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Executive Summary

Motivation in simple terms may be understood as the set of forces that cause
people to behave in certain ways. A motivated employee generally is more quality
oriented. Highly motivated worker are more productive than apathetic worker one
reason why motivation is a difficult task is that the workforce is changing.
Employees join organizations with different needs and expectations. Their values,
beliefs, background, lifestyles, perceptions and attitudes are different. Not many
organizations have understood these and not many HR experts are clear about the
ways of motivating such diverse workforce.
Now days employees have been hired, trained and remunerated they need to be
motivated for better performance. Motivation in simple terms may be understood as
the set or forces that cause people to behave certain ways. People are motivated
rewards something they can relate to and something they can believe in. Times
have changed People wants more. Motivated employees are always looking for
better ways to do a job. It is the responsibility of managers to make employees look
for better ways of doing their jobs.
Individuals differ not only in their ability to do but also in their will to do, or
motivation Managers who are successful in motivating employees are often
providing an environment in which appropriate goals are available for needs
satisfaction. Retaining and motivating workers requires special attention and the
responsibility falls squarely on the shoulders of HR as well as managers and
supervisors at all level. They have to create a work environment where people enjoy
what they do, feel like they have a purpose and have pride in the mission of the
organization. It requires more time, more skill, and managers who care about
people. It takes true leadership.
By giving employees special tasks, you make them feel more important. When your
employees feel like they are being trusted with added responsibilities, they are
motivated to work even harder so they won’t let the company down.
Motivation is essential for any company because employee is Asset of company.
Motivation is important for the growth of employees as well as growth of the
In the organizational setting the word “Motivation” is used to describe the drive that
impels an individual to work. A truly motivated person is one who “wants” to
work .Both employees and employers are interested in understanding motivation if
employees know what strengthens and what weakens their motivation, they can
often perform more effectively to find more satisfaction in their job. Employers want
to know what motivates their employees so that they can get them to work harder.
When people speak of motivation or ask about the motives of person, they are
really asking “Why” the person acts, or why the person acts the way he does .The
concept of motivation implies that people choose the path of action they follow.
When behavioral scientists use the word motivation, they think of its something
steaming from within the person technically, the term motivation has its origin in
the Latin word “mover” which means “to move”. Thus the word motivation stands
for movement. One can get a donkey to move by using a carrot or a stick; with
people one can use incentives, or threats or reprimands. However, these only have
a limited effect. These work for a while and then need to be repeated, increased or
reinforced to secure further movement.
If a manager truly understands his subordinate’s motivation, he can channel their
“inner state” towards command goals, i.e., goals, shared by both the individual and
the organization. It is a well known fact that human being have great potential but
they do not use it fully , when motivation is absent .Motivation factor are those
which make people give more than a fair day’s work and that is usually only about
sixty-five percent of a person’s capacity .Obviously , every manager should be
releasing hundred percent of an individual’s to maximize performance for achieving
organizational goals and at the same to enable the individual to develop his
potential and gain satisfaction. Thus every manager should have both interest and
concern about how to enable people to perform task willingly and to the best of
their ability.
At one time, employees were considered just another input into the production of
goods and services. What perhaps changed this way of thinking about employees
was research, referred to as the Hawthorne Studies, conducted by Elton Mayo from
1924 to 1932 (Dickson, 1973). This study found employees are not motivated solely
by money and employee behavior is linked to their attitudes (Dickson, 1973). The
Hawthorne Studies began the human relations approach to management, whereby
the needs and motivation of employees become the primary focus of managers
(Bedeian, 1993).

Motivation Theories
Understanding what motivated employees and how they were motivated was the
focus of many researchers following the publication of the Hawthorne Study results
(Terpstra, 1979). Five major approaches that have led to our understanding of
motivation are Maslow's need-hierarchy theory, Herzberg's two- factor theory,
Vroom's expectancy theory, Adams' equity theory, and Skinner's reinforcement
According to Maslow, employees have five levels of needs (Maslow, 1943):
physiological, safety, social, ego, and self- actualizing. Maslow argued that lower
level needs had to be satisfied before the next higher level need would motivate
employees. Herzberg's work categorized motivation into two factors: motivators and
hygienes (Herzberg, Mausner, & Snyderman, 1959). Motivator or intrinsic factors,
such as achievement and recognition, produce job satisfaction. Hygiene or extrinsic
factors, such as pay and job security, produce job dissatisfaction.
Vroom's theory is based on the belief that employee effort will lead to performance
and performance will lead to rewards (Vroom, 1964). Rewards may be either
positive or negative. The more positive the reward the more likely the employee will
be highly motivated. Conversely, the more negative the reward the less likely the
employee will be motivated.
Adams' theory states that employees strive for equity between themselves and
other workers. Equity is achieved when the ratio of employee outcomes over inputs
is equal to other employee outcomes over inputs (Adams, 1965).
Skinner's theory simply states those employees' behaviors that lead to positive
outcomes will be repeated and behaviors that lead to negative outcomes will not be
repeated (Skinner, 1953). Managers should positively reinforce employee behaviors
that lead to positive outcomes. Managers should negatively reinforce employee
behavior that leads to negative outcomes.

A basic principle is that the performance of an individual depends on his or her
ability backed by motivation. Stated algebraically the principle is:
Performance =f (ability × motivation)
Ability refers to the skill and competence of the person to complete a given task.
However, ability alone is not enough. The person’s desire to accomplish the task is
also necessary. Organizations become successful when employees have abilities
and desire to accomplish given task.
Motivation in simple terms may be understood as the set of forces that cause
people to behave in certain ways.

Reassess needs deficiencies
Receives either rewards or punishment
Engages in goal directed behavior

Searches for ways to satisfy needs
Identifies needs


Framework of motivation

Framework of motivation
The framework comprises six steps.
(step1) Motivation process begins with the individual’s needs. Needs are telt
deprivations which the individual experiences at a given time and act as energizers.
These needs may be psychological (e.g., the needs for recognition), physiological
(e.g., the needs for water, air or foods) or social (e.g., the needs for friendship).
(step2) Motivation is goal directed.
(step3) A goal is a specific result that the individual wants to achieve .An
employee’s goal are often driving forces and accomplishing those goals can
significantly reduce needs.
(step4) Promotions and raises are two of the ways that organizations seek to
maintain desirable behavior. They are signals to employees that their needs for
advancement and recognition and their behaviors are appropriate.
(step5) Once the employee have received either rewards or punishments.
(step6) They reassess their needs.

Some definitions on motivation:
…how behavior gets started is energized, is sustained, is directed, is stopped, and
what kind of subjective reaction is present in the organism while all this is going on’
jones, 1955).
…the term motivation refers to a process governing choices made by person or
lower organisms among alternative forms of voluntary activity”
…motivation is the result of process, internal or external to the individual that
arouse enthusiasm and persistence to pursue a certain course of action.”
…motivation is a process that starts with a physiological or psychological deficiency
or need that activates behavior or a drive that aimed at a goal or an incentive”
Obviously, the first definition covers all stages shown in the motivation model.
The Role of Motivation:
Why do we need motivated employees? The answer is survival (Smith, 1994).
Motivated employees are needed in our rapidly changing workplaces. Motivated
employees help organizations survive. Motivated employees are more productive.
To be effective, managers need to understand what motivates employees within the
context of the roles they perform. Of all the functions a manager performs,
motivating employees is arguably the most complex. This is due, in part, to the fact
that what motivates employees changes constantly (Bowen & Radhakrishna, 1991).
For example, research suggests that as employees' income increases, money
becomes less of a motivator (Kovach, 1987). Also, as employees get older,
interesting work becomes more of a motivator.

Probably, no concept of HRM receives as much attention of academicians,
researchers and practicing manager’s motivation. The increased attention towards
motivation is justified by several reasons
1. Motivated employees are always looking for better ways to do a job. This
statement can apply to corporate strategists and to production workers. It is the
responsibility of managers to make employees look for better ways of doing their

2. A motivated employee generally is more quality oriented. This is true whether we

are talking about a top manager spending extra time on data gathering and
analysis for a report or a clerk taking extra care when filing important document.

3. Highly motivated worker are more productive than apathetic worker .The high
productivity of Japanese worker and the fever worker are needed to produce an
automobile in Japan than elsewhere is well known. An appreciation of the nature of
motivation is highly useful manager.

4. Every organization requires human resources in addition to financial and physical

resources for it to function .Three behavioral dimensions of HR are significant to
organizations (i) people must be attracted not only to join the organizations but also
to remain it (ii) people must perform he tasks for which they are hired and must do
so in a dependable manner and (iii) people must go beyond this dependable role
per performance and engage in some form of creative, spontantaneous, and
innovative behavior at work.

5. Motivation as a concept represents a highly complex phenomenon that affects.

and is affected by .a multitude of factors in the organizational milieu .an
understanding of the topic of motivation is thus essential in order to comprehend
more fully the effects of variations in other reaction as they relate to the
performance, satisfaction, and so forth .
6. Why increasing attention is paid towards motivation can be found in the present
and future technology required for production, as technology increases in
complexity, machines tend to become necessary, yet insufficient, vehicles of
effective and efficient operation .Consider the example of the highly technology-
based space programmed in our country.

The polar Satellite Launch Vehicle’s (PSLV) lift-off has been the result of 12 years of
developmental work, transfer of technology to the private industry, smoothening
the manufacture of components and subsystem .complex project management, and
dedicated work by literally thousands in ISRO. Industry other national laboratories
and research institutes. With this feat, India has joined the exclusive club of half a
dozen nations that can build and, more importantly, launch its own satellites.
The secret behind the success of ISRO has been its employees who are both
capable of using and are willing to use the advanced technology to reach the goals.

The purpose of this study was to describe the importance of certain factors in
motivating employees at the Piketon Research and Extension Center and Enterprise
Center. Specifically, the study sought to describe the ranked importance of the
following ten motivating factors: (a) job security, (b) sympathetic help with personal
problems, (c) personal loyalty to employees, (d) interesting work, (e) good working
conditions, (f) tactful discipline, (g) good wages, (h) promotions and growth in the
organization, (i) feeling of being in on things, and (j) full appreciation of work done.
A secondary purpose of the study was to compare the results of this study with the
study results from other populations.

The framework of motivation indicates that motivation is a simple process. But in
, the task is more daunting
One reason why motivation is a difficult task is that the workforce is changing.
Employees join organizations with different needs and expectations. Their values,
beliefs, background, lifestyles, perceptions and attitudes are different. Not many
organizations have understood these and not many HR experts are clear about the
ways of motivating such diverse workforce.

Motivating employees is also more challenging at a time when firms have

dramatically changed the jobs that employees perform, reduced layers of hierarchy,
and jetusoned large numbers of employees in the name of right-sizing or down-
sizing .These actions have considerably damaged the level of trust and commitment
necessary for employee to put in efforts above minimum requirements some
organization have resorted to hire and fire and pay – for- performance strategies
almost giving up motivational efforts. Such strategies may have some effects (both
positive and negative) but fail to make and individual overreach him or her

Third, motives can only be inferred, but not seen. The dynamic nature of needs
offend poses challenge to any manager in motivating his or her subordinate. An
employee, at any given time, has a various needs, desire, and expectations.
Employees who put in extra hours at work to fulfill their needs or accomplishment
may find that these extra hours conflict directly with needs for affiliation and their
desire to be with their families
However, there is no shortage of models, strategies, and tactics for motivating
employees. As a result, firms constantly experiment with next motivational
programmed and practice.

Work Motivation
Craig Pinder “echoing the basic definition of motivation, define it as follows:
“Work motivation is a set of energetic force that originate both within as well as
beyond and individuals being, to initiate work – related behavior, and to determine
its form, direction, intensity, and duration.”

While general motivation is concerned with effort towards any goal, Stephen
Robbins narrow the focus to organizational goals in order to reflect singular interest
in work related behavior the effort element is a measure of intensity. The need
means some internal state that makes certain outcomes appear attractive. And
unsatisfied need creates tension that stimulates drives within the individual. This
drives general a search behavior to find particular goals, if attend, will satisfied the
needs and lead to the reduction of tension

Mechanism of motivation
Motivation is the process that starts with physiological or psychological deficiency or
need that activate behavior or a drive that is aimed at a goal or incentive.
The following diagram depicts the motivation process.

Mechanism of Motivation
Needs Drives Goal

Deprivation Deprivation Reduction

With of Drives

Thus, the key to understanding motivation lies in the meaning of, and relationship
between needs, drives and goals,

· Needs: Needs are created whenever there is a physiological or psychological

imbalance For example: A need exists when cells in the body are deprived of food
and water or when the personality is deprived of other people who serve friends or
companions. Although psychological may be based on a deficiency, sometimes they
are not. For instant, and individuals with a strong need to get ahead may have a
history of consistent success

· Drives: “Drives (Or motives) are set up to alleviate needs. Psychological needs can
be simply defined as a deficiency with direction. Physiological or psychological
drives are action – oriented and provide energizing thrust towards reaching an
incentive or goals. They are at the very heart of the motivational process. The
needs for food and water are translated into hunger and thrust drives, and the need
for friend becomes a drives affiliation. Thus, a drive is a psychological state which
moves an individuals satisfying a needs

· Goals: At the end of the motivational cycle is the goal or incentive. It is anything
that wills that will alleviate a need and reduce a drive. Thus, attaining a goal will
tend to restore physiological or psychological balance and will reduce or cut off the
drive. Eating food, drinking water and obtaining friends will tend to restore the
balance and reduce the corresponding drives food, water and friends are the
incentive are the goals in this example

Conceptual clarification: (motives, motivation and motivating)

The terms motives, motivation and motivating which are derived from the Latin
word ‘Mover’ (to move) are important concept which have distinct connotation. In
order to steer the energies of the employees towards organizational goals
accomplishment, it is essential to grasp the meaning and significance of this
concept and also to learn how to apply them intelligently

Motives: Motive is defined as a inner state that energizes, activates (Or moves) and
directs (or channels) the behavior of individuals towards certain goals the strong
motives or needs are fulfill. In order to minimize the restlessness, and keep it under
control, the individual is propelled into action. Thus motive induce individual to
channel their behavior towards such type of actions as would reduce their state of
restlessness are inner disequilibrium. Thus motives can be thought of as drives that
energize people to action.

Motivation: while motives are energizers of action, motivation is the actual action
that is work behavior itself. For instance, when a employee work hard, his level of
motivation may be consider as low. Thus, the level of motivation of employee is
judged by his actual work behavior

Motivating: Motivating it is the term that implies that one person induces another to
engage in action or work. Behavior by ensuring that a channel to direct the motive
of the individuals become available and accessible to the individual.
Managers play a significant role in channeling the strong motive in a direction that
he satisfying to both the organization and the employees. Additionally, managers
are also responsible for awakening or activating latent motives in individuals- that is
the needs that are less strong and somewhat dormant and harness them in a
manner that would be functional for the organization.

Classification of Motives:
Primary motives are unlearned and physiologically based. Common primary motives
include hunger, thirst, sleep, avoidance of pain, sex and maternal concern .The
general motives are also unlearned but are not physiologically based. Competence,
curiosity, manipulation, activity, and affection are examples of general motives.

Secondary motives are products of learning. The needs for power, achievement,
affiliation, security and status are major motivating forces in human behavior at
work. Behavioral science especially industrial.

Psychology motives is concerned with understanding an individual’s through his

motives .It studies the individual’s socio-psychological motives at great length in
order to be successful in understanding why man behaves the way he does.

Socio-psychological motives are neither inborn to him nor are they related directly
to his survival .These motives originate from the training which he acquires from
different social organizations to which he belongs. Socio-psychological motives,
unlike physiological motives, are largely vary from culture to culture .They may be
divided into affiliative and egoistic motives. Affiliative motives deal with
belongingness, friendship or affection with people. Egoistic motives relate to a
position over people rather than with people. Power, status, prestige or esteem fall
under egoistic motives. Socio-psychological motives include acquisitiveness,
security, status, autonomy, affiliation, achievement, dependence, aggression, power
and nurturance.

The complexity of motivation:

Human motivation is highly complex. Human behavior is multi-motivational. Several
motives are simultaneously at work when the individual behaves; and several times
the individual himself is unaware of his motives. Therefore, motivational analysis if
behavior is difficult. Another fact is that the same motive may give rise to various
motives may lead to the same type of behavior in different individuals.
Thus, there can be several other ways of behaving to achieve these one and all
these different forms of behavior may lead to the same amount of success by
achieving the same end. The converse is also true. Different motives may
sometimes result in one form of behavior. To complicate matters further, people
often do things without being aware of the basic motive or motives involved. Giving
‘good’ reasons rather than ‘real’ reasons for behavior is known as rationalization Ex.
Sublimation, projection, identification, and compensation are a few forms of
behavior in which the real motive is unknown to the individual.
Whether motives are consciously present or are unconscious, many of them act
upon the individual simultaneously .As a result, the individual may face conflict
some of the time .An employee who wants to tell the boss off but also wants to keep
his job is in conflict. An employer who must decide whether to sell an oversupply of
a commodity at a loss or hold it a little long, is likewise in conflict.

There are various difficulties in inferring motives from behavior as we have seen
thus far:
· Similar motives may be manifested through different behaviors
· Different motives may be expressed through similar behavior
· Motives may appear in disguised form
· Any single act of behavior may express several motives
· Expression of motives differ from culture to culture and from person to person
within a culture
· Motives vary in strength not only from one individual to another but within the
same individual at different times.
Since it is difficult to know all there is to be known about the various motives that
operate both within the individual and from outside, it is difficult to predict behavior

Motivation and Behavior:

Systematic understanding of human behavior essentially involves the ability to
determine the ‘why’ of past behavior but also to predict, to change, and even to
control as far as possible future behavior.
Behavior is basically goal-oriented .that means the behavior of an individual is
generally motivated by a desire to attain some goal. The specific goal is not always
consciously known by the individual .Sometimes an individual may wonder, “Why
did I do that?” or “Why did I fail to do that?” the reason for behavior is not always
apparent to the conscious mind .individuals are not always aware of everything they
want .

The basic unit of behavior is an ‘activity’. In fact, all behavior is a series of

activities .individual have preference for certain activities, they change activities,
and they change activities accordingly. It is important for a manager to understand,
predict, and even control the activities that an individual may perform at a given
moment. To predict the behavior, manager must know which motives or needs of
people evoke a certain action at a particular time.

· Motives: Every individual carries a set of inner motivations and drives that
influence the way he behaves much more radically than he realizes .Individuals
differ not only in their ability to do but also in their will to do, or motivation. Motives
are sometimes defined as needs, wants, drives, or impulses within the individual
.Motives are the ‘why’s of behavior .they arouse and maintain activity and
determine a general direction of the behavior of an individual. In essence, motives
or needs are the mainsprings of action. When we use these two terms
interchangeably- motives and needs-we refer something within an individual that
prompts that person to action.

· Goals: Goals are outside an individual .Goals are something referred to as ‘hoped
for’ rewards towards which motives are directed Psychologists use the term
‘incentives’ for these goals. Incentives include tangible financial rewards such as
increased pay and also the ↓managers who are successful in motivating employees
are often providing an environment in which appropriate goals are available for
needs satisfaction.



· Motive Strength: We have seen that motives or needs are the reason underlying
behavior. Every individual has several needs. All these needs compete for their
behavior. These needs have different strengths. The need with the greatest
strength at a particular moment leads to activities.

Motive strength

Motive B is the highest strength need and therefore .it is this need that determines
Satisfied needs decrease in strength and normally do not motivated individuals to
seek goals to satisfy them.

· Changes in motive strength: A motive tends to decrease in strength if it is either

satisfied or blocked from satisfaction.

Blocking need Satisfaction:

The satisfaction of a need may be blocked .While a reduction in need strength

sometimes follows; it does not always occur initially, there may be tendency for the
person to engage in “coping behavior”. This is an attempt to overcome the obstacle
by trial-and-error problem solving .The person may try a variety of behavior to find
out one that will accomplish the goal or will reduce tension created by blockage, as
shown in the following figure.

Attempted Behavior 2
Coping behavior when blockage occurs in attempting to accomplish a particular

Initially ,this coping behavior may be quite rational .Perhaps the individual may
make some attempts in direction 1 before going to 2.and same in the direction 2
before moving in direction 3, where some degree of success and goal attainment is
finally perceived .


Organizational behavior modification (OB Mod) is yet another technique of

influencing behavior of people in organizations. OB Mod is uses the reinforcement
principle of B.F .Skinner to provide managers with powerful and proven means for
changing employee behavior.

The steps in OB Mod are given below:

Identification of Critical Behavior: The first step is to identify the critical behaviors
that make a significant impact on the employee’s job performance these are those
5 to10 percent of the behaviors that may account for up 70 to 80 percent of each
employee’s performance.

Measurement of the behaviors: After the behaviors have been identified, they are
measured. A baseline frequency is obtained by determining the number of
determining the number of times that the identified behavior occurs under present
conditions .The purpose of the baseline measurement is to provide objective –
frequency data on critical behavior.

Identify Performance
Related Behavior Events
Measure Baseline the
Frequency of Response
Identify Existing Behavioral Contingencies
Through Functional Analysis
Develop Intervention Strategy
Apply Appropriate Strategy
Measure: Chart the Frequency of
Responses after Intervention
Problem Solved?
Maintain Desirable Behavior
Evaluate for Performance Improvement
Steps in OB Mod
Functional analysis of behavior: The goal of a mod programmed is to increase the
likelihood that people will, in fact, engage in behavior which are critical to the
successful performance of their jobs. These involves analyzing (1)
The antecedent cues the factors which seem to instigate the behavior; and (2) the
consequences- the results which accrue to the person as a result of engaging in the
behavior .This process of analyzing the antecedent cues and the consequences if
behavior is referred to as functional analysis in OB Mod.

A typical functional analysis of absenteeism behavior is given in Table.

Functional analysis of absenteeism behavior
Antecedent Cues Behaviors Consequences

illness\accident Getting up late Discipline programmed

Hangover Sleeping in Verbal reprimands
Lack of transportation staying home written reprimands
-Traffic Drinking Pay docks
No day- care facilities Fishing\hunting Lay-offs
Family problems working at home Dismissals
Company policies Visiting Social consequences from coworkers
Group\person norms caring for sick child Escape from and avoidance
Of working nothing
Seniority / age
Self any consequence
Development of intervention Strategy: The term intervention refers to actions will
be taken by the manager or organization in order to increase the frequency of
desirable critical behaviors and to decrease the frequency of undesirable behaviors
this is the critical step, in the process, since it is here that the manager uses the
results of the three step to design and implement techniques, in order to change
the behavior of his\her subordinates. The emphasis here is on the identifying
rewards that can serve as positive reinforcements and establishing methods of
providing these reinforces, contingent upon subordinates engaging in the desirable
critical behaviors. Positive reinforcement is employed to increase the likelihood of a
desirable behavior. Negative reinforcement is used as possible.

Evaluation to Ensure Performance Improvement: In order to determine whether an

OB Mod programmed has achieved its desire results, it is necessary to evaluate the
effects of the programmed in a systematic and objective fashion. The results of
such evaluation can be used both to determine whether the programmed should be
continued or not, and to ‘fine tune’ the interventions to increase their value and
their ability to increase effective performances.
OB Mod in Practice

OB Mod has been used by a number of organizations to reduce costs, increase

attendance, improve productivity, improve safety, increase satisfaction, reduce
labor costs, and increase profit. The organizations which benefited include General
Electric, Standard Oil, B.f.Goodrich Chemicals, Emery Air freight, Michigan Bell, and
so on –all in the US.

Societies and behavior modification

In his novel Walden tow B. F. Skinner described an idea human community also
known as Walden tow he envisioned a return to a simple culture of towns and
villages that conducted their affairs face –to–face Skinners society rejected
punishment and coercion as ways to motivate good behavior and relied on positive
reinforcement in stead according Skinner the proper behavioral technology would
make it easy to raise citizens who were brave creative happy candid affectionate
humane and conscientious.
Several to communes have taken their inspiration from Walden Two. One each such
is Twin Oaks founded in share a common belief in co-operation, equality, and
nonviolence, as well as a common desire to construct behaviorist theories are no
longer central to the operation of Twin Oaks, the advantages of creating a positive
environment and reinforcing desirable behavior are recognized.
China appears to be using behavior modification principles on a grand scale for
population control. Chinese leaders are conceived that a rapid population growth
will obstruct economic development. Initially, couples having a third baby except as
the result of a multiple birth at the second confinement paid fines, Bearing two
babies was strengthened because by doing so, couples avoided fines- a negative
reinforcement strategy. Families that used contraction after their first child received
positive reinforcement-annual bonuses as well as housing, schooling and
employment priorities .Between the mid-1960 and the mid-1970, china halved its
birth rate. There is evidence, however, of grave abuses among them, forced
abortions and infanticides of the female offspring. Male are valued, in party,
because, in keeping with long established customs, men remain with their
immediate families after marriage, continuing to contribute financial support and
care for elderly parents.

Despite the positive result that OB has demonstrated, it has no counter adverse
criticism. Is it a technique for manipulating people? Does it because it decreases an
employee’s freedom? If so, is such an action on the part of manager unethical? And
do non-monetary reinforcement like feedback, praise, and recognition get old after
a while? Will employees begin to see these as ways for management to increase
productivity without providing commensurate increase in their pay? There is no
easy answer to questions such as these.

Goal setting is one of the most effective and widely practiced techniques of
motivation. Goals are the immediate or ultimate objectives that employees are
trying to accomplish from their work efforts in organizations. Goal setting is the
process of motivating employees by establishing performance goals. That goal
motivates any individual is an established fact. We tend to relax and siacken our
efforts if we are not clear about what we want to achieve. A student does not do
well in an examination if he or she does not keep a target in mind target may be a
first class or securing distinction. An individual may not rise in personal life if he or
she does not have clear career goals. It does not mean that performance of an
individual is nil in the absence of a goal. The technique emphasizes that with clear
goals, performance tends to increase.
Why goals motivate employees? There are at least five reasons which explain the
correlation between goals and motivation. First, they lead employees to compare
their present performance with the goal. To the extent that individuals fall short of
the goal, they feel dissatisfied and work harder to attain it –as long as they believe
that is possible for them to do so.
Second, when individuals succeed in reaching a goal, they feel competent and
successful; such feelings are desirable and can serve as a strong incentive to extra
effort. Third, the existence of a goal clarifies what level of performance is required.
Once this level is established, individual can focus on developing effective
strategies for attaining it.
Fourth, the theory calls attention to the important role of self-efficacy – individuals’
beliefs about their ability to perform at given levels. If people do not have
confidence in themselves, their effort and performance will decrease. In contrast, if
they conclude that they can reach the goal, motivation and performance will be
Finally, goal setting theory indicates that goals will guide behavior only when they
accepted by the self and by others. If others (concerned) do not accept the goals,
performance of an employee will not increase similarly, if the goal is not acceptable
to the self, its effect on the behavior of the person will be minimal.
Goals need to fulfill certain requisites if they were to impact employees,
One requirement is that goals must be specific. Specific goals lead to higher output
than do vague goals such as “Do your best”. Acceptance of the goal and
commitment towards its achievement will have effect on employee behavior and
satisfaction. Similarly, organizational support towards goal attainment supported by
individual abilities and traits leads to goal realization. As result of performance, a
person receives various intrinsic and extrinsic rewards, which in turn, influence


Abilities & Traits

Goal setting requisites

Goal setting is a very powerful technique of motivation when used correctly,

carefully monitored and actively supported by managers. Goal setting can improve
performance. However, neither goal setting not any other technique can be used to
correct every problem.


The term ‘quality of work life’ (QWL) has different connotations to different person.
For example, to a worker in an assembly line, it may just mean a fair day’s pay, safe
working conditions, and a supervisor who treats him\her with dignity. To a young
new entrant, it may mean opportunities for advancement, creative tasks and a
successful career. To academics it means the degree to which members of work
organization are able to satisfy important personal needs through their experiences
in the organization.

There are many factors which can contribute to QWL. They are:
1.Adequate and fair compensation, adequacy to the extent to which the income
from a full-time work meets the needs of the socially determined standard of living.

2.Safety and healthy working condition, including reasonable hours of work and rest
pauses, physical working conditions that ensure safety, minimize risk of illness and
occupational diseases and special measures for protection of women and children.
3.Security and growth opportunity, including factors like security of employment,
and opportunity for advancement and self-improvement.
4.Opportunity to use and develop creativity, such as work autonomy, nature of
supervision, use of multiple skills, workers’ role in the total work process and his\her
appreciation of the outcome of his\her own efforts and self-regulation.
5.Respect for the individual’s personal rights, such as application of the principles of
natural justice and equity, acceptance of the right to free speech, and right to
personal privacy in respect of the worker’s off the job behavior.
6.Work and family life, including transfers, schedule of hours of work, travel
requirement, overtime requirement, and so fourth.

It is worth noting that often the conditions that contribute to motivation [equitable
salaries financial incentives, effective employee selection, etc] will also contribute
to QWL some of these activities [like job enrichment] might contribute indirectly to
QWL by tapping the worker’s higher .order needs and motivating them. Still, other
activities may contribute directly to QWL providing for a safer workplace, less
discrimination on the job, and so forth.
The Five-Step PRIDE Model
Today’s workplace is different, diverse, and constantly changing. The typical
employer/employee relationship of old has been turned upside down. The
combination of almost limitless job opportunities and less reward for employee
loyalty has created an environment where the business needs its employees more
than the employees need the business.
Management’s new challenge is to transform a high-turnover culture to a high-
retention culture. Retaining and motivating workers requires special attention and
the responsibility falls squarely on the shoulders of HR as well as managers and
supervisors at all levels. They have to create a work environment where people
enjoy what they do, feel like they have a purpose and have pride in the mission of
the organization. It requires more time, more skill, and managers who care about
people. It takes true leadership.
Managers can improve their leadership position and motivate individuals within
their organizations by following the five-step PRIDE model:
You don’t have to be the highest paying employer to provide a positive and
attractive work environment. One of the most important factors is how employees
"feel" about the company. Motivated workers are more committed to the job and to
the customer. On the other hand, de-motivating workplaces force workers to vote
with their feet.Take for example Rodger McAlister who owns a construction
equipment dealership in Kentucky. His turnover is almost nonexistent. His
employees and service technicians share a profit-sharing plan that possibly means
$700,000 upon retirement. Every year employees celebrate their work anniversary
with a cake and receive $100.00 for each year employed. Twice a year employee’s
children receive a $50 savings bond when they bring in their "all A’s" report card. To
minimize the we-they syndrome, every Friday employees rotate jobs. The person in
the parts department becomes a service technician and visa versa. This builds a
stronger team and improves both communication and retention
Reward and recognition is not just a nice thing to do, but a critical element in the
management toolkit. People have a basic human need to feel appreciated and
recognition programs help meet that need. The second aspect of this science is
management must create consequences for the behavior important for business
success.One of the easiest and most effective recognition programs is "peer
recognition." Peer recognition allows employees to reward each other for doing a
good job. It works because employees themselves know whom works hard and
deserves recognition. Also, workers may value each other’s opinion more than their
supervisor’s. (Peer pressure) Managers can’t be everywhere all the time. Therefore,
the employees are in the best position to catch people doing the right things.


Studies show that having workers involved at all levels has a major impact on
improving morale and motivation. TD Industries in Dallas, Tex., has a unique way of
making its employees feel valued and involved. One wall in the company has the
photographs of all employees who have been with the company more than five
years. This involvement program goes beyond just photographs, slogans, posters,
and HR policies. There are no reserved parking spaces for executives. Everyone
uses the same bathrooms and the same water fountains. Everyone is an equal.
Maybe that’s why TD Industries was listed last year by Fortune magazine as one of
the Top 100 Best Companies.
Well-trained employees are more capable and willing to assume greater control and
ownership over their jobs. They need less supervision, which frees management for
other tasks. Employees are more capable of taking care of customers, which builds
stronger customer loyalty. All this leads to better management-employee
When former Intel executive David House became CEO of Bay Networks, he realized
the troubled computer manufacturer’s problems involved some basic fundamentals.
To solve the problem, he created four courses to teach the practices that he’d set in
place at Intel: Decision-Making, Straight Talk, Managing for Results, and Effective
Meetings. He personally taught the courses to Bay’s 120 highest-ranking executives
who, in turn, taught the same courses to the other 6,000 employees. His personal
example had a major impact on the entire company.Here are some tips for setting
up your own processes to help develop the potential of your employees:
Offeron-siteclasseswhere employees can learn new skills improve upon old ones.•
Challenge them with lots responsibility.•
Continuous evaluation and never ending improvement is the final step of the PRIDE
system. The primary purpose of evaluation is to measure progress and determine
what needs improving. Continuous evaluation includes, but is not limited to, the
measurement of attitudes, morale, turnover and motivation of the workforce. It
includes the identification of problem areas needing improvement and the design
and implementation of an improvement plan.Businesses continue to search for the
competitive advantage. It won’t be found with gimmicks or within the latest
management fad. The true competitive advantage is found within the hearts and
minds of motivated people proudly working together and led by people driven by a
higher purpose.

Other motivational techniques used in organizations to influence employee
performance include management by objective (MBO) flexible working hour’s two-
tier pay system flexible benefit and the like.
MBO refers to a formal set of procedures that begins with goal setting and
contributes through performance review. The key of MBO is that it is a participative
process, actively involving managers and subordinates at every organizational
level. Propounded by peter F.Drucker in 1954, MBO has motivational potentials
because the participants become ego-involved in decisions they have made. They
to accept the decisions as their own and feel personally responsible for
implementing them.
A system of flexible working hours, also called flextime, to suit the convenience of
individual employees, has often been pointed out as one of the techniques of
motivation. Various work weeks are being used, all with the aim of lengthening the
leisure between work periods. Most common are the four-day, 40-hour week with
three day off (4\3); the three-day, 36-hour week with four days off (3\4); and the
seven-day, 70-hour week with seven day off (7\7). Of these, 4\3 arrangement is
highly popular.
The benefits claim for flexitime is numerous. They include reduced absenteeism,
increased productivity, reduced overtime expense, lessening of hostility towards
management, elimination of tardiness, and reduced traffic congestion around work
In terms of motivational theories, flextime corresponds to the diverse needs of the
workforce. It appeals to an individual’s growth needs (ERG theory) or desire for
autonomy (motivation hygiene theory).
The Two-tier pay system provides for offering significantly lower wage rates to
newly hired employees than those already employed in the same job. The two-tier
pay system is seen everywhere in organizations. A junior lecturer in a university is
paid less than a senior-grade lecturer. Similarly, a worker in a factory with 15 to 20
years of experience is put on a higher scale than a beginner.
The two-tier pay system is said to place a premium on experience and loyalty. It will
reduce a new recruit to stick to the same organization.
The two-tier system corresponds to the equity theory, but in a negative way. A
junior worker perceives an inequity or an injustice when he\she is paid less than
his\her senior though; both attend to the same work. This, it is claimed, results in an
increased turnover rate among those newly hired.
Flexible benefits allow employee to pick and choose from a menu from benefit
packages that is individually tailored to his or her own needs and situations. The
idea of flexible benefit operates on the following lines. An organization sets up a
flexible spending account for each employee, usually based on some percentage of
his her salary, and then a price tag is put on each benefit. Option might include
inexpensive medical plus high deductibles; expensive medical plus low or no
deductibles; hearing, dental and eye coverage; vacation options; extended
disability; a variety of savings and pension plans; life insurance; college tuition
reimbursement plans; and extended vacation time. Employees then select benefit
options until they have spent the amount in their respective accounts.
Consistent with the expectancy theory thesis that organizational rewards should be
linked to each individual employee’s goals, flexible benefits individualize rewards by
allowing each employee to choose the compensation package that best satisfies
his\her current needs.
The two most popular and time-tested methods of employee motivation are
participative management and employee communication.

Motivation and frustration:

The basic process of motivation as defined earlier involves a smooth progression of
the need-drive-goal motivational cycle. The motivational cycle begins with a need
followed by a response directed toward a goal object, when this goal directed drive
is blocked before reaching a desired goal, frustration result. Frustration is a
common event in the daily lives of employees. The strength of frustration in a
situation is related to the magnitude of the need which is being thwarted.
In the above figure, goal-directed drive faces a barrier and frustration results due to
blocking of goal attainment. The barrier may be either overt (outward, or physical)
or covert (inward, or mental-socio-psychological).
When a person is frustrated, defense mechanisms get triggered in him.
Traditionally, psychologists like Dollard ** and others felt that frustration always
leads to the defense mechanism of aggression. On becoming frustrated, it was
thought that a person will react by physically or symbolically attacking the barrier.
More recently, aggression is considered as only one possible reaction.
Responses to frustration are now viewed as defense mechanisms falling into four
broad categories: aggression, withdrawal, fixation and compromise.
In order to analyze specific aspects of on-the –job behavioral reaction to know some
behavioral reactions to frustration that may occur in the formal organization.


(Reduction of the drive)

1. Overt
2. Covert
Defense Mechanisms
Blocking of Goal-attainment: Frustration

· Aggression :

Aggression is a reaction to a situation wherein one’s motives are blocked causing

one to turn against others or oneself in verbal, ranting attacks or physical injury.
Individual tries to injure or hurt the object, person or group that is acting as the
· Withdrawal \ Flight :

Leaving the field in which frustration, anxiety, or conflict is experienced either

physically or psychologically.

· Fixation :

Maintaining a persistent non-adjustive reaction even though all the cues indicate
the behavior is not an appropriate response to the problem. Behavior is repeated
over and without accomplishing anything for instance, unreasonable stubbornness.

· Compromise :

It usually involves substituting a new goal \ Sublimation.

· Compensation :

Individual devotes himself to a pursuit with increased vigor to make up for same
feeling of real or imagined inadequacy. In indirect compensation the individual puts
in hard efforts to make-up for a weakness in one area by becoming outstanding or
excelling in some either area.

· Conversion :

Emotional conflicts are expressed in muscular, sensory, or bodily symptoms of

disability, malfunctioning, or pain.
This is sometimes also known as introverted aggression and it is usually indicated
by depression, lack of initiative, self-accusation and low energy. Individual anger is
directed inwards. His sense of failure results in self-punishment.

· Displacement :

It is also known as transferred aggression. Basic psychological process is redirecting

pent-up emotions towards persons, ideas, or objects other than the primary source
of the emotion. This form occurs when the obstacle is unknown or when the
obstacle is known but it is unwise to show direct aggression.
When people cannot attack the cause of their frustration directly, they may look for
a scapegoat as a target for their hostility. For instance, a worker feels hurt and gets
angry when his boss insults him in front of some co-workers. However, the worker’s
future prospects in the organizations and his fate are in the hands of the boss. In
such situations.” the resentful worker may pick a quarrel with his wife, kick the cat,
beat his children.” …(poor fellows, without having done anything they have to face
the consequences of what happened in the organization !) …. “or , more
constructively, work off his feelings by chopping wood, by cursing and swearing, or
engaging in violet exercises or horseplay of an aggressive nature”. A typical
example is seen when a disgruntled employee continually picks on a week
colleague and makes him suffer for the frustration factory atmosphere.

· Fantasy :

Day dreaming or other forms of imaginative activity provide an escape from reality
and imagined satisfaction. The individual may attempt to daydream that his goals
(for instance, promotion) which are otherwise impossible to achieve in real life, have
been accomplished. The individual tries to reduce frustration by imagining the
satisfaction which he cannot otherwise attain. Temporary escape from reality by
day dreaming is apparently a universal characteristic. It serves many useful
functions because it tends to strengthen aspirations during a period when goals
might otherwise disappear. However, there is danger when the individual relies too
heavily upon fantasy and becomes inactive.

· Rationalization :

The basic psychological process involves justifying inconsistent or undesirable

behavior, Beliefs, statement, and motivations by providing acceptable explanations
for them. It simply means making excuses. An individual rationalizes when he gives
a good reason rather than a true reason for his behavior. It is interesting to observe
when an employee tries to explain why he made a mistake or why he was late to
work. The motive to avoid criticism and disapproval is quite strong in many
individuals when they rationalize and invent reasons.

· Projection :

Individual protects himself from awareness of his own undesirable traits or

unacceptable feelings by attributing them to others. Individual tends to attribute
one’s own shortcomings to others so as to cover up his own weakness. The
individual does not have to be troubled about a weakness that everyone else has; if
he can project that weakness on to other people, he does not have worry about it in
himself. So the individual projects: “it’s you, not me “ `
· Repression :

The basic psychological process involves completely excluding from consciousness

impulses, experiences and feelings which are psychologically disturbing because
they arouse a sense of guilt or shame or anxiety. Repression is a form of forgetting
an unhappy incident involving emotions and thereby avoiding all mentions or
thought of it. It involves efforts to repress threatening information and keep it in the
unconscious. The example of repression is the behavior of a subordinate who
“forgets” to tell his boss something which was embarrassing to him.

· Regression :

Regression is essentially not acting one’s own age. Individual returns to an earlier,
less mature level of adjustment and behave in childish way when exposed to
frustrating situation, for instance, individual may engage in behaviours such as
crying, weeping, sulking or throwing temper- tantrums whenever they are under
stress, annoyed or frustrated.

· Reaction formation :

Individual acts contrary to his real feelings and emphasizes it with force Thus, an
individual who has acquired a reputation as abrasive may behave cordially to
minimize his anxieties arising from past abrasive activities. Urge not acceptable to
consciousness are repressed and in their stead opposite attitudes or modes of
behavior are expressed with considerable force.
· Negativism :
Active or passive resistance operating unconsciously.
· Negative adaptation :
Accepting things as they are, making psychological adaptations unpleasant
· Identification :
Individual may react to the characteristics and achievements of another person as if
they were his own. The individual wants to become like someone else and thus,
closely associates with his attitudes and actions identification is modeling oneself
after another person imitating his or her characteristics, values, attitudes and other
allied qualities. It is not simply copying another individual. It relates to incorporation
of another individual’s thinking and behavior in one’s own thinking and behavior.
For instance the junior executives take on the vocabulary, style and mannerisms, or
even pomposity of their senior boss who may be highly successful.

· Resignation \ apathy \ Boredom :

It is a type of frustration where is one gives-up. It occurs after prolonged frustration
when individual loses hope of accomplishing his goal in a particular situation and
withdrawn from reality and the source of frustration. This phenomenon is common
characteristic of people in dull and boring of routine jobs. Resignation or apathy
essentially involves breaking psychological contact with the environment;
withholding any sense of emotional or personal involvement.

· Insulation :

The individual tries to protect himself emotionally by keeping distance from others.
He insulates himself, gets detected, uninvolved, aloof and isolated. He may appear
self-sufficient but he maintains this behaviour as a protection rather than because
he enjoy it. Individuals who learn to fear situations where they will fail or be
ridiculed are particularly apt to adjust by using the mechanism of insulation.

· Sour Grapism :

“The fox and grapes” fable is a classic example of reaction to frustration. Sour
grapism is that reaction where by highly desirable but unattainable goals or
objectives are considered undesirable. Just like the fox who convinced himself that
he never wanted the grapes at all since they were ‘sour’, the individual also tries to
deceive oneself by saying, “I never did want to have this promotion since it involved
transfer to a remote place”. Actually, just like the fox who tries in vain to reach the
bunch of grapes, this individual also tries in vain to get the promotion. The sour
grapes mechanism comes into existence when the individual wants to hide sense of

· Devaluation :
Since one of the common causes of self rejection is unfavorable social judgments.
One way to defend one’s ego against such judgments is to devalue their source.
This can be done either by minimizing the importance of judgment or by trying to
prove to oneself and others that those who made the adverse evaluation were not
competent to pass judgment or were prejudiced.

Importance of frustration in Industry:

The concept of frustration is extremely important in a work situation. Frustrated

ambitions, frustrated friendliness, and frustrated self-esteem in work situation lead
to nervous tension. The pent up continuing frustrations produce people who are
difficult to get along with, or who are centers of poor morale in industry.

However, there are some people for whom lack of frustration is the most frustration
situation of all. To them, the challenge of finding a way to deal effectively with
whatever barriers confront them as they strive for a particular goal is what provides
the “spice” to their job. They actually look forward to meeting these obstacles, and
if they did not occur they would probably find their work very drab and dull.
In this Activation theory, “Scott suggests that human organism needs stimulation
and variety in the environment; without this motivation will suffer and frustration
may result. To the extent, then, that barriers and obstacles to goals provide variety
and stimulation to the employee, they may actually tend to reduce the overall
frustration experienced.

Knowledge about theories of motivation, though useful, is not enough to motivate

employees at work situations. An HR manager must know the specific ways which
could help him\her motivate his\her motivate his\her subordinates. It goes to the
credit of HRM that it has several readymade techniques and programmed that can
be used by the manager. The more important among them, namely, rewards, job
enrichment and job rotation, behavior modification, empowerment, goal setting,
quality of work-life.


Set Goals
It’s important to help your employees set goals for themselves. These can include
both long-term and short-term goals and they can be both work-related and
personal in nature. Often, goals are set on a weekly, monthly, quarterly, or even
yearly basis. Many companies use “performance management systems,” which get
every employee on the same page, regardless of his or her position. If they
understand the relationship between their specific job and the company’s success,
they’ll often approach their work with a sense of belonging. Frequently, that sense
is all it takes to get that individual to finish a given task. And, of course, rewarding
your employees for achieving their goals goes a long way toward creating a
consistently motivated workforce.
Encourage Creative Thinking
Successful companies promote an environment in which creative thinking by the
employees is allowed, if not encouraged. If you’ve been successful in explaining
your company’s overall objectives in detail, employees will often come up with their
own creative strategies for achieving these goals. In the case of the sales force that
I help manage, I usually tell them the successful tactics that I used while making
sales but I also add that there’s no one correct way. Everyone has a unique
personality that might translate into an effective method of making sales. The
challenge of figuring out an effective method on their own can be liberating and
much more fulfilling. Plus, employees are more apt to listen to future advice if you
let them figure out that you are right on their own.
Devise a System of Teamwork and Trust
Employees are never going to produce the way you expect them to if they think you
don’t care about them. Start off by learning about your employees’ personal lives.
This will give you insights into how to deal with them in certain situations. Your
relationship with your workers should seem like one between partners as opposed
to one between employee and boss. Also, spread specific assignments around
among your workers. By giving employees special tasks, you make them feel more
important. When your employees feel like they are being trusted with added
responsibilities, they are motivated to work even harder so they won’t let the
company down.
Foster an Environment of Fun
Studies have shown that employees are more dependable and productive when
they think their workplace is a fun place to come to every day. I’ve found that one
of the most effective methods of doing this is simply engaging my sales reps in
conversations about topics that we both find interesting. It’s not necessary to talk to
them all day long, but a few minutes here and there throughout the day can work
wonders. Little talks like these allow the employee to see you as a regular person,
and when your employees like you as a person, they are more likely to listen to you
when you need them to get something done.


People join organizations expecting rewards. Firms distribute money and other
benefit in exchange for the employee’s availability, competence and behaviors.

The following diagram identifies four types of rewards: membership and seniority,
job status, competency and performance.

Membership and Seniority-based Rewards

Benefit an employee receives depends on the firm which he or she joins. An MBA
taking up a job in Wipro or Infosys gets more benefits than boy or girl who joins a
state government undertaking.

In the same firm, a senior employee receives more benefits than employee
.Advancement , pay raises, retirement benefits and perquisites depend on seniority
of an employee.

Membership& Seniority

Job Status
Organizational Rewards
Types of organizational rewards
There are advantages and limitations associated with membership and seniority
based reward .Membership based reward attract job applicants but the problem is
such reward may not directly motivate job performance .Seniority based rewards
tend to reduce turnover but may fail to motivate achievers to perform better.
Another problem with is that they discourage poor performers form leaving the film
voluntarily because al

ernative jobs are simply not available to them.

Job Status-based Rewards

Every firm rewards employees for the status of the jobs they are holding firms use
job evaluation system which helps establish differentials in status of jobs. Status
differentials are used as the basis for establishing salary / wage differentials. Jobs
that require more skill and effort, have more responsibility and have difficult
working coPayPerformancePerformanceandIntrinsic or the or a job Extrinsic the and
on and a and of and employee to to to the in and

nditions would have more value and consequently would be placed in higher pay
grades. Firms that do not use job evaluation system still reward job status based on
pay survey information about the labor market.

A supervisor will receive higher rewards than purchasing assistant as the job of the
former enjoys better status than the latter. It has more value to the organization
(calculated by job evaluation system or pay survey) and therefore employees in
that job receive more status-based rewards in the organization. High status job
holders are also rewarded with more perquisites.

One advantage of status-based pay is that it helps maintain feelings of equity. Job
evaluation system try to maintain internal equity, that is, to ensure that employees
feel their pay is fair when compared to how much other jobs in the firm are paid.
Pay survey helps maintain external equity, that is, ensure that employees feel their
pay is fair when compared to how much people I other firms are paid. Job-based
rewards also motivate employees to compete for positions higher up the
organizational hierarchy.

Job-based rewards are criticized by man. For one thing, such benefit fails to
motivate achievers to perform better. Just because an employee holds a high priced
job, he or she is rewarded better, not with standing the level of performance
attained by the individual. Further, employees tend to exaggerate their job
descriptions and job specifications to garner higher grading for their job through job
evaluation systems. Higher grades confer higher rewards on the jobs.
Competency-based Rewards

Increasingly organizations are linking rewards to competencies of employees.

Competencies are reflected through skills, knowledge and traits that lead to
desirable behaviors. Employees are expected to have several competencies and
these competencies are evaluated by observing specific behavior patterns.

Where rewards are linked to competencies what emerges is the skill-based pay. In
the skill based pay employees are paid on the basis of number of jobs they are
capable of discharging, or on the depth of their knowledge. The purpose of this
system is to motivate employees to acquire additional skills so that they become
more useful to the organization.

Competency-based rewards have merits. They have been praised for developing a
better-skilled and flexible workforce. Customer needs are met more quickly.
Employees can handle any job with felicity, product or service quality tends to
improve because employees who have work experiences in several jobs are more
likely to know where problems originate. Moreover, employees find it easier to
discover ways to improve the work process as they learn more skills and tasks in
the process. Rather than paying for jobs, skill-based pay rewards skills, underlying
the principle that employees are hired for their skills and not just to hold jobs.

Skills-based rewards, however, result in pay disparities which may demotivate

employees. They are also expensive.

Performance-based Rewards
The trend that is emerging recently is to link pay to performance rather than to
seniority or membership. Firms in N.America, Europe and Asia are paying their
employees more for performance than ever before. For instance, in a recent survey
of 210 large firms in Tokyo, Japan, 24 per cent awarded pay increases on the basis
of performance than seniority.
Performance-based rewards are many, but the most common among them are:

Organizational rewards → Profit sharing

Stock options

Team rewards → Gain sharing

Special bonuses

Individual rewards → Piece rate

Merit pay
Profit sharing is an organizational performance-based reward. In profit sharing,
Designated employees are allowed to share in the profit earned by a company.
Employees stock potion schemes (ESOPS) confer ownership of the firm on
employees. ESPOS encourage employees to buy shares of the company and
rew3ard them through divided and market appreciation of the shares.

Team rewards are common where firms rely in teams to get work done. Some
teams are rewarded with special bonuses or gifts if they collectively achieve specific
goals. A gain sharing plan is a type of team reward that motivates team members
to reduce costs and increase labor efficiency in their work process. Gain sharing
plans use a predetermined formula and calculated cost savings and pay bonus to all
team members. Typically, the company shatters the cost savings with employees.

Individual rewards are quite common in organizations. The most common is the
piece rate which links pay to the units produced by an employee. Commissions are
paid to sales people on the actual sales shown by them. Merit pay is based on the
individual’s performance. This is gradually replaced by retainable bonuses for
accomplishing specific tasks or for achieving certain goals. Although these bonuses
are often determined from team or organizational performance, they may also
result from satisfactory completion of individual goals.
Are rewards, particularly monetary rewards, reality motivators? Put in another way,
does money motivate employees? The answer is ‘yes’ and ‘no’.
Money is understood to be powerful motivator for more than one reason. In the first
place, money is fundamental for completion of task. Work, unless it is voluntary or
“play” involves a contract between two parties “guaranteed” by the payment of
money. The employee takes pay as the reward for his or her work’ and the
employer views it as the price for using the services of the employee.
Second, as a medium of exchange, money is the vehicle by which employee can
buy numerous need satisfying goods and services they desire. Third, money is one
of the hygiene factors, and improving maintenance factors is the first step in effort
directed towards motivation. Fourth, money also performs the function of a “score
card” by which employees assess the value that the organization place on their
services and by which employees can compare their “values” to others. Fifth,
reinforcement and expectancy theories attest to the value of money as a motivator.
In the former, if pay is contingent upon performance, it will encourage workers to
high levels of effort, Consistent with the expectancy theory, money will motivate to
the extent that it is seen as being able to satisfy an individual’s personal goals and
is perceived as being dependent upon performance criteria.


Consider equity of performance

Employee sets new expectations
Feedback to employee
Based on previous expectations
Pay and performance-relationship

Sixth, money acts as punctuation in one’s life. It is an attention-getting and effect-

producing mechanism Money has, therefore, tremendous importance in influencing
employee behavior. Seventh, money is easily vulnerable for manipulation. Other
factors like satisfaction, responsibility, a challenging job and the like are nebulous.
Payments and the plans with which they are linked are manipulatable. Finally,
money will be a powerful motivator for a person who is tense and anxious about
lack of money. Many worries and concerns are financially based. It is relaxing to
receive sufficient money to clear the outstanding bills and past debts which have
been causing tension.
But behavioral scientists think otherwise. They downgrade money as a motivator.
They prefer, instead, other techniques such as challenging jobs, goals, participation
in decision of behavioral scientists to money as a motivator is understandable for at
least six reasons. First, money is not important to all people. High achievers, for
example, are intrinsically motivated. Money has little impact on such people.
Second, people fail to see a direct linkage between monetary and performance. In
these days of unionization, protective legislation, seniority based promotion, and
the coast of living indexation, pay raises do not depend on performance. Third, for
money to motivate the difference in pay increase between a high performer and an
average performer must be significant. In practice it rarely is. Fourth, management
must have the discretion to reward high performers with more money. This is not
possible, thanks to strong unionization. Fifth, relationships among employees are
often ruptured because of the scramble for monetary rewards. Finally, financial
incentives discourage risk-taking propensity of people. Whenever people are
encouraged to think about what they will get for performing a task, they become
less inclined to take risk or explore possibilities.
The conclusion is that money can motivate some people under some conditions. Put
it another way money cannot motivate all people under all circumstances. Studies
too attest to the same assertion.
Motivating Employees without Money
The employees who work for your company are naturally motivated. All you need to
do is to utilize their natural ability, which you can do without spending a time. That's
right! No money. In fact, money can actually decrease an employee's motivation
and performance. The first step in utilizing your employees' natural abilities is to
eliminate your organization's negative practices that zap away their natural
motivation. The second step your organization can take is to develop true
motivators which can spark all your employees into being motivated. By decreasing
negative zapping demotivators and by adding true motivators, you will tap into your
employees' natural motivation. Your employees' natural motivation relies on the
fact that all people have human desires for affiliation, achievement, and for control
and power over their work. In addition, they have desires for ownership,
competence, recognition, and meaning in their work. The following is a list of ten
motivation zapping organizational behaviors that will demotivate your employees.
· Create an atmosphere full of company politics.
· Develop unclear expectations regarding your employees' performance.
· Create a lot of unnecessary rules for employees to follow.
· Plan unproductive meetings for employees to attend.
· Promote internal competition between employees.
· Withhold information critical for employees to perform their work.
· Provide criticism instead of constructive feedback.
· Tolerate poor performance so your high performing employees feel taken
advantage of.
· Treat employees unfairly.
· Underutilize the capability of your employees.

The following are examples of true motivators that will help your employees tap into
their natural ability to be motivated. Remember; implement these true motivators
without spending money. Instead of focusing on money, focus on how you can make
some changes within your organization.

· If your employees do routine work add some fun and variety to their routine.
· Provide employees with input and choice in how they do their work.
· Encourage responsibility and leadership opportunities within your company.
· Promote social interaction and teamwork between employees.
· Tolerate learning errors by avoiding harsh criticism.
· Promote job ownership.
· Develop goals and challenges for all employees.
· Provide lots of encouragement.
· Make appreciation part of your repertoire.
· Develop measurement that shows performance increase.
By eliminating demotivators and adding in no cost motivators you are tapping into
your employees' natural human desires to perform at their maximum level of
motivation and productivity. The following are the human desires that you are
tapping into.
· Desire for activity
· Desire for ownership
· Desire for power
· Desire for affiliation
· Desire for competence
· Desire for achievement
· Desire for recognition
· Desire for meaning
That's it! Remember; don't work to change one individual at a time. Work to change
your organization to decrease the demotivators and thereby increase your
employees’ natural ability to self motivates themselves.
Employee motivation
Principles of improving employee motivation and empowerment
Employee motivation questionnaires or surveys
Staff surveys are usually very helpful in establishing whether staff in your company
is motivated and therefore performing to best effect. Aside from the information
that questionnaires reveal, the process of involving and consulting with staff is
hugely beneficial and motivational in its own right, (see the 'Hawthorne Effect').
Whilst your survey will be unique to your company, your staff issues, your industry
and culture, some useful generic guidelines apply to most situations. Although not
exhaustive, the following ten points may help you cover the relevant subject areas
and help towards establishing facts rather than making assumptions about
motivation when designing your own questionnaires on employee motivation.

Ten tips for questionnaires on employee motivation

1. What is the 'primary aim' of your company?
Your employees may be more motivated if they understand the primary aim of your
business. Ask questions to establish how clear they are about your company's
principles, priorities and mission.
2. What obstacles stop employees performing to best effect?
Questionnaires on employee motivation should include questions about what
employees are tolerating in their work and home lives. The company can eliminate
practices that zap motivation.
3. What really motivates your staff?
It is often assumed that all people are motivated by the same things. Actually we
are motivated by a whole range of factors. Include questions to elicit what really
motivates employees, including learning about their values. Are they motivated by
financial rewards, status, praise and acknowledgment, competition, job security,
public recognition, fear, perfectionism, results...
4. Do employees feel empowered?
Do your employees feel they have job descriptions that give them some autonomy
and allow them to find their own solutions or are they given a list of tasks to
perform and simply told what to do?
5. Are there any recent changes in the company that might have affected
If your company has made redundancies, imposed a recruitment freeze or lost a
number of key people this will have an effect on motivation. Collect information
from employees about their fears, thoughts and concerns relating to these events.
Even if they are unfounded, treat them with respect and honesty.
6. What are the patterns of motivation in your company?
Who is most motivated and why? What lessons can you learn from patches of high
and low motivation in your company?
7. Are employee goals and company goals aligned?
First, the company needs to establish how it wants individuals to spend their time
based on what is most valuable. Secondly this needs to be compared with how
individuals actually spend their time. You may find employees are highly motivated
but about the "wrong" priorities.
8. How do employees feel about the company?
Do they feel safe, loyal, valued and taken care of? Or do they feel taken advantage
of, dispensable and invisible? Ask them what would improve their loyalty and
9. How involved are employees in company development?
Do they feel listened to and heard? Are they consulted? And, if they are consulted,
are their opinions taken seriously? Are there regular opportunities for them to give
10. Is the company's internal image consistent with its external one?
Your company may present itself to the world as the 'caring airline', 'the forward
thinking technology company' or the 'family hotel chain'. Your employees would
have been influenced, and their expectations set, to this image when they joined
your company. If you do not mirror this image within your company in the way you
treat employees you may notice motivation problems. Find out what the disparity is
between the employees image of the company from the outside and from the
Empowerment is one of concepts discussed much in HRM. Empowerment is what
young job aspirants are looking for in organizations. More than monetary rewards, it
is the feeling that employee ‘owns’ the job that motivates him or her nowadays.
Empowerment may be understood as ‘’a process of enhancing feelings of self
.efficacy among organizational members through the identification of conditions
that foster powerlessness and through their removal by both formal organizational
practices and informal techniques of providing efficacy information “Empower
employees are energetic and passionate. They aspire to do better job because they
get personally rewarded for doing job.

Empowerment consist five stages. The first stage involves identifying .The
conditions existing in the organizations that lead to feelings of powerlessness on the
part of organizational members. These conditions manifest through poor
communication, centralized resources, and authoritarian styles of leadership, low
incentive value rewards, low task variety and unrealistic performance goals.
Diagnosis being completed as suggested above, the next stage is to introduce
empowerment strategies and techniques. Use of participative management
implementing merit-Pay systems and job enrichment are example of possible
empowerment practices.

The use of the programmes (stated above) is designed to accomplish two objectives
in the third stage. One is simply to remove the conditions identified in the first stage
as contributing to powerlessness. The second, and more important, is to provide
self-efficacy information to subordinate. Self-efficacy describes a belief in one’s
effectiveness. Individuals high in self-efficacy information to subordinates. Self-
efficacy describes a belief in one’s effectiveness. Individuals high in self-efficacy
tend to be confident and self-assured and feel they are likely to be successful in
whatever Endeavour’s they undertake.

Receiving such information result in feeling of empowerment in the fourth stage

.This is because increasing self-efficacy straightens effort –performance
expectancies. Finally, the enhanced empowerment feelings from stage four are
translated into performance in the fifth and final stage. These behavioral
consequences of empowerment include increased activity directed towards task

Identifying conditions of
Of powerlessness

Implement empowerment strategies techniques

Remove condition of powerlessness provide self-efficacy information

Feeling of empowerment generated

Empowerment result in performance

Empowerment is facilitated by a combination of factors including values, leadership,

job structure and reward systems.
Empowerment occurs when power of decision –making and authority to share
resources go to employees who then experiences a sense of ownership and control
over jobs. Empowered employees know that know that their jobs belong to them.
Given a say on how things are done, employees feel more responsible. When they
feel responsible, they show more initiative in their work, get more done and enjoy
the work more.
Empowerment demands team formation. Teams, thus formed, are called self-
directed or simply empowered teams. Wipro Corporation has nearly 30 such teams
and Titan, ABB, Tata information Systems too have their own empowered teams.
The 60,000 tones per annum polyester filament yarn plant of Reliance at Hazira
went on stream within 14 months mainly because its technical teams were
empowered to make critical decisions at the worksite.
Information sharing is another building block of empowerment. Employees need to
be informed about the business and demonstrate how their work fits in. One of the
most important measures of job satisfaction is whether employees find meaning in
their work-if they know what they are working towards and understand how their
work affects other employees and the organization as a whole.

The following tips may be useful in empowering employees:

1.Delegate responsibility and along with it authority. role with that of ‘partner’ role.
2.Have tolerance for mistakes committed by subordinates. Demonstrate this
tolerance through deeds and words.
3.Share information with subordinates. Empowered employees need sufficient
information to get full perspective.
4.Allow teams to form. Teams are the best vehicles to empowerment.
5.Performance feedback is always important. It is particularly important for newly
empowered employees. Feedback enhances learning and can provide needed
assurance that the job is being mastered.

Empowerment needs to be implemented with caution. Where employees suffer from

inflated egos and are highly self-centered, empowerment does not work. Many
employees entertain the feeling that they are subjected to be led and not to led.
Empowerment has no appeal to such subordinates. When employees look for
secured but not challenging jobs, empowerment sounds hollow.
Employee motivation principles - a short case study - sound familiar?
When Michael started his own consultancy he employed top people; people he'd
worked with in the past who had shown commitment, flair and loyalty and who
seemed to share his values. But a few months down the line one of his team
members started to struggle. Jo was putting in the hours but without enthusiasm.
Her confidence was dropping; she was unfocused and not bringing in enough new
Michael explained to Jo the seriousness of the situation. Without new business he
would lose the company and that would mean her job. He showed her the books to
illustrate his point. He again ran through her job description and the procedures she
was expected to follow. He told her that he was sure she was up to the job but he
really needed her to bring in the new business or they would all be out on their ear.
Jo told Michael that she understood. She was doing her best but she'd try harder.
But a month later nothing had changed. After an initial burst of energy, Jo was back
to her old ways.
No matter how experienced a leader you are, chances are at times you have
struggled to motivate certain individuals. You've tried every trick in the book.
You've sat down one-to-one with the individual concerned and explained the
situation. You've outlined the big vision again in the hope of inspiring them. You've
given them the bottom line: "Either you pull your finger out or your job is on the
line". You've dangled a carrot in front of them: "If you make your targets you'll get a
great bonus". And sometimes it works. But not every time. And there have been
casualties. Ultimately if someone can't get the job done they have to go.
The granddaddy of motivation theory, Frederick Herzberg, called traditional
motivation strategies 'KITA' (something similar to Kick In The Pants). He used the
analogy of a dog. When the master wants his dog to move he either gives it a
nudge from behind, in which case the dog moves because it doesn't have much
choice, or he offers it a treat as an inducement, in which case it is not so much
motivated by wanting to move as by wanting choc drops! KITA does the job (though
arguably not sustainable) but it's hard work. It means every time you want the dog
to move you have to kick it (metaphorically).
Wouldn't it be better if the dog wanted to move by itself?
Transferring this principle back in to the workplace, most motivation strategies are
'push' or 'pull' based. They are about keeping people moving either with a kick from
behind (threats, fear, tough targets, complicated systems to check people follow a
procedure) or by offering choc drops (bonuses, grand presentations of the vision,
conferences, campaigns, initiatives, etc).

10 management motivation examples to illustrate that there are better ways to

motivate employees
Blaire Palmer's experience has enabled her to work with a wide range of individuals
and groups from a variety of backgrounds. Some of these people are highly
motivated themselves, but struggle to extend this state of mind to the people they
manage. Other people are at the receiving end of KITA motivation strategies that
(obviously) aren't working on them. These people know they 'should' be more
engaged with their work. Sometimes they fake it for a few months but it's not
sustainable. In this paper Blaire identifies some common assumptions about
motivation and presents some new paradigms that can help motivate more
By adding these coaching tools and motivation principles to your capabilities you
should find the job of leading those around you, and/or helping others to do the
same, more of a joyful and rewarding activity. Instead of spending all your time and
energy pushing and cajoling (in the belief that your people's motivation must come
from you) you will be able to focus on leading your team, and enabling them to
achieve their full potential - themselves.
Ultimately, motivation must come from within each person. No leader is ever the
single and continuing source of motivation for a person. While the leader's
encouragement, support, inspiration, and example will at times motivate followers,
the leader's greatest role in motivating is to recognize people for who they are, and
to help them find their own way forward by making best use of their own strengths
and abilities. In this way, achievement, development, and recognition will all come
quite naturally to the person, and it is these things which are the true fuels of
personal motivation.
By necessity these case studies initially include some negative references and
examples, which I would urge you to see for what they are. How not to do things,
and negative references, don't normally represent a great platform for learning and
In life it's so important always to try to accentuate the positive - to encourage
positive visualisation - so, see the negatives for what they are; silly daft old ways
that fail, and focus on the the positives in each of these examples. There are very
Motivation example 1 - 'everyone is like me'
One of the most common assumptions we make is that the individuals who work for
us are motivated by the same factors as us. Perhaps you are motivated by loyalty to
the company, enjoying a challenge, proving yourself to others or making money.
One great pitfall is to try to motivate others by focusing on what motivates you.
Marie, a director in her company, was being coached. She was a perfectionist. Every
day she pushed herself to succeed and was rewarded with recognition from her
peers. But she was unable to get the same standard of work from her team
members. In the first few weeks of her coaching she would say, "If only people
realized how important it was to put in 110% and how good it felt to get the
acknowledgment, then they would start to feel more motivated".
But it wasn't working. Instead people were starting to become resentful towards
Marie's approach. Acknowledgment was a prime motivator for Marie so to help her
consider some other options, she was helped to brainstorm what else might
motivate people in their work. Marie's list grew: 'learning new skills', 'accomplishing
a goal as part of a team', 'creativity', 'achieving work-life balance', 'financial
rewards' and 'the adrenaline rush of working to tight deadlines'. Marie began to see
that perhaps her team were indeed motivated - it was simply that the team
members were motivated in a different ways to her own.
If the leader can tap into and support the team members' own motivations then the
leader begins to help people to realize their full potential.
Motivation example 2 - 'no-one is like me'
Since the 1980's, research has shown that although we know that we are motivated
by meaningful and satisfying work (which is supported by Herzberg's timeless
theory on the subject, and virtually all sensible research ever since), we assume
others are motivated mainly by financial rewards. Chip Heath, associate professor
at Stanford University carried out research that found most people believe that
others are motivated by 'extrinsic rewards', such as pay or job security, rather than
'intrinsic motivators', like a desire to learn new skills or to contribute to an
Numerous surveys show that most people are motivated by intrinsic factors, and in
this respect we are mostly all the same.
Despite this, while many leaders recognize that their own motivation is driven by
factors that have nothing to do with money, they make the mistake of assuming
that their people are somehow different, and that money is central to their
If leaders assume that their team members only care about their pay packet, or
their car, or their monthly bonus, this inevitably produces a faulty and
unsustainable motivational approach.
Leaders must recognize that people are different only in so far as the different
particular 'intrinsic' factor(s) which motivate each person, but in so far as we are all
motivated by 'intrinsic' factors, we are all the same.

Motivation example 3 - 'people don't listen to me'

When some people talk, nearly everyone listens: certain politicians, business
leaders, entertainers; people we regard as high achievers. You probably know
people a little like this too. You may not agree with what they say, but they have a
presence, a tone of voice and a confidence that is unmistakable. Fundamentally
these people are great sales-people. They can make an unmitigated disaster sound
like an unqualified victory. But do you need to be like this to motivate and lead?
Certainly not. Many people make the mistake of thinking that the only people who
can lead others to success and achieve true excellence, and are the high-profile,
charismatic, 'alpha-male/female' types. This is not true.
James was a relatively successful salesman but he was never at the top of his
team's league table. In coaching sessions he would wonder whether he would ever
be as good as his more flamboyant and aggressive colleagues. James saw himself
as a sensitive person and was concerned that he was too sensitive for the job.
James was encouraged to look at how he could use his sensitivity to make more
sales and beat his teammates. He reworked his sales pitch and instead of focusing
his approach on the product, he based his initial approach on building rapport and
asking questions. He made no attempt to 'sell'. Instead he listened to the challenges
facing the people he called and asked them what kind of solution they were looking
for. When he had earned their trust and established what they needed he would
then describe his product. A character like James is also typically able to establish
highly reliable and dependable processes for self-management, and for organizing
activities and resources, all of which are attributes that are extremely useful and
valued in modern business. When he began to work according to his natural
strengths, his sales figures went through the roof.
Each of us has qualities that can be adapted to a leadership role and/or to achieve
great success. Instead of acting the way we think others expect us to, we are more
likely to get others behind us and to succeed if we tap in to our natural, authentic
style of leadership and making things happen. The leader has a responsibility to
facilitate this process.
Motivation example 4 - 'some people can't be motivated'
While it's true that not everyone has the same motivational triggers, as already
shown, the belief that some people cannot be motivated is what can lead to the
unedifying 'pep-talk and sack them' cycle favored by many X-Theory managers.
Typically managers use conventional methods to inspire their teams, reminding
them that they are 'all in this together' or that they are 'working for the greater
good' or that the management has 'complete faith in you', but when all this fails to
make an impact the manager simply sighs and hands the troublesome employee
the termination letter.
The reality is that motivating some individuals does involve an investment of time.
When his manager left the company, Bob was asked by the site director, Frank, to
take over some extra responsibility. As well as administrative work he would be
more involved in people management and report directly to Frank. Frank saw this
as a promotion for Bob and assumed that he would be flattered and take to his new
role with gusto. Instead Bob did little but complain. He felt he had too much to do,
he didn't trust the new administrator brought in to lighten his workload, and he felt
resentful that his extra responsibility hadn't come with extra pay. Frank was a good
manager and told Bob that he simply had to be a little more organized, and that he
(Frank) had complete belief in Bob to be able to handle this new challenge. But Bob
remained sullen.
So Frank took a different approach: He tried to see the situation from Bob's point of
view. Bob enjoyed his social life, but was no longer able to leave the office at 5pm.
Bob was dedicated to doing a good job, but was not particularly ambitious, so
promotion meant little to him. Bob was also expected to work more closely now with
a colleague with whom he clashed. Then Frank looked at how Bob might perceive
him as his boss. He realized Bob probably thought Frank's hands-off management
style meant he didn't care. To Bob it might look as if Frank took no direct interest
except when he found fault. Finally, Frank looked at the situation Bob was in to see
if there was anything bringing out the worst in him. He realized two weeks of every
month were effectively 'down-time' for Bob, followed by two weeks where he was
overloaded with work. Having set aside his assumptions about Bob and armed with
a more complete picture from Bob's point of view, Frank arranged for the two of
them to meet to discuss a way forward.
Now the two were able to look at the real situation, and to find a workable way
While there is no guarantee that this approach will always work, 'seeking to
understand', as Stephen Covey's 'Seven Habits of Highly Effective People' puts it, is
generally a better first step than 'seeking to be understood'.
It's easier to help someone when you see things from their point of view.
Motivation example 5 - 'but I am listening'
We are always told how valuable listening is as a leadership tool and encouraged to
do more of it. So, when we remember, we listen really hard, trying to catch every
detail of what is being said and maybe follow up with a question to show that we
caught everything. This is certainly important. Checking your email, thinking about
last night's big game and planning your weekend certainly stop you from hearing
what is being said.
But there is another important aspect to listening and that is: Listening without
Often when an employee tells us why they are lacking motivation we are busy
internally making notes about what is wrong with what they are saying. This is pre-
judging. It is not listening properly.
Really listening properly means shutting off the voice in your head that is already
planning your counter-argument, so that you can actually hear, understand and
interpret what you are being told. See the principles of empathy.
This is not to say that 'the employee is always right', but only when you can really
understand the other person's perception of the situation are you be able to help
them develop a strategy that works for them.
Listening is about understanding how the other person feels - beyond merely the
words that they say.
Motivation example 6 - 'if they leave I've failed'
What happens if, at their meeting, Bob admits to Frank that he doesn't see his
future with that company?
What if he says the main reason he is demotivated is that he isn't really suited to
the company culture, and would be happier elsewhere? Has Frank failed?
Not necessarily. It's becoming more widely accepted that the right and sustainable
approach is to help individual employees to tap in to their true motivators and
understand their core values. Katherine Benziger's methodologies are rooted in this
philosophy: Employees who 'falsify type' (i.e., behave unnaturally in order to satisfy
external rather than internal motives and drivers) are unhappy, stressed, and are
unable to sustain good performance.
Effort should be focused on helping people to align company goals with individual
aspirations. Look at Adam's Equity Theory to help understand the complexity of
personal motivation and goals alignment. Motivation and goals cannot be imposed
from outside by a boss - motivation and goals must be determined from within the
person, mindful of internal needs, and external opportunities and rewards.
Sometimes the person and the company are simply unsuited. In a different culture,
industry, role or team that individual would be energized and dedicated, whereas in
the present environment the same person doesn't fit.
Sometimes 'success' doesn't look the way we expect it to. A successful outcome for
an individual and for a company may be that a demotivated person, having
identified what sort of work and environment would suit them better, leaves to find
their ideal job elsewhere.
You succeed as a leader by helping and enabling people to reach their potential and
to achieve fulfillment. If their needs and abilities could be of far greater value
elsewhere, let them go; don't force them to stay out of loyalty. Helping them
identify and find a more fitting role elsewhere not only benefits you and them - it
also enables you to find a replacement who is really suited and dedicated to the job.
True leaders care about the other person's interests - not just your own interests
and the interests of your organization.
Motivation example 7 - 'the same factors that demotivate, motivate'
When asked what brought about lack of motivation at work, the majority of people
in research carried out by Herzberg blamed 'hygiene factors' such as working
conditions, salary and company policy. When asked what motivated them they gave
answers such as 'the sense of achievement', 'recognition', 'the opportunity to grow
and advance' and 'greater responsibility'.
Herzberg's findings about human motivation have been tested and proven time and
gain. His theory, and others like it, tells us that the factors that demotivate do not
necessarily motivate when reversed. The conventional solution to dissatisfaction
over pay levels would be to increase pay in the belief that people would then work
harder and be more motivated. However, this research shows that whilst increasing
wages, improving job security and positive working relationships have a marginal
impact, the main factors that characterized extreme satisfaction at work are:
achievement, recognition, interesting work, responsibility, advancement and
So it follows that leaders who focus on these aspects - people's true motivational
needs and values - are the true leaders.
Help people to enrich their work and you will truly motivate.
motivation example 8 - 'people will rise to tough challenges'
Many managers hope to motivate by setting their people challenging targets. They
believe that raising the bar higher and higher is what motivates.
Tracey was an effective and conscientious account manager. Her boss habitually set
her increasingly tough objectives, which Tracey generally achieved. However, in
achieving her targets last month Tracey worked several eighteen-hour days,
traveled extensively overseas, and had not had a single weekend break. Sometimes
Tracey would mention to her boss that the effort was taking its toll on her health
and happiness.
When Tracey handed in her latest monthly report, her boss said, 'You see? It's worth
all the hard work. So, don't complain about it again.'
Her boss's belief was that Tracey would get a sense of satisfaction from completing
an almost impossible workload. He was relying on her sense of duty - which she had
in bucket-loads - to get the job done.
But this is the KITA style of motivation. It doesn't really acknowledge a dedication to
the job or a sense of pride. Its leverage or 'motivation' is simply a lack of choice.
Job enlargement is different to Job enhancement. Herzberg's research shows that
improving the 'meaningfulness' of a job (see also motivation example 7) has the
motivational impact, not simply increasing the amount of pressure or volume of the
Achievement for achievement's sake is no basis for motivation - a person's quality
of life must benefit too.
Motivation example 9 - 'I tried it and it didn't work'
When you try new things - new motivational ideas, especially which affect
relationships and feelings - it is normal for things initially to get a little worse.
Change can be a little unsettling at first. But keep the faith.
People are naturally skeptical of unconventional motivational approaches. They may
wonder why you have suddenly taken such an interest in them. They may feel you
are giving them too much responsibility or be concerned that changes in the way
they work may lead to job losses. Herzberg's research is among other evidence, and
modern experience, that after an initial drop in performance, people quickly adjust
and respond to more progressive management and motivational attitudes.
Supporting and coaching people through this stage of early doubt is vital.
Encourage and help people to grow and develop, and performance improvement is
Motivation example 10 - 'this type of motivation takes too much time'
If you've absorbed the ideas above, you might wonder where you would find the
time to motivate people using these approaches.
It is true that this style of leadership, sustainable motivation, commitment and focus
is in the beginning more time consuming than 'KITA' methods; this is bound to be,
since KITA methods require far less thought.
Engaging fully with your staff, understanding their wants, desires and values,
getting to know them as individuals and developing strategies that achieve a
continuous release of energy is more intensive and takes time to work.
But consider the advantages. This investment of time means you will eventually
have less to do. Instead of constantly urging your people along and having to solve
all the problems yourself, you'll be the leader of a group performing at a higher
level of ability and productivity, giving you the chance to step back from fire-
fighting and to consider the bigger picture.
Herzberg was not alone in identifying that leaders need invest in the development
of their teams, and also of their own successors. See also the principles of the
Tannenbaum and Schmidt Continuum. Douglas McGregor's X-Y Theory is pretty
central to all this too. So is Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, from the individual growth
perspective. Hersey's and Blanchard's Situation Leadership® model also illustrates
clearly how important team development is for leaders and organizations. And see
also Bruce Tuckman's 'Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing' model. All of these
renowned theories clearly demonstrate the need for teams, and the individuals
within them, to be positively led and developed.
Your responsibility as leader is to develop your team so that it can take on more and
more of your own responsibility. A mature team should be virtually self-managing,
leaving you free to concentrate on all the job-enhancing strategic aspects that you
yourself need in order to keep motivated and developing.


Job is a significant aspect in one’s life. It is the primary institution through which the
employee satisfies his or her diverse needs. He or she earns a living from the job,
socialize in work organizations, and realizes potentialities through work. Work is
also a primary means of achieving goals-economic, social, political and cultural.
People, in general, spend a considerable amount of time working. In fact, seems to
be the only thing that people can do eight hours or more, day after day, without
much interruption. All the other activities one enjoys, such as eating, plying and
sex, no matter how much one enjoys these, are easily suitable. In our society, we
philosophy upon work and treat it as worship.

Naturally, job has become a serious subject for social scientists and practicing
managers. It has become an issue for many workers because it is losing its intrinsic
value. Some workers express dissatisfaction with their jobs, and this dissatisfaction
seems to have an adverse effect on motivation and quality of life general.

Attempts have been made to use jobs for motivating employees in organizations.
Job enrichment and rotation are but example in that direction.

Job Enrichment

First coined by Herzberg in his famous research on motivators and maintenance

factors, job enrichment has now become a popular concept.

It simply means adding a few more motivators to a job to make it more rewarding.
To be specific, a job is enriched when the nature of the job is exciting, challenging,
and creative, or it gives the job holder more decision-making, planning and
controlling powers.

According to Herzberg, an enriched job has eight characteristics. These features are
described as follows and illustrated.

1.Direct feedback: Employees should be able to get immediate knowledge of the

results they are achieving. The evaluation of performance can be built into a job (as
in an electronic spell-checker, indicating the presence or absence of errors) or
provided by supervisor.

2.Clint Relationship: An employee who serves a client or a customer directly has an

enriched job. The client can be from outside the firm (such as a mechanic dealing
with car owner) or from inside (such as a computer operator running a job for
another department).

3.New learning: An enriched job allows its incumbent to feel that he\she is growing
mentally. An assistant who clips relevant newspaper articles for his\her boss is,
doing an enriched job.

4.Scheduling Own Work: Freedom to schedule one’s own work contributes to

enrichment. Deciding when to tackle which assignment is an example of self-
scheduling. Employees who perform creative work have a greater opportunity to
schedule their assignments than employees performing routine jobs.

5.Unique Experience: An enriched job has some unique qualities or features, such
as a quality controller visiting supplier’s place.

6.Control Over Resources: One approach to job enrichment is for each employee to
have control over his\her resources and expenses. For example, he\she must have
the authority to order supplies necessary for completing his\her job.

7.Direct Communication Authority: An enriched job allows the worker to

communicate directly with people who use his\her output, such as a quality
assurance handling a customer’s complaints about the quality of the company

8.Personal Accountability: An enriched job holds the incumbent responsible for the
results. He or she receives praise for good work and blame for poor work.

Being a direct outgrowth of herzberg’s two-factor theory of motivation, job

enrichment is a valuable motivational technique. A few studies conducted in the US
demonstrated the usefulness of job enrichment as a motivator. For example, a
study of AT&T with clerical and other company employees showed a positive
improvement in job performance, and satisfaction after job enrichment.

The usefulness if job enrichment in motivating employees is well-known to

everyone, specially to people working in government establishments. A laboratory
technician in the health department of a state-government enterprise experiences
frustration after 20 years of working in the same capacity. The incumbent hardly
finds the job interesting. The only regular work the employee does on every working
day is to sign the attendance register at 10 a.m. He or she, naturally, plans to take
voluntary retirement. The frustration of such employees, whose number
unfortunately is considerable, can be enriching the jobs.

Some cautions about job Enrichment

Since job enrichment has been so well-published in recent years, as a method of
increasing worker motivation, one can easily be misled by its possibilities. Although
job enrichment can cause increased employee motivation there are some other
factors that should be considered.
1.Job Enrichment is not a substitute for good Management: Regardless of how
enriched jobs might be in an organization, if other environmental factors in the
organization are not adequate, job enrichment will have little or no effect. Job
enrichment is not a substitute for good supervisory practices, wages, and company

2.‘Enriched’ is a Relative Team: As a general rule, job enrichment proposes that jobs
with little responsibility should be improved to provide a greater responsibility for
the incumbent. However, we must remember that describing a job as one with ‘little
responsibility’ carries an implicit assumption about the person occupying that role.
While the job may appear to be boring to the observer, the person actually
performing the job may find it quite challenging.

3.Enriching Jobs may Create a ‘Snowball’ Effect: Given that organizations have a
fixed amount of authority to distribute among its member, enriching one person’s
job means taking authority away from another (most likely the manager). This not
only present system design problems (for example, rewriting job descriptions) but it
can also present a practical barrier since labour unions may resist a scheme that
eliminates jobs.

4.Job Enrichment Assumes that Workers want More Responsibility: Clearly, if we

take extreme case of a worker who is motivated by a lack of responsibility, then job
enrichment for this person would be disaster. For workers, who for a variety of
reasons, are satisfied with their current level of responsibility, job enrichment cause
more problems that it may cure.

5.Job Enrichment may have Negative Short-term Effects: For a short time after an
increase I the job responsibility, it is not unusual for organizations to experience a
drop in productivity, as workers become accustomed to the new work systems.
After this initial drop, however, many firms report an increased productivity that job
enrichment is supposed to produce. If an evaluation of a job-enrichment programme
is made too early, the management may erroneously conclude that the programme
is not working.

6.Job Enrichment is a Static Process: People become bored in their jobs because
their capacity to make decisions is not fully utilized. Even though the job is changed
to utilize this capacity, there is ample evidence to suggest that personal capacity is
a dynamic, developing attribute. It is likely, therefore, that after a period of time
(the exact amount varies from person to person) the worker will outgrow the
enriched job. If this occurs, additional enrichment will be required to fully utilize the
individual’s increased capacity. If jobs cannot be changed over time to use this
capacity, the worker could be transferred to another job which has a higher level of
work (promotion).

7.Participation can Affect the Enrichment Process: Herzberg originally

recommended that workers should not be involved in the enrichment process. His
logic was that workers are often conditioned to see their jobs in terms of ‘Hygiene’
factors and are unable to respond to the job content. No doubt, this is a factor that
the management must consider in the participation process, but recent research
indicted that participation can have a positive effect.

8.Change is Difficult to Implement: As is too well-known, any change is resisted and

this applies to job enrichment jobs through increasing the level of responsibility will
result in an increased motivation. On the other hand, our knowledge about change
processes tells us that this type of change is one of the most difficult things to
implement in a work situation. The initiation of a job-enrichment programme must
take this factor into account. In other words, employees are not likely to be elated
at the announcement of a job-enrichment programme.

Job Enlargement
Job enlargement refers to the expansion of the number of different tasks performed
by an employee in a single job. For example, an auto mechanic switches from only
changing oil to changing oil, greasing, and changing transmission fluid. Job
enlargement attempts to add somewhat similar tasks to the job so that it will have
more variety and more interesting.

Figure shows the distinction between job enrichment and job enlargement.
Historically too, job enlargement preceded job enrichment. An enlarged job can
motivate an individual for five reasons:


Job Enrichment




Variety of Tasks
(Focus on Breadth)

Fig. Shows a Difference between job enrichment and job enlargement

1.Task Variety Highly fragmented jobs requiring a limited number of unchanging

responses tend to be extremely monotonous. Increasing the number of tasks to be
performed can reduce the level of boredom.

2.Meaningful Work Modules Frequently, jobs are enlarged so that one worker
completes a whole unit of work, or a major portion of it. This tends to increase
satisfaction by allowing workers to appreciate their contribution to the entire project
or product.
3.Ability Utilization: Workers derive greater satisfaction from jobs that best utilize
their physical and mental skills and abilities. Enlarged jobs tend to fulfill this
condition. However, the management must be careful not to enlarge jobs too much,
because jobs that require more skills and abilities than the worker possesses lead to
frustration and present obstacles to task accomplishments. Enlarged jobs with
optimal levels of complexity, on the other hand, create tasks that are challenging
but attainable.

4.Worker-paced Control: Job-enlargement schemes often move a worker from a

machine-paced production line to a job in which, if they can vary the rhythm and
work at their own pace.

5.Performance Feedback: Workers performing narrow jobs with short performance

cycles repeat the same set of motions endlessly, without meaningful and points. As
a result, it is difficult to count the number of finished performance cycles. Even if
they are counted, the feedback tends to be meaningless. Enlarged jobs allow for
more meaningful feedback, and can be particularly motivated if it tied to evaluation
and organizational rewards.
Although the benefits of job enlargement are several, certain disadvantages cannot
be ignored. First training costs tend to rise. Workers may require additional training
for their new, enlarged tasks. Besides if the job-enlargement programme involves
breaking up of the existing production line of work system, redesigning a new2
system and training employees to adjust to it, the cost can be substantial.
Moreover, productivity may fall during the introduction of a new system. Another
drawback is that unions often argue for increased pay because of the increased
work load. Finally, even after enlargement, many jobs may still be routine and

Job Rotation
This involves shifting an employee from one job to another. When an activity is no
longer challenging, the employee would be rotated to another job, at the same
level, that has similar skills requirement. It reduces boredom and disinterest
through diversifying the employees, activities. Other benefits are also available.
Employees with a wider range of skills give the management more flexibility in
scheduling work, adapting to changes, and filling vacancies. Job rotation has
drawbacks. Training costs are increased, work is disrupted as rotated employees
take time to adjust to a new set-up, it can demotivate intelligent and ambitious
trainees who seek specific responsibilities.

Employee Understanding Motivation

The employees who work for your company are naturally motivated. All you need to
do is to utilize their natural ability, which you can do without spending a dime.
That's right. No money. In fact, money can actually decrease an employee's
motivation and performance. The first step in utilizing your employees' natural
abilities is to eliminate your organization's negative practices that zap away their
natural motivation. The second step your organization can take is to develop true
motivators, which can spark all your employees into being motivated. By decreasing
negative zapping demotivators and by adding true motivators, you will tap into your
employees' natural motivation. Your employees' natural motivation relies on the
fact that all people have human desires for affiliation, achievement, and for control
and power over their work. In addition, they have desires for ownership,
competence, recognition, and meaning in their work.But there are several ways that
management unwittingly demotivates employees and diminishes, if not outright
destroys, their enthusiasm.
Many companies treat employees as disposable. At the first sign of business
difficulty, employees-who are usually routinely referred to as "our greatest asset"-
become expendable?Employees generally receive inadequate recognition and
reward: About half of the workers in our surveys report receiving little or no credit,
and almost two-thirds say management is much more likely to criticize them for
poor performance than praise them for good work. Management inadvertently
makes it difficult for employees to do their jobs. Excessive levels of required
approvals, endless paperwork, insufficient training, failure to communicate,
infrequent delegation of authority, and a lack of a credible vision contribute to
employees' frustration.
Clearing Up Common Myths about Employee Motivation
The topic of motivating employees is extremely important to managers and
supervisors. Despite the important of the topic, several myths persist -- especially
among new managers and supervisors. Before looking at what management can do
to support the motivation of employees, it's important first to clear up these
common myths.
1. Myth #1 -- "I can motivate people"
Not really -- they have to motivate themselves. You can't motivate people anymore
than you can empower them. Employees have to motivate and empower
themselves. However, you can set up an environment where they best motivate and
empower themselves. The key knows how to set up the environment for each of
your employees.
2. Myth #2 -- "Money is a good motivator"
Not really. Certain things like money, a nice office and job security can help people
from becoming less motivated, but they usually don't help people to become more
motivated. A key goal is to understand the motivations of each of your employees.
3.Myth #3 --"Fear is a damn good motivator"
Fear is a great motivator -- for a very short time. That's why a lot of yelling from the
boss won't seem to "light a spark under employees" for a very long time.
4. Myth #4 -- "I know what motivates me, so I know what motivates my
employees"Not really. Different people are motivated by different things. I may be
greatly motivated by earning time away from my job to spend more time my family.
You might be motivated much more by recognition of a job well done. People are
not motivated by the same things. Again, a key goal is to understand what
motivates each of your employees.
5. Myth #5 -- "Increased job satisfaction means increased job
performance"Research shows this isn't necessarily true at all. Increased job
satisfaction does not necessarily mean increased job performance. If the goals of
the organization are not aligned with the goals of employees, then employees aren't
effectively working toward the mission of the organization.
6. Myth #6 -- "I can't comprehend employee motivation -- it's a science"Nah. Not
true. There are some very basic steps you can take that will go a long way toward
supporting your employees to motivate themselves toward increased performance
in their jobs. (More about these steps is provided later on in this article.)

Basics about Employee Motivation (Including Steps You Can Take)

Basic Principles to Remember
1. Motivating employees starts with motivating yourself
It's amazing how, if you hate your job, it seems like everyone else does, too. If you
are very stressed out, it seems like everyone else is, too. Enthusiasm is contagious.
If you're enthusiastic about your job, it's much easier for others to be, too. Also, if
you're doing a good job of taking care of yourself and your own job, you'll have
much clearer perspective on how others are doing in theirs.
A great place to start learning about motivation is to start understanding your own
motivations. The key to helping to motivate your employees is to understand what
motivates them. So what motivates you? Consider, for example, time with family,
recognition, a job well done, service, learning, etc. How is your job configured to
support your own motivations? What can you do to better motivate yourself?
2. Always work to align goals of the organization with goals of employeesas
mentioned above, employees can be all fired up about their work and be working
very hard. However, if the results of their work don't contribute to the goals of the
organization, then the organization is not any better off than if the employees were
sitting on their hands -- maybe worse off! Therefore, it's critical that managers and
supervisors know what they want from their employees. These preferences should
be worded in terms of goals for the organization. Identifying the goals for the
organization is usually done during strategic planning. Whatever steps you take to
support the motivation of your employees (various steps are suggested below),
ensure that employees have strong input to identifying their goals and that these
goals are aligned with goals of the organization. (Goals should be worded to be
3. Key to supporting the motivation of your employees is understanding what
motivates each of them
each person is motivated by different things. Whatever steps you take to support
the motivation of your employees, they should first include finding out what it is
that really motivates each of your employees. You can find this out by asking them,
listening to them and observing them.
4. Recognize that supporting employee motivation is a process, not a
taskOrganizations change all the time, as do people. Indeed, it is an ongoing
process to sustain an environment where each employee can strongly motivate
themselves. If you look at sustaining employee motivation as an ongoing process,
then you'll be much more fulfilled and motivated yourself.
5. Support employee motivation by using organizational systems (for example,
policies and procedures)--don't just count on good intentions
don’t just count on cultivating strong interpersonal relationships with employees to
help motivate them. The nature of these relationships can change greatly, for
example, during times of stress. Instead, use reliable and comprehensive systems
in the workplace to help motivate employees. For example, establish compensation
systems, employee performance systems, organizational policies and procedures,
etc., to support employee motivation. Also, establishing various systems and
structures helps ensure clear understanding and equitable treatment of employees.

Steps You Can Take

The following specific steps can help you go a long way toward supporting your
employees to motivate themselves in your organization.
1. Do more than read this article -- apply what you're reading herethis maxim is true
when reading any management publication.
2. Briefly write down the motivational factors that sustain you and what you can do
to sustain them
this little bit of "motivation planning" can give you strong perspective on how to
think about supporting the motivations of your employees.
3. Make of list of three to five things that motivate each of your employeesRead the
checklist of possible motivators. Fill out the list yourself for each of your employees
and then have each of your employees fill out the list for them. Compare your
answers to theirs. Recognize the differences between your impressions of what you
think are important to them and what they think is important to them. Then meet
with each of your employees to discuss what they think are the most important
motivational factors to them. Lastly, take some time alone to write down how you
will modify your approaches with each employee to ensure their motivational
factors are being met. (NOTE: This may seem like a "soft, touchy-feely exercise" to
you. If it does, then talk to a peer or your boss about it. Much of what's important in
management is based very much on "soft, touchy-feely exercises". Learn to become
more comfortable with them. The place to start is to recognize their importance.)
4. Work with each employee to ensure their motivational factors are taken into
consideration in your reward systems
For example, their jobs might be redesigned to be more fulfilling. You might find
more means to provide recognition, if that is important to them. You might develop
a personnel policy that rewards employees with more family time, etc.
5. Have one-on-one meetings with each employee
Employees are motivated more by your care and concern for them than by your
attention to them. Get to know your employees, their families, their favorite foods,
names of their children, etc. This can sound manipulative -- and it will be if not done
sincerely. However, even if you sincerely want to get to know each of your
employees, it may not happen unless you intentionally set aside time to be with
each of them.
6. Cultivate strong skills in delegation
Delegation includes conveying responsibil

ty and authority to your employees so they can carry out certain tasks. However,
you leave it up to your employees to decide how they will carry out the tasks. Skills
in delegation can free up a great deal of time for managers and supervisors. It also
allows employees to take a stronger role in their jobs, which usually means more
fulfillment and motivation in their jobs, as well.

. Reward it when you see it

A critical lesson for new managers and supervisors is to learn to focus on employee
behaviors, not on employee personalities. Performance in the workplace should be
based on behaviors toward goals, not on popularity of employees. You can get in a
great deal of trouble (legally, morally and interpersonally) for focusing only on how
you feel about your employees rather than on what you're seeing with your
8. Reward it soon after you see it
this helps to reinforce the notion that you highly prefer the behaviors that you're
currently seeing from your employees. Often, the shorter the time between an
employee's action and your reward for the action, the clearer it is to the employee
that you highly prefer that action. 9. Implement at least the basic principles of
performance management
Good performance management includes identifying goals, measures to indicate if
the goals are being met or not, ongoing attention and feedback about measures
toward the goals, and corrective actions to redirect activities back toward achieving
the goals when necessary. Performance management can focus on organizations,
groups, processes in the organization and employees.
10. Establish goals that are SMARTER
SMARTER goals are: specific, measurable, acceptable, realistic, timely, extending of
capabilities, and rewarding to those involved.
11. Clearly convey how employee results contribute to organizational
resultsEmployees often feel strong fulfillment from realizing that they're actually
making a difference. This realization often requires clear communication about
organizational goals, employee progress toward those goals and celebration when
the goals are met.
12. Celebrate achievements
this critical step is often forgotten. New managers and supervisors are often focused
on a getting "a lot done". This usually means identifying and solving problems.
Experienced managers come to understand that acknowledging and celebrating a
solution to a problem can be every bit as important as the solution itself. Without
ongoing acknowledgement of success, employees become frustrated, skeptical and
even cynical about efforts in the organization.
13. Let employees hear from their customers (internal or external)
Let employees hear customers proclaim the benefits of the efforts of the employee .
For example, if the employee is working to keep internal computer systems running
for other employees (internal customers) in the organization, then have other
employees express their gratitude to the employee. If an employee is providing a
product or service to external customers, then bring in a customer to express their
appreciation to the employee.
14. Admit to yourself (and to an appropriate someone else) if you don't like an
employee -- Managers and supervisors are people. It's not unusual to just not like
someone who works for you. That someone could, for example, look like an uncle
you don't like. In this case, admit to yourself that you don't like the employee. Then
talk to someone else who is appropriate to hear about your distaste for the
employee, for example, a peer, your boss, your spouse, etc. Indicate to the
appropriate person that you want to explore what it is that you don't like about the
employee and would like to come to a clearer perception of how you can
accomplish a positive working relationship with the employee. It often helps a great
deal just to talk out loud about how you feel and get someone else's opinion about
the situation. As noted above, if you continue to focus on what you see about
employee performance, you'll go a long way toward ensuring that your treatment of
employees remains fair and equitable.

Ten Tips on Improving Employee Motivation

No matter the size of your company, having a team of motivated, hard-working
employees is crucial to your business success. When people lose their motivation,
however, their job performance suffers -- they become less productive, less
creative, less of an asset to the company.
Here are 10 useful pointers on getting your employees enthused, productive, and
ready to give their all:
1.Build a foundation. It’s important to build a solid foundation for your employees so
they feel invested in the company. Tell them about the history of the business and
your vision for the future. Ask them about their expectations and career goals, as
well as how you can help them feel part of the team. When any new employee
starts, make sure he or she receives a thorough welcome orientation.
2.Create a positive environment. Promote an office atmosphere that makes all
employees feel worthwhile and important. Don’t play favorites with your staff. Keep
office doors open and let folks know they can always approach you with questions
or concerns. A happy office is a productive office.
3.Put people on the right path. Most employees are looking for advancement
opportunities within their own company. Work with each of them to develop a
career growth plan that takes into consideration both their current skills and future
goals. If employees become excited about what’s down the road, they will become
more engaged in their present work.
4.Educate the masses. Help employees improve their professional skills by
providing on-the-job training or in-house career development. Allow them to attend
workshops and seminars related to the industry. Encourage them to attend adult
education classes paid for by the company. Employees will feel you are investing in
them, and this will translate into an improved job performance.
5.Don’t forget the fun. Once in a while you have put work aside and do something
nice for the people who work for you. Treat the office to a pizza lunch or take
everyone to the movies. Reward employees with an unexpected day off or by
closing the office early on a random Friday afternoon.
6.Acknowledge contributions. You can make a huge difference in employee morale
simply by taking the time to recognize each employee’s contributions and
accomplishments, large or small. Be generous with praise.
7.Provide incentives. Offer people incentives to perform well, either with something
small like a gift certificate or something more substantial such as a performance-
based bonus or salary increase. Give out “Employee of the Month” awards. Such
tokens of appreciation will go far in motivating employees.
8.Honor your promises. Getting people to give their all requires following through on
promises. If you tell an employee that he or she will be considered for a bonus if
numbers improve or productivity increases, you’d better put your money where
your mouth is. Failure to follow through on promises will result in a loss of trust --
not only that person’s trust, but the trust of every employee that hears the story.
9.Provide career coaching. Help employees reach the next level professionally by
providing on-site coaching. Bring in professionals to provide one-on-one counseling,
which can help people learn how to overcome personal or professional obstacles on
their career paths.
10. Match tasks to talents. You can improve employee motivation by improving
employee confidence. Assign individuals with tasks you know they will enjoy or will
be particularly good at. An employee who is successful at one thing will have the
self-confidence to tackle other projects with renewed energy and excitement.

The research design for this study employed a descriptive survey method. The
target population of this study included employees at the Piketon Research and
Extension Center and Enterprise Center (centers). The sample size included all 25
employees of the target population. Twenty-three of the 25 employees participated
in the survey for a participation rate of 92%. The centers are in Piketon, Ohio.
The mission of the Enterprise Center is to facilitate individual and community leader
awareness and provide assistance in preparing and accessing economic
opportunities in southern Ohio. The Enterprise Center has three programs:
alternatives in agriculture, small business development, and women's business
development. The mission of the Piketon Research and Extension Center is to
conduct research and educational programs designed to enhance economic
development in southern Ohio. The Piketon Research and Extension Center has five
programs: aquaculture, community economic development, horticulture, forestry,
and soil and water resources.
From a review of literature, a survey questionnaire was developed to collect data for
the study (Bowen & Radhakrishna, 1991; Harpaz, 1990; Kovach, 1987). Data was
collected through use of a written questionnaire hand-delivered to participants.
Questionnaires were filled out by participants and returned to an intra-departmental
mailbox. The questionnaire asked participants to rank the importance of ten factors
that motivated them in doing their work: 1=most important . . . 10=least important.
Face and content validity for the instrument were established using two
administrative and professional employees at The Ohio State University. The
instrument was pilot tested with three similarly situated employees within the
university. As a result of the pilot test, minor changes in word selection and
instructions were made to the questionnaire.

Results and Discussion

The ranked order of motivating factors were: (a) interesting work, (b) good wages,
(c) full appreciation of work done, (d) job security, (e) good working conditions, (f)
promotions and growth in the organization, (g) feeling of being in on things, (h)
personal loyalty to employees, (i) tactful discipline, and (j) sympathetic help with
personal problems.
A comparison of these results to Maslow's need-hierarchy theory provides some
interesting insight into employee motivation. The number one ranked motivator,
interesting work, is a self-actualizing factor. The number two ranked motivator,
good wages, is a physiological factor. The number three ranked motivator, full
appreciation of work done, is an esteem factor. The number four ranked motivator,
job security, is a safety factor. Therefore, according to Maslow (1943), if managers
wish to address the most important motivational factor of Centers' employees,
interesting work, physiological, safety, social, and esteem factors must first be
satisfied. If managers wished to address the second most important motivational
factor of centers' employees, good pay, increased pay would suffice. Contrary to
what Maslow's theory suggests, the range of motivational factors is mixed in this
study. Maslow's conclusions that lower level motivational factors must be met
before ascending to the next level were not confirmed by this study.
The following example compares the highest ranked motivational factor (interesting
work) to Vroom's expectancy theory. Assume that a Centers employee just attended
a staff meeting where he/she learned a major emphasis would be placed on seeking
additional external program funds. Additionally, employees who are successful in
securing funds will be given more opportunities to explore their own research and
extension interests (interesting work). Employees who do not secure additional
funds will be required to work on research and extension programs identified by the
director. The employee realizes that the more research he/she does regarding
funding sources and the more proposals he/she writes, the greater the likelihood
he/she will receive external funding.
Because the state legislature has not increased appropriations to the centers for the
next two years (funds for independent research and extension projects will be
scaled back), the employee sees a direct relationship between performances
(obtaining external funds) and rewards (independent research and Extension
projects). Further, the employee went to work for the centers, in part, because of
the opportunity to conduct independent research and extension projects. The
employee will be motivated if he/she is successful in obtaining external funds and
given the opportunity to conduct independent research and extension projects. On
the other hand, motivation will be diminished if the employee is successful in
obtaining external funds and the director denies the request to conduct
independent research and Extension projects.
The following example compares the third highest ranked motivational factor (full
appreciation of work done) to Adams's equity theory. If an employee at the centers
feels that there is a lack of appreciation for work done, as being too low relative to
another employee, an inequity may exist and the employee will be dis-motivated.
Further, if all the employees at the centers feel that there is a lack of appreciation
for work done, inequity may exist. Adams (1965) stated employees will attempt to
restore equity through various means, some of which may be counter- productive to
organizational goals and objectives. For instance, employees who feel their work is
not being appreciated may work less or undervalue the work of other employees.
This final example compares the two highest motivational factors to Herzberg's two-
factor theory. The highest ranked motivator, interesting work, is a motivator factor.
The second ranked motivator, good wages is a hygiene factor. Herzberg, Mausner,
& Snyderman (1959) stated that to the degree that motivators are present in a job,
motivation will occur. The absence of motivators does not lead to dissatisfaction.
Further, they stated that to the degree that hygienes are absent from a job,
dissatisfaction will occur. When present, hygienes prevent dissatisfaction, but do
not lead to satisfaction. In our example, the lack of interesting work (motivator) for
the centers' employees would not lead to dissatisfaction. Paying centers'
employee’s lower wages (hygiene) than what they believe to be fair may lead to job
dissatisfaction. Conversely, employees will be motivated when they are doing
interesting work and but will not necessarily be motivated by higher pay.
The discussion above, about the ranked importance of motivational factors as
related to motivational theory, is only part of the picture. The other part is how
these rankings compare with related research. A study of industrial employees,
conducted by Kovach (1987), yielded the following ranked order of motivational
factors: (a) interesting work, (b) full appreciation of work done, and (c) feeling of
being in on things. Another study of employees, conducted by Harpaz (1990),
yielded the following ranked order of motivational factors: (a) interesting work, (b)
good wages, and (c) job security.
In this study and the two cited above, interesting work ranked as the most
important motivational factor. Pay was not ranked as one of the most important
motivational factors by Kovach (1987), but was ranked second in this research and
by Harpaz (1990). Full appreciation of work done was not ranked as one of the most
important motivational factors by Harpaz (1990), but was ranked second in this
research and by Kovach (1987). The discrepancies in these research findings
supports the idea that what motivates employees differs given the context in which
the employee works. What is clear, however, is that employees rank interesting
work as the most important motivational factor.

Implications for Centers and Extension

The ranked importance of motivational factors of employees at the centers provides
useful information for the centers' director and employees. Knowing how to use this
information in motivating centers' employees is complex. The strategy for
motivating centers' employees depends on which motivation theories are used as a
reference point. If Hertzberg's theory is followed, management should begin by
focusing on pay and job security (hygiene factors) before focusing on interesting
work and full appreciation of work done (motivator factors). If Adams' equity theory
is followed, management should begin by focusing on areas where there may be
perceived inequities (pay and full appreciation of work done) before focusing on
interesting work and job security. If Vroom's theory is followed, management should
begin by focusing on rewarding (pay and interesting work) employee effort in
achieving organizational goals and objectives.
Regardless of which theory is followed, interesting work and employee pay appear
to be important links to higher motivation of centers' employees. Options such as
job enlargement, job enrichment, promotions, internal and external stipends,
monetary, and non-monetary compensation should be considered. Job enlargement
can be used (by managers) to make work more interesting (for employees) by
increasing the number and variety of activities performed. Job enrichment can used
to make work more interesting and increase pay by adding higher level
responsibilities to a job and providing monetary compensation (raise or stipend) to
employees for accepting this responsibility. These are just two examples of an
infinite number of methods to increase motivation of employees at the centers. The
key to motivating centers' employees is to know what motivates them and
designing a motivation program based on those needs.
The results presented in this paper also have implications for the entire Cooperative
Extension Sysyem. The effectiveness of Extension is dependent upon the motivation
of its employees (Chesney, 1992; Buford, 1990; Smith, 1990). Knowing what
motivates employees and incorporating this knowledge into the reward system will
help Extension identify, recruit, employ, train, and retain a productive workforce.
Motivating Extension employees requires both managers and employees working
together (Buford, 1993). Extension employees must be willing to let managers know
what motivates them, and managers must be willing to design reward systems that
motivate employees. Survey results, like those presented here, are useful in helping
Extension managers determine what motivates employees (Bowen & Radhakrishna,
1991). If properly designed reward systems are not implemented, however,
employees will not be motivated.

Ignite the Two Fires of Employee Motivation

Driving your small business to higher levels of performance and profits requires two
types of employee motivation. The workplace environment can be shaped to create
a motivating workforce. Before you can build motivation within your company, you
must understand employee motivation.
Successful business owners accept responsibility for the atmosphere of the
workplace. In any market and economy, small business has the greatest opportunity
to create a caring, motivating environment.
Using "command & control" style management is not effective in creating a
motivating workplace. What is effective is tapping into the two forms of employee
motivation; intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.
• Intrinsic Employee Motivation: The word intrinsic means within or internal. This is
the form of motivation you have within yourself that comes from a passion or
interest in doing a job well done.
Extrinsic Employee Motivation: This force of motivation comes from the external
and relies on recognition and rewards.•
Most small business miss the two-sides of motivation when designing employee
motivation programs. Take the time to ignite both forms of motivation and watch
your staff performance grow by leaps and bounds.
Three Ways to Ignite Intrinsic Employee Motivation
Purpose: How does your company change the lives of others? Focus on creating a
small business culture with a strong mission statement. People want to be part of
something bigger.
Belief: Help your employees believe in what your company sells. Make certain all
staff members have a chance to experience your services and/or products.
Passion: Hire Right. Match job descriptions to candidates' passions. If your company
requires a market researcher, hire someone who has a passion for research. The job
will provide all the intrinsic employee motivation for passion-centered staff
Three Ways to Ignite Extrinsic Employee Motivation
Rewards: Customize your rewards. Listen to what is important to your employees.
Money is not everything. Family time off or tickets to a major sports event may be
more meaningful.
Recognition: Ensure recognition is timely. Being awarded for a major client sale at
the end of the quarter may be fine but provide some immediate recognition after
the deal.
Growth: A workplace full of opportunities for employees to grow and expand their
knowledge is a motivating company. Place employee development at the top of
your list for employee motivation and the benefits your small business will exceed
your expectations.
Benefits of High Employee Motivation
creates a workplace and culture of high achievers•
Improved business and staff productivity•
Reduced employee turnover. It is important not only to attract talent to your firm
but to also keep the talent.•
Decrease in sick days and absenteeism.•
Employee motivation is the responsibility of your company. Employees will never
have the same level of commitment and motivation as the owner of a small
business. Once you grasp this concept than you can move towards taking action to
building a caring and employee motivating business.

Are Your Employees Having Fun Yet?

Are you having fun as a manager or is it a lot of work? Is your team enjoying
themselves? How often do you hear laughter flowing through the workspace?
We get so busy doing the work that we forget how important it is to enjoy the
people we work with. Everyone is there to do a job and that’s fairly obvious to most
people. Yet, as their manager, you need to know that happy employees are
productive and definitely more loyal to you and the company.
Fun comes in different formats: planned fun events such as company picnics,
holiday parties or special launch events. Then there is the spontaneous fun
experience…the manager brings in bagels and muffins…just because.
Both kinds of fun build employees productivity, though the “every day type of fun
“adds more value to the overall happiness of your employees.
Question: Do you say “we have so much work to do, that it is impossible to fit in a
fun event during the day.” If you were to create a 10-minute fun experience for the
staff, would the work really suffer? I don’t think so! It’s all a matter of “priority” that
fun is for you and your team.
You’re the manager…you set the tone of a working environment…will there be fun
or not? Fun energizes your team. Start small and build your “fun” muscles.
Here are some fun ideas that you can bring back to your team:Create “fun
specialists” that generate fun ideas…you can have an opinion here.
Food is always a great way to bring people together. Bring in bagel and muffins in
the morning, put out some candy, pop some popcorn or pizza for lunch. Whatever
your budget, you can always find a goody to share.
One company had employees from different countries. They had a potluck luncheon
where everyone brought in a special ethnic dish to share with others.
Have someone organize a Friday night after work gathering
Birthday fun….bring in a balloon or whatever fun idea you have to recognize a
person’s birthday. Or have a birthday card passed around for everyone to sign and
then give it to the “birthday” person.
New hire gathering. One company of 20 people scheduled a half-hour before the
close of the day for a “cookies and drinks” event. Everyone introduce himself or
herself to the new person, sharing with the new person one fun fact about
themselves. Lots of laughter going on here and the new person felt it…..what a
great way to introduce this person to the team. By the way, the new person also
had to offer one fun fact about them.
·Schedule spontaneously a “random acts of kindness” day where everyone has to
do one kind thing to someone that day without them knowing…bring in lunch, or as
the day closes, come together over some goodies to celebrate a great day.
Creating a fun workplace and thought this would be great material in your own
Here are some zany ways to celebrate:
Christmas in July Un birthday Parties Bad Hair Day PJ Day Come Dressed as Your
Favorite Holiday Day Elvis Day Polka Dot Day Dress Your Boss Day Foreign
Language Day (speak only in a foreign language or with a fake accent) Crazy Hat
Day Clash Day. Dress up or Down Day. Tie Day. Mismatched Sock Day. Backwards
Day. Movie Theme Day (pick a favorite).
Have fun today!
Understanding Employee Drives and Motivations - The First Step Towards Motivation
at Work
Soon to be completed and published: A practical step-by-step guide on the subject
for managers, supervisors, trainers, and human resources directors. List yourself
here to be advised when the book will be ready for sale.
However large or small a company or business is, it is employees at all levels that
can make or break it. This holds true not only for the people we hire on a regular
basis, but also for temporary and contracted workers. It is as important to research
and study the needs, drives, and expectations of people we hire or employ, and aim
at responding to and satisfying those, as it is with regard to customers.
In actual fact, considering the role each "employee" plays in a company's success,
analyzing and planning an adequate response to employees' motivations deserves
first place in the order of business.
Before going any further, let us shift our approach from grouping people under the
generic category of "employee" to individual human beings and term them as "hired
workers" or "working partners". This is what they are. We must acknowledge them
as human beings with individual needs, drives, characteristics, personalities, and
acknowledge their contribution to the business success.
Though each person has specific needs, drives, aspirations, and capabilities, at
varying degrees of intensity, people's basic needs are the same, as illustrated by
Abraham Maslow in the following model:



Social Needs

Safety Needs

Physiological Needs
Maslow explains the Hierarchy of Needs as applied to workers roughly as follows:
Physiological Needs
Basic physical needs: the ability to acquire food, shelter, clothing and other basics
to survive
Safety Needs
A safe and non-threatening work environment, job security, safe equipment and
Social Needs
Contact and friendship with fellow-workers, social activities and opportunities
Recognition, acknowledgment, rewards
Realizing one's dreams and potential, reaching the heights of one's gifts and
It is only when these needs are met that workers are morally, emotionally, and even
physically ready to satisfy the needs of the employer and the customers.
Worker motivation must also be viewed from two perspectives:
1. Inner drives
2. Outer (external) motivators.
A person's inner drives push and propel him/her towards an employer, a particular
job, career, line of study, or other activity (such as travel or recreation). It is these
drives that Maslow delineates in his hierarchy of needs, and which we must
understand and internalize, use as guidelines in our efforts to help employees feel
The outer (external) motivators are the mirror image the employer or outside world
offers in response to the inner drives. In order to attract the "cream of the crop" of
available workers, same as in his/her dealings with customers, the employer not
only tries to satisfy these basic needs, but to exceed them - taking into
consideration additional extraordinary needs individual workers have.

Most workers need to:

1. Earn wages that will enable them to pay for basic necessities and additional
luxuries such as the purchase of a home, or travel
2. Save for and enjoy old age security benefits
3. Have medical and other insurance coverage
4. Acquire friends at work
5. Win recognition
6. Be acknowledged and rewarded for special efforts and contributions
7. Be able to advance in life and career-wise
8. Have opportunities for self-development
9. Improve their skills, knowledge, and know-how
10. Demonstrate and use special gifts and abilities
11. Realize their ideal(s).
The employer responds to those needs by offering and providing:
1. Employment
2. Adequate pay
3. Assistance to workers for their special needs (such as child care arrangements,
transportation, flexible work schedules)
4. Job security (to the degree possible)
5. Clear company policies
6. Clear and organized work procedures
7. A stable, just and fair work environment
8. A safe work environment
9. Medical coverage and other benefits
10. An atmosphere of teamwork and cooperation
11. Social activities
12. Reward and recognition programs
13. Incentive programs
14. Open lines of communication (formal and informal)
15. Systematic feedback
16. Training and development programs
17. Opportunities for promotion
18. Company/ business information
19. Information on customer feedback
20. Sharing of company goals and objectives
21. Information on the market situation and industry
22. Future expectations
23. Plans for the future
24. Guidance and mentoring.
It is important that the employer discover other extraordinary needs applicants
have before hiring them and know beforehand whether he/she can satisfy those
needs or not. An employee may have:
· Family responsibilities and be unable to work shifts, overtime, or weekends
· Heavy financial responsibilities which he/she can meet only by working at two jobs,
leading to exhaustion, "sick leave", and deficient work performance
· A desperate financial need for additional overtime and weekend remuneration
· Premature expectations of swift promotions.
Some other needs the employer can expect, for which company policies should be
planned accordingly:
· If the company is in a remote location, all employees will have a need for more
social activities
· Many single people look for dates and spouses at work
· Some women may not be ready to work late shifts unless the employer provides
transportation back home
· Some workers may have a problem with drug or alcohol abuse.
In addition to needs and drives, adult workers have expectations from their
employer - they expect:
· A knowledgeable, experienced, expert employer
· Clear and fair policies, procedures, and employment practices
· Business integrity
· Clear job descriptions
· Two-way communications
· Effective management and supervision
· Positive discipline
· Good company repute
· Good customer relations
· Company survival
· Opportunities for personal growth
· Company growth
· A share in the company's success.
Business owners and managers are under constant scrutiny by the people they hire.
Adult workers care beyond the salary - they care to know to whom they entrust
their fate, reputation, and security. They consider their work as a major factor that
shapes their lives and the lives of those dear to them. Hence the scrutiny. Once
they feel confident that the employer and their place of work is what they wished
for and expected, they are ready to contribute above and beyond "the call of duty".
Most of these needs, expectations and aspirations are unexpressed - it is up to the
employer to develop a good system of company communications, employee
relations, training and development that will lead to an environment of openness,
cooperation, teamwork, and motivation that will benefit all the parties involved.
Motivational theory
Employee motivation theory –team building activities, workshops, inspirational
quotes, and the power of positive experience
Alignment of aims, purpose and values between staff, teams and organization is the
most fundamental aspects of motivation. The batter the alignment and personal
association with organizational aims, the better the platform for motivation.
Where the people find it difficult to align and associate with the organizational aims,
then most motivational ideas and activities will have a reduced level of success.
Motivation is a complex area. It’s different for reach person. See the personality
materials for useful explanation about different motivational needs.
Motivational receptiveness and potential in everyone changes from day to day, from
situation to situation, Get the alignment and values right, and motivational methods
work better. Motivational methods of any sort will not work if people and
organization are not aligned. People are motivated towards something they can
relate to and something they can believe in. Times have changed. People want
more. You should view the following motivational methods and ideas as structure,
activities and building blocks, to be used when you have a solid foundation in place.
The following is a cohesive alignment of people’s needs values with the aims and
purpose of the organization.

Motivational methods and theory - assuming people and organization are aligned
Motivational and inspirational quotes, poems, posters, motivational speakers and
stories, team building games and activities, all develop employee motivation for
sales and business staff in all kinds of organizations. Motivational and inspirational
experiences improve employees' attitudes, confidence and performance. Good
leadership demands good people-motivation skills and the use of inspirational
techniques. Motivational methods are wide-ranging, from inspirational quotes and
poems, to team building games and activities, as ice-breakers, warm-ups and
exercises for conferences, workshops, meetings and events, which in themselves
can often be helpful for staff motivation too. See the motivation principles and
template for staff motivation questionnaires and surveys. Motivation is an essential
part of life coaching processes and techniques too. Motivated people perform better
- see McGregor's XY Theory for example. People playing games or competing in
teams learn about each other, they communicate better and see each other in a
new light. Mutual respect grows. See the Johari Window theory for example. People
often enjoy events which include new non-work activities, especially when bosses
and superiors take part in the same teams as their junior staff, which also helps
cohesiveness and 'can-do' culture. Inspirational quotes, stories and poems all help
motivation too. Powerful positive imagery stimulates visualization in the conscious
and sub-conscious brain, which encourages self-motivation, developmental
behavior, confidence and belief. Playing games enables people to experience
winning and achieving in a way that their normal work might not. People become
motivated to achieve and do better when they have experienced the feelings of
success and achievement, regardless of context. This is why fire-walking and
outward-bound activities have such powerful motivational effect. All of these ideas,
and more explained below, contribute to improving motivation, inspiration and
performance. Here is the theory of how team building games, activities like juggling
develop motivation, positive images in quotes and stories, inspirational posters,
quotations, motivational speakers, team workshops and brainstorming, etc., all help
to strengthen relationships, build understanding, increase motivation and improve
How games and other inspirational references and activities help motivation and
motivational training
Work and business-based training commonly concentrates on process, rules, theory,
structure and logic, all of which tend to develop and use the left-side of the brain.
However, modern successful organizations rely just as heavily on their people
having well-developed 'soft' skills and attributes, such as self-motivation,
confidence, initiative, empathy and creativity, which all tend to use the right-side of
the brain. For more information about brain type and bias see the Benziger theory
section, for example. Using games and activities like juggling helps to unleash right-
side brain skills, because these activities necessarily draw on a person's intuitive,
spatial and 'feeling' capabilities - found in the right-side of the brain.
Also, using activities and references that take people out of their normal work
environment creates new opportunities for them to experience winning,
achievement, team-working, learning and personal development, in ways that are
often not possible in their usual work context. Experiencing these positive feelings
is vital for the conscious and sub-conscious visualization of success and
achievement, essential for broadening people's horizons, raising their sights, setting
new personal standards and goals, and increasing motivation. The use of role
playing games and role play exercises is an especially effective motivational and
visualization technique, despite people's normal aversion to the practice (see the
role playing games and activities tips to see how to manage role-playing activities
Inspirational references, stories, quotes and examples also help the life coaching
Ice-breakers and warm-ups for motivation
When a group or team of people assembles for a conference, or training course,
there is always a feeling of uncertainty and discomfort. Even if people know each
other, they feel uncomfortable in the new strange situation, because it is different.
Mankind has evolved partly because of this awareness to potential threats and fear
of the unknown. Games and team building activities relax people, so that they can
fully concentrate on the main purpose of the day, whatever it is, rather than
spending the morning still wondering what everyone else is thinking. See the stress
theory section for examples. Activities and games are great levelers - they break
down the barriers, and therefore help develop rapport and relationships.
Building confidence for motivation
Learning something new and completely different liberates the mind. Facing a
challenge, meeting it and mastering it helps build confidence.
Motivational team building
When you break down barriers, misunderstandings, prejudices, insecurities,
divisions, territories and hierarchies - you begin to build teams. Get a group of
people in a room having fun with juggling balls or spinning plates and barriers are
immediately removed. Teams unite and work together when they identify a
common purpose - whether the aim is the tallest tower made out of newspapers, or
a game of rounder on the park. Competition in teams or groups creates teams and
ignites team effort.
Motivational coaching and training motivation
Learning to juggle or some other new activity demonstrates how we learn, and how
to coach others. Breaking new tasks down into stages, providing clear instructions,
demonstration, practice, time and space to make mistakes, doing it one stage at a
time..... all the essential training and coaching techniques can be shown, whether
juggling is the vehicle or some other team-building idea, and the learning is clearer
and more memorable because it is taken out of the work context, where previously
people 'can't see the wood for the trees'. Games and activities provide a perfect
vehicle for explaining the training and development process ('train the trainer' for
example) to managers, team leaders and trainers.
Personal motivation styles and learning motivation
Everyone is different. Taking part in new games and activities outside of the work
situation illustrates people's different strengths and working style preferences.
Mutual respect develops when people see skills and attributes in others that they
didn't know existed. Also, people work and learn in different ways, see the Kolb
learning style model and Benziger thinking styles model for examples.
Continual development and motivation
Learning and taking part in a completely new activity or game like juggling
demonstrates that earning is ongoing. The lessons never finish, unless people
decide to stop learning. Juggling the basic 'three ball cascade' pattern doesn't end
there - it's just a start - as with all learning and development. Master juggler Enrich
Rastelli practiced all the daylight hours juggling ten balls. Introducing people, staff
or employees to new experiences opens their minds to new avenues of personal
development, and emphasizes the opportunity for continuous learning that is
available to us all.
Improving empathy and communications for motivation
"Seek first to understand, and then to be understood." (Steven Covey). See the
Seven Habits Of Highly Effective People summary and review.
To communicate we must understand the other person. Empathy and intuitive skills
are right-side brain. Conventional classroom training or distance learning do nothing
to address this vital area. Juggling and playing spontaneous or creative games
definitely promote development and awareness in the right-side of the brain, which
we use when we communicate and understand others. Team activities and games
promote communications and better mutual understanding - essential for good
organizational performance (see the Johari Window model and theory).
Motivation and creativity
Creativity and initiative are crucial capabilities for modern organizational
effectiveness. Juggling and other games activities dispel the notion that actions
must be according to convention and that response can only be to stimulus.
Successful organizations have staff that initiate, create, innovate, and find new
ways to do things better, without being told. Using mind and body together in a
completely new way encourages pro-active thought and lateral thinking, which
opens people's minds, and develops creative and initiative capabilities. See the
brainstorming process, which integrates well with team building activities and
workshops. See also the workshops process and ideas.
Motivation for problem-solving and decision-making
Problem-solving is integral to decision-making - see the problem-solving and
decision-making section. Learning to juggle or taking part in new challenging
stimulating activities uses the intuitive brain to solve the problem, the same part
that's vital for creatively solving work problems. People who can solve problems
creatively can make decisions - and organizations need their staff and employees to
have these abilities.
Physical activity is motivational
Team building activities like juggling, construction exercises, or outdoor games, get
the body moving, which is good for general health and for an energetic approach to
work. A minute of juggling three balls is 200 throws, the equivalent of pumping over
20 kilos. Physical activity also provides significant stress relief, and stress
management is part of every organization's duty of care towards its employees.
People concentrate and work better when they have had some light exercise and
physical stimulus. Physical activity energizes people and reduces stress and
tension. See details on the stress section.
Team building workshops are empowering and motivational
See the section on workshops. Workshops are good vehicles for team building
games and activities, and also great for achieving team consensus, collective
problem-solving, developing new direction and strategy, and to support the
delegation and team development process (see the Tannenbaum and Schmidt
Continuum for example).
Team building games and activities are motivational
Learning new things - even simple skills like plate-spinning - help to build
confidence, promote team-working and unleash creativity. Taking part in workshops
and brainstorming sessions are empowering activities. Combine all three and it's
even more effective for team building, development and motivation. See
particularly the 'Hellespont Swim' case study and exercise.
If you think about it, all manner of left-side-brain conventional training and business
skills can be integrated within an innovative, participative right-side-brain activity-
based approach, to increase interest, participation, involvement, retention and
Saying thanks is hugely motivational
Saying thanks and giving praise are the most commonly overlooked and under-
estimated ways of motivating people. And it's so easy. Saying thanks is best said
naturally and from the heart, so if your intentions are right you will not go far
wrong. When you look someone in the eye and thank them sincerely it means a lot.
In front of other people even more so. The key words are the ones which say thanks
and well done for doing a great job, especially where the words recognize each
person's own special ability, quality, contribution, and effort, whatever. People
always appreciate sincere thanks, and they appreciate being valued as an individual
even more. When you next have the chance to thank your team or an individual
team-member, take the time to find out a special thing that each person has done
and make a point of mentioning these things. Doing this, the praise tends to carry
even greater meaning and motivational effect.
Motivational quotes - using inspirational quotations and sayings is motivational
Inspirational quotations, and amusing maxims and sayings are motivational when
used in team building sessions, conferences, speeches and training courses.
Inspirational quotes contribute to motivation because they provide examples and
role models, and prompt visualization. Inspirational quotes stimulate images and
feelings in the brain - both consciously and unconsciously. Powerful positive
imagery found in motivational quotations and poems is genuinely motivational for
people, individually and in teams, and can help to build confidence and belief.
Inspirational examples motivate people in the same way that the simple 'power of
positive thinking', and 'accentuate the positive' techniques do - people imagine and
visualize themselves behaving in the way described in the quotation, saying, story
or poem. Visualization is a powerful motivational tool - quotes, stories and poems
provide a very effective method for inspiring and motivating people through
visualization, imagination and association. See the stories section, and 'If', Rudyard
Kipling's famous inspirational poem.
Here are a few motivational quotes, relating to different situations and roles, for
example; achievement, management, leadership, etc. When using quote for
motivation it's important to choose material that's relevant and appropriate.
Motivational posters showing inspirational quotes or poems can be effective for staff
and employee motivation, and in establishing organizational values. There are more
quotations about inspiration and achievement on the quotes section. These quotes
all make effective motivational posters, and are excellent materials for motivational
Motivational quotes
"We cannot solve our problems with the same level of thinking that created them."
(Albert Einstein)
"It is amazing what you can accomplish if you do not care who gets the credit."
(President Harry S Truman)
"In the midst of winter, I finally learned that within me there lay an invincible
summer." (Albert Camus, 1913 - 1960, French author & philosopher)
"If you're not part of the solution you must be part of the problem." (the commonly
paraphrased version of the original quote: "What we're saying today is that you're
either part of the solution, or you're part of the problem" by Eldridge Cleaver 1935-
98, founder member and information minister of the Black Panthers, American
political activist group, in a speech in 1968 - thanks RVP)
"A dream is just a dream. A goal is a dream with a plan and a deadline." (Harvey
Mackay - thanks Brad Hanson)
"I have learned that success is to be measured not so much by the position that one
has reached in life as by the obstacles overcome while trying to succeed." (Booker T
Washington, 1856-1915, American Educator and African-American spokesman,
thanks for quote M Kincaid, and for biography correction M Yates and A Chatterjee)
"Most people never run far enough on their first wind to find out they've got a
second. Give your dreams all you've got and you'll be amazed at the energy that
comes out of you." (William James, American Philosopher, 1842-1910 - thanks Jean
"Whatever you can do - or dream you can, begin it. Boldness has genius, power and
magic in it." (Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, German writer, 1749-1832 - thanks
Yvonne Bent)
"A dwarf standing on the shoulders of a giant may see farther than the giant
himself." (Didacus Stella, circa AD60 - and, as a matter of interest, abridged on the
edge of an English £2 coin)
"If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants." (Sir Isaac
Newton, 1676.)
"The most important thing in life is not to capitalise on your successes - any fool can
do that. The really important thing is to profit from your mistakes." (William Bolitho,
from 'Twelve against the Gods')
"Out of the night that covers me, Black as the pit from pole to pole, I thank
whatever gods may be, For my unconquerable soul. In the fell clutch of
circumstance, I have not winced nor cried aloud: Under the bludgeoning of chance
my head is bloody but unbowed . . . . . It matters not how strait the gait, how
charged with punishments the scroll, I am the master of my fate: I am the captain of
my soul." (WE Henley, 1849-1903, from 'Invictus')
"Management means helping people to get the best out of themselves, not
organizing things." (Lauren Appley)
"It's not the critic who counts, not the one who points out how the strong man
stumbled or how the doer of deeds might have done them better. The credit
belongs to the man who is actually in the arena; whose face is marred with the
sweat and dust and blood; who strives valiantly; who errs and comes up short again
and again; who knows the great enthusiasms, the great devotions and spends
himself in a worthy cause and who, at best knows the triumph of high achievement
and who at worst, if he fails, at least fails while daring greatly so that his place shall
never be with those cold and timid souls who know neither victory nor defeat."
(Theodore Roosevelt, 23 April 1923.)
"The world is divided into people who do things, and people who get the credit. Try,
if you can, to belong to the first class. There's far less competition." (Dwight
Morrow, 1935.)
"What does not kill us makes us stronger." (Attributed to Friedrich Nietzsche,
probably based on his words: "Out of life's school of war: What does not destroy me,
makes me stronger." from The Twilight of the Idols, 1899)
"A life spent in making mistakes is not only more honorable but more useful than a
life spent doing nothing." (George Bernard Shaw, 1856-1950.)
"I praise loudly. I blame softly." (Catherine the Great, 1729-1796.)
Motivational ideas for sales managers for sales teams
(These principles are applicable to all job roles subject to the notes at the end of
this item.)
Motivation of sales people commonly focuses on sales results, but nobody can
actually 'do' a result. What matters in achieving results is people's attitude and
activity and the areas of opportunity on which the attitude and activity is directed.
What sales people can do is to adopt a positive and creative attitude, and carry out
more productive and efficient activity, directed on higher-yield strategic
opportunities. By doing these things sales people and sales teams will improve their
However the tendency remains for sales managers, sales supervisors and team
leaders (typically under pressure from above from executives who should know
better) to simply direct people to 'meet the target', or to 'increase sales', or worse
still, to pressurize customers into accelerating decision-making, which might work in
the short-term but is extremely unhelpful in the medium-term (when business
brought forward leaves gaps in the next months' forecasts), and damages the long-
term (when as a result of supplier-driven sales pressure, the customer relationship
is undermined or ruined).
Instead think about what really motivates and excites people, and focus on offering
these opportunities to sales people and sales teams, on an ongoing basis. Don't
wait until you find yourself 25% behind target with only half of the year remaining,
and with targets set to increase as well in the final quarter.
People will not generally and sustainable improve their performance, or attitude
when they are shouted at or given a kick up the backside. People will on the other
hand generally improve their performance if empowered to develop their own
strategic capability and responsibility within the organization. Herzberg, Adams,
Handy, Maslow, McGregor, and every other management and motivation expert
confirmed all this long ago.
Sales teams generally comprise people who seek greater responsibility. They also
seek recognition, achievement, self-development and advancement.
So if we know these things does it not make good sense to offer these opportunities
to them, because we know that doing so will have a motivational effect on them,
and also encourage them to work on opportunities that are likely to produce
increasing returns on their efforts? Of course. So do it.
If you are managing a sales team try (gently and progressively) exploring with the
team how they'd like to develop their experience, responsibilities, roles, status,
value, contribution, within the business. Include yourself in this. Usually far more
ideas and activity come from focusing on how the people would like to develop their
roles and value (in terms of the scale and sophistication of the business that they
are responsible for), rather than confining sales people to a role that is imposed on
them and which is unlikely to offer sustainable interest and stimulation.
All businesses have many opportunities for new strategic growth available. Yours
will be no different.
Most employees are capable of working at a far higher strategic level, developing
ever greater returns on their own efforts.
Performance improvement is generally found through enabling people and teams to
discover and refine more productive and strategic opportunities, which will lead to
more productive and motivating activities.
For example: reactive sales people are generally able to be proactive account
mangers; account managers are generally able to be major accounts developers;
major accounts developers are generally able to be national accounts managers;
national accounts mangers are generally able to be strategic partner and channel
developers; strategic partner and channel managers are generally able to be new
business sector/service developers, and so on...
Again include yourself in this.
If necessary (depending on your organizational culture and policies seek approval
from your own management/executives for you to embark on this sort of
exploration of strategic growth. (If you are unable to gain approval there are many
other organizations out there who need people to manage sales teams in this
Obviously part of the approach (and your agreement with your people - the
'psychological contract') necessarily includes maintaining and meeting existing
basic business performance target levels. This is especially so since strategic
growth takes time, and your business still needs the normal day-to-day business
handled properly. But people can generally do this, ie., maintain and grow day-to-
day performance while additionally developing new higher-level strategic areas,
because genuinely motivated people are capable of dramatic achievements. The
motivation and capacity to do will come quite naturally from the new responsibility
and empowerment to operate at a higher level.
N.B. The principles described above generally apply to most other job roles. People
are motivated by growth and extra responsibility, while at the same time the
organization benefits from having its people focus on higher strategic aims and
activities. Be aware however that people in different roles will be motivated by
different things, and particularly will require different types of support and
guidelines when being encouraged to work at a higher strategic level. For example,
engineers require more detail and clarification of expectations and process than
sales people typically do; administrators are likely to require more reassurance and
support in approaching change than sales people typically do.
For sure your should encourage and enable people to develop their roles, but make
sure you give appropriate explanation, management and support for the types of
people concerned.
Case studies
Severn Trent Water chooses Capital Bonds to ‘Say Thanks’ to employees
Severn Trent Water serves over 8 million people in the heart of the UK, supplying
nearly 2 billion liters of drinking water a day in Europe. Since privatization in 1989,
Severn Trent Water has invested nearly £5 billion in improving the quality of its
service to customers.
As a company, they wanted to enhance the quality of their service to employees by
improving employee satisfaction and motivation.
ObjectivesSevern Trent Water required an employee motivation and incentive
scheme that empowered managers at a local level to recognize individuals for their
exceptional contribution to the company, which directly or indirectly related to
improving customer service.
It was essential that the provider that undertook the administration of the scheme
did so in a cost effective manner as the business operates in a tight regulatory
environment. It was also important that rewards offered would appeal to all across
the wide spectrum of business processes.
SolutionSevern Trent Water turned to Capital Incentives and Motivation to
implement a cheque book based reward and recognition incentive scheme called
‘Saying Thanks’.
To launch the campaign, each Business Manager was given a ‘Saying Thanks’
branded cheque book with a range of serial numbered cheques ranging from £25 -
£250 with a covering letter and instructions confirming their reward & recognition
budget. The cheques are presented with a personal letter of thanks at the discretion
of the Business Manager, to employees who have provided an exceptional
contribution. The recipients simply return the cheque to Capital Incentives in a pre-
paid envelope, specifying their choice of voucher from a selection on the rear of the
RewardsSevern Trent Water chose Capital Bond vouchers to provide recipients with
unlimited choice as they can be spent at over 140 famous high street stores from
fashion and accessories, home and DIY, leisure and travel to food and drink.
To complement the Capital Bond voucher and ensure the employees have
maximum choice, vouchers from Argos, Kingfisher, Leisure Vouchers, M&S, Next,
Toys R Us and WH Smith were also recommended.
‘Saying Thanks Awards’ are distributed to the recipient in a ‘Saying Thanks’
personalized voucher wallet, accompanied by a letter of Congratulations.
Capital Incentives & Motivation also manages the administration of the scheme
including the implementation of comprehensive audit procedures for every cheque
received the processing of cheques and the distribution of vouchers; this is
supported by provision of detailed management information.
ResultsThe scheme proves to be an ongoing success according to the Pay &
Benefits Manager,:
"The 'Saying Thanks' scheme has helped develop the manager and employee
relationship as there is a significant 'feel good factor' due to the fact the award is a
personal one made by the manager. The scheme has definitely been one of the
factors in helping the company improve its customer service levels reported to the
industry regulator. The overall company perception has also dramatically improved
through the introduction of the scheme.
“Employees’ achievements are now recognized upstream in the management
hierarchy and as a result this has increased job satisfaction and increased
The employees were also impressed with the scheme as one recipient comments -
“I always really appreciate receiving a 'Saying Thanks' award. It's nice to be
recognized for doing a bit extra and the Capital Bonds are useful as they can be
spent in so many different ways."

Business Case Studies Royal Bank of Scotland what is motivation?

Motivating through Total Reward

What is motivation?
For many years, management theorists have tried to understand what makes some
people work harder than others. Some of the motivation factors identified by
theorists can be seen at work in RBS.
Early theorists on staff motivation always looked at factors outside the individual.
Taylor and the 'piece rate'
Frederick W. Taylor (1911) was the creator of 'scientific management'. He felt that
every job was measurable and each element of a job could be timed. All managers
had to do was pay for every item the workers produced and they would work harder
to get more money. This led to a long established pay scheme called the 'piece
rate', where workers received a fixed amount for every unit of output. Schemes like
this are usually associated with manufacturing industries and are not appropriate
for a complex service-led organization like RBS.
Herzberg and 'two-factor' theory
Another theorist, Frederick Herzberg (1959), carried out a large-scale survey into
motivation in American industry. The results of his survey led him to develop a 'two-
factor' theory of motivation. Firstly, he established that if an employee's basic
needs (such as a suitable working environment and a basic rate of pay) were not
met, then this creates a source of dissatisfaction. Herzberg termed these 'hygiene
factors'. On the other hand, the presence of less tangible factors, such as the
provision of challenging work and recognition for doing well, can create or increase
work motivation. Herzberg termed these 'motivators'.
RBS has put in place several of Herzberg's 'motivators':
· employees get recognition for good work
· they have a collective sense of achievement when the whole business does well
· they gain extra responsibility and advancement through regular performance
· when RBS people do well in their work, the company rewards them.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

The theory of Abraham H. Maslow (1943) on staff motivation is also evident at RBS.
Maslow referred to a 'Hierarchy of Needs' which is usually drawn as a pyramid.
According to Maslow, the most basic needs on this hierarchy had to be satisfied
before workers could look to the next level. Basic physical needs were things like
shelter, food, warmth and bodily functions. Next, people had to feel safe in their
environment. RBS provides these basic needs wherever it creates jobs.
Maslow's higher levels of need are less obvious and less easy to describe but of
great importance. Social needs refer to the fact that we want to feel part of
something we share in. RBS creates the opportunity for its community of employees
worldwide to share in its common goals and vision for the group. It does this by
rewarding the people who contribute to its success through their commitment and
hard work.
RBS provides 'self actualization' by offering recognition, promotion opportunities
and the chance to develop a lifelong career with the Group.
The next level – 'esteem' - refers to our need to feel valued, that what we do
matters. The RBS mindset is that employees can 'make it happen' for themselves. It
provides opportunities for all employees through promotion or training and then
recognizes their achievements. Through this RBS employees can improve their self-
At the very top of Maslow's hierarchy is our human need for 'self actualization'. This
means we work hard in order to be as good as we possibly can be. RBS meets this
by offering recognition, promotion opportunities and the chance to develop a
lifelong career with the Group.

How Auditing Company X Works with Retaining Valuable Employees : Swedish Case
University essay from Högskolan i Jönköping/IHH, EMM (Entrepreneurskap,
Marknadsföring, Management)
Author: Josip Bogic; Elina Armanto; Maja Cassel; [2008]
Keywords: Retention; Auditing;
Abstract: Today, neither employees nor employers seem to take for granted that a
person will stay with the same firm until retirement. Yet, keeping employees for
longer periods is an imp-ortant challenge for firms. One industry where retention is
interesting is the auditing industry in Sweden, this because certain requirements
are needed to become an auditor. Firstly, the employee needs to have a Swedish
university degree, including specific courses within au-diting/accounting.
Furthermore, the person needs practical experience for a specific period of time.
Due to these statements the challenge of retaining and motivating valuable em-
ployees is crucial for the auditing firms, which is why we have chosen to do a case
study at Auditing Company X to see how they work with employee retention. We
have compared the findings to our chosen theory, which consist of four categories:
the hiring process, in-ternal labor market and career, motivation and performance,
and finally culture and leader-ship. These four categories are initially based on Leigh
Branham?s book: ?Keeping the people who keep you in business: 24 ways to hang
on to your most valuable talent? (Bran-ham, 2001).In our conducted case study, at
Auditing Company X, we have been able to conclude that the firm’s retention
practices are to a great extend in line with the theoretical framework. There are
some areas that need further attention from the company, such as an individua-
lized reward system and communication between managers and employees. Even
though there are some parts to work on the most important

spects of retention, such as having a holistic and long-term orientation, Auditing

Company X seems to have incorporated this into their practices successfully.

Retention: An explanatory study of Swedish employees in the financial sector

regarding leadership style, remuneration and elements towards job satisfaction
University essay from Växjö u

Author: Sanna Paulsson; Linda Lindgren; [2008]
Keywords: retention; remuneration; reward; leadership; leadership style;
management; motivation; employee;
Abstract: Introduction: Companies today are forced to function in a world full of
change and complexity, and it is more important than ever to have the right
employees in order to survive the surrounding competition. It is a fact that a too
high turnover rate affects companies in a negative way and retention strategies
should therefore be high on the agenda. When looking at this problem area we
found that there may be actions and tools that companies could use to come to
terms with this problem. Research told us that leadership, remuneration and
elements like participation, feedback, autonomy, fairness, responsibility,
development and work-atmosphere is important for job satisfaction and retention.
Object: The main objective is to increase the understanding regarding employee’s
retention in relation to leadership style, remuneration and elements such as
participation, feedback, autonomy, fairness, responsibility, development and work-
atmosphere in the Swedish financial
Sector. Method: We wanted to investigate how employee of the Swedish financial
sector prefers to be retained, and how they consider and react to the chosen areas.
The survey has a quantitative approach with a web based questionnaire and
includes 129 respondents from banks, insurance and finance companies. The
theoretical framework includes leadership and leadership style, financial as well as
non-financial remuneration and research done in later years regarding participation,
feedback, autonomy, fairness, responsibility, development and work-atmosphere
connected to retention.
Conclusion: The result shows that regarding leadership the respondents prefer
leadership based on relations were they feel appreciation. Both appreciations from
the closest manager as well as the company management influences employee job
satisfaction in a positive way. More money was the most common reason for
wanting to change jobs, and when asking how the remuneration system should be
designed, base pay with additional bonus and benefits were preferred. But also non
financial factors such as participation, feedback, autonomy, fairness, responsibility,
development and work-atmosphere must be taken in consideration to satisfy since
they seem to increase employees? Willingness to stay in the company.

What leaders can do to keep their key employees - Retention Management

University essay from Göteborgs universitet/Företagsekonomiska institutionen
Author: Lisa Hedberg; Maria Helnius; [2007-09-03T08:22:31Z]
Keywords: leadership; recruitment; communication; motivation; key organizational
members; retention management; employee turnover;
Abstract: Background: retention management is a highly topical subject and an
important dilemma many organizations might face in the future, if not facing it
already. We believe that the leader plays a key role in employee retention and
retention management. The concept of retention management can both have a
narrow, and a broader significance. Both parts of its significance are generally
included in this thesis. The background of the thesis present a few articles that
discuss issues that makes it important for the organization, and the leaders, to work
hard with retention management. The research is based on the leaders in the
Finnish case company Tradeka. Following key questions are intended to be
answered: What are the consequences between leaders actions and employees
retention? Which is the leader’s role when it comes to retaining employees? Purpose
statement: The purpose of the thesis is to investigate and analyze how company
leaders today can retain their key employees. How can the provision of key human
resources develop a long-term relationship that makes top employees stay in the
company? The study aims to establish the procedure leaders apply to retain
employees. The purpose is to compare the qualitative study, made at the case
company, with findings from the thesis theoretical framework. Research method:
The study is a qualitative, as well as a theoretical study where empirical findings
and theories has been compared. The intention of investigating and using the
Finnish company Tradeka Limited as a case company, is to make the information
from the theories more valid, and also the interest in how retention management
works in practice. Eleven qualitative interviews were conducted at Tradeka?s
financial department, both with supervisors and employees to get a broader view at
the phenomenon retention management. Result: Leaders and their skill in creating
a culture of retention, has becoming a key in why people stay and what usually
drives them away from a company. The leader has become the main factor in what
motivates people’s decision to stay or leave. For organizations to keep its key
employees their number one priority should be to look at their management,
because people leave managers and not companies. Characteristics in a leader that
are of importance, as the leader plays a key role in retention management is: trust
builder, esteem builder, communicator, talent developer and coach, and talent
finder. The leader’s relation to the employees plays a central role in retaining
employees, because employees need to feel involvement, and that their presence
count. When retention is a core value, good things happen for customers,
employees, and the company.

Motivation in practice - case study - sharesave schemes

Profit-share and sharesave schemes have provided good returns for the staff of
retailers and other large groups.
In 2002, Tesco paid out £50 million to just over 100,000 of its workers after holding
£38 million-worth of shares on their behalf for three years in its profit-share
Since 1999, when the shares were placed in trust for the employees, Tesco's share
price had risen by more than 30 per cent, from 188p to 258p when the scheme
matured. Employees were able to keep the shares or cash them in.
Staff can join Tesco's profit-share scheme after two years' service. The number of
shares allocated to each employee depends on the number of hours they work each
During 2002, Tesco, which has 195,000 staff, distributed more than £200 million
through sharesave and bonus schemes.
In February 2002, two Save As You Earn share schemes matured and released £116
million to 37,000 staff who had been saving into the schemes for either three or five
Savers who had started the scheme three years before could buy Tesco shares at
the 1998 option price of £1.36, while savers in the five-year scheme could buy at
83p per share. The shares they bought at these prices were actually worth about
£2.35 each.
Those who had saved the maximum £250 per month saw an investment over five
years turn into a maturity value of £49,000, a return of almost three times what
they put in.
Savers who put away as little as £10 per month saw the value of their investment
soar from £600 to £1,953 once the savings had been used to buy shares at the end
of the five-year term.
By contrast, if these employees had saved the same £10 per month into a savings
account paying the building society average of 4.8 per cent gross per year, each
would have £695.96 before tax after five years.
ATerry Leahy, chief executive of Tesco, said: "The popularity of SAYE has increased
dramatically in 21 years as staff recognise the value of the benefit. The most recent
three and five-year schemes to be offered to Tesco staff in October 2001 attracted
more than 63,000 applications. This equates to over one in four staff - more than 66
times the 1981 figure when 942 employees signed up for the scheme."
Most large companies operate share-save schemes for their staff. Under
government rules, employees can save between £5 and £250 per month into a
scheme, which can run for three, five or seven years with an option to buy shares in
the company at a price determined at the outset. This price is often the market
price at outset, but companies have the right to discount the market price by up to
20 per cent - which Tesco did.
Contributions are paid into a bank or building society account nominated by the
employer and interest is paid at a rate set universally by the Treasury. This year,
the rates were 3.67 per cent gross per annum for three-year schemes, 3.99 per cent
for five-year schemes, and 4.07 per cent for seven-year schemes.
Staff makes 36 payments into the three-year scheme, and 60 payments into the
five and seven-year schemes. Their savings are left in the deposit account for an
extra two years under the seven-year scheme.
At the end of the period, the employee has the right to choose whether to buy the
shares at the pre-determined option price with the savings they have made; or, if
the current market price has dipped below the price at outset, to take the savings in
cash, free of tax, instead.
Motivating for success - motivating employees - includes related article on
Nation's Business, March, 1988 by Sharon Nelton
Motivating For Success
Long ago, when he worked for someone else, H.C. Jackson of San Rafael, Calif.,
spent 15 or 20 minutes one day buoying up a group of employees, telling them how
good they were and how proud he was of them. Then his own boss walked in and
undid Jackson's pep talk. "You clerks are a dime a dozen," the boss declared. "I
could pick somebody off the street to do your job."
"Everybody was crushed," Jackson recalls. He knew it was impossible to replace his
people with just anybody off the street, he says, "but they didn't know that." It took
a long time to repair the damage.
When he was an employee of a Lansing, Mich., company called Stamp-Rite, Wendell
W. Parsons remembers being told he couldn't take time off to travel with his wife to
her grandfather's funeral in Delaware. His immediate supervisor refused without
offering a reason. "I didn't have anything earthshaking that had to be done; it was
just this guy who was telling me, 'No, you can't do it,'" says Parsons.
Though decades have passed, both Jackson and Parsons still feel the sting of these
incidents. Now, however, they are in command, and what they learned so long ago
has helped them unlock the secret to keeping their own employees motivated--in
effect, creating winners out of their employees so that their companies can thrive.
"It's so simple. Treat people the way you want to be treated. Be honest. Be fair,"
says Jackson, who started Jackson's Hardware, a company with $10 million in annual
sales and over 50 employees, in 1964.
In practice, however, Jackson and other managers who succeed in motivating their
workers demonstrate that applying that simple rule requires hard work. There is no
one-minute motivator, they say, no formula that can be applied easily and left to
operate on its own. The person at the top has to care--genuinely care--about
employees, and show that caring by treating each employee as an individual. Only
then will the employee care enough about the company to give his or her best all
the time.
What often seem to be timeworn techniques take on a new life and usefulness when
looked at as these managers see them.
Parsons worked his way through Michigan State University while employed at
Stamp-Rite, and now he owns the company. The $1.5 million-a-year firm makes
rubber stamps and identification products such as nameplates, name tags and
Empathy governs the way he treats his 25 employees, he says, because "I
remember what it was like being the engraver; I remember what it was like being in
the steel department and in the label department." The memories include good
ones, like the manager who made it a point to leave the front office every day and
find out how Parsons was. That someone cared enough to make sure he was doing
O.K. made a lasting impact on him, Parsons says.
It's not uncommon to hear business owners and managers complain that employees
just don't want to work or that they have poor attitudes. And laziness and lack of
commitment mean low productivity and a lower bottom line.
But many psychologists, business experts and business people dispute the notion
that employees are unmotivated.
"I think by nature people are interested in doing well, in being effective workers and
effective achievers," says Edward L. Deci, professor of psychology at the University
of Rochester, in Rochester, N.Y., and a specialist in human motivation. In cases
where people don't want to work hard, he maintains, "it's because they've had a set
of experiences that have alienated them from work."
Some experts even contend that the manager's job is not to motivate employees at
all. "Leaders who wish to believe that they must continuously scurry about
motivating everyone are destined to a fatiguing, ulcerating career," says Robert
Grandford Wright, a professor of organization theory at Pepperdine University, in
Malibu, Calif. "The fact is, we hire only motivated people."
If their motivation wanes, Wright suggests, it's because the leader dampens their
spirit. It's the job of the boss to create a workplace that "nurtures high motivation,"
he says, a place where motivated people can flourish.
"People want to feel effective, people want to feel free or autonomous or
responsible for them, and people want to feel involved or related or cared about by
other people," says Deci. "What we need to do is structure the workplace in such a
way that people can feel these things when they're doing their jobs."
What is "motivation" anyway?
"Motivation is excitement about work," Norman M. Scarborough and Thomas W.
Zimmerer say in Effective Small Business Management (Merrill Publishing Company,
Columbus, Ohio). While motivation does not guarantee high performance, they say,
"when employees (and owners and managers) are excited about their work, there is
a good likelihood that high performance will follow."
"Motivation is not a sign on the wall that says, 'Gee, let's get motivated,'" says
Harvey L. Miller, co-owner with his two brothers of Quill Corporation, a mail-order
office supply business in Lincolnshire, Ill. "It has to be a way of life." In his view,
creating the right corporate climate is what keeps employees at their peaks. And it
starts even before they are hired.

Motivate Your Employees

Creating a dedicated and motivated workplace isn't just about giving raises. Learn
how the best employers bring the best out of their employees.
Carl La Mell, the president of Clearbrook, a nonprofit organization based in Arlington
Heights, Illinois that specializes in helping children with developmental disabilities,
spends his time among a staff that loves him. Last year, they nominated him for the
Best Boss Award given out every year by Winning Workplaces, an organization that
honors small-to-midsize business leaders who inspire intensely dedicated
workforces. When a spokesman from Winning Workplaces called to inform him that
he had won along with 17 others, La Mell’s humble manner had actually prevented
him from learning that he had even made the finalists. “I thought the notification e-
mail was spam,” La Mell says with a smile. “I deleted it.”La Mell’s advice for small
business owners seeking to keep their own employees motivated is simple: “I think
it comes down to one word—respect,” La Mell says. “You have to respect
everyone’s job in your organization.” It’s easy to see that La Mell puts his own
advice into constant practice. As he makes his way through the Clear brook offices,
he takes the time to talk to each person he passes.
Though he jokes that he’s sometimes too open with his staff, La Mell believes that
listening to the advice of employees and acting on it is one of the best ways to keep
a staff motivated. “Even if an idea is bad, you’d rather have staff give you an idea
than not give you one,” La Mell says. “If you create an environment in which you
can’t come up with an idea, you stifle people. It doesn’t matter if the idea’s off the
wall. You could even tell them, ‘You’re off the wall’ and they’ll laugh if you do it with
respect and in the right way.”
Realizing that it was difficult to recognize his employees’ exceptional efforts off-site,
La Mell began giving customer service awards to employees who went above and
beyond their job description. Some nominations come from the families they serve;
others come from the staff themselves. “One of the things that I think is missing in
other places is the idea that customer service isn’t just about the customer,” La Mell
says. “It’s also the other departments you deal with.”In addition, he hosts a staff
recognition dinner every year in which he gives out awards based on years of
service. At the dinner, each department puts on a skit and the best skit wins a small
award like a free pizza. There are also holiday parties where employees can win
prizes. La Mell has also added financial incentives for performing well as determined
by a performance-based measurement system.
Leaders such as La Mell demonstrate that money is far from the only means of
motivating your employees. In fact, he believes that giving raises is one of the least
effective methods. Above all, La Mell believes that a properly motivated workplace
must begin with an enthusiastic and motivated employer
“It starts at the top,” he says. “If you show respect and keep an open environment,
then people will follow your lead.”

A Supervisor's Dilemma: How to Motivate Employees in Today's Economy

Supervisors at all levels and in different types of organizations find it harder than
ever to create a loyal and motivated work team, who will perform according to
management and customers' high expectations.
Gone are the days when organizations were content with average employees who
were rewarded with lifetime job security as a reward for expected performance
levels and good attendance. And gone are the days when employees were content
with an average wage, enabling them to satisfy basic personal needs. Reality has
created a new set of rules.
In today's shifting economy, organizations and businesses themselves in a constant
struggle for survival, often sacrificing jobs and employees along the way. As a
result, employees' strongest drive also became one for survival. Trust and loyalty
towards employer evaporated into thin air and have been replaced by economic
interests. Employers and supervisors must understand this scenario before
attempting to regain employees' trust, dedication and "love for the job".
It is supervisors who are sandwiched in between. They too are victim of the market
realities which bring frequent company acquisitions, mergers, restructuring and
downsizing of operations. Supervisors themselves fear for their jobs and their
future. Yet, to gain some sort of solid footing in the new environment, they must
prove their worth and succeed in achieving company goals. They cannot do so
without their employees' cooperation. They must ignore their own fears and feelings
of insecurity, doubts about the employer's agenda, and deliver a crew of first-class
performers. They are judged by results and results depend on their capacity to lead
a dedicated crew of flawless performers. The pressure is great.
Unfortunately, many supervisors attained their position based on yardsticks other
than proven leadership skills: technical know-how and past experiences unrelated
to similar crisis situations. The problem is further compounded by the fact that, in
their quest to cut down on expenses, employers do not offer supervisors the
specialized support and training they need. Supervisors are left to fend on their
own. Their drive to succeed becomes one for survival. Yet, this is a secret they must
keep to themselves.
They become avid readers of books and articles on the subject of employee
motivation. They conduct searches on the internet. They join newsgroups to either
"listen in" anonymously, ask questions, or discover the magic key. They try to
understand and internalize motivational theories, written for different economic and
market situations.
In the course of their search, they cast aside any awareness or insight they may
have had about the root of the problem and the reasons which led to employees'
mistrust and changed behavior. They try to instill enthusiasm among employees
and are taken aback when their best performers suddenly leave or behave like the
rest. In this dogfight for survival in an uncertain future, supervisors are quite often
undermined by
their own assistants who have an eye on their position. Assistants too are driven by
a fierce survival instinct and are not ready to wait for their careers to take its
natural course. They do not trust the future. With the emergence of technology, job
positions are being merged and eliminated by the day.
Unless supervisors get backing and commitment from upper management to deal
with employees' fear and loss of trust, there is little they can do. Left to their own
resources, all they can hope to accomplish is crisis management. Business owners
and upper management often forget this heavy burden the supervisor carries. Most
of their efforts are focused on economic issues.
They fail to see that supervisors are the unit leaders they send to the battlefield to
win the war. They also fail to see the value of the rank-and-file without whom the
war cannot be won. They seem oblivious to what is happening in the minds and
hearts of their people. They are too quick to condemn and replace. Most supervisors
face the dilemma of having to choose between appealing to management for the
help and guidance they urgently need, at the risk of losing their standing or position
within the organization, or trying to run the show on their own.
Motivational theories that can assist in understanding the issues
To help guide supervisors in their search for solutions for employee motivation, here
are brief descriptions of the motivational theories worth studying:
Abraham Maslow's theory of Motivation based on Needs: Self-Actualization, Ego,
Social Needs, Safety Needs, Physiological Needs
As applied to the workplace, we can translate it as follows, starting with the basic
PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS - Job security, basic physical needs: the ability to acquire
food, shelter, clothing and other basics to survive
SAFETY NEEDS - A safe and non-threatening work environment, job security, safe
equipment and installations
SOCIAL NEEDS - Contact and friendship with fellow-workers, social activities and
EGO - Recognition, acknowledgment, rewards
SELF-ACTUALIZATION - Realizing one's dreams and potential, reaching the heights
of one's gifts and talents.
Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Y, whereby he links employee motivation to the
way managers express themselves through attitude, behaviour and organizational
policies, and his encouragement to manage through democratic involvement rather
than unilateral authority.
Frederick Herzberg's two-dimensional theory, distinguishing between "Hygiene
Factors" and "Motivational Factors". He explains the hygiene factors (company
policy, supervision, interpersonal relations, working conditions and salary) as those
elements of the work environment which do not by themselves cause motivation
but whose absence lead to job dissatisfaction; while the motivational factors
(achievement, recognition, the work itself, responsibility and advancement) do in
effect cause increased job motivation.
William Ouchi's Theory Z, based on the model of Japanese management and the
theory that workers want to have a close, cooperative and participative working
relationship with the people they work for. Ouchi's motivational theory is also built
around people's individual value and the role they have in determining the
organization's success.
All the theories make sense. Though expressed from different perspectives, they
carry the same underlying message: Clarify objectives, get well organized in
management, know your employees well, extend to them respect and
acknowledgment, discover their assets and resourcefulness, use these
democratically to accomplish your goals, share goals with them, and reward them
for their contribution in achieving these goals.
It sounds logical and simple, but requires the commitment of upper management,
an investment in time, effort and money for actual application. In a situation where
upper management is not too ready to invest along those lines, the supervisor is left
to his own resources. He has the challenge of turning the situation around on his
own. With a clear objective, adequate preparation, organization, and systematic
implementation, he not only comes out the winner, but also leads to a win/win
situation between management and employees.
Growth through problem-solving
The best supervisors can do when embarking on such a project on their own, is to
adopt a problem-solving approach. To the extent possible, they must distance
themselves from their own personal interests and study the situation objectively. If
they feel comfortable approaching upper management, they can ask for outside
coaching assistance. If not, they can try doing it on their own with ’learning’
attitude. Instead of wasting energy on frustration, they can use their time to study
and analyze the organization, upper management's motives and strategies,
employee morale, performance, needs and expectations.
They can draw a plan on how management goals and employee goals can meet
half-way or, in the best of situations, merge. Bearing in mind that action plans by
themselves do not appeal to upper management unless translated into the costs
involved, supervisors are well advised to study and write down all the pros and
cons, and costs involved. The work must be thorough. In the course of their
problem-solving, supervisors must remember that the uppermost thought and
question of any party to a proposed solution is "What's in it for me?". The proposal
they submit must answer this all-important question, even if not articulated.
The supervisor grows and becomes a better leader through the problem-solving
process. It motivates him towards successful accomplishment. At this stage, it
would be wise for the supervisor to examine the changes he himself is going
through, the new skills he acquires, his thoughts and emotions towards employees
and the organization.
Can the same learning process be applied to employees?
If the supervisor presents them with a problem to solve, will it create this
excitement and selfless drive for successful achievement regardless of the existing
work environment? Will their thoughts and efforts be directed towards constructive
solutions rather than defensive and disruptive action? The supervisor can test this
notion by sharing with employees a work performance problem, inviting them to
solve it as a team.
If the discussion is held in a cooperative fashion, inviting their input, he would be
surprised to witness in them a change of attitude and eagerness to display their
knowledge and capability. The supervisor will discover that employees give their
best when treated as intelligent adults and are invited to participate in policies and
decisions which affect their lives and the business itself.
Employees often come up with solutions which escape management. They care for
the company's success. However, this success must not be at the sacrifice of their
own well-being and security but must be interwoven with their personal and
professional goals.
Driven by the survival instinct, and motivated to find solutions, employees'
creativity now comes into play. They make suggestions for business growth,
untapped markets, and unexplored opportunities such as possible new products and
services. The supervisor discovers a wealth of resources among his employees. He
gains their involvement and commitment. From supervisor, he turns into a leader.
In the process he also succeeds in regaining their trust. They now expect him to
influence upper management.
To maintain this trust, the supervisor acknowledges input and gives credit where
due. When presenting a winning idea to management, which may translate into
increased profits for the company, he makes sure to single out the employee or
group of employees who suggested it.

He can suggest developing the idea further with the involvement of those who
offered it. He can make sure the employees in question are acknowledged and
rewarded. This results in high employee motivation and even leads to additional
input by others. Employees now realize that they themselves can do something to
help secure their place of employment. Upper management realizes the value of
their employees. Through this example, management's stance may change to one
of sharing and joint problem-solving.
Whatever their level of education, the people who perform the actual work come
across situations which trigger thoughts for improvement. Supervisors must realize
this, and so should upper management. They should also realize that company
secrets are hard to keep. The busy grapevine keeps even the lowest ranking
employee informed of higher-up decisions and plans. Instead of letting fears and
doubts pervade the workplace, managers and supervisors can share future planning
with employees and help prepare them for opportunities and different scenarios.
In his book Job Shift - How to Prosper in a Workplace without Jobs, William Bridges
explains the employment and training needs of the new economy. He says that the
traditional concept of "job", as related to a specific position within a company, is
fast disappearing, being replaced by temporary team projects and task forces with
specific mandates. He advocates cross-training and advises employers to work
together with labor unions to create a multi-skilled work force who can dynamically
respond to company and market needs.
William Bridges goes even further, recommending that employers train employees
in business management and entrepreneurship. Their understanding of business
principles will help them contribute effectively to the company's success. Should
they lose their job, it will also help them establish their own independent businesses
to provide contracting services to the organization for which they worked. His
reasoning is that through this investment companies will gain efficient, loyal
contractors, attuned to the needs of the company. This concern for, and investment
in, future scenarios will ingrain unshakable trust and loyalty towards the company.
Before embarking on such a course, supervisors and managers must discover the
specific qualifications and shortcomings of all employees. Some of them may be
born leaders, coaches, facilitators, mediators, or may perform best when given clear
directives and placed in "active" roles. Shortcomings can be remedied. The entire
philosophy here is to share and help each other's survival and growth. The approach
is a caring one, as expected in a family setting. In the long run, it works out for the
best interests of all parties.
Organizations may not be ready yet for such a heavy commitment in employee
training and a sharing of responsibility for the future. However, this philosophy has
its merits and can inspire the supervisor in his quest for solutions within the present
work environment. If convinced of the need to care for employees' future, the
supervisor will find the solution which will best fit the organization and its people.
He will succeed in influencing management thinking one step at a time. Employees
will sense this and will acknowledge him as leader. He will find his motivational
problems resolved. Employee motivation is closely related to the quality and style
of leadership. By creating a "caring" and participative environment, the supervisor
succeeds in motivating his employees even when the organization is not yet ready
to face work force realities.
Motivation is an important concept that has been receiving considerable attention
from academicians, researchers and practicing HR managers. In its essence,
motivation comprises important elements such as the need or content, search and
choice of strategies, goal-directed behavior, social comparison of rewards
reinforcement, and performance-satisfaction.
The increasing attention paid towards motivation is justified because of several
reasons. Motivated employees come out with new ways of doing jobs. They are
quality oriented. They are more productive. Any technology needs motivated
employees to adopt it successfully.
Several approaches to motivation are available. Early theories are too simplistic in
their approach towards motivation. For example, advocates of scientific
Management believe that money is the motivating factor. The Human Relations
Movement posits that social contacts will motivate workers.
Mere knowledge about the theories of motivation will not help manager their
subordinates. They need to have certain techniques that help them change the
behavior of employees.
One such technique is reward. Reward, particularly money, is a motivator according
to need-based and process theories of motivation. For the behavioral scientists,
however, money is not important as a motivator. Whatever may be the arguments,
it can be stated that money can influence some people in certain circumstance.
Being an outgrowth of Herzberg’s, two factor theory of motivation, job enrichment is
considered to be a powerful motivator. An enriched job has added responsibilities.
The makes the job interesting and rewarding. Job enlargement refers to adding a
few more task elements horizontally. Task variety helps motivate job holders. Job
rotation involves shifting an incumbent from one job to another. This reduces
boredom and disinterest.
OB Mod uses the reinforcement principle of B.F. skinner to give the management a
powerful technique to change employee behavior. Several reputed organizations in
a America have used OB Mod programmes successfully to achieve positive results.

Motivation is essential for each and every organization because its helps in avoiding
the frustration and it also create the healthy work environment. . This concern for,
and investment in, future scenarios will ingrain unshakable trust and loyalty towards
the company. The word motivation stands for movement. Every manager should
have both interest and concern about how to enable people to perform task willingly
and to the best of their ability. Motivation is essential for any company because
employee is Asset of company. Motivation is important for the growth of employees
as well as growth of the organization.
Motivated employees help organizations survive. Motivated employees are more
productive. To be effective, managers need to understand what motivates
employees within the context of the roles they perform. Motives can only be
inferred, but not seen. The dynamic nature of needs offend poses challenge to any
manager in motivating his or her subordinate. An employee, at any given time, has
a various needs, desire, and expectations. Employees who put in extra hours at
work to fulfill their needs or accomplishment may find that these extra hours
conflict directly with needs for affiliation and their desire to be with their families.

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