EXPERIMENT 3: ACID AND BASE TITRATION TITLE: Acid and Base Titration OBJECTIVES: To determine the concentration of sodium

hydroxide solution through titration technique using hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid. CONCEPTS: • • • To determine the concentrations of acid and base solution through titration with standard solution. To apply the correct technique in titration. To carry out acid base titration using phenolphthalein as indicator.

INTRODUCTION: Acid base titration involves a neutralization reaction in which an acid is react wih an equivalent amount of base. For the neutralization of hydrochloric acid with sodium hydroxide: HCl + NaOH H2O + NaCl

Neutralization occurs when acid and base exists in comparable stoichiometry, for instance the amount of hydrochloric acid (mole) is equivalent with the amount of sodium hydroxide (mole). The end point of titration can be determined using indicator. MATERIALS: a) 100 ml 0.1 M HCl solution b) 100 ml 0.1 M H2SO4 solution c) 10 ml C solution containing NaOH (with pipette) d) Phenolphalein solution

METHODS: 1. 10 ml of C solution was put into volumetric flask, was diluted with distilled water to the mark and was mark troughly. The solution was transferred to a clean beaker and was labeled as C. Then a flask was rinsed with water twice. 2. The burette was clean and was rinsed with 5 Ml HCl solution (0.1 M) twice. Then 50 ml of HCl solution (0.1M) to burette using funnel. 3. The pipette was clean and was rinsed twice using C solution. 25 Ml of C solution in three Erlenmeyer flask. 2 drops of phenolphthalein was added as indicator. 4. The initial volume reading was recorded to the nearest two decimal points. The C solution was titrated with HCl from burette to a colourless solution end point. The final volume reading was recorded and was calculated the used of acid volume. 5. The titration was repeated until the different volume of acid is in the range of 0.30 for three experiments. 6. The concentration of NaOH solution (that was in flask) the concentrations of C was calculated. 7. The steps 3 to 7 was repeated by replace HCl with H2SO4. RESULTS: 1) Titration NaOH with HCl HCl + NaOH Reading Volume of HCl ( initial ) mL Volume of HCl ( final ) mL Volume ( mL) of HCl used H2O + NaCl Trial 1 00.00 46.50 46.50 Trial 2 00.00 46.90 46.90 Trial 3 00.00 45.00 45.00

The equation is: NaOH (aq) + HCl (aq) CALCULATIONS : calculation for HCl : 1 mol of HCl react with 1 mol of NaOH Concentration of NaOH : TRIAL 1 : Mol HCl react with NaOH : Mole = MV 1000 = (0.1)(46.50) 1000 Mole of HCl react = 4.65 X 10-3 mol of HCl. Mole of NaOH present (in Erlenmeyer flask) From the equation, 1 mole of HCl react with 1 mole of NaOH, So, 1 mole of HCl = 1 mole of NaOH So that, mole of NaOH present = 4.65 X 10-4 mol Molarity of NaOH, [NaOH]1 : Molarity = mole of solute . Volume of solution (L) = 4.65 X 10-3 mol 0.050 L = 9.30 X 10-2 M TRIAL 2 : Mol HCl react with NaOH : Mole = MV 1000 = (0.1)(46.90) 1000 Mole of HCl react = 4.69 X 10-3 mol of HCl. NaCl (aq) + H20 (l)

Mole of NaOH present (in Erlenmeyer flask) From the equation, 1 mole of HCl react with 1 mole of NaOH, So, 1 mole of HCl = 1 mole of NaOH So that, mole of NaOH present = 4.69 X 10-3 mol Molarity of NaOH, [NaOH]2 : Molarity = mole of solute . Volume of solution (L) = 4.69 X 10-3 mol 0.050 L = 9.38 X 10-2 M TRIAL 3 : Mol HCl react with NaOH : Mole = MV 1000 = (0.1)(45.00) 1000 Mole of HCl react = 4.50 X 10-3 mol of HCl. Mole of NaOH present (in Erlenmeyer flask) From the equation, 1 mole of HCl react with 1 mole of NaOH, So, 1 mole of HCl = 1 mole of NaOH So that, mole of NaOH present = 4.50 X 10-3 mol Molarity of NaOH, [NaOH]2 : Molarity = mole of solute . Volume of solution (L) = 4.50 X 10-3 mol 0.050 L = 9.00X 10-2 M

Average molarity = 9.30 X 10-2 M + 9.38 X 10-2 M + 9.00 X 1.0-2 M 3 = 9.23 X 10-2 M Standard deviation [NaOH] = [NaOH] – [NaOH]av x 100% [NaOH]av TRIAL 1 : Standard deviation = = TRIAL 2 : Standard deviation = = TRIAL 3 : Standard deviation = 9.00 X 10-2 M (9.23 X 10-2 M) x 100% (9.23 X 10-2 M) = -2.49% The accepted value of concentration of NaOH is 9.30 X 10-2 M because the standard deviation is the smallest value. The concentration of NaOH solution(that was in flask) and the concentration of C is calculated as: M1V1=M2V2 (M1) (0.01L)=( 9.30 x 10-2 M) (0.050L) M1 = 0.462M 9.38 X 10-2 M (9.23 X 10-2 M) x 100% (9.23 X 10-2 M) 1.63% 9.30 X 10-2 M - (9.23 X 10-2 M) x 100% (9.23 X 10-2 M) 0.76 %

Titration NaOH with H2SO4 Reading H2SO4 ( initial ) Trial 1 00.00 23.70 23.70 Trial 2 00.00 24.20 24.20 Trial 3 00.00 23.30 23.30

Volume of

mL Volume of H2SO4 ( final ) mL Volume of H2SO4 used L) (m

The equation is: 2 NaOH + H2SO4 Na2SO4 + 2 H20

(2) calculation for H2SO4 : 2 mol of NaOH react with 1 mol of H2SO4 Concentration of NaOH : TRIAL 1 : Mol HCl react with NaOH : Mole = MV 1000 = (0.1)(23.70) 1000 Mole of H2SO4 react = 2.37 X 10-3 mol of H2SO4 Mole of NaOH present (in Erlenmeyer flask) From the equation, 1 mole of H2SO4 react with 2 mole of NaOH, So, 1 mole of HCl = 2 mole of NaOH So that, mole of NaOH present = 4.74 X 10-3 mol Molarity of NaOH, [NaOH]1 : Molarity = mole of solute .

Volume of solution (L)

= 4.74 X 10-3 mol 0.050 L = 9.48X 10-2 M TRIAL 2 : Mol H2SO4 react with NaOH : Mole = MV 1000 = (0.1)(24.20) 1000 Mole of H2SO4 react = 2.42 X 10-3 mol of H2SO4. Mole of NaOH present (in Erlenmeyer flask) From the equation, 1 mole of H2SO4 react with 2 mole of NaOH, So, 1 mole of H2SO4 = 2 mole of NaOH So that, mole of NaOH present = 4.84 X 10-3 mol Molarity of NaOH, [NaOH]2 : Molarity = mole of solute .

Volume of solution (L) = 4.84X 10-3 mol 0.050 L = 9.68 X 10-2 M

TRIAL 3 :

Mol HCl react with NaOH : Mole = MV 1000 = (0.1)(23.30) 1000 Mole of H2SO4 react = 2.33 X 10-3 mol of H2SO4 Mole of NaOH present (in Erlenmeyer flask) From the equation, 1 mole of H2SO4 react with 2 mole of NaOH, So, 1 mole of HCl = 2 mole of NaOH So that, mole of NaOH present = 4.66 X 10-3 mol Molarity of NaOH, [NaOH]1 : Molarity = mole of solute .

Volume of solution (L) = 4.66 X 10-3 mol 0.050 L = 9.32 X 10-2 M

Average molarity = 9.48X 10-2M + 9.68 X 10-2 M + 9.32 X 10-2 M 3 = 9.49 x 10-2 M Standard deviation [NaOH] = [NaOH] – [NaOH]av x 100% [NaOH]av TRIAL 1 : Standard deviation = 9.48 X 10-2 M (9.49 X 10-2 M) x 100% (9.49 X 10-2 M) = -0.11%

TRIAL 2 : Standard deviation = 9.68 X 10-2 M (9.49 X 10-2 M) x 100% (9.49 X 10-2 M) = 2.00% TRIAL 3 : Standard deviation = 9.32 X 10-2 M (9.49 X 10-2 M) x 100% (9.49 X 10-2 M) = -1.79% From the calculation of the standard deviation above,there are no accepted value for concentration NaOH because of no smallest standard deviation which is approaching zero. 9.48X 10-2M. But the nearest value to the average value is The concentration of NaOH solution(that was in flask) and the concentration of C is calculated as: M1V1=M2V2 (M1) (0.01L)=( 9.48x 10-2 M) (0.050L) M1 = 0.474M

DISCUSSION:

Titration setup. The burette would normally be held by a clamp, not shown here. The pink is most likely caused by use of the phenolphthalein indicator. To determine the concentration of a particular solute in a solution, chemists often carry out a titration, which involves combining a sample of the solution with a reagent solution of known concentration, called standard solution. A titration is a procedure in which a solution of known concentration is reacted with known volume of a solution of unknown concentration in order to measure the latter’s concentration. Titrations can be conducted using acid-base, precipitation, or oxidation reactions. One of the reactants is the titrate which is added to other one, the analyte is an unknown. An acid-base titration is a method in chemistry that allows quantitative analysis of the concentration of an unknown acid or base solution. It makes use of the neutralization reaction that occurs between acids and bases, and that we know how acids and bases will react if we know their formula. From our experiment, we want to determine the concentration of sodium hydroxide solution through titration technique using hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid. For the first experiment is the neutralization of hydrochloric acid with sodium hydroxide, the equation is: HCl + NaOH H2O + NaCl

In the titration by using HCl as the acid solution and NaOH as the base solution, the concentration of solution C containing NaOH solution that we got is 9.30 X 10-2 M. This molarity was accepted because the standard deviation shows the value zero and also near to the average value. The concentration of NaOH solution (that was in flask) and the

concentration of C is calculated and the result is 0.462 M. For the second experiment is the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide, the equation of the reaction is: 2 NaOH + H2SO4 Na2SO4 + 2 H2

Besides that, in the titration by using HCl as the acid solution and NaOH as the base solution, the concentration of solution C containing NaOH solution that we got is 9.48x 10-2 M. This value is zero and near to average value. The concentration of NaOH solution (that was in the flask ) and the concentration of C using sulfuric acid we got is 0.474 M. The concentration of solution C containing NaOH should be the same either by using HCl or H2SO4 as the acid solution, but in this experiment, we got the value of concentration NaOH through the experiment by using HCl, 0.462 M and concentration of NaOH by using H2SO4 is 0.474M . To titrate an unknown with standard solution, there must be some way to determine when equivalence point of the titration has been reached. In acid-base titrations, dyes as acidbase indicators are used for this purpose. The indicator that use in this experiment is phenolphthalein is colorless in acidic solution but is pink in basic solution. If we add phenolphthalein to an unknown solution of acids, the solution will be colorless. We can then add standard base from buret until the solution barely turns from colorless to pink. This color change indicates that the cid has been neutralized and drop of base that caused the solution to become colored has no acid react with. The solution therefore becomes basic, and the dye turns pink. The color change signals the end point of the titration., which usually coincides very nearly with the equivalence point. Care must be taken choose indicators whose end points correspond to the equivalence point of the titration. Some precaution during do this experiment. First, each apparatus must be rinse with the solution that will fill into their apparatus. Besides that, we must measure the volume of the solution properly especially during make dilution solution. We must shake the shake the solution in Erlenmeyer flask during titration process. Make sure the solution from the burrete flow very slowly to avoid some mistake during take the reading.

CONCLUSION: For the conclusion, in this experiment we can determine the concentration of sodium hydroxide solution through titration technique using hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid. The concentration of unknown solution C containing NaOH can be determined by using the titration of two different acids, HCl and H2SO4 where when the titration of NaOH with HCl, the concentration of solution C or NaOH is 0.462 M, and the titration of NaOH with H2SO4 is 0.474 M. From this experiment We also can apply correct technique in titration and we were carry out acid base titration using phenolphthalein as indicator that will change the colourless solution into pink color. REFERENCES: 1. Brown, Lemay, Bursten, Murphy (1977-2009) Chemistry: The Central Science Eleventh Edition. United States Of America. Pearson Educational International. 2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acid-base_titration

UNIVERSITI PENDIDIKAN SULTAN IDRIS FUNDAMENTAL CHEMISTRY (TKU 1033) EXPERIMENT 2: ACID AND BASE TITRATION NAME: NURHASNI BINTI MA’RUF MATRIC NUMBER: D20081032343 LECTURER’S NAME: PUAN FARIDAH BINTI YUSOF SESSION: 2.00 PM – 5.00 PM (MONDAY) GROUP : 2

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