DESIGN OF TWO WAY SLAB (with beams) BY DDM

Fig 1: Two way slab with beams.

Problem:
A two way slab floor with a total area of 7500 sq ft. is divided into 25 panels
with a panel size of 20 ft. x 15 ft.
fc′ = 3000 psi
fy = 60000 psi
Service Live Load = 120 psf
All Column = 14” x 14”
Slab Thickness = 6.5”
Storey Height = 12’
Long Beam = 14” x 28”
Short Beam = 12” x 24”
Solution:
Slab Thickness = 6.5”
DL = (6.5/12) x 150 = 81.25 psf
LL = 120 psf

Total factored load, W = 1.4 DL + 1.7 LL
= (1.4 x 81.25) + (1.7 x 120)
= 318 psf
= 0.318 ksf
2. Total Factored Static Moment in Equivalent Rigid Frame

Fig 2: Equivalent rigid frame notations.

Total factored moment, Mo=18Wl2ln2
a. For Frame A and B:
c/c distance in short direction, l2 = 15’
Clear span in long direction, ln = [20-(14/12)] = 18.83’
For frame A:
Mo.A = (1/8) x 0.318 x 15 x 18.832 = 212 kip-ft.
For frame B:
Mo.B = ½ Mo.A = ½ x 212 = 106 kip-ft.
b. For Frame C and D:
c/c distance in long direction, l2 = 20’
Clear span in short direction, ln = [15-(14/12)] = 13.83’
For frame C:
Mo.C = (1/8) x 0.318 x 20 x 13.832 = 152 kip-ft.
For frame D:
Mo.D = ½ Mo.C = ½ x 152 = 76 kip-ft.
3. Relative Stiffness, α

Relative stiffness, α=Flexural rigidity of the beamflexural rigidity of the
slab=EcbIbEcsIs=IbIs [Here, Ecb = Ecs]
The moment of inertia of a flanged beam section, Ib=kbwh312
The moment of inertia of a slab, Is=bh312
Here,
k=1+bEbw-1th4-6th+4th2+bEbw-1th31+bEbw-1th
Where,
h
t
bE
bw

= overall beam depth
= overall slab thickness
= effective width of flange
= width of web

Fig 3: Computation of α value.

a. B1-B2: Long side T beam

The effective width,
bE = bw +2(h – t)
= 14 + 2(28-6.5)
= 57”

or
or
or

bw + 2(4t)
14 + 2(4 x 6.5)
66”

Thus, bE = 57”
bEbw=5714=4.07 ;

th=6.528=0.232

k=1+4.07-10.232[4-60.232+40.2322+4.07-10.2323]1+4.07-1(0.232)=1.774
Ib=1.77414×28312=45400 in4
Is=(15×12)×6.5312=4120 in4
α=IbIs=454004120=11.02
b. B3-B4: Long side edge beam

The effective width,
bE = bw + (h – t)
= 14 + (28-6.5)
= 35.5”

or
or
or

bw + (4t)
14 + (4 x 6.5)
40”

Thus, bE = 35.5”
bEbw=35.514=2.54 ;

th=6.528=0.232

k=1+2.54-10.232[4-60.232+40.2322+2.54-10.2323]1+2.54-1(0.232)=1.484
Ib=1.48414×28312=38000 in4
Is=(7.5×12)×6.5312=2060 in4
α=IbIs=380002060=18.45
c. B5-B6: Short side T beam

The effective width,
bE = bw +2(h – t)
= 12 + 2(24-6.5)
= 47”

or
or
or

bw + 2(4t)
12 + 2(4 x 6.5)
64”

Thus, bE = 47”
bEbw=4712=3.92 ;

th=6.524=0.271

k=1+3.92-10.271[4-60.271+40.2712+3.92-10.2713]1+3.92-1(0.271)=1.762
Ib=1.76212×24312=24400 in4
Is=(20×12)×6.5312=5493 in4
α=IbIs=244005493=4.44
d. B7-B8: Short side edge beam

The effective width,
bE = bw + (h – t)
= 12 + (24-6.5)
= 29.5”

or
or
or

bw + (4t)
12 + (4 x 6.5)
38”

Thus, bE = 29.5”
bEbw=29.512=2.46 ;

th=6.524=0.271

k=1+2.46-10.271[4-60.271+40.2712+2.46-10.2713]1+2.46-1(0.271)=1.480
Ib=1.48012×24312=20500 in4
Is=(10×12)×6.5312=2746 in4
α=IbIs=205002746=7.47

Fig 4: Values of α

4. Check for Slab Thickness

αm=α1+α2+α3+α44
β=lnSn
Here, ln = Clear span long side
Sn = Clear span short side
When, 0.2 < αm ≤ 2.0
Minimum slab thickness, tmin=ln(0.8+fy200000)36+5β(αm-0.2)≥5 in
When, αm > 2.0
Minimum slab thickness, tmin=ln(0.8+fy200000)36+9β≥3.5 in
For panel 1, αm = ¼(18.75+11.02+7.47+4.44) = 10.42
For panel 2, αm = ¼(18.75+11.02+4.44+4.44) = 9.66

For panel 3, αm = ¼(11.02+11.02+7.47+4.44) = 8.49
For panel 4, αm = ¼(11.02+11.02+4.44+4.44) = 7.73
Here, for all panels, αm > 2.0
ln = 20-(14/12) = 18.83’
Sn = 15-(14/12) = 13.83’
β=lnSn=18.8313.83=1.362
tmin=ln(0.8+fy200000)36+9β=18.83(0.8+60000200000)36+9×1.362=0.429'=
5.15"<6.5"
So, given thickness of the slab =6.5’’ (ok)
5. Check for Limitation of DDM
1. There shall be a minimum of three continuous spans in each
direction.
In this problem, there are five continuous spans in each direction.
2. Panels shall be rectangular, with a ratio of longer to shorter span
center-to-center of supports within a panel not greater than 2.
Here panels are rectangular and the ratio of longer (20’) to shorter (15’)
span c/c of supports is (20/15)=1.33<2.0
3. Successive span lengths center-to-center of supports in each
direction shall not differ by more than one-third the longer span.
One-third of longer span is (1/3 x 20) =6.67’
In both directions, span lengths are equal.
4. Offset of columns by a maximum of 10 percent of the span (in
direction of offset) from either axis between centerlines of
successive columns shall be permitted.
In longitudinal direction, 10% of the longer span is (20x12) x 10% = 24”
and column width in this direction is 14”, which is less than 24”.
In transverse direction, 10% of the shorter span is (15x12) x 10% = 18”
and column width in this direction is 14”, which is less than 18”.
5. All loads shall be due to gravity only and uniformly distributed
over an entire panel. Live load shall not exceed two times dead
Service LL = 120 psf and service DL = 81.25 psf
LL/DL = (120/81.25) = 1.477<2.0
6. The relative stiffness ratio of (l12/α1) to (l22/α2) must lie between
0.2 and 5.0 where α is the ratio of the flexural stiffness of the
included beam to that of the slab.

Taking l1 and l2 in the long and short directions respectively,
Panel 1, l12α1=2020.518.75+11.02=26.87
l22α2=1520.57.47+4.44=37.78
l12α1l22α2=26.8737.78=0.738
Panel 2, l12α1=2020.518.75+11.02=26.87
l22α2=1520.54.44+4.44=50.68
l12α1l22α2=26.8750.68=0.530
Panel 3, l12α1=2020.511.02+11.02=36.30
l22α2=1520.57.47+4.44=37.78
l12α1l22α2=36.3037.78=0.961
Panel 4, l12α1=2020.511.02+11.02=36.30
l22α2=1520.54.44+4.44=50.68
l12α1l22α2=36.3050.68=0.716
All ratio of (l12/α1) to (l22/α2) lie between 0.2 and 5.0
This problem satisfies all the limitations imposed by ACI 13.6.1 for using DDM.
6. Longitudinal Distribution of Moment

Fig 5: Longitudinal Moment diagram for exterior span

Fig 6: Longitudinal moment diagram for interior span.

Fig 7: Equivalent rigid frames

Mo.A = 212 kip-ft.
Mo.B = 106 kip-ft.
Mo.C = 152 kip-ft.
Mo.D = 76 kip-ft.
From fig 5 (case 2) and fig 6,

Fig 8: Longitudinal moment distribution

7. Torsional Constant
Torsional constant, C=∑1-0.63xyx3y3
Here,
x = Smaller dimension
y = Larger dimension
Use larger value of C.

a. For long direction edge beam

C=1-0.636.535.56.53×35.53+1-0.631421.5143×21.53=2900+11600=14500
in4

C=1-0.636.521.56.53×21.53+1-0.631428143×283=1600+17500=19100 in4
Use C = 19100 in4
b. For long direction T beam

C=1-0.636.5576.53×573+1-0.631421.5143×21.53=4800+11600=16400 in4

C=21-0.636.521.56.53×21.53+1-0.631428143×283=2×1600+17500=20700
in4
Use C = 20700 in4
c. For short direction edge beam

C=1-0.636.529.56.53×29.53+1-0.631217.5123×17.53=2325+5725=8050 in4

C=1-0.636.517.56.53×17.53+1-0.631224123×243=1230+9470=10700 in4
Use C = 10700 in4
d. For short direction T beam

C=1-0.636.5476.53×473+1-0.631217.5123×17.53=3925+5725=9650 in4

C=21-0.636.517.56.53×17.53+1-0.631224123×243=2×1230+9470=11930 in4
Use C = 11930 in4
8. Transverse Distribution of Longitudinal Moment
a. Aspect Ratio (l2/l1):
For frame A and B: l2/l1 = 15/20 = 0.75
For frame C and D: l2/l1 = 20/15 = 1.33
b. Calculation of βt:
βt=C2Is

For frame A and B:
Is=(15×12)6.5312=4120
Torsional Constant, C = 10700 in4

βt=C2Is=107002×4120=1.30
For frame C and D:
Is=(20×12)6.5312=5493
Torsional Constant, C = 19100 in4
βt=C2Is=191002×5493=1.74
c. Calculation of Percentage of Moment in Column Strip:
Frame
C
Is
β t=C/2Is
α
l2/l1
α (l2/l1)

A
10700
4120
1.30
11.02
0.75
8.27

B
10700
4120
1.30
18.75
0.75
14.06

C
19100
5493
1.74
4.44
1.33
5.91

D
19100
5493
1.74
7.47
1.33
9.94

Column Strip Moment, Percent of Total Moment at Critical Section
l2/l1
0.5
1.0
2.0
Interior Negative Moment
α (l2/l1) = 0
75
75
75
α (l2/l1) ≥ 1.0
90
75
45
Exterior Negative
Moment
β t= 0
100
100
100
α (l2/l1) = 0
β t ≥ 2.5
75
75
75
α (l2/l1) ≥ 1.0
β t= 0
100
100
100
β t ≥ 2.5
90
75
45
Positive Moment
α (l2/l1) = 0
60
60
60
α (l2/l1) ≥ 1.0
90
75
45

i. Percentage of Exterior Negative Moment
Frame A
α (l2/l1)

β

t

(l2/l1)
0.5 0.75

8.27

1

0

100 100 100

1.30

90.9

2.5

90 82.5 75

Frame B
α (l2/l1)

β

(l2/l1)

t

0.5 0.75
14.06

1

0

100 100 100

1.30

90.9

2.5

90 82.5 75

Frame C
α (l2/l1)

β

(l2/l1)

t

1
0
5.91

1.74
2.5

1.33

2

100 100 100
75.7
1
75 65.1 45

Frame D
α (l2/l1)

β

(l2/l1)

t

1
0
9.94

1.74
2.5

1.33

2

100 100 100
75.7
1
75 65.1 45

ii. Percentage of Positive Moment
Frame A
(l2/l1)
α (l2/l1) =
8.27

0.5 0.75

1

90 82.5 75

Frame B
(l2/l1)

0.5 0.75

1

α (l2/l1) =
14.06

90 82.5 75

Frame C
(l2/l1)
α (l2/l1) =
5.91

1

1.33

2

75 65.1 45

Frame D
(l2/l1)
α (l2/l1) =
9.94

1

1.33

2

75 65.1 45

iii. Percentage of Interior Negative Moment

Frame A
(l2/l1)
α (l2/l1) =
8.27

0.5 0.75

1

90 82.5 75

Frame B
(l2/l1)
α (l2/l1) =
14.06

0.5 0.75

1

90 82.5 75

Frame C
(l2/l1)
α (l2/l1) =
5.91

1

1.33

2

75 65.1 45

Frame D
(l2/l1)
α (l2/l1) =
9.94

1

1.33

2

75 65.1 45

d. Transverse Distribution of Longitudinal Moment

Fig 9: Middle strip and column strip diagram for frame A & B

For frame A &B:
0.25 l1 = 0.25(20 x 12) = 60”
0.25 l2 = 0.25(15 x 12) = 45”
y = 45”
For frame A:
Column strip = 2 x 45” = 90”
Half middle strip = 2@ [(15 x 12)-90]/2 = 2@45”
For frame B:
Column strip = 45”
Half middle strip = 45”

Fig 10: Middle strip and column strip diagram for frame C & D

For frame C & D:

0.25 l1 = 0.25(15 x 12) = 45”
0.25 l2 = 0.25(20 x 12) = 60”
y = 45”
For frame C:
Column strip = 2 x 45” = 90”
Half middle strip = 2@ [(20 x 12)-90]/2 = 2@75”
For frame D:
Column strip = 45”
Half middle strip = 75”
e. Summary of Calculation
Equivalent Rigid
Frame
Total Transverse Width
(in)
Column Strip Width (in)

A

B

C

D

180

90

240

120

90

45

90

45

Half Middle Strip (in)

2@45

45

2@75

75

Torsional Constant C (in)

10700

10700

19100

19100

4120

4120

5493

5493

1.30

1.30

1.74

1.74

α

11.02

18.75

4.44

7.47

(l2/l1)

0.75

0.75

1.33

1.33

α (l2/l1)

8.27

14.06

5.91

9.94

External (-ve) Moment, %
to Column Strip

90.90

90.90

75.71

75.71

Positive Moment, % to
Column Strip

82.5

82.5

65.1

65.1

Internal (-ve) Moment, %
to Column Strip

82.5

82.5

65.1

65.1

Is (in4) in β
β

t

t

= C/2Is

9. Distribution of Factored Moment in Column Strip and Middle Strip

All the moments are divided into three parts, percentage to column strip (of
which 85% goes to the beam and 15% to the slab) and rest to the middle strip
slab.
Equivalent Rigid Frame A
Total Width = 180”

Column Strip = 90”

Middle Strip = 90”

Moments at Vertical
Section (kip.ft)

Exterior Span
-ve
+ve
-ve
Momen Momen Momen
t
t
t
-33.92 120.84 -148.4

Interior Span
-ve
+ve
-ve
Momen Momen Momen
t
t
t
-137.8
74.2
-137.8

Total Moment in
Frame A
% to Column Strip
Moment in Beam
Moment in Column
Strip Slab
Moment in Mid Strip
Slab

90.90% 82.50% 82.50% 82.50% 82.50% 82.50%
-26.2
84.7
-104.1
-96.6
52.0
-96.6
-4.7
15.0
-18.4
-17.1
9.2
-17.1
-3.1

21.1

-26.0

-24.1

13.0

-24.1

Equivalent Rigid Frame B
Total Width = 90”

Column Strip = 45”

Middle Strip = 45”

Moments at Vertical
Section (kip.ft)

Exterior Span
-ve
+ve
-ve
Momen Momen Momen
t
t
t
-16.96
60.42
-74.2

Interior Span
-ve
+ve
-ve
Momen Momen Momen
t
t
t
-68.9
37.1
-68.9

Total Moment in
Frame B
% to Column Strip
Moment in Beam
Moment in Column
Strip Slab
Moment in Mid Strip
Slab

90.90% 82.50% 82.50% 82.50% 82.50% 82.50%
-13.1
42.4
-52.0
-48.3
26.0
-48.3
-2.3
7.5
-9.2
-8.5
4.6
-8.5
-1.5

10.6

-13.0

-12.1

Equivalent Rigid Frame C

6.5

-12.1

Total Width = 240”

Column Strip = 90”

Middle Strip = 150”

Moments at Vertical
Section (kip.ft)

Exterior Span
-ve
+ve
-ve
Momen Momen Momen
t
t
t
-24.32
86.64
-106.4

Interior Span
-ve
+ve
-ve
Momen Momen Momen
t
t
t
-98.8
53.2
-98.8

Total Moment in
Frame C
% to Column Strip
Moment in Beam
Moment in Column
Strip Slab
Moment in Mid Strip
Slab

75.71% 65.10% 65.10% 65.10% 65.10% 65.10%
-15.7
47.9
-58.9
-54.7
29.4
-54.7
-2.8
8.5
-10.34
-9.7
5.2
-9.6
-5.9

30.2

-37.1

-34.5

18.6

-34.5

Equivalent Rigid Frame D
Total Width = 120”

Column Strip = 45”

Middle Strip = 75”

Moments at Vertical
Section (kip.ft)

Exterior Span
-ve
+ve
-ve
Momen Momen Momen
t
t
t
-12.16
43.32
-53.2

Interior Span
-ve
+ve
-ve
Momen Momen Momen
t
t
t
-49.4
26.6
-49.4

Total Moment in
Frame D
% to Column Strip
Moment in Beam
Moment in Column
Strip Slab
Moment in Mid Strip
Slab

75.71% 65.10% 65.10% 65.10% 65.10% 65.10%
-7.8
24.0
-29.4
-27.3
14.7
-27.3
-1.4
4.2
-5.2
-4.8
2.6
-4.8
-3.0

15.1

-18.6

-17.2

9.3

-17.2

Fig: Moment Distribution