks>= 50
then enter second class in student record
else
enter fail in student record
end if
end if
(iv) if attendance <30%
then
do not admit in examination
else
a. ii and iii
b. i and ii
c. iii and iv
d. i and iv

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M6/V1/July 04/3


System Analysis and Design/Structured Systems Analysis and Design Multiple Choice Questions

6.12 The following structured English procedure is incorrect because

if balance in account <=0


then
{issue exception note to dept.
mark “stop future issues” in
departments record}
else
if balance in account <minimum balance
then
{ issue item to dept.
issue warning to dept.}
end if
end if
a. end if in second if is not needed
b. nesting of ifs is not correct
c. no action is specified when balance in account >=minimum balance
d. the value of minimum balance is not specified
6.13 The following structural English is incorrect because

case (income slab)


Income slab =1 : tax= 10%
Income slab =2 or 3 : tax= 20%
Income slab =5 : tax= 30%
end case
a. no action is specified for income slab of 4
b. income slab has to be rupees
c. income slab =2 or 3 is wrong
d. number of cases is too small

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M6/V1/July 04/4


System Analysis and Design/Structured Systems Analysis and Design Multiple Choice Questions

6.14 The following structured English procedure is incorrect because

case (code)
Code=2 : if purchase amount >=5000
then discount=5%
Code=1 :discount=2%
Code=3 :if purchase amount >=4000
then discount =2%
else if code=4
then discount =5%
end if
None of the above codes : discount=0
end case
a. code=2 should appear after code=1
b. if statement cannot be used within a case
c. code=4 should not be used in the action for code=3
d. The statement is correct
6.15 The following while structure is wrong because

balance =500
while balance <=1000 do
Write (amount due – balance)
Read next record
end while
a. read must appear before write
b. this loop will never terminate
c. no read allowed in a loop
d. the contents of next record is not known
6.16 Structured English description of data processing is a
a. non-procedural specification
b. procedural specification

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M6/V1/July 04/5


System Analysis and Design/Structured Systems Analysis and Design Multiple Choice Questions

c. purely descriptive specification


d. very imprecise specification
6.17 Decision table description of data processing is
a. non-procedural specification
b. procedural specification
c. purely descriptive specification
d. very imprecise specification
6.18 In the following word statement the conditions are:“if a student gets 50
marks or more in mathematics and 40 marks or more in English he
passes the examination, otherwise he fails”
a. student passes the examination
b. student fails the examination
c. student gets 50 marks or more in mathematics
d. student mathematics marks >= 50 and student English marks
6.19 In the following word statement the actions are“if a student gets 50 marks
or more in mathematics and 40 marks or more in English he passes the
examination, otherwise he fails”
(i)student passes the examination
(ii)student fails the examination
(iii)student gets 50 marks or more in mathematics
(iv)student mathematics marks >= 50 and student English
marks >= 40
a. i and ii
b. i and iii
c. ii and iii
d. iii and iv
6.20 In a limited entry decision table the condition stub
a. lists X or – corresponding to actions to be executed
b. lists the conditions to be tested
c. has Y or N or – entries
d. lists the actions to be taken

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M6/V1/July 04/6


System Analysis and Design/Structured Systems Analysis and Design Multiple Choice Questions

6.21 In a limited entry decision table the condition entries


a. list X or – corresponding to actions to be executed
b. list the conditions to be tested
c. have Y or N or – entries
d. list the actions to be taken
6.22 In a limited entry decision table the action stub
a. lists X or – corresponding to actions to be executed
b. lists the conditions to be tested
c. has Y or N or – entries
d. lists the actions to be taken
6.23 In a limited entry decision table the action entries
a. list X or – corresponding to actions to be executed
b. list the conditions to be tested
c. have Y or N or – entries
d. list the actions to be taken
6.24 In a limited entry decision table the condition entries may be
a. Y or N only
b. Y, N or –
c. A binary digit
d. Any integer
6.25 In a limited entry decision table a—entry against a condition signifies
that
a. the outcome of testing the condition is irrelevant
b. it is an important condition
c. the condition should be tested
d. the condition is a Boolean condition
6.26 A rule in a limited entry decision table is a
a. row of the table consisting of condition entries
b. row of the table consisting of action entries
c. column of the table consisting of condition entries and the
corresponding action entries

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M6/V1/July 04/7


System Analysis and Design/Structured Systems Analysis and Design Multiple Choice Questions

d. columns of the tables consisting of conditions of the stub


6.27 The conditions in the condition stub of a limited entry decision table
a. must be in sequential order
b. must be in the order in which they are to be tested
c. may be in any order
d. must be in the order in which they are to be executed
6.28 The actions in the action stub of a limited entry decision table
a. must be in sequential order
b. must be in the order in which they are to be tested
c. may be in any order
d. must be in the order in which they are to be executed
6.29 A X against an action in an action row signifies that the
a. action is not to be taken
b. action is to be taken
c. action is important
d. action is not important
6.30 A—against an action in an action row signifies that the
a. action is not to be taken
b. action is to be taken
c. action is important
d. action is not important
6.31 An extended entry decision table has
a. only Y, N or – entries
b. entries which extend the condition
c. questions asked extended into the condition entry part of the table
d. only numerical entries
6.32 An extended entry decision table
a. has no limited entry equivalent
b. cannot be replaced by a table with only Y, or – entries
c. may have Yes, No answers to conditions
d. can always be converted to an equivalent limited entry decision tabl

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M6/V1/July 04/8


System Analysis and Design/Structured Systems Analysis and Design Multiple Choice Questions

6.33 An extended entry decision table is


a. very difficult to understand
b. quite concise compared to a limited entry decision table developed for
the same task
c. large compared to a limited entry table developed for the same task
d. is not very often used
6.34 A mixed entry decision table
a. may have some conditions with Y, N, or – entries
b. may not have any Y, N, or – entry
c. may have only non-numerical entries
d. may mix numerical and non-numerical entries

Given a decision table “test” shown below

R1 R2 R3
C1 Y N Y
C2 N – Y

A1 X –– Decision table–“test”
A2 – X –
A3 X – X

Answer the following questions:


6.35 Rule R1 is interpreted as follows:
a. If C1 is TRUE and C2 is FALSE then perform action A2
b. If C1 is TRUE and C2 is FALSE then perform action A1 and then
action A2
c. If C1 is TRUE and C2 is FALSE then perform action A3 and then
action A1
d. If C1 is TRUE and C2 is FALSE then perform action A1 and then
action A3
6.36 Rule R3 is interpreted as follows:

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M6/V1/July 04/9


System Analysis and Design/Structured Systems Analysis and Design Multiple Choice Questions

a. If C1 is TRUE and C2 is TRUE then perform action A1 and A


b. If C1 is TRUE or C2 is TRUE then perform action A3
c. If C1 is TRUE and C2 is TRUE then perform action A1 or A2
d. If C1 is TRUE and C2 is TRUE then perform action A3
6.37 Structured English equivalent of the decision table “test” are given below

(i) if C1 TRUE
then if C2 TRUE
then do A3
else do A1 and A3
end if
else do A2
end if

(ii) if C1 FALSE
then do A2
else if C2 TRUE
then do A3
else do A1 and A3
end if
end if

(iii)if C2 TRUE
then if C1 TRUE
then do A3
else do A2
end if
else do A1 and A3
end if

(iv)if C2 FALSE
then if C1 TRUE
then do A1 and A3

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M6/V1/July 04/10


System Analysis and Design/Structured Systems Analysis and Design Multiple Choice Questions

else do A2
end if
else do A3
end if

Which of the following are correct?


a. i and iii
b. i and ii
c. iii and iv
d. ii and iv
6.38 Structured English equivalents of decision table “test” are given below.
Pick the right one

(i)if C1 TRUE and C2 FALSE then R=1 end if


if C1 FALSE then R=2 end if
if C1 TRUE and C2 TRUE then R=3 end if
case (R)
R=1; perform actions A1 and A3
R=2; perform action A2
R=3; perform action A3
end case

(ii)if C1 TRUE and C2 FALSE then perform actions A1,


A3 end if
if C1 FALSE then perform action A2 end if
if C1 TRUE and C2 TRUE then perform action A3 end
if

(iii)case (C1 TRUE and C2 FALSE) Rule R1


case (C1 FALSE) Rule R2
case (C1 TRUE and C2 TRUE) Rule R3
end case

(iv)if C1 TRUE and C2 TRUE then do Rule R3 end if

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M6/V1/July 04/11


System Analysis and Design/Structured Systems Analysis and Design Multiple Choice Questions

if C1 TRUE and C2 FALSE then do Rule R1 end if


if C1 TRUE then do Rule R2 end if
a. i and ii
b. i and iii
c. ii and iii
d. iii and iv

a. The Elementary Rule Decision Table equivalent of decision table “test” is

C1 Y N Y
C2 N N Y

A1 X – –
A2 – X –
A3 X– X

b.C1 Y N Y
C2 N Y Y

A1 X – –
A2 – X –
A3 X – X

c. C1 Y N N Y
C2 N N Y Y

A1 X – – –
A2 – X X –
A3 X– – X

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M6/V1/July 04/12


System Analysis and Design/Structured Systems Analysis and Design Multiple Choice Questions

d. C1 Y N N Y
C2 N N Y Y

A1 X – – –
A2 – X – –
A3 X – X X

6.39 The decision table “test” is


a. ambiguous
b. contradictory
c. incomplete
d. complete

Answer the following referring to the decision table “test2”

R1 R2

C1 : x <= 50 N –
C2 : x >= 70 – N

A1 X –
A2 – X

Decision Table: “test2”


6.40 Decision table “test2” is
a. really incomplete
b. complete
c. apparently incomplete
d. apparently complete
6.41 Decision table “test2”
a. has a real ambiguity
b. has an apparent ambiguity
c. is logically correct

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M6/V1/July 04/13


System Analysis and Design/Structured Systems Analysis and Design Multiple Choice Questions

d. is incomplete

C1 N –
C2 – N

A1 Y –
A2 Y

DECISION TABLE “testing”–

6.42 Decision table “testing” can be made complete


(i)by putting an ELSE rule
(ii)is as it is complete and does not need any more rules
(iii)by specifying actions when C1 = Y and C2 = Y
(iv)by specifying actions when C1 = N and C2 = N
a. (i), (ii)
b. (i), (iii)
c. (ii), (iii)
d. (ii), (iv)
6.43 The K-map equivalent of decision table “test2” is
C1 C1

a. Y N b. Y N
C2 C2

Y A1 Y A1 A2

N A2 A1 N A2 A1

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M6/V1/July 04/14


System Analysis and Design/Structured Systems Analysis and Design Multiple Choice Questions

c. C1 d. C1
Y N Y N
C2 C2

Y A1 Y A1

N A2 A1,A2 N A2 A2

6.44 The decision table equivalent of the


following structured English statement is

if C2 TRUE
then if C1 TRUE
then do A3
else do A2
end if
else do A1 and A3
end if

a. C1 Y Y N
C2 Y N –

A1 – – X
A2 – X –
A3 X – X

b. C2 Y Y N

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M6/V1/July 04/15


System Analysis and Design/Structured Systems Analysis and Design Multiple Choice Questions

C1 Y N N

A1 – – X
A2 – X –
A3 X – X

c. C1 Y N –
C2 Y Y N

A1 – – X
A2 – X –
A3 X – X

d. C1 Y N Y
C2 Y Y N

A1 – – X
A2 – X –
A3 X – X

6.45 The decision table equivalent of the following structured English


statement is

if balance in account <=0


then{issue exception note to dept. and mark “stop future issues”}
else if balance in account <min. balance
then {issue item to dept.

issue warning to dept.}

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M6/V1/July 04/16


System Analysis and Design/Structured Systems Analysis and Design Multiple Choice Questions

else {issue item to dept.}


end if
end if

C1=balance in account <=0;


C2=balance in account < min. balance
A1=issue exception note and mark “no future issues”
A2=issue item to dept
A3=issue warning to dept.

a. C1 Y N N
C2 – Y N

A1 X – –
A2 – X X
A3 – X –

b. C1 Y N N Y
C2 N Y N Y

A1 X – – –
A2 – X X X
A3 – X – –

c. C1 N N N
C2 – Y N

A1 X – –
A2 – X X
A3 – X –

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M6/V1/July 04/17


System Analysis and Design/Structured Systems Analysis and Design Multiple Choice Questions

d. C1 Y N Y
C2 N Y N

A1 X – –
A2 – X X
A3 – X –
6.46 The decision table given in answer (a) of question 9.4.3 is
a. incomplete
b. apparently ambiguous
c. has contradictory specifications
d. logically complete
6.47 The rule C1=Y, C2=Y in the decision table given in answer (a) of
question 6.3.7 is
e. logically impossible
f. logically possible
g. has no action specified
h. has multiple actions specified
6.48 If min. balance > 0 then the rule C1=Y, C2= – in the decision table given
in answer (a) of question 6.3.7 may be replaced by the rule
i. C1=Y, C2=N
j. C1=Y, C2=Y
k. C1= –, C2=Y
l. C1= –, C2=N
6.49 The actions of a decision table are mapped on a K-map shown be
The boxes marked X denote impossible rules

C1C2

C3 NN NY YY YN

Y A1 A1 A2

N A1 A2 A2

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M6/V1/July 04/18


System Analysis and Design/Structured Systems Analysis and Design Multiple Choice Questions

The rule for action A1 may be represented by the following minimal


Boolean expression
a. C1.C2 + C1.C2.C3
b. C1.C2.C3 + C1.C3

c. C1.C3 + C2

d. C1.C3 + C2.C1
6.50 The following decision table may be replaced by its best equivalent
shown below:

C1 N N N N Y Y Y Y
C2 N N Y Y Y Y N N
C3 Y N N Y Y N N Y

A1 X – – X – – X X
A2 – X X – X X X X

a. C1 N N Y Y
C2 – – Y N
C3 Y N – –

A1 X – – X
A2 – X X X

b. C1 – Y N Y
C2 – – – N
C3 N – Y –

A1 – – X X

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M6/V1/July 04/19


System Analysis and Design/Structured Systems Analysis and Design Multiple Choice Questions

A2 X X – X

c. C1 N – Y N Y
C2 – Y Y – N
C3 N N – Y –

A1 – – – X X
A2 X X X – X

d. C1 Y N N Y
C2 – – – N
C3 – N Y –

A1 – – X X
A2 X X – X
6.51 The following decision table may be replaced by its best equivalent shown
below:
C1 N N N N Y Y Y Y
C2 N N Y Y Y Y N N
C3 Y N N Y Y N N Y

A1 X – – X – – X X
A2 – X X – X X X X

a. C1 N N Y Y
C2 – – Y N
C3 Y N – –

A1 X – – X
A2 – X X X

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M6/V1/July 04/20


System Analysis and Design/Structured Systems Analysis and Design Multiple Choice Questions

b. C1 – Y N Y
C2 – – – N
C3 N – Y –

A1 – – X X
A2 X X – X

c. C1 N – Y N Y
C2 – Y Y – N
C3 N N – Y –

A1 – – – X X
A2 X X X – X

d. C1 Y N N Y
C2 – – – N
C3 – N Y –

A1 – – X X
A2 X X – X

6.52 C1 N N N N Y Y Y Y
C2 N N Y Y Y Y N N
C3 Y N N Y Y N N Y

A1 X – – X – – X X

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M6/V1/July 04/21


System Analysis and Design/Structured Systems Analysis and Design Multiple Choice Questions

A2 – X X – X X X X

a. C1 N N Y Y
C2 – – Y N
C3 Y N – –

A1 X – – X
A2 – X X X

b. C1 – Y N Y
C2 – – – N
C3 N – Y –

A1 – – X X
A2 X X – X

c. C1 N – Y N Y
C2 – Y Y – N
C3 N N – Y –

A1 – – – X X
A2 X X X – X

d. C1 Y N N Y
C2 – – – N
C3 – N Y –

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M6/V1/July 04/22


System Analysis and Design/Structured Systems Analysis and Design Multiple Choice Questions

A1 – – X X
A2 X X – X
6.53 Given the decision table “test 3”answer the following questions:

R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8
x>=20 Y Y Y Y N N N N
x<=30 Y Y N N Y Y N N
y>=x Y N Y N Y N Y N

A1 X X X X – – – –
A2 – – – – X X – –
A3 – – – – – – X X
a. Rules R7, R8 are logically impossible
b. Rules R5, R6 are logically impossible
c. Rules R3, R4 are logically impossible
d. Rules R1, R2 are logically impossible
6.54 Pick the correct equivalent of “test 3”

a. C1 Y N b. C1 Y N N
C2 – Y N
A1 X –
A2 – X A1 X – –
A2 – X –
A3 – – X

c. C1 Y Y N N d. C1 Y N N
C3 N Y N Y C2 – Y N
C2 – – – –

A1 X X – – A1 X – –
A2 – – X X A2 – X –

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M6/V1/July 04/23


System Analysis and Design/Structured Systems Analysis and Design Multiple Choice Questions

A3 – – X

6.55 The decision table “test 3“ is


a. Incomplete
b. Ambiguous
c. Incorrect
d. .has redundancies
6.56 The decision table equivalent of the following Boolean expression is

A1= C3.C1.C2 + C2.C3.C1

A2= C1.C3 + C3.C2.C1+ C1.C2.C3

a. C1 Y Y Y N N
C2 Y N – N N
C3 N Y Y Y N

A1 X X – – –
A2 – – X X X

b. C1 Y Y Y N N
C2 Y N N N N
C3 Y Y – Y N

A1 X X – – –
A2 – – X X X

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M6/V1/July 04/24


System Analysis and Design/Structured Systems Analysis and Design Multiple Choice Questions

c. C2 Y Y Y N N
C1 Y N – N N
C3 N Y Y Y N

A1 X X – – –
A2 – – X X X

d. C1 Y Y Y N N
C2 Y N – N N
C3 N Y Y Y N

A1 X X – – –
A2 X X X X X
6.57 A decision table “test 4” is given below

C1 Y Y N – – N Y N
C2 Y – N Y – N N –
C3 Y Y Y – Y N N N
C4 – Y – Y N – – N

A1 X X X – – – – –
A2 – – – X X – – –
A3 – – – – – X X –
? – – – – – – – I

where I indicates impossible rule

The contradictory rules are


a. YYYY, NYYY, NNYY

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M6/V1/July 04/25


System Analysis and Design/Structured Systems Analysis and Design Multiple Choice Questions

b. YYYN, NYYN, NNYN


c. YYYY, YYYN, NNYN
d. There are no contradictory rules

6.58 In “test 4” the contradictory actions are:

a. A1, A3

b. A1, A2

c. A2, A3

d. A2, I

6.59 In “test 4” missing rule is:

e. NYNN

f. NYYN

g. YYNN

h. YNYN

6.60 If in “test 4” the rules where the contradictory actions or


unspecified actions are present, the action is replaced by A2 only, the
reduced decision table using impossible rules also for reduction is:

a. C1 – – – – – N
C2 N – Y Y – N
C3 Y Y – Y N N
C4 Y N Y – N –

A1 X – – – – –
A2 – X X X – –
A3 – – – – X X

b. C1 N Y – – – N N

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M6/V1/July 04/26


System Analysis and Design/Structured Systems Analysis and Design Multiple Choice Questions

C2 N N Y Y – – N
C3 Y Y N Y Y N N
C4 Y Y Y – N N –

A1 X X – – – – –
A2 – – X X X – –
A3 – – – – – X X

c. C1 – – – – N
C2 N – Y – N
C3 Y Y – N N
C4 Y N Y N –

A1 X – – – –
A2 – X X – –
A3 – – – X X

d . C2 N Y – N
C3 Y – Y N
C4 Y – N –

A1 X – – –
A2 – X X –
A3 – – – X
6.61 Decision Trees are preferred when
a. Too many conditions need to be tested
b. Sequencing of testing conditions is important
c. When there are many loops to be performed
d. When too many actions are to be taken

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M6/V1/July 04/27


System Analysis and Design/Structured Systems Analysis and Design Multiple Choice Questions

6.62 Decision Tables are preferred when


a. Too many conditions need to be tested
b. Sequencing of testing conditions is important
c. When there are many loops to be performed
d. When too many actions are to be taken
6.63 Structured English is preferred when
a. any conditions need to be tested
b. Sequencing of testing conditions is important
c. When there are many loops to be performed
d. When too many actions are to be taken
6.64 The objective of using decision trees is to
a. Expand a DFD so that a user can understand it
b. To specify sequence of conditions to be tested and actions to be taken
c. Describe a computational procedure that can be easily understood by a
person
d. Use it as a tool in decision support system
6.65 Decision trees are superior to decision tables when
a. The number of conditions to be tested is very large
b. When sequence of testing conditions is not particularly important
c. When sequence of testing conditions is not particularly important
d. When a large number of actions are to be specified
6.66 Logical correctness of a specifications can be systematically checked by
a. Using decision trees
b. Using structured English
c. Using DFD’s
d. Using decision tables
6.67 The decision tree equivalent of the following structured English is

if C2 then
if C1
then A3

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M6/V1/July 04/28


System Analysis and Design/Structured Systems Analysis and Design Multiple Choice Questions

else A2
endif
else A1,A3
endif

A3
Y
Y C2
a. N A2
C1

N A1, A3

Y A3
b.
Y C1

A2
C2 N

A1
N Y

C1

N A3

Y A3

Y C1 N A2
c.

C2

A1, A3
N
V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M6/V1/July 04/29
System Analysis and Design/Structured Systems Analysis and Design Multiple Choice Questions

A2

C1
d.
A3

C2
A1A3

6.68 Decision tables are better then Decision trees when


a. Conditions are to be isolated from actions in a word statement
b. Condition sequences are to be found from a word statement
c. Logical correctness of a word statement is to be established
d. Large number of actions is to be performed
6.69 The decision table equivalent of the Decision tree of choice (a) of 6.5.7 is

a.
C2 Y N N Y
C1 N Y N Y

A1 X - X -
A2 - X X -
A3 X - - X

b.
C1 Y Y N
C2 Y N -

A1 - - X
A2 - X -
A3 X - X

c.
C1 Y Y N
C2 Y N Y

A1 - - X
A2 - X -
A3 X - X
V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M6/V1/July 04/30
System Analysis and Design/Structured Systems Analysis and Design Multiple Choice Questions

d.
C1 Y Y N
C2 Y N Y

A1 - - X
A2 - X - Error
A3 X - X

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M6/V1/July 04/31


System Analysis and Design/Structured Systems Analysis and Design Multiple Choice Questions

Key to Objective Questions

6.1 b 6.2 c 6.3 a 6.4 d 6.5 c 6.6 a

6.7 b 6.8 d 6.9 b 6.10 d 6.11 a 6.12 c


6.13 a 6.14 c 6.15 b 6.16 b 6.17 a 6.18 d
6.19 a 6.20 b 6.21 c 6.22 d 6.23 a 6.24 b
6.25 a 6.26 c 6.27 c 6.28 d 6.29 b 6.30 a
6.31 c 6.32 d 6.33 b 6.34 a 6.35 d 6.36 d
6.37 b 6.38 a 6.39 c 6.40 d 6.41 c 6.42 a
6.43 b 6.44 c 6.45 c 6.46 a 6.47 d 6.48 b
6.49 b 6.50 c 6.51 a 6.52 b 6.53 a 6.54 a
6.55 d 6.56 a 6.57 c 6.58 b 6.59 c 6.60 d
6.61 b 6.62 a 6.63 c 6.64 b 6.65 c 6.66 d
6.67 c 6.68 c 6.69 b

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M6/V1/July 04/32


MODULE 3

PROCESS SPECIFICATION
WORKED EXAMPLES

6.1 A bank has the following policy on deposits: On deposits of Rs. 5000 and
above and for three years or above the interest is 12%. On the same deposit
for a period less than 3 years it is 10%. On deposits below Rs. 5000 the
interest is 8% regardless of the period of deposit. Write the above process
using
(i) Structured English
(ii) A decision table

(i) for each deposit do


if deposit >=5000
then if period >= 3 years
then interest =12%
else interest =10%
end if
else interest =8%
end if
end for
(ii)
Deposit >= 5000 Y Y N
Period >= 3 years Y N –

Interest 12 10 8

6.2 An organization maintains an employee file in which each record has


following data:
{ Employee No., employee name, employee gross pay}.
It has been decided to increase the pay as per the following formula:
For pay of Rs. 1000 or less increase 15%.
For pay of more than Rs. 1000 but up to Rs. 2500 increase 10%.
For pay over Rs. 2500 increase 5%.
(i) Write a structured English processing rule corresponding to the above
policies.
(ii) Express the policies as a decision table.
(i)
While employee records left in file do
Read Number, name , gross pay
if gross pay <=1000
then increase = gross pay * 0.15
else if gross pay <= 2500
then increase = gross pay * 0.1
else increase = gross pay * .05
end if
end if
Gross pay = gross pay + increase
Write Number, name, gross pay
end while

(ii) While employee records left in file do


Read Number, name, gross pay
do Table
Gross pay <= 1000 Y N N
Gross pay <= 2500 – Y N

Percent increase 15 10 5

end table
Gross pay = gross pay*(1+percent increase/100)
Write Number, name, gross pay
end while

6.3 An offshore gas company bills its customers according to the following rate
schedule:
First 500 litres Rs. 10 (flat)
Next 300 litres Rs. 1.25 per 100 litres
Next 30,000 litres Rs. 1.20 per 100 litres
Next 100,000 litres Rs. 1.10 per 100 litres
Above this Re. 1.00 per 100 litres
The input record has customer identification, name and address, meter
reading, past and present. Write a structured English procedure to obtain a
bill for the customer.

While record left in customer file do


Read customer id, name, address, past meter reading, new meter reading
Consumption = new meter reading – old meter reading
if consumption <= 500 then charge =10
else if consumption <=800
then charge = 10 + (consumption – 500) * 0.0125
else
if consumption <= 30800
then charge = 13.75
+(consumption – 800) * 0.012
else
if consumption <=130800
then charge = 373.75 + (consumption – 30800) * 0.011
else charge = 1473.75 + (consumption – 130800) * 0.01
end if
end if
end if
end if
write customer id, name, address, past meter reading, new meter reading,
consumption, charge
end while

6.4 Refer to users requirements stated in exercise 6.4 of Question bank. Develop
the processing rules in structured English for the stores process shown in Fig.
5.8.
for each customer requisition do
if (qty. requested < qty. in stock ) then
{
qty. issued = qty. requested.
qty. in stock = qty. in stock – qty. issued
send( customer id , qty. issued ) to accounts process}
end if
if (qty. in stock <= reorder level) then
send reorder request to purchase.
end if

if (qty. requested = qty. in stock) then


{
qty. issued = qty. requested
qty in stock = 0;
send (customer id, qty issued) to accounts
send reorder request to purchase }
end if

if (qty. requested > qty. in stock) then


if (partial qty. acceptable)
then {
qty issued = qty. requested
qty in stock = 0;
send (customer id , qty issued) to accounts
send reorder request to purchase.
write (customer id, (qty. requested – qty. issued ))
in file}
else
{qty. issued = 0;
send reorder request to purchase
write (customer id, qty requested) in back order file }
end if
end if
end for

for each item (with specified item code and qty. accepted note) received from
inspection do
qty. in stock ( item code)
= qty. in stock ( item code) + qty. accepted
end for

6.5 Refer to Exercise 6.4 in Question Bank. Develop the processing rules in
structured English for the purchase process of Fig. 5.9.
for each discrepancy note received from the receiving office do
{ intimate specified vendor
enter discrepancy in the discrepancy file }
end for

for each goods rejected note received from the inspection office do
{ intimate specified vendor
enter rejected items note in items rejected file }
end for

for each reorder advice or new requisition received for an item from stores do
{ Refer to item file to find vendor details and order qty.
send order to specified vendor
enter order in order file }
end for

6.6. State the processing rules in structured English for the various processes in
the data flow diagram for the hostel DFD described in Module 5
Mess Process
for each absence note do
Read student charge record from student charge file (using student number
as key)
Add absence days to absence field
Write student charge record in student charge file
end for
for each extras note do
Read student charge record
Append extras code and quantity to record
Write student charge in student charge file
end for
Billing Process
While student charge records left in student charge file do
Read student charge record from student charge file
No. of days to charge = no. of days in a month – no. of days absent.
Monthly charge = no. of days to charge * daily rate
Total extras charge = 0
for each extra item do
extras charge (code) = extra qty. * charge (code)
end for
Add extra charge to total extra charge
Amount to be billed = no. of days to charge * daily rate + total extras
charge
Student bill record = student charge record + daily rate, no. of days
charged, monthly charge, extras charge (code) , total extras charge ,
grand total to pay
Write student bill record
end while
(Note: It is assumed that the daily rate, no. of days in a month and extras charge
for each extras code is stored in the billing process as an internal data record.)

Payment Reconciliation Process


for each student Bill record do
Store student Bill record in Bill file
end for
for each payment received do
Read bill record of student from Bill file
if amount paid = grand total to pay
then balance due = 0
else balance due = (grand total to pay – amount paid)
Store bill record in unpaid bill file
end if
end for
On payment due date, (due date + 10), (due date + 20) do
While records left in unpaid Bill file do
if balance due > 0
then send overdue notice,
end if
end while
On (payment due date + 30) do
While records left in unpaid bill file do
if balance due > 0
then send message to warden
end if
end while
6.7 The policy followed by a company to process customer orders is given by the
following rules:
(i) If the customer order <= that in stock and his credit is OK, supply his
requirement.
(ii) If the customer credit is not OK do not supply. Send him an intimation.
(iii) If the customer credit is OK but items in stock are less than his order,
supply what is in stock. Enter balance to be sent in back-order file.
Obtain a decision table for above policy

Order <= stock Y Y N N


Credit OK Y N Y N

Supply order X – – –
Credit not OK
Do not supply – X – X
Supply stock – – X –
Enter (order – stock)
In back Order file – – X –

Observe that the last rule is not specified in the statement of rules. This has been
added to complete the table.

6.8 Obtain a decision table to decide whether on a given date an employee in an


organization has completed one year’s service or not.
Let date of joining be DJ/MJ/YJ (Day/Month/Year)
Let today’s date be DT/MT/YT (Day/Month/Year)
If (YT – YJ) >1 =1 =1 E
If (MT – MJ) – >0 =0 L
S
If (DT – DJ) – – >= 0 E

One year’s service Yes Yes Yes No


6.9 Obtain a decision table corresponding to the structured English procedure given
in worked example 6.4of decision table
for each customer requisition do decision table

decision table
qty requested < qty in stock Y – – – Y
qty requested = qty in stock – Y – – –
qty requested > qty in stock – – Y Y –
(qty in stock – qty requested) Y – – – N
<= reorder level
Partial order OK? – – N Y –

qty issued = qty requested X X – – X


qty issued = qty in stock – – – X –
qty in stock = (qty in stock – qty issued) X – – – X
qty in stock = 0 – X – X –
Send customer id,qty issued to account process X X – X X
qty issued = 0 – – X – –
Send reorder request to purchase process X X X X –
Write (customer id, qty requested – qty issued)
in back order file – – – X –
Write (customer id, qty requested) in back
order file – – X – –

for each item with specified item code and qty accepted note
received from inspection do
qty in stock ( item code) =
qty in stock ( item code) + qty. accepted
end for

6.10 Obtain a decision table for an automatic stamp vending machine with the
following specifications:
(i) To dispense 20, 15, 10, 5 paise stamps
(ii) To accept 50, 25, 10, 5 paise coins
(iii) Do not return change if it is necessary to return more than two coins of
the same denomination. In such a case return the customer’s coin and
turn on “no change” light.
The machine should dispense a stamp, the right amount of change tendered,
no stamp available, no change available, etc.
Table 1: Select Stamp
Amount tendered < Stamp cost = Stamp cost > Stamp cost –
Stamp requested available? – Y Y N

Amount insufficient X – – –
Return amount X – – X
‘No stamp’ light on – – – X
Dispense stamp – X X –
Go to Table 2 – – X –
Stop X X – X

Table 2: Make Change


Amount tendered 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 25 25 25 25 25 25 10
Stamp cost 20 20 15 15 10 5 5 20 15 15 10 5 5 5 E
25 ps. Available? >=1 – >=1 >=1 >=1 >=1 >=1 – – – – – – – L
10 ps. Available? – >=2 >=1 – >=1 >= 2 >=1 – >=1 – >=1 >=2 >=1 – S
5 ps. Available >=1 >=2 – >=2 >=1 – >=2 >=1 – >=2 >=1 – >=2 >=1 E

No of 25 ps. Returned 1 – 1 1 1 1 1 – – – – – – – –
No of 10 ps. Returned – 2 1 – 1 2 1 – 1 – 1 2 1 – –
No of 5 ps. Returned 1 2 – 2 1 – 2 1 – 2 1 – 2 1 –
Dispense stamp X X X X X X X X X X X X X X –
No. change light on – – – – – – – – – – – – – – X
Return amount – – – – – – – – – – – – – – X
Stop X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

6.11 Obtain the decision table to be used by a person to enter the office of a manager.
The conditions to be checked are:
Door open? Ring sign on? Enter sign on? Door locked?
The actions a person takes are:
Ring bell, enter, wait, leave.
After obtaining the decision table, ensure that it has no logical errors and
that it is in minimal form.
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 R15 R16
C1: Door open? N N N N N N N N Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
C2: Ring sign on? N N N N Y Y Y Y N N N N Y Y Y Y
C3: Enter sign on? N N Y Y N N Y Y N N Y Y N N Y Y
C4: Door locked? N Y N Y N Y N Y N Y N Y N Y N Y
Ring bell – – – – X – X – – ? – ? X ? X ?
Enter – – X – – – X – – ? X ? – ? X ?
Wait – – – – X – – – – ? – ? X ? – ?
Leave X X – X – X – X X ? – ? – ? – ?
A1 A1 A2 A1 A3 A1 A4 A1 A1 A2 A3 A4

Rules R10, R12, R14, R16 have conditions “Door open” and “Door locked”
simultaneously true. These rules are thus impossible. Observe these are four
distinct actions. The table is mapped on a K-map (Fig. S6.11)
NN NY YY YN

NN A1 A3 A3 A1

NY A1 A1

YY A1 A1

YN A2 A4 A4 A2

Fig S6.11 k-map for solution 6.11

Decision table with redundancies removed


Decision Table with removed (Condition C1 redundant)
C2: Ring on? – N N Y Y
C3: Enter on? – N Y N Y
C4: Door locked? Y – N N N
Ring bell – – – X X
Enter – – X – X
Wait – – – X –
Leave X X – – –
A1 A1 A2 A3 A4
6.12 In installment buying where payments are made on a weekly basis the action taken on
“an account goes into arrears” is a crucial aspect of the operation. Table
S6.12 illustrates a simplified arrears procedure. Answer the following
questions:
(i) Are all elementary rules logically possible?
(ii) Is the table complete?
(iii) Has the table any ambiguities?
(iv) Are there logical errors in the table? If yes, point them out.
(v) Use reasonable assumptions and correct the table.
(vi) Remove any redundancies in the corrected table (Table S6.12).

Table S6.12 A Simplified Arrears Procedure


C1: This week’s cash > weekly rate Y Y N N – – – – –
C2: This week’s cash > 0 – – Y Y – – N N N
C3: Any cash during last month – – – – N N Y Y Y
C4: Arrears . >2 * weekly rate – – Y N – – N Y –
C5: Arrears >4 * weekly rate N Y N – N Y – N Y
Send arrears letter A – X – – – – – – –
Send arrears letter B – – X – – – – – –
Send arrears letter C – – – – X – – – –
Send arrears letter D – – – – – – – X –
Notify accounts X – – X – – X – –
Take special action – – – – – X – – X
A1 A2 A3 A1 A4 A5 A1 A6 A5

K-map for the decision table


C1C2 C1C2
NN NY YY YN C3C4 NN NY YY YN
C3C4
A4 A1 A1
NN A4 A4 NN

NY A4 A3 A1 A5 A5 A2
A4 A4 NY
A5
YY A6 A3 A1 YY A5 ? A2

YN A1 A1 A1 YN

C5 = N C5=Y

Fig S6.12

Assume weekly rate >0


Impossible rule: C1 = Y C2 = N

Impossible rule: C4 = N C5 = Y
K- map (Fig. S 9.10) has incompleteness marked by ?
C1 C2 C3 C4 C5
N Y Y Y Y

Logically contradictory rules


C1 C2 C3 C4 C5
N Y N N N
N Y N Y N
Y Y N N N
Y Y N Y N
Y Y N Y Y

If in all these cases we take action to notify accounts (Action A1) then the K- map becomes the
one shown in Fig. S9.11
A1 = C3. C4 + C1 . C5 + C2 . C3 . C5 + C1 . C3 + C1 . C2 . C3 . C5
A2 = C1 . C3 . C5
A3 = C1 . C2 . C3 . C4 . C5
A4 = C2 . C3 . C5
A5 = C1 . C3 . C5 + C2 . C4 . C5
C1C2
A6 = C2 . C3 . C4 . C5
C3C4 NN NY YY YN

NN A4 A1 A1

NY
A4 A1 A1

YY A6 A3 A1

YN A1 A1 A1

C5=N
Fig S.6.13
C1C2
C3C4 NN NY YY YN

NN

NY
A5 A5 A1

YY A5 A1 A2

YN

C5=Y
FigS6.14

C1: This week’s cash > weekly rate – Y – Y N Y N – N – –


C2: This week’s cash > 0 – – Y – Y – Y N – N N
C3: Any cash during last month Y – N N Y Y Y N N – Y
C4: Arrears . > 2 * weekly rate N – – – – – Y – – Y Y
C5: Arrears > 4 * weekly rate – N N – Y Y N N Y Y N
Send arrears letter A – – – – – X – – – – –
Send arrears letter B – – – – – – X – – – –
Send arrears letter C – – – – – – – X – – –
Send arrears letter D – – – – – – – – – – X
Notify accounts X X X X X – – – – – –
Take special action – – – – – – – – X X –

6.13 The policy followed by a company to process customer orders is given by the
following rules:
(i) If the customer order ≤ that in stock and his credit is OK, supply his
requirement.
(ii) If the customer credit is not OK do not supply. Send him an intimation.
(iii) If the customer credit is OK but items in stock are less than his order, supply
what is in stock. Enter the balance to be sent in a back-order file.
Obtain a decision table for the above policy.
C1 : Customer order <= Item in the stock
C2 : Customer credit ok
Y Supply requirement
C2

Y Do not supply send intimation


N
C1 Supply what is in the stock. Enter balance in
N the back order file
C2 Y
N
Do not supply send intimation

6.14 Obtain a decision tree to be used by a person to enter the office of a manager.
The conditions to be checked are:
Door open? Ring sign on? Enter sign on? Door locked?
The actions a person takes are:
Ring bell, enter, wait, leave.
After obtaining the decision table, ensure that it has no logical errors and that it is
in minimal form.

C1 : Door open
C2 : Ring sign on
C3 : Enter sign on
C4 : Door locked
Ring bell and enter
Y

C3
Y
N Ring bell and wait
C2 Y
Y Enter
N C3
N
C1
C4 N Leave
N

Y Leave
Observe that C1 is not relevant and not clear in the Decision tree

6.15 A University has the following rules for a student to qualify for a degree with
Physics as the main subject and Mathematics as the subsidiary subject:
(i) he should get 50% or more marks in Physics and 40% or more marks in
Mathematics.
(ii) If he gets < 50% marks in Physics, he should get 50% or more marks in
Mathematics. He should, however, get at least 40% marks in Physics.
(iii) If he gets < 40% marks in Mathematics and 60% or more marks in Physics,
he is allowed to reappear in Mathematics examination only so that he can
qualify.

Obtain a decision tree for the above problem

Pass
Y

C2
Y Appear in mathematics
Y
N C4
C1 N Fail
Y Pass
Y C5
N
C3 N Fail

N
Fail
Pass
>=50

>=50 >=40
C2 Pass
< 40
Repeat math
C1
>=40

>=60

< 40
Fail

(An incorrect tree. This is not correct as rule ii not correctly interpreted)

C1 : Physics Marks
C2 : Math marks
C3 : Math marks >=50%

CORRECTED DECISION TREE

Pass
C2 Fail
>=50
Pass
C1 >=40 C3
Fail

>=60
Pass
C2
Repeat math
<40
Fail
6.16 You want to go to Delhi from Bangalore. There are three flights per day; early
morning, late morning and evening. You would like to go on 21.4.04 by early
morning flight. If it is not available you will take the late morning flight or evening
flight in that order. If neither is available you are willing to take any flight on
22.4.04 but prefer early and late morning flights., Obtain a decision tree for this
word statement. Is decision table suitable for this problem? If not why?

Book ticket

Y
C1 Book ticket

N C2 Y
Book ticket

N C3 Y
Book ticket

N C4 Y

Book ticket
N Y
C5
Book ticket
N C6 Y

N No ticket available

C1 : Is ticket available on early morning flight on 21/4/04


C2 : Is ticket available on late morning flight on 21/4/04
C3 : Is ticket available on evening flight on 21/4/04
C4 : Is ticket available on early morning flight on 22/4/04
C5 : Is ticket available on late morning flight on 22/4/04
C6 : Is ticket available on evening flight on 22/4/04
System Analysis and Design / Structured Systems Analysis and Design Question Bank

QUESTION BANK – MODULE 6


6.1 A bank has the following policy on deposits: On deposits of Rs.5000 and above
and for three years or above the interest is 12%. On the same deposit for a
period less than 3 years it is 10%. On deposits below Rs.5000 the interest is 8%
regardless of the period of deposit. Write the above process using
i. Structured English
ii. A decision table
6.2 An organization maintains an employee file in which each record has the
following data:
(Employee No., employee name, employee gross pay).
It has been decided to increase the pay as per the following formula:
For pay of Rs.1000 or less increase 15%
For pay of more than Rs.1000 but up to Rs.2500 increase 10%.
For pay over Rs.2500 increase 5%.
i. Write a structured English processing rule corresponding to the above
policies
ii. Express the policies as a decision table.
6.3 An offshore gas company bills its customer according to the following rate
schedule:
First 500 litres Rs. 10 (flat)
Next 300 litres Rs.1.25 per 100 litres
Next 30,000 litres Rs.1.20 per 100 litres
Next 100,000 litres Rs.1.10 per 100 litres
Above this Rs.1.00 per 100 litres.
The input record has customer identification, name and address, meter reading,
past and present. Write a structured English procedure to obtain a bill for the
customer.
6.4 A narrative of a user’s requirements in an organization is given below:
"Our company receives a number of items from many vendors and they are
received at the receiving office. As we receive over 1000 items a day it is now
virtually impossible for the receiving office to check whether the vendor has
supplied items against an order, or sent a wrong item and inform the purchase
office. We are also not able to find out if there are excesses or deficiencies in
delivery and whether the vendor adhered to the delivery schedule as per the
order. The items received at the receiving office are sent for physical inspection.
The physical inspection consists of checking whether the quantities stated in the
delivery note agree with the physical count, whether the item is the correct one
ordered, and a check on the quality of item. We would like to keep a record of
rejections due to bad quality, incorrect items, excess/deficient supply etc.,
determined during inspection. This will enable us to assess vendors' reliability to
guide us in placing orders in the future, besides keeping track of supplies. Items
cleared by the inspection office are taken into the inventory by the stores office
which keeps a ledger of items stocked and quantity available of each item.
Customers send requisitions to the stores. The stores fulfill the requests based
on availability and update the ledger. Currently we are not able to meet some of
our customers' requests. We would like to incorporate automatic reordering by

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M6/V1/July 04/1


System Analysis and Design / Structured Systems Analysis and Design Question Bank

our purchase office if the inventory level of an item is low. We would also like
to keep track of unfulfilled requests and meet them when items reach the store.
Currently we are not able to pay our vendors promptly due to delays in payment
order reaching our accounts office. We would like to rectify this. We would
also like to bill our customers promptly and keep track of customers' payments"
Develop the processing rules in structured English for the office receiving the
goods specified in the user’s requirements.
6.5 Develop the processing rules in Structured English for the inspection process of
the user’s requirements stated in Exercise 6.4
6.6 Develop the processing rules in Structured English for the purchase process of
the user’s requirements stated in Exercise 6.4.
6.7 Develop the processing rules in Structured English for the accounting process
stated in Exercise 6.4
6.8 Develop the processing rules in Structured English for the stores process stated
in Exercise 6.4
6.9 The policy followed by a company to process customer orders is given by the
following rules:
(i) If the customer order ≤ that in stock and his credit is OK, supply his
requirement.
(ii) If the customer credit is not OK do not supply. Send him an intimation.
(iii) If the customer credit is OK but items in stock are less than his order,
supply what is in stock. Enter the balance to be sent in a back-order file.
Obtain a decision table for the above policy.

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M6/V1/July 04/2


System Analysis and Design / Structured Systems Analysis and Design Question Bank

6.10 Obtain a decision table to decide whether on a given date an employee in an


organization has completed one year's service or not.
6.11 Obtain a decision table for an automatic stamps vending machine with the
following specifications:
(i) To dispense 20, 15, 10, 5 paise stamps
(ii) To accept 50, 25, 10, 5 paise coins
(iii) Do not return change if it is necessary to return more than two coins of the
same denomination. In such a case return the customer's coin and turn on
"no change" light.
The machine should dispense a stamp, the right amount of change, no stamp
available, no change available signals etc.
6.12 Obtain a decision table to be used by a person to enter the office of a manager.
The conditions to be checked are:
Door open? Ring sign on? Enter sign on? Door locked?
The actions a person takes are:
Ring bell, enter, wait, leave.
After obtaining the decision table, ensure that it has no logical errors and that it is
in minimal form.
6.13 A University has the following rules for a student to qualify for a degree with
Physics as the main subject and Mathematics as the subsidiary subject:
(i) he should get 50% or more marks in Physics and 40% or more marks in
Mathematics.
(ii) If he gets < 50% marks in Physics, he should get 50% or more marks in
Mathematics. He should, however, get at least 40% marks in Physics.
(iii) If he gets < 40% marks in Mathematics and 60% or more marks in Physics,
he is allowed to reappear in Mathematics examination only so that he can
qualify.
(a) obtain an EEDT for the rules
(b) obtain an LEDT for the rules
check the logical correctness of the decision table
6.14 In instalment buying where payments are make on a weekly basis the action taken
on "an account goes into arrears" is a crucial aspect of the operaiton. Table P6.14
illustrates a simplified arrears procedure. Answer the following questions:
(i) Are all elementary rules logically possible?
(ii) Is the table complete?
(iii) Has the table any ambiguities?
(iv) Are there logical errors in the table? If yes, point them out.
(v) Use reasonable assumptions and correct the table.
(vi) Remove any redundancies in the corrected table (Table 6.)

6.15 Obtain a decision tree for Exercise 6.9.


6.16 Obtain a decision tree for exercise 6.13. Is it possible to find out missing rules if
any in a decision tree representation.
6.17 Obtain a decision tree for Exercise 6.12.

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M6/V1/July 04/3


System Analysis and Design / Structured Systems Analysis and Design Question Bank

6.18 Explain in what types of problems you will use a decision tree approach rather
than a decision table approach.
6.19 You want to go to Delhi from Bangalore. There are three flights per day; early
morning, late morning and evening. You would like to go on 21.4.04 by early
morning flight. If it is not available you will take the late morning flight. If neither
is available you are willing to take any flight on 22.4.04 but prefer early and late
morning flights., Obtain a decision tree for this word statement. Is decisiont able
suitable for this problem? If not why?
6.20 Explain in what types of problemsyou will prefer Structured English process
specification rather than decision tree.
Table P.6.14 A simplified Arrears Procedure
C1: This week's cash > weekly Y Y N N − − − − −
rate
C2: This week's cash > 0 − − Y Y − − N N N
C3: Any cash during last month − − − − N N Y Y Y
C4: Arrears > 2 * weekly rate − − Y N − − N Y −
C5: Arrears > 4 * weekly rate N Y N − N Y − N Y

Send arrears letter A − X − − − − − − −


Send arrears letter B − − X − − − − − −
Send arrears letter C − − − − X − − − −
Send arrears letter D − − − − − − − X −
Notify accounts X − − X − − X − −
Take special action − − − − − X − − X
A1 A2 A3 A1 A4 A5 A1 A6 A5

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M6/V1/July 04/4


System Analysis and Design / Structured Systems Analysis and Design Pointers

References

1. V.Rajaraman, “Analysis and Design of Information Systems”, 2nd Edition,


Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi, 2002. Most of the material in this module is
based on Chapter 8 and 9 of the above book. The book is perhaps the only one
which has extensive discussion on error detection in Decision Tables.
2. K.E. Kendall and J.E.Kendall, “Systems Analysis and Design”, 5th Edition,
Pearson Education Asia, Delhi, 2003. Has a brief discussion of structured
English, Decision Tables and Decision Trees (pages 353 to 369). Website
www.prenhall.com/kendall has a lot of support material and case study for
students.
3. J.A.Hoffer, J.F.George, J.S.Velacich, “Modern Systems Analysis and Design”,
Third Edition, Pearson Education Asia, 2002. Chapter 7 (pages 282 to 303) cover
the topics in this module. The book has a number of interesting case studies and a
good problem set. The web site http://prenhall.com/hoffer has material to assist
students who use this text book.
4. E.Yourdon “Modern Structured Analysis”, Prentice Hall of India, 1996. Chapter
11 (pages 203 to 232) describes structured English and Decision Tables. There is
a larger set of exercises at the end of the chapter.

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M6/V1/July 04/1


SUMMARY OF MODULE 6

1. Procedures are used to transform input data into processed results.

2. Procedure can be described in natural English. Such a description is often


ambiguous due to impreciseness of natural English.
3. Structured English attempts to describe verbal statements made in natural
English more precisely.
4. Precision is obtained by using ideas of logic and block structuring as in
programming languages.
5. Decision tables are more appropriate when a large number of conditions are to
be checked in arriving at a set of actions.
6. In structured English a number of key words are used for representing commonly
used operations. Some important keywords are; search, retrieve, if, then, else,
do, case, while, for.
7. The important control structures used to describe a process are: Selection
structure (using if then else or case), loop structure (using for, while and repeat
unitl).

8. Decision tables specify actions to be performed for each combination of results


obtained by testing a set of conditions relevant in a problem.

9. Decision tables are used for communicating and documenting complex decision
procedures.

10. In order to obtain a decision table from a word statement, we first isolate in each
sentence a part which specifies the conditions and another part which specifies
the actions to be performed, based on the result of testing the conditions.
Conditions are then grouped in one or more table and the rules are formulated.

11. It is not advisable to have more than four or five conditions per decision table. If
there are many conditions they are grouped and a set of tables are formulated and
linked.

12. Limited Entry Decision Tables (LEDT) use only Y or N answers to conditions.

13. In Extended Entry Decision Tables (EEDT) conditions are formed by combining
the statement in the condition stub with that in the condition entry part of the
decision table. EEDTs are more concise.
14. A decision table is said to be complete if it has all possible distinct elementary
rules. If any rule is missing it is incomplete.

15. If no values can be assigned to the condition variables leading to the missing
rules then the decision table is said to be apparently incomplete. Otherwise it is
really incomplete.

16. If an elementary rule has more than one action specified, then the decision table
is said to be ambiguous. If the elementary rule is logically impossible, then the
ambiguity is apparent; otherwise, it is real.

17. A decision table with real ambiguity or incompleteness has a logical error which
should be corrected.

18. Incompleteness and ambiguity are easily specified by using a two-dimensional


diagram onto which a decision table is mapped. The diagram is called a
Karnaugh may (K-map).

19. K-maps are also useful to detect redundant rules.

20. Using basic ideas of Boolean algebra and K-maps, unnecessary conditions and
unnecessary rules are eliminated. The number of conditions to be tested in each
rule can also be minimized by using K-maps.

21. Pre-processors are available to automatically convert decision tables to program


in a programming language.

22. Decision trees are used when sequencing of conditions is important and
conditions are to be tested in order of their priority.

23. Structures English is appropriate when a problem has complex actions and many
loops. Decision tables are appropriate when there are a large number of
conditions to be tested and the logic is complex. Decisiion trees ae preferred
when sequencing of conditions is important.
QUESTION BANK – MODULE 6

6.1 A bank has the following policy on deposits: On deposits of Rs.5000 and above
and for three years or above the interest is 12%. On the same deposit for a
period less than 3 years it is 10%. On deposits below Rs.5000 the interest is 8%
regardless of the period of deposit. Write the above process using
i. Structured English
ii. A decision table
6.2 An organization maintains an employee file in which each record has the
following data:
(Employee No., employee name, employee gross pay).
It has been decided to increase the pay as per the following formula:
For pay of Rs.1000 or less increase 15%
For pay of more than Rs.1000 but up to Rs.2500 increase 10%.
For pay over Rs.2500 increase 5%.
i. Write a structured English processing rule corresponding to the above
policies
ii. Express the policies as a decision table.
6.3 An offshore gas company bills its customer according to the following rate
schedule:
First 500 litres Rs. 10 (flat)
Next 300 litres Rs.1.25 per 100 litres
Next 30,000 litres Rs.1.20 per 100 litres
Next 100,000 litres Rs.1.10 per 100 litres
Above this Rs.1.00 per 100 litres.

The input record has customer identification, name and address, meter reading,
past and present. Write a structured English procedure to obtain a bill for the
customer.

6.4 A narrative of a user’s requirements in an organization is given below:


"Our company receives a number of items from many vendors and they are
received at the receiving office. As we receive over 1000 items a day it is now
virtually impossible for the receiving office to check whether the vendor has
supplied items against an order, or sent a wrong item and inform the purchase
office. We are also not able to find out if there are excesses or deficiencies in
delivery and whether the vendor adhered to the delivery schedule as per the
order. The items received at the receiving office are sent for physical inspection.
The physical inspection consists of checking whether the quantities stated in the
delivery note agree with the physical count, whether the item is the correct one
ordered, and a check on the quality of item. We would like to keep a record of
rejections due to bad quality, incorrect items, excess/deficient supply etc.,
determined during inspection. This will enable us to assess vendors' reliability to
guide us in placing orders in the future, besides keeping track of supplies. Items
cleared by the inspection office are taken into the inventory by the stores office
which keeps a ledger of items stocked and quantity available of each item.
Customers send requisitions to the stores. The stores fulfill the requests based
on availability and update the ledger. Currently we are not able to meet some of
our customers' requests. We would like to incorporate automatic reordering by
our purchase office if the inventory level of an item is low. We would also like
to keep track of unfulfilled requests and meet them when items reach the store.
Currently we are not able to pay our vendors promptly due to delays in payment
order reaching our accounts office. We would like to rectify this. We would
also like to bill our customers promptly and keep track of customers' payments"
Develop the processing rules in structured English for the office receiving the
goods specified in the user’s requirements.

6.5 Develop the processing rules in Structured English for the inspection process of
the user’s requirements stated in Exercise 6.4

6.6 Develop the processing rules in Structured English for the purchase process of
the user’s requirements stated in Exercise 6.4.

6.7 Develop the processing rules in Structured English for the accounting process
stated in Exercise 6.4

6.8 Develop the processing rules in Structured English for the stores process stated
in Exercise 6.4

6.9 The policy followed by a company to process customer orders is given by the
following rules:
(i) If the customer order ≤ that in stock and his credit is OK, supply his
requirement.
(ii) If the customer credit is not OK do not supply. Send him an intimation.
(iii) If the customer credit is OK but items in stock are less than his order,
supply what is in stock. Enter the balance to be sent in a back-order file.
Obtain a decision table for the above policy.
6.10 Obtain a decision table to decide whether on a given date an employee in an
organization has completed one year's service or not.

6.11
Obtain a decision table for an automatic stamps vending machine with the
following specifications:
(i) To dispense 20, 15, 10, 5 paise stamps
(ii) To accept 50, 25, 10, 5 paise coins
(iii) Do not return change if it is necessary to return more than two coins of the
same denomination. In such a case return the customer's coin and turn on
"no change" light.
The machine should dispense a stamp, the right amount of change, no stamp
available, no change available signals etc.

6.12 Obtain a decision table to be used by a person to enter the office of a manager.
The conditions to be checked are:
Door open? Ring sign on? Enter sign on? Door locked?
The actions a person takes are:
Ring bell, enter, wait, leave.
After obtaining the decision table, ensure that it has no logical errors and that it is
in minimal form.

6.13 A University has the following rules for a student to qualify for a degree with
Physics as the main subject and Mathematics as the subsidiary subject:
(i) he should get 50% or more marks in Physics and 40% or more marks in
Mathematics.
(ii) If he gets < 50% marks in Physics, he should get 50% or more marks in
Mathematics. He should, however, get at least 40% marks in Physics.
(iii) If he gets < 40% marks in Mathematics and 60% or more marks in Physics,
he is allowed to reappear in Mathematics examination only so that he can
qualify.

(a) obtain an EEDT for the rules


(b) obtain an LEDT for the rules
(c) check the logical correctness of the decision table

6.14 In instalment buying where payments are make on a weekly basis the action taken
on "an account goes into arrears" is a crucial aspect of the operaiton. Table P6.14
illustrates a simplified arrears procedure. Answer the following questions:

(i) Are all elementary rules logically possible?


(ii) Is the table complete?
(iii) Has the table any ambiguities?
(iv) Are there logical errors in the table? If yes, point them out.
(v) Use reasonable assumptions and correct the table.
(vi) Remove any redundancies in the corrected table (Table 6.)

6.15 Obtain a decision tree for Exercise 6.9.

6.16 Obtain a decision tree for exercise 6.13. Is it possible to find out missing rules if
any in a decision tree representation.

6.17 Obtain a decision tree for Exercise 6.12.

6.18 Explain in what types of problems you will use a decision tree approach rather
than a decision table approach.

6.19 You want to go to Delhi from Bangalore. There are three flights per day; early
morning, late morning and evening. You would like to go on 21.4.04 by early
morning flight. If it is not available you will take the late morning flight. If neither
is available you are willing to take any flight on 22.4.04 but prefer early and late
morning flights., Obtain a decision tree for this word statement. Is decisiont able
suitable for this problem? If not why?

6.20 Explain in what types of problemsyou will prefer Structured English process
specification rather than decision tree.

Table P.6.14 A simplified Arrears Procedure


C1: This week's cash > weekly Y Y N N − − − − −
rate
C2: This week's cash > 0 − − Y Y − − N N N
C3: Any cash during last month − − − − N N Y Y Y
C4: Arrears > 2 * weekly rate − − Y N − − N Y −
C5: Arrears > 4 * weekly rate N Y N − N Y − N Y

Send arrears letter A − X − − − − − − −


Send arrears letter B − − X − − − − − −
Send arrears letter C − − − − X − − − −
Send arrears letter D − − − − − − − X −
Notify accounts X − − X − − X − −
Take special action − − − − − X − − X
A1 A2 A3 A1 A4 A5 A1 A6 A5
References

1. V.Rajaraman, “Analysis and Design of Information Systems”, 2nd Edition,


Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi, 2002. Most of the material in this module is
based on Chapter 8 and 9 of the above book. The book is perhaps the only one
which has extensive discussion on error detection in Decision Tables.

2. K.E. Kendall and J.E.Kendall, “Systems Analysis and Design”, 5th Edition,
Pearson Education Asia, Delhi, 2003. Has a brief discussion of structured
English, Decision Tables and Decision Trees (pages 353 to 369) . Website
www.prenhall.com/kendall has a lot of support material and case study for
students.

3. J.A.Hoffer, J.F.George, J.S.Velacich, “Modern Systems Analysis and Design”,


Third Edition, Pearson Education Asia, 2002. Chapter 7 (pages 282 to 303) cover
the topics in this module. The book has a number of interesting case studies and a
good problem set. The web site http://prenhall.com/hoffer has material to assist
students who use this text book.

4. E.Yourdon “Modern Structured Analysis”, Prentice Hall of India, 1996. Chapter


11 (pages 203 to 232) describes structured English and Decision Tables. There is
a larger set of exercises at the end of the chapter.
MODULE 7

DATA INPUT METHODS


OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS

There are 4 alternative answers to each question. One of them is correct.


Pick the correct answer. Do not guess. A key is given at the end of the
module for you to verify your answer

LEARNING UNIT 1

7.1.1 A data dictionary has consolidated list of data contained in

(i) dataflows (ii) data stores

(iii) data outputs (iv) processes

(a) (i) and (iii)


(b) (i) and (ii)
(c) (ii) and (iv)
(d) (i) and (iv)

7.1.2 A data dictionary is useful as

(i) it is a documentation aid


(ii) it assists in designing input forms
(iii) it contains al data in an application including temporary data used in
processes
(iv) it is a good idea in system design
(a) (i) and (ii)
(b) (i) and (iv)
(c) (i),(ii) and (iii)
(d) (i) and (iv)
7.1.3 By metadata we mean

(a) very large data


(b) data about data
(c) data dictionary
(d) meaningful data

7.1.4 A data dictionary is usually developed

(a) At requirements specification phase


(b) During feasibility analysis
(c) When DFD is developed
(d) When a datadase is designed

7.1.5 A data dictionary has information about

(a) every data element in a data flow


(b) only key data element in a data flow
(c) only important data elements in a data flow
(d) only numeric data elements in a data flow

7.1.6 A data element in a data dictionary may have

(a) only integer value


(b) no value
(c) only real value
(d) only decimal value

7.1.7 A data element in a data flow

(i) may be an integer number


(ii) may be a real number
(iii) may be binary
(iv) may be imaginary

(a) (i),(ii),(iv)
(b) (iii),(iv),(ii)
(c) (i),(ii),(iii)
(d) (i) and (ii)
LEARNING UNIT 2

7.2.1 It is necessary to carefully design data input to a computer based system


because
(a) it is good to be careful
(b) the volume of data handled is large
(c) the volume of data handled is small
(d) data entry operators are not good

7.2.2 Errors occur more often when


(a) data is entered by users
(b) data is entered by operators
(c) when data is handwritten by users and entered by an operator
(d) the key board design is bad

7.2.3 Good system design prevents data entry errors by


(i) Designing good forms with plenty of space to write in block capitals
(ii) By giving clear instructions to a user on how to fill a form
(iii) Reducing keystrokes of an operator
(v) Designing good keyboard

(a) i, ii, iii (b) i, ii, iv


(c) i, ii (d) iii and iv

7.2.4 In on-line data entry it is possible to


(a) Give immediate feedback if incorrect data is entered
(b) Eliminate all errors
(c) Save data entry operators time
(d) Eliminate forms

7.2.5 The main problems encountered in off-line data entry are:


(i) Data are entered by operators
(ii) Data entered by hand in forms batched and forms may be missed or
misread
(iii) Errors are detected after a lapse of time
(iv) Data are entered by users

(a) i and ii (b) i and iii


(c) ii and iii (d) iii and iv
7.2.6 In interactive data input a menu is used to
(a) enter new data
(b) add/delete data
(c) select one out of many alternatives often by a mouse click
(d) detect errors in data input

7.2.7 In interactive data input a template is normally used to


(a) enter new data
(b) add/delete data
(c) select one out of many alternatives often by a mouse click
(d) detect errors in data input

7.2.8 In interactive data input terminal commands are normally used to


(a) enter new data
(b) add/delete data
(c) select one out of many alternatives often by a mouse click
(d) detect errors in data input

LEARNING UNIT 3

7.3.1 Data inputs which required coding are


(a) fields which specify prices
(b) key fields
(c) name fields such as product name
(e) fields which are of variable length

7.3.2 Key fields are normally coded


(i) as they provide a unique identification
(ii) as they are used for retrieving records
(iii) as they facilitate cross referencing between applications which use the
key
(iv) as it is useful

(a) i and ii (b) i and iv


(c) ii and iii (d) i and iii

7.3.3 A code is useful to represent a key field because


(a) it is a concise representation of the field
(b) it is usually done by all
(c) it is generally a good idea
(e) it is needed in database design
7.3.4 By the term “concise code” we understand that the code
(a) conveys information on item being coded
(b) is of small length
(c) can add new item easily
(e) includes all relevant characteristics of item being coded

7.3.5 By the term “expandable code” we understand that the code


(a) conveys information on item being coded
(b) is of small length
(c) can add new item easily
(e) includes all relevant characteristics of item being coded

7.3.6 By the term “meaningful code” we understand that the code


(a) conveys information on item being coded
(b) is of small length
(c) can add new item easily
(e) includes all relevant characteristics of item being code

7.3.7 By the term “comprehensive code“ we understand that the code


(a) conveys information on item being coded
(b) is of small length
(c) can add new item easily
(d) includes all relevant characteristics of item being coded

7.3.8 A concise code is necessarily


(a) precise
(b) meaningful
(c) comprehensive
(d) difficult

7.3.9 Serial numbers used as codes are


(i) concise
(ii) meaningful
(iii) expandable
(iv) comprehensive
(a) i and ii (b) ii and iii
(c) ii and iv (d) i and iii

7.3.10 Block codes are


(i) concise
(ii) meaningful
(iii) expandable
(iv) comprehensive
(a) i and ii (b) ii and iii
(c) iii and iv (d) i and iii

7.3.11 Group classification codes are


(i) concise
(ii) meaningful
(iii) expandable
(iv) comprehensive
(a) i and ii (b) i, ii and iii
(c) ii, iii and iv (d) i, ii and iv

7.3.12 Significant codes are


(i) concise
(ii) meaningful
(iii) expandable
(iv) comprehensive
(a) i and ii (b) i, ii and iii
(c) ii, iii and iv (d) i, ii and iv

7.3.13 In significant codes some or all parts of the code


(a) are meaningful
(b) are usable
(c) are significant
(d) represent values

7.3.14 Errors in codes are detected by


(a) proper design of code
(b) introducing redundant digits/characters designed to detect errors
(c) making the code concise
(d) making the code precise

7.3.15 Design of error detecting codes requires good


(a) knowledge of mathematics
(b) statistical mechanics
(c) statistics of errors normally committed during data entry
(d) Boolean algebra

7.3.16 A modulus-11 check digit is used to detect error in


(a) alphanumeric codes
(b) numeric codes
(c) hexadecimal codes
(d) serial number code

7.3.17 A modulus-11 check digit will detect


(i) single transcription errors
(ii) single transposition errors
(iii) multiple digit transcription errors
(iv) and correct a single error
(a) i and iii (b) i and iv
(c) i and ii (d) iii and iv

7.3.18 A modulus-17 check will detect single transcription errors in


(a) alphanumeric codes
(b) hexadecimal codes
(c) decimal numerical codes
(d) serial number codes

7.3.19 For modulus-11 check digit to detect a single transposition errors the
(a) weights should all be distinct
(b) weights may all be equal and > 0
(c) weights should be less than 8
(d) weights should all be > 0 and distinct

7.3.20 For modulus-11 check digit to detect a single transcription errors


(a) weights should all be distinct
(b) weights may all be equal and > 0
(c) weights should be less than 8
(d) weights should all be > 0 and distinct

7.3.21 Modulus-11 check digit for the code 45672 is


(a) 0 (b) 1
(c) 2 (d) 3

7.3.22 Modulus-11 check digit for the code 85672 is


(a) 0 (b) 1
(c) X (d) 3

7.3.23 For modulus-11 check digit to detect single transposition or single


transcription error the number of digits in the codes should not exceed
(a) 9 (b) 10
(c) 11 (d) 99

7.3.24 Modulus-17 check character for the hexadecimal code AB4567 is


(a) F (b) D
(c) 1 (d) 0

7.3.25 Sequence numbering of records is used to


(i) Identify each record uniquely
(ii) Track a missing record in a batch of records
(iii) Count number of records
(iv) Sort the records
(a) i, ii (b) i, ii, iii
(c) i, ii, iii, iv (d) i and iv

7.3.26 A batch control record uses


(i) Batch totals of selected fields
(ii) A simple count of number of records in a batch
(iii) Modulus-11 check digit of each key field
(iv) Totals of selected fields of record totalled for the batch
(a) i and ii (b) i, ii, iv
(c) i, ii, iii, iv (d) iii and iv

7.3.27 A record total uses


(a) batch totals of selected fields
(b) count of numbers of records
(c) modulus-11 check digit sum of all fields
(d) total of selected fields of a record

7.3.28 If a field is known to represent an angle of a triangle, radix used to check


should be
(a) 90 (b) 60
(c) 180 (d) 360

7.3.29 If a field is known to represent days of a month, radix used to check should
be
(a) 30 (b) 31
(c) 28 (d) 29

7.3.30 Radix check for a field representing year is


(a) possible
(b) not possible
(c) not relevant
(d) may be tried

7.3.31 An appropriate range check for marks in an examination paper whose


maximum marks 100 is
(a) 100
(b) 0 to 100
(c) – 99 to +99
(d) 99

7.3.32 An appropriate range check for month field in a date is


(a) 12
(b) –12 to 12
(c) 1 to 12
(d) 0 to 12

7.3.33 An appropriate range check of age of a tenth standard student in a high


school is
(a) 5 to 15
(b) 10 to 25
(c) 8 to 20
(d) 3 to 18

7.3.34 Reasonableness checks for monthly mess bill of a student if daily rate is
Rs. 40 is
(a) 1200
(b) 12000
(c) 120
(d) 2400

7.3.35 Batch control totals will detect


(i) incorrect data entry of a field
(ii) missing record
(iii) data records out of order
(iv) inconsistent data
(a) i and ii (b) i, ii and iii
(c) ii, iii and iv (d) iii and iv

7.3.36 If records are out-of-order then error may be detected by


(a) batch control totals
(b) radix check
(c) sequence number check
(d) range check

7.3.37 In payroll record a reasonable inter-field relationship check is to relate


salary field with
(a) age field
(b) department field
(c) designation field
(d) increment field
KEY TO OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS

7.1.1 b 7.1.2 c 7.1.3 b 7.1.4 c 7.1.5 a 7.1.6 b


7.1.7 c 7 .2.1 b 7.2.2 c 7.2.3 a 7.2.4 a 7.2.5 c
7.2.6 c 7.2.7 a 7.2.8 b 7.3.1 b 7.3.2 d 7.3.3 a
7.3.4 b 7.3.5 c 7.3.6 a 7.3.7 d 7.3.8 a 7.3.9 d
7.3.10 b 7.3.11 c 7.3.12 c 7.3.13 d 7.3.14 b 7.3.15 c
7.3.16 b 7.3.17 c 7.3.18 b 7.3.19 d 7.3.20 b 7.3.21 b
7.3.22 c 7.3.23 b 7.3.24 b 7.3.25 c 7.3.26 b 7.3.27 d
7.3.28 c 7.3.29 b 7.3.30 b 7.3.31 b 7.3.32 c 7.3.33 c
7.3.34 d 7.3.35 a 7.3.36 c 7.3.37 c
System Analysis and Design/ Data Oriented Systems Design Motivation

Motivation

™ When a DFD is developed we have knowledge of all data elements required by an

application.

™ Data dictionary lists all data elements but does not say anything about

relationships between data elements.

™ Relationships are needed to logically group data elements into related sets or

tables.

™ Such an organization

o Reduces data duplication

o Simplifies adding, deleting and updating data

o Simplifies retrieval of desired data

™ Logical databases give conceptual model..

™ Logical databases need to be stored in physical media such as a hard disk for use

by applications.

™ A system is needed to map the logical database to a physical medium, which is

transparent to an application program..

™ Database management systems achieve this purpose.

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore //V1/July 04/1


MODULE 7
DATA INPUT METHODS

LEARNING UNITS

7.1 Data Dictionary : its development and use

7.2 Data input methods : Batch and Interactive

7.3 Coding technique for unique data representation.

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman


LEARNING GOALS

1. The need for a data dictionary for an application


2. How to develop a data dictionary for an
application
3. Design of forms and screens for data input.
4. Need and methods of coding data elements.
5. Coding schemes for automatic error detection
while inputting data
6. Need for and design of input data validation
methods.

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 1 of 41


MOTIVATION

ƒ During systems analysis it is essential for an analyst


to decide the necessary and sufficient data for
designing an application.
DFD gives the dataflows and stores of a system
ƒIndividual data elements of dataflows and stores can
be catalogued
ƒSuch a catalogue with description of each element
and their types will be an invaluable aid while
designing a system.

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 2 of 41


MOTIVATION

ƒ A catalogue will also bring out if any data is


duplicated/missed
ƒ A catalogue will also be an invaluable documentation
of a system
ƒ Such a catalogue is called Data dictionary-It is
actually metadata,i.e.,data about data.

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 3 of 41


MOTIVATION

ƒ After data dictionary is designed one needs to


determine how the data is to be input.
ƒData input methods depend on whether the data is
filled in by customers in forms manually and later input
by data entry operators or data is directly input by users
on PC’s.
ƒWe thus need to understand both these methods.

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 4 of 41


MOTIVATION
ƒUnless data input is correct, results will be unreliable
ƒInformation systems normally have a large volume of data
ƒBecause of large volume special controls are needed to ensure
correctness of data input - otherwise it is difficult to find which data
is incorrect
ƒThus it is important to design appropriate data input methods to
prevent errors while entering data
ƒKey data elements are important to identify records.They need to
be unique,concise and understandable by users.Thus we need to
study methods of coding key data element

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 5 of 41


WHAT IS DATA DICTIONARY

ƒ Data dictionary is a catalogue of all data used in an


application, their names, type and their origin.
ƒ In other words it is data about data which is called
metadata
ƒ Data dictionary gives a single point reference of data
repository of an organization
ƒ It is thus an important documentation which would be
useful to maintain a system

7.1.1 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 6 of 41


HOW IS DATA DICTIONARY DEVELOPED?

ƒ Starting point is DFD


Example :
Consider the Receiving office process described in Module 3.
DFD is reproduced below.

Inspection
Receiving Items Office
Vendor Process
Delivery Received
note note

Orders Purchase
Office
Discrepancy
note
We will recall the word statement from requirement specification now.

7.1.2 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 7 of 41


WORD STATEMENT OF REQUIREMENTS

ƒ Vendor sends items with a delivery note while


fulfilling an order (along with the physical items) to a
receiving office.

ƒ Receiving office compares a delivery note against


order placed.If there is a discrepancy a discrepancy note
is sent to purchase office.

ƒ Actual items received note is sent to the inspection


office along with items received.

7.1.3 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 8 of 41


DATA ELEMENTS IN DATA FLOW
From word statement we derive data elements in each data flow.
1. Delivery note

ƒ Order no,Vendor name,Vendor address,item name,delivery date,quantity


supplied,units

Item name and Vendor name may not be unique to ensure uniqueness
we assign unique codes for them.Name is however still kept to aid
people.

Thus delivery note is:

Delivery note = Order no + Vendor code + Vendor name + Vendor address +


item code + item name + delivery date + quantity supplied + units.

7.1.4 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 9 of 41


DATA ELEMENTS IN DATA FLOW

Discrepancy note : Order no + Vendor code + Vendor name +


Vendor address + item code + item name + delivery date +
quantity supplied + units + excess/deficiency + no of days
late/early.

Items received note = Delivery note

Data in data store

Order records = order no + vendor code + vendor name +


vendor address + item code + item name + order date + qty
ordered + units + delivery period.

7.1.5 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 10 of 41


DATA DICTIONARY FORMAT

Data dictionary gives in detail the characteristics of a data element.


Typical characteristics are:

Data name : Should be descriptive and self explanatory.This


will help in documentation and maintenance
Data description : What it represents
Origin : Where the data originates
e.g. input from forms, comes from receiving office, keyed in by user
etc.
Destination : Where data will flow and will be used (if any)
Data Type : numeric, alphanumeric,letters(or text),binary(0 or 1;
True or False),Integer, Decimal fixed point, real(floating point),
currency unit, date

7.1.6 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 11 of 41


TYPICAL CHARACTERSTICS OF DATA
ELEMENTS(CONTD)

Length : no of columns needed

Limits on value : (if relevant)


e.g. upper and lower bounds of value (age>0,<100)

Remarks : (if any)

7.1.7 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 12 of 41


EXAMPLE OF DATA DICTIONARY ENTRY

Name : Order number


Description : Used to identify order given to vendor
Origin : Part of delivery note from vendor
Destination : Receiving process
Data type : Numeric Integer
Length : 8 digits
Limits on value : >000,<=99999999
Actual value not relevant.Used only as unique identifier
Remarks: It is a key field.

7.1.8 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 13 of 41


EXAMPLE OF DATA DICTIONARY ENTRY(CONTD

Name : Delivery date


Description : Date item is to be delivered
Origin : Part of delivery note from vendor.Is also in orders data
store which is input to receiving process
Destination : Receiving process
Data type : Numeric Integer
Length : 8 digits
Limits on value : Date field in the form DDMMYYYY.
Should satisfy constraints of a date in calendar
Remarks: Blank fields not allowed.
e.g.05082004 is ok but not 582004

7.1.9 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 14 of 41


DATA DICTIONARY USES

ƒ Data dictionary can be enormous in size.Requires careful


development. However,it is centralized reference document.

ƒ Invaluable resource to design


•Input forms and screens
•Data checking programs
•Process specification
•Database

ƒ Very useful in understanding and maintaining system

7.1.10 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 15 of 41


DATA INPUT METHODS

ƒ ON-LINE - User directly Enters data using screen


prompts
ƒ OFF-LINE -Forms filled by users- for example-
candidates for admission to a college fill forms
ƒ Data from forms keyed in by a data entry operator

7.2.1 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 16 of 41


ERROR SOURCES
ƒ Errors in on-line data entry due to poor screen design. System
should inform the user immediately when wrong data is input
ƒ Errors in off-line data entry due to bad form design and human
errors by users and data entry operator
ƒ System should prevent user making mistakes by
•Good form design by leaving enough space for writing legibly
•Clear instructions to fill form
ƒ System should prevent data entry operator making mistakes by
•Good form design
•Reducing key strokes
•Immediate error feedback
7.2.2 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 17 of 41
OFF LINE DATA ENTRY - PROBLEMS

ƒ Forms batched
ƒ Desirable for the machine to give message when
input is wrong.Not always possible
ƒ Error found after elapse of time
ƒ Need good controls to automatically detect and if
possible correct errors

7.2.3 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 18 of 41


BATCH DATA ENTRY

Data entered Keyboard Data validation


in forms Input file program
Data entry

Error
Input batch
batch
Update
Error program
report

Data processing
Output report Data
program
store

7.2.4 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 19 of 41


BATCH DATA ENTRY

Name

Address
Bad design : Tendency will be to fill
name on top line. Not enough space for
letters of address

Tick as applicable

Individual
Bad design : Choices are not codified.
Hindu undivided family
Data entry operator will be confused.
Parent/Guardian of minor

7.2.5 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 20 of 41


BATCH DATA ENTRY

Enter date Enter date

Day month Year

(Bad design)
(Good design)

Enter time Enter time


Hr Min Sec

(Good design) (Bad design)

7.2.6 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 21 of 41


BATCH DATA ENTRY
Enter name and address using capital letters Use one box for each alphabet
Tick any of the following

Shri Smt Kum


1 2 3
Name
Only address (do not
Repeat name)
Pin
I am applying as:

Tick one of the boxes below

Hindu undivided Parent or guardian


Individual
family Of minor

Clear instructions . Enough space for entry manually.Data entry operator can be
simple instructions for data entry

7.2.7 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 22 of 41


COMPUTER READABLE FORMS

ƒ As manual data input from forms are slow and expensive


attempts have been made to automate form reading using
scanners

ƒ Needs hand writing recognition and correct form alignment –


Not very successful

ƒ However if forms require just darkening some pre-defined


areas they can be machine read and interpreted.

ƒ Example – Multiple choice questions in exams where specific


boxes are darkened based on the choice.

7.2.8 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 23 of 41


INTERACTIVE DATA INPUT

ƒ Advent of PC’s and client/server model in computer


networks, interactive data input is now widely used

ƒ Advantages are instant response when data is input so


that errors are immediately corrected.

ƒFlexibility in screen design which minimizes manual


effort

ƒUse of mouse and icons simplifies pre-determined


choices of data

7.2.9 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 24 of 41


INTERACTIVE DATA INPUT

Three main models of interactive data input :

ƒ Menus
ƒ Templates
ƒ Commands

7.2.10 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 25 of 41


MODELS OF DATA INPUT

MENUS
User presented several alternatives and asked to type his/her
choice

EXAMPLE

SELECT ALTERNATIVE

Type 1 For entering new student record


Type 2 For deleting student record
Type 3 For changing student record

Your choice

7.2.11 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 26 of 41


MODELS OF DATA INPUT
TEMPLATE

ƒ Template analogous to form


ƒ Has features to reject incorrect data input using built-in program
ƒ User friendly visual presentation
Example

Roll no

Name
FIRST NAME/INTIALS LAST NAME

Dept code CE CS ME EE IT
CODES
Year

Hostel code A B C D

Pre-programmed to reject incorrect Roll no,Dept code,Year, Hostel code

7.2.12 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 27 of 41


MODELS OF DATA INPUT
Interactive commands guides user through alternatives
Example
Computer : Did you request deletion of record ?
Type Y or N
User :Y
Computer : Give student roll no
User : 56743
Computer : Is name of the student A.K.Jain?
Type Y or N
User :Y
Computer : Is he 1st year student
Type Y or N
User :Y
Computer : Shall I delete name?
User :Y

7.2.13 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 28 of 41


MODELS OF DATA INPUT

ƒ Normally all three models will occur together in


application .In other words Menu, Forms and
Commands are not mutually exclusive

ƒ Graphical user interface design very rich area-


languages such as Visual Basic simplifies design of user
interface

ƒWe have given only a flavor of the topic

7.2.14 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 29 of 41


WHY DO WE NEED CODES?
NEED FOR CODING
ƒ UNIQUE IDENTIFIER
-Example Roll no instead of name
ƒ CROSS REFERENCING BETWEEN APPLICATIONS
-unique Roll no may be used in examination
records,accounts, health centre
ƒ EFFICIENT STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL
- Codes concise- a long name will have a shorter
roll no

7.3.1 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 30 of 41


WHAT ARE THE REQUIREMENTS OF A GOOD
CODE?

ƒCONCISE - Smallest length to reduce storage and data input


effort
ƒEXPANDABLE - Add new members easily
ƒMEANINGFUL- Code must convey some information about
item being coded
ƒCOMPREHENSIVE - Include all relevant characteristics of
item being coded
ƒPRECISE - Unique, unambiguous code

7.3.2 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 31 of 41


WHAT METHODS DO WE USE TO CODE

1) SERIAL NO: Assign serial number to each item


2) BLOCK CODES: Blocks of serial numbers assigned to different categories.
3) GROUP CLASSIFICATION CODE- Groups of digits/characters assigned for
different characteristics

Roll no 87 1 05 2 465

Year Term Dept Status Serial no


admitted admitted UG/PG In dept

(use meaningful characters) 87 1 CS UG 465

4) SIGNIFICANT CODES - Some or all parts given values


Roll no BA 1 95 C B R

Banian Male Chest size Cotton Color Style


cms (blue) (Round neck)

7.3.4 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 32 of 41


CHARACTERSTICS OF CODES

Characteristics

Codes Concise Expandable Meaningful Comprehensive Precise

SERIAL NO Yes Yes No No Yes

BLOCK Moderate Yes No No Yes


CODES

GROUP No Yes Yes Yes Yes


CLASSIFICA-
TION CODE
SIGNIFICANT No Yes Yes Yes Yes
CODE

7.3.5 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 33 of 41


ERROR DETECTION CODE

ƒIncorrect data entry can lead to chaos


ƒMistakes occur as volume of data processed is large
ƒNeed to detect and if possible correct errors in data entry
ƒError detected by introducing controlled redundancy in
codes
ƒError control digits added based on statistics of types of
errors normally committed during data entry

7.3.6 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 34 of 41


MODULUS 11 CHECK DIGIT SYSTEM

ƒ Error detection digit added at the end of a numeric code


ƒ Code designed in such a way as to detect all single transcription and single
transposition errors which is 95% of all errors

Single transcription error-Æ49687Æ48687


Single transposition errorÆ 45687Æ48657

ƒ Given code 49687 modulus check digit obtained as follows:Multiply each digit by
Weights of 2,3,4 etc starting with least significant digit

7*2+8*3+6*4+9*5+4*6=131
131/11=11,remainder 10; or 131 mod (11) =10;
(11-10)=1 append it to the code
ƒ The code with check digit=496871

ƒ If remainder is 1 then append(11-1)=10 code as X

7.3.7 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 35 of 41


ERROR DETECTION

496871 486871
Correct code Code as entered

Error detection - 1*1 + 7*2 + 8*3 + 6*4 + 8*5 + 4*6


= 127/11 Remainder != 0 => Error

496871 416879
Error detection - 9*1 + 7*2 + 8*3 + 6*4 + 1*5 + 4*6
= 100/11 Remainder != 0 => Error

7.3.8 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 36 of 41


WHY DOES MODULUS 11 CHECK DIGIT WORK

ƒ Given dn,dn-1,……..d1 where d1 is the check digit


n
(∑Widi )mod N=0 by design
i=1
What should be the values of N & Wis
Single transcription error: dk become t
n n
(∑Widi )= (∑Widi ) + t Wk - Wk dk
i=1 i=1

As (∑Widi ) mod N=0 (t-dk ) Wk mod N = 0


(t- dk ) Wk =p.N where p is any integer

Conditions

1. 0<Wk<N
2. As [t-dk] < 10 and Wk < N, N>10
3. Product of integer not a prime => N a prime
4. Smallest prime > 10 =11 => N=11

7.3.9 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 37 of 41


WHY DOES MODULUS 11 CHECK DIGIT WORK

Single transposition error


Let dk and dm get interchanged
n
[ ∑ Wi,di + (dkWm + dmWk - dkWk - dmWm )] mod N = 0
i=1

Or(dk-dm)(Wm-Wk) = p.N
1. (Wm - Wk) = 0 => Weights distinct
2. (dk- dm)< 10 If N> 10 equation satisfied
3. If N prime product cannot be prime
therefore N =11 satisfies conditions

7.3.10 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 38 of 41


OTHER CHECKING SYSTEMS

ƒUSE MODULO N CHECK WITH N PRIME > LARGEST CODE


CHARACTER VALUE
ƒFOR HEXADECIMAL CODES SYMBOLS = 16, N =17
ƒFOR ALPHANUMERIC CODES 26 LETTERS
10 DIGITS
36 SYMBOLS
ƒTherefore N=37.

7.3.11 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 39 of 41


VALIDATING INPUT DATA

ƒ WHEN LARGE VOLUME OF DATA IS INPUT


SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS NEEDED TO VALIDATE
DATA
ƒ VALIDATION CHECKS :
ƒ SEQUENCE NUMBERING - detects missing record
ƒ BATCH CONTROL - Use batch totals
ƒ DATA ENTRY AND VERIFICATION-Dual input
ƒ RECORD TOTALS-Add individual values for checking
ƒMODULUS 11 CHECK DIGIT

7.3.12 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 40 of 41


CHECKS ON INDIVIDUAL FIELDS

ƒ Radix errors - For example seconds field cannot exceed


60,month field cannot exceed 12
ƒRange check - Fields should be within specified range
ƒReasonableness check - Telephone bill cannot be more
than 10 times average bill of last few months
ƒInconsistent data - For example : 31-04-99
ƒIncorrect data- Batch total checks this
ƒMissing data - Batch control data checks this
ƒInter field relationship check -
ƒFor example - Student of 8th class cannot have age > 25

7.3.13 System Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 41 of 41


MODULE 7

DATA INPUT METHODS

Contents

1. MOTIVATION AND LEARNING GOALS

2. LEARNING UNIT 1
Data Dictionary : its development and use

3. LEARNING UNIT 2
Data input methods : Batch and Interactive

4. LEARNING UNIT 3
Coding technique for unique data representation.

5. References
DATA INPUT METHODS

MOTIVATION
During systems analysis it is essential for an analyst to decide the necessary
and sufficient data for designing an application. DFD gives the dataflows
and stores of a system. Individual data elements of dataflows and stores can
be catalogued. Such a catalogue with description of each element and their
types will be an invaluable aid while designing a system. A catalogue will
also bring out if any data is duplicated/missed. A catalogue will also be an
invaluable documentation of a system. Such a catalogue is called Data
dictionary-It is actually metadata, i.e., data about data. After data dictionary
is designed one needs to determine how the data is to be input. Data input
methods depend on whether the data is filled in by customers in forms
manually and later input by data entry operators or data is directly input by
users on PC’s. We thus need to understand both these methods.

Unless data input is correct, results will be unreliable. Information systems


normally have a large volume of data. Because of large volume special
controls are needed to ensure correctness of data input - otherwise it is
difficult to find which data is incorrect. Thus it is important to design
appropriate data input methods to prevent errors while entering data. Key
data elements are important to identify records. They need to be unique,
concise and understandable by users. Thus we need to study methods of
coding key data element

LEARNING GOALS

At the end of this module you will know


1.The need for a data dictionary for an application
2.How to develop a data dictionary for an application
3.Design of forms and screens for data input.
4.Need and methods of coding data elements.
5.Coding schemes for automatic error detection while inputting data
6.Need for and design of input data validation methods.
LEARNING UNIT 1

Data Dictionary : its development and use

WHAT IS DATA DICTIONARY


Data dictionary is a catalogue of all data used in an application, their names,
type and their origin. In other words it is data about data which is called
metadata. Data dictionary gives a single point reference of data repository
of an organization. It is thus an important documentation which would be
useful to maintain a system

HOW IS DATA DICTIONARY DEVELOPED?

The Starting point of developing a data dictionary is a DFD.


Example:
Consider the Receiving office DFD.

Inspection
Receivin Office
g Items
Vendor Received
Delivery Process
note note

Orders Purchase
Office
Discrepancy
note
WORD STATEMENT OF REQUIREMENTS FOR THE ABOVE DFD
Vendor sends items with a delivery note while fulfilling an order (along
with the physical items) to a receiving office.
Receiving office compares a delivery note against order placed. If there is
a discrepancy a discrepancy note is sent to purchase office.
Actual items received note is sent to the inspection office along with items
received.

DATA ELEMENTS IN DATA FLOW

From word statement we derive data elements in each data flow.

Order no,Vendor name,Vendor address,item name,delivery date,quantity


supplied,units
Item name and Vendor name may not be unique. To ensure uniqueness
we assign unique codes for them. Name of item is however still kept as
it is to aid
people.
Thus delivery note is:
Delivery note = Order no + Vendor code + Vendor name + Vendor address
+ item code + item name + delivery date + quantity supplied + units.

Discrepancy note : Order no + Vendor code + Vendor name + Vendor


address + item code + item name + delivery date + quantity supplied + units
+ excess/deficiency + no of days late/early.

Items received note = Delivery note

Data in data store

Order records = order no + vendor code + vendor name + vendor address +


item code + item name + order date + qty ordered + units + delivery period.
TYPICAL CHARACTERSTICS OF DATA ELEMENTS(CONTD)
Data dictionary gives in detail the characteristics of a data element.
Typical characteristics are:

Data name : Should be descriptive and self explanatory.This will help in


documentation and maintenance
Data description : What it represents
Origin : Where the data originates
e.g. input from forms, comes from receiving office, keyed in by user
etc.
Destination : Where data will flow and will be used (if any)
Data Type : numeric, alphanumeric,letters(or text),binary(0 or 1; True or
False), Integer, Decimal fixed point, real(floating point), currency unit, date
Length : no of columns needed
Limits on value : (if relevant)
e.g. upper and lower bounds of value (age>0,<100)
Remarks : (if any)

EXAMPLE OF DATA DICTIONARY ENTRY


1)
Name : Order number
Description : Used to identify order given to vendor
Origin : Part of delivery note from vendor
Destination : Receiving process
Data type : Numeric Integer
Length : 8 digits
Limits on value : >000,<=99999999
Actual value not relevant.Used only as unique identifier
Remarks: It is a key field.

2)
Name : Delivery date
Description : Date item is to be delivered
Origin : Part of delivery note from vendor.Is also in orders data store which
is input to receiving process
Destination : Receiving process
Data type : Numeric Integer
Length : 8 digits
Limits on value : Date field in the form DDMMYYYY.
Should satisfy constraints of a date in calendar
Remarks: Blank fields not allowed.
e.g.05082004 is ok but not 582004

DATA DICTIONARY USES

Data dictionary can be enormous in size. Requires careful development.


However, it is centralized reference document. It is an invaluable resource to
design input forms, screens, data checking programs, process specification
and database. It is very useful in understanding and maintaining system
LEARNING UNIT 2

Data input methods : Batch and Interactive

ON-LINE - User directly Enters data using screen prompts

OFF-LINE -Forms filled by users- for example-candidates for admission to


a college fill forms

ERROR SOURCES

Errors in on-line data entry due to poor screen design. System should
inform the user immediately when wrong data is input
Errors in off-line data entry due to bad form design and human errors by
users and data entry operator.
Using a form which leaves enough space for writing legibly and has clear
instructions prevents user from making mistakes.

OFF LINE DATA ENTRY – PROBLEMS

It is not always possible for the machine to give message when input is
wrong, error may be found after elapse of time period. Therefore good
controls to automatically detect and if possible correct errors is required.
BATCH DATA ENTRY
Data
Data entered Keyboard Input file validation
in forms Data entry program

Error
Input batch
batch Update
Error
report program

Data Data
Output report processing store
program

Name

Address
Bad design : Tendency will be to fill name on top line.
Not enough space for letters of address

Bad design : Choices are not codified.


Tick as applicable Data entry operator will be confused .
Individual
Hindu undivided family

Parent/Guardian of minor
Enter date Enter date

Day month Year

(Bad design)
(Good design)

Enter time Enter time


Enter name and address using capital letters Use one box for each alphabet
Hr Min Sec

Tick any of the following


Shri (Good Smtdesign) Kum (Bad design)
1 2 3
Name
Only address (do not
Repeat name)
Pin
I am applying as:

Tick oneClear
of the boxes below
instructions. Enough space for entry manually.

Individual Hindu undivided Parent or guardian


family
COMPUTER READABLE FORMS Of minor

As manual data input from forms are slow and expensive, attempts have
been made to automate form reading using scanners, but this needs hand
writing recognition and correct form alignment, which is not always
successful. However, if forms require just darkening some pre-defined
areas they can be machine read and interpreted.
Example – Multiple choice questions in exams where specific boxes are
darkened based on the choice.
INTERACTIVE DATA INPUT
Advent of PC’s and client/server model in computer networks, interactive
data input is now widely used

Advantages are instant response when data is input so that errors are
immediately corrected, flexibility in screen design which minimizes manual
effort. And use of mouse and icons simplifies pre-determined choices of data

Three main models of interactive data input :

Menus
Templates
Commands

MODELS OF DATA INPUT


MENUS
User presented several alternatives and asked to type his/her choice

EXAMPLE

SELECT ALTERNATIVE

Type 1 For entering new student record


Type 2 For deleting student record
Type 3 For changing student record

Your choice
TEMPLATE

Template is analogous to form. It has features to reject incorrect data input


using built-in program and is user friendly

Example

Roll no
Name
FIRST NAME/INTIALS LAST NAME

Dept code
CE CS ME EE IT

Year

Hostel code
A B C D

Pre-programmed to reject incorrect Roll no,Dept code,Year, Hostel code

Interactive commands guides user through alternatives

Example
Computer : Did you request deletion of record ?
Type Y or N
User :Y
Computer : Give student roll no
User : 56743
Computer : Is name of the student A.K.Jain?
Type Y or N
User :Y
Computer : Is he 1st year student
Type Y or N
User :Y
Computer : Shall I delete name?
User :Y
Normally all three models will occur together in application .In other words
Menu, Forms and Commands are not mutually exclusive. In Graphical user
interface design use of languages such as Visual Basic simplifies design of
user interface.
LEARNING UNIT 3

Coding technique for unique data representation.

WHY DO WE NEED CODES?


UNIQUE IDENTIFIER
-Example Roll no instead of name

CROSS REFERENCING BETWEEN APPLICATIONS


-unique Roll no may be used in examination records, accounts,
and health centre
EFFICIENT STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL
- Codes concise- a long name will have a shorter roll no

WHAT ARE THE REQUIREMENTS OF A GOOD CODE?


CONCISE - Smallest length to reduce storage and data input effort
EXPANDABLE - Add new members easily
MEANINGFUL- Code must convey some information about item being
coded
COMPREHENSIVE - Include all relevant characteristics of item being
coded
PRECISE - Unique, unambiguous code
WHAT METHODS DO WE USE TO CODE

1) SERIAL NO: Assign serial number to each item


2) BLOCK CODES: Blocks of serial numbers assigned to different
categories.
3) GROUP CLASSIFICATION CODE- Groups of digits/characters
assigned for different characteristics

Roll no 87 1 05 2 465

Year Term Dept Status Serial no


admitte admitte UG/PG In dept

(use meaningful characters) 87 1 CS UG 465

4) SIGNIFICANT CODES - Some or all parts given values

Roll no BA 1 95 C B R

Cotton Color Style


Banian Male Chest size
(blue) (Round neck)
cms
CHARACTERSTICS OF CODES

Characteristics
Codes Concise Expandable Meaningful Comprehensive Precise

SERIAL NO Yes Yes No No Yes

BLOCK CODES Moderate Yes No No Yes

GROUP No Yes Yes Yes Yes


CLASSIFICA-
TION CODE

SIGNIFICANT No Yes Yes Yes Yes


CODEERROR DETECTION CODE

Incorrect data entry can lead to chaos.Mistakes occur as volume of data


processed is large. Therfore its necessary to detect and if possible correct
errors in data entry. Error can be detetected by introducing controlled
redundancy in codes.

MODULUS 11 CHECK DIGIT SYSTEM


Error detection digit added at the end of a numeric code
Code designed in such a way as to detect all single transcription and single
transposition errors which is 95% of all errors
Single transcription error- 49687 48687
Single transposition error 45687 48657
Given code 49687 modulus check digit obtained as follows:
Multiply each digit by
Weights of 2,3,4 etc starting with least significant digit
7*2+8*3+6*4+9*5+4*6=131
131/11=11,remainder 10; or 131 mod (11) =10;
(11-10)=1 append it to the code
The code with check digit=496871
If remainder is 1 then append(11-1)=10 code as X

WHY DOES MODULUS 11 CHECK DIGIT WORK

Given dn,dn-1,……..d1 where d1 is the check digit

n
(∑Widi )mod N=0 by design
i=1
What should be the values of N & Wis
Single transcription error: dk become t
n n
(∑Widi )= (∑Widi ) + t Wk - Wk dk
i=1 i=1

As (∑Widi ) mod N=0 (t- dk ) Wk mod N = 0


OTHER
(t- dk ) WCHECKING SYSTEMS
k =p.N where p is any integer

Use modulo n check with n prime > largest code character value
Conditions
For hexadecimal codes symbols = 16, n =17
• For0<Wk<N
alphanumeric codes 26 letters
• As [t-dk] < 10 and Wk < N, N>10
• 10 digits
Product of integer not a prime => N a prime
• Smallest prime > 10 =11 => N=11
36 symbols

Therefore n=37.
VALIDATING INPUT DATA

When large volume of data is input special precautions are needed to


validate data
validation checks methods:
sequence numbering - detects missing record
batch control - use batch totals
data entry and verification-dual input
record totals-add individual values for checking
modulus 11 check digit

CHECKS ON INDIVIDUAL FIELDS

Radix errors - For example seconds field cannot exceed 60,month field
cannot exceed 12
Range check - Fields should be within specified range
Reasonableness check - Telephone bill cannot be more than 10 times
average bill of last few months
Inconsistent data - For example : 31-04-99
Incorrect data- Batch total checks this
Missing data - Batch control data checks this
Inter field relationship check -
For example - Student of 8lh class cannot have age > 25
REFERENCES

1. Most of the material in this module has been adapted from the book
“Analysis and Design of Information Systems”, 2nd Edition, by
V.Rajaraman, Prentice Hall of India, 2003. Chapter 5 (pp. 49-52) and
Chapter 11 (pp.154-170).

2. Good material on Data Dictionary is found in K.E.Kendall and


J.E.Kendall , “Systems Analysis and Design”, 5th Edition, Pearson
Education Asia, 2003.Chapter 10 on Data Dictionaries. Chapter 16
Designing Effective Input.
System Analysis and Design/Data Oriented Systems Design Multiple Choice Questions

7.1 A data dictionary has consolidated list of data contained in


(i) dataflows (ii) data stores

(iii) data outputs (iv) processes

a. (i) and (iii)


b. (i) and (ii)
c. (ii) and (iv)
d. (i) and (iv)
7.2 A data dictionary is useful as

(i) it is a documentation aid

(ii) it assists in designing input forms

(iii) it contains al data in an application including temporary data used in


processes

(iv) it is a good idea in system design

a. (i) and (ii)


b. (i) and (iv)
c. (i),(ii) and (iii)
d. (i) and (iv)
7.3 By metadata we mean
a. very large data
b. data about data
c. data dictionary
d. meaningful data
7.4 A data dictionary is usually developed
a. At requirements specification phase
b. During feasibility analysis
c. When DFD is developed
d. When a datadase is designed
7.5 A data dictionary has information about
a. every data element in a data flow
b. only key data element in a data flow
c. only important data elements in a data flow
d. only numeric data elements in a data flow
7.6 A data element in a data dictionary may have
a. only integer value
b. no value
c. only real value
d. only decimal value

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M7/V1/July 04/1


System Analysis and Design/Data Oriented Systems Design Multiple Choice Questions

7.7 A data element in a data flow

(i) may be an integer number

(ii) may be a real number

(iii)may be binary

(iv)may be imaginary

a. (i),(ii),(iv)
b. (iii),(iv),(ii)
c. (i),(ii),(iii)
d. (i) and (ii)
7.8 It is necessary to carefully design data input to a computer based system
because
a. it is good to be careful
b. the volume of data handled is large
c. the volume of data handled is small
d. data entry operators are not good
7.9 Errors occur more often when
a. data is entered by users
b. data is entered by operators
c. when data is handwritten by users and entered by an operator
d. the key board design is bad
7.10 Good system design prevents data entry errors by

(i) Designing good forms with plenty of space to write in


block capitals

(ii)By giving clear instructions to a user on how to fill a form


(iii)Reducing keystrokes of an operator
(iv)Designing good keyboard

a. i, ii, iii
b. i, ii, iv
c. i, ii
d. iii and iv
7.11 In on-line data entry it is possible to
a. Give immediate feedback if incorrect data is entered
b. Eliminate all errors
c. Save data entry operators time
d. Eliminate forms
7.12 The main problems encountered in off-line data entry are:
(i)Data are entered by operators

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M7/V1/July 04/2


System Analysis and Design/Data Oriented Systems Design Multiple Choice Questions

(ii)Data entered by hand in forms batched and forms may be missed


or misread
(iii) Errors are detected after a lapse of time
(iv)Data are entered by users

a. i and ii
b. i and iii
c. ii and iii
d. iii and iv
7.13 In interactive data input a menu is used to
a. enter new data
b. add/delete data
c. select one out of many alternatives often by a mouse click
d. detect errors in data input
7.14 In interactive data input a template is normally used to
a. enter new data
b. add/delete data
c. select one out of many alternatives often by a mouse click
d. detect errors in data input
7.15 In interactive data input terminal commands are normally used to
a. enter new data
b. add/delete data
c. select one out of many alternatives often by a mouse click
d. detect errors in data input
7.16 Data inputs which required coding are
a. fields which specify prices
b. key fields
c. name fields such as product name
d. fields which are of variable length
7.17 Key fields are normally coded
a. i and ii
b. i and iv
c. ii and iii
d. i and iii
7.18 A code is useful to represent a key field because
a. it is a concise representation of the field
b. it is usually done by all
c. it is generally a good idea
d. it is needed in database design
7.19 By the term “concise code” we understand that the code
a. conveys information on item being coded
b. is of small length
c. can add new item easily
d. includes all relevant characteristics of item being coded
7.20 By the term “expandable code” we understand that the code
a. conveys information on item being coded
b. is of small length

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M7/V1/July 04/3


System Analysis and Design/Data Oriented Systems Design Multiple Choice Questions

c. can add new item easily


d. includes all relevant characteristics of item being coded
7.21 By the term “meaningful code” we understand that the code
a. conveys information on item being coded
b. is of small length
c. can add new item easily
d. includes all relevant characteristics of item being code
7.22 By the term “comprehensive code“ we understand that the code
a. conveys information on item being coded
b. is of small length
c. can add new item easily
d. includes all relevant characteristics of item being coded
7.23 A concise code is necessarily
a. Precise
b. Meaningful
c. Comprehensive
d. Difficult
7.24 Serial numbers used as codes are

(i) concise

(ii ) meaningful
(iii) expandable
(iv) comprehensive

a. i and ii
b. ii and iii
c. ii and iv
d. i and iii
7.25 Block codes are

(i)concise

(ii )meaningful
(iii)expandable
(iv)comprehensive

a. i and ii
b. ii and iii
c. iii and iv
d. i and iii
7.26 Group classification codes are

(i)concise

(ii)meaningful
(iii) expandable

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M7/V1/July 04/4


System Analysis and Design/Data Oriented Systems Design Multiple Choice Questions

(iv)comprehensive

a. i and ii
b. i, ii and iii
c. ii, iii and iv
d. i, ii and iv
7.27 Significant codes are
(i)concise

(ii)meaningful
(iii )expandable
(iv)comprehensive

a. i and ii
b. i, ii and iii
c. ii, iii and iv
d. i, ii and iv
7.28 In significant codes some or all parts of the code
a. are meaningful
b. are usable
c. are significant
d. represent values
7.29 Errors in codes are detected by
a. proper design of code
b. introducing redundant digits/characters designed to detect errors
c. making the code concise
d. making the code precise
7.30 Design of error detecting codes requires good
a. knowledge of mathematics
b. statistical mechanics
c. statistics of errors normally committed during data entry
d. Boolean algebra
7.31 A modulus-11 check digit is used to detect error in
a. alphanumeric codes
b. numeric codes
c. hexadecimal codes
d. serial number code
7.32 A modulus-11 check digit will detect
(i)single transcription errors
(ii)single transposition errors
(iii)multiple digit transcription errors
(iv)and correct a single error

a. i and iii
b. i and iv
c. i and ii
d. iii and iv

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M7/V1/July 04/5


System Analysis and Design/Data Oriented Systems Design Multiple Choice Questions

7.33 A modulus-17 check will detect single transcription errors in


a. alphanumeric codes
b. hexadecimal codes
c. decimal numerical codes
d. serial number codes
7.34 For modulus-11 check digit to detect a single transposition errors
a. weights should all be distinct
b. weights may all be equal and > 0
c. weights should be less than 8
d. weights should all be > 0 and distinct
7.35 For modulus-11 check digit to detect a single transcription errors
a. weights should all be distinct
b. weights may all be equal and > 0
c. weights should be less than 8
d. weights should all be > 0 and distinct
7.36 Modulus-11 check digit for the code 45672 is
a. 0
b. 1
c. 2
d. 3
7.37 Modulus-11 check digit for the code 85672 is
a. 0
b. 1
c. X
d. 3
7.38 For modulus-11 check digit to detect single transposition or single
transcription error the number of digits in the codes should not exceed
a. 9
b. 10
c. 11
d. 99
7.39 Modulus-17 check character for the hexadecimal code AB4567 is
a. F
b. D
c. 1
d. 0
7.40 Sequence numbering of records is used to
(i)Identify each record uniquely
(ii)Track a missing record in a batch of records
(iii)Count number of records
(iv) Sort the records

a. i, ii
b. i, ii, iii
c. i, ii, iii, iv
d. i and iv

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M7/V1/July 04/6


System Analysis and Design/Data Oriented Systems Design Multiple Choice Questions

7.41 A batch control record uses


(i)Batch totals of selected fields
(ii)A simple count of number of records in a batch
(iii)Modulus-11 check digit of each key field
(iv)Totals of selected fields of record totalled for the batch

a. i and ii
b. i, ii, iv
c. i, ii, iii, iv
d. iii and iv
7.42 A record total uses
a. batch totals of selected fields
b. count of numbers of records
c. modulus-11 check digit sum of all fields
d. total of selected fields of a record
7.43 If a field is known to represent an angle of a triangle, radix used to check
should be
a. 90
b. 60
c. 180
d. 360
7.44 If a field is known to represent days of a month, radix used to check should
a. 30
b. 31
c. 28
d. 29
7.45 Radix check for a field representing year is
a. Possible
b. not possible
c. not relevant
d. may be tried
7.46 An appropriate range check for marks in an examination paper whose
maximum marks 100 is
a. 100
b. 0 to 100
c. – 99 to +99
d. 99
7.47 An appropriate range check for month field in a date is
a. 12
b. –12 to 12
c. 1 to 12
d. 0 to 12
7.48 An appropriate range check of age of a tenth standard student in a high
school
a. 5 to 15
b. 10 to 25

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M7/V1/July 04/7


System Analysis and Design/Data Oriented Systems Design Multiple Choice Questions

c. 8 to 20
d. 3 to 18
7.49 Reasonableness checks for monthly mess bill of a student if daily rate is
Rs. 40 is
a. 1200
b. 12000
c. 120
d. 2400
7.50 Batch control totals will detect
(i)incorrect data entry of a field
(ii)missing record
(iii) data records out of order
( iv)inconsistent data

a. i and ii
b. i, ii and iii
c. ii, iii and iv
d. iii and iv
7.51 If records are out-of-order then error may be detected by
a. batch control totals
b. radix check
c. sequence number check
d. range check
7.52 In payroll record a reasonable inter-field relationship check is to relate
salary field with
a. age field
b. department field
c. designation field
d. increment field

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M7/V1/July 04/8


System Analysis and Design/Data Oriented Systems Design Multiple Choice Questions

Key to Objective Questions


7.1 b 7.2 c 7.3 b 7.4 c 7.5 a 7.6 b
7.7 c 7 .8 b 7.9 c 7.10 a 7.11 a 7.12 c 7.13
c 7.14 a 7.15 b 7.16 b 7.17 d 7.18 a
7.19 b 7.20 c 7.21 a 7.22 d 7.23 a 7.24
d 7.25 b 7.26 c 7.27 c 7.28 d 7.29 b 7.30
c 7.31 b 7.32 c 7.33 b 7.34 d 7.35 b 7.36 b
7.37 c 7.38 b 7.39 b 7.40 c 7.41 b 7.42 d
7.43 c 7.44 b 7.45 b 7.46 b 7.47 c 7.48 c 7.49 d
7.50 a 7.51 c 7.52 c

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M7/V1/July 04/9


MODULE 7

DATA INPUT METHODS


WORKED EXAMPLES

7.1 What is the purpose of data validation program?


To detect errors which may have been made by a data entry operator in entering
data from forms into a computer’s secondary memory. The detected errors are
then corrected to ensure that data file has no errors.

7.2 What are the main principles used in designing forms for data entry?
(i) Reduce human efforts in filling forms
(ii) Minimize possibility of errors in entering data from forms into a computer’s
secondary memory
(iii)Minimize effort in entering data from forms into a computer’s secondary
memory.

7.3 Design a form to be used by a salesman to report to the office about the sales
executed by him at different customer locations
See Table below

A Salesperson Form
Sales Person
Your name : M . R A M A M U R T H Y

Your code : M R 4

Your budget code: 1 2

Sales details D D M M Y Y
Date:
Item Code Description Qty. Sold Price

K 2 4 8 Toilet soap 256 3.50


J 4 6 8 Detergent cake 468 2.25
P 7 6 4 Liquid soap bottles 28 8.45

Enter Totals 752 14.20

Customer details
Customer name:
Customer code:
Customer address:

PIN

Mode of payment (Tick code)

1 CASH 2 CHEQUE 3 BILL

7.4 Is concise code comprehensive? If not, why?


No. In a concise code the aim is to keep the length of the code small whereas in a
comprehensive code it is to include as much information as possible about the
entity being coded.

7.5 Is meaningful code necessarily comprehensive?


No. Meaningful code aids in recognizing the entity being coded whereas a
comprehensive code tries to include as much information as possible about the
entity being coded. For example BICYCLE 24 indicates a 24 inch height cycle. It
is meaningful. A code such as
BC 24 G R HERO 2684
Describes 24-inch bicycle, which is for gents, red in color, manufactured by Hero
with serial number 2684.

7.6 What is the advantage of serial number code? Why is it not normally used?
It is concise, expandable and precise. It is not meaningful or comprehensive and
thus not often used.
7.7 Design a group classification code to code (i) motor vehicles, (ii) music cassettes,
and (iii) books.

(i) Motor vehicles


Types of Year of Engine Brand Serial no.
vehicle manufacture CC
2 alphabets 4 digits 4 digits 3 alphabets 7 digits

Mnemonic codes
Vehicle types code Manufacturer Code
Two wheeler TW Bajaj BAJ
Three wheeler RW Telco TEL
Private car PC Leyland LEL
Taxi TA Maruti MAR
Bus BU Ambassador AMB
Vespa VSP
Fiat FAT
Honda HDA

Sample code: PC 19 88 800 MAR 0056789

(ii) Music cassettes


Types of music Nature of music Type Publisher code Serial no.
2 alphabets 2 alphabets 1 digit 3 digits 4 digits
Mnemonic codes
Music type Code Nature of music Code
Classical North CN Instrumental IN
Classical South CS Vocal VO
Classical West CW Orchestra OR
Film North FN Chorus CH
Film South FS
Film West FW
Pop North PN Type Code
Pop South PS Mono 1
Pop West PW Stereo 2
Publisher code: 3 digits, Serial no.: 4 digits.
Example: FNIN14506784
(iii) Books
ISBN code is a good example.
Area Publisher Book no. Check digit
U.S. code 8 digits (Total)
U.K.
Germany, Publishers publishing a small number of books have a long
U.S.S.R. etc. publisher code and smaller no. of digits for book no.
Example: 0 | 87692 | 617 | 0

7.8 Give an example of significant code. Are significant codes expandable?


Code for a shirt
SH 40 95 58

Shirt Collar size Chest size Sleeve size


(Cm) (Cm) (Cm)
Yes.

7.9 Add a modulus-11 check digit to the codes (i) 48467 (ii) 96432 and (iii)
87646257.
Check digits are respectively
(i) 9 (ii) 8 (iii) 3.

7.10 Modulus–37 check is suitable for alphanumeric codes. Add a modulus-37


character to the codes (i) 4AB9W (ii) XBY483 and (iii) CAZ4642.
(i) 2 (ii) N (iii) N.

7.11 If modulus-11 check digit system is to generate detection of multiple identical


digit transcription error (i.e., a code such as 45565 is wrongly entered as
48868), what should be constraints on the weights?
A digit t becomes x for weights wq, wr, ws.
Let wi be the weights.
n
∑ widi = p.N if no error
i=1

n n
∑ widi = ∑ widi + (wq+ wr+ ws)t =p.N
i=1 i=1
i == q,r,s
The condition for detecting error is
(wq + wr + ws)(x – t) == p.N
Therefore,
(wq + wr + ws) == p.N
Sum of any subset of weights should not be equal to 11 or a multiple of 11.
Possible only for codes less than 4 digits long, including check digit.

7.12 A see-saw error is one in which one digit of the code is increased by x and
another decreased by x. For example, 486732 becoming 456762. When can
modulus-N check detect such errors?
Let the kth digit become (dk + t) and qth digit (dq – t)
∑n
Weighted sum = i =1 widi + wkt – wqt with these errors condition is
∑n
i =1 widi + t(wk – wq) == p.N
Satisfied if (i) wk == wq
(ii) N is prime
(iii) |wk – wq| < N
These are satisfied if wk = wq, wk, wq > 0 and wk, wq < N.
Therefore all weights are distinct

7.13 Why is it useful to assign sequence numbers for data records? What are the
types of errors detected by sequence numbering?
Can trace missing records using sequence numbers. Records out of sequence can
be detected. Excess records (with duplicate sequence numbers) can be detected.

7.14 A set of data records for student examination results has the following
format:
Roll No. Name Marks (out of 100)
Paper 1 Paper 2 Paper 3 Paper 4
Design for these records a batch control record and a record control field
and other appropriate checks for the fields
Batch control record
(i) No. of records in batch
(ii) Sum of marks in papers 1 to 4
(iii) No. of records with marks in papers 1 to 4 >=60
(iv) No. of records with marks in papers 1 to 4 < 40
Record check (i) Sum of marks in papers 1 to 4, (ii) No. of papers in record with
marks >= 60
Other checks for the fields
(i) Modulus-11 check for Roll no.
(ii) Each marks field <= 100, >= 0
(iii) Sum field <= 400
(iv) Flag record with marks in any paper >= 80 and another paper <= 30.

7.15 What is the difference between range check and radix check?
Range gives maximum allowable value for a field as determined by the analyst.
For example in one paper if maximum marks is 50, range check will use 50 and if
it is 100 in another it will use 100 as range. Radix is however an invariant. No. of
hours/day are always 24 and is universally known.

7.16 Give some examples of fields where reasonableness check would be applicable.
If normal electricity consumption of a consumer is 250 kWh/month, a value of
1500 kWh in a month will be considered unreasonable. Other examples are:
(i) Deductions in a paybill
(ii) Price/unit of some items
(iii)Qty. ordered in comparison to normal averages.

7.17 Give some examples of inter-field relationship checks


Employee status vs. salary
Age vs. marital status (Age <= 12 cannot normally be married)
Age vs. Education

7.18 Design a dialogue hierarchy for entering data on customers (of a


manufacturer).
Select Menu alternative

1 2 3

New customer Delete customer Change customer


details

Enter details Enter details Details to be changed

Verify

OK No New New Status


name address change

Delete Manual
0 1 2 3
Individual Retailer Distributor Wholesale

7.19 Design a dialogue hierarchy and the screens for a system used to reserve
seats in long distance buses.

Select Menu alternative

1 2 3

Reservation Cancellation Change of date

Queries to customer Queries to customer Queries to customer


1. Destination 1. Destination 1. Destination
2. Date 2. Date 2. Date
3. Time 3. Time 3. Time
4. No. of seats 4. No. of seats 4. New date
5. Display position 5. Display refund 5. New time
of seats (status) 6. No. of seats
6. Enter selection 7. Display position
7. Display ticket 8. Enter selection
9. Display excess charge

Screen 1
Reservation 1 Cancellation 2 Change of date 3

Screen 2 reservation commands

• What is your destination ? • Queries on terminal


Mercara User responses
• Date of journey?
260589
• Time of bus
0830
• How many seats?
• Adults 2 • child 1
• Screen display Front
(Seats in bus)

1 2 3 4

Entrance 5 6 already
booked
7 8 9 10

11 12 13 14

15 16 17 18

19 20 21 22

23 24 25 26

27 28 29 30 31 32

Which seats do you want ?


19 20 21
• Ticket display

DESTINATION DATE TIME SEAT Nos. FARE


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System Analysis and Design / Data Oriented Systems Design Question Bank

Question Bank – 7

7.1 What is a data dictionary?

7.2 Why is a data dictionary necessary?

7.3 What are the main advantages of creating a data dictionary?

7.4 What data about a data element is stored in a data dictionary?

7.5 For the requirements statement given in PPT 7.1.3 (Vendor supplying items to a

company) develop the data dictionary entry for vendor code, vendor name and

vendor address.

7.6 What is the difference between on-line and off-line data entry?

7.7 Why are input data records divided into batches for off-line data entry?

7.8 What is the purpose of a data validation program?

7.9 What are the main principles used in designing forms for data entry?

7.10 A good and a bad design for entering date in a form is given in Section PPT

7.2.5 and 7.2.6. What are the reasons for saying that one of them is good and the

other bad?

7.11 Design a form to be used by a salesman to report to the office about the sales

executed by him at different customer locations.

7.12 What is the main difference between menus, templates and command modes of

interactive data entry? When is each of these modes appropriate?

7.13 Design a dialogue hierarchy for entering data on customers (of a manufacturer).

7.14 Design a dialogue hierarchy and the screens for a system used to reserve seats in

long distance buses.

7.15 Why are data fields coded in an information system?

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M7/V1/July 04/1


System Analysis and Design / Data Oriented Systems Design Question Bank

7.16 Can the name of a person be used as a code, for say, his bank account? If not,

why?

7.17 What are the requirements of a good coding scheme?

7.18 Is a concise code comprehensive? If not, why?

7.19 Is a meaningful code necessarily comprehensive?

7.20 Is a comprehensive code necessarily meaningful?

7.21 Is a precise code necessarily concise?

7.22 What is the advantage of a serial number code? Why is it not normally used?

7.23 What is the main advantage of block codes?

7.24 Design a group classification code to code (i) motor vehicles,, (ii) music

cassettes, and (iii) books

7.25 Is a group classification code meaningful?

7.26 Give an example of a significant code. Are significant codes expandable?

7.27 Add a Modulus-11 check digit to the codes (i) 48467, (ii) 96432, and (iii)

87646257.

7.28 Modulus-37 check is suitable for alphanumeric codes. Add a modulus-37

character to the codes (i) 4AB9W, (ii) XBY483, and (iii) CAZ4642.

7.29 The following code was entered by an operator:449632. The last digit is a

modulus-11 check digit. Is this code correct?

7.30 If a code uses hexadecimal digits, what should be N if the modulus-N check digit

system is to be used with such codes? What are the allowable weights if single

transcription and transposition errors are to be detected?

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M7/V1/July 04/2


System Analysis and Design / Data Oriented Systems Design Question Bank

7.31 If modulus-11 check digit system is to generate detection of multiple identical

digit transcription error (i.e., a code such as 45565 is wrongly entered as 48868),

what should be the constraints on the weights?

7.32 A see-saw error is one in which one digit of the code is increased by x and

another decreased by x. For example, 486732 becoming 456762. When can

modulus N check detect such errors?

7.33 Why is it useful to assign sequence numbers for data records? What are the

types of errors detected by sequence numbering?

7.34 What is the purpose of batch control record? What is the type of information

contained in a batch control record?

A set of data records for student examination results has the following format:

Roll no. Name Marks (out of 100)

Paper 1 Paper 2 Paper 3 Paper 4

Design for these records a batch control record and a record control field and any

other appropriate checks for the fields.

7.35 Give some example of fields for which a radix error check is appropriate.

7.36 What is the difference between range check and a radix check?

7.37 What are the appropriate range checks for the age of individuals in an employee

file, a high school student file, and height of students in a student file.

7.38 Give some examples of fields where reasonableness check would be applicable.

7.39 Give some examples of inter-field relationship checks.

7.40 What is the main difference between menus, templates and command modes of

interactive data entry? When is each of these modes appropriate?

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M7/V1/July 04/3


System Analysis and Design / Data Oriented Systems Design Question Bank

7.41 Design a dialogue hierarchy for entering data on customers (of a manufacturer).

7.42 Design a dialogue hierarchy and the screens for a system used to reserve seats in

long distance buses.

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M7/V1/July 04/4


System Analysis and Design /Data Oriented Systems Design Pointers

References

1. Most of the material in this module has been adapted from the book “Analysis and
Design of Information Systems”, 2nd Edition, by V.Rajaraman, Prentice Hall of
India, 2003. Chapter 5 (pp. 49-52) and Chapter 11 (pp.154-170).
2. Good material on Data Dictionary is found in K.E.Kendall and J.E.Kendall ,
“Systems Analysis and Design”, 5th Edition, Pearson Education Asia, 2003.
Chapter 10 on Data Dictionaries. Chapter 16 Designing Effective Input.

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore M7/V1/July 04/1


Summary Module 7

1. Data dictionary is a catalogue of all data used in an application. Each entry in the

dictionary has the name of the data, its type, origin, destination, range of

values,length and where used.

2. It is useful as a documentation and assists in maintaining systems and also in

designing data input.

3. Data dictionary is developed using data flows in a DFD and contents of data

stores in DFD

4. Data may be input to a computer off-line or on-line. In on-line entry a user enters

data interactively via a video terminal connected to the computer. In off-line data

entry data filled in forms are entered by operators in a separate PC or a data entry

machine.

5. Off-line data entry is suitable if the number of records is very large.

6. In off-line data entry, batches of data are formed and entered. They are checked

by a validation program and the corrected records are stored in a file.

7. To reduce errors in input, it is essential to carefully design the forms used for

entering data.

8. For interactive data input, special screens are designed on video terminals for easy

data entry. Errors in data entry are instantly detected by a validation program

during data entry and can be immediately corrected.

9. Common methods of interactive data input is by use of menus, templates and

interactive commands for data entry.


10. A menu method is used to pick one out of many alternatives, a template method

to enter new data, and a command method to add and delete data.

11. These methods are combined to provide a user the most appropriate technique for

a particular type of interactive data entry.

12. Important data elements are coded. Codes are necessary for unique identification,

easily cross-referencing and efficient storage and retrieval.

13. There are many methods for coding. An ideal code must be concise, expandable,

meaningful, comprehensive and precise. It is not possible to incorporate all these

ideal features in a code.

14. Codes are classified as: (i) Serial number codes, (ii) Block codes, (iii) Group

classification codes, and (iv) Significant codes. Group classification codes and

Significant codes are most meaningful, expandable, precise and comprehensive.

They are, however, not concise, Serial and Block number codes are more concise.

They are also precise and expandable but are not meaningful and comprehensive.

15. Any error made in entering important data fields such as account codes and

identification codes must be detected during data entry.

16. The most common errors made during data entry are: a single digit is incorrectly

entered or any two digits in the code are interchanged. These errors are called

respectively single transcription and transposition errors and account for 96% of

all data entry errors.

17. Given a code, the digits in it starting from the last digit are multiplied by weights

2, 3, 4, etc., and the products are added. The sum is divided by 11. The

remainder is subtracted from 11. This number (which is called a check digit) is
appended as the last digit of the code. The code constructed in this way is called

a midulus-11 check digit code.

18. After data entry the digits in the code starting from the last digit are multiplied by

weights 1, 2, 3, 4, etc., and the products are added. The sum is divided by 11. If

the remainder is not zero then there is an error in the code.

19. Modulus-11 check digit code guarantees detection of all single transcription and

transposition errors. It also detects 95% of all other errors.

20. It is essential to design good data validation programs to prevent data entry errors

from corrupting files of input data. Validation programs need information for

detecting errors. This information is provided by controls exercised during data

preparation.

21. Important control mechanisms are; giving unique sequence numbers to each data

record, providing a batch control record containing a count of number of records

and a total of one of the fields..

22. The same data is entered by two different persons and compared to reduce

transcription errors.

23. Besides this, individual data fields are checked using information on their range

of allowed values, range of reasonable values, and relationships between different

fields. Batch control provides information to detect incorrect values entered,

missing records, and data in the wrong sequence.

24. With the advent of Personal Computers, remote terminals connected to a

computer and local computer networks, considerable amount of data is entered in

files interactively.
Question Bank – 7

7.1 What is a data dictionary?

7.2 Why is a data dictionary necessary?

7.3 What are the main advantages of creating a data dictionary?

7.4 What data about a data element is stored in a data dictionary?

7.5 For the requirements statement given in PPT 7.1.3 (Vendor supplying items to a

company) develop the data dictionary entry for vendor code, vendor name and

vendor address.

7.6 What is the difference between on-line and off-line data entry?

7.7 Why are input data records divided into batches for off-line data entry?

7.8 What is the purpose of a data validation program?

7.9 What are the main principles used in designing forms for data entry?

7.10 A good and a bad design for entering date in a form is given in Section PPT

7.2.5 and 7.2.6. What are the reasons for saying that one of them is good and the

other bad?

7.11 Design a form to be used by a salesman to report to the office about the sales

executed by him at different customer locations.

7.12 What is the main difference between menus, templates and command modes of

interactive data entry? When is each of these modes appropriate?

7.13 Design a dialogue hierarchy for entering data on customers (of a manufacturer).

7.14 Design a dialogue hierarchy and the screens for a system used to reserve seats in

long distance buses.

7.15 Why are data fields coded in an information system?


7.16 Can the name of a person be used as a code, for say, his bank account? If not,

why?

7.17 What are the requirements of a good coding scheme?

7.18 Is a concise code comprehensive? If not, why?

7.19 Is a meaningful code necessarily comprehensive?

7.20 Is a comprehensive code necessarily meaningful?

7.21 Is a precise code necessarily concise?

7.22 What is the advantage of a serial number code? Why is it not normally used?

7.23 What is the main advantage of block codes?

7.24 Design a group classification code to code (i) motor vehicles,, (ii) music

cassettes, and (iii) books

7.25 Is a group classification code meaningful?

7.26 Give an example of a significant code. Are significant codes expandable?

7.27 Add a Modulus-11 check digit to the codes (i) 48467, (ii) 96432, and (iii)

87646257.

7.28 Modulus-37 check is suitable for alphanumeric codes. Add a modulus-37

character to the codes (i) 4AB9W, (ii) XBY483, and (iii) CAZ4642.

7.29 The following code was entered by an operator:449632. The last digit is a

modulus-11 check digit. Is this code correct?

7.30 If a code uses hexadecimal digits, what should be N if the modulus-N check digit

system is to be used with such codes? What are the allowable weights if single

transcription and transposition errors are to be detected?


7.31 If modulus-11 check digit system is to generate detection of multiple identical

digit transcription error (i.e., a code such as 45565 is wrongly entered as 48868),

what should be the constraints on the weights?

7.32 A see-saw error is one in which one digit of the code is increased by x and

another decreased by x. For example, 486732 becoming 456762. When can

modulus N check detect such errors?

7.33 Why is it useful to assign sequence numbers for data records? What are the

types of errors detected by sequence numbering?

7.34 What is the purpose of batch control record? What is the type of information

contained in a batch control record?

A set of data records for student examination results has the following format:

Roll no. Name Marks (out of 100)

Paper 1 Paper 2 Paper 3 Paper 4

Design for these records a batch control record and a record control field and any

other appropriate checks for the fields.

7.35 Give some example of fields for which a radix error check is appropriate.

7.36 What is the difference between range check and a radix check?

7.37 What are the appropriate range checks for the age of individuals in an employee

file, a high school student file, and height of students in a student file.

7.38 Give some examples of fields where reasonableness check would be applicable.

7.39 Give some examples of inter-field relationship checks.

7.40 What is the main difference between menus, templates and command modes of

interactive data entry? When is each of these modes appropriate?


7.41 Design a dialogue hierarchy for entering data on customers (of a manufacturer).

7.42 Design a dialogue hierarchy and the screens for a system used to reserve seats in

long distance buses.


References

1. Most of the material in this module has been adapted from the book “Analysis and
Design of Information Systems”, 2nd Edition, by V.Rajaraman, Prentice Hall of
India, 2003. Chapter 5 (pp. 49-52) and Chapter 11 (pp.154-170).
2. Good material on Data Dictionary is found in K.E.Kendall and J.E.Kendall ,
“Systems Analysis and Design”, 5th Edition, Pearson Education Asia, 2003.
Chapter 10 on Data Dictionaries. Chapter 16 Designing Effective Input.
MODULE 8

LOGICAL DATABASE DESIGN


OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS

There are 4 alternative answers to each question. One of them is correct.


Pick the correct answer. Do not guess. A key is given at the end of the
module for you to verify your answer

LEARNING UNIT 1

8.1.1 An entity is
(a) a collection of items in an application
(b) a distinct real world item in an application
(c) an inanimate object in an application
(d) a data structure

8.1.2 Pick entities from the following:


(i) vendor
(ii) student
(iii) attends
(iv) km/hour
(a) i, ii, iii (b) i, ii, iv
(c) i and ii (d) iii and iv

8.1.3 A relationship is
(a) an item in an application
(b) a meaningful dependency between entities
(c) a collection of related entities
(d) related data

8.1.4 Pick the relationship from the following:


(a) a classroom
(b) teacher
(c) attends
(d) cost per dozen
8.1.5 Pick the meaningful relationship between entities
(a) vendor supplies goods
(b) vendor talks with customers
(c) vendor complains to vendor
(d) vendor asks prices

8.1.6 The entity set is a


(a) set of entities
(b) collection of different entities
(c) collection of related entities
(d) collection of similar entities

8.1.7 Pick entity set from the following


(a) all vendors supplying to an organization
(b) vendors and organizations they supply
(c) vendors and transporters
(d) a vendor supplying to many organizations

8.1.8 Attributes are


(i) properties of relationship
(ii) attributed to entities
(iii) properties of members of an entity set
(a) i (b) i and ii
(c) i and iii (d) iii

8.1.9 The attributes of relationship teaches in teacher teaches course should be


(a) teacher code, teacher name, dept, phone no
(b) course no, course name, semester offered, credits
(c) teacher code, course no, semester no
(d) teacher code, course no, teacher name, dept, phone no

8.1.10 The expansion of E-R diagram is


(a) Entity-Relationship diagram
(b) Entity-Relative diagram
(c) Entity-Relation diagram
(d) Entity-Rationalized diagram

8.1.11 In an E-R diagram entities are represented by


(a) circles
(b) rectangles
(c) diamond shaped box
(d) ellipse
8.1.12 In an E-R diagram relationship is represented by
(a) circles
(b) rectangles
(c) diamond shaped box
(d) ellipse

8.1.13 Entities are identified from the word statement of a problem by


(a) picking words which are adjectives
(b) picking words which are nouns
(c) picking words which are verbs
(d) picking words which are pronouns

8.1.14 Relationships are identified from the word statement of a problem by


(a) picking words which are adjectives
(b) picking words which are nouns
(c) picking words which are verbs
(d) picking words which are pronouns

8.1.15 One entity may be


(a) related to only one other entity
(b) related to itself
(c) related to only two other entities
(d) related to many other entities

LEARNING UNIT 2

8.2.1 By relation cardinality we mean


(a) number of items in a relationship
(b) number of relationships in which an entity can appear
(c) number of items in an entity
(d) number of entity sets which may be related to a given entity

8.2.2 If an entity appears in only one relationship then it is


(a) a 1:1 relationship
(b) a 1:N relationship
(c) a N:1 relationship
(d) a N:M relationship
8.2.3 If an entity appears in N relationships then it is
(a) a 1:1 relationship
(b) a 1:N relationship
(c) a N:1 relationship
(d) a N:M relationship
8.2.4 If an entity appears in not more than 5 relationships then it is a
(a) 1:1 relationship
(b) 1:5 relationship
(c) 5:1 relationship
(d) 5:5 relationship

8.2.5 A pilot can fly three types of planes and a plane can be piloted by any qualified
pilot. The pilot-plane type relationship is
(a) N:3
(b) 3:N
(c) 1:3
(d) 3:1

8.2.6 A student can take not more than 5 subjects in a semester. The number of
students allowed in a subject in a semester is not more than 40. The student
– subject relationship is:
(a) 5:40
(b) 40:5
(c) N:5
(d) 40:M
8.2.7 The following E-R diagram is interpreted as follows:
(a) A doctor treats upto N patients
(b) A doctor treats exactly N patients
(c) A doctor may treat upto N patients; Some doctors may not treat any patients
(d) A doctor will treat patients based on some conditions

Doctor

Treat

Patients
8.2.8 A relation is
(a) an entity
(b) a relationship
(c) members of a relationship set
(d) members of an entity set or a relationship set

8.2.9 Rows of a relation are called


(a) tuples
(b) a relation row
(c) a data structure
(d) an entity

8.2.10 The rows of a relation


(a) must be in specified order
(b) may be in any order
(c) in ascending order of key
(d) in descending order of key

8.2.11 The columns of a relation


(a) must be in specified order
(b) may be in any order
(c) with key field in first column
(d) with largest width column last

8.2.12 Relations are used in logical database design because


(i) sound theory of relations facilitates systematic design of relational
databases
(ii) they are very popular
(iii) they are flat files and easy to store and retrieve from computer’s
memory
(iv) E-R diagrams allow design of relations
(a) i and ii (b) i and iii
(c) ii and iii (d) iii and iv

LEARNING UNIT 3

8.3.1 Normalization is a process of restructuring a relation to


(a) minimize duplication of data in a database
(b) maximize duplication of data to ensure reliability
(c) make it of uniform size
(d) allow addition of data
8.3.2 Normalization of database is essential to
(i) avoid accidental deletion of required data when some data is deleted
(ii) eliminate inconsistencies when a data item is modified in the database
(iii) allows storage of data in a computer’s disk
(iv) use a database management system
(a) i and iii (b) i and ii
(c) ii and iii (d) ii and iv

8.3.3 The process of normalization


(a) is automatic using a computer program
(b) requires one to understand dependency between attributes
(c) is manual and requires semantic information
(d) is finding the key of a relation

8.3.4 The following relation is not normalized because


Roll no Name Courses taken
Course No Dept Sem
4568 A.B Moni CS 101 C.S. 1
EE 545 E.E. 2
Phy 325 Physics 1

4894 R. Chamnlal Phy 101 Physics 1


Chem202 Chemistry 2
Math 103 Math. 1
CS 101 C.S. 1
4954 R. Gupta CS 101 C.S. 1

(a) It is difficult to store due to non–uniform size of the attributes


(b) Roll no. 4568 have 3 course line whereas Roll no. 4954 has only one course
line
(c) The composite attribute (CS 101, C.S., 1) is repeated
(d) Some item lines have composite attributes

8.3.5 The relation given in Exercise 10.4.4 may be converted to 1 NF relation by


(a) eliminating composite attributes
(b) eliminating common attributes
(c) duplicating common attributes as many times as lines in corresponding
attributes
(d) putting composite attributes in a separate table
8.3.6 A relation is said to be in 1NF if
(a) there is no duplication of data
(b) there are no composite attributes in the relation
(c) there are only a few composite attributes
(d) all attributes are of uniform type

8.3.7 The number of normal forms which has been proposed and discussed in the
book are
(a) 3 (b) 4
(c) 5 (d) 6

8.3.8 A relation which is in a higher normal form


(a) implies that it also qualifies to be in lower normal form
(b) does not necessarily satisfy the conditions of lower normal form
(c) is included in the lower normal form
(d) is independent of lower normal forms

8.3.9 Given an attribute x, another attribute y is dependent on it, if for a given x


(a) there are many y values
(b) there is only one value of y
(c) there is one or more y values
(d) there is none or one y value

8.3.10 An attribute y may be functionally dependent on


(i) a composite attribute x,y
(ii) a single attribute x
(iii) no attribute
(a) i and ii (b) i and iii
(c) ii and iii (d) iii

8.3.11 A second Normal Form (2 NF) relation should


(a) be in 1 NF
(b) not have a composite key
(c) not have attributes dependent on key attribute
(d) not have attributes dependent on one another

8.3.12 A relation is said to be in 2 NF if


(i) it is in 1 NF
(ii) non-key attributes dependent on key attribute
(iii) non-key attributes are independent of one another
(iv) if it has a composite key, no non-key attribute should be dependent on
part of the composite key
(a) i, ii, iii (b) i and ii
(c) i, ii, iv (d) i, iv
8.3.13 Given the following relation
vendor order (vendor no, order no, vendor name, qty supplied, price/unit) it is not
in 2 NF because
(a) it is not in 1 NF
(b) it has a composite key
(c) non-key attribute vendor name is dependent on vendor no. which is one part
of the composite key
(d) Qty supplied and price/unit are dependent

8.3.14 Given the following relation


vendor order (vendor no, order no, vendor name, qty supplied , price/unit)
the second normal form relations are
(a) vendor (vendor no, vendor name)
qty (qty supplied, price/unit)
order (order no, qty supplied)
(b) vendor (vendor no, vendor name)
order (order no, qty supplied, price/unit)
(c) vendor (vendor no, vendor name)
order (order no, qty supplied, price/unit)
vendor order (vendor no, order no)
(d) vendor (vendor no, vendor name, qty supplied, price/unit)
vendor order (order no, vendor no)

8.3.15 A third Normal Form (3 NF) relation should


(a) be in 2 NF
(b) not have complete key
(c) not be 1 NF
(d) should not have non-key attributes depend on key attribute

8.3.16 A relation is said to be in 3 NF if


(i) it is in 2 NF
(ii) non-key attributes are independent of one another
(iii) key attribute is not dependent on part of a composite key
(iv) has no multi-valued dependency
(a) i and iii (b) i and iv
(c) i and ii (d) ii and iv

8.3.17 Given the following relation it is not 3 NF because


Student (roll no, name, course no, course max. marks, year of study,
address)
(a) it is not in 2 NF
(b) it does not have composite key
(c) non-key attributes course no and course max. marks are functionally
dependent
(d) it has more than 3 non-key attributes
8.3.18 Given the following relation
Student (roll no, name, course no, course max. marks, year of study,
address)
The corresponding 3 NF relations are
(a) student (roll no, name, year of study, address)
course (course no, course max. marks)
(b) student ( roll no, name, year of study, address)
student (roll no, course no)
course (course no, course max. marks)
(c) student (roll no , name, address)
year (roll no, year of study)
course (course no, course max. marks)
(d) student (roll no, name, address)
course (course no, course max. marks, year of study)

8.3.19 Boye Codd Normal Form (BCNF) is needed when


(a) two non-key attributes are dependent
(b) there is more then one possible composite key
(c) there are two or more possible composite overlapping keys and one attribute
of a composite key is dependent on an attribute of another composite key
(d) there are two possible keys and they are dependent on one another

8.3.20 A relation is said to be in BCNF when


(a) it has overlapping composite keys
(b) it has no composite keys
(c) it has no multivalued dependencies
(d) it has no overlapping composite keys which have related attributes

8.3.21 A 3 NF relation is converted to BCNF by


(a) removing composite keys
(b) removing multivalued dependencies
(c) dependent attributes of overlapping composite keys are put in a separate
relation
(d) dependent non-key attributes are put in a separate table

8.3.22 BCNF is needed because


(a) otherwise tuples may be duplicated
(b) when a data is deleted tuples may be lost
(c) updating is otherwise difficult
(d) when there is dependent attributes in two possible composite keys one of the
attributes is unnecessarily duplicated in the tuples
8.3.23 Given the relation
Supplier(s_id, p_order, s_name, qty)
Given that there is a unique s_name for each s_id and that s_id, p_order is a
composite key, find the correct statement among the following:
(i) this relation is a BCNF
(ii) this is 3 NF relation
(iii) this is a 2 NF relation
(iv) this is a 1 NF relation
(a) i and ii (b) ii and iii
(c) i and iv (d) i and iii

8.3.24 Given the relation of Exercise 10.7.5 it is reduced to the following BCNF
relation
(a) Supplier (s_ids, s_name)
Purchase (s_id, p_order, qty)
(b) Supplier (s_id, s_name)
Purchase (p_order, qty)
(c) Purchase (s_id, p_order)
Supplier (s_name, qty)
(d) Supplier (s_id, s_name, qty)
Purchase (s_id, p_order)

8.3.25 Fourth normal form (4 NF) relations are needed when


(a) there are multivalued dependencies between attributes in composite key
(b) there are more than one composite key
(c) there are two or more overlapping composite keys
(d) there are multivalued dependency between non-key attributes

8.3.26 A 3 NF relation is split into 4 NF


(a) by removing overlapping composite keys
(b) by splitting into relations which do not have more than one independent
multivalued dependency
(c) removing multivalued dependency
(d) by putting dependent non-key attribute in a separate table

8.3.27 A relation project guidance


Project Guidance(professor, project, student no. st-name, dept)
A professor can give many projects to many students
A project will have many students
A project may be guided by many professors
The 4 NF relation corresponding to this are
(a) Prof_Project (professor, st_name, dept)
Proj_stud (project, student no.)
(b) Prof_stud (professor, student no)
Proj_stud (project, student no)
Student (student no, st_name, dept)
(c) Student (student no, st_name, dept)
Professor(professor, project)
(d) Professor( professor, project, dept)
Student (student no, st_name, dept)

8.3.28 The project guidance relation of Exercise 10.8.3 needs further normalization
to 5 NF because
(a) There are too many multivalued dependencies
(b) Multivalued dependency and simple dependency are mixed in the 4 NF
relation
(c) Spurious tuples got introduced when the 4 NF relations are combined due to
the fact that a professor can guide only specified projects
(d) 4 NF relations have composite keys

8.3.29 5 NF relations equivalent to the relation of Exercise 10.8.3 are


(a) Prof_stud (professor, student_no)
Proj_stud ( project, student_no)
Prof_proj (professor, project)
Student (student_no, st_name, dept)
(b) Professor (professor, professor details)
Student (student_no, st_name, dept)
Project (project no, project details)
(c) Prof_stud (professor, student_no)
Prof_proj (professor, project)
(d) Prof_stud (professor, student_no)
Stud_proj (student_no, project)
Student (student_no, st_name, dept)

LEARNING UNIT 4

8.4.1 The ORDER PLACED FOR relation in Mini-case example 1 has the
composite key order no, item code because
(a) item code has a multivalued dependency with order no.
(b) the non-key attributes are dependent on the composite key order no, item
code
(c) if order no is the only key we cannot find qty. ordered, price/unit, delivery
time
(d) if item code is the only key we cannot find order no. uniquely
8.4.2 The relation SUPPLIES in Mini-case example 1 of Section 10.10 requires
normalization because
(a) it has a composite key with three attributes
(b) the non-key attributes are dependent on part of composite key
(c) the attributes item code and order no of the composite key have multivalued
dependency
(d) vendor code and order no have a multivalued dependency

8.4.3 TEACHES-COURSES relation in Mini-case example 2 is in


(a) 3 NF. Does not need any further normalization
(b) BCNF
(c) 4 NF
(d) unnormalized form

8.4.4 TEACHER-STUDENT relation in Mini-case example 2 is required because


(a) it is in 3 NF
(b) it has a multivalued key
(c) it has a composite key with multivalued dependency relation
(d) Without this relation database is incomplete and some queries cannot be
answered

LEARNING UNIT 5
8.5.1 By redundancy in a file based system we mean that
(a) unnecessary data is stored
(b) same data is duplicated in many files
(c) data is unavailable
(d) files have redundant data
8.5.2 Data integrity in a file based system may be lost because
(a) the same variable may have different values in different files
(b) files are duplicated
(c) unnecessary data is stored in files
(d) redundant data is stored in files

8.5.3 Data availability is often difficult in file based system


(a) as files are duplicated
(b) as unnecessary data are stored in files
(c) as one has to search different files and these files may be in different update
states
(d) redundant data are stored in files
8.5.4 Management policy changes are difficult to implement in a file based system
because
(a) relating data in different files is difficult
(b) files are duplicated
(c) redundant data are stored
(d) unnecessary data is stored

8.5.5 Some of the objectives of a database management system are to


(i) minimize duplication of data
(ii) ensure centralized management control of data
(iii) ease retrieval of data
(iv) maintain a data dictionary
(a) i and ii (b) i, ii and iv
(c) i and iii (d) i, ii and iii

8.5.6 A database is a
(a) collection of files
(b) collection of inputs and outputs of application
(c) collection of related data necessary to manage an organization
(d) data resource of an organization

8.5.7 A database models data so that it is


(a) appropriate for application
(b) independent of application program
(c) optimized for most frequent applications
(d) optimized for all applications

8.5.8 A database should be designed to allow providing


(a) different views of portions of data requested by an application
(b) data only to selected applications as decided by an organization
(c) a uniform view of data to all applications
(d) data to all applications

8.5.9 The abbreviation DBMS stands for


(a) Data Base Manipulation System
(b) Data Bank Manipulating System
(c) Data Base Management System
(d) Data Bank Management System

8.5.10 A DBMS is
(a) another name for database system
(b) independent of a database
(c) dependent on application programs
(d) is a set of procedures which manage a database
8.5.11 A DBMS
(a) is a set of procedures
(b) manages a database
(c) is a set of procedures to manage a database to provide data as required by
applications
(d) provides data to applications

8.5.12 One of the main objectives of a DBMS is to


(a) Create a database for an organization
(b) Facilitate sharing of a database by current and future applications
(c) Allow sharing application programs
(d) Replace file based systems

8.5.13 Database is
(a) an important resource of an organization
(b) not relevant to existing programs
(c) not relevant for future programs
(d) not as good as files as there is redundancy

8.5.14 By data independence we mean application programs


(a) do not need data
(b) may be developed independent of data
(c) may be developed without knowing the organization of data
(d) may be developed with independent data

8.5.15 Data independence allows


(i) no changes in application programs
(ii) change in database without affecting application programs
(iii) hardware to be changed without affecting application programs
(iv) system software to be changed without affecting application programs
(a) i, ii (b) ii, iii
(c) ii, iii, iv (d) i, ii, iv

8.5.16 Data independence allows


(a) sharing the same database by several applications
(b) extensive modification of applications
(c) no data sharing between applications
(d) elimination of several application programs
8.5.17 Among objectives of DBMS are ensuring
(i) data integrity
(ii) data redundancy
(iii) data security
(iv) easy data retrieval
(a) i, ii (b) i, iii
(c) i, iii, iv (d) i, ii, iii

8.5.18 DBMS
(a) does not allow replication of data
(b) allows controlled replication of data if it improves performance
(c) does not allow common data to be duplicated
(d) does not allow replication as it adversely affects reliability

8.5.19 By data integrity we mean


(a) maintaining consistent data values
(b) integrated data values
(c) banning improper access to data
(d) not leaking data values

8.5.20 Data integrity is ensured by


(a) good data editing
(b) propagating data changes to all data items
(c) preventing unauthorized access
(d) preventing data duplication
8.5.21 By data security in DBMS we mean
(a) preventing access to data
(b) allowing access to data only to authorized users
(c) preventing changing data
(d) introducing integrity constraints

8.5.22 DBMS must implement management controls to


(i) control access rights to users
(ii) implement audit trail when changes are made
(iii) allow data to be used extensively in the organization
(iv) duplicate databases
(a) i, ii (b) ii, iii
(c) iii, iv (d) i, iv
LEARNING UNIT 6

8.6.1 An E-R modelling for given application leads to


(a) conceptual data model
(b) logical data model
(c) external data model
(d) internal data model

8.6.2 A conceptual data model is converted using a Relational Data Base


Management System to a
(a) logical data model
(b) external data model
(c) internal data model
(d) an entity-relation data model

8.6.3 A subset of logical data model accessed by programmers is called a


(a) conceptual data model
(b) external data model
(c) internal data model
(d) an entity-relation data model

8.6.4 When a logical model is mapped into a physical storage such as a disk store
the resultant data model is known as
(a) conceptual data model
(b) external data model
(c) internal data model
(d) disk data model

8.6.5 A DBMS has the following components


(i) a data definition language
(ii) a query language
(iii) a security system
(iv) audit trail
(a) i, ii (b) i, ii, iii
(c) i, ii, iii, iv (d) i, ii, iv

8.6.6 A check pointing system is needed


(a) to ensure system security
(b) to recover from transient faults
(c) to ensure system privacy
(d) to ensure system integrity
8.6.7 A database administrator
(a) administers data in an organization
(b) controls all inputs and all outputs of programs
(c) is controller of data resources of an organization
(d) controls all data entry operators

8.6.8 The responsibilities of a database administrator includes


(i) maintenance of data dictionary
(ii) ensuring security of database
(iii) ensuring privacy and integrity of data
(iv) obtain an E-R model
(a) i, ii (b) i, ii, iii
(c) i, ii, iii, iv (d) ii, iii, iv

8.6.9 Access right to a database is controlled by


(a) top management
(b) system designer
(c) system analyst
(d) database administrator

8.6.10 The sequence followed in designing a DBMS are


(a) physical model conceptual model logical model
(b) logical model physical model conceptual model
(c) conceptual model logical model physical model
(d) conceptual model physical model logical model

8.6.11 Designing physical model of DBMS requires information on


(i) data volume
(ii) frequency of access to data
(iii) programming language used
(iv) secondary memory characteristics
(a) i, ii (b) i, ii, iii
(c) i, ii, iii, iv (d) i, ii, iv

8.6.12A good database design


(i) caters primarily to current needs
(ii) caters to current and future needs as organizations grow
(iii) has to be modified when hardware is upgraded
(iv) ensures data security
(a) i, ii (b) i, ii, iii
(c) ii, iv (d) iii, iv
8.6.13 A good database design
(i) is expandable with growth and changes in organization
(ii) easy to change when software changes
(iii) ensures data integrity
(iv) allows access to only authorized users
(a) i, ii (b) ii, iii
(c) i, ii, iii, iv (d) i, ii, iii

KEY TO OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS

8.1.1 b 8.1.2 c 8.1.3 b 8.1.4 c 8.1.5 a 8.1.6 d


8.1.7 a 8.1.8 c 8.1.9 c 8.1.10 a 8.1.11 b 8.1.12 c
8.1.13 b 8.1.14 c 8.1.15 d 8.2.1 b 8.2.2 a 8.2.3 b
8.2.4 b 8.2.5 a 8.2.6 b 8.2.7 c 8.2.8 d 8.2.9 a
8.2.10 b 8.2.11 b 8.2.12 b 8.3.1 a 8.3.2 b 8.3.3 b
8.3.4 d 8.3.5 c 8.3.6 b 8.3.7 d 8.3.8 a 8.3.9 b
8.3.10 a 8.3.11 a 8.3.12 c 8.3.13 c 8.3.14 c 8.3.15 a
8.3.16 c 8.3.17 c 8.3.18 b 8.3.19 c 8.3.20 d 8.3.21 c
8.3.22 d 8.3.23 d 8.3.24 a 8.3.25 a 8.3.26 b 8.3.27 b
8.3.28 c 8.3.29 a 8.4.1 a 8.4.2 c 8.4.3 a 8.4.4 d
8.5.1 b 8.5.2 a 8.5.3 c 8.5.4 a 8.5.5 d 8.5.6 c
8.5.7 b 8.5.8 a 8.5.9 c 8.5.10 d 8.5.11 c 8.5.12 b
8.5.13 a 8.5.14 c 8.5.15 c 8.5.16 a 8.5.17 c 8.5.18 b
8.5.19 a 8.5.20 b 8.5.21 b 8.5.22 a 8.6.1 a 8.6.2 a
8.6.3 b 8.6.4 c 8.6.5 c 8.6.6 b 8.6.7 c 8.6.8 b
8.6.9 d 8.6.10 c 8.6.11 d 8.6.12 c 8.6.13 c
System Analysis and Design / Data Input Methods Motivation

Motivation

™ During systems analysis it is essential for an analyst to decide the necessary and

sufficient data for designing an application.

DFD gives the data flows and stores of a system

™ Individual data elements of data flows and stores can be catalogued

™ Such a catalogue with description of each element and their types will be an

invaluable aid while designing a system.

™ A catalogue will also bring out if any data is duplicated/missed

™ A catalogue will also be an invaluable documentation of a system

™ Such a catalogue is called Data dictionary-It is actually metadata, i.e., data about

data.

™ After data dictionary is designed one needs to determine how the data is to be

input.

™ Data input methods depend on whether the data is filled in by customers in forms

manually and later input by data entry operators or data is directly input by users

on PC’s.

™ We thus need to understand both these methods.

™ Unless data input is correct, results will be unreliable

™ Information systems normally have a large volume of data

™ Because of large volume special controls are needed to ensure correctness of data

input - otherwise it is difficult to find which data is incorrect

™ Thus it is important to design appropriate data input methods to prevent errors

while entering data

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore //V1/July 04/1


System Analysis and Design / Data Input Methods Motivation

™ Key data elements are important to identify records. They need to be unique,

concise and understandable by users. Thus we need to study methods of coding

key data element

V. Rajaraman/IISc. Bangalore //V1/July 04/1


MODULE 8
LOGICAL DATABASE DESIGN

Learning Units
8.1 Entity-relationship(E-R) modelling of data elements of an
application.
8.2 Organization of data as relations
8.3 Normalization of relations
8.4 Creation of logical relational database
8.5 Objectives of database management system(DBMS)
8.6 Overview of DBMS.

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman


LEARNING GOALS

In this module we will learn:

1. The Entity-Relationship(ER) modelling to develop a conceptual model of


data.
2. How to organize data required in an application as relations
3. The need for normalizing relations
4. The various normal forms and their relevance
5. How to normalize relations to successive higher normal forms to form a
relational database
6. The need for an integrated database in organizations
7. The goals of Data Base Management systems (DBMS)
8. The structure and organization of DBMS.

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 1 of 72


MOTIVATION

ƒ When a DFD is developed we have a knowledge of


all data elements required by an application

ƒ Data dictionary lists all data elements but does not say
anything about relationships between data elements

ƒ Relationships are needed to logically group data


elements into related sets or tables

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 2 of 72


MOTIVATION

ƒ Such an organization

- Reduces data duplication


- Simplifies adding, deleting and updating data
- Simplifies retrieval of desired data

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 3 of 72


MOTIVATION

ƒ Logical databases give conceptual model.


ƒ Logical databases need to be stored in physical media
such as a hard disk for use by applications
ƒ A system is needed to map the logical database to a
physical medium which is transparent to an application
program.
ƒ Database management systems achieve this purpose

Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 4 of 72


LOGICAL DATABASE DESIGN-INTRODUCTION
ƒ Purpose to develop conceptual model of data
ƒ This model specifies relationships among data items
ƒ Using this, raw data are organized into tables of related data
ƒ These tables are organized in such a way that:
a) duplication of data is reduced
b) operations of adding,deleting, changing
data(together know as updating data) is simplified and
systematized
c) systematization reduces accidental errors
d) Retrieval of data is facilitated

ƒ Collection of these tables are called the database for the


application

8.1.1 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 5 of 72


LOGICAL DATABASE DESIGN-INTRODUCTION

ƒ Loosely one may call organization of related data put in a table as a


“RELATION“

ƒ Systematization by which related data are put in a table is called


“NORMALIZATION”

ƒ A method called entity-relationship analysis facilitates creation of


relations

8.1.2 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 6 of 72


ENTITY-RELATIONSHIP MODEL

ENTITY: SPECIFIES DISTINCT REAL WORLD ITEMS IN AN


APPLICATION

For example: vendor,item,student,course,teachers

RELATIONSHIP: MEANINGFUL DEPENDENCIES BETWEEN


ENTITIES

For example: vendor supplies items


teacher teaches courses

Relationships are underlined above

8.1.3 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 7 of 72


ENTITY SETS

An entity set is collection of similar entities

Examples : * Set of all vendors of an organization is a vendor set

* Set of all items in a store is an item set

Every member of an entity set is described by its attributes

8.1.4 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 8 of 72


ATTRIBUTES

Attributes specify properties of members of entity set


Attributes also specify properties of relationships
Examples:
Entity : Vendor
Attributes : vendor code,vendor name,address
Relationship : supplies
Attributes : vendor code, item code,order no., qty. supplied,date of
supply,price/unit

8.1.5 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 9 of 72


ENTITES AND ATTRIBUTES

Example
Entity : Teacher
Attributes : Teacher code,teacher name,department,building,room
no,phone no.
Relationship : Teaches
Attributes : Teacher code,Course no,course name,semester offered,
credits, prerequisites

8.1.6 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 10 of 72


ENTITY-RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAM
ƒ Some entities depend on one another
For example: entity vendor and entity items are related as vendors supply items
ƒ These relationships are described by entity-relationship diagrams (or ER
diagrams)
ƒ In an ER diagram entities are represented by rectangles and relationships by
diamond shaped boxes
EXAMPLES
VENDOR ORDERS

ENTITY PLACED
SUPPLIES WITH
RELATIONSHIP

ENTITY
ITEMS VENDOR

8.1.7 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 11 of 72


HOW TO IDENTIFY ENTITIES AND RELATIONSHIPS
ƒNo algorithms to identify entities and relationship

ƒWhen a word statement is used to describe an applications


nouns normally are entities and verbs relationships
Students attend courses

Noun Verb Noun


ENTITY RELATIONSHIP ENTITY

Teachers teach Courses

Noun Verb Noun


ENTITY RELATIONSHIP ENTITY

8.1.8 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 12 of 72


ENTITY-RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAMS
ƒ ONE ENTITY MAY BE RELATED TO MANY OTHER
ENTITIES BY MULTIPLE RELATIONSHIPS
Order no
Order date
ORDERS
Order no
Order no Placed Placed Vendor code
Item code for with Item code
Qty ordered
Price/unit

Item code Vendor code


Item name items vendors Vendor name
address

ƒ Underlined attributes are unique identifiers

8.1.9 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 13 of 72


RELATION CARDINALITY
•Relation cardinality - number of relationships in which an entity can appear
•An entity may appear in
- Only one relationship or
- In fixed number of relationships or
- In a variable number of relationships

V1
Vendor1 supplies
i1 items il,i3,i5
i2
V2 i3 Vendor2 supplies
i4 items il and i2
V3 i5
Vendor3 supplies
Vendor supplies items i4 and i5
items
Observe a vendor can supply many items
Observe also that many vendors can supply the same item

8.1.10 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 14 of 72


RELATION CARDINALITY REPRESENTATION

vendor vendor
N N
supplies supplies A vendor cannot supply more
6 than 6 items
M
N vendors can supply a
items items given item

vendor
2 An item cannot be supplied by more than 2 vendors
supplies
M
items

8.1.11 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 15 of 72


EXAMPLES

Teacher id
teacher Name
Dept
1 address

Teacher id
advises student id

N Student id
Name
students Dept
address

1 Teacher advises N students


ƒ Observe that in the advises relationship the identifier need not be
composite
ƒ If it is N : M relationship then the relationship will have the
identifier of both participating entities sets
8.1.12 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 16 of 72
EXAMPLES (CONTD)

ƒ Not all teachers may be required to advise


ƒ A teacher can advise not more than 3 students
Represented by ER diagram , small open circle specifies that some
teachers may not participate in advises relationship

Teacher

advises

students

8.1.13 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 17 of 72


WHY IS FINDING CARDINALITY NECESSARY

ƒThe identifier of the relationship will be composite if cardinality is


N:M
ƒIt will be single if cardinality is 1:M
ƒIf an entity has attached to it ,not all entities in the set may be
present in the relationship
ƒWill be useful later in designing data base

8.1.14 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 18 of 72


RELATIONS

ƒ Entity sets and relationship sets are useful in designing data bases
ƒ Entity - relationship sets may be put as a table of values. This is
called a relation
ƒ Relation name is entity name
ƒ A row of a relation has a member of an entity or a relationship set

8.2.1 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 19 of 72


EXAMPLES OF A RELATION
VENDOR CODE VENDOR NAME ADDRESS

1456 Ram & co 112, 1st cross Bangalore-12


1685 Gopal & sons 452,4th main, Delhi-8
1284 Sivaraj brother 368 M.G Road, Pune-8
1694 Gita ltd 495 N.S.C Road,Calicut

RELATION name:Vendor(same name as entity name)


RELATION ATTRIBUTES: vendor code, vendor name address
Row of relation is called a tuple

In a RELATION rows can be in any order


columns can be of any order

No two rows are identical


No two columns are identical
8.2.2 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 20 of 72
RELATION NOTATION

ƒ Relation is an entire table

ƒ However a concise notation used

ƒ Notation uses: relation name and attributes

ƒ Vendor relation:
Vendor(Vendor code, Vendor name,address )

Relation Relation Relation attributes


name Identifier

8.2.3 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 21 of 72


EXAMPLES OF RELATIONS
Item (Item code, Item name)
Supplies (vendor code, Item code ,order no ,
qty supplied ,date of supply ,price/unit)

Relationship

Teacher (Teacher_id ,name ,dept ,address )

Advises (Teacher_id ,student_id)

Student (Student_id ,name ,dept ,,address)

Bold faced attributes are key attributes

8.2.4 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 22 of 72


WHY RELATION ?

ƒ Ease of storage of entity set as flat file in a computer's storage


ƒ Sound theory of relations allows systematic design of relational
data base
ƒ Theory of normalizing relations
ƒ Reduces duplication of data
ƒ Tries to eliminate errors in adding, deleting, altering items in a
data base
ƒ Simplifies retrieval of data

8.2.5 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 23 of 72


NORMALIZING RELATIONS

ƒWhat is normalization of relations ?


ƒWhy normalize relations ?
ƒHow are relations normalized ?
ƒNormalizing is the process of restructuring relations to a form
which:-
* Minimizes duplication of data in a database
* Operations of adding, deleting,modifying data in a database
do not lead to inconsistent data in a database
* Retrieval of data simplified

8.3.1 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 24 of 72


WHY NORMALIZE ?

ƒA collection of relations relevant for an application constitute a


relational database
ƒRelations are normalized to ensure that:
ƒCollection of relations do not unnecessarily hold duplicate data
ƒWhen a data item is modified it is modified in all relations
where it appears - no inconsistency is there
ƒWhen data is deleted accidentally, required data is not deleted
ƒSimplifies retrieval of required data

8.3.2 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 25 of 72


HOW ARE RELATIONS NORMALIZED ?

UNNORMALIZED RELATION
Order no order date Item lines
Item code Qty Price/unit

1456 26021999 3687 52 50.40


4627 38 60.20
3214 20 17.50
1886 04031999 4629 45 20.25
4627 30 60.20
1788 04111999 4627 40 60.20
1. Observe order for many items
2. Item lines has many attributes-called composite attributes
3. Each tuple has variable length
4. Difficult to store due to non-uniformity
5. Given item code difficult to find qty-ordered
6. Called Unnormalized relation

8.3.3 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 26 of 72


FIRST NORMAL FORM
ƒ Identify composite attributes
ƒ Convert composite attributes to individual attributes
ƒ Duplicate common attributes as many times as lines in composite attribute
ƒ Every attribute describes single property -no composite attribute
ƒ Some data duplicated
ƒ This is called First normal form (1NF) also called flat file
FIRST NORMAL FORM – 1NF
Order No Order date Item code Qty Price/unit
1456 26021999 3687 52 50.40
1456 26021999 4627 38 60.20
1456 26021999 3214 20 17.50
1886 04031999 4629 45 20.25
1886 04031999 4627 30 60.20
1788 04111999 4627 40 60.20
8.3.4 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 27 of 72
HIGHER NORMAL FORMS
ƒ First normal form is first essential step in normalization
ƒ Higher normal forms known as 2NF,3NF,BCNF,4NF,5NF exist
ƒ Each is an improvement of the preceding one
ƒ A higher normal form also satisfies requirements of a lower normal
form
5NF

4NF
BCNF

3NF

2NF

1NF

8.3.5 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 28 of 72


HIGHER NORMAL FORMS

Higher normalization steps based on :


ƒ Detecting dependence between attributes
ƒ Identifying key attributes
ƒ Detecting multivalued dependency between attributes

8.3.6 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 29 of 72


FUNCTIONAL DEPENDENCY
•Given X,Y as two attributes in a relation
•Given X if only one value of Y corresponds to it then Y is
functionally dependent on X
X Y
e.g. Given Item code - Item name known
Therefore Item code Item name
•Functional dependence may be based on a composite attribute
X,Z Y
composite attribute
Order no. ,item code ---------Æ Qty , price
composite attribute

8.3.7 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 30 of 72


DEPENDENCY DIAGRAM

Student (Roll no, name, address, dept., year of study )

Name

Address
Roll no
Department
Called relation key
Year of study

ƒ Roll no. determines uniquely values of all other attributes in the relation

ƒ Therefore it is called a key

8.3.8 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 31 of 72


DEPENDENCY DIAGRAM

Qty.supplied
Vendor code

Item code Date of supply

Price/unit

Composite key

Composite key enclosed in one box in diagram

8.3.9 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 32 of 72


WHY NORMALIZE RELATIONS-REVISITED

ƒTo ensure that while operating on data base we do not


- Lose data
- Introduce inconsistencies

ƒOperations on data base


ƒInsertion of new data should not force leaving blank fields for
some attributes
ƒDeletion of a tuple should not delete vital information
ƒUpdating - changing value of an attribute should be possible
without exhaustively searching all tuples of relation

8.3.10 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 33 of 72


EXAMPLE TO SHOW NEED FOR
NORMALIZATION
FIRST NORMAL FORM – 1NF
Order No Order date Item code Qty Price/unit
1456 26021999 3687 52 50.40
1456 26021999 4627 38 60.20
1456 26021999 3214 20 17.50
1886 04031999 4629 45 20.25
1886 04031999 4627 30 60.20
1788 04111999 4627 40 60.20
INSERTION : Enter new item with code 3945 and price 30.50 for which no order has been
placed. Inserted tuple will have no values(i.e have to be left blank) for order no and order date

DELETION: If order no1886 is deleted the fact that item code 4629 costs 20.25 is lost

UPDATE: If price of item 4627 is changed,all instances of this item code


have to be changed by exhaustive search-errors possible

8.3.11 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 34 of 72


IDEAL NORMALIZATION

At the end of normalization a normalized relation

ƒShould have no data values duplicated in rows

ƒEvery attribute in a row must have a value

ƒDeletion of a row must not lead to accidental


loss of information

ƒAdding a row should not affect other rows

ƒA value of an attribute in a row can be changed independent of


other rows

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SECOND NORMAL FORM (2NF)

A relation is in 2NF if

ƒIt is in 1NF
ƒNon key attributes functionally dependent on key attribute
ƒIf key composite then no non-key attribute can functionally
depend on one part of the key.

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2NF FORM NORMALIZATION-EXAMPLE

INF : itemorder (Order no,Item code, Order date,Qty,Price/unit)

Composite key

Order date
Dependency diagram Order no

Item code Qty

Price/unit

ƒ Not in 2NF as non key attribute dependent on part of a key attribute(Price/unit dependent
on Item code)

ƒ 2NF relations are Order(order no,order date)


Prices(item code,price/unit)
Order details(order no,item code,qty)

ƒ Observe a single 1NF relation split into three 2NF relations

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2NF FORM
1 NF Orders Relation
Order No Order date Item code Qty Price/unit
1456 26021999 3687 52 50.40
1456 26021999 4627 38 60.20
1456 26021999 3214 20 17.50
1886 04031999 4629 45 20.25
1886 04031999 4627 30 60.20
1788 04041999 4627 40 60.20

2 NF Relations

ORDERS ORDER DETAILS PRICES


Order No Order date Order No Item code Qty Item code Price/unit
1456 26021999 1456 3687 52 3687 50.40
1886 04031999 1456 4627 38 4627 60.20
1788 04041999 1456 3214 20 3214 17.50
1886 4629 45 4629 20.25
1886 4627 30
1886 4627 40

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ADVANTAGES OF 2NF

* NON KEY ATTRIBUTES WHOLLY DEPENDENT ON KEY


ƒ Repetition of order date removed
ƒ If order 1886 for item 4629 is cancelled the price/unit is
lost in INF as the whole tuple would be deleted
ƒ In 2NF item price not lost when order 1886 for item 4629
cancelled. Only row 4 in order details deleted
ƒ Duplication of data in a relation is not there

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THIRD NORMAL FORM

ƒ Relation in 2NF
ƒ There is functional dependence between some Non-key attributes
This needs further normalization as the non-keys being dependent
leads to unnecessary duplication of data
EXAMPLE
Student( Roll no, name, dept, year, hostelname )
- If students in a given year are all put in one hostel then year and the hostel are
functionally dependent
- Year implies hostel-hostel name unnecessarily duplicated
- If all students of the year 1 changed to another hostel many tuples need change

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NORMALIZATION TO 3NF
Student( Roll no, name, dept, year )
Hostel (year, hostel)
This is in 3NF
Example : Employee (empcode,name,salary,project no,termination
date of project)
* termination date (non-key attribute)
Dependent on project no. another non-key attribute
•Thus needs normalization
3NF relations : Employee(empcode,name,salary,projectno)
Project( Projectno ,termination date of project)

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NORMALIZATION TO 3NF

Passenger(Ticket code,Passenger name,Train no,Departure


time,Fare)
Train no. and departure time are non-key attributes and are
functionally dependent
3NF Relations :
Passenger(Ticket code ,Passenger name,Train no, Fare)
Train details (Train no., departure time)

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BOYCE-CODD NORMAL FORM

Assume
* Relation has more than 1 possible key
* Keys composite
* Composite keys have common attribute
* Non-key attributes not dependent on one another
Thus relation in 3NF, still there could be problems due to
unnecessary duplication and loss of data accidentally

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EXAMPLE
EXAMPLE
Professor (Prof code, Dept, Head of Dept, Percent time)

RELATION
Professor code Dept Head of dept Percent time
P1 Physics Ghosh 50
P1 Maths Krishnan 50
P2 Chem Rao 25
P2 Physics Ghosh 75
P3 Maths Krishnan 100
P4 Maths Krishnan 30
P4 Physics Ghosh 70
ƒ Observe two possible composite keys (Prof code, Dept) or (Prof
code,Head of Dept)

ƒ Observe Head of dept name is repeated

ƒ If professor P2 resigns the fact that Rao is Head of Chemistry is lost as lines
3 & 4 will be deleted
8.3.21 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 44 of 72
EXAMPLE (CONTD)
The dependency diagrams are:

Prof code Percent time


Dept Head of Dept

Dept Head of Dept

Head of Dept Percent time

Prof code Dept

ƒ Percent time a Prof.spends in the department is dependent on Prof code and Department

ƒ Head of Dept depends on department

8.3.22 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 45 of 72


NEED FOR BCNF

ƒ Observe the given relation is in 3NF as non key attributes are


independent of one another and wholly dependent on key
ƒ However there are problems pointed out
ƒ Problem due to the fact that there are two possible composite
keys
ƒAn attribute of one of the composite key depends on a attribute
of the other possible composite key
ƒ This leads to the problem indicated

8.3.23 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 46 of 72


NORMALIZING TO BCNF

•Identify the dependent attributes in the possible composite keys


•Remove them and create anew relation
EXAMPLE
Composite keys
1. Prof code ,Dept 2. Prof code,Head of Dept
Dependency : Dept Head of dept
New relations
Professor (Prof code, Dept, Percent time )
Department ( Dept, Head of Dept)

8.3.24 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 47 of 72


NORMALIZED BCNF RELATIONS

Professor code Dept Percent time Dept Head of Dept


Physics Ghosh
P1 Physics 50
Maths Krishnan
P1 Maths 50 Chem Rao
P2 Chem 25
P2 Physics 75
P3 Maths 100
P4 Maths 30
P4 Physics 70

ƒ Observe there is no redundancy

ƒ If P2 resigns information of Head of dept of chemistry is not lost

8.3.25 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 48 of 72


FOURTH NORMAL FORM

ƒ Needed when there are multi-valued dependencies

Example : (Vendor, Project, Item) relations


Assumptions :
-A vendor capable of supplying many items to many projects
-A project needs many items
-Project may order the same item from many vendors

Vendor Items V
Item
P
Project

Multivalued dependency

Vendor-Project-Item supply capability relation

8.3.26 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 49 of 72


FOURTH NORMAL FORM (CONTD)
Vendor code Project code Item code
VI PI I1
VI PI I2
VI P3 I1
VI P3 I2
V2 PI I2
V2 PI I3
V3 PI I1
V3 P2 I1

Problems
•Item I1 duplicated for VI and also for V3
•If VI is to supply to project P2 but the item to be supplied is not decided
there will be blank in item column
Relation in BCNF but still has above problem and need normalization to 4NF
8.3.27 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 50 of 72
NORMALIZATION TO 4NF

•Split vendor-project-item relation into two relations


•Resulting relation must have not more than one independent multivalued
dependency

RESULTING RELATIONS

Vendor Item Project Item


VI 11 P1 I1
VI 12 P1 I2
P1 I3
V2 12 P2 I1
V2 13 P3 I1
P3 I2
V3 11

OBSERVE NO UNNECESSARY DUPLICATION

8.3.28 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 51 of 72


NEED FOR 5NF

ƒIn 4NF relations vendor capability to supply items and projects


need for items are there.
ƒThey are obtained by splitting the given relation
ƒLooking at relation project-item we see that project P2 requires
item I1
ƒFrom vendor item relation we see that I1 is supplied by V1.
ƒThis would lead us to infer that(V1,P1,I1)must be a tuple in the
original relation but it is not.In other words V1 does not supply
item I1 to project P2.
ƒThis spurious tuple has occurred because vendor V1 may not be
allowed to supply item I1 to project P2
ƒSimilarly another spurious tuple is (V3,P3,I1)
ƒWe thus need a third relation which specifies the vendors who
are allowed to supply to projects

8.3.29 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 52 of 72


OBTAINING 5NF RELATIONS
ƒWe add a third relation to the two 4NF relations

ƒThis is vendor-project relation shown below


VENDOR CODE PROJECT NO
V1 P1
V1 P3
V2 P1
V3 P1
V3 P2

ƒ With this relation added we will not get the spurious tuples (V1,P2,I1),(V3,P3,I1)

ƒ The two 4NF relations together with the vendor-project relation called 5NF relations
obtained by decomposing the original vendor-project-item relation which has a BCNF
relation

8.3.30 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 53 of 72


EXAMPLES OF DATA BASE DESIGN

ORDER - VENDOR - ITEMS ORDERED EXAMPLE IN CASE


STUDY
Information on dependencies given :
•Orders for item placed with many vendors
•A given order no is only to one vendor
•Many items supplied against a given order no
•A vendor has capacity to supply many items but only some items may
be ordered Orders

Placed Placed
ER - DIAGRAM for with

Items Vendors
Supply

8.4.1 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 54 of 72


RELATIONS-UNNORMALIZED
RELATIONS-UNNORMALIZED
1. ORDERS(Order no,Order date)
2. ORDERS PLACED FOR(Order no,item code,qty ordered,delivery time allowed)
3. ORDERS PLACED WITH(order no,vendor code,item code)
4. VENDOR(Vendor code,vendor name,vendor address)
5. ITEM( item code,item name,price/unit)
6. SUPPLIES(vendor code,item code,order no,qty.supplied,date of supply)

NORMALIZATION:
Relation 1,4,5 are in 3NF and need no change
Relation 2 has a composite key,attributes of composite key not related.
Non key attributes dependent on composite key,need no change.
Relation 3: order no and item code have multivalued dependency.Relation2
already has order no,item code as composite key.Relation 3 is reduced to:

7.ORDER PLACED WITH(order no,vendor code)

8.4.2 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 55 of 72


NORMALIZATION OF SUPPLIES RELATION
Consider relation 6 :
6. SUPPLIES (vendor code, item code, order no, qty supplied, date of
supply)
•It has a composite key with three attributes
•Attributes item code and order no have multi-valued dependency as
many items can be supplied in one order
•Need normalization to 4NF
Normalized to
8. ACTUAL SUPPLIES (order no, item code, qty supplied, date of supply)
9. VENDOR CAPABILITY (vendor code, item code )
The second relation may have items not yet ordered with a vendor but which
could be supplied by vendor
The Normalized relations are : 1,2,4,5,7,8,9
8.4.3 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 56 of 72
STUDENT-TEACHER-COURSES EXAMPLE

Information on dependence
•A teacher may teach more than one course in a semester
•A teacher belongs to only one dept.
•A student may take many courses in a semester
•A course may have many sections taught by different teachers
E-R Diagram
Teacher Students
M K

Teaches Attends

N P
Courses

8.4.4 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 57 of 72


RELATION-UNNORMALIZED

1 TEACHER (Teacher code,teacher name, address, rank, dept)


2 TEACHER_COURSES (Teacher code,Course no,no of students, section no )
3 COURSE (Course no , semester taught ,Course name, credits)
4 STUDENT (Student no, student name, dept, year )
5 STUDENT COURSES (Student no, Course no, semester no )
a)Relations 1,3,4 in 3NF
b)Relations 2 and 5 have multi-attribute key which has multi-valued dependency but do not need
normalization
c)However information on which teacher teaches a given student a specified course cannot be
found from relations 1 to 5
Therefore Add relation
6 TEACHER_STUDENT (Teacher code, Student no, Course no)
THIS SET NORMALIZED

8.4.5 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 58 of 72


CONCLUSIONS

ƒ We have seen how data relevant to applications are organized


logically into set of relations

ƒ The process of normalization depends on the semantics, i.e,


meanings of data and an understanding of how various data
elements are related

ƒIt is thus a human intensive activity-it cannot be automated

8.4.6 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 59 of 72


CONCLUSIONS (CONTD)

ƒ In most problems in practice one is satisfied with 3NF.Higher


normal forms are theoretically important and in some cases
becomes essential.

ƒ There is a mathematical theory which underpins the idea of


relations and normalization giving it a sound basis. We have not
discussed it in this module.

ƒ A full fledged course in Data Base will describe in detail the


mathematical basis and methods of querying a database

8.4.7 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 60 of 72


PROBLEMS WITH FILE BASED SYSTEMS

If programs and files independently developed for each application in the


organization it leads to the following problems

ƒ DATA REDUNDANCY-Some data may be duplicated in many files.


e.g.: Address of customer
ƒ LACK OF DATA INTEGRITY- Duplicated data may be different in
different files (New address in one file and old address in another file)
ƒ DATA AVAILABILITY- May require search of number of files to access a
specified data
ƒ CONTROL BY MANAGEMENT-Difficult as data scattered across files.
All files should be accessed to find specified data

Aim of data base management systems is to reduce above problems

8.5.1 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 61 of 72


DATABASE AND DATABASE MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM

DATA BASE - A Collection of related data necessary to manage


an organization (Excludes transient data)
- Models data resource and is independent of
applications
DATA BASE MANAGEMENT-
- A set of procedures that manage the database and
provides access to the database in the form required by
the application program

8.5.2 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 62 of 72


DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

Application1
Database
Database Management
Application2 System
DBMS Organized collection of data
Application1 for several applications

Procedures to provide data


in the form required by
applications. Applications
need not know physical organization
of data

8.5.3 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 63 of 72


OBJECTIVES OF A DATABASE
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

ƒ Data is an organizational resource. It should be


collected, validated, protected, logically organized and
stored with controlled redundancy. This is the
organizational database
ƒ One of the main objectives of DBMS is to facilitate
sharing of a database by current and future applications
ƒ DBMS must ensure data independence for programs

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OBJECTIVES OF DBMS

ƒData independence to be provided to application programs


ƒData independence allows
-Change of database without affecting application programs
-Change of hardware or system software without affecting
application programs
-Sharing of data by different applications by providing views
appropriate for the application

8.5.5 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 65 of 72


OBJECTIVES OF DBMS

ƒ Control of Redundancy - Avoid unnecessary duplication


ƒ Relations between data items specified
ƒ Data integrity - Preserve consistency of data values
ƒ Data Security - Permit access to data to authorized users only
ƒ Performance - Provide timely information when needed
ƒ Ensure management control on addition, deletion, change and
dissemination of data

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OVERVIEW OF DBMS

ƒData needs of current and possible future applications determined


ƒUsing E-R data modelling conceptual data model found
ƒConverted to relations if Relational DBMS used
- called logical data model
ƒApplication programmers access subset of logical data model
- called external data model
•Logical model mapped to physical model for storage in disk store
- called internal model
•External data model kept invariant

8.6.1 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 67 of 72


VARIOUS TERMS USED IN DESCRIBING
DBMS

Current 1
applications 2
Conceptual logical
p model model Internal
Future q
Applications
Model

1
Application 2 External Database
programs p Model
q

8.6.2 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 68 of 72


COMPONENTS OF DBMS

ƒData Definition Languages (DDL) to define conceptual, logical


and external models
ƒData manipulation and query language called Structured Query
Language (SQL)
ƒFeatures to implement security
ƒCheckpointing and roll back recovery procedures
ƒRecord of accesses. Audit trail of changes

8.6.3 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 69 of 72


DATABASE ADMINISTRATOR

Database Administrator’s responsibilities

ƒ Controller of data recourse


ƒ Ensure integrity,security and privacy
ƒ Maintenance of data dictionary
ƒ Coordination of development and maintenance of data
base
ƒ Determining access rights

8.6.4 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 70 of 72


STEPS IN DESIGNING DATABASE

INPUTS DESIGN STEPS

Design conceptual model


E-R Diagram based on existing Of database
and potential applications
Design logical model of User
Data base Feedback
Features of DBMS to be used to improve

Design physical model of database


Data on frequency of access, volume
Additions/deletion
Evaluate performance of physical
model

Implement

8.6.5 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 71 of 72


CHARACTERSTICS OF A GOOD DATA BASE
DESIGN

ƒ Satisfy current and future needs of organization

ƒ Cater to unanticipated user requirements in the best possible way

ƒ Expandable with growth and changes in organization

ƒ Easy to change when hardware and software change

ƒ Ensure data security by allowing only authorized persons to access


and modify database

8.6.6 Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 72 of 72


MODULE 8

LOGICAL DATABASE DESIGN

Contents

1. MOTIVATION AND LEARNING GOALS

2. LEARNING UNIT 1
Entity-relationship(E-R) modelling of data elements of an
application.

3. LEARNING UNIT 2
Organization of data as relations

4. LEARNING UNIT 3
Normalization of relations

5. LEARNING UNIT 4
Creation of logical relational database

6. LEARNING UNIT 5
Objectives of database management system(DBMS)

7. LEARNING UNIT 6
Overview of DBMS

8. References
LOGICAL DATABASE DESIGN

MOTIVATION

When a DFD is developed we have knowledge of all data elements required


by an application,data dictionary lists all data elements but does not say
anything about relationships between data elements. Relationships are
needed to logically group data elements into related sets or tables.
Such an organization reduces data duplication, simplifies adding, deleting
and updating data and simplifies retrieval of desired data
Database management systems achieve the purpose of mapping the logical
database to a physical medium which is transparent to an application
program.

LEARNING GOALS

At the end of this module you will learn

1.The Entity-Relationship(ER) modelling to develop a conceptual model of


data.
2.How to organize data required in an application as relations
3.The need for normalizing relations
4.The various normal forms and their relevance
5.How to normalize relations to successive higher normal forms to form a
relational database
6.The need for an integrated database in organizations
7.The goals of Data Base Management systems (DBMS)
8.The structure and organization of DBMS.
LEARNING UNIT 1

Entity-relationship(E-R) modelling of data elements of an


application.

LOGICAL DATABASE DESIGN-INTRODUCTION

Loosely one may call organization of related data, put in a table as a


“RELATION“. Systematization by which related data are put in a table is
called “NORMALIZATION”. A method called entity-relationship analysis
facilitates creation of relations.

ENTITY-RELATIONSHIP MODEL

ENTITY: Specifies distinct real world items in an application

For example: vendor, item, student, course, teachers

RELATIONSHIP: Meaningful dependencies between entities

For example: vendor supplies items


teacher teaches courses

Relationships are underlined above

ENTITY SETS
An entity set is collection of similar entities

Examples : * Set of all vendors of an organization is a vendor set

* Set of all items in a store is an item set

Every member of an entity set is described by its attributes


ATTRIBUTES
Attributes specify properties of members of entity set & also specify
properties of relationships
Examples:
Entity : Vendor
Attributes : vendor code, vendor name, address
Relationship : supplies
Attributes : vendor code, item code,order no., qty. supplied,date of
supply,price/unit

ENTITES AND ATTRIBUTES

Example
Entity : Teacher
Attributes : Teacher code,teacher name,department,building,room no,phone
no.
Relationship : Teaches
Attributes : Teacher code,Course no,course name,semester offered, credits,
prerequisites

ENTITY-RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAM

Some entities depend on one another, for example, entity vendor and entity
items are related as vendors supply items. These relationships are described
by entity-relationship diagrams (or ER diagrams). In an ER diagram entities
are represented by rectangles and relationships by diamond shaped boxes

VENDOR ORDERS

ENTITY
SUPPLIES PLACED
WITH
RELATIONSHIP

ITEMS VENDOR
ENTITY
HOW TO IDENTIFY ENTITIES AND RELATIONSHIPS
When a word statement is used to describe applications, nouns normally are
entities and verbs relationships.

Students attend courses

Noun
Noun Verb

ENTITY RELATIONSHIP ENTITY

Teachers teach Courses

Noun Verb Noun

ENTITY RELATIONSHIP ENTITY


ENTITY-RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAMS

One entity may be related to many other entities by multiple relationships

Order no
ORDERS Order date

Order no
Order no Placed Placed Vendor code
Item code for with Item code
Qty ordered
Price/unit

RELATION CARDINALITY
Item code
Vendor code
Item name items vendors
Relation cardinality - number of relationships in which an entity can appear.
Vendor name
An entity may appear in- Only one relationship or in fixed number of address
relationships or in a variable number of relationships .
V1 i1 Vendor1 supplies items
il,i3,i5
i2
V2 i3 Vendor2 supplies items
i4 il and i2
V3 i5 Vendor3 supplies items
i4 and i5
Vendor supplies items
Observe a vendor can supply many items, and also that many vendors can
supply the same item

RELATION CARDINALITY REPRESENTATION

A vendor can
supply upto A vendor cannot supply more
M items than 6 items
N vendors can supply a
given item
vendor vendor

N N
supplies supplies
N vendors
M can supply a 6
given item
items items

vendor

2
supplies An item cannot be supplied by more than 2 vendors
A vendor cannot supply more than M items
M
items

WHY IS FINDING CARDINALITY NECESSARY

1. The identifier of the relationship will be composite if cardinality is


N:M
2. It will be single if cardinality is 1:M
3. Will be useful later in designing data base

LEARNING UNIT 2

Organization of data as relations


RELATIONS

Entity sets and relationship sets are useful in designing data bases.
Entity - relationship sets may be put as a table of values. This is called a
Relation. Relation name is entity name. A row of a relation has members of
its attributes. The column headings are the names of the attributes.

EXAMPLES OF A RELATION

VENDOR CODE VENDOR NAME ADDRESS

1456 Ram & co 112, 1st cross Bangalore-12


1685 Gopal & sons 452,4th main, Delhi-8
1284 Sivaraj brother 368 M.G Road, Pune-8
1694 Gita ltd 495 N.S.C Road,Calicut

RELATION name:Vendor(same name as entity name)


RELATION ATTRIBUTES: vendor code, vendor name, address

Row of relation is called a tuple. In a RELATION rows and columns can be


in any order. No two rows and two columns are identical.

RELATION NOTATION
Relation is an entire table

Vendor relation:

Vendor (Vendor code, Vendor name, address )

Relation Relation Relation attributes


name Identifier
WHY RELATION ?
Entity set can be easily stored as a flat file in a computer's storage
Sound theory of relations allows systematic design of relational data base,
reduces duplication of data, tries to eliminate errors in adding, deleting,
altering items in a data base and simplifies retrieval of data.

LEARNING UNIT 3

Normalization of relations

NORMALIZING RELATIONS

Normalizing is the process of restructuring relations to a form which: -


Minimizes duplication of data in a database
Operations of adding, deleting, modifying data in a database
do not lead to inconsistent data in a database
Retrieval of data simplified
WHY NORMALIZE ?
Relations are normalized to ensure that, collection of relations do not
unnecessarily hold duplicate data. It is easy to modify a data item as it gets
modified in all relations where it appears and hence no consistency is there.
When data is deleted accidentally, required data does not get deleted. It also
simplifies retrieval of required data.

HOW ARE RELATIONS NORMALIZED ?

UNNORMALIZED RELATION

Order no order date Item lines


Item code Qty Price/unit

1456 26021999 3687 52 50.40


4627 38 60.20
3214 20 17.50

1886 04031999 4629 45 20.25


1.Observe order for many items 4627 30 60.20
1788 2.Item lines has
04111999 4627 attributes40
many attributes-called composite 60.20
3.Each tuple has variable length
4.Difficult to store due to non-uniformity
5.Given item code difficult to find qty-ordered and hence called
Unnormalized relation

FIRST NORMAL FORM


Identify the composite attributes, convert the composite attributes to
individual attributes. Duplicate the common attributes as many times as lines
in composite attribute. Every attribute now describes single property and
not multiple properties, some data will be duplicated. Now this is called First
normal form (1NF) also called flat file.

FIRST NORMAL FORM – 1NF

Order No Order date Item code Qty Price/unit


1456 26021999 3687 52 50.40
1456 26021999 4627 38 60.20
1456 26021999 3214 20 17.50
1886 04031999 4629 45 20.25
1886 04031999 4627 30 60.20
1788 04111999 4627 40 60.20

HIGHER NORMAL FORMS

First normal form is first essential step in normalization. Higher


normal forms known as 2NF, 3NF, BCNF, 4NF, 5NF also exist.
Each is an improvement of the preceding one. A higher normal
form also satisfies requirements of a lower normal form

5NF

4NF
BCNF

3NF

2NF

1NF
Higher normalization steps are based on :

Detecting dependence between attributes


Identifying key attributes
Detecting multivalued dependency between attributes

FUNCTIONAL DEPENDENCY

Given X,Y as two attributes in a relation


Given X if only one value of Y corresponds to it then Y is functionally
dependent on X

X Y
e.g. Given Item code - Item name known

Therefore Item code Item name

Functional dependence may be based on a composite attribute


X,Z Y

composite attribute

Order no. ,item code --------- Qty , price


composite attribute

DEPENDENCY DIAGRAM
Student (Roll no, name, address, dept., year of study )

Name

Address
Roll no
Department

Called relation key


Year of study

Roll no determines uniquely values of all other attributes in the relation,


therefore it is called a key.

Qty.supplied
Vendor

Item code Date of supply

Price/unit

Composite key
WHY NORMALIZE RELATIONS-REVISITED
We normalize relations to ensure the following:
While operating on data base we do not lose data or introduce
inconsistencies. Insertion of new data should not force leaving blank fields
for some attributes. We do not delete vital information during update. In a
normalized relation it is possible to change the values of the attribute
without exhaustively searching all tuples of the relation.
EXAMPLE TO SHOW NEED FOR NORMALIZATION

FIRST NORMAL FORM – 1NF

Order No Order date Item code Qty Price/unit

1456 26021999 3687 52 50.40


1456 26021999 4627 38 60.20
1456 26021999 3214 20 17.50
1886 04031999 4629 45 20.25
1886 04031999 4627 30 60.20
1788 INSERTION : 04111999
Enter new item with4627
code 3945 and40price 30.5060.20
for which no
order has been placed. Inserted tuple will have no values (i.e have to be left
blank) for order no and order date

DELETION: If order no1886 is deleted the fact that item code 4629 costs
20.25 is lost

UPDATE: If price of item 4627 is changed, all instances of this item code
have to be changed by exhaustive search-errors possible

IDEAL NORMALIZATION

At the end of normalization a normalized relation

Should have no data values duplicated in rows


Every attribute in a row must have a value
Deletion of a row must not lead to accidental loss of information
Adding a row should not affect other rows
A value of an attribute in a row can be changed independent of other rows
SECOND NORMAL FORM (2NF)

A relation is in 2NF if it is in 1NF, non-key attributes are functionally


dependent on key attribute and if there is a composite key then no non-key
attribute is functionally depend on one part of the key.

2NF FORM

1 NF Orders Relation

Order No Order date Item code Qty Price/unit

1456 26021999 3687 52 50.40


1456 26021999 4627 38 60.20
1456 26021999 3214 20 17.50
1886 04031999 4629 45 20.25
1886 04031999 4627 30 60.20
1788 04041999 4627 40 60.20

2 NF Relations

ORDERS ORDER DETAILS


Order No Order date Order No Item code Qty PRICES
Item code Price/unit
1456 26021999 1456 3687 52
3687 50.40
1886 04031999 1456 4627 38
4627 60.20
1788 04041999 1456 3214 20
3214 17.50
1886 4629 45
NON KEY ATTRIBUTES WHOLLY DEPENDENT ON KEY

Repetition of order date removed.


If order 1886 for item 4629 is cancelled the price/unit is lost in INF as the
whole tuple would be deleted.
In 2NF item price not lost when order 1886 for item 4629 cancelled. Only
row 4 in order details deleted.
Duplication of data in a relation is not there.

THIRD NORMAL FORM

A Relation in 2NF may have functional dependency between some Non-key


attributes. This needs further normalization as the non-keys being dependent
leads to unnecessary duplication of data. Normalization to 3NF ensures that
there is no functional dependency between non-key attributes.

EXAMPLE
Student (Roll no, name, dept, year, hostelname )

- If students in a given year are all put in one hostel then year and the hostel
are functionally dependent
- Year implies hostel-hostel name unnecessarily duplicated
- If all students of year 1 are moved to another hostel many tuples need to be
changed.

NORMALIZATION TO 3NF

Student( Roll no, name, dept, year )


Hostel (year, hostel)
This is in 3NF

Example :1
Employee (empcode,name,salary,project no,termination date of project)
* termination date (non-key attribute)
Dependent on project no. another non-key attribute
•Thus needs normalization
3NF relations : Employee(empcode,name,salary,projectno)
Project( Projectno ,termination date of project)

Example:2
Passenger(Tick