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WEEK 2 – ELEMENT 6
Chemical & Biological Health Hazards and Control
Classification of Occupational Health Hazards
Physical: Machinery, Electricity, Heat, Noise Chemical: Acids, Alkalis, Asbestos Biological: HIV Virus, Legionella, Bacteria Ergonomic: Posture problems, Fatigue Psychological: Stress, Shock, Anxiety
Classification of Health Hazards
Health Hazard Physical Workplace health hazard Noise Health effect of exposure Noise induced hearing loss
Leptospirosis / Weil’s Diseasse Work related upper limb disorders
Ergonomic Repetative tasks
NEBOSH Page: 152 Biological Hazards Biological hazards can be bacteria or viruses Diseases caused by biological agents include: • Legionnaires disease a type of pneumonia or lung infection • Hepatitis blood borne viral infections • Weils disease fatal infection transmitted urine from infected rats • Anthrax disease caused by the bacteria found in animal hides • Rabies Rabies is a virus transmitted bite from a wild infected animal .
NEBOSH Page: 152 Biological Hazards Control Measures 1) 2) 3) 4) Cleaning / Disinfecting Water treatment programmes Vermin control A pest animal prohibited. 8) Specific training 9) PPE . containment & disposal 5) Personal hygiene 6) Immunisation to build resistance to specific infections 7) Health surveillance strategies and methods to detect and assess systematically the adverse effects of work on the health of workers. controlled Procedures for handling.
NEBOSH Page: 152 PHYSICAL FORMS OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES • • • • • • • • Gases (Co2) Vapour (toluene) Mists and aerosols Smoke (coal burning) Fumes (welding) Dusts (floor mill dust) Liquids (chemicals) Solids (Lead ingot) (deodorant) .
eyes or mucous membrane may cause inflammation e. ammonia .e. Caustic. adhesives and detergents Corrosive: Destruction of living tissue at point of contact (skin) strong acids or alkalis i.NEBOSH Page: 153 Hazardous Substances Symbols (1) Irritant: Inflammation on contact with skin. H2 SO4.g.
g. inhaled or penetrate the skin may cause damage to health e. acute chronic damage to health e. Trichloroethylene Very Toxic: Poisonous substances which in very low quantities may cause death. cyanide .NEBOSH Page: 153 Hazardous Substances Symbols (2) Harmful: Substances which if swallowed.g.
acute chronic damage to health e.g. Arsenic Carcinogenic: Substances which cause disorders in cell growth that may lead to cancer or increase its incidence e. Benzene .g. Mercury. Lead.NEBOSH Page: 153 Hazardous Substances Symbols (3) Toxic: Poisonous substances which in low quantities may cause death.
Substances which produce or increase the incidence of non heritable effects in progeny.NEBOSH Page: 153 Hazardous Substances Symbols (4) Mutagenic: Substances which induce hereditable genetic defects or increase their incidence Teratogenic: Toxic for reproduction. .
NEBOSH Page: 154 TOXICOLOGY Definition: The study of how different materials will affect the human body The factors to be considered are: 1) Route of Entry 2) Toxicity 3) Dose & Response .
Routes of Entry a) Inhalation b) Ingestion c) Absorption d) Injection (Direct Entry) .NEBOSH Page: 154 TOXICOLOGY .
Routes of Entry Inhalation • most important route of entry • substances can directly attack lung tissue • responsible for 90% of all cases of industrial poisoning Ingestion • via the mouth • often accidental • poor hygiene Absorption • through the skin • solvents may penetrate unbroken skin •Injection • when skin is damaged • puncture of the skin • contact with liquid or gas under pressure .NEBOSH Page: 154 TOXICOLOGY .
NEBOSH Page: 154 Toxicity. Dose & Response Toxicity: The potential of a substance to cause harm to living things Dose: How much of a substance you are exposed to and how long the exposure lasts Response: How the body reacts to the exposure .
NEBOSH Page: 154 Factors Affecting Response Body Weight Age Skin Type Sex Diet Health .
usually with a rapid or immediate response which is normally reversible. .NEBOSH Page: 155 Ill-health Definitions Acute : Is an immediate or rapidly produced adverse effect. repeated exposure to a hazardous substance the response being gradual (often unrecognised for a long time) may get worse with no further exposure and is often irreversible. following a single or short-term exposure to a hazardous substance. Chronic: Adverse health effect resulting from prolonged.
NEBOSH Page: 155 Toxic Effects Acute: Headaches Dizziness Nausea Inflammation Eye irritation Unconsciousness Death Chronic: Cancers Death Local Systemic Sensitisation .
. cracking and bleeding of exposed skin. Dusts. Detergents.NEBOSH Page: 156 Dermatitis Removal of natural oils from skin which causes reddening. Cement. soreness. Diesel fuel. etc. Mineral oils. Usually occurs to arms and hands Causative Agents: Solvents.
instruction and training .NEBOSH Page: 156 Measures to Prevent Dermatitis • • • • • • • • Substitute/change process Clean working conditions & Properly planned safe systems Careful attention to skin problems Prompt attention to cuts etc. Use of PPE Barrier creams Pre-employment screening Information.
Mercury .NEBOSH Page: 156 Target Organs A Target Organ is defined as: An organ within the human body on which a specific toxic material exerts its effects. Lungs Brain Asbestos. Coal dust Lead.
organic solvents. lead Eyes – ammonia Kidneys – leptospirosis . acids. chlorine. carbon dioxide. alkalis. ammonia. silica. legionella Liver – hepatitis Blood – carbon monoxide Skin . isocyanates. organic solvents Nerves – organic solvents.detergents.NEBOSH Page: 156 Target Organs Brain – lead Nasal passages – organic solvents Lungs – asbestos. mineral oils. isocyanates.
NEBOSH Page: 156 Occupational Exposure Limits (OEL) The maximum concentration of an airborne substance averaged over a reference period to which an employee may be exposed by inhalation • Threshold Limit Values (TLV) USA • Indicative Limit Values (ILV) Europe • Workplace Exposure Limits (WEL) UK High risk substances Other hazardous substances .
NEBOSH Page: 157 Action If OEL Exceeded 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Stop the process Remove employees from area Make area safe Investigate cause Assess existing controls Monitor procedures Check workers health Record incident .
NEBOSH Page: 158 Asbestos Types White (Chrysotile) Brown (Amosite) Diseases Asbestosis Mesothelioma Blue (Crocidolite) Lung cancer Blue and brown asbestos are more hazardous than white .
& Demolition workers . Filters Brake Linings Plasterwork Blue asbestos cloth on a boiler flue Sprayed for Insulation Workers at risk: Asbestos insulating board in a wall partition Maintenance.NEBOSH Page: 158 Asbestos Uses Protective Clothing Insulation boards Pipework Lagging Cement Boards Gaskets.
NEBOSH Page: 159 Other Agents (1) Ammonia: A colourless gas with a pungent odour • Irritation to the eyes and upper respiratory tract • Used in printing and fertilisers Chlorine: A greenish gas with a pungent odour • Irritant to respiratory tract. nausea (sensation of unease and discomfort in the stomach) • Used as a disinfectant in drinking water and swimming pool water . abdominal pain.
odourless and tasteless gas Headaches. odourless gas Increases the rate of respiration. asphyxiation Incomplete combustion in boiler. Fire protection Carbon Monoxide: A colourless. vehicle exhausts . drowsiness. unconsciousness Produced in fermentation.NEBOSH Page: 159 Other Agents (2) Carbon Dioxide: A colourless.
nervous system.NEBOSH Page: 159 Other Agents (3) Isocyanates: Volatile organic compounds Irritation of skin and mucous membrane. manufacture of footwear Lead: A heavy. headaches. death Batteries. soft and easily worked metal Nausea. Plumbing and roofing work . asthma Spray painting vehicles.
throat and lungs. sandstone. granite Silicosis Building industry Organic solvents: Dissolve other substances Irritant to the eyes. nausea.NEBOSH Page: 159 Other Agents (4) Silica: Found in sand. etc . headaches. dizziness Used as a base in paint manufacturing. PVC. skin.
jaundice • Health workers and workers handling bodily fluids .NEBOSH Page: 160 Other Agents (5) Leptospirosis or Weil’s: Caused by bacteria from rats’ urine • Attacks kidneys and liver • Found in rivers. canals Legionella: An airborne bacterium found in water sources e. cooling towers. pneumonia Hepatitis: Hazardous substances. high temperature. sewers. viruses • Diseases of the liver. stagnant water • Breathing difficulties.g. ditches.
NEBOSH Page: 161 AIRBORNE DUST Respirable dust: Airborne dust of such a size about 0.5 microns that it is able to enter the lungs during normal breathing Respiratory diseases: • Asbestosis • • • • • Silicosis (occupational lung disease caused by inhalation of crystalline silica dust) (chronic inflammatory medical condition affecting the tissue of the lungs) Asthma chronic …the airways occasionally constrict Bronchitis (an acute inflammation of the air passages within the lungs) Lung Cancer Farmer’s lung (a disease of dairy farmers who handle contaminated hay) .
NEBOSH Page: 161 Body Defences against dust The nasal hairs Coughing and sneezing Eyes watering The ciliary escalator .
NEBOSH Page: 161 Indicators of Dust Problems Visible signs Complaints by employees Monitoring Health problems Equipment problems Blocked filters .
NEBOSH Page: 161 Assessing levels of dust Visual examination Sampling for dust Personal samplers Fixed samplers Filters attached to pumps Sample for a fixed time Dust lamps Direct reading instruments Dust accumulation .
NEBOSH Page: 161 Control Measures to Reduce Exposure to Dust Eliminate at source Substitute with pellets Change process Use liquid process Enclose the complete process Ventilation Control by suppression Housekeeping Maintenance .
NEBOSH Page: 163 BODY’S DEFENCES The body’s defences to hazardous substances are: • Respiratory (Inhalation) • Gastrointestinal (Ingestion) • Skin (Absorption) • Cellular mechanism (Injection) .
Pushes mucus and foreign bodies out through throat .NEBOSH Page: 163 Respiratory (Inhalation) Defences • NOSE : Wetness & nasal hair • RESPIRATORY TRACT : Natural reflexes activate sneezing and coughing • CILIARY ESCALATOR – A barrier against infection.
inflammation . rashes. enzymes and bacteria Vomit and diarrhoea Skin Defences • • • • Sebum Sensory nerves Melanin Blisters.NEBOSH Page: 163 Body’s Defences (2) Gastrointestinal (Ingestion) Defences • • • • Taste and smell Saliva Acid.
NEBOSH Page: 164 Body’s Defences (3) Cellular Mechanisms (Injection) • • • Scavenging Action Secretion of defensive substances Prevention of excessive blood loss • • • • • Repair of damaged tissues The Lymphatic system Tears and blinking of the eyes Pain Hormones e.g. adrenalin Other Defences .
NEBOSH Page: 165 Manufacturers Safety Data Sheet (1) Identification of substance/preparation The manufacturer/supplier Composition/information on ingredients Hazard identification Health effects First Aid measures Fire fighting measures Accidental release measures Handling and storage Exposure controls .
Manufacturers Safety Data Sheet (2)
Personal Protective Equipment Environmental/Disposal considerations Physical and chemical properties; Stability and reactivity; Toxicological information; Ecological information; Disposal considerations; Transport information; Regulatory information; Other relevant information.
© TWI Gulf WLL 2008
Risk and Safety Phrases
R3 Extreme risk of explosion by shock, friction, fire R20 Harmful by inhalation R30 Can become highly flammable in use R45 May cause cancer
S2 Keep out of the reach of children S20 When using do not eat or drink S25 Avoid contact with eyes S41 In case of fire and or explosion do not breathe fumes
NEBOSH Page: 167 Hazardous Substance Assessment 1) IDENTIFY THE HAZARDS How much of the substance is in use or produced by the process What is the activity at risk How long and how often is the exposure Who can be exposed and how How can the substance enter the body In what form is of the substance What is the concentration of the substance Is the substance assigned an exposure limit Are there any ill-health reports Look at the results of health surveillance .
Pregnant and young worker 3) Evaluate the Health risk & existing precautions Likelihood and Severity Existing control measures Judgement about need for further control measures 4) Record the significant findings Number of affected people Adequacy of existing controls Further precautions. if necessary .NEBOSH Page: 167 Hazardous substance Assessment 2) Decide who might be harmed and how Operators. Others.
NEBOSH Page: 169 Hazardous substance Assessment 5) Review the Assessment New process or substance is introduced Exposure limit is changed Someone contracts a disease Complaints of ill health from workforce New guidance is published on control measures Increase in use of hazardous substance Supervision reports improper use of equipment Enforcement actions Compensation claims .
Training Remember . Instruction. Housekeeping 5) Personal protective equipment 6) Discipline 7) Also information. Change the work pattern.ERIC PD .NEBOSH Page: 170 Prevention and Control of Exposure 1) Eliminate the hazard 2) Reduce the risk by substitution 3) Isolate the people from the hazard Total enclosure. Segregate the people 4) Control Maintenance of controls. Hygiene.
NEBOSH Page: 171 Emergency Procedures First aid facilities Relevant safety drills Suitable warning devices Suitable training of staff PPE Emergency showers and eye-wash facilities Spillage and leakage procedures Evacuation procedures Warnings to other people .
NEBOSH Page: 172 Spillage Procedures Isolation of the area Evacuation of employees Suitable PPE Bunds to contain spillage/absorbent material Contact with emergency services Safe disposal of spilled material .
NEBOSH Page:172 Local Exhaust Ventilation Discharge to atmosphere Hood Ducting Filter Fan .
NEBOSH Page: 172 Types of Ventilation Enclosed .
NEBOSH Page: 173 Types of Ventilation Hood .
NEBOSH Page: 173 Lip Extraction .
NEBOSH Page: 173 Ducted System .
NEBOSH Page: 173 Sawdust Extraction .
NEBOSH Page: 173 Machine Shop Extraction .
NEBOSH Page: 173 Portable Extraction .
NEBOSH Page: 175 Dilution Ventilation Vent Extract or Fan Air drawn from clean air supply Fan ??? Contaminant .
NEBOSH Page: 175 When Dilution Ventilation may be used • • • • • • • • Very low toxicity substance Steady rate of release Small quantity of contaminant Not practicable to use LEV Rate of evolution known Non specific point of release Type of contaminant (not dust) Heat loss or gain not a problem .
NEBOSH Page: 176 Measurement of Health Hazards 1) Initial appraisal 2) A basic survey 3) A full survey .
NEBOSH Page: 176 Measurement of Health Hazards 1) Initial Appraisal • What substances are being used • • • What are their hazards Do they have Occupational Exposure Limits Where are they used • • • Who could be affected by them How could they be released If RPE or other forms of PPE is necessary .
or camera.either traversed by hand to illuminate dust source or mounted on a stand Observer.NEBOSH Page: 176 Basic Survey 1) Smoke tube 2) Dust lamp Lamp . viewing towards lamp whilst shielding eyes from glare Dust cloud .
NEBOSH Page: 177 Pumps and Stain Tubes .
NEBOSH Page: 177 Chemical Stain Detector Tube (Grab Sampler) .
g.NEBOSH Page: 177 Stain Detector Tube: Advantages • Cheap • Simple to use • Immediate result • Useful during emergencies e. spillages • Good for rough reading of hazard .
NEBOSH Page: 177 Stain Detector Tube: Disadvantages a) Contaminant must be known b) Rough guide – within 20% accuracy band c) Reading a specific moment d) Results depending on positioning e) May be affected by other substance © TWI Gulf WLL 2008 .
NEBOSH Page: 178 FULL SURVEY Two principal methods of longer term sampling are : a) Direct reading instruments b) Indirect reading instruments .
NEBOSH Page: 178 Constant Monitor .
NEBOSH Page: 178 Passive and Active Samplers Passive Sampler Active Sampler .
(especially Nitrogen Oxides and Sulphur Dioxide) react with the tiny droplets of water in clouds to form Sulphuric and Nitric Acids.NEBOSH Page: 180 ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION • Climate change • Ozone depletion (CFC) • Acid rain burn fuels produce polluting gases. • Usage of Natural Resources .
NEBOSH Page: 180 Industrial effects on the Environment Waterways and rivers poisoned Land becoming unusable Polluting Activities include: Untreated effluent allowed to run away Chemicals used on farms leak into waterways Poor handling of chemicals Inadvertent spillage .
or land of any substance which is capable of causing harm to man or any other living organisms supported by the environment Harm includes: Harm to the health of human beings including offence to the senses Harm to other living organisms Harm to the quality of the environment.NEBOSH Page: 180 What is Pollution Pollution is the release into or onto air. water. including the air. water or land Damage to property .
. etc.NEBOSH Page: 180 Pollution Types 1) Air Pollution Discharges in the atmosphere etc 2) Water Pollution Leakages from storage tanks etc 3) Land Pollution Dumping of hazardous wastes.
reduce waste 3) Respond: Ensuring a rapid response to incidents such as spillages 4) Recover: Reviewing systems in places where problems have occurred .NEBOSH Page: 182 Pollution Control Strategy 1) Prevention: Preventing pollution by having good systems in place 2) Reduce: By changing the process e.g.
NEBOSH Page: 183 Emergency Planning Procedure Identify all potential accident or emergency situations Introduce controls to prevent accident and emergency situations arising Include procedures to minimise the consequences of any potential environmental impacts Have clearly documented plans and procedures for responding to emergencies Be periodically reviewed and revised if necessary Be periodically tested if possible .
NEBOSH Page: 183 Waste Hierarchy PREVENT REDUCE RE-USE RECOVER DISPOSE .
NEBOSH • Storage area of suitable size • Storage area clearly labelled • Individual containers clearly labelled Page: 185 Storing Waste • Storage area suitable location • Different types of waste stored separately • Incompatible wastes never stored together • Storage kept to minimum • Protect wastes from elements if necessary • If necessary protect storage area with bunds • No hazardous waste in general waste skips • Ensure storage area secure .