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A Portrait of Hecate Author(s): Patricia A. Marquardt Source: The American Journal of Philology, Vol. 102, No. 3 (Autumn, 1981), pp.

243-260 Published by: The Johns Hopkins University Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/294128 . Accessed: 15/01/2014 01:28
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15 Jan 2014 01:28:13 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . as the division was initially in the beginning . American Journal of Philology Vol. called Hecate.1 freedom to exercise extraordiAlthough Hesiod makes HIecate's nary power dependent upon Zeus' dispensation (e. sea and sky and remain independent and undiminished under Zeus' rule: The son of Cronus neither constrained her nor took away anything of what she obtained by lot among the Titans of early day. in heaven and on sea (Th. 411-52) proclaims a goddess whose unique powers cut across natural boundaries of earth. West. is depicted as a deity closely involved in the affairs of the community with powers broadly founded in the natural world. 423-27). No. but she holds.26. Both authors reject the theory that the passage is a later interpolation.g. n. honors on earth. Hesiod: Theogony (Oxford 1966) and Hesiod: Works and Days (Oxford 1978). 406 A PORTRAIT OF HECATE A striking portrait of an extraordinary goddess appears at the center of the Theogony. The goddess.. 169. The major arguments for and against the authenticity of the Hecate-passage are discussed by Friedrich Solmsen. The characteristics of this curious goddess are the subject of my paper-first the picture of Hecate that emerges from the text of Hesiod and then an examination of the Hesiodic portrait in light of the archaeological evidence. 243-260 $01. and West (Theogony) 276-80. I. 102 Pp..16. The Textual Evidence The Hymn to Hecate (Th. 412-15) I I use throughout the texts established by Martin L.AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHILOLOGY VOLUME 102. Hesiod and Aeschylus (New York 1949) 51.5 on Wed. 3 WHOLE No.00 ? 1981 by The Johns Hopkins University Press 0002-9475/81/1023-0243 This content downloaded from 138.

The fostering presence of the goddess means success and renown in courts and assemblies.5 on Wed. he in no way diminishes her godhead which plays an important role in the life of men. Cf. Hecate is seen as a vital factor in the success of human endeavor: For even now when any one of men on earth propitiates the gods by making auspicious sacrifices according to custom. wars and games. Finally. may reflect only ritual. MARQUARDT and frames the description of her broad powers (429-47) with specific references to Zeus' practice of preserving and granting honor (411-28. From the political assembly to the farmer's stable. 416. This content downloaded from 138. but only Hecate in the Theogony holds the title of KOVpOTpO0tPo (450. he calls upon Hecate by name (n. to Ar. marriage and death.18). 452). Cults of the Greek States (Oxford 1896) 11. o5qrJv 'AOivaiov irav- raxoo ikpvoqpevov avl7v o5qEoopov idvrwv Kai (Fr. 436). See Lewis Farnell. especially if she is invoked with other gods. The lines (419-20) which 2 There is literary evidence that Hecate was worshipped as a Kovporpo(Do0 in cult: schol. 81-82). a KOvpOTp6tpoc.8.244 PATRICIA A. Hecate's beneficent functions are also discussed by Martin Nilsson. Vesp. who raised the young Zeus on Crete (479-80).2 Hecate is a direct force in human life. who attend upon favored princes from the time of their birth (Th. Scholia KOVpOZpO6(OV.16.26. Hecate was believed to be present at the three most important moments in life: at birth. 448-51). 432. Hildesheim 1969] 153). This is particularly true of the central section (429-47). in battles and athletic contests. 722. joins company with the Muses. Geschichte der griechischen Religion (Munich 19673) I. She is said to "sit by" kings (434) and "stand by" horsemen (439). Graeca In Aristophanem [1877. Hecate's presence in such prayers.39). 804: 'EKdralov-iepov 'EKdri?. Orph. Three times irapayiv6rai describes her personal involvement in affairs of state. which recites her broad involvement in the political and personal affairs of men. Hecate's presence extends also to the more mundane affairs of life. 1. and in this capacity she is a nurse of the young. and with Gaia. Dubner. Expressions of Hecate's immediacy in the lives of men and her benevolent nature form a recurring theme in the Hymn. and in horsemanship (429.519. where her favor means a good catch at sea and success in animal breeding (440-47). The Oceanids also "bring up men from boyhood" (d'WpaqKOVpiKOvcI. in all of which she has power to aid and advance her favorites (429. Hymn.347). 15 Jan 2014 01:28:13 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and the account of her activities illustrates this immediacy.

Though technically contemporary with them. through her aunt Leto (406). As with Hecate's genealogy. however. Zeus. 15 Jan 2014 01:28:13 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . we are told.26. especially since the mention of Hecate as an only child frames the recitation of her independent powers and. might also suggest an original genealogy outside the Olympian family. A similar statement follows immediately upon the enumeration of her powers (448-49). is accompanied by a statement of the honor which Zeus and the other gods accord her. and the mention of Rflog anticipates the detailed account of her blessings in lines 429-52. The fact that Hecate is also the sole offspring of a less celebrated branch of the family makes her extraordinary position of honor among the younger gods all the more remarkable. state that when Hecate is well disposed (7rpotppov) she accepts prayers (e6XaW)and rewards the suppliants with wealth (Rfloq). . 412). the first cousin of Apollo and Artemis (918-20). gifts" (dyAaa' 67pa.16. . whose own parents are the Titans Phoebe and Coeus (404). on both occasions. The lines quoted above may also mean that men summon Hecate when they want to gain favor with the gods in general (iXdaKOv-ral). .11). Hecate is clearly older and has closer affinities to the Titans than to the Olympians. Hecate's extraordinary role in the affairs of men is underscored by her relative independence in the divine genealogy. as though Hecate were an intermediary between men and gods.q among the gods. however. Hesiod makes her the daughter of Perses and Asteria (409. Such an interpretation would not be inconsistent with her personal involvement in men's lives or with her extraordinary ri. honored Hecate exceed411. the goddess received not less of her share of privilege and honors . 426-28).12) and gave her "splendid ingly (7repi irdvrcov . The absence of siblings.5 on Wed. if not actually anachronistic. specifically a share (uolpa) of earth and This content downloaded from 138. Hesiod seems at pains to define the source of her Tlur. but even more.iuque. . The genealogy provided for Hecate makes her.A PORTRAIT OF HECATE 245 immediately follow these. The emphasis on Hecate's status as an only child is generally viewed as an example of Zeus' fairness in preserving the rights of a deity who has no brothers to defend her claim. Hecate's presence in these prayers seems more than ritualistic. but he is careful to emphasize Hecate's status as an only child: Although an only child. since Zeus honors her (TIh.

which are now shown to predate Zeus. 425) of power among the Titans. he concludes the Hymn with the statement that Hecate was a KOVpOTpO(oo0 "from the beginning" (!X dpxig.3 Among the descendants of Gaia and Uranus. which nor took away (dirtq6pa. 450). Th.u6q. This content downloaded from 138. heaven.Although (1i. The riprjthat Zeus grants is prerogative or office (e.u. he returns to a form of udipo. 15 Jan 2014 01:28:13 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . note 1) 10. an expression used in line 425 to describe her original powers among the Titans. 414) in heaven. Hesiod returns to a broader definition of her powers.246 PA TRICIA A. 74. the implication is that Zeus gave her this honor before his own rise to power. . . 426). Pfister. Hecate also "obtained her share of privilege" (4Eqopc Tripuf. Again. . Arthur W.26.wi. see Fr. 415). "Die HekateEpisode in Hesiods Theogonie. grant wealth and great honor (7roA4 . 393)." Since Hecate was contemporary with the Titans (424). 427) on earth. 1udXaia. For the ripw-motif as evidence for the authenticity of the Hecate-passage.u4. For a in Hesiod. where the verb seems rather to suggest Zeus' own benevolent role in the distribution of -ri. discussion of ripuo Adkins. MARQUARDT sea (413).g.iai KOVpOTpotpOc.g. Merit and Responsibility (Oxford 1960) 63-64. She holds the gift of honor (ytpas. Further ambiguity exists in the phrase #ET' &KdVqV (450) which over all those born states that Zeus made Hecate a KOVpOTpO65po "after her.5 on Wed. Cf. If there was an independent religious tradi3 The ripwthat Hecate grants men (418) is probably esteem in general or social status bound up with the material blessings (o. 418) to mortals. Hesiod's use of a form of Xayxavco ("obtain by lot") in this context suggests Hecate's independent participation in an earlier division of power and has a different connotation than the use of pdpopuai ("have one's share of a thing") in line 414 (Eu1ope). 452). 422). 422) and she holds her appointed lot (afua. in keeping with the original division ( c5a. The distribution of rvui plays an important part in the Theogony (e. where she was especially honored among the gods (TeTiuvtv.flos) she bestows. and the entire Titanomachy is described as a struggle to retain it (881-82). 112. There is similar ambiguity in defining the source of Hecate's power as Zeus' dispensation (OrKC Hesiod specifically assigns this role to & HIv Kpoviktq KOvpOTpO0pov. After mentioning the 420) to respect accorded Hecate on earth and her power (560va.16. Zeus neither constrained (tfliarnao) 423). Hecate obtained by lot her rank or province (-ri/lPjv iaaxov." Philologus 84 (1929) 1-9.opc Tljur .18. and sea. when Hesiod states that Hecate's status as an only child did not damage her standing with Zeus but won her all the more honor.I. see Solmsen (above. 396) and the glory attached to it.

The unpredictability of Hecate's favor is a recurring theme in the Hymn. which presumably go beyond affection or familial ties. Hecate's extraordinary position of honor with Zeus is all the more striking because her powers. 15 Jan 2014 01:28:13 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Princes. in the manner of a liturgical refrain. for example. and games touches as well upon the realms of Zeus. but actually run across the lines of his orderly dispensation. fishermen. it would account for Hesiod's difficulty in comfortably defining her -rig' in relation to Zeus. battles. are in no way required by Zeus. but her wide range of activities involving courts. She is linked specifically to Poseidon in matters of fishing (441) and to Hermes in matters of animal breeding (444). politicians. at least. are never mentioned by Hesiod. unlike those of Styx (385-88). as when Hesiod states that great honor comes easily to him whose prayers a "well disposed" (7rpOtppov) Hecate accepts (419). and line 428 may be taken to mean that far from reducing Hecate's original powers. The sequence moves from a general statement of Hecate's independence in granting favor to mortals to specific instances of the working of her will. and is echoed by five other t0tXw-phrases appearing at the ends of the lines. and herdsmen are all recipients of her favor "if so she will.av (Warriors) ois K' WAt0rX l This content downloaded from 138.16. where Hecate's anticipated response to men's prayers is mentioned earlier: 429 430 432 c'b tAE 1icyd'Acoq iapayivcrai 46' 6vivigriv (Politicians) o'v K' WAt. assemblies. where declarations of Hecate's powers alternate with repetitions of her independence in wielding them.5 on Wed. Hecate is honored by men and gods alike.26. Her unpredictability is particularly pronounced in the nineteen-line segment commencing at 429.A PORTRAIT OF HECA TE 247 tion surrounding Hecate. warriors. although her only-child status might have permitted it. horsemen. An independent religious tradition would also explain why Hecate overlaps other deities and therefore seems to have a different ytpas from theirs in the same area of human endeavor. Zeus' reasons for honoring Hecate. Zeus out of honor for the goddess actually increased them. and Athena.t." The opening declaration of Hecate's ability to support and profit men is repeated at 436. This striking sequence commences with c3 5' t0tJ. Ares. and the use of 7rpo(pOvew5 ("in a well disposed manner") at 433 echoes 7rpo(ov at 419.

"willing it so. most recently. The negativity inherent in the formula of divine prerogative (a1 K' tOtAX)is highlighted in the Works and Days in the Fable of the Hawk and Nightingale. The from a few and reduces (jueiova "ease" of Hecate's actions is expressed three times in these lines (438. (438). if I will (al K' tOt2O).248 PA TRICIA A. flpidei (447). The Winged Word (Albany 1975) 253. The citing of the alternative actions available to the hawk recalls the verbal pattern used to describe Hecate's power. d8'4eiv(444). 207-9). 7rapayiverai 43' 6vivcri 438 Aeta 442 bA5ii3kcO. 442. even though you are a songbird. K' I&AOiciv (Horsemen) [439] taiOA aciOA 435 436 EvOa Oea Kai roi. and only in this context do any moderately negative words appear. 443 A5eTa (Fishermen) AOIAovad yE OvuJ 444 AciOA4 y' AOtAovua (Herdsmen) 446 Ov#u63 Scattered throughout this sequence are a number of strongly positive words which demonstrate the beneficent working of her will: /1&a7rpt7el (430). "Easily the glorious goddess. (433). "Hesiod's Hymns to the Muses.16. Styx and Hecate. 15 Jan 2014 01:28:13 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . as the hawk uses superior strength to justify acts of violence and injustice: Wretched one. An etymology of Hecate's name from gKtIr ("Willing Goddess") has been suggested by Peter Walcot.. viKafrnaa.26. MARQUARDT 7rpo(po'vewC. KV5o0. it is inherent in her "will" to withhold her favor and even to punish men. Aphrodite. This content downloaded from 138. grants a large haul and easily she takes it away (dqeiAeTo) as soon as sighted" (442-43). why do you shriek? Someone stronger than you now holds you tight and you must go wherever I lead you. willing it so.f3O." Symb Oslo 34 (1958) 11-12. 444). KaXov de6ov (437). 433 o0. she increases OKev) from many" (446-47). The full spectrum of Hecate's power becomes clear in her relations with fishermenand herdsmen. VlK17V. says Hesiod. Although Hecate is presented positively as a goddess whose primary concern is to help men.4 While 4 For the Fable as a statement of inexorable divine power. and Berkley Peabody.5 on Wed. K. Charles Beye. Ancient Greek Literature and Society (New York 1975) 109. I shall make my dinner of you. or I shall set you free (Op. see. The flocks and herds.

who proclaim their ability to make false things seem true and to speak the truth "when they will" (EiVT' WiA6owuEv. It is significant. 444). This content downloaded from 138. The description of Hecate's relationship to the state may have been intended to illustrate her personal involvement in the highest of human activity. Such sweeping statements of divine prerogative are not inconsistent with a deity of Zeus' magnitude-or with one of unusual local prominence.5 on Wed. and easily (4Ta) he straightens the crooked and shatters the haughty (Op. whose divine prerogatives and independence are explicitly stated in the Theogony. 91-92). In addition to stressing Hecate's freedom of will. though.7ri). the people accord him godlike honors with gentle reverence. Three times in this sequence Hecate is declared to be "good" (AaOA4. The verbal parallels with Hecate are obvious. 3-7). easily he brings down the prominent and prospers (d~eEi)the obscure. The Muses wait upon honored princes who settle disputes with "honest judgments" (85-86): Upon his arrival in their midst. 435.26. at the will of great Zeus (Aio ueyd)oio 6K. 28). and he is distinguished among the assembled (ih. the full spectrum of her power admits the possibility of negative will. named and unnamed. that the Muses and Hecate. 439.A PORTRAIT OF HECATE 249 Hecate herself in no way resembles the hawk in Hesiod. Of Hecate it is said: She sits with respected kings in judgment and whom she wills is distinguished in the assembly among the people (nh. Expressions of Hecate's independence in granting favor recall the opening lines of the Works and Days in which the wide range of Zeus' power is set forth: Through him mortal men are celebrated and uncelebrated.16. the rhythmical repetition of MA6o in lines 429-47 serves to reinforce the goddess' benevolence and as such may reflect an aspect of her actual worship. 15 Jan 2014 01:28:13 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . There are other parallels between the Muses and Hecate. For easily (fe'a) he fosters (fipidei) and easily (j5ia)he destroys whom he has fostered. 429-30). should alone be described as physically present in the political endeavors of men (80-86. The only other instance in the Theogony of this use of MA6o occurs in the account of the Heliconian Muses.

"The Structure and Aim of the Theogony. Fest. there is essentially only the Hesiodic portrait. 160. She is also a goddess who receives and answers men's prayers. For the antiquity of the cult of the Heliconian Muses. 364 n. 6 This has been shown by Nilsson. Mayer in RE s. 141. Hecate's Carian origins are also argued by This content downloaded from 138. Op. the full prerogative of demonstrating her powers. Rel. Her origins appear to lie in the Near East. Hesiod's encounter with the Muses on Helicon had a profound effect on his life (7in. see Paus. Cf. MARQUARDT 429-30). 15 Jan 2014 01:28:13 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 22-34. For the joint worship of the Muses and Eros at Thespiae. Among the gods. the characteristic of Hecate most stressed is her closeness to men and her presence in their daily affairs. Both although the Muses limit their attenfunction as KOVpOZp6O(oi. Hesiod and the Near East (Cardiff 1966) 166. 11. Frazer (ed. There is an unusual immediacy to both which suggests that Hesiod knew them as real figures of religious cult. for Hecate. Peter Levi (ed. "Musai" XVI. 1 (1933) cols.6 5 G. Pausanias'Description of Greece (Cambridge 1897. Peter Walcot. Correspondingly. see Martin Nilsson.). then. 656-59). Reprint New York 1965) V. Geneva 1962) 77-80.v. (above. There is external evidence of a strong religious tradition surrounding the Muses. The textual evidence. Hecate overlaps with other deities in the same areas of human endeavor. although of a late date. excavated by the French School from 1881-1891. particularly in Caria. tions to princes (81-82).26. and among men. n. declares Hecate to be a goddess of especial prominence and the object of religious devotion. are numerous. note 5) 397.3 and Plutarch (Amat. and Gesch. 147-48 and 150-52. discusses some untraditional elements in Hesiod's accounts of the Muses and Hecate. Middlesex. where personal names compounded with her name are common and where monuments. 3. In the exercise of her broad powers.250 PATRICIA A. and West (Theogony) 152. she possesses unique status and honor.). describes in detail the archaeological remains. England 1971) 1. gr.5 We may examine Hesiod's depiction of Hecate in greater depth by comparing it with the archaeological evidence. Pausanias: Guide to Greece (Penguin. 9. note 2) 722. 143 and 369 n.16. Griech. James G. 696-98. (above. of the Muses' temples at Thespiae and in the Grove of the Muses on Helicon.5 on Wed." HIsiode et son influence (Entretiens Fondation Hardt 7. Griechische Feste von religioser Bedeutung (Leipzig 1906) 440. Kirk. S. The Archaeological Evidence Very little can be said with certainty about the early Hecate.31. 1).

The Carian Hecate was widely worshipped in the East and enjoyed cult-unions with various gods (423-24). was Artemis-Hecate: A. Murray. 'Die Religion der Griechen (1926. Hecate's numerous cults in the Near East and Greece are listed by Steuding in RL s. N. which lasted until the fourth century A.. more in keeping with the later Hecate. but the altar may be seventh. 9 The bustrophedon inscription recording the dedication to Hecate by the prytaneis Euthras and Leodamas is sixth century. Paris 1958) 344-425. A thorough survey of the different types of Hekataea from the fifth century to the Roman era is found in Kraus. "Hekate" 1.264-65.26. made by Alcamenes.10The earliest known representation of Hecate.2). together with Zeus Panamaros. cols.v. S. A History of Greek Sculpture (London 1890) 11. 141. particularly the orgiastic mysteries on Aegina and Samothrace. where Hecate appeared with Apollo as the protectress of entrances. Poseidon and Hermes were worshipped jointly. This temple was part of the early Propylaea. and enjoyed cultunions with various deities. J. 245-46.. which may have dated to the Archaic Period (p. 95-187. suggests that Hecate at Eleusis was identified with Artemis Propylaea. note 6) 11-13. involved features. Hecate enjoyed much of the dignity and political importance accorded her by Hesiod. 8 Annual reAtrai to Hecate on Aegina. see Richardson (supra) 5-12.A POR TRAIT OF HECA TE 251 In Caria. 7).30.30. see Kraus (above.7 Her other eastern cults. including Gaia. depicts the goddess in single Theodor Kraus.5 on Wed. and Nilsson. such as the offering of dogs. The Homeric Hymn to Demeter (Oxford 1974) 155 and 328-29. 1. Richardson (ed. note 5) 111. 2. De Graecorum Nominibus Theophoris (Dissertationes Philologicae Halenses) 20 (1912) 62-67. 398-400. She was the protectress of Stratonicea. note 6) 66-70.). This statue is also discussed by Frazer (above.16. Cultes indigenes en Carie (Bibliotheque des ecoles franqaises d'Athenes et de Rome 188. For the dating of the Hymn to Demeter. For the inscription and a discussion of Hecate's and Apollo's roles as guardians of the gateways at Miletus. This content downloaded from 138. '0 The proper name of the Hecate-Epipyrgidia. Otto Kern.8 The earliest inscriptional evidence for the cult of Hecate is sixth century and occurs on an altar in the temple of Apollo Delphinius at Miletus. 2. were reputed to have been founded by Orpheus (Paus. Fest. however. Griech. 15 Jan 2014 01:28:13 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 1885-1888. For Hecate's orgiastic mysteries on Samothrace. Hekate: Studien zu Wesenund Bild der Gottin in Kleinasien und Griechenland (Heidelberg 1960) 24-56.9 She retained this role in the West and a triple statue of her as Hecate-Epipyrgidia stood in the fifth century near the entrance to the Athenian Acropolis on the site of the later temple of Nike (Paus. Cf. A list of names compounded from Hecate (Hekat/o) is included in Ernest Sittig. who shared a temple with Poseidon at the entrance to the sanctuary. n. Berlin 1963) 1. 7Hecate's temple at Stratonicea and her role as protectress of the city with Zeus Panamaros are examined by Alfred Laumonier.D. who proposes a specific sanctuary in which Hecate. see Kraus (above.2).2 (1886-1890).

The earliest representations of Hecate in triple form (Hekataea) date.zptoTtiv Apavv4v. #23a. 1. in fact. see Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff.). These mountain-thrones are discussed by Kraus. 13 Hecate was also known as Pheraea from Pherae and her cult was widespread in Thessaly. 26-29. Hecate seems totally without chthonic associations. W.16. Fragmenta Hesiodea (Oxford 1967) 13. In the Theogony. now in the Berlin Antiquarium (Mus. were dedicated to Hecate in the Hellenistic Period on the islands of Chalcis and Rhodes. 173-76. Hecate's underworld characteristics and identification with black magic did not begin to dominate in literature until the late fifth century with the appearance of Euripides' Medea (395-97). The association of Orph. The statuette of Hecate. West (eds.252 PA TRICIA A. Fate and the Gods (London 1965) 20 and 342-43." Textual evidence for Hecate's early presence in the cult at Eleusis is provided by the Hymn to Demeter. 13 " Pausanias (2. see Erwin Rohde. 155 and 295. to this period.5 on Wed. Hecate lives in a cave (24-25) and carries a torch (52) but is not strongly chthonic. L.30. Farnell. and only the inscribed dedication of her worshipper distinguishes the goddess as Hecate. Death. B.I2 Theodor Kraus theorizes that Hecate was transformed from a great goddess. is inscribed AIFON ANE6EKEN 6EKATEI. who appeared in Athens in the fifth century carrying with her the strong traditions of Thessalian witchcraft. and A.1:Elvo5iav 'EKdztrv KAKicW. 12 In h. Cer. For copious notes on Hecate's demonic nature. like the Hesiodic Hecate. Psyche. Hesiod is silent about them. which was part of her cult at Aegina. #TC 7729). Zeus (Cambridge 1925) 1. resembling thrones. Der Glaube der Hellenen (Berlin 1931) 1. This content downloaded from 138. The demons associated with the later Hecate are discussed by B. trans. 549-5 1). into a goddess of witchcraft through identification with the Thessalian road-goddess Einodia. Cf. 141-42. as Hesiod most certainly envisioned her. On the identification of Eindoia with Hecate. note 2. In the Hymn. Einodia as a cult-title was associated with Artemis. Op.26. 15 Jan 2014 01:28:13 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 122-26 and 252-55. A double rock-cut throne on Chalcis was dedicated to both Zeus and Hecate. Several rock formations. Cook. She looks very matronly. B. Selene and Persephone. 438-40. Merkelbach and M. Hymn.2) mentions Myron's archaized wooden statue of a single Hecate. The depiction recalls the seated Cybele figures. which were not related specifically to her role in the chthonic cult at Eleusis. Hecate is the attendant of Persephone and often appears with her on vases (Richardson. Cf. C. Hillis (New York 1925) 322-25 and 590-95. One of the fragments from the Catalogue of Women calls Artemis elvo5ia: R. MA RQUA RDT form. If she had any in the Archaic Period. note 9. The terracotta statuette from sixth-century Athens shows Hecate seated stiffly on a throne and wearing a long gown and headpiece. Dietrich.

see Wilamowitz (above. Hesiode (Bude.. as supported by the Homeric Hymn however.26. suggests that the frequency of Cr(e)ius. Paris 19642) 21-24.). That a local festival of Hecate in Boeotia provided the occasion for the first performance of the Theogony has been proposed by B. consisting largely of Hecataea. 14 For the transmission of the cult of Hecate from Asia Minor to Greece. 20-23). The whole is a telling example of the sort of extension that might be given to a single divinity who had once been the vital cult-object of a small locality. see Farnell (above. Cer. note 2) 552-54. Montreal 1972) 17-26. "Hesiod.16. note 7) 424. see Laumonier (above. 15 Jan 2014 01:28:13 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and Walcot (above. West (Theogony) 278. The absence of monuments from an earlier period does not preclude her presence in Greece. T. and West (Theogony) 44-45 and 278.'4 Hecate's presence in the cult at Eleusis. La Composition litteraire archaique grecque (Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen 65 [2]. Since Hecate in the Theogony had a broad.A PORTRA IT OF HECA TE 253 In central Greece. For Hecate's connection with roads. is fifth century and later." First International Conference on Boeotian Antiquities (McGill Univ. Wade-Gery. note 13) 170-71. Coeus. note 5) 27. who evaluates Hecate's role in the Theogony thus: "Hekate has here become so much the universally revered goddess that she has lost all definite personality in the process. A. Attica and Boeotia appear to have had the strongest cults of Hecate." This content downloaded from 138. note 12) 323.'5 Hesiod's portrait of Hecate may be profitably compared with the depictions on two Boeotian vases of the eighth century. who links Hesiod's father to a group of Hecate-worshipping emigrants from Aeolian Cyme who settled in Boeotia for several years before setting out with the Chalcidians and Eretrians of Euboea in the second half of the eighth century to found Cyme in Italy. Amsterdam 1958) 269-70. for in later times offerings were set out for Hecate at the crossroads and she herself was known as "Antaea" (cf. which are roughly contemporary with Hesiod. personal involvement in the affairs of men. Kraus would place her arrival as early as the Mycenaean Age (pp. Schachter. as she did in fifth-century Athens when altars were erected to her in front of individual homes. Female trinities as a Boeotian cult-type are examined by A. and Astraeus as men's names in the Archaic Age may be a reflection of the popularity of Hecate. and by Rohde (above. The first.5 on Wed. "Some Underlying Cult Patterns in Boeotia. van Groningen. although the archaeological evidence. for the theory that the Hecate-passage was composed specifically for the funeral games of Amphidamas at Chalcis. I5 For these household altars. The antiquity of the cult of Hecate in Boeotia is also argued by Paul Mazon (ed. h. 52)." Phoenix 3 (1949) 87. See H. argues for an earlier arrival in Greece. she might well have enjoyed private or even family cults in Archaic Greece. a Hecate and Hermes may derive from their connection with roads and crossroads.

but the determined goddess roams everywhere killing the race of wild beasts. Dian. Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion (19223. This content downloaded from 138. Earth shudders and the sea teeming with fish.'6 0:_~~~0 At first glance. Although Farnell (522-23) identifies the figure on this vase as Artemis.Reprint New York 1955) 265-66." Mitteilungen des deutschen archaologischen Instituts 50 (1925) 160-62. (h. 27. particularly the lions who face her and touch her skirt with their paws.5 on Wed. MA RQ UA RD T painted amphora. She is flanked by fiercelooking lions with raised feet and protruding tongues. and on her skirt is a large fish. 15 Jan 2014 01:28:13 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . wing-like arms above which are large waterfowl. The same goddess. depicts a goddess with outstretched. and Jane Harrison. the figure on the vase seems to be the typical lrorvia OqpCv.26.The clustering of living creatures around her. presumably.6-10) 16 An illustration and discussion of the vase now in the National Museum at Athens (Mus.r6va O?pcov.254 PA TRICIA A. he points out that the depiction is an example of the widespread artistic motif of the o'.16. in the manner of Artemis in the Homeric Hymn: The peaks of the lofty mountains tremble and the shaded wood resounds terribly with the screams of wild beasts. could either foster animal life or destroy it. #5839) can be found in Otto Kern. "Elfenbeinrelief aus Kleinasien. illustrates her dominance over them.

and sheep. not wild animals. and herdsmen. the goddess on the vase could represent Hecate. however. Hesiod declares her to be a KOVpOrpo(poo (450.g. especially the young (e. 415). 325 B-D). 15 Jan 2014 01:28:13 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . but she is powerful specifically over land. She appears in the pens as the farmer's helper rather than as a huntress in the wilds. the middle voice may hint at some proprietary interest in the creatures of the sea themselves. the natural realms suggested artistically on the vase by the lions. After describing Hecate's role among animals belonging to men. It is noteworthy that red mullets were sacrificed to Hecate in the Eleusinian Cult (Ath. goat. Further. 135-38. are specified by Hesiod (445-46). and birds. Ag. horsemen." but literally she "takes it for herself" (d(oeiero). sea. Xen. the ox. fish and birds suggest the three realms of nature (earth.14) Superficially. Her powers. Working with Poseidon. On sea (Od)aaaa). the sharp duality of nature inherent in a 7r6rvia6lp&bv may be detected in repeated statements of Hecate's freedom of will. Hecate's power over animals seems directed primarily toward their breeding (444-47). the description of her broad powers may be founded in such a religious orientation. warriors. and she is active on sea assisting the fishermen. When Hecate deprives the fisherman of his haul.5 on Wed. Even if Hesiod is using earth.g. like Artemis in the Hymn. Her rip4 in the sky (o6pav0i) is defined as her honored position among the gods who inhabit the heavens (e.16. Although Hecate in the Theogony does not function as a norrviaOrpcovor. and sky) in which Hecate is declared to be powerful. she is goddess of fishermen. Ven.470) is her role as protectress of wild animals. If not metri causa. she does not simply "take it away. Hecate gives of the contents of the sea or she denies it. sea. She is active on earth assisting seven classes of men."he depicts Hecate actively involved in two of these realms of nature. are defined in terms of "human" rather than "wild" nature.A PORTRAITOFHECATE 255 The other side of Artemis 'Ayportpa (IL 21. rather than her power over the creatures of the air. 452) who also cares for the young of men. but they are domesticated. as discussed This content downloaded from 138. fish. Three of Hecate's animals. more generally. Earth (yaTa)for Hecate seems to mean the human world. and sky as a generality to mean "everywhere. and heaven. befitting her role among kings. sea. who are not mentioned.26. Aes. The lions. Hecate is not simply powerful. 5. as a nature-goddess.

Phoen. is also housed in the National Museum at Athens (Mus. Artemis was goddess of water (e. Greek Folk Religion (New York 1940) 8-18. possibly deer. s.udova G. "Theogony 35. One might ask how exactly Hecate lessens the stock (KdK AAC)ibV . and Martin Nilsson. see Heckenbach in RE. Cf.'8 In Hesiod.5 on Wed. 21. 11. Paus.v. 676). Supp. Hecate is an esteemed goddess involved in the highest affairs of men and especially different from Artemis in her role as goddess of royal judgment and war. deer.256 PATRICIA A." Does she simply prevent new additions to the herds and flocks? Or does she bring untimely death to the existing animals through disease or her own neglect? The context in which Hesiod defines Hecate's powers may have been influenced by her genealogy. "willing it so.16.and Avyoe5iapua). and the goddess herself wears a prominent crown. Bpavpwovia). 19The vase. #5898).Kev). Eur. Hecate later seemed to function as the dark side of Artemis. Kapvdvri. Ke6pEdrig. Bradley. 108 where Hecate is invoked as the child of Leto.g. The second Boeotian vase. The frieze under the goddess is filled with a parade of animals. Azpvdarul. wild boar. 15-17 and 24-26. 18 On the similarity of Hecate and Artemis. The quail and lion were sacred to her. though.19. Hecate is first cousin to Artemis. from which hang branch-like projections:19 I7 Artemis' connection with nature is examined at length by Farnell (427-38). see Edward M. (from 'EKarrffi6Aos). and Kraus. and bear (e.4. wolf. Hecate and Artemis were identi'Aptejpi sKaKra. Farnell. 2769-71. and Harrison (above. Aes. "Hekate" VII.g. MARQUARDT earlier.26. in fact.483-84. 15 Jan 2014 01:28:13 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . who urges caution about giving the figure a specific name. At least one art This content downloaded from 138. 4. Phegaleia in Arcadia.2).'7Artemis also has a negative potential among men (II." SymbOslo 44 (1969) 12-14. a stamped amphora. but she was also identified with the hare. becomes most pronounced in the two areas of concern which are closest to wild naturefishing (442-43) and animal breeding (446-47). A picture and discussion of the vase are found in Kern (above.g. Hecate's ambivalence. slightly later than the first Boeotian vase. woodland and trees possibly even fish (as Eurynome at (e. 516.171-73).2 (1912) cols. fied with each other from an early date and they eventually had in common at least a dozen cult-titles. shows a goddess with uplifted arms who is flanked by two small female figures on either side of whom stands an upright lion heraldically posed.4).For archaic nature cults in general. Hecate's name seems to correspond to Apollo's title Hekatos which was applied also to Artemis (e. Paus. 8.g. Od. who undeniably embodies characteristics of a To'rvla 01p(bvand has other associations with nature. note 16) 161. note 16) 264-65.41. for their survivals in modern Greece.

.A POR TRAIT OF HECA TE 257 # _- i.7). feeds all creatures on earth (cf. Hecate's power on earth (yaTa) seems confined to the inhabited earth rather than to the ground itself (humus) or to its cultivation. 20A This content downloaded from 138. survey and pictures of these Hecataea appear in Kraus. Hesiod does not say that Hecate.. nor does he mention agriculture in his account of her broad powers among men. has nothing directly to do with the earth itself in the Theogony.26. h. In this respect. Since she does appear in the herdsmen's pens.Mat. 129-52. but she has nothing directly to do with vegetation in the Theogony.1. We may wonder why Hesiod has not depicted Hecate working alongside the farmer in the fields. calls to mind the later Hecataea which depict maidens encircling a herm of Hecate. - - with arms raised over The vase appears to depict a KOVpOTrpO'(O(. 82). Art and Architecture of Ancient Greece [London 1967]...93 .. in fact. It is curious that Hecate. in the manner of Gaia. 15 Jan 2014 01:28:13 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .5 on Wed. pl.16. although there is no detail to substantiate that identification.. the heads of the young women standing closely by her sides. The pose of the figures. the goddess could represent Hecate. who is so widely active on earth. ~~~~~~~~~. Terr. 30. we may assume that her exclusion is not simply a matter of status.20 But what of the branches on the goddess' crown? Hecate is the attendant of Persephone in the HIymn to Demeter (438-40).2. Hecate's broad powers would involve her in historian has identified the goddess as Leto giving birth to Apollo (John Boardman..

Cf.31. He also assigned tions one of her cult-titles at 117 (e3pV6cTepVO1 a popular cult-title of the Earth to the Woman of the Worksand Days. Since Hesiod specifies her role with animal husbandry and excludes any mention of agriculture. DeVries describes (p. lions. is closer to the . Nicole Loraux. It is also possible that Hecate was assigned no ri1u4in the earth's productivity because that function was closely associated with another deity of established local cult. The resemblance of the Hesiodic portrait of Hecate to the depictions on the two Boeotian vases is strengthened if we allow the possibility that the flanking birds and lions on the first vase and the lions and border of animals on the second vase are merely decorative motifs and do not necessarily designate a as such. Die Pandorasage" bei Hesiod (Wurzburg 1957) 63-64. 117 and 173. Amat. A number of the Boeotian fibulae are reproduced in Bernhard Schweitzer. 2.26.16.3. postulates a "formulaic character" to such designs as swastikas.29. Plut. Although she sits with kings. This is consistent with her genealogical link with Artemis. MARQUARDT some way with most classes of society. 22"Oral Poets and Fibula Incisers. "Sur la race des femmes. 1).1-4) and Eros of Thespiae (Paus." Teiresias (Supp. This content downloaded from 138. Op. For various compounds built on -6copogused to describe the earth's bounty. Keith DeVries.22 2S Literary and inscriptional evidence for the cult of Gaia in Greece has been catalogued according to locale by Friedrich Wilhelm Hamdorf. For other cult-titles of Gaia. GriechischeKultpersonifikationen der vorhellenistischen Zeit (Mainz 1964) 72-73. are identified with deities for whom there is evidence of local cultthe Muses of Mt. 68) a fragmentary headband from Thespiae which he suggests may correspond to Pandora's crown of animals in the Theogony (581-84). The cult of Gaia or the earth-goddess was widespread in Greece and Hesiod men)." Arethusa 11 (1978) 50-51. Greek Geometric Art (New York 1971) 205-16. than to the whatever its extent.258 PATRICIA A. He makes a distinction between "flanking units" and "representational units" on both the fibulae and pottery of the period. we may conclude that Hecate's link with nature.2' It is noteworthy that two other major areas in which Hecate has no share. birds. By the early seventh century. 15 Jan 2014 01:28:13 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . see Albrecht Dieterich. norvia-9qpcv figures appear on Boeotian fibulae. music and sex. Helicon (Paus. 9. Cf. 1979) 67-69. she is not aristocratic like the Muses. calling her Pandora. Mutter Erde (Leipzig 1925) 36-38.5 on Wed. Demeter is also called Hav6o3iwpa.otrvia 07pCov earth-goddess. and deer. studying Boeotian fibulae 7torvia07pCov of the ninth to seventh centuries. see Otto Lendle. 9. stars.

Ralph Manheim (Bollingen Series 47. Although there are some suggestive similarities between the Boeotian vases and the Hesiodic portrait. it is impossible to identify either depiction as Hecate. The fish must since a Grtp OrpCov suggest the goddess' association with the sea and fish. There are details which conflict with the Hesiodic portrait. The Great Mother. In the depiction of KOVpOTpO6pOi we may catch a glimpse of the Hesiodic Hecate. however.26.23The fish is a striking feature and presumably important to the goddess' depiction since it appears on her skirt. This content downloaded from 138.118. she has control. holding the animals by the necks or legs to demonstrate her absolute power over them.. trans. note 19) 119-48.5 on Wed. The fish is not regularly part of the "wild" nature associated with a 7uirvia is a wild animal specifically. as KOVpOTpo(o. and those that appear to correspond cannot be identified with certainty. In any case. that the birds and lions could merely be "flanking units" because of their position above and below the goddess' arms. in the usual manner of a 7torvza OrpCov. note 22) 32. are not common motifs and may reflect some aspect of her nature. Conclusion We are left finally with Hesiod's portrait of Hecate-an esteemed goddess personally involved in many areas of human life. although the lions may suggest the "dangers" from which the goddess. which do flank the goddess. the animal's head and leg. In this regard. and Boardman (above. therefore. New York 1955) 275-76. perhaps even with fishermen. such as a connection with animal sacrifices. but this is only speculation. Copious illustrations of geometric designs and motifs are provided by Schweitzer (above. It is doubtful.A POR TRAIT OF HECA TE 259 The heraldically posed lions on the second vase seem secondary to the central unit of goddess and maidens. III. It is more difficult to see Hecate in the depiction of the torvia on the first vase since the birds and lions are part of "wild" OqpCov nature in which Hecate is given no obvious role. 15 Jan 2014 01:28:13 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . we may detect Hecate. It is striking that the goddess on this vase is not. but one whose origins and true nature lie hidden behind the 23 An interesting interpretation of the figure on this vase as the "archetypal goddess of opposites" is offered by Erich Neumann.16. protects her charges and over which.

is eager to encourage the "willing" side of a goddess whose face we shall have to be content to view in shadow. MA RQ UARD T brilliance of her extraordinary ri4u. Hesiod's portrait of Hecate is unique. perhaps.26.16." both in the halls of princes and in the herdsmen'spens. PATRICIA MARQUETTE UNIVERSITY A. 15 Jan 2014 01:28:13 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Hesiod is careful to stress that Hecate acts "as she will. It is her earliest appearance in Greek literature and nowhere else is she depicted so reverently. Hesiod. Statements of Hecate's independence in bestowing blessings occur as a refrain in the recitation of her broad involvement in the affairs of men.5 on Wed. MARQUARDT This content downloaded from 138.260 PA TRICIA A.

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