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Unit 1
Lessons 1-10
Proverbs and Anecdotes from the Garden of Stories
The Garden of Stories 說苑 was compiled by Liu Xiang 劉向 (79—8 B..!."# a schola$
who wo$%ed in &he impe$ial lib$a$y. 'ne o( his &as%s was &o compile and edi& &e)&s o(
*a$ious %inds and ma%e copies o( &hem (o$ s&o$age. +n &he cou$se o( his wo$%# he
p$oduced a se$ies o( an&hologies o( use(ul and in&e$es&ing anecdo&es# and &his is one
o( &hem.
The pu$pose o( &his &e)& is &o p$o*ide illus&$a&i*e s&o$ies abou& poli&ics and
adminis&$a&ion# and in pa$&icula$ &he $ela&ionship be&ween &he $ule$ and his
minis&e$s. ,any o( &he s&o$ies a$e (ound in ea$lie$ philosophical wo$%s# whe$eas
o&he$s come ($om boo%s &ha& ha*e since disappea$ed. +n mos& cases# Liu Xiang
seems &o ha*e s&$eamlined &he s&yle o( &he &e)&s# o(&en simpli(ying o$ -co$$ec&ing-
passages &ha& he (ound di((icul& &o unde$s&and. .o$ &ha& $eason# &his seems an ideal
place &o begin ou$ s&udy o( li&e$a$y hinese.
Lesson 1
A Few Proverbs
Te)& /1
Te)& /0
Te)& /1
Vocabulary (1-!"
1. 知 ,2 3h4 52 chi "# shiru #$ 62 7i % 2 74 (&o %now"8 7i (%nowledge"
To %now# &o unde$s&and8 &o %now how &o8 %nowledge.
9adical 111 (&# -a$$ow-".
0. 命 ,2 m:ng 52 my; '()# mei *+# inochi ,-. 62 myeong / 2 mihng
1. To command8 a command.
0. .a&e8 li(e span. <
=o&e2 >ha& ?ea*en o$ &he gods command (o$ you is you$ (a&e. They also command
you$ li(e span. 9adical 10 (0# -mou&h-".
1. 者 ,2 3h@ 52 sha 12# mono 3- 62 7a 4 2 7A
BC g$amma&ical pa$&icle8 see 1.1 and 7.D (o$ e)plana&ions.E
9adical 10F (5# GoldH".
D. 不 ,2 bI# bJ 52 (u 6# -nai-7,# -zu-8 62 bu 9 2 bK&
不 always nega&es *e$bs o$ ad7ec&i*es# so always e)pec& a *e$b o$ ad7ec&i*e
(ollowing i& (al&hough see also 1.1 below". 9adical 1 (:# -one-".
F. 怨 ,2 yuLn 52 en ;<# on =<# uramu >?@# urameshii >?A#, 62 won B
2 yun
To $esen&8 $esen&men&# g$ie*ance.
ha$ac&e$s wi&h &he hea$& $adical a$e o(&en *e$bs o( emo&ion o$ &hin%ing. 怨 usually
desc$ibes &he bi&&e$ness# sadness# and ange$ &ha& $esul& ($om being &$ea&ed un(ai$ly.
9adical M1 (心# -hea$&-".
M. 天 ,2 &iKn 52 &en C<# ame DA 62 cheon E 2 &4n
N%y# hea*ens8 G?ea*en.H
This cha$ac&e$ is o(&en used in a gene$ali3ed sense (o$ &he Oowe$s Tha& Be. 9adical
17 (F# GbigH".
7. 己 ,2 7P 52 %o G# %i H# ono I-# onore I-J 62 gi K 2 gAi
'nesel(8 sel(# ego
This cha$ac&e$ usually appea$s as &he di$ec& ob7ec& o( a *e$b (as in &he &e)& o( &his
lesson" o$ as a possessi*e ad7ec&i*e (i.e.# 不怨己命# G&o no& $esen& oneQs own (a&e-".
Ro no& con(use i& wi&h LM0D7# Gal$eadyH G&o end-". 9adical D9 (己".
8. 人 ,2 $An 52 7in N<# nin O<# hito PQ 62 in R 2 yLhn
1.Oe$son# people# human beings. <
0.'&he$s# o&he$ people. <
Cn&onym (meaning /0"2 己(7". 9adical 9 (人".
9. 禍 ,2 huS 52 %a S# wazawai TUT, 62 hwa V 2 woh
Risas&e$# mis(o$&une# bad luc%
=o&e &he comp$essed *e$sion o( &he $adical on &he le(& side. ha$ac&e$s wi&h &his
$adical ($eTuen&ly ha*e some&hing &o do wi&h $eligious ce$emonies o$ phenomena
wi&h a supe$na&u$al agency. 9adical 111 (W# G&o show-".
10. 生 ,2 shUng 52 sh; 1()# sei X+# ikiru ,Y$# umu >@# e&c. 62 saeng Z
2 sKng (1"# sKang (0"
1.To be bo$n# &o a$ise ($om8 &o gi*e bi$&h &o8 &o be ali*e8 &o $aise8 &o g$ow8 ali*e8 li(e.<
0.,as&e$# ,is&e$# Bpoli&e su((i)E
=o&e &ha& &he sub7ec& o( &he *e$b can be &he &hing &ha& p$oduces o$ &he &hing &ha& is
p$oduced. .o$ e)ample2 人生# GC pe$son is bo$n- (o$ Ga pe$son li*esVis ali*eH"8 怨生禍#
G9esen&men& gi*es bi$&h &o disas&e$.H 9adical 100 (生".
11. 於 ,2 yW 52 o I# ni [# oite I,\ 62 eo ] 2 yW
BC mul&ipu$pose p$eposi&ion.E
This is one o( &he mos& common cha$ac&e$s in li&e$a$y hinese8 ano&he$ cha$ac&e$#^
(1DD"# is o(&en used in&e$changeably wi&h i&. T$ansla&e based on &he con&e)& (see
1.D". 9adical 70 (_# GsTua$eH".
10. 欲 ,2 yI 52 yo%u `a# hossuru bcd$# hoshii b#, 62 yo% e 2 yuh%
To desi$e# &o wan&# &o wan& &o8 desi$es# wan&s.
+n la&e$ li&e$a$y hinese# &his cha$ac&e$ could also ma$% a (u&u$e ac&ion (Gabou& &o-".
.o$ &ha& $eason# 欲生 would come &o mean ((o$ e)ample" Gwish &o gi*e bi$&h- o$ Gwas
abou& &o gi*e bi$&h.- 9adical 7M (f# G&o owe-".
11. 得 ,2 dA 52 &o%u ga# e$u h$ 62 deu% i 2 dK%
1.To ge&# &o ob&ain8 gain# p$o(i&. <
0.To succeed in# &o be able &o (accompanies o&he$ *e$b".
!)ample o( meaning /02 得生# &o succeed in being ali*e# -&o succeed in being bo$n.-
(ompa$e &his &o &he *e$nacula$ !nglish. GRid you ge& &o go &o &he s&o$e
yes&e$dayX-j9adical M0 (k# -&o s&ep wi&h &he le(& (oo&-".
1D. 福 ,2 (J 52 (u%u 6a 62 bo% l 2 (W%
Yood (o$&une# p$ospe$i&y.
Cn&onym2 禍 (9". 9adical 111 (W"
1F. 自 ,2 3: 52 shi 1# 7i N# mizukara m8n? 62 7a 4 2 7ih
1. 'nesel(8 pe$sonally# na&u$ally# spon&aneously. <
0. .$om (used &o indica&e mo*emen& away ($om".
+n meaning /1# 自 is some&imes used &o pu& special emphasis on &he sub7ec&. .o$
e)ample# 自知 usually means G&o %now Bsome&hingE onesel(.H on&$as& &his wi&h 知己#
-&o %now onesel(Q (al&hough see also ia# Lesson 1D". >$i&e$s a$e some&imes $a&he$
*ague abou& using 自 and 己8 con&e)& should be you$ guide. ,eaning /0 (usually
&$ansla&ed in&o !nglish as &he p$eposi&ion G($omH" is ac&ually a %ind o( co*e$b (see
1.F (o$ an e)plana&ion o( &his &e$m". 9adical 110 (自".
1M. 禁 ,2 7:n 52 %in H< 62 geum o 2 gKm
To con&$ol# &o p$ohibi&# &o $es&$ain.
9adical 111 (W".
17. 聖 ,2 shZng 52 sh; 1()# sei X+# hijiri Ppq 62 seong r 2 sing
Nage# wise pe$son# sain&8 sagely8 wise.
+n on(ucianism# &he wo$d is applied &o &he g$ea&es& men# on(ucius especially. +n
Buddhism# i& can $e(e$ &o &he Buddha o$ &o Bodhisa&&*as. 9adical 108 (耳# -ea$-".
18. 以 ,2 yP 52 i +# motte 3c\ 62 i s 2 y[h
1. >i&h# by means o(. Bco*e$bE
0. +n o$de$ &o. Bcon7unc&ionE
.o$ mo$e on &his *e$y common and &$oublesome cha$ac&e$# see 1.F and 1.M below.
9adical 9(C".
19. 心 ,2 )4n 52 shin 1<# kokoro ttu 62 sim v 2 sKm
?ea$&# mind# s&a&e o( mind# a&&i&ude.
+n hinese cul&u$e# &he hea$& is &he sou$ce o( bo&h emo&ions and &hin%ing. 9adical M1
00. 導 ,2 d\o 52 d; w)# michibiku m.xy 62 do z 2 douh
To lead.
This cha$ac&e$ could be in&e$p$e&ed as &he *e$bal eTui*alen& o( {# G$oadH# Gpa&hH—
in o&he$ wo$ds# G&o show BsomeoneE &he $oad.H 9adical D1 (|# -&humb-".
01. 耳 ,2 @$ 52 7i N# mimi mm 62 i s 2 y[h
0.-Cnd &ha& is allH8 Gand &ha& is &he end o( i&. H Bsen&ence comple&ion pa$&icleE
The second meaning is a -phone&ic (usion- o( &he &wo cha$ac&e$s }L8 &his usage
will be encoun&e$ed la&e$. 9adical 108 (耳".
00. 目 ,2 mI 52 mo%u ~a# ma •# me A 62 mo% € 2 muh%
!ye8 &o loo% a&# &o gla$e a&.
9adical 109 (目".
01. 小 ,2 )i\o 52 sh; 1()# chiisai .,•, 62 so ‚ 2 s[u
Li&&le# pe&&y# insigni(ican&8 &o conside$ small# &o sco$n.
The e)p$ession 小人 ((ound ($eTuen&ly in on(ucian w$i&ing# bu& in o&he$ places as
well" $e(e$s &o a pe$son wi&h mean# ego&is&ical ins&inc&s who ca$es only abou& himsel(
and his own com(o$&s. 9adical D0 (小".
0D. 爲 ,2 wAi (1# 1"8 wZi (0" 52 i +# naru 7$# nasu 7d# suru d$# no tame -ƒA
62 wi „ 2 wLih (1# 1"8 wai (0"
1.To do# &o ma%e# &o be# &o become. <
0..o$ &he sa%e o(# because o(# on behal( o( (see D.0".
1.B,a$%s a passi*e sen&ence pa&&e$n8 see 11.11.E
This cha$ac&e$ is one o( &he mos& common in li&e$a$y hinese. ,eanings /0 and /1
will be encoun&e$ed and e)plained la&e$# so donQ& wo$$y abou& &hem now] 9adical 87
(…# -claw-".
0F. 善 ,2 shLn 52 3en †<# ii ++# yoku ‡y# suru d$# yoshi ‡# 62 seon ˆ 2
1.Yood# e)cellen&# *i$&uous8 good B&hingE8 e)cellen& B&hingE.<
0.To be good o$ s%illed a& Bsome&hingE.
This cha$ac&e$ $e(e$s ei&he$ &o *i$&uous# mo$al beha*io$ o$ &o &alen& and s%ill. RonQ&
con(use i& wi&h ‰(DM". 9adical 10 (0".
0M. ,2 bLo 52 h; Š)# mu%ui$u @y,$ 62 bo ‹ 2 bou
1.To $epay# &o $ewa$d8 $epaymen&. <
0.To a*enge8 $e*enge.
1.9epo$&8 &o $epo$&.
>he$eas gene$ally $e(e$$ing &o &he idea o( $epaymen&# &his cha$ac&e$ can imply
ei&he$ $ewa$d (o$ good &hings o$ (o$ms o( $e*enge o$ *engeance. +& o(&en $e(e$s &o
hea*enly 7us&ice. 9adical 10 (Œ# Gea$&hH".
07. ! ,2 dA 52 &o%u ga 62 deo% • 2 dK%
1.^i$&ue# powe$. <
0.Yood deed8 &o do a good deed.
Cl&hough in mos& li&e$a$y hinese &e)&s &his cha$ac&e$ $e(e$s &o &he mode$n sense o(
-*i$&ue#- in ea$ly &e)&s i& some&imes implies inne$ (almos& magical" powe$ o$
cha$isma. Nome schola$s ha*e a$gued &ha& i& is &he powe$ one possesses &o ma%e
ano&he$ obliged o$ g$a&e(ul &o onesel( (and &his in &u$n led &o meaning /0". 'ne o(
&he names o( &he Lao3i 5Ž is Raode7ing {!•# Hlassic o( &he >ay and +&s Oowe$.H
9adical M0 (k".
1.1. Oa$&s o( speech2 +n &he commen&a$y# + will occasionally be using &e$ms such as
noun# ad7ec&i*e# p$onoun# *e$b# o$ ad*e$b &o e)plain how wo$ds a$e (unc&ioning in a
sen&ence. ?owe*e$# w$i&e$s some&imes employ a single wo$d in a *a$ie&y o(
g$amma&ical (unc&ions i( i& sounds $igh& &o &hem. This canno& be done a$bi&$a$ily wi&h
any wo$d# bu& i& is (ai$ly common. .o$ e)ample2
欲 can mean G&o wan&H (*e$b"2
人欲耳2 Oeople wan& ea$s#
o$ i& can mean G&o wan& &oH. (au)ilia$y *e$b"2
天欲聖人2 ?ea*en wan&s &o $ewa$d &he wise pe$son.
o$ i& can mean -desi$e- (noun"2
善人怨欲2The good pe$son $esen&s desi$e.
知 can mean -&o %now#H G&o unde$s&and- (*e$b"2
小人不知!2 The pe&&y pe$son does no& %nowVunde$s&and *i$&ue#
o$ i& can mean G&o %now how &oH (au)ilia$y *e$b"2
天知聖人2?ea*en %nows how &o $ewa$d &he wise pe$son.
Also2 some&imes an ad*e$b _ *e$b can be &a%en &oge&he$ as a noun idea. .o$
e)ample# 不知 means Gno& %now#H bu& i& can also mean Gigno$ance.H 自禁 means G&o
con&$ol onesel(#- bu& i& can also mean -sel(-con&$ol.- +n &he &hi$d p$o*e$b# 不善 means
some&hing li%e Ge*il#H Gwic%ednessH.
Cl&hough + will men&ion many di((e$en& meanings (o$ a wo$d in &he *ocabula$y lis&s#
always e)pec& wo$ds &o be (le)ible and &o ha*e unmen&ioned meanings]
The$e is ano&he$ (ac&o$ &o be &a%en in&o conside$a&ion2 ha$ac&e$s a$e o(&en
p$onounced sligh&ly di((e$en&ly o$ wi&h a di((e$en& &one i( &hey shi(& in g$amma&ical
(unc&ion. + will no&e &hese di((e$ences (i( &hey a$e s&ill obse$*ed &oday8 see 0.7 (o$
(u$&he$ de&ails".
1.0. =umbe$ and &ense2 Cl&hough &he$e a$e some cha$ac&e$s &ha& ma$% &he plu$al
(and we will see &hem la&e$"# usually &he w$i&e$ le&s con&e)& decide i( some&hing is
singula$ o$ plu$al. Nome&imes i&Qs up &o &he $eade$ &o decide8 some&imes &he con&e)&
will ma%e i& ob*ious. The same is &$ue o( &ense. >hen + &$ansla&e &he e)amples
below# + o(&en choose wha& + &hin% ma%es bes& sense# bu& some&imes i&Qs no& &he only
1.1. 者2 +n i&s simples& usage# &his is added &o a *e$b o$ *e$b ph$ase and indica&es
&he pe$son o$ &hing ca$$ying ou& &he ac&ion. Nee 7.D (o$ (u$&he$ de&ails.
知者2 one who %nows
怨者2 one who $esen&s
導者2 one who leads
導人者2 one who leads people
生耳者2 one who g$ows ea$s
爲禍者2 one who c$ea&es disas&e$
命者2 one who does no& command
O9CT+!2 Ou& &he (ollowing in&o li&e$a$y hinese2
1. one who desi$es
0. one who %nows &he hea$&
1. one who wan&s eyes
D. one who $ewa$ds &he pe$son
F. one who leads ?ea*en
1.D.於2 This is a *ague# mul&ipu$pose p$eposi&ion usually placed be&ween a *e$b and
a noun. The noun &ha& (ollows i& is o(&en &he loca&ion o( &he ac&ion# bu& &he
$ela&ionship can also be mo$e abs&$ac&. 於 can only be &$ansla&ed by seeing &he
con&e)& o( &he sen&ence and unde$s&anding how i&s accompanying *e$b is being
used. ,os& ($eTuen&ly i& means Gin#H G($om#H o$ Gby.H
聖人得目於天。 The wise pe$son ob&ains eyes ($om ?ea*en.
聖人導小人於禍。 The wise pe$son leads &he pe&&y pe$son ($om disas&e$.
=o&e2 +( you &hin% &ha& &he wise pe$son is no& *e$y compassiona&e# you can &$ansla&e
i& as GThe wise pe$son leads &he pe&&y pe$son in&o disas&e$.- on&e)& and
in&e$p$e&a&ion a$e e*e$y&hing]
小人生於禍。 The pe&&y pe$son a$ises ($om disas&e$.
知己者得於天。 The pe$son who %nows himsel( ob&ains $ewa$d ($om ?ea*en.
O9CT+!2 Ou& &he (ollowing in&o li&e$a$y hinese2
O9CT+!2 Ou& &he (ollowing in&o li&e$a$y hinese2
1. 'ne who does good leads &he hea$& (away" ($om disas&e$.
0. The hea$& is bo$n ($om &he good.
1. The pe$son go& ea$s ($om ?ea*en.
1.F 以2 This is one o( &he mos& ($eTuen&ly used cha$ac&e$s in li&e$a$y hinese# and i&
has a *e$y wide applica&ion. +& was o$iginally a *e$b meaning G&o &a%e#H G&o use.H
!*en&ually# i& s&a$&ed &o be used in combina&ion wi&h o&he$ *e$bs (wha& !nglish
language schola$s o(&en call a co*e$b". +& se$*es &he same pu$pose as !nglish
p$eposi&ions li%e Gwi&h#H Gby means o(#H and G&h$ough.H +& usually comes be(o$e &he
main *e$b# and i& is (ollowed by i&s own special ob7ec&2
天以禍爲不善者。 ?ea*en $epays wi&h disas&e$ &he pe$son who does e*il.
+n &his e)ample# is &he main *e$b# and 爲不善者 is i&s ob7ec&. 以 is &he co*e$b# and
禍 is &he ob7ec& o( &he co*e$b.
'&he$ e)amples2 +den&i(y &he ob7ec& o( &he co*e$b in each case2
聖人以!導小人。The wise pe$son leads &he pe&&y pe$son wi&h *i$&ue.
自禁者以!導欲。The pe$son who $es&$ains he$sel( leads he$ desi$es wi&h *i$&ue.
1.M Nhi(&ing &he co*e$b posi&ion2 ?owe*e$# i( a w$i&e$ wan&s &o pu& special emphasis
on &he &hing &ha& ge&s used (as in &e)& /1"# he o$ she will place &he co*e$b and i&s
ob7ec& a(&e$ &he main *e$b2
小人導心以耳目2 The pe&&y pe$son leads his hea$& wi&h his ea$s and eyes.
Cno&he$# mo$e aw%wa$d way o( e)p$essing &he same sense2 G+& is wi&h his ea$s and
eyes &ha& &he pe&&y pe$son leads his hea$&.-
知己者人以善2 +& is wi&h good &ha& &he one who %nows he$sel( $ewa$ds o&he$s.
小人天以怨2 +& is wi&h $esen&men& &ha& &he pe&&y pe$son $ewa$ds ?ea*en.
O9CT+!2 Ou& &he (ollowing in&o li&e$a$y hinese2
1. +& is wi&h disas&e$ &ha& Bou$E eyes and ea$s $epay igno$ance.
0. ^i$&ue a$ises ($om &he good pe$son &h$ough his hea$&.
1. +& is &h$ough sel(-con&$ol &ha& &he one who %nows he$sel( commands ?ea*en.
1.7. Ou&&ing &he ob7ec& (i$s&2 Nome&imes a w$i&e$ will place a di$ec& ob7ec& a& &he
beginning o( a sen&ence in o$de$ &o con&$as& how i& $ecei*es &he ac&ion in
compa$ison &o o&he$ &hings. Loo% a& &he (ollowing !nglish sen&ences2
As for those books, put them in the chest. As for the magazines, throw them out.
Nomebody has as%ed us# ->ha& do you wan& me &o do wi&h &hese boo%s and
maga3inesX- >e $eply# con&$as&ing &he &wo g$oups o( i&ems and saying wha& we
wan& done wi&h each. This means &ha& &he (i$s& &hing in a sen&ence will no&
necessa$ily be &he sub7ec&8 loo% ca$e(ully (o$ &he sense o( a sen&ence be(o$e you
+n ou$ lesson# sen&ence /1 has displaced &he ob7ec& &o &he (i$s& &hing in &he sen&ence
( 爲 善者"# and has (ollowed i& wi&h &he sub7ec& (天".
#haracter List
i. 不人以命善天小己得!心怨於欲爲生目知禁禍福者耳聖自 (0M"
iii. 導 (1"
Yet More Proverbs
Te)& /1
Te)& /0
V$#A+ULA)* (,-!."
08. • ,2 7Wn 52 %un a<# kimi Ym 62 gun ¶ 2 gwKn
1.9ule$# lo$d. <
0.BOoli&e second pe$son p$onoun8 compa$e !li3abe&han !nglish G,y Lo$dHE 9adical
10 (`".
09. Ž ,2 3P 52 shi 1# ko t 62 7a 4 2 7[
1. Non# child. <
0. ,as&e$# Bpoli&e su((i)# li%e 生(+0-0"E
1. aou. Bp$onounE
D. G^iscoun&H (a (eudal &i&le8 see D.1 below". 9adical 19 (Ž".
08a. •Ž ,2 7Wn 3P 52 %unshi y·# 62 gun 7a ¶4 2 gwKn 7[
Non o( a lo$d8 a gen&leman# a supe$io$ man.
.$om &he &ime o( &he Analects—a &e)& pu$po$&ing &o $eco$d &he sayings o( on(ucius
—&his &e$m inc$easingly came &o $e(e$ &o men o( supe$io$ mo$al s&anda$ds and
in&ellec&. '(&en used as an an&onym &o 小人.
10. ‘ ,2 ybu 52 yW ¸)# aru D$ 62 yu ¹ 2 ycuh
1. To possess# &o own# &o ha*e8 possession. <
0. Being# e)is&ence8 &o e)is&# &o be Bin a place o$ among a g$oupE.
The second g$oup o( meanings $ep$esen&s &he e)is&ence o( some&hing wi&hin a
g$oup o$ a& a loca&ion. .o$ e)ample2 ‘• could be &$ansla&ed simply as G&he$e is
wo$$y-8 •Ž‘ 善人 could be &$ansla&ed as Gamong gen&lemen &he$e a$e *i$&uous
men.H 9adical 7D (º# Gmoon-".
11 . ’ ,2 3h;ng 52 shW 1»)# owaru IT$# oeru Ih$# owari ITq# tsuini ¼,½
62 7ong ¾ 2 7Wng
To end# &o die8 ending8 (inally.
>hen meaning G&o die#- &his wo$d usually implies by na&u$al causes# a(&e$ a (ull li(e
(e.g.# •得’# -&he $ule$ succeeded in li*ing ou& his na&u$al li(e span-". 9adical 100
(¿#Hsil% (loss-".
10. “ ,2 shUn 52 shin 1<# mi m# karada n?À 62 sin Á 2 sKn
Body# &he sel(# onesel(8 pe$sonally# on one s own.
Nome&imes i& is di((icul& &o &ell wi&h &his cha$ac&e$ whe&he$ &he au&ho$ in&ends an
emphasis on &he physical body one possesses o$ whe&he$ heVshe in&ends an
abs&$ac& sense. Nynonym (-onesel(H"2自(Â".9adical 1F8 (“".
11a. ’“ ,2 3h;ng shUn 52 shWshin #Ã>#· 62 7ong sin ¾Á 2 7Wng sKn
Cll one s li(e# &o &he end o( one s li(e.
11. ” ,2 3h4 52 shi 1# no -# kare nJ# yuku Äy 62 7i 2 74
1. BC pa$&icle &ha& connec&s nouns o$ noun clauses8 see discussion in 0.1.E<
0. ?im# he$# i&# &hem# Bdi$ec& ob7ec& p$onounE
1. To go.
This is easily &he mos& common cha$ac&e$ in li&e$a$y hinese. +& has &h$ee chie( uses#
all o( which you should lea$n &ho$oughly. Beware ,eaning /1 is (ai$ly common# bu&
$a$e compa$ed &o &he o&he$ &wo meanings. onseTuen&ly# i& is Tui&e &ypical (o$
$eade$s &o o*e$loo% i& when i& occu$s (i& occu$s (o$ &he (i$s& &ime in ou$ &e)&s in
Lesson M# and once each in Lessons 0F and 07". 9adical D (Å".
1D. • ,2 y;u 52 yW ¸)# ureeru >Jh$# uki >Y# urei >J, 62 u Æ 2 yKu
>o$$y# an)ie&y# conce$n8 &o wo$$y Babou&E.
9adical M1 (心".
1F. } ,2 A$ 52 7i N# shikashite #n#\# s!shite Ç>#\# shikamo 1n3# e&c. 62 i
s 2 y:h
Bu&# and# &hen.
This wo$d only connec&s &wo *e$bs. +&s meaning is o(&en *e$y *ague8 see 0.1. 9adical
10M (}".
1M. – ,2 wJ 52 mu È# nai 7, 62 mu É 2 mSuh
1. To no& ha*e8 nonpossession. <
0. =one)is&ence# no&hingness8 &o no& e)is&.
1.HRond&e.H Bnega&i*e impe$a&i*eE
This *e$b is &he opposi&e o( ‘. =o&e &ha& unli%e
# which is only an ad*e$b and mus& p$ecede a *e$b# –(in meanings /1 and /0" is a
*e$b in i&sel(. ,eaning /1 is ac&ually a subs&i&u&e (o$ &he -p$ope$- nega&i*e
impe$a&i*e#Ê. This usage will no& occu$ un&il Lesson 01. 9adical 8M (Ë# G(i$eH".
17. — ,2 y4 52 ichi +"# hitotsu PQ¼ 62 il Ì 2 yK&
'ne8 (i$s&8 once.
Li&e$a$y hinese usually does no& ma%e a dis&inc&ion be&ween o$dinal and ca$dinal
numbe$s. on&e)& will &ell you how &o $ead &his cha$ac&e$. 9adical 1 (:".
18. — ,2 3hKo (1-0"8 chco (1" 52 ch; "()# asa D•# ashita D#ƒ 62 7o Í 2
74u(1-0"8 ch:uh(1"
1. ,o$ning# dawn<
0. .i$s& day o( &he luna$ mon&h.
1. B9oyal o$ impe$ialE cou$&8 &o hold cou$&# &o go &o cou$&# &o summon &o cou$&.
9adical 7D (º".
17a. — — ,2 y43hKo 52 i&ch; ,c.Î> 62 il 7o ÌÍ 2 yK& 74u
9igh& away# immedia&ely# in a b$ie( pe$iod o( &ime.
19. ˜ ,2 huLn 52 gen Ï<# %an S<# wazurau T8?># urei >J, 62 hwan Ð
2 waahn
Y$ie(# mis(o$&une# disas&e$8 &o su((e$# &o wo$$y abou& Ba c$isisE.
=o&e &ha& &he &e)& is con&$as&ing &his mo$e se$ious cha$ac&e$ wi&h &he milde$ •.
9adical M1 (心".
D0. ™ ,2 shIn 52 7un N»<# shitagau #ƒÑ> 62 sun Ò 2 seuhn
To ac& in acco$dance wi&h# &o ag$ee wi&h# &o obey8 (a*o$able.
9adical 181 (Ó# Glea( o( a boo%H".
D1. { ,2 dLo 52 d; w)# michi m. 62 do z 2 douh
1. 9oad# pa&h8 s%ill# me&hod8 philosophy8 &he $igh& way &o li*e<
0. To spea%# &o say.
aou p$obably al$eady %now &he cul&u$al signi(icance o( {. Cl&hough i& ga*e i&s name
&o &he Taois& (Raois&" $eligion and philosophy# all hinese philosophies and $eligions
use G&he >ay- &o indica&e &he p$ope$ pa&h in li(e. 9adical 1M0 (Ô# Hwal%ingH".
D0. š ,2 )[ng (1"8 ):ng (0" 52 %; G)# gy; Õ()# iku ,y# okonau It7># e&c.
62 haeng Ö 2 hLhng(1"# hahng(0"
1. To go# &o wal%8 &o ac&8 &o conduc& Ba((ai$sE8 &o ca$$y ou& Ban ac&ionE8 &o ci$cula&e
Bin(o$ma&ion# cu$$ency# e&c.E8 &o p$ac&ice# &o pu& in&o p$ac&ice. <
0. Beha*io$8 conduc&.
š is one o( &he mos& common cha$ac&e$s in li&e$a$y hinese# and i& is used (o$ many
ac&ions. ,os& impo$&an&ly# &he basic meaning G&o goH e)&ends &o ideas o( beha*io$
and conduc&. 9adical 1DD (š".
D1. › ,2 )Jn 52 7un N»<# shitagau #ƒÑ> 62 sun Ò 2chZuhn
To (ollow# &o comply wi&h.
This cha$ac&e$ is a nea$ synonym (o$ ™(D0". The &e)& uses i& he$e (o$ *a$ie&yQs sa%e.
9adical Mo(k".
DD. œ ,2 lP 52 $i ×# kotowari tQTq 62 li Ø# i s 2 lAih
O$inciples8 pa&&e$n# $a&ionale8 &o s&$aigh&en# &o a$$ange# &o pu& in o$de$.
+n much la&e$ hinese philosophy&he—=eo-on(ucianism &ha& began in &he ele*en&h
cen&u$y—&his cha$ac&e$ was used &o $ep$esen& &he cosmic o$de$ and &he pa&&e$n o(
&hings. +n &he ea$ly pe$iod# i&s meaning is somewha& mo$e modes& and can be
any&hing ($om &he s&$ipes on a &ige$ &o &he $igh& way &o do some&hing. +& o$iginally
mean& G&o polish gems in acco$dance wi&h &hei$ *eins.- 9adical 9M (Ù# -7ade-".
DF. • ,2 ycn 52 gen Ï<# gon Ú<# iu ,># kotoba tQÛ 62 eon Ü 2 y:hn
To spea%# &o say8 wo$ds# speech.
>hen • &a%es an ob7ec&# i& usually is &he &opic o( speech. .o$ e)ample2 人•禍#
-Oeople &al% abou& disas&e$.- 9adical 1D9 (•".
DM. ‰ ,2 )P 52 %i H# yorokobu ‡utÝ 62 hui Þ 2 hAi
To be happy# &o be deligh&ed8 &o en7oy Bsome&hingE8 7oy# pleasu$e.
Ro no& con(use &his cha$ac&e$ wi&h 善 (0F". 9adical 10 (`".
D7. ž ,2 7iK 52 %a S# kuwawaru yTT$# kuwaeru yTh$ 62 ga ß 2 gK
1. To inc$ease.
0. To pa$&icipa&e BinE# &o be o( bene(i&.
1. +nc$easingly# mo$e. <
D. To apply B&oE.
F. Cd*an&age# gain.
The ad*e$bial usage (-inc$easingly# mo$e-" may seem a li&&le odd. +& (unc&ions as a
way &o e)p$ess Gcompa$a&i*esH (-e$ ad7ec&i*es in !nglish". !)amples2 •Ž不ž小#
GThe gen&leman does no& become any smalle$H8 小人不ž聖# GThe pe&&y pe$son does
no& become any wise$.- 9adical 19 (à# -s&$eng&h-".
D8 Ÿ ,2 y: 52 e%i ;H# yasui ád, 62 i s 2 yih(1"# yih%(0"
1. !asy8 easily. <
0. hange8 &o change# &o e)change8 &he Boo% o( hanges (a hinese classic".
The (i$s& use is o(&en in con7unc&ion wi&h ano&he$ *e$b &o e)p$ess &he idea Geasy
&oeH .o$ e)ample2 Ÿ導# Heasy &o lead-8 Ÿš# -easy &o ca$$y ou&.- Nee also 7.1.
9adical 70 (â# HsunH".
D9. ,2 nI 52 do w# nu ã# ikaru ,n$# okoru It$ 62 no ä 2 nouh
Cng$y8 ange$.
9adical M1 (心".
F0. ¡ ,2 ncn (1"8 nLn (0" 52 nan å<# katai nƒ,# muzukashii @8n#, 62 nan
æ 2 nLahn (1-0"8 naahn (disas&e$"
1. Ri((icul&# ha$d &o deal wi&h. <
0. Ri((icul&y# p$oblem.
,eaning /1 is o(&en used wi&h a *e$b &o e)p$ess &he idea Gdi((icul& &oeH .o$
e)ample2 ¡導# Gdi((icul& &o leadH8 ¡š# Gdi((icul& &o ca$$y ou&H (compa$e Ÿ BD8E8 see
also 7.1". 9adical 170 (ç# -sho$&-&ailed bi$d-".
F1. ¢ ,2 )iL 52 %a S# ge Ï# shita #ƒ# e&c. 62 ha è 2 hah
fnde$# below8 &o go down# &o descend# &o pu& down8 social in(e$io$s8 &o gi*e &o a
social in(e$io$.
This cha$ac&e$ can $e(e$ &o any&hing GbelowH some&hing else# o$ any mo*emen&
($om abo*e &o below. 9adical 1 (:".
Ma. 天¢ ,2 &iKn )iL 52 &en%a \·n 62 cheon ha Eè 2 &4n hah
Gfnde$ ?ea*enH (i.e.# &he wo$ld".
hinese w$i&e$s &ended &o use &his &e$m &o $ep$esen& all &e$$i&o$y unde$ hinese
con&$ol# no& necessa$ily e*e$y place in e)is&ence. The schola$ C. . Y$aham has
$ende$ed i& as G&he empi$e.- ons&$as& i& wi&h ¨(F7".
F0. £ ,2 sh4 52 shi&su 1é# ushinau >#7> 62 sil ê 2 sK&
To lose# &o be $emiss# &o neglec&8 loss# (ailu$e.
9adical 17 (F"g
F1. ¤ ,2 hSu 52 go Ú# %; G)# ushiro >#u# ato ni DQ½# e&c. 62 hu ë 2
1. Behind# la&e$# subseTuen&ly# a(&e$wa$d8 &o (ollow behind8 &o conside$ o( lesse$
0. Oos&e$i&y# successo$# hei$.
This cha$ac&e$ can gene$ally $e(e$ &o any&hing &ha& is behind some&hing else# o$
(*e$bally" a mo*emen& &owa$d &he $ea$ o$ a dismissal o( some&hing as Gseconda$yH
o$ Gless impo$&an&.- 9adical M0 (k".
1Fa. }¤ ,2 A$ hSu 52 ato ni... nomi DQ½...-m 62 i hu së 2 y:h hauh
Cnd &hen# only &hen.
This ph$ase emphasi3es &ha& a (i$s& e*en& mus& happen be(o$e a second e*en& can
FD. ¥ ,2 $An 52 7in N< 62 in R 2 yLhn
6indness# bene*olence.
'ne o( &he mos& impo$&an& on(ucian *i$&ues. 9adical 9 (人".
FF. ¦ ,2 y: 52 gi Õ 62 ui ì 2 yih
1. 9igh&eousness# 7us&ice8 $igh&eous# 7us&. <
0. O$inciples# e&hical p$inciples8 p$incipled# up$igh&.
1. ,eaning# signi(icance# main poin&.
+n on(ucian philosophy &he (i$s& meaning is o(&en lin%ed wi&h ¥8 one $ep$esen&s &he
-so(&e$#- mo$e compassiona&e side o( *i$&ue# &he o&he$ one &he Gha$de$#H mo$e
up$igh& side. The second meaning has &he b$oade$ sense o( mo$al s&anda$ds o$
ideals (as in !nglish# when we say -she is a p$incipled pe$son-". The &hi$d usage
(which de*eloped la&e$ &han &he o&he$s" has &he *agues& meaning o( all# and in &his
sense &he cha$ac&e$ is some&imes used in&e$changeably wi&h í (FFM". 9adical 101
(î# GsheepH".
FM. § ,2 yKn 52 en ;< 62 eon Ü 2 y:hn(1"# y4n(0"
1. BCn ob7ec& p$onoun.E<
0. ?ow. BTues&ion wo$dE
+n meaning /1 (by (a$ &he mo$e common"# &his wo$d gene$ally $ep$esen&s a
combina&ion o( 於 _ ob7ec& p$onoun (e.g.# G($om him#H G&o he$#H G&owa$d i&#H e&c.".
Nome&imes i&Qs bes& &o &$ansla&e i& as a loca&ion p$onoun2 he$e o$ &he$e. +n &his &e)&#
-he$e- o$ -($om &his- would be mos& app$op$ia&e. ,eaning /0 will no& occu$ un&il
Lesson 07. 9adical 8M (Ë".
F7. ¨ ,2 guh 52 %o%u Ga# kuni y½ 62 gu% ï 2 gwo%
oun&$y# s&a&e# capi&al ci&y.
+n ancien& hina# &his cha$ac&e$ could apply &o di((e$en& concep&s. Be(o$e &he
uni(ica&ion o( hina unde$ &he iin ð empi$e (001-007 B..!."# independen& s&a&es
we$e called ¨. ?owe*e$# a& &he ea$lies& s&age# &he &e$m could be applied &o &he
Gcapi&al ci&yH o( a s&a&e (and# in (ac&# s&a&es in &he ea$ly pe$iod we$e mo$e li%e Y$ee%
ci&y-s&a&es—me&$opolises wi&h *aguely de(ined &e$$i&o$y a$ound &hem". +n &he
impe$ial pe$iod ,¨ could apply &o &e$$i&o$y con&$olled by a membe$ o( &he $oyal
house o$ a loyal $e&aine$ (G(ie(domH". Basically# all ¨ &a%en &oge&he$ cons&i&u&e 天¢
(Ma". 9adical 11 (`# -enclosu$e-".
F8. © ,2 7iK 52 %a S# %e ñ# ie ,h 62 ga ß 2 gK
1. ?ouse# household# (amily. <
0. Nchool o( &hough&.
+n &he ea$ly pe$iod# &he &e$m ¨© as a combina&ion wo$d meaning -coun&$y- had no&
Tui&e e*ol*ed ye&. 9a&he$# © is con&$as&ed wi&h ¨ &o $ep$esen& ei&he$ &he p$i*a&e
$ealm ((amily# as opposed &o coun&$y"# o$ &he noble (amilies and clans &ha& $uled &he
¨. The cha$ac&e$ i&sel( $ep$esen&s a domes&ic animal unde$ a $oo(. 9adical D0
F9 ª ,2 ch[ (1"8 3h: (0" 52 chi "# 7i N# osameru I•A$ 62 chi ò 2 ch:h(1"#
1. To go*e$n well# &o pu& in o$de$. <
0. Yo*e$nmen&# adminis&$a&ion.
.o$ a discussion o( &he li&e$a$y hinese p$onuncia&ion o( &his cha$ac&e$# see 0.7
below. 9adical 8F (ó# Gwa&e$H".
M0. « ,2 )iLo 52 %; G) 62 hyo ô 2 haau
.ilial8 (iliali&y# (ilial pie&y.
Cno&he$ one o( &he mos& impo$&an& on(ucian *i$&ues. 不« means -un(ilial- o$
Gun(iliali&y.H 9adical 19 (Ž"g
M1. ¬ ,2 m[n 52 min '<# tami ƒm 62 min õ 2 mLhn
The common people.
This cha$ac&e$ usually desc$ibes &he people as a g$oup8 i& is $a$e &o see an indi*idual
called a ¬# unless his commone$ s&a&us is being s&$essed. 9adical 81 (ö# -clan#-
M0. - ,2 3hUng 52 s; ÷)# arasou D?Ç> 62 7aeng ø 2 7Kng
1. To *ie# &o compe&e# &o s&$uggle# &o (igh&. <
0. To &$y oneQs ha$des&# &o be eage$ &o# &o *ie Bwi&h o&he$s &o accomplish some&hingE.
The second use accompanies ano&he$ *e$b and $ep$esen&s &he eage$ness o( people
&o do some&hing. .o$ e)ample2 ¬-爲善# GThe people s&$uggle &oVcompe&e &o do
goodH (i.e.# &hey a$e all e)&$emely eage$ &o do good". 9adical 87 (…".
M1. ® ,2 (Un (1"8 (Zn (0" 52 bun ù<# (un 6<# bu ù# wakeru Tú$ 62 bun û 2
(Kn(1"# (ahn(0"
1. To di*ide up# &o appo$&ion,&o sha$e. <
0. Nha$e# lo&# (a&e.
=o&e &ha& &he %ni(e $adical sugges&s &he cha$ac&e$Qs o$iginal meaning2 cu&&ing
some&hing in&o pieces and di*iding i&. 9adical 18 (ü# G%ni(eH".
MD. ¯ ,2 c[ 52 7i N# itsukushimu ,¼y#@ 62 7a 4 2 ch:h
ompassion# sympa&hy8 compassiona&e.
9adical M1 (心".
MF. ° ,2 hu: 52 %ei ñ+# e ;# megumu Aý@ 62 hye þ 2 waih
ompassion8 compassiona&e.
¯° is an e)ample o( a synonym compound—&wo wo$ds wi&h $oughly &he same
meaning pu& &oge&he$# some&imes (o$ emphasis# some&imes &o c$ea&e a symme&$ical
$hy&hm. fp &o &his poin& in &he lesson &e)&# &he e)p$ession }¤ has been (ollowed by
a &wo-cha$ac&e$ ph$ase2 (i$s& ¥¦# &hen «Ž. Cl&hough &he au&ho$ could e)p$ess his
meaning he$e wi&h only &he cha$ac&e$ ¯# &he symme&$y o( &he ph$ases (o$ces him &o
inse$& a synonym. 9adical M1 (心".
MM. ± ,2 n: 52 gya%u ÿゃy# ge%i ÏH# sakarau •n?> 62 yeo% 역 2 yi%
To go agains& B&he $igh&E# &o be pe$*e$se# &o go aw$y.
9adical 1M0 (定".
M7. ² ,2 sh[ 52 7i N# toki QY 62 si 시 2 s:h
Time# &he &imes# &he e$a.
(”" ² is o(&en used &o ma$% a &empo$al clause. .o$ e)ample# 聖人ª天¢”²,¬-爲
善#G>hen a sagely pe$son go*e$ns &he wo$ld# &hen &he people *ie &o do good.-
9adical 70 (â".
M8. ³ ,2 (\n 52 han ハ<# kaeru nh$ 62 ban 반 2 (can
1. To $e*ol&8 &o go as&$ay8 &o be pe$*e$se. <
0. To $e&u$n.
1. 'n &he con&$a$y# con&$a$y &o e)pec&a&ions.
+n all meanings# &he idea o( a coun&e$mo&ion is implied by &his cha$ac&e$. 9adical 09
(又# GagainH".
M9. ´ ,2 Tucn 52 gon Ú<# %en ñ< 62 gwon 권 2 %yIhn
1. To weigh# &o balance Bphysical ob7ec&sE.
0. i$cums&ances# con&ingencies# &empo$a$y si&ua&ion. <
1. +n(luence# au&ho$i&y# powe$.
9adical 7F (木# G&$eeH".
70. µ ,2 mhu 52 b; ボ)# mu È# hakaru はn$ 62 mo 모 2 mLuh
Olans# schemes# s&$a&egy8 &o plo&# &o plan8 $esou$ce(ul.
This wo$d can ha*e ei&he$ a posi&i*e conno&a&ion (&o ma%e s&$a&egies# &o consul&# &o
plan" o$ a nega&i*e one (&o scheme# &o plo&". Cs a *e$b# i& &a%es as i&s ob7ec& ei&he$
&he &hing &ha& is being planned (聖人µ善# GThe wise pe$son plans a good &hingH" o$
&he &hing &ha& is being plo&&ed agains& (小人µ¨# GThe pe&&y pe$son plo&&ed agains&
&he s&a&e-". 9adical 1D9 (•".
M9a. ´µ ,2 Tucn mhu 52 %enb; ú·ぼ> 62 gwon mo 권모 2 %yIhn mLuh
Y$and s&$a&egies# p$o*isional plans8 $esou$ce(ulness.
This compound ob*iously de$i*es ($om &he idea o( &he plans µ one de*elops in
ce$&ain ci$cums&ances ´.
0.1. The pa$&icle ”2 'u$ &e)& gi*es us &he (i$s&# and p$obably &he mos& common# o(
se*e$al uses (o$ &his cha$ac&e$. +& connec&s &wo nouns o$ noun ph$ases8 i&s use is
o(&en op&ional and i& &ends &o occu$ when cla$i(ica&ion is needed. +& can $ep$esen&
ei&he$ possession o$ desc$ip&ion2
•”µ2&he $ule$Qs schemes
天¢”¨:&he s&a&es o( &he wo$ld
聖人”²2&he e$a o( a wise pe$son
小人”©2&he pe&&y pe$sonQs house
•Ž”¤2behind &he gen&leman
0.0. Longe$ desc$ip&i*e ph$ases2 aou will p$obably ha*e mos& di((icul&y wi&h ” when
i& connec&s a whole sen&ence &o a noun. +n li&e$a$y hinese# one does no& say -&he
$ule$ who plo&s agains& &he s&a&e.H 'ne says G&he plo&-agains&-s&a&e $ule$- µ¨”
•.'&he$ e)amples (ollow2
爲善”©2a (amily &ha& does good
-得{”¬:a people &ha& *ies &o ob&ain &he >ay
±善人”µ:a plo& &ha& goes agains& good people
以福¨”天:a ?ea*en &ha& $ewa$ds a s&a&e wi&h good (o$&une
'ne o( &he conseTuences o( &his &ype o( s&$uc&u$e is &ha& i& is some&imes di((icul& &o
&ell whe&he$ a *e$b is &he main *e$b o( a sen&ence o$ ins&ead pa$& o( &he desc$ip&ion
o( &he noun. .o$ e)ample2
C& (i$s&# you migh& see &he cha$ac&e$s 欲 得{ as a g$oup and begin &o $ead &he
sen&ence as -9ule$s wan& &o ob&ain &he >aye.H Bu& suddenly,you a$e con($on&ed
wi&h ”. >ha& &o do nowX +( you loo% a& &he sen&ence ca$e(ully# youQll see &ha& &he
main *e$b o( &he sen&ence is 欲# whe$eas 得 is pa$& o( a ph$ase desc$ibing 聖人. The
&$ue meaning2 -The $ule$ wan&s wise men who ha*e ob&ained &he >ay.-
O9CT+!2 T$ansla&e &he (ollowing (some may be co$$ec&ly in&e$p$e&ed in di((e$en&
1. µ°”²
0. ³{”˜
1. 以¥¦導¬”«•
D. 知™•”善¬
F. «Ž不£‘¦”©œ。
M. 天¢™š!”•。
7. 天¢-™š!”•。
8. 天¢-™以¥¦š!”•。
9. Ž不多0™•Ž”•。
10. ¬–š¯°”µ。
O9CT+!2 Ou& &he (ollowing in&o li&e$a$y hinese2
1. C wise $ule$ who &al%s abou& *i$&ue
0. C di((icul& p$inciple &ha& goes agains& &he (amily
1. Cn e$a &ha& obeys &he gen&leman
D. Cn ang$y son who loses bene*olence
F. C good man who go*e$ns wi&h compassion
M. The people spea% abou& a $ule$ who go*e$ns his coun&$y.
7. .ilial sons ob&ain $ewa$d ($om a ?ea*en &ha& (ollows &he >ay.
8. fn(ilial $ule$s go agains& wise men who possess $igh&eousness.
0.1. The con7unc&ion }2 This is an e)&$emely *ague wo$d &ha& usually connec&s &wo
*e$bs. ?ow i& should be in&e$p$e&ed depends on &he con&e)&. Nome e)amples2
+n &his case# &he &wo ac&ions o( &he 小人 a$e bo&h bad and do no& seem &o be
con&$as&ing o$ con&$adic&o$y. onseTuen&ly# we &$ansla&e wi&h a simple -and-2 -The
pe&&y pe$son goes agains& &he >ay and opposes *i$&ue.-
This case is open &o deba&e# bu& &he w$i&e$Qs poin& he$e seems &o be &ha& a wise
pe$son# al&hough ca$e(ul o( hisVhe$ own beha*io$# will no& &$y &o (o$ce &ha& beha*io$
on o&he$s. onjseTuen&ly# we migh& &$ansla&e wi&h -bu&-2 GThe wise pe$son con&$ols
himVhe$sel( bu& does no& con&$ol o&he$s.-
Nome&imes } seems &o emphasi3e &empo$al seTuence o$ &he p$econdi&ions &ha& a$e
necessa$y (o$ some second ac&ion &o occu$. C cha$ac&e$-by-cha$ac&e$ &$ansla&ion
would be GThe $ule$ p$ac&ices %indness and 7us&ice and go*e$ns &he s&a&e.- ,os&
would $ead he$e &he implica&ion &ha& p$ac&icing %indness and 7us&ice b$ings abou&
&he go*e$ning. GThe $ule$ p$ac&ices %indness and 7us&ice and so go*e$ns &he s&a&e.-
The impo$&an& poin& he$e is &ha& you should loo% ca$e(ully a& &he o*e$all &endencies
o( &he sen&ence be(o$e you in&e$p$e& }.
0.D. N&a&i*e *e$b2 This is a &e$m used by !nglish-spea%ing schola$s o( hinese &o
desc$ibe an ad7ec&i*e (unc&ioning as a *e$b. +n !nglish# a s&a&i*e *e$b &ypically
consis&s o( &he *e$b G&o be- (ollowed by wha& is &e$med a -p$edica&e ad7ec&i*e-2 She
is angry# it is small# they are kind. +n li&e$a$y hinese# you donQ& need &he *e$b to be2
•# G&he $ule$ is ang$yH8 Ž小# G&he son is smallH8 聖人¯# G&he wise pe$son is %ind.H
=o&ice &ha& when you $e*e$se &he cha$ac&e$s# you ha*e an ad7ec&i*e-noun ph$ase
$a&he$ &han a comple&e sen&ence2 •# Gang$y $ule$-8 小Ž# Gsmall son-8 ¯聖人# G%ind
wise pe$son.H Clways be ca$e(ul &o obse$*e wo$d o$de$ when in&e$p$e&ing a
0.F. Oassi*e s&$uc&u$es2 The$e is a simple way &o dis&inguish &he Gac&i*e *oice- and
&he -passi*e *oice- in sen&ences. +( &he sub7ec& o( &he sen&ence ca$$ies ou& &he
ac&ion o( &he *e$b# i&Qs &he ac&i*e *oice8 i( i& $ecei*es &he e((ec&s o( &he *e$b# i&Qs &he
passi*e *oice. .o$ e)ample2
The (ilial son %illed &he $a&. "his is acti#e #oice.
The $a& was %illed by &he (ilial son. "his is passi#e #oice.
The$e a$e a numbe$ o( special ways &o indica&e &he passi*e *oice in li&e$a$y hinese#
and weQll e)amine &hem as we encoun&e$ &hem (7.1# 9.0# 9.1# and 11.11". ?owe*e$#
i&Qs no& unusual (o$ a w$i&e$ &o use &he passi*e *oice wi&hou& any special indica&ion o(
such when &he meaning o( &he sen&ence would ma%e i& clea$. +n &he second p$o*e$b
abo*e# ¨©不ª should be $ead passi*ely8 al&hough in !nglish we could say &ha& a
s&a&e o$ a (amily go*e$ns# usually in hinese &hese a$e $ecipien&s o( go*e$ning. No#
G&he s&a&e and (amily a$e no& BwellE go*e$ned- would be co$$ec&.
0.M. +mplied compound sen&ences2 Cs we shall see# li&e$a$y hinese does ha*e
wo$ds (o$ cons&$uc&ing mul&iclause sen&ences# li%e Gi(#H Gwhen#H G&hen#H Gal&hough#H
and so (o$&h. ?owe*e$# i& is 7us& as li%ely &ha& a w$i&e$ will lea*e &hese ou& i( &he
meaning is clea$ wi&hou& &hem. .o$ e)ample# in &he sen&ence 天¢£{,}¤¥¦生§#
&he e)p$ession }¤ means Gonly &hen#H which sugges&s &ha& &he (i$s& ph$ase has an
implied Gi(H o$ Gwhen.H
,o$e di((icul& a$e &hese &wo ph$ases ($om p$o*e$b /12
hinese w$i&e$s &end &o ha*e a (ondness (o$ (ou$-cha$ac&e$ ph$ases and &ha& may be
why &his is pu& &he way i& is. +& would ha*e been somewha& easie$ i( we had2
Nee i( you can now &$ansla&e &hese di((icul& sen&ences.
O9CT+!2 Ou& &he (ollowing in&o li&e$a$y hinese2
1. The common people s&$uggle &o ob&ain li(e and do no& (ollow &he $ule$.
0. The pe&&y man &al%s abou& %indness and 7us&ice bu& he does no& p$ac&ice *i$&ue.
1. >hen &he wo$ld is no& go*e$ned# only &hen do &he people s&$uggle &o ob&ain &he
D. The son p$ac&ices (ilial pie&y and go*e$ns his (amily.
F. Cl&hough she is ang$y she does no& $esen& &he $ule$.
M. >hen &he $ule$ does no& spea%,only &hen do &he people plo& agains& *i$&ue.
0.7. G9eading p$onuncia&ionsH(讀音" in li&e$a$y hinese2 aou may ha*e no&iced (i( you
%now some mode$n ,anda$in" &ha& &he cha$ac&e$ ª(F9" was gi*en a p$onuncia&ion
o( chi when i& (unc&ions as a *e$b e*en &hough such a p$onuncia&ion does no& e)is&
a& all in mode$n spo%en ,anda$in. Nuch p$onuncia&ions a$e some&imes called
G$eading p$onuncia&ions-8 &he $a&ionale behind &hem is wo$&h discussing (o$ a
Cs &he di((e$en& hinese dialec&s e*ol*ed# &hey came &o p$onounce cha$ac&e$s
di((e$en&ly# e*en &hough &he cha$ac&e$s p$ese$*ed &hei$ essen&ial meanings.
'b*iously# mode$n ,anda$in hinese also sounds Tui&e di((e$en& ($om &he hinese
o( *e$y ancien& &imes# o$ e*en la&e$ &imes such as &he Tang 唐 dynas&y (M18-907
.!.". ,o$eo*e$# ancien& hinese was -&onalH li%e &he mode$n dialec&s# bu& &he &ones
we$e di((e$en& (7us& as &hey a$e di((e$en& in ,anda$in# an&onese# Taiwanese# e&c.".
La&e$ $eade$s in hina (+ am $e(e$$ing &o &he pe$iod ($om $oughly &he ele*en&h
cen&u$y &o &he ea$ly &wen&ie&h cen&u$y" &ended &o use Tang dynas&y hinese as &hei$
s&anda$d (o$ iden&i(ying &he &ones o( li&e$a$y hinese. This does no& mean &ha& &hey
p$onounced li&e$a$y hinese &he way Tang dynas&y hinese had. +& me$ely means
&ha& &hey &ended &o lis& a cha$ac&e$Qs &one in Tang &e$ms# no& in mode$n hinese
&e$ms. Bu& wha& does &his mean e)ac&lyX
Tang hinese had (ou$ &ones# bu& &hese we$e not &he (ou$ &ones o( mode$n ,anda$in.
They we$e called -le*el-平# -$ising-上# Gdepa$&ingH去# and -en&e$ing-入. >hen
mode$n ,anda$in s&a$&ed &o de*elop a(&e$ &he &wel(&h cen&u$y# i& di*ided -le*el- &one
cha$ac&e$s be&ween mode$n &ones one and &wo8 -$ising- became mode$n &hi$d &one
and -depa$&ing- became mode$n (ou$&h &one. The -en&e$ing &oneH (cha$ac&e$i3ed by
a Gglo&&al s&opH ending—li%e wo$ds in mode$n an&onese &ha& end in -%# -p# o$ -&
sounds" disappea$ed ($om ,anda$in al&oge&he$# and cha$ac&e$s wi&h such &ones
we$e $edis&$ibu&ed among &he o&he$ &ones. (This is a *e$y $ough desc$ip&ion# and
&he$e a$e many e)cep&ions." 'ld en&e$ing &ones can be &$aced *e$y easily in
5apanese8 &hey a$e cha$ac&e$s &ha& ha*e &wo-syllable on $eadings (do%u# ba&su# e&c.".
The $espec& la&e$ impe$ial schola$s had (o$ &he Tang e$a mean& &ha& &hey con&inued
&o iden&i(y cha$ac&e$s by &hei$ Tang &ones# e*en as &hei$ own spo%en &ones changed.
This could be a pa$&icula$ly di((icul& p$oblem in poe&$y—since ce$&ain %inds o(
hinese poe&$y p$esc$ibe &he &ones o( &he cha$ac&e$s used in ce$&ain places# poe&s o(
la&e$ &imes had &o compose using &he $ules o( Tang &ones# e*en &hough &he poe&s
&hemsel*es had ne*e$ spo%en &ha& way a& all.
This would be an academic issue# we$e i& no& (o$ &he p$oblem o( cha$ac&e$s wi&h
mul&iple p$onuncia&ions. + commen&ed abo*e in 1.1 &ha& cha$ac&e$s some&imes ha*e
di((e$en& p$onuncia&ions i( &hey ha*e di((e$en& meanings (and i( you %now mode$n
,anda$in# you ha*e p$obably seen &ha& al$eady in &he cha$ac&e$s 爲# 長# and
聽".These &one di((e$ences we$e p$esen& in Tang hinese as well# &hough o( cou$se
&hey sounded di((e$en& ($om &he way &hey a$e p$onounced in ,anda$in. +n (ac&# &he$e
we$e many &one di((e$ences in Tang hinese &ha& subseTuen&ly died ou& in ,anda$in
La&e$ ,anda$in spea%e$s# when $eading li&e$a$y &e)&s aloud# some&imes &$ied &o
p$ese$*e &hese di((e$ences by gi*ing cha$ac&e$s di((e$en& p$onuncia&ions e*en when
such dis&inc&ions had disappea$ed ($om speech. Thus# a p$ope$ li&e$a$y hinese
$eade$ is supposed &o $ead ª as chi when i& is a *e$b in o$de$ &o p$ese$*e a simila$
&one dis&inc&ion &ha& had e)is&ed in Tang &imes.
The$e a$e a (ew o&he$ cases whe$e schola$s clung &o an olde$ p$onuncia&ion o( &he
cha$ac&e$# because &hey (el& &ha& &he e*ol*ing spo%en p$onuncia&ion o( &he cha$ac&e$
was -*ulga$.- The$e a$e &wo pa$&icula$ly no&able e)amples o( &his2 &he cha$ac&e$ 車#
which is supposed &o be p$onounced 7u in li&e$a$y hinese (as opposed &o spo%en
che"# and 白 and 百# which a$e supposed &o be p$onounced bo (as opposed &o bai
and bai".
Cll o( &hese a$e G$eading p$onuncia&ions.- + $a&he$ suspec& &ha& as &ime goes on#
e*en schola$s will cease &o obse$*e &hese dis&inc&ions when $eading aloud# e*en
&hough &hey will be awa$e o( &he Tang di((e$ences. >hen + s&a$&ed s&udying li&e$a$y
hinese# mos& >es&e$n schola$s p$onounced &he name o( &he (amous Tang poe& 李白
as Li Bo (Li Oo in old >ade-Yiles $omani3a&ion"# because &ha& was &he -co$$ec&- 讀音
(o$ his name. ?owe*e$# &hese days mos& na&i*e lis&ene$s would be con(used i( a
spea%e$ called him &hus.
The$e is one (u$&he$ &hing &o no&e abou& &hese p$onuncia&ion di((e$ences# and &his
will p$o*e impo$&an& la&e$ on (o$ you2 T$adi&ional hinese commen&a&o$s had a habi&
o( gi*ing you a clue abou& wha& a cha$ac&e$ mean& simply by iden&i(ying i&s Tang
&one. .o$ e)ample# when &he cha$ac&e$ ª appea$s in a &e)& as a *e$b# a
commen&a&o$ migh& simply no&e unde$nea&h 平聲#-le*el &one.- This is because &he
special chi p$onuncia&ion o( &his cha$ac&e$ was a le*el &one in Tang hinese. This
&ype o( in(o$ma&ion can be help(ul &o you in unde$s&anding &e)&bu& only i( you
al$eady %now abou& &he Tang &one di((e$ences.
#haracter List
i. ¢”¥®ž³•‰¨£Ž«©¤˜°•Ÿ²‘—´¬ª§–-œ’¦}š•µ“{¡™(D0"
ii. ›±(0"
iii. ¯(1"
Lesson /
*et $ne %ore Proverb
V$#A+ULA)* (!1-1.1"
71. 萬 ,2 wLn 52 man :<# ban ;< 62 man < 2 maahn
Ten &housand.
9adical 1D0 (=".
70. 物 ,2 wI 52 bu&su ùé# mo&su ~é# mono 3- 62 mul > 2 mah&
Thing8 physical ob7ec&.
萬物# -&he &en &housand &hings#H is a common e)p$ession (o$ all &he &hings in &he
wo$ld. 9adical 91 (?# GcowH".
71. ,2 T[ 52 %i H# sore ÇJ# sono Ç- 62 gi K 2 %Zih
1. This8 &ha&8 &hese8 &hose8 i&s8 his8 he$8 &hei$# Bpossessi*e and demons&$a&i*e
0. Oe$haps# p$obably# should# B*ague modal ad*e$bE
This cha$ac&e$ is e)&$emely common in li&e$a$y hinese cons&$uc&ions. .o$ de&ails o(
&he (i$s& meaning# see 1.1. The second meaning will be encoun&e$ed and e)plained
la&e$ (11.M". 9adical 10 (@# Geigh&H".
7D. ! ,2 b@n 52 hon Š<# moto 3Q 62 bon A 2 bJn
BT$eeE $oo&8 (undamen&al8 basics.
+n hinese philosophy# ! is o(&en used &o e)p$ess impo$&an& &hings# (i$s& &hings# o$
&he essen&ial na&u$e o( &hings. 9adical 7F (木".
7F. 百 ,2 b\i 52 bya%u B2a# hya%u Pゃy# momo 33 62 bae% C 2 baa%
'ne hund$ed.
9adical 10M (白# Gwhi&eH".
7M. " ,2 sh: 52 7i N# koto tQ# tsukaeru ¼nh$ 62 sa D 2 sih
1. Thing# ma&&e$# a((ai$# occupa&ion# 7ob. <
0. To se$*e# &o wo$% (o$8 &o employ# &o ha*e as a se$*an&.
+n mode$n hinese# 物(70" &ends &o apply &o physical ob7ec&s# whe$eas " applies &o
ma&&e$s# a((ai$s# and abs&$ac& &hings. This holds &$ue &o a ce$&ain e)&en& in li&e$a$y
hinese# bu& &he$e is some con(usion o( &he &e$ms. 9adical M (E".
77. # ,2 chAng 52 sei X+. 7; N()# naru 7$# nasu 7d 62 seong r 2 s:hng
To comple&e8 &o accomplish8 &o pe$(ec&8 &o become.
This cha$ac&e$ is Tui&e common in bo&h &$ansi&i*e use (•#!# GThe $ule$ pe$(ec&s his
*i$j&ue-" and in&$ansi&i*e use (!## -^i$&ue comes &o pe$(ec&ion-". 9adical M0 (F#
78. $ ,2 sub 52 so ÷# sho 1(# tokoro Qtu 62 so ‚ 2 sh
1. Olace# loca&ion.
0. BY$amma&ical pa$&icle2 &u$ns a *e$b in&o a di$ec& ob7ec&.E<
The second use o( &his cha$ac&e$ is (ai$ly complica&ed and will p$obably cause you
some di((icul&y. .o$ de&ails# see 1.1 below. 9adical M1 (G# Gdoo$H".
79. % ,2 3Li 52 3ai H+# aru D$ 62 7ae I 2 7oih
To be loca&ed in Ba placeE8 &o be a& Ba placeE8 &o e)is&# &o be li*ing.
9adical 10 (Œ".
80. & ,2 gu4 52 %i H# kaeru nh$# kaesu nhd 62 gwi J 2 gwKi
To go home8 &o gi*e allegiance &o8 &o (ind $e(uge wi&h.
This cha$ac&e$ e)p$esses &he ac&ion o( going &o whe$e one GbelongsH (in &$adi&ional
concep&ion". 9i*e$s & &o &he sea. ^assals & &o &hei$ lo$d. >omen & &o &hei$
husbandsQ homes when &hey ge& ma$$ied. 9adical 77 (K# G&o s&op-".
81. ' ,2 gu: 52 %i H# t!tobu Q>QÝ# t!toi Q>Q, 62 gwi J 2 gwai
^aluable# e)pensi*e8 &o *alue8 &o &$easu$e.
+n o&he$# la&e$ &e)&s# &his cha$ac&e$ indica&es membe$s o( &he nobili&y and
a$is&oc$acy. 9adical 1FD (L# -cow$ie shell-—once used (o$ cu$$ency".
80. ( ,2 Li 52 ai D,# aisuru D,d$# oshimu I#@ 62 ae M 2 ngoi
To lo*e8 &o che$ish8 &o beg$udge.
This cha$ac&e$ usually does no& imply G$oman&ic lo*edd in li&e$a$y hinese# as i& does
in &he mode$n !as& Csian languages. 9adical M1 (心".
81. ) ,2 wZi 52 i +# osoreru IÇJ$# kashikomu n#t@ 62 oe N 2 wai
To (ea$8 &o be in awe o(8 &o $espec&.
9adical 100 (O# G(ieldH".
8D. * ,2 wW 52 o%u =a 62 o% P 2 ngW%
?ouse# $oom.
9adical DD (Q# Gco$pseH# GbodyH".
8F. + ,2 lSu 52 $;# moru 3$# moreru 3J$# morasu 3?d 62 lu R# nu S 2
To lea%.
9adical 8F (ó".
8M. 去 ,2 TI 52 %yo H(# %o G# saru •$ 62 geo T 2 heui
1. To lea*e# &o abandon# B&$ansi&i*eE
0. To lea*e# &o depa$&# Bin&$ansi&i*eE
9adical 08 (U".
87. ó ,2 shuP 52 sui V+# mizu m8 62 su W 2 sAui
Nome&imes &his cha$ac&e$ is used poe&ically (o$ -$i*e$- (li%e G&he wa&e$s o( &he =ileH
in !nglish". 9adical 8F (ó".
88. , ,2 Ti\n 52 sen X<# asai D•, 62 cheon E 2 ch[n
Cs can &he !nglish wo$d (o$ &his meaning# &his cha$ac&e$ can be used li&e$ally
(Gshallow wa&e$H" o$ me&apho$ically (Gshallow (eelingsH". 9adical 8F (ó".
89. - ,2 yJ 72 gyo Õ(# uo >I# sakana •n7 62 eo ] 2 yIh
9adical 19F (-".
90. . ,2 &co 52 &; g)# nigeru ½X$ 62 do z 2 &Suh
To (lee# &o escape.
9adical 1M0 (Ô".
91. / ,2 shI 52 7u N»# ki Y 62 su W 2 syuh
1. T$ee<
0. To plan& Ba &$eeE# &o es&ablish.
9adical 7F (木".
90. 0 ,2 gKo 52 %; G)# takai ƒn, 62 go Y 2 g;u
?igh# lo(&y.
9adical 189 (0".
91. 1 ,2 ni\o 52 ch; "()# tori Qq 62 7o Í 2 n[uh
9adical 19M (1".
9D. 2 ,2 sI 52 shu%u 1»a# yadoru áZ$# yadosu áZd# yado áZ 62 su% [
2 sW%
1. To $oos&8 &o lodge# &o spend &he nigh&8 lodging# inn. <
0. O$e*ious# (o$me$.
Cs one migh& conclude ($om &he usages abo*e# &he cha$ac&e$ can $e(e$ bo&h &o
animals $oos&ing (o$ &he nigh& and &o humans spending &he nigh& somewhe$e (o(&en
&empo$a$ily". .$om &he$e# &he meaning o( -inn- o$ GlodgingH de*eloped. 9adical D0
9F. 3 ,2 hSu 52 %; G)# atsui D¼, 62 hu ë 2 hcuh
Thic%8 gene$ous.
9adical 07 (]# Gcli((H".
9M. 4 ,2 sh: 52 shi 1# samu$ai •@?, 62 sa D 2 sih
6nigh&8 mili&a$y o((ice$8 gen&leman8 gen&$y.
The meaning o( &his cha$ac&e$ changes depending on &he his&o$ical pe$iod. C& &he
&ime o( &his &e)&# i& o(&en $e(e$$ed &o a land-owning -middle class#H some&imes
wa$$io$s# some&imes schola$s. ,any o( &hese people we$e li&e$a&e# and mos& o( &he
li&e$a&u$e and philosophy o( &he &ime was p$oduced by &hem. Nocially# &hey we$e
loca&ed be&ween &he a$is&oc$a&s and &he $ule$s on &he one side# and &he common
people on &he o&he$. 9adical 11 (4".
97. 5 ,2 TI 52 sū V)# shu 1» 62 chu ^ 2 chUui
To hu$$y8 &o has&en.
9adical 1FM (_# G&o $unH".
98. 6 ,2 lP 52 $ai `+# $ei a+ 62 ye b 2 lci
9i&es# ce$emonies8 poli&eness# e&iTue&&e# cou$&esy8 poli&e# cou$&eous.
Cno&he$ *e$y impo$&an& &e$m in on(lician &hin%ing# al&hough !nglish &$ansla&ions
o(&en (ail &o con*ey &his. 9adical 111 (W".
99. 7 ,2 3h;ng 52 chū "») 62 chung c 2 7Wng
Loyal# (ai&h(ul8 loyal&y.
9adical M1 (心".
100. 8 ,2 ):n 52 shin 1< 62 sin Á 2 seun
1. T$us&wo$&hy# since$e8 &o belie*e8 (ai&h# &$us&wo$&hiness. <
0. T$uly# ac&ually.
9adical 9 (人".
101. 9 ,2 sP 52 shi 1# shinu #d 62 sa D 2 sAi
Rea&h8 &o die.
.o$ &his cha$ac&e$Qs special use in &his lessonQs &e)& see 1.D below. 9adical 78 (e#
-bad#- -*icious-".
1.1. The possessi*eVdemons&$a&i*e ad7ec&i*e —and p$onouns in gene$al2 Cl&hough
will ha*e some o&he$ impo$&an& (unc&ions &ha& we will no&e la&e$# i&s mos&
common is &o signi(y -demons&$a&i*e- (unc&ions kthis, that, the" o$ possession. Thus#
depending on &he con&e)&# - could mean G&his (ish#H G&ha& (ish#H G&he (ish Bwe
ha*e been &al%ing abou&E#- Ghe$ (ish#H Ghis (ish#H Gi&s (ish#H o$ G&hei$ (ishH Ro no&
con(use i& wi&h ”2
•(”"心2 &he $ule$Qs mind 心2 his mind
+( you wish &o say Gyou$ mind- o$ Gmy mind#- you use an op&ional ” pa$&icle wi&h a
(i$s& o$ second pe$son p$onoun2f(”"心# Ž(”"心.
Yene$ally spea%ing# hinese w$i&e$s $a$ely used sub7ec& p$onouns in &he &hi$d
pe$son. No ins&ead o( e)p$essing -she#- -he#- Gi&#H o$ G&hey#H &he &e)& will simply
ha*e no&hing a& all2
•得¬心}¤得8。The $ule$ ob&ains &he peopleQs hea$&s# and only &hen will he
ob&ain &hei$ &$us&.
1.0. Oa$&i&i*e s&$uc&u$e2 This is an in&e$es&ing and common pa&&e$n &ha& o(&en
con(uses s&uden&s. Oay ca$e(ul a&&en&ion &o &he (ollowing discussion.
>e ha*e al$eady seen in 0.0 how a long *e$bal ph$ase can modi(y a noun2
不8•”¬2 a people who do no& &$us& &hei$ $ule$.
?owe*e$# i( you wan& &o pu& pa$&icula$ emphasis on such people—&o see &hem as a
special subg$oup o( peoples in gene$al (&he subg$oup o( &hose who donQ& &$us& &hei$
$ule$"# &hen you use a new pa&&e$n# cha$ac&e$i3ed by 2
='f= _ ” _ ^!9BCL O?9CN! _ 者 No# ou$ ea$lie$ sen&ence could be $ew$i&&en as2
Li&e$ally# &his is saying -peoplesH no&-&$us&-&hei$-$ule$s ones.- The e((ec& migh& be
e)p$essed in be&&e$ !nglish as G&hose among &he peoples who do no& &$us& &hei$
!*en e)&$emely simple sen&ences can use &his s&$uc&u$e (o$ &he sa%e o( emphasis2
小/2 small &$eeV&$ees /”小者2 B&hoseE &$ees &ha& a$e small
The di((e$ence he$e may seem unimpo$&an&# bu& &he (la*o$ o( &he second sugges&s
&ha& &he w$i&e$ wan&s &o dis&inguish special cha$ac&e$is&ics o( small &$ees and &ell us
some&hing abou& &hem.
'&he$ e)amples2
人”.禍者:B&hoseE people who (lee disas&e$
¨”不›天者:B&hoseE s&a&es &ha& do no& obey ?ea*en
1”不2/者:B&hoseE bi$ds &ha& do no& nes& in &$ees
聖人”自禁者:B&hoseE sages who con&$ol &hemsel*es
'ne (inal wa$ning2 The ” pa$&icle in &his s&$uc&u$e is op&ional# so donQ& e)pec& i&
always &o be &he$e. +n &he opening o( &his lesson# we ha*e 萬物得!者.This is &he
same as 萬物”得!者. Cll &he o&he$ uses o( &he pa$&i&i*e in &his lesson a$e &he
O9CT+!2 T$ansla&e &he (ollowing2
1. 人”不2*者
0. •”怨˜者
1. 4”不8天者
D. /”小者,!不#。
F. 4”不自(者不•命。
M. -”不.,ó者,人得”。
7. 1”#©於0/者,*+。
O9CT+!2 Ou& &he (ollowing in&o li&e$a$y hinese. Be su$e &o use pa$&i&i*e s&$uc&u$es]
C(&e$ you ha*e (inished# &$y $ew$i&ing you$ sen&ences in nonpa$&i&i*e (o$ms.
1. Oe&&y people who a$e no& a& home
0. .ish who do no& ha*e $ule$s
1. 6nigh&s who abandon &he wa&e$
D. Cs (o$ $ule$s who pe$(ec& &he 9i&es# &he people will gi*e allegiance &o &hem.
F. Cs (o$ *aluable people who do no& lo*e (ish# &hei$ hea$&s a$e shallow.
M. Cs (o$ %nigh&s who die in &he wa&e$# $ule$s compe&e in lo*ing &hem.
7. Cs (o$ bi$ds &ha& has&en &o ob&ain &he >ay# %nigh&s hono$ &hei$ *i$&ue.
1.1. The pa$&icle $2 Olaced be(o$e a *e$b o$ *e$b ph$ase# &his cha$ac&e$
Gnominali3esH i& (&u$ns i& in&o a noun". Bu& unli%e 者# &his noun $ecei*es &he ac&ion o(
&he *e$b# $a&he$ &han pe$(o$ming i&.
(者:one who lo*es $(:&ha& whichVwha& is lo*ed
.者:one who (lees $.:&ha& whichVwha& is (led
#者:one who comple&es $#:&ha& whichVwha& is comple&ed
+( &he *e$b in a $ s&$uc&u$e &a%es a loca&ion as i&s ob7ec&# &hen you may need &o
&$ansla&e $ as -place-2
去者:one who abandons $去2&he place &ha& is abandoned
&者2one who $e&u$ns $&2&he place &ha& is $e&u$ned &o
%者:one who is p$esen&Ve)is&s $%:&he place whe$e BsomeoneE is loca&ed
The pe$son o$ &hing ca$$ying ou& &he ac&ion in &he $ s&$uc&u$e is placed in a
modi(ying posij&ion in ($on& o( &he cha$ac&e$# o(&en connec&ed &o i& by ”:
4(”"$(:&ha& whichVwha& &he %nigh& lo*es
聖人(”"$.:&ha& whichVwha& &he wise pe$son (lees
-(”"$#:&ha& whichVwha& &he (ish comple&es
1(”"$去2&he place &ha& &he bi$d abandons
•(”"$&2&he place &ha& &he $ule$ $e&u$ns &o
{(”"$%:whe$e &he >ay is loca&ed
O9CT+!2 T$ansla&e &he (ollowing2
1. ¬”$'
0. -$怨
1. 1$2
D. 4不(¬”$(。
F. •”$去,小人-5”。
>e will see o&he$ ways o( using &he# $ pa$&icle in &he lessons ahead.
1.D. +dioma&ic usages o( some *ocabula$y i&ems2 =o ma&&e$ how &ho$oughly you
lea$n &he g$amma$ o( li&e$a$y hinese# o$ how ($eTuen&ly you p$ac&ice cha$ac&e$s#
&he$e will always be some ways o( using speci(ic cha$ac&e$s &ha& you wonQ& be able
&o an&icipa&e. Nome&imes &hese usages a$enQ& e*en men&ioned in dic&iona$ies. aou
mus& be pa&ien& and pic% up &his in(o$ma&ion as you go along# and you mus& no& ge&
ase in poin&2 The *e$b H 9M &o die-" is no$mally in&$ansi&i*e (i.e.# i& doesnQ& &a%e a
di$ec& ob7ec&—you canQ& Gdie someone-". Bu& in &his lesson# i& is (ollowed by &he
di$ec& ob7ec& p$onoun ”. Oe$haps you migh& guess &ha& 9 should be in&e$p$e&ed as
G&o %ill- in &his case—bu& you would be w$ong. +n (ac&# 9 can &a%e as i&s ob7ec& &he
pe$son (o$ whom one dies (in an ac& o( loyal&y"8 &his is usually oneQs $ule$ o$ lo$d.
#haracter List
i. "83去%42*7(#$!/&9ó,物)百6萬'0-1 (08"
ii. +5.(1"
Lesson 0
Guan 1hon2 Shows U3 Late
V$#A+ULA)* (1.-1/0"
100. g ,2 T[ 52 sei X+ 62 7e ‰ 2 chLih
1. The s&a&e o( ii.
0. To be eTual# &o be &he same.
9ega$ding meaning /12 g was a s&a&e in p$e-impe$ial hina# occupying pa$& o( &he
a$ea o( Nhandong Š‹ p$o*ince. This is &he (i$s& o( a numbe$ o( s&a&e names you will
lea$n. Because so much o( &$adi&ional hinese cul&u$e $e(e$s bac% &o &he ea$ly
pe$iod# you should become (amilia$ wi&h &hem. 9adical 010 (g".
101. h ,2 hucn 52 %an S< 62 hwan Ð 2 wIhn
,a$&ial# mili&a$y.
This is a $ela&i*ely uncommon cha$ac&e$# used mos& o(&en in p$ope$ names and &i&les
(as &his case".
9adical 7F (木".
10D. i ,2 g;ng 52 %; G)# kimi Ym 62 gong Π2 gWng
1. GRu%eH (a (eudal &i&le". <
0. Yong# Ba su$name8 see Lesson M (o$ an e)ampleE
1. ,as&e$. Bpoli&e su((i)# simila$ &o 生(10-0" and Ž(09-0"E
D. aou# Ni$. Bpoli&e second pe$son p$onoun# simila$ &o Ž(09-1"E
.o$ de&ails on (eudal &i&les# see D.1. ,eanings /1 and /D# &hough Tui&e common# do
no& occu$ in ou$ lesson &e)&s. 9adical 10 (@".
100a. ghi ,2 T[ hucn g;ng 52 sei %an %; •,n·t> 62 7e hwan gong ‰ÐŒ
2 chLih wIhn gWng
Ru%e ?uan o( ii.
?e $eigned ($om M8F &o MD1 B..!. Cs wi&h &he names o( &he s&a&es# you should
(amilia$i3e you$sel( wi&h some o( &he mo$e (amous $ule$s and his&o$ical (igu$es o( &he
p$e-impe$i pe$iod. .o$ mo$e on &he impo$&ance o( Ru%e ?uan# see 0F.1.
10F. F ,2 dL 52 &ai Ž+# dai •+# ;kii IIY,# e&c. 62 dae • 2 daaih
Y$ea&# la$ge# impo$&an&.
9adical 17 (F".
10M. j ,2 chAn 52 shin 1<# omi Im 62 sin Á 2 sLhn
1. ,inis&e$8 sub7ec& Bo( a $ule$E. <
0. B.i$s& pe$son p$onoun when add$essing a supe$io$.E
Oay special a&&en&ion &o &he p$onoun use. This is compa$able &o a$chaic !nglish
usages li%e -aou$ ?umble Ne$*an&.- 9adical 111 (j".
107. k ,2 7I 52 gu ‘# sonawaru Ç7T$# sonaeru Ç7h$ 62 gu ’ 2 geuih
1. To p$epa$e.<
0. f&ensil# &ool
1.Cll# &he whole# e*e$y# Bad*e$bE
9adical 10 (@".
108. l ,2 7il 52 shu 1»# sake •ú 62 7u “ 2 7cu
1. Clcoholic be*e$age.
0. BanTue&# B(igu$a&i*e usageE
This cha$ac&e$ has usually been &$ansla&ed as Gwine#H bu& you should %eep in mind
&ha& alcoholic be*e$ages a& &his &ime we$e p$obably b$ewed ($om g$ains&ha& is,&hey
we$e close$ &o bee$. .e$men&ed $ice be*e$ages (li%e 5apanese sa%e" and s&$ong
dis&illed be*e$ages we$e no& made un&il much la&e$. 9adical 1MD (”#H(e$men&ed
109. m ,2 T4 52 %i H# go Ú 62 gi K 2 %Zih
1. To se& an appoin&men&# &o choose a &ime# &o se& o$ de&e$mine. <
0. To e)pec&# &o wai& (o$.
9adical 7D(º".
110. â ,2 $: 52 7i&su Né# nichi O"# ni&su [é# hi P 62 il Ì 2 yah&
Nun8 day# daily.
9adical 70(â".
111. n ,2 3h;ng (1"8 3hSng (0" 52 chW "»)# naka 7n# uchi >. 62 7ung • 2
7Wng(1"# 7ung(0"
1. ,iddle# mids&. <
0. To hi& on &a$ge&# &o s&$i%e &he middle o(.
=o&e &he change o( &one in &he second# *e$bal meaning (which is o(&en used in
discussions o( a$che$y". 9adical 0 (–".
110a. â n ,2 $: 3h;ng 52 ni&chW ½c.Ã> 62 il 7ung Ì• 2 yah& 7Wng
=oon (Gmiddle o( &he day G".
110. o ,2 gu\n 52 %an S<# kuda yÀ 62 gwan — 2 gJn
Tube8 pipe# (lu&e.
+n &his anecdo&e &he cha$ac&e$ is being used as a pe$sonQs su$name. +n &he cou$se o(
&his &e)&boo% youQll (ind &ha& youQll ha*e &o lea$n many cha$ac&e$s e*en &hough &hey
may only occu$ as names in &he lesson &e)&s. 9adical 118 (˜# GbambooH".
111. p ,2 3hSng 52 chW "») 62 7ung • 2 7uhng
The second in o$de$ o( bi$&h.
This cha$ac&e$ is used mos& o(&en &o di((e$en&ia&e &he middle o( &h$ee siblings# o$ &o
indica&e an uncleQs age in $ela&ion &o o&he$ uncles. Nee p„k111a". ?owe*e$# in &his
anecdo&e i& is a pe$sonal name. 9adical 9 (人".
110a. op ,2 gu\n 3hSng 52 %an chW n·.Ã> 62 gwan 7ung —• 2 gJn
Yuan mhong.
C p$ominen& minis&e$ o( ghi# he became (amous as a model ad*ise$ and
s&$a&egis&# and many anecdo&es a$e &old abou& him. C boo% o( poli&ical ad*ice# &he
Yuan3i oŽ# is a&&$ibu&ed &o him# bu& i& was p$obably composed a(&e$ his dea&h.
11D. q ,2 3h: 52 shi 1# itaru ,ƒ$ 62 7i % 2 7i
1. To a$$i*e. <
0. To go so (a$ as8 &o $each &he poin& o(.
1. >hen# when &he &ime came &ha&.
D. The ul&ima&e# &he mos&# &he pe$(ec&.
This is an especially common cha$ac&e$. +n addi&ion &o i&s s&$aigh&(o$wa$d *e$bal
usage# i& has a numbe$ o( mo$e abs&$ac& uses. The second meaning can be used in
e)p$essions $ep$esen&ing &he e)&en& &o which an ac&ion may be ca$$ied ou&. .o$
e)ample2 q9# Ghe &oo% $e*enge &o &he e)&en& o( dea&h-—he &oo% $e*enge e*en &o
&he e)&en& &ha& he $is%ed dea&h o$ %illed his enemy. The &hi$d meaning can be used
as a simple &ime ma$%e$. .o$ e)ample2 qšg# Gwhen he wen& &o ii....H The las&
meaning is used as an ad*e$b &o $ep$esen& &he supe$la&i*e deg$ee o( some Tuali&y.
.o$ e)ample2 q善# G&he mos& pe$(ec& good#- G&he highjes& deg$ee o( good.- 9adical
111 (q".
11F. r ,2 7l 52 %yo H(# ageru DX$# agaru DÑ$ 62 geo T 2 gAui
1. To $aise# &o li(&8 &o mobili3e B&$oopsE8 &o ligh& Ba (i$eE.<
0. Cll# en&i$e# e*e$y.
9adical 11D (™".
11M.s ,2 shKng 52 sh; 1() 62 sang š 2 sUung
up# goble&# d$in%ing cup8 &o o((e$ a &oas&.
The $adical sugges&s &ha& &his cha$ac&e$ o$iginally indica&ed a d$in%ing *essel ca$*ed
($om &he ho$n o( an animal. 9adical 1D8 (›# Ganimal ho$nsH".
117. t ,2 yPn 52 in +<# nomu -@ 62 eumœ 2 ycm
To d$in%.
+n &his anecdo&e &he cha$ac&e$ is causa&i*e2 G&o ma%e d$in%.- Nee D.1 below. 9adical
18D (•# G&o ea&H".
118. u ,2 bLn 52 han ハ<# nakaba 7nÛ 62 ban 반 2 bun
9adical 0D (ž# G&enH".
119. v ,2 T: 52 %i H# sutsu d¼# suteru d\$ 62 gi K 2 hei
To abandon# &o cas& aside# &o $e7ec&.
9adical 7F (木".
100. w ,2 yuU 52 e&su ;é# ochi I.# iwaku ,Ty 62 wal Ÿ 2 yeuh%
1. To say# &o spea%. <
0. To be named# &o be called.
Ro no& con(use &his cha$ac&e$ wi&h â (110"# which is &hinne$. This *e$b appea$s mos&
commonly as an in&$oduce$ o( di$ec& speech# bu& &he second usage is common when
in&$oducing names. Nee D.D. 9adical 71 (w".
101. y ,2 %@ 52 %o%u Ga# %a S# ii ,,# yoshi ‡## -beshi-# 62 ga ß 2 hh
To be (easible# &o be allowable# &o be pe$missible.
Cl&hough &his cha$ac&e$ commonly appea$s by i&sel(# i& &ypically occu$s wi&h a *e$b
as well (see 7.1". 9adical 10 (`".
100. z ,2 hW 52 %o G# ya á# ka n 62 ho ¡ 2 (Ih
1. Biues&ion pa$&icle2 ends a sen&ence# indica&ing a Tues&ion.E<
0. BCn e)clama&ion pa$&icle# indica&ing su$p$ise o$ emphasis.E
1. BC dialec& subs&i&u&ion (o$ &he mul&ipu$pose p$eposi&ion 於.E
.o$ &he (i$s& (and mos& &ypical" meaning# see D.F below. The o&he$ usages a$e (ai$ly
common as well (/0 is (i$s& encoun&e$ed in Lesson 7# /1 in Lesson 01"# ma%ing &his
a somewha& con(using cha$ac&e$ (o$ beginning s&uden&s. 9adical D (Å".
101. } ,2 du: 52 &ai Ž+ 62 dae • 2 dAui
To $eply# &o answe$.
9adical D1 (|".
10D. ~ ,2 wAn 52 bun ù<# mon ~<# kiku Yy 62 mun ¢ 2 mLhn
1. To hea$.<
0. To smell
1. Lea$ning# (ame# $epu&a&ion (i.e.# -wha& is hea$dH".
This is by (a$ &he mos& common *e$b (o$ hea$ing. +& is also commonly used (as in &his
case" &o in&$oduce a p$o*e$b o$ a common saying2 G+ ha*e hea$de.H 9adical 108 (耳".
10F. 入 ,2 $I 52 nyW O»)# 7u N»# iru ,$# hairu は,$ 62 ip £ 2 yahp
To en&e$.
Ro no& con(use &his cha$ac&e$ wi&h 人(8". 9adical 11 (入".
10M. • ,2 shA 52 3e&su †é# shita #ƒ 62 seol ¤ 2 sih&
9adical 11F (•".
107. € ,2 chW 52 sui V+# shu&su 1»é# deru ¥$# dasu Àd 62 chul ¦ 2
To go ou&# &o come ou&# &o eme$ge8 &o p$oduce,&o ma%e come ou&.
9adical 17 (§# G$ecep&acleH".
108. • ,2 7: 52 %ei ñ+# hakaru はn$ 62 gye ¨ 2 gai
To plan# &o calcula&e8 plans# calcula&ions.
9adical 1D9 (•".
109. ‚ ,2 $J 52 7o N(# nyo O(# gotoku ©Qy 62 yeo ª 2 yIh
1. To $esemble# &o be li%e. <
0. To go B&oE.
1. +(# supposing.
=o&e &ha& &his cha$ac&e$ has a numbe$ o( $adically di((e$en& meanings. 9adical 18 («#
Da. 不‚ ,2 bI $J 52 (unyo ¬½Î 62 bul yeo -ª 2 bK& yIh
To be no& as good as# &o no& come up &o.
Nee D.M (o$ de&ails on &his *e$y common idioma&ic e)p$ession.
110. ƒ ,2 )iLo 52 sh; 1()# warau T?># emu h@ 62 so ‚ 2 siu
To laugh8 &o smile.
'(&en# li&e$a$y hinese cla$i(ies which meaning is mean& by using Fƒ (o$ GlaughH
(which will appea$ in Lesson M". Cs a &$ansi&i*e *e$b# ƒ means G&o laugh a&
9adical 118 (˜".
111. „ ,2 (I 52 (u 6# chichi .. 62 bu 9 2 (uh
9adical 88 („".
111a. p„ ,2 3hSng (I 52 chū(u .Ã>¬ 62 7ung bu •9 2 7uhng (uh
Cpplied &o a -middle- uncle (nei&he$ &he oldes& no$ younges&". +n &his &e)&# ghi
uses i& as a &e$m o( $espec& and a((ec&ion &o his minis&e$# who was Gli%e an uncle- &o
him. This usage implies &ha& op was old enough &o be his uncle# bu& no&
e)cessi*ely old. +& is p$obably coinciden&al &ha& opds pe$sonal name was p.
110. … ,2 TP 52 %i H# okiru IY$ 62 gi K 2 hAi
To $ise8 &o ge& up B($om sleepE.
9adical 1FM (_".
111 † ,2 7iI 52 shW 1»)# 7u N»# tsuku ¼y 62 chwi ® 2 7auh
1. To p$oceed &o# &o go &o. <
0. To ca$$y ou&# &o accomplish.
9adical D1 (¯# GlameH".
11D. ‡ ,2 3uS 52 3a H# suwaru dT$ 62 7wa ° 2 chhh
1. To si&8 sea&# place Ba& a banTue& o$ mee&ingE. <
0. To &$y BsomeoneE on c$iminal cha$ges8 &o be b$ough& &o cou$& Bon a cha$geE.
fn&il &he Nong ± dynas&y (9M0-1079 .!." and &he widesp$ead use o( chai$s in
hina# &he hinese sa& c$oss-legged on ma&s (as &he 5apanese o(&en s&ill do". This
*e$b is used only (o$ c$oss-legged si&&ing. ,eaning /0 (encoun&e$ed in Lesson 10" is
$ela&i*ely $a$e. 9adical 10 (Œ".
D.1. 9ule$s and &hei$ names2 >hen &he mhou ² $ule$s &oo% con&$ol o( hina ($om &he
Nhang ³ dynas&y in &he ele*en&h cen&u$y B..!.# &hey dis&$ibu&ed &e$$i&o$ies &o
$ela&i*es and allies who we$e &o adminis&e$ &hose a$eas in &he name o( &he $uling
house. Cs &he cen&u$ies wen& by# &hese &e$$i&o$ies became inc$easingly
independen&. C& (i$s& &he$e we$e o*e$ a hund$ed such &e$$i&o$ies# bu& &he s&$onge$
conTue$ed &he wea%e$# and by &he (i(&h cen&u$y B..!. &he$e we$e only se*en ma7o$
s&a&es and a (ew $emaining mino$ ones.
The ² $ule$s g$an&ed &hei$ subo$dina&es (eudal &i&les &ha& ha*e been &$ansla&ed in&o
!nglish using ce$&ain &$adi&ional >es&e$n &e$ms2 indu%e8 ´nma$Tuis8 白nea$l8 Žn
*iscoun&8 and nba$on. ?owe*e$# by &he (i(&h cen&u$y B..!. mos& o( &he $ule$s had
app$op$ia&ed (o$ &hemsel*es &he &i&le o( G%ingH µ# which supposedly should ha*e
been used only by &he ² $ule$s.
>hile a $ule$ was li*ing he did no& ha*e any speci(ic $eigning &i&le—he was simply
$e(e$$ed &o by $espec&(ul &e$ms# such as -aou$ ,a7es&y- and so (o$&h. 'nce he died#
he $ecei*ed an hono$a$y pos&humous &i&le and was subseTuen&ly iden&i(ied by &ha&
name (as in &his case GRu%e ?uanH hi". +n addi&ion# as a ma&&e$ o( $espec&# many
(eudal $ule$s# no ma&&e$ wha& &hei$ le*el (ba$on o$ ma$Tuis o$ *iscoun& o$ wha&e*e$"
we$e usually called Gdu%eH a(&e$ &hei$ dea&h. Tha& means &ha& youQll (ind i in &e)&s
(a$ mo$e o(&en &han any o( &he o&he$ &i&les. >hen gi*ing &he (ull name o( a $ule$# (i$s&
&he s&a&e name is gi*en# &hen &he pos&humous name# &hen &he (eudal &i&le. ?ence# g
hi is Ru%e ?uan o( ii.
D.0. The co*e$b 爲2 >e ha*e seen one co*e$b so (a$# 以(1.F". 爲 is &he second mos&
common co*e$b8 no&ice &ha& i& is $ead in &he (ou$&h &one in ,anda$in. +& means Gon
behal( o(H (usually" o$ Gbecause o(H (some&imes"# and i& occu$s in &he opening
sen&ence o( ou$ lesson &e)&. Nome o&he$ e)amples2
•爲¬š!。The $ule$ p$ac&ices *i$&ue on behal( o( &he people.
Ž爲„vl。The son ga*e up ale (o$ &he sa%e o( his (a&he$.
j爲i†‡。The minis&e$ p$oceeded &o his sea& (o$ &he sa%e o( &he du%e.
D.1. ausa&i*e *e$b use2 Nome&imes *e$bs will ha*e a speci(ic Gcausa&i*eH use—&ha&
is# &hey $ep$esen& le&&ing o$ ma%ing someone else ca$$y ou& &he ac&ion o( &he *e$b.
These uses a$e no& a$bi&$a$y and only occu$ wi&h ce$&ain cha$ac&e$s in ce$&ain
ci$cums&ances# so you ha*e &o %now when &o e)pec& i& o$ no&. Nome&imes i& is
ob*ious# because no o&he$ $eading would ma%e any sense. +n ou$ lesson &e)&# we
ha*e hirs以t”.>he$eas &his could mean -Ru%e ?uan $aised his cup in o$de$ &o
d$in% ($om i&- (i.e.# &he cup"# o$ GRu%e ?uan $aised his cup in o$de$ &o d$in% i&- (i.e.#
&he ale"# &he ne)& sen&ence 7umps &o opds ac& o( pou$ing ou& hal( o( &he ale. Tha&
would sugges& &ha& &he bes& $eading o( &he line is GRu%e ?uan $aised &he cup in
o$de$ &o ha*e him BopE d$in% ($om i&.- ?e$e a$e some simila$ e)amples2
j‡p„。+ p$o*ided a sea& (o$ my uncle Bli&.# -caused my uncle &o si&-E.
•šl。The $ule$ passed a$ound &he ale Bli&.# Gcaused &he ale &o go-E.
i5j_¶©。The du%e hu$$ied his minis&e$ o(( &o his house.
j€•。The minis&e$ p$oduced his plans.
D.D. w and di$ec& speech8 also# *e$bal desc$ip&i*es (o$ speech. Because li&e$a$y
hinese had *e$y li&&le punc&ua&ion (i( any" and no eTui*alen& (o$ Tuo&a&ion ma$%s#
indica&ing di$ec& speech can be $a&he$ con(using. onseTuen&ly# w$i&e$s almos&
always employ &he *e$b w H M &o sayH j &o indica&e a Tuo&a&ion. This may seem a
li&&le &edious and $epe&i&i*e# bu& &hin% o( i& as a guide &o $eading. >hen w$i&e$s
wished &o desc$ibe &he manne$ in which some&hing was said# &hey o(&en pu& a *e$b
be(o$e w. .o$ e)ample# }w# -$eplied# saying 1eH8 ƒw# -laughed# sayingeH8 and so
(o$&h. Npea%e$s could also indica&e &hings &ha& &hey had hea$d ($om o&he$s by using
G ~ + ha*e hea$d &ha&e.H fn(o$&una&ely# &hese guides do no& help one de&e$mine
when a Tuo&a&ion ends. +n &he s&o$y abo*e# i&Qs impossible &o %now how long &he
p$o*e$b is &ha& o p Tuo&es. >e %now &ha& he is spea%ing abou& himsel( when he
says j•v“8 bu&# is &he p$o*e$b i&sel( only l入•€# o$ does i& include &he &wo
ph$ases &ha& (ollow i& as wellX
D.F. iues&ion (o$ms2 z. The$e a$e &wo %inds o( Tues&ions one can as%2 &he (i$s& is a
Tues&ion &ha& gi*es &wo al&e$na&i*es and as%s which one is co$$ec& (a Gyes-noH
Tues&ion8 e.g.# -C$e you going &o &he s&o$eXH"8 &he second is a Tues&ion &ha& elici&s
new in(o$ma&ion &h$ough &he use o( a GTues&ion wo$dH such as when# where# who#
what (e.g.# ->he$e a$e you goingX-".
>i&h no Tues&ion ma$%s &o use# li&e$a$y hinese has &o (ind ways &o indica&e
Tues&ions. This is no& di((icul& when a GTues&ion wo$dH is employed. Bu& i( a yes-no
Tues&ion is in*ol*ed# &he only way &o indica&e &ha& &he$e is a Tues&ion is &o end wi&h
a Tues&ion pa$&icle. z is &he mos& common one# and some&imes i& is used &o end
new in(o$ma&ion Tues&ions as well (&hough i&s use &hen is $edundan&".
.o$ new in(o$ma&ion Tues&ions and -Tues&ion wo$ds#H see F.F below.
D.M +dioma&ic meaning (o$ 不‚2 >he$eas &his ph$ase o$dina$ily would mean Gedoes
no& $esembleeH i& soon de*eloped a special# idioma&ic meaning2 Ge. no& as good
aseH (o$ Gno& as impo$&an& as- o$ Gno& as imp$essi*e asH o$ wha&e*e$". !)amples2
(•不‚)”。Lo*ing &he $ule$ is no& as good as (ea$ing him.
爲己得天¢不‚爲¬ª¨。To ob&ain &he wo$ld (o$ onesel( is no& as good as go*e$ning
&he s&a&e (o$ &he sa%e o( &he people.
D.7. .le)ibili&y in using 者2 The ph$ases •€者•£,•£者“v may cause you some
di((icul&y# because &hey donQ& s&$ic&ly (ollow &he use o( 者 we ha*e seen so (a$. The
gene$al meaning is clea$2 -'ne who le&s his &ongue ou& Bi.e.# spea%s $ashlyE will be
$emiss in wo$ds# and one who is $emiss in wo$ds &h$ows away his sel(.- By ou$ $ules
o( g$amma$ so (a$# &he ph$ase would ha*e been mo$e H$egula$H i( i& had $ead2 €•者
£•,£•者v“. ?owe*e$# (o$ &he sa%e o( emphasis &he au&ho$ has decided &o place
•# •# and “ be(o$e &he *e$bs (o$ which &hey se$*e as ob7ec&s (see 1.7". This &ype o(
sen&ence is usually easie$ &o unde$s&and in&ui&i*ely &han &o analy3e g$amma&ically.
D.8. ul&u$al no&e2 &he banTue&. Cl&hough mean& &o en&e$&ain# s&a&e banTue&s we$e
an impo$&an& pa$& o( cou$& ce$emony as well# wi&h $igidly obse$*ed $i&uals and a se&
d$in%ing e&iTue&&e. This means &ha& o d p s beha*io$ would ha*e seemed pa$&icula$ly
The du%eQs las& wo$ds may also seem a li&&le ha$d &o in&e$p$e& unless you imagine
&he ci$cums&ances. >hen op a$$i*es# he goes di$ec&ly &o $ecei*e a cup ($om his
$ule$# p$obably on his %nees. The du%e &hen dismisses him# &elling him &o -$ise and
go &o you$ sea&.-
O9CT+!2 T$ansla&e &he (ollowing2
1. j欲v不善以ª¬。yz{
0. i’“š不«以±天¢。
1. 善4以6kl。
D. opw:xi不知v不善”jz{|
F. i}w:x•v不善”j不‚(¨¬。|
M. ”,者不‚/”0者。
7. 4”¤q者不)•”。
8. i‡j}šl。
9. tl}£•不‚vl}禁•。
10. 1爲己20/,}-爲Ž去,ó。
O9CT+!2 Ou& &he (ollowing in&o li&e$a$y hinese2
1. The Ru%e o( ii (o$ &he sa%e o( his people $e&u$ned &o &he good.
0. + ha*e hea$d2 ?is son spea%s o( (ilial pie&y and ye& does no& lo*e his (a&he$.
1. Yuan mhong laughed and said# GRid &he lo$d &o &he end o( his li(e cas& aside &he
ale cupX BTha&E is no& as good as holding a banTue& Bli&.# Gp$epa$ing aleHE (o$ &he
sa%e o( wise men.-
D. ?is uncle does no& si& in &he middle o( &he minis&e$s.
F. The bi$d $aised i&s &ongue and laughed. The (ish was in &he wa&e$ and did no&
M. ?is (a&he$ wan&s &o lea*e &he house and d$in% in a &all &$ee.
7. The du%e daily p$oceeds &o his $oom and hea$s wha& his minis&e$s a$e planning.
8. The lo$d appoin&ed a day in o$de$ &o comple&e &he 9i&es.
9. C$e you $e7ec&ing $i&uals in o$de$ &o ob&ain wha& you lo*eX
10. + belie*e in wha& &he %nigh& belie*es in.
#haracter List
i. nzp入ik€uy‡F‚}†âwmhv„ƒo~jqr•…l·g (11"
ii. •s (0"
Lesson 4
%aster 1en2 )efuses a #ity
人。ÏЕ ‘Ñ,不fÎÒ,fÓÔ)z{|’不Ä。ÕŽ~”w:xÖ”•, ×以ØÙ
V$#A+ULA)* (1/ 4-15,"
11F. ¸ ,2 3Ung (1"8 cAng (0" 52 s; ÷) 62 7eung Ú 2 7Kng(1"# chKng(0"
1. meng. Ba su$nameE<
0. 'nce in &he pas&# Bad*e$b &ense ma$%e$E
9adical 71 (w".
11Fa. ¸Ž ,2 3Ung 3i 52 s;shi Ç># 62 7eung 7a Ú 2 7Kng 7[
,as&e$ meng (one o( on(uciusd disciples".
=o&e &he meaning o( Ž (09-0" when used as a su((i) in poli&e designa&ions.
11M. ¹ ,2 y4 (1"8 y: (0" 52 e ;# i +# koromo tu3 62 ui ì 2 y4 (1"8 yi (0"
1. lo&hes# $obe. <
0. To pu& on clo&hes# &o wea$ clo&hes. <
=o&e &ha& each pa$& o( speech has a di((e$en& &one. 9adical 1DF (¹".
117. º ,2 b: 52 hei Û+ 62 pye Ü 2 baih
>o$n ou&# &a&&e$ed.
9adical FF (Ý# G7oined handsH".
118. » ,2 geng 52 %; G)# tagayasu ƒÑád 62 gyeong Þ 2 gKang
To plow.
9adical 107 (ß# -plow-".
119. ¼ ,2 lo 52 $o à 62 no ä 2 lhuh
The s&a&e o( Lu.
Loca&ed sou&hwes& o( ii g(100"# i& was mos& (amous as &he home s&a&e o( on(ucius
and o( on(ucian s&udies in gene$al. 9adical 19F (-".
1D0. ½ ,2 shP 52 shi 1# tsukau ¼n># tsukai ¼n,# -shimu-#@# e&c. 62 sa D
2 s[ (1# 1"8 si(0"
1. To send# &o ma%e# &o cause. <
0. To go on a mission8 emissa$y# ambassado$.
1. +(# supposing.
.o$ signi(ican& g$amma&ical s&$uc&u$es using &his cha$ac&e$# see F.1 below. 9adical 9
1D1. ¾ ,2 w\ng 52 ; =)# yuku Äy 62 wang á 2 whhng
To go.
9adical M0 (k".
1D0. ¿ ,2 3h: 52 chi "# itasu ,ƒd 62 chi ò 2 7i
To p$esen&8 &o elici&8 &o ma%e come8 &o b$ing abou&8 &o con*ey.
This cha$ac&e$ has a wide $ange o( meanings and may cause you some con(usion.
'ne way &o in&e$p$e& i& is &o see i& as &he Gcausa&i*eH eTui*alen& o( q# G&o a$$i*e-
(11D". Thus# G&o p$esen&H a gi(& is &o ma%e i& a$$i*e a& i&s des&ina&ion8 &o elici& an
emo&ion is &o ma%e i& come8 and so (o$&h. 9adical 111 (q".
1D1. À ,2 y: 52 yW ¸) 62 eup â 2 yKp
Ris&$ic& ci&y8 coun&y8 $egion.
Towns we$e o(&en gi*en as &empo$a$y (ie(doms &o p$ominen& minis&e$s o$ e*en
simply &o men o( *i$&ue8 &he $ecipien&s could d$aw income ($om i&s &a) $e*enues.
9adical 1M1 (À".
1DD. Á ,2 TPng 52 shin 1<# sh; 1()# 7; N()# sei X+# kou t> 62 cheong ã
2 ch[ng
1. To $eTues&. <
0. To pay a poli&e *isi& &o.
This cha$ac&e$ p$oduces some con(usion because i& can imply bo&h a $eTues& (o$
pe$mission &o do some&hing and a $eTues& &ha& someone else do some&hing. .o$
e)ample2jÁ¾¼#G+ Byou$ humble minis&e$E $eTues& &o go &o Lu-8 Á•¾¼# G+ $eTues&
&ha& you# ,y Lo$d# go &o Lu.H Nome&imes only con&e)& will ma%e clea$ how &o
in&e$p$e& i&s use. 9adical 1D9 (•".
1DF. Â ,2 cP 52 shi 1# kono t-# kore tJ 62 cha ä 2 ch[
?e$e8 &his# &hese.
This cha$ac&e$ is *e$y common and $e(e$s mos& o(&en &o a place# &hough some&imes
&o people o$ &hings. 9adical 77 (K".
1DM. Ã ,2 )iW 52 shW 1»)# shu 1»# osamaru I••$# osameruo I•Au 62 su
W 2 sKu
To $epai$# &o mend8 &o $egula&e8 &o cul&i*a&e.
Nome&imes &his cha$ac&e$ can ha*e a *e$y conc$e&e# ma&&e$-o(-(ac& usage# as in &his
lessonQs &e)&. ?owe*e$# in e)p$essions such as Ó# G&o cul&i*a&e &he bodyVsel(#H i&
can $e(e$ &o philosophical cul&i*a&ion o$ yogicVasce&ic p$ac&ice. +& &u$ns up o(&en in
Buddhis& w$i&ing. 9adical 9 (人".
1D7. Ä ,2 shSu 52 7u N»# ukeru >ú$ 62 su W 2 sauh
To $ecei*e.
9adical 09 (又".
1D8. Å ,2 (I 52 (u%u 6a# mata •ƒ 62 bo% l 2 (uh%8 (auh(&o $e&u$n"
1. Cgain8 mo$eo*e$. <
0. To $e&u$n8 &o $epay8 &o $epo$&.
This cha$ac&e$ occu$s in a wide *a$ie&y o( con&e)&s# and i& usually implies $epe&i&ion
o( some so$&. Cs a *e$b# i& $ep$esen&s $ecip$oca&ion (&o $e&u$n some&hing o$ &o $epay
some&hing# o$ &o $epo$& on a si&ua&ion# usually a(&e$ $e&u$ning ($om a mission—
compa$e B0ME". Cs an ad*e$b# Å can be e)ceedingly *ague# implying &he $epe&i&ion
o( &he same ac&ion o$ me$ely &he occu$$ence o( a di((e$en& ac&ion $ela&ed &o &he (i$s&
(in which case i& is o(&en le(& un&$ansla&ed". +& also occu$s ($eTuen&ly wi&h &he
# when i& can cause some p$oblems o( in&e$p$e&a&ion2 Å不¾ would mean Gagain
does no& goH (i.e.# someone has no& come in &wo ins&ances"#whe$eas 不ž(which is
much mo$e common" means Gdoes no& again go- (i.e.# does no& go any mo$e".
9adical M0 (Ô".
1D9. 又 ,2 ySu 52 yW ¸)# mata •ƒ# mata shitemo •ƒ#\3 62 u Æ 2 yuah
Cgain8 mo$eo*e$.
This cha$ac&e$ is ($eTuen&ly used as a synonym (o$ Å(1D8". ?owe*e$# 又 o(&en
emphasi3es i$$i&a&ion# disgus&# o$ une)pec&ed $epe&i&ion. .o$ e)ample# wi&h
nega&i*es# 又不¾ means Gagain BheE didnQ& come]H (?e s&ood us up again]" Oe$haps
because o( &he special emphasi3ing (unc&ion o( 又# 不又¾ does no& occu$ a& all.
9adical 09 (又".
1F0. Æ ,2 )iKn 52 sen X<# saki •Y# mazu •8 62 seon ˆ 2 s4n
.i$s&# ea$lie$8 (i$s&8 in ($on&8 &o be (i$s&8 &o go (i$s&8 &o pu& (i$s&.
This cha$ac&e$ has much &he same $ange o( use as i&s opposi&e#¤(F1". 9adical 10 (å#
1F0a. Æ生 ,2 )iKn shUng 52 sensei •·•, 62 seon saeng ˆZ 2 s4n sKang
,as&e$ (li&.# -(i$s& bo$nH"
C poli&e (o$m o( add$ess# somewha& mo$e poli&e &han 生 by i&sel(# which can also be
1F1. Ç ,2 (Ui 52 hi æ# arazu D?8 62 bi ç 2 (Ui
1. -+s no&# G i& is no& &he case &ha&e.H Bnega&i*e pa$&icleE<
0. >$ong.
.o$ &his cha$ac&e$Qs use# see F.1 below. 9adical 17F (Ç".
1F0. È ,2 TiJ 52 %yW H»)# gu ‘# motomeru 3QA$ 62 gu ’ 2 %Luh
To see%# &o $eTues&# &o loo% (o$.
9adical 8F (ó".
1F1. É ,2 3A 52 so%u ÷a# sunawachi d7T. 62 chi% è 2 7K%
This cha$ac&e$ is o(&en op&ional and is used &o cla$i(y wha& migh& o&he$wise be an
unclea$ $ela&ionship be&ween clauses8 i& is &ypically (ound in bo&h GNincee &heneH
and G+(... &heneH sen&ences. +n ou$ lesson &e)&# i& is used &o emphasi3e &ha& since ¸
Ž did no& ask (o$ any&hing# &hen &he messenge$ can conclude &ha& &he &own was
($eely gi*en as a p$esen&. 9adical 18 (ü".
1FD. Ê ,2 )iLn 52 %en ñ<# %on G<# kenzuru ú·8$# sasageru ••X$#
tatematsuru ƒ\•¼$ 62 heon é 2 hin
To p$esen&# &o gi*e# &o o((e$ (o(&en &o a supe$io$".
9adical 9D (ê# GdogH".
1FF. Ë ,2 )4 52 %ei ñ+# nani 7½ 62 hae ë 2 hLih
?ow# wha&# BTues&ion wo$dE
.o$ a b$ie( discussion o( Tues&ion (o$ms# see F.F below. 9adical 17 (F".
1FFa. Ëì ,2 )4 wei 52 nan no tame 7·IƒA 62 hae wi ë„ 2 hLih waih
>hy. BTues&ion wo$dE
This &e$m can be in&e$p$e&ed as an in*e$sion o( 爲Ë# Gon behal( o( wha&X- wi&h 爲
(unc&ioning as a co*e$b (D.0". .o$ in*e$sions# see F.M below.
1FM. Í ,2 yl (1"8 yJ (0" 5 1. yo ` (1"8 ataeru Dƒh$ (0" 62 yeo ª 2 yJh (1"8
yIh (0"
1. To gi*e<
0. +# me B(i$s& pe$son p$onoun íE
9adical M (E"
1F7. Î ,2 7iKo 52 %y; H()# ogoru I©$ 62 gyog4u 2 g4u
C$$ogan&# p$oud# high-spi$i&ed8 &o &$ea& someone a$$ogan&ly.
9adical 187 (î# Gho$seH".
1F8. Ð ,2 3Sng 52 sh; 1()# 7W N»)# tatoe ƒQh 62 7ong ¾ 2 7ung
!*en i(.
9adical 100 (¿".
1F9. Ñ ,2 c: 52 shi 1# tamawaru ƒ•T$# tamau ƒ•> 62 sa D 2 chi
To gi*e Bas a p$esen&E8 gi(&.
This cha$ac&e$ is a close synonym &o Ê(1FD"8 howe*e$# Ê o(&en $ep$esen&s a social
in(e$io$ gi*ing a p$esen& &o a supe$io$# while Ñ $ep$esen&s a supe$io$ g$an&ing
some&hing &o an in(e$io$. =o&e &ha& ¼• uses Ê poli&ely &o desc$ibe his gi(& &o ¸Ž#
whe$eas ¸Ž poli&ely uses Ñ (o$ &he same gi(&.Í(1FM"# howe*e$# is $ela&i*ely
indi((e$en& &o social class. 9adical 1FD (L".
1M0. f ,2 wb 52 ga ï# waga TÑ 62 a ð 2 nghh
+# me. B(i$s& pe$son p$onounE
9adical M0 (F".
1M1. Ò ,2 y@ 52 ya á 62 ya ñ 2 ycah
This cha$ac&e$ can place a special emphasis on a ph$ase. The pa$&icle has a numbe$
o( o&he$ (unc&ions# which we will e)plo$e la&e$. .o$ &he &ime being# 7us& &hin% o( i& as
indica&ing an emphasis. 9adical F (ò".
1M0. Ó ,2 nAng 52 n; ó)# atou DQ> 62 neung ô 2 nLhng
To be able &o# can8 &o be capable# &o be able8 abili&y# &alen&.
9adical 110 (õ# º# G(leshH".
1M1. Ô ,2 wI 52 mochi ~"# bu&su ùé# nakare 7nJ 62 mul > 2 mah%
Ro no&. Bimpe$a&i*eE
.o$ de&ails on &he use o( &his cha$ac&e$# see F.7 below. 9adical 00 (ö# Gpac%ageH".
1MD. Õ ,2 %bng 52 %; G)# %u a# ana D7 62 gong Œ 2 hJng
1. ?ole8 nos&$il.
0. 6ong# Ba su$nameE<
9adical 19 (Ž".
1MDa. ÕŽ ,2 %bng 3P 52 %;shi t># 62 gong 7a Œ4 2 hJng 7[
,as&e$ 6ong (on(ucius".
The >es&e$n *e$sion o( &he name ac&ually de$i*es ($om a la&ini3a&ion o( 6ong(u3i Õ÷
Ž# an e*en mo$e hono$i(ic &i&le (o$ &he philosophe$.
1MF. Ö ,2 cKn (1"8 shUn (0" 52 shin 1<# san ø< 62 samù 2 chKam(1"#
1. To counsel8 &o consul&8 &o pa$&icipa&e.
0. Nhen. Ba pe$sonal nameEp
This cha$ac&e$ is a (ai$ly common *e$b# and you should lea$n i&s meanings.
?owe*e$# in &his case# &he wo$d (in i&s second p$onuncia&ion# shen" is simply &he
pe$sonal name o( ¸Ž. 'b*iously on(ucius would $e(e$ &o his own s&uden& by his
pe$sonal name# no& by an hono$i(ic &i&le. 9adical 08 (U".
1MM. × ,2 3J 52 so%u ÷a# ashi D## taru ƒ$# tariru ƒq$ 62 7o% ú 2 7W%
1. To be su((icien&# &o be enough8 &o be compe&en& a&.p
0. .oo&.
This cha$ac&e$ is o(&en used an au)ilia$y *e$b# in &he e)p$ession ×以# Gbe su((icien&
&oeHd see 7.1 (o$ (u$&he$ de&ails. 9adical 1F7 (×".
1M7. Ø ,2 Tucn 52 3en †<# matt!suru •cQ>d$ 62 7eon û 2 chyIhn
omple&e# p$ese$*ed8 &o p$ese$*e# &o comple&e.
9adical 11 (入".
1M8. Ù ,2 7iA 52 se&su Xé.fushi ¬# 62 7eol ü 2 7i&
5oin& (o$iginally# o( bamboo"8 segmen&8 *i$&ue# chas&i&y# sel(-$es&$ain&8 *i$&uous#
9adical 118 (˜".
F.1. Oi*o& s&$uc&u$es2 >hen a w$i&e$ wishes &o e)p$ess &he idea o( ma%ing somebody
do some&hing# he migh& &u$n a *e$b in&o a causa&i*e *e$b (see D.1". ?owe*e$# a
mo$e ob*ious way &o e)p$ess &he same &hing is &o employ a Gpi*o&H *e$b such as ½.
These *e$bs a$e called pi*o& *e$bs because &hei$ ob7ec& is &he Gpi*o&H in &he
sen&ence8 i& (unc&ions as &he ob7ec& o( one *e$b and &he sub7ec& o( ano&he$. .o$
i½f¾g。The du%e sen& meVmade me &o go &o ii.
+n &his sen&ence# f is &he ob7ec& o( ½ and &he sub7ec& o( g.
Nome o&he$ e)amples2
•½jtl 。 The lo$d made his minis&e$s d$in% ale.
p„½¸Ž¾»。?is uncle made meng3i go and plow.
gi½f†‡。The Ru%e o( ii made me go &o my sea&.
Nchola$s a$e in disag$eemen& as &o whe&he$ ½ also had &he meaning o( G&o allowH in
&he ea$ly pe$iod (i.e.# &o g$an& pe$mission &o someone &o do some&hing# as opposed
&o ma%ing &he pe$son do i&". By &he &hi$d cen&u$y .!.# howe*e$# ½ was de(ini&ely
used in bo&h senses.
O9CT+!2 T$ansla&e &he (ollowing2
1. i½op¬以-。
0.. ¸Ž爲•½Ž¾於¼。
1. ¥¦½fج}得福。
D. ÕŽ½fkl。
F. ÕŽ”•½fv“以ª¨。
F.0. +mplici& sub7ec&s2 + men&ioned in 1.1 &ha& &hi$d pe$son sub7ec& p$onouns a$e
$ela&i*ely $a$e in li&e$a$y hinese. +ns&ead# w$i&e$s will simply no& gi*e any sub7ec& a&
all and le& &he con&e)& e)plain. +n line 0 o( &he &e)& abo*e we ha*e &h$ee
independen& ph$ases2 ³,ž, 又不Ä. +( you &hin% abou& &he s&o$y ca$e(ully#
&hough# you should be able &o (igu$e ou& who is &he sub7ec& in each case. +( you ha*e
di((icul&y# &$y di((e$en& possibili&ies un&il you a$e ce$&ain you ha*e i& $igh&.
F.1. fse o( &he nega&i*e Ç aou migh& (ind &his cha$ac&e$ &$oublesome# because i&
o(&en $e(lec&s a mood o$ &one o( speech $a&he$ &han a simple nega&ion. =o&e &hese
&wo sen&ences2
f不去f„。+ am no& abandoning my (a&he$.
fÇ去f„。+&ds no& &ha& +Qm abandoning my (a&he$e.
'ne migh& say &ha& Ç does no& nega&e &he *e$b 去# bu& nega&es &he whole sen&ence
concep&# &he ac& o( me abandoning my (a&he$. This means &ha& Ç &ends &o be used
when one wishes &o deny a p$oposi&ion made by someone else and &hen go on &o
gi*e &he right p$oposi&ion. =o&e &he (ollowing e)change &o ge& a be&&e$ idea2
ŽË爲vl{於6yz{ >hy a$e you &h$owing away &he aleX +s &ha& in %eeping wi&h
fÇ不6,f不欲€•。+&Qs no& &ha& +Qm discou$&eous# Bbu&E + donQ& wan& &o spea%
O9CT+!2 T$ansla&e &he (ollowing2
1 .iw:xŽÎÕŽz{|op}w:xfÇÎÕŽ,f不(”。|
0. fÇ不(f¨,}f不ýþ'•”µ。MBe ca$e(ul wi&h &he double nega&i*e he$e]"
1. fÇÈ不善”š,f不×以ØfÙ。
D. fÇv•”Ñ,f不Ótl。
F. fÇ不(¥¦,}不Ÿš。
F.D. Rouble ob7ec& cons&$uc&ions2 !nglish g$amma$ some&imes spea%s o( sen&ences
wi&h &wo ob7ec&s—a di$ec& ob7ec& and an indi$ec& ob7ec&2
?e ga*e me a Tua$&e$.
+n &his case# -Tua$&e$- is &he di$ec& ob7ec&# whe$eas -me- is &he indi$ec& ob7ec&. aou
could also e)p$ess &his idea wi&h a p$eposi&ion2
?e ga*e a Tua$&e$ &o me.
+n li&e$a$y hinese# &he$e a$e &wo &ypes o( sen&ences &ha& &end &o use double
ob7ec&s2 sen&ences o( Ggi*ingH and sen&ences o( Ge)plaining.H The simples&
cons&$uc&ion (o$ such sen&ences is simply wi&h bo&h ob7ec&s a(&e$ &he *e$b. fsually
&he wo$d o$de$ is indi$ec& ob7ec& (i$s&# &hen di$ec& ob7ec& (7us& as in !nglish"2
iÑÕŽÀ。The du%e ga*e on(ucius a &own.
ÕŽ•i!。on(ucius spo%e &o &he du%e o( *i$&ue.
?owe*e$# i( &he di$ec& ob7ec& (&he &hing gi*en" is a p$onoun (e.g.# ” o$ Â"# &hen a
w$i&e$ $a$ely uses &his pa&&e$n. +n o&he$ wo$ds# you should ne*e$ say iÑÕŽ”.
The indi$ec& ob7ec& can also be e)p$essed wi&h &he mul&ipu$pose p$eposi&ion 於—
*e$y much as in !nglish. .o$ e)ample# iÑÀ於f。
+ no&ed in discussing §((M" &ha& i& could be in&e$p$e&ed as 於 _ ob7ec& p$onoun
(which we now %now is ”8 see Lesson 1". onseTuen&ly# you should always $ead §
as 於” when you (ind i& a& &he end o( a sen&ence2
iÑÀ§。 The du%e ga*e a &own &o himVhe$V&hem.
=o&e &he use o( &his § in line 1 o( &his lessonQs &e)&.
The$e is ano&he$ ma7o$ way o( e)p$essing &he double ob7ec& sen&ence— &u$ning &he
di$ec& ob7ec& in&o &he co*e$b-ob7ec& o( 以:
i以ÀÑf。The du%e ga*e me a &own Bli&.# GThe du%e by means o( a &own ga*e +
ÕŽ以!•f。on(fcius spo%e &o me o( *i$&ue Bli&.# -on(ucius by means o( *i$&ue
spo%e &o meHE.
The second e)ample may cause some con(usion# since i& could be in&e$p$e&ed as
-on(ucius spo%e &o me in a *i$&uous manne$.-
O9CT+!2 T$ansla&e &he (ollowing2
1. ÕŽÑfF-。
0. opÊi善•。
1. ¸Ž以«7•f。
D. „Í©於Ž。
F. •以sÑop。
F.F. =ew in(o$ma&ion Tues&ions2 >e saw in D.F &ha& all Tues&ions in li&e$a$y hinese
could be di*ided in&o ei&he$ Gyes-no2 Tues&ions (ending usually wi&h &he pa$&icle
zjo$ Gnew in(o$ma&ion- Tues&ions (which would $eTui$e a special GTues&ion wo$d-".
The g$amma$ and syn&a) o( Tues&ion wo$ds a$e pa$&icula$ly complica&ed (a good bi&
mo$e complica&ed &han ac&ually interpreting Tues&ion wo$ds in a sen&ence"8 &hose
who a$e in&e$es&ed in &he de&ails a$e u$ged &o loo% a& !dwin Y. Oulleyblan%Qs 'u&line
o( lassical hinese Y$amma$# pp. 91-97. C (ew basic ideas can be %ep& in mind#
1. Nome&imes Tues&ion wo$ds (unc&ion as ad*e$bs (->hy a$e you goingXH". +n such
cases# &hey &end &o p$ecede &he *e$b.
0. Nome&imes Tues&ion wo$ds (unc&ion as di$ec& ob7ec& p$onouns (->hom a$e you
%illingX- ->ha& a$e you doingXH". +n &hese cases# &he Tues&ion wo$ds also &end &o
p$ecede &he *e$b (&his may be ano&he$ e)ample o( Gidioma&ic in*e$sion-8 see F.M".
1. iues&ion wo$ds o(&en combine wi&h co*e$bs (especially 以 and 爲j&o (o$m &wo-
cha$ac&e$ Tues&ion wo$ds. These ph$ases a$e usually Gin*e$&edH (see issa and F.M".
+n &his lesson# we ha*e &he s&anda$d Tues&ion wo$d Ë# as well as i&s combined (o$m
wi&h 爲8 Ë爲.The Tues&ion ph$ase comes be(o$e &he *e$b2 Ë爲不Ä# ->hy donQ& you
F.M. +dioma&ic in*e$sions2 The$e a$e &wo si&ua&ions whe$e li&e$a$y hinese—(o$ some
$eason &ha& no one unde$s&ands—decides &o $e*e$se &wo cha$ac&e$s2
1. "wo-character $uestion e%pressions2 + no&ed abo*e &ha& &he Tues&ion wo$d Ë爲 is
bes& in&e$p$e&ed as 爲Ë# a co*e$b and i&s ob7ec&# G(o$ &he sa%e o( wha&#- &ha& is#
-why.- + will poin& ou& o&he$ e)amples o( &his &ype o( in*e$sion when &hey occu$. +& is
limi&ed &o only a hand(ul o( &e$ms and should cause no p$oblems.
0. &n#ersions with negati#es and pronoun objects2 This one is a bi& mo$e con(using.
+( a sen&ence has a nega&i*e ad*e$b (such as 不jand a di$ec& ob7ec& $eplaced by a
p$onoun (usually ”# bu& f and Ž and any o&he$ p$onoun wo$%s as well"# &hen &he
p$onoun is mo*ed &o a place be&ween &he nega&i*e and &he *e$b. +n o&he$ wo$ds# Õ
Ž不È” (-on(ucius is no& loo%ing (o$ him-" becomes ÕŽ不”È. +n &he lesson &e)&#
we ha*e Е‘Ñ,不fÎÒ2 -!*en i( &he $ule$ has a gi(& and does no& &$ea& me
O9CT+!2 T$ansla&e &he (ollowing2
1. f不”得。
0. f不”•q
1. •不f(。
D. ÕŽ不ŽØz{
F. i不”r。
F.7. .usion pa$&icles2 Ô.This g$amma&ical (o$m may also cause you some di((icul&ies.
Nome&imes when &wo wo$ds &ha& o(&en occu$$ed &oge&he$ we$e said Tuic%ly# &hey
(used in&o one syllable and we$e $ep$esen&ed by a di((e$en& cha$ac&e$. The$e a$e
abou& hal( a do3en o( &hese al&oge&he$# and weQll discuss &hem as we encoun&e$
Ô is &he (i$s& o( &hese. +& is a (usion o( Ê(,2 wu 2 mSuh# a cha$ac&e$ used (o$
nega&i*e commands2 GRo no&e]H"# wi&h &he di$ec& ob7ec& p$onoun ”. +n ou$ lesson
&e)&# we ha*e fÓÔ)z. +( Ô is $eplaced wi&h i&s (used cha$ac&e$s# we ha*e fÓÊ”
)z. +( we &hen $ea$$ange &he sen&ence# using &he $ules o( idioma&ic in*e$sion in F.M#
we ha*e fÓÊ)”z. The ne)& Tues&ion is2 >hy an impe$a&i*e—since &his sen&ence
is no& a commandX +& is also an idioma&ic habi& (o$ w$i&e$s &o nega&e sen&ences &ha&
con&ain *e$bs o( desi$e o$ abili&yrespecially ýþ and ÿfrrwi&h an impe$a&i*e
ins&ead o( &he simple. +( we change &he sen&ence once mo$e# we ha*e fÓ不)”z2
-Cm + able &o no& be a($aid o( himXH (o$# in &he con&e)& o( good !nglish and &he sense
o( &he passage# Gould + a*oid (ea$ing himXH".
Ô禁nÊ”禁。Ro no& p$ohibi&Vcon&$ol i&]
Ô³nÊ”³。Ro no& go agains& him]
Ô€nÊ”€。Ro no& b$ing i& ou&Vdo no& le& him go ou&]
•欲ÔÈ n•欲不”È。The lo$d did no& wan& &o loo% (o$ him.
4ÓÔ·n4Ó不”t。The %nigh& was able &o no& d$in% i& (a*oid d$in%ing i&".
Cll o( &his sounds $a&he$ complica&ed# and you shouldnQ& wo$$y &oo much abou& i&#
unless &he sen&ence is incomp$ehensible (o$ you wi&hou& &his &ype o( analysis. La&e$
hinese $eade$s (a(&e$ &he &hi$d cen&u$y .!." seemed &o (o$ge& &ha& Ô was a (usion
wo$d and 7us& &$ea&ed i& as a simple nega&i*e impe$a&i*e8 &his is &he way &he
cha$ac&e$ is &$ea&ed now. Oeople who $ead hinese Tuic%ly also &end &o igno$e &he
di((e$ences be&ween &he di((e$en& nega&i*es# and &hey p$obably would no& be
bo&he$ed by &he (ac& &ha& &his sen&ence uses Ô# no& 不. The con&e)& would ma%e &he
meaning clea$ anyway.
O9CT+!2 Ou& &he (ollowing in&o li&e$a$y hinese# using &he g$amma&ical poin&s
1. To loo% (o$ Yuan mhong in Lu is no& as good as sending on(ucius &o go &o ii. (F.1"
0. +&Qs no& &ha& +Qm sending on(ucius &o go &o ii. +Qm going &he$e mysel(. (F.1# F.18
(o$ G&he$e#H see FM"
1. >hy is &he du%e gi*ing him a &ownX (F.D8 &$y doing i& &h$ee ways"
D. +&Qs no& &ha& + donQ& lo*e you. (F.1# F.M"
F. Olease gi*e &his &o &he %nigh&. (F.D8 &$y doing &his &wo ways&he &hi$d way is w$ong"
M. Bene*olence and $igh&eousness a$e su((icien& &o p$ese$*e my people.
7. C$e you ma%ing Yuan mhong p$oceed &o his sea&X (F.1"
8. Ro no& (ea$ i&] (F.M# F.7"
9. Cbandoning &he &own is no& as good as gi*ing i& &o his lo$d. (F.D"
10. +&Qs no& &ha& + can cul&i*a&e *i$&ue# bu& + $espec& &he >ay o( (ilial pie&y and loyal&y.
#haracter List
ii. ØËÎ(1"
iii. º(+"
)eview6 Lesson 1-4
+mpo$&an& g$amma$ pa&&e$ns2
1.1. 者2
1. 知Ø生者得福於天。
0. ™!者不怨命。
1. 以78#Ù者不欲v•。
1.D. 於2
1. opÄÀ於i。
0. ÕŽÍ1於¼•。
1. p„€於©。
1.F-1.M. o*e$b 以2
1. 1以/爲*。-以ó爲©。
0. 善人以¯°ª¨。
1. 天!以福。
1.7. Risplaced ob7ec&s2
0. ¦•¬)”,¥•¬(”。
D. Oa$&i&i*e s&$uc&u$es2
1. •”ª¨者‘ج”Ù。
0. 4”不欲9者不×以9•。
1. ¬”-物者不8i。
1.1. $2
L f不8ÕŽ”$8。
D.0. o*e$b 爲2
1. 小人爲己-®,•Ž爲人ÃÙ。
0. f不Ó爲©¹º¹。
1. •爲¬v不善”š}³!。
F.1. Oi*o&s2
1. ,ó½-.。
0. g•½½者¾¼。
1. Ž欲½f59z{
F.D. Rouble ob7ec&s2
1. 4得À於i。
0. •ÊÕŽ1。
1. ¬以-op。
T$ansla&e &he (ollowing in&o li&e$a$y hinese2
The Ru%e o( ii a$$anged a banTue& and se& &he &ime a& dawn. C bi$d wen& bu& did
no& $ecei*e a cup ($om &he minis&e$s. The bi$d said# ->hy do + no& ge& &o d$in%X-
Yuan mhong $eplied# G+&Qs no& &ha& &he minis&e$s donQ& li%e bi$ds# bu& &he du%e does
no& wan& &o hea$ &hem.- The bi$d said# -?e &$ea&s &hem a$$ogan&ly. + ha*e hea$d2
GThe people plow# &he $ule$ go*e$ns# bi$ds &al%.H O$ohibi&ing (禁" bi$ds is no& as good
as ob&aining &hei$ plans. Olease le& me go &o my sea&.-
The $oo( was lea%ing. The bi$d wo$$ied abou& i&. The du%e en&e$ed and said# -Olease
$ecei*e a gi(& ($om me]- ?e ga*e &he bi$d some ale. The bi$d &h$ew i& aside and said#
ang$ily# Gaou a$e wi&hou& cou$&esy.- The du%e# wo$$ied# said# G+ wan& &o ma%e you
lo*e my coun&$y. Bi$ds do no& see% ou& my house.- The bi$d $eplied# G!*en i( you
ha*e cou$&esy# + will no& see% you$ house any mo$e.- (clue2 1D8". C minis&e$ said#
-Ro no& le& him go ou&]H(clue2 F.M# F.7" bu& &he bi$d had le(& &hem.
Lesson 5
7ere 8e Go )ound the %ulberry +ush
V$#A+ULA)* (159-.4"
1M9. 趙 ,2 3hLo 52 ch; "() 62 7o Í 2 7iuh
The s&a&e (and (amily" o( mhao.
C& (i$s&# one o( &he ma7o$ a$is&oc$a&ic clans o( &he s&a&e o( 5in "8 la&e$# a (eudal s&a&e
in p$e- impe$ial hina# loca&ed mos&ly in mode$n Nhan)i Š#.Nee 1M9a below (o$
de&ails. 9adical 1FM (_".
170. 簡 ,2 7i\n 52 %en ñ<# %an S<# fuda ¬À 62 gan $ 2 gcan
1. Bamboo slip# documen&.
0. To ab$idge8 &o be simple8 &o e)amine.
?e$e# &he cha$ac&e$ is used in a pe$sonQs &i&le. Though &his is a (ai$ly common
cha$ac&e$# i& does no& appea$ in ou$ &e)&s ou&side o( names. 9adical 118 (˜".
1M9a. 趙簡Ž ,2 3hLo 7i\n 3P 52 ch; %anshi .Î>n·# 62 7o gan 7a Í$4 2
7iuh gcan 7[
^iscoun& 5ian o( mhao.
C& &his &ime# &he (eudal s&a&e o( 趙 (con&$olled by &he 趙 clan" was pa$& o( &he la$ge$
s&a&e o( 5in ". 趙簡Ž was one o( &he g$ea&es& mili&a$y leade$s o( his clan. +n &he &ime
o( his son# " (ell apa$& in&o &h$ee independen& s&a&es# 趙 being one o( &hem (see
Lesson 1D (o$ mo$e de&ails".
171. 兵 ,2 b4ng 52 hei Û+# hy; æ()# tsuwamono ¼T3- 62 byeong % 2
>eapon8 &$oops.
The cha$ac&e$ o$iginally mean& GweaponH bu& soon came &o $e(e$ &o soldie$s as well.
9adical 10 (C".
170. 攻 ,2 g;ng 52 %; G)# semu •@# semeru •A$ 62 gong Œ 2 gWng
To a&&ac%.
9adical MM (&# H&o $apH".
171. ¶ ,2 l:ng 52 $y; ×()# $ei a+# -shimu-#@ 62 lyeong ' (yeong (" 2
1. To command# &o ma%e# &o allow8 an o$de$# a command. <
0. Local magis&$a&e.
Nynonyms (meaning /1"2 ½(1D0# *e$b only"8 命(0". The$e a$e some di((e$ences
be&ween ½ and ¶. ½ is o(&en used speci(ically &o apply &o ac&s o( sending (e.g.# &o
send diploma&ic missions o$ emissa$ies"# whe$eas ¶ o(&en $e(e$s &o commands (($om
commande$s o$ $ule$s". 9adical 9 (人".
17D . 軍 ,2 7Wn 52 gun ‘< 62 gun ¶ 2 gwKn
9adical 1F9 (軍#-ca$$iage#- -ca$&-".
17F. 敢 ,2 g\n 52 %an S<# aete Dh\ 62 gam ) 2 gam
To da$e &o# &o ha*e &he audaci&y &o8 da$ing# audacious8 audaci&y.
This cha$ac&e$ no$mally (unc&ions in con7unc&ion wi&h ano&he$ *e$b. aou will o(&en
(ind i& when a social in(e$io$ wishes &o so(&en a s&a&emen& he is ma%ing &o a supe$io$
(G+ da$e &o &ell aou$ ,a7es&yeH". 9adical MM (*".
17M. 諫 ,2 7iLn 52 %an S<# isameru ,•A$ 62 gan $ 2 gaan
To $emons&$a&e wi&h.
This wo$d has s&$ong poli&ical (and la&e$# on(ucian" conno&a&ions8 speci(ically# i& is
used in si&ua&ions whe$e a minis&e$ o$ se$*an& (eels i& his du&y &o c$i&ici3e his
supe$io$Qs ac&ions. 9adical 1D9 (•".
177. 罪 ,2 3u: 52 3ai H+# tsumi ¼m 62 7oe + 2 7euih
Nin# c$ime# punishmen&# blame8 &o commi& a c$ime8 &o punish# &o blame.
=o&ice &he seemingly con&$adic&o$y meanings—&ha& bo&h &he c$iminal ac& and &he
punishmen& (o$ i& can be $ep$esen&ed by &he same cha$ac&e$. on&e)& will usually
ma%e &he meaning clea$. 9adical 100 (,# Gne&H".
178. 披 ,2 p4 52 hi æ# kaburu nÝ$ 62 pi - 2 pUi
To d$ape o*e$ &he shoulde$s# &o wea$ on &he bac%.
9adical MD (.# GhandH".
179. 甲 ,2 7i\ 52 %an S<# yo$oi ‡u, 62 gap / 2 gaap
Cmo$# sui& o( a$mo$# coa& o( a$mo$.
9adical 100 (O# G(ieldH".
180. 名 ,2 m[ng 52 my; '()# mei *+# na 7# nazukeru 78ú$ 62 myeong /
2 m:hng
=ame# $epu&a&ion# (ame8 &o be named# &o be called.
9adical 10 (0".
181. 盧 ,2 lJ 52 $o à 62 no ä 2 lSuh
Lu. Ba pe$sonal nameE
aou may o(&en encoun&e$ &his cha$ac&e$ as a su$name. 9adical 108 (0# G*essel#H
10Da. i盧 ,2 g;ng lJ 52 %; $o t>u 62 gong no Œä 2 gWng lSuh
Yong Lu. Ba p$ope$ nameE
=o&e &ha& i is a su$name he$e (10D-0"# no& a (eudal &i&le.
180. 望 ,2 wLng 52 m; ~)# b; ボ)# nozomu -1@ 62 mang 2 2 mohng
To ga3e a& ($om a dis&ance8 &o hope# &o aspi$e &o# &o e)pec&8 hopes# aspi$a&ions.
The cha$ac&e$ mo*ed ($om i&s conc$e&e meaning o( Gga3e a& ($om a dis&anceH &o
include a mo$e abs&$ac& Gga3ingH &ha& is# loo%ing o(( in&o &he (u&u$e (o$ wha& one
desi$es. ?e$e# &he conc$e&e meaning is used. 9adical 7D (º".
181. 見 ,2 7iLn (1-1"8 )ian (D" 52 %en ñ<# gen Ï<# miru m$ 62 gyeon 3 2 gin
(1-1"8 yihn (D"
1. To see<
0. B,a$%e$ o( &he passi*e *oice8 see 9.1 .7E
1. To ha*e an audience wi&h B&he $ule$E# &o g$an& an audience &o.
D. To appea$# &o be made mani(es&# &o seem (used (o$ 4".
9adical 1D7 (見".
18D. y ,2 %@ 52 %a S# nani 7½# dore ZJ# e&c. 62 ha 2 hh
>ha&# how# why. BTues&ion wo$dE
This cha$ac&e$ is &he mos& common o( all Tues&ion wo$ds. Synonym2 Ë(7FF". =o&e
&ha& in ou$ lesson &e)&# i& is se$*ing ei&he$ as &he ad*e$b -why- (->hy a$e you
laughingX-" o$ as &he di$ec& ob7ec& o( ƒ# placed idioma&ically be(o$e &he *e$b (->ha&
a$e you laughing a&XH".
Nee F.F. 9adical 9 (人"g
18F. 乃 ,2 n\i 52 dai •+# nai å+# sunawachi d7T. 62 nae 5 2 ncaih
Bu&# &hen# 7us&# only &hen.
This cha$ac&e$ is *e$y di((icul& &o pin down# because i&s use is hea*ily modal (i.e.# i&
o(&en illus&$a&es a (eeling o$ a mood and does no& con*ey a p$ecise meaning". +n &his
case# i盧 means &o denig$a&e his own laugh&e$# so -7us&- is p$obably &he bes&
&$ansla&ion. 9adical D (Å".
10a. ‘以 ,2 ybu yP 52 motte'araba 3c\...D?Û 62 yu i ¹s 2 ycuh y[h
To ha*e &he means &o# &o ha*e &he whe$ewi&hal &o.
These cha$ac&e$s a$e (ollowed by a *e$b. The ph$aseQs an&onym# ob*iously# is –以.
Oulleyblan% poin&s ou& &ha& ‘以 is a con&$ac&ion o( ‘$以# G&o ha*e &ha& by which-
('u&line o( lassical hinese Y$amma$# p. D9". +( &ha& is &oo complica&ed (o$ you &o
g$asp easily a& &his poin&# i& is p$obably bes& 7us& &o &a%e &he &e$m as + de(ine i& he$e.
18M. 解 ,2 7i@ 52 ge Ï# %ai S+# toku Qy# hodoku bZy 62 hae ë 2 gcai
To un&ie# &o loosen# &o ge& $id o(8 &o sol*e Ba p$oblemE8 &o b$ea% Ba siegeE8 &o e)plain.
The wide $ange o( meanings (o$ &his cha$ac&e$ all de$i*e ($om i&s meaning G&o un&ieH
(and hence# &o alle*ia&e some di((icul& si&ua&ion". 9adical 1D8 (›".
187. 當 ,2 dKng (1-0"8 dLng (1" 52 &; g)# ataru Dƒ$# atari Dƒq 62 dang 6
2 d;ng (1-0"8 dong (1"
1. 'ccupying Ba place o$ &imeE8 (acing.<
0. To be abou& &o. B(u&u$e ma$%e$E
1. 'ugh&# should# mus&8 &o accep& as sui&able.
This cha$ac&e$ has a wide *a$ie&y o( meanings. >e can di*ide &hese in&o &h$ee
ca&ego$ies2 a *e$bal meaning emphasi3ing &ime# occupa&ion# o$ posi&ion8 an
ad*e$bial meaning emphasi3ing (u&u$i&y8 and an ad*e$bial meaning emphasi3ing
sui&abili&y. +n &his lessonQs &e)&# &he cha$ac&e$ is used idioma&ically wi&h &he *e$y
common e)p$ession 當X ”²# -occupying &he &ime o( XH (i.e.# GwhenH". +&s use he$e is
s&$ic&ly unnecessa$y# howe*e$2 X ”² appea$s e*en mo$e o(&en. 9adical 100 (O".
188. 桑 ,2 sKng 52 s; ÷)# kuwa yT 62 sang š 2 s;ng
,ulbe$$y &$ee# mulbe$$y-lea( ha$*es&.
.o$ &he cul&u$al signi(icance o( &he ha$*es&# see M.0 below. 9adical 7F (木".
189. 鄰 ,2 l[n 52 $in ×<# tonari Q7q# tonaru Q7$ 62 lin 7# in R 2 lZuhn
=eighbo$8 neighbo$ing# ne)&8 &o be a neighbo$ &o# &o be ne)& &o.
This cha$ac&e$ also appea$s as 8# in which case i& would be classi(ied unde$ $adical
170 (9# which has condensed (o$m appea$ing on &he left side". 9adical 1M1 (À".
190. ÷ ,2 (W (1"8 (J (0-1" 52 (u 6# tsuma ¼•# otto IcQ(1"8 7K pゃD# sK •D (0"8
%ono t- (1" 62 bu 9 2 (W(1"# (Ih(0-1"
1. ,an# pe$son# husband. <
0. G=ow &hene. H Bpa$&icle in&$oducing opinionE
1. This# &hese# &ha&# &hose# Bdemons&$a&i*ep$onounE
9adical 17 (F".
191. 與 ,2 yl (1-D"8 yJ (F" 52 yo ` 62 yeo ª 2 yJh (1-D"8 yIh (F"
1. Cnd<
0. >i&h# Bco*e$bE
1. To gi*e.
D. To belong &o# &o be a pa$& o( (see Lesson 01".
F. Biues&ion pa$&icle.E
This e)&$emely common cha$ac&e$ has a wide *a$ie&y o( uses. Cs a con7unc&ion# i&
only connec&s nouns# and &hus i& is Tui&e di((e$en& ($om }. Cs a co*e$b# i& is used &o
indica&e pa$&icipa&ion o( some o&he$ pe$son o$ &hing wi&h &he sub7ec& o( &he
sen&ence8 o(&en i& is impossible &o dis&inguish whe&he$ &he cha$ac&e$ is bes&
in&e$p$e&ed in such cases &o mean GandH o$ -wi&h- (in &his lessonQs &e)& sen&ence# i&
could be ei&he$". The Tues&ion pa$&icle (unc&ion is used &o abb$e*ia&e &he cha$ac&e$
:.9adical 11D (™".
190. 妻 ,2 T4 52 sai ø+# tsuma ¼• 62 cheo ; 2 chKi
9adical 18 («".
191. 俱 ,2 7W 52 gu ‘# %u a# tomo ni Q3½ 62 gu ’ 2 %Uui
Cll# &oge&he$.
RonQ& con(use &his cha$ac&e$ wi&h kk107" (&hough hinese w$i&e$s &hemsel*es
some&imes used &he &wo cha$ac&e$s in&e$changeably". 9adical 9 (人".
19D. O ,2 &icn 52 den <<# ta ƒ 62 7eon û 2 &:hn
9adical 100 (O".
19F. « ,2 no 52 7o N(# nyo O(# ny; O()# onna I·7# omina Im7 62 nyeo
= (yeo ª" 2 nAuih
1. >oman# gi$l# (emale# daugh&e$. <
0. B+n(o$mal second pe$son p$onoun8 used (o$ >(F0F".E
The second meaning is (ound mos&ly in ea$ly &e)&s. 9adical 18 («".
19M. 因 ,2 y4n 52 in +<# yotte ‡c\# yorite ‡q\ (1"8 chinami ni .7m½ (0" 62
in R 2 yKn
1. The$eupon# &he$e(o$e. <
0. To go &h$ough# &o ma%e use o( &o &a%e ad*an&age o(.
The o$iginal meaning o( &his cha$ac&e$ seems &o be $ela&ed &o &he wo$d (o$ -cushion-
o$ GpillowH which was w$i&&en la&e$ wi&h &he g$ass $adical (?". ,eaning /0 $esul&ed
($om an abs&$ac& de$i*a&ion o( &his meaning2 someone may -lean- on a p$e*ious
e*en& o$ pe$son in o$de$ &o p$oceed &o &he ne)& e*en&# 7us& as one GleansH on a
pillow (hence# &he co*e$balV*e$bal meaning o( 因— G&o go &h$ough#H H&o ma%e use
o(H". .u$&he$mo$e# &he mos& common and e*en mo$e abs&$ac& meaning G&he$euponH
o$ G&he$e(o$eH came abou& ($om &his (an e*en& GleansH upon a p$e*ious e*en& in
o$de$ &o occu$". fnli%e in ,anda$in# whe$e &his cha$ac&e$ almos& always implies a
di$ec& causal connec&ion be&ween &wo ac&ions (G&he$e(o$eH"# in li&e$a$y hinese &his
cha$ac&e$ is mo$e o(&en a simple ma$%e$ o( wha& happens ne)& (-&he$eupon-".
9adical 11 (`".
197. 追 ,2 3hu4 52 &sui é+# ou I> 62 chu ^ 2 7Uui
To pu$sue# &o chase# &o (ollow.
9adical 1M0 (定".
198. 還 ,2 hucn 52 %an S<# gen Ï<# kaeru nh$# kaesu nhd 62 hwan Ð 2
To go bac% &o# &o $e&u$n# &o gi*e some&hing bac%.
Synonyms2 ³(M8"# &(8o". 9adical 1M0 Ô".
199. 曠 ,2 %uLng 52 %; G) 62 gwang @ 2 %wong
!mp&y# dis&an&8 &o be alone8 &o be wi&hou& a spouse.
=o&e &ha& 曠 sugges&s &ha& &he au&ho$ is &hin%ing o( 曠 as a noun2 Ghis single
s&a&us#H Ghis loneliness.H 9adical 70 (â".
000. 今 ,2 74n 52 %in H<# %on G<ima ,• 62 geum o 2 gKm
=ow# a& p$esen&.
9adical 9 (人".
001. 吾 ,2 wJ 52 go Ú# waga TÑ 62 o A 2 sgh
+# me. B(i$s& pe$son p$onounE
Cl&hough &he$e may ha*e been some di((e$ence be&ween f and 吾 in *e$y ea$ly
hina# you will (ind essen&ially no di((e$ence in &hei$ use in any &e)& you $ead.
9adical 10 (`".
000. 伐 ,2 (c 52 ba&su ;é# utsu >¼# kiru Y$ 62 beol B 2 (ah&
To a&&ac%# &o do *iolence &o8 &o cu& down Ba &$eeE.
Synonym2 攻(170". 9adical 9 (人".
001. 是 ,2 sh: 52 3e †# kore tJ 62 si 시 2 sih
This# &hese.
=o&e &he g$ea& di((e$ence in meaning ($om mode$n ,anda$in] .o$ mo$e on &his
cha$ac&e$Qs use in li&e$a$y hinese# see M.F below. 9adical 70 (â".
11a. 於是 ,2 yJ sh: 52 yotte ‡c\# koko ni oite tt½I,\ 62 eo si ]시 2 yW
The$eupon (li&.# G($om &his G".
This ph$ase is used &o indica&e &he ne)& e*en& in a &empo$al seTuence. Nynonym2 因
00D. ,2 bL 52 hi æ# yameru áA$# yamu á@# makaru •n$ 62 pa 2 baah
To end# &o close# &o demobili3e Ban a$myE# &o dismiss.
9adical 100 (,"g
00F. ! ,2 sh4 52 shi 1 62 sa D 2 s4
1. C$my<
0. Teache$8 &o &a%e as oneds &eache$.
+n meaning /1# &his cha$ac&e$ is a sligh&ly old-(ashioned wo$d (o$ Ga$my.H +n la&e$
&imes# 軍(17D" is used much mo$e ($eTuen&ly (o$ &his meaning. Clso# no&e &ha&
whe$eas ! and 軍 can bo&h be &$ansla&ed as Ga$my#H 兵(171" $e(e$s mo$e &o &he
soldie$s &hemsel*es and is bes& &$ansla&ed as G&$oops.H +n meaning /0 ((i$s&
encoun&e$ed in Lesson 00"# &he cha$ac&e$ is usually a noun—bu& as a *e$b i& implies
&he ac& o( &a%ing on o$ choosing a &eache$ (o$ onesel(. .o$ e)ample2吾!ÕŽ# G+ &a%e
on(ucius as my &eache$.H 9adical F0 (C# Gnap%in#H G%e$chie(H".
M.1. onseTuence sen&ences2 The sen&ence ¶軍n‘敢諫者罪q9 may cause you
some p$oblems.
.i$s&# no&e &ha& 軍n could be &he ob7ec& o( ¶# wi&h &he $es& o( &he sen&ence gi*ing
&he con&en& o( &he command2 -?e commanded &he a$my &ha&e.H ?owe*e$# i& could
also be &he -place-sub7ec&- o( ‘# loca&ing whe$e possible $emons&$a&o$s migh& e)is&2
G?e commanded &ha&# Bi(E &he$e we$e anyone in &he a$my whoe.H >hich
in&e$p$e&a&ion you choose is up &o you.
Necond# ‘敢諫者罪q9 (ollows a ce$&ain &ypical pa&&e$n (o$ commands# gi*ing &he
conseTuence i( some p$econdi&ion e)is&s2 GB+(E &he$e is anyone Bin &he a$myE who
da$es &o $emons&$a&e# B+E will punish BhimE as (a$ as dea&h.H
aou migh& also compa$e &he g$amma$ o( &wo simila$ sen&ences2
‘敢諫者罪q9。+( &he$e is anyone who da$es $emons&$a&e# B+E will punish BhimE as (a$
as dea&h.
敢諫者罪q9。?e who da$es $emons&$a&e B+E will punish as (a$ as dea&h.
+n meaning# &he sen&ences a$e essen&ially &he same. Bu& in &he (i$s& case# &he$e a$e
&wo clauses2 an implied Gi(H clause wi&h ‘ as &he *e$b# and a second clause wi&h 罪
as &he *e$b. +n &he second case# &he &wo clauses ha*e been &elescoped in&o one
sen&ence2 敢諫者 is &he displaced ob7ec& (see 1.7" o( &he *e$b 罪.
O9CT+!2 T$ansla&e &he (ollowing# seeing i( you can e)p$ess &he g$amma&ical
di((e$ence in you$ &$ansla&ion2
1. ‘善人天以福。善人天以福。
0. ‘tl者fÑ”s。tl者fÑ”s。
1. ‘敢諫者D”¾¼q敢諫者E”¾¼。
D. ©‘不«者„€”。©”不«者„€”。
F. ‘追桑n«者罪q9。追桑n«者罪q9。
M.0. ul&u$al no&e2 se$icul&u$e. Cs you may %now# &he &h$ead (o$ sil% comes ($om &he
cocoons o( a ca&e$pilla$ commonly called &he sil%wo$m. These ca&e$pilla$s we$e (ed
wi&h &he lea*es o( &he mulbe$$y &$ee un&il &hey en&e$ed &hei$ cocoon s&age—and so a
common sigh& in sp$ing was &he ha$*es& o( &he mulbe$$y lea*es. This ha$*es&ing was
conside$ed -womenQs wo$%- in ancien& hina# and so (since i& was o(&en &hough& &oo
(o$wa$d (o$ a woman &o spend &oo much &ime in (ull *iew o( men" &his was one o( &he
(ew &imes when men could go Ggi$l wa&ching.H Cs a $esul&# mulbe$$y-lea( pic%ing
became a &as% hea*ily laden wi&h e$o&ic conno&a&ions in hinese li&e$a&u$e. The$e
a$e Tui&e a (ew anecdo&es desc$ibing $oman&ic &$ys&s o$ cou$&ships &ha& occu$ du$ing
&his &ime o( yea$# as well as a&&emp&ed seduc&ions.
M.1. Xa Ò sen&ences2 Li&e$a$y hinese—a& leas& du$ing &he ea$ly pe$iod o( i&s
de*elopmen&—a*oided using any clea$-cu& *e$b (o$ G&o beH (wha& g$amma$ians call
G&he copulaH because i& connec&s &wo &hings &oge&he$2 G,a$y is a *illage gi$l#H G5ohn
is a (a$me$#H GTha& is a sil%wo$m#H e&c.". Nome&imes a w$i&e$ will use 爲(0D"# bu& &his
usually occu$s in cases whe$e a pe$son is being iden&i(ied by a temporary s&a&e o(
being o$ an occupa&ion2 G5ohn is a mulbe$$y pic%e$#H G,a$y is s&uden& council
.o$ mos& -copula$- sen&ences# w$i&e$s c$ea&ed a di((e$en& g$amma&ical pa&&e$n#
which we will call &he GnominalH sen&ence# o$# mo$e (amilia$ly# &he GXa H Ò sen&ence.
?e$e# you simply pu& &he &wo elemen&s side by side# and &hen end &he sen&ence wi&h
&he Ò pa$&icle2
,a$y V *illage gi$l Ò
5ohn V (a$me$ Ò
Tha& V sil%wo$m Ò
+( &he &wo pa$&s o( such a sen&ence (&he GXH and &he GaHja$e pa$&icula$ly long# a
mode$n punc&ua&o$ will sepa$a&e &he &wo wi&h a comma (,"—bu& no& always]
,o$eo*e$# %eep in mind &ha& some&imes a w$i&e$ will dispense wi&h &he Ò al&oge&he$#
lea*ing i& up &o you &o in&e$p$e& &he sen&ence.
Nome e)amples2
¼i¥人Ò。The Ru%e o( Lu is a %ind man. (=o&e &he di((e$ence g$amma&ically ($om
saying ¼i¥# -The Ru%e o( Lu is %ind.-"
Âg¨。This is &he s&a&e o( ii. (=o&e &he missing Ò]j
op,知Ú}諫•者Ò。Yuan mhong is one who %nows how &o cul&i*a&e his
conduc& and $emons&$a&e wi&h his lo$d.
M.D. Xa Ò sen&ences wi&h $2 'ne *e$y &ypical (o$m o( &he Xa Ò sen&ence in*ol*es
&he $ pa$&icle al$eady discussed in 1.1. aou migh& call i& a so$& o( Gde(ini&ionH (o$m.
Ž”$¾,趙Ò。The place you a$e going &o is mhao.
i盧”$諫,趙簡ŽÒ。The one whom Yong Lu $emons&$a&ed wi&h is ^iscoun& 5ian o(
-$.,,óÒ。>ha& (ish (lee is shallow wa&e$.
f$不·,lÒ。>ha& + donQ& d$in% is ale. '( cou$se# &he $ clause can be on ei&he$
l,f$不·Ò。Cle is wha& + donQ& d$in%.
-,f$欲Ò。 .ish is wha& + li%e.
M.F. The e*olu&ion o( 是 as copula2 +( you %now ,anda$in hinese# you %now *e$y
well &ha& 是 is used as a copula8 bu&# s&$ic&ly spea%ing# li&e$a$y hinese a*oided &his
meaning. ?owe*e$# by &he &hi$d cen&u$y .!. (and e*en be(o$e# some&imes" people
we$e al$eady using i& in &he mode$n sense# al&hough mo$e o(&en in &he spo%en
language &han in &he w$i&&en. This de*elopmen& is easy &o unde$s&and i( you loo%
closely a& &his lessonQs &e)&. 趙簡Ž says2
今吾伐¨£¨,是吾曠Ò。=ow + am a&&ac%ing a s&a&e and losing a s&a&e—&his is my
The spea%e$ has gi*en one sen&ence and &hen subs&i&u&ed 是 (o$ i& when he goes on
&o cons&$uc& an Xa Ò sen&ence. ?e could ha*e simply said2
今吾伐¨£¨,吾曠Ò。=ow my a&&ac%ing a s&a&e and losing a s&a&e is my
Bu&# he p$obably &hough& i& would be &oo clumsy. +& is in (ac& *e$y common in li&e$a$y
hinese &o ma%e a s&a&emen& and &hen ma%e a poin& abou& i& in Xa Ò (o$m#
subs&i&u&ing 是 o$ Â (o$ i&. Bu& a(&e$ se*e$al cen&u$ies# $eade$s began &o in&e$p$e& 是
no& as -&his- bu& as a *e$b# G&o be.H
O9CT+!2 Ou& &he (ollowing in&o li&e$a$y hinese# using Ò in all nominal sen&ences2
1. ,y home is you$ home.
0. Ru%e ?uan is one who lo*es his people and does no& a&&ac% coun&$ies.
1. T$ees a$e wha& bi$ds $oos& in.
D. The pe$son in &he mulbe$$ies is whom +Qm laughing a&.
F. To do good and &o die (o$ my lo$d—&his is my *i$&ue.
M. Tha& a husband and wi(e &oge&he$ wea$ a$mo$&his is wha& on(ucius &al%ed abou&.
7. >ha& + da$e $emons&$a&e abou& is &he du%eQs (ields.
8. The lo$d is he who go*e$ns &he people# and &he people a$e &hey who a$e go*e$ned
by &he lo$d.
9. Tha& + did no& gi*e meng3i a &own&his is my igno$ance.
10. >ha& + hope (o$ is wha& you (lee.
11. +( you ha*e &he means &o disband &he a$my# &hen &ha&Qs '6. i0.1 do no& ha*e &he
means &o p$esen& you wi&h a ci&y.
Vocabulary 7ints
.$om &his lesson on# you may (ind i& di((icul& &o $emembe$ &he meanings o(
cha$ac&e$s you p$e*iously encoun&e$ed. This sec&ion will $emind you o( some o( &he
meanings# as well as poin& ou& new ones. +( you s&ill canno& iden&i(y &he meaning o(
&he cha$ac&e$# consul& &he comp$ehensi*e glossa$y.
#haracter List
i. 乃今¶伐何俱兵名吾因÷«妻!敢是望桑O甲當罪與見解軍趙追還鄰(11"
ii. 披攻曠盧簡諫(M"
Lesson !
7e #alls the (une
”R,}K%Só。JŽmÅw: x善MzHIˆTTzOSó。|JŽm9,FGUIVW,
V$#A+ULA)* (.5-0."
00M. F ,2 bh 52 ha%u ハa 62 bae% C 2 baa%
1. Nenio$ o$ elde$ o( a g$oup o( b$o&he$s (as opposed &o f B111E &he middle b$o&he$".
0. G!a$lH (a (eudal &i&le8 see D.1 abo*e".
=o&e &ha& F„# li%e p„# can $e(e$ &o an uncle. ?e$e# Fis pa$& o( a name. 9adical 9
007. G ,2 yc 52 ga ï# ge Ï# kiba YÛ 62 a ð 2 ngLah
Too&h# &us%.
?e$e# &he cha$ac&e$ is used as a pe$sonal name. 9adical 90 (G".
0oMa. FGŽ ,2 bh yc 3P 52 ha%u ga shi はyÑ# 62 bae% a 7a Cð4 2 baa%
ngLah 7[
,as&e$ Bo aa (name o( a (amous musician".
008. H ,2 gl 52 %o G# tsuzumi ¼gm# kosu td 62 go Y 2 gJ
1. R$am8 &o d$um8 &o s&$um Ba s&$inged musical ins&$umen&E. <
0. To wield# &o b$andish Busually a swo$d o$ a %ni(eE.
>he$eas &his cha$ac&e$ usually $e(e$s &o d$ums and &he playing o( d$ums# i& also
came &o be used (o$ &he idea o( s&$umming wi&h &he hand# o$ swinging a weapon.
9adical 007 (H".
009. I ,2 T[n 52 gon Ú<# %in H<# %o&o tQ 62 geum o 2 %Lhm
mi&he$# ha$p.
This cha$ac&e$ ac&ually $e(e$s &o a se*en-s&$inged o$ nine-s&$inged ins&$umen&# long
and boa$d-li%e# &ha& is s&$ummed wi&h &he hands while $es&ing in &he lap o$ when
placed in ($on& o( one on &he g$ound. +& is associa&ed in hinese cul&u$e wi&h &he high
-classical- a$&s o( &he well-educa&ed gen&leman. 9adical 9M (Ù".
010. J ,2 3h;ng 52 sh; 1() 62 7ong ¾ 2 7Wng
1. To ga&he$# &o concen&$a&e.
0. Bushel Bo( g$ainE (used &o measu$e &he sala$y o( an o((icial".
?e$e# J is pa$& o( a &wo-cha$ac&e$ su$name. 9adical 1M7 (h# Ggold#H Gme&alH".
010a. JŽm ,2 3h;ng 3P T4 52 sh;shi %i #Î>#Y 62 7ong 7a gi ¾4K 2 7Wng 7[
mhong3i ii (a close ($iend o( FGŽ"
011. 聽 ,2 &4ng (1"8 &:ng (0" 52 ch; "()# kiku Yy 62 cheong ã 2 &ing
1. To lis&en &o# &o heed. <
0. To allow# &o pe$mi&# &o gi*e pe$mission &o.
Yene$ally spea%ing# ~ can $e(e$ &o any unin&en&ional ac& o( hea$ing# whe$eas 聽
&ends &o $e(e$ &o delibe$a&e ac&s o( lis&ening. 9adical 108 (耳".
010. _ ,2 (Kng 52 h; Š)# kata nƒ 62 bang i 2 (;ng
1. 5us& &hen# 7us& a& &ha& momen&. <
0. NTua$e.
1. Ncope# me&hod# &echniTue.
D. Ri$ec&ion.
This cha$ac&e$ has a wide $ange o( meanings8 &he ad*e$bial use# meaning /1# is
p$obably &he mos& common. 9adical 70 (_".
011. K ,2 3h: 52 shi 1# kokorozashi ttuU# 62 7i % 2 7i
Cmbi&ion# will# in&en&ion# inclina&ion.
This wo$d has impo$&an& conno&a&ions in philosophy. +& o(&en $e(e$s &o wha& oneQs
mind is p$eoccupied wi&h# some&imes e*en subconsciously. ?e$e# i& $e(e$s &o wha& F
G was &hin%ing o( e*en unconsciously—while playing. 9adical M1 (心".
01D. L ,2 &Li 52 &ai Ž+# &a Ž 62 &ae j 2 &aai
Y$ea&# eno$mous# signi(ican&.
9adical 17 (F".
01F. Š ,2 shKn 52 san ø<#yama á• 62 san k 2 sKan
,oun&ain# hill.
9adical DM (Š".
01Da. LŠ ,2 &Li shKn 52 &ai3an ƒ,U· 62 &ae san jk 2 &aai sKan
,&. Tai.
C common ea$ly *a$ian& (o$ lŠ# &he g$ea& sac$ed moun&ain loca&ed in Nhandong.
01M. M ,2 3Ki 52 sai ø+# ya á# ka na n7 62 7ae I 2 7;i
B.inalpa$&icle2 e)p$esses e)clama&ion o$ su$p$ise.E
9adical 10 (0".
0Fa. 善M ,2 shLn 3Ki 52 3en3ai m·U, 62 seon 7ae ˆI 2 sihn
Y$ea&] ?ow wonde$(ul] >ell done] +dm imp$essed]
017. N ,2 wUi 52 gi Õ 62 wi N 2 ngLih
Lo(&y# eminen&# imposing.
Cs &he $adical sugges&s# &his cha$ac&e$ was o$iginally mean& &o desc$ibe moun&ains
o$ hills# bu& i& can desc$ibe o&he$ &hings as well. The $eduplica&ion o( ad7ec&i*es &o
in&ensi(y &he e((ec& is *e$y common in li&e$a$y hinese# especially in poe&$y. 9adical
DM (Š".
018. O ,2 $uS 52 7a%u N2a# nya O2# gotoku ©Qy8 gotoshi ©Q# (0"8 moshi 3
# (1" 62 ya% n 2 yeuh%
1. To $esemble# &o be li%e8 seemingly# as i(# by appea$ance. <
0. +(
1. B+n(o$mal second pe$son p$onoun—used (o$ > (F0F"E
+n meaning /1# O is &hough& &o be a dialec& *a$ian& o( ‚ (109"8 conseTuen&ly# 不O
has &he same idioma&ic meaning as 不‚(Da". 9adical 1D0 (=".
019. P ,2 sh\o (1-0"8 shLo (1" 52 sh; 1()# sukoshi dt## sukunai dy7, 62
so ‚ 2 s[u (1-0"8 siu (1"
1. Nmall8 (ew8 a li&&le8 sca$ce. <
0. To beli&&le# &o conside$ small
1. aoung# you&h.
The second meaning is a good e)ample o( &he -pu&a&i*e- use o( an ad7ec&i*e—&ha&
is# i& $ep$esen&s &he men&al a&&i&ude o( a pe$son who applies wha&e*e$ &he ad7ec&i*e
is &o a phejnomenon# &hing# o$ pe$son. 9adical D0 (小".
000. Q ,2 )u\n 52 sen X<# yoru ‡$# erabu h?Ý# suguru dý$ 62 seon ˆ
2 syJn
1. To choose# &o selec&# &o elec&.
0. C li&&le bi& o( &ime. <
=o&e] ,eaning /0 (&he meaning in &his lessonQs &e)&" is *e$y $a$e# and you will
ha$dly e*e$ encoun&e$ i&. >hen you do# i& will p$obably be in &he compound PQ.
>hen you memo$i3e &his cha$ac&e$# concen&$a&e on meaning /1. 9adical 1M0 (定".
001. R ,2 7iKn 52 %en ñ<# %an S<# aida D,À# ma • 62 gan $ 2 gKan
Cmong# in# while.
This cha$ac&e$ is used in many ways8 i& is li%e n(111" bu& wi&h some sub&le
di((e$ences. R &ends &o emphasi3e &ha& some&hing is in between &wo o&he$ &hings. +n
&ime desc$ip&ions# i& is used &o $ep$esen& an elapse o( &ime—hence# G PQ”R Ba(&e$E
a sho$& in&e$*al o( &ime.- 9adical 1M9 (o# Gga&eH".
000. S ,2 liJ 52 $u p# $yu ×»)# $; à)# nagareru 7ÑJ$# nagasu 7Ñd 62 lyu
q 2 lLuh
To (low# &o cause &o (low8 a cu$$en&.
9adical 8F (ó".
001. T ,2 &Kng (1-0"8 shKng (1" 52 &; (1-0"g)8 sh; 1() (1" 62 &ang r (1-0"8
sang š (1" 2 &;ng (1-0"8 sUung(1"
1. ?o& wa&e$# boiling wa&e$# soup.
0. Tang (name o( an ancien& sage %ing# (ounde$ o( &he Nhang ³ dynas&y".
1. Nee&hing8 (looding. <
=o&e] /1 is an uncommon meaning and p$onunca&ion8 /1 is much mo$e common.
?e$e# &he cha$ac&e$ is mean& &o be poe&ically desc$ip&i*e o( a $i*e$# &he way N
desc$ibed hills. 9adical 8F (ó".
00D. U ,2 pS 52 ha ハ# yaburu áÝ$ 62 pa s 2 po
To smash# &o des&$oy# &o b$ea%# &o de(ea& Ban a$my o$ a s&a&eE8 &a&&e$ed# b$o%en-
down. >hen used as an ad7ec&i*e# &his cha$ac&e$ is synonymous wi&h º(117" and is
in (ac& much mo$e common &han &he la&&e$ cha$ac&e$. 9adical 110 (t#-s&one-".
00F. V ,2 7uA 52 3e&su †é# tatsu ƒ¼# taeru ƒh$ 62 7eol 2 7yuh&
To cu& sho$&# &o b$ea%# &o in&e$$up&# &o &a%e a di$ec& $ou&e o$ sho$&cu&.
9adical 100 (¿".
00M. W ,2 )icn 52 gen Ï<# tsuru ¼$ 62 hyeon u 2 y:hn
N&$ing Bo( a musical ins&$umen&E# bows&$ing.
=o&e &he $hy&hm and symme&$y o( &he (ou$-cha$ac&e$ ph$ase UIvW# wi&h i&s *e$b-
ob7ec&-*e$b-ob7ec& pa&&e$n. This is a *e$y common way o( o$de$ing language
poe&ically in li&e$a$y hinese. 9adical F7 (w# GbowH".
18a. 以ì ,2 yP wAi 52 omoeraku I3h?y 62 i wi s 2 y[h wLih
To assume.
This &wo-cha$ac&e$ *e$b emphasi3es sub7ec&i*e opinion. fnli%e in mode$n ,anda$in#
howe*e$# in li&e$a$y hinese i& is no& necessarily an inco$$ec& assump&ion.
007. X ,2 sh: 52 se X# sei X+# yo ‡ 62 se x 2 sai
?uman socie&y# &he wo$ld8 &he age# a gene$a&ion.
9adical 1 (:".
008. Y ,2 dJ 52 do%u wa# hitori PQq 62 &a% y 2 duh%
Clone# lonely# soli&a$y8 only.
ÇY# Gi& is no& only &he case &ha& #H is a common e)p$ession. 9adical 9D (ê".
009. Z ,2 )icn 52 %en ñ<# kashikoi n#t, 62 hyeon u 2 y:hn
>o$&hy# s%illed# &alen&ed8 wo$&hy man# s%illed man# &alen&ed man.
This wo$d is o(&en pai$ed wi&h 聖(17"# and i& $ep$esen&s people who a$e good and
*i$&uous bu& no& Tui&e up &o &he le*el o( 聖.9adical 1FD (L".
010. [ ,2 y: 52 e%i ;H# ya%u za# mata •ƒ 62 yeo% 역 2 yih%
1. Clso# again<
0. +ndeed.
Ta%e no&e o( &he &wo chie( uses o( &his *e$y common cha$ac&e$—i& ei&he$ implies
$epe&i&ion (-also#- -again-" o$ simply is used (o$ emphasis. on&e)& should ma%e
clea$ which meaning is app$op$ia&e. 9adical 8 ({# Gabo*eH".
011. \ ,2 $cn 52 3en †<# nen |<# shika #n8 shikaredomo #nJZ3# saredo •
JZ 62 yeon } 2 y:hn
1. To be so# &o be &hus# &o be $igh&# &o ac& &husly. <
0. Bu&.
1. B'p&ional ad*e$b ma$%e$2 Gin )-manne$. GE
9adical 8M (Ë".
010. ] ,2 su4 52 sui V+# iedomo ,hZ3 62 su W 2 sUui
!*en &hough# e*en i(.
9adical 170 (ç".
011. ^ ,2 7iU 52 se&su Xé# sessuru •cd$# tsugu ¼ý 62 7eop ~ 2 7ip
To 7oin# &o connec&# &o mee&# &o &$ea&.
9adical MD (.".
01D. _ ,2 yhu 52 yW ¸)# yu ¸# yoru ‡$# yoshi ‡# (1-0"8 gotoshi ©Q# (1" 62
yu ¹ 2 yLuh
1. 9eason# sou$ce# o$igin8 &o come ($om# &o de$i*e ($om.
0. .$om# Bco*e$bE<
1. To $esemble# &o be li%e (used as a subs&i&u&e (o$ &he cha$ac&e$ • B1FF-0E".
9adical 100 (O".
1FFb. Ë_ ,2 )4 yhu 52 nani ni yorite 7½½‡q\ 62 hae yu ë¹ 2 hLih yLuh
?ow# why. BTues&ion wo$dE
=o&e2 &his is ano&he$ in*e$&ed Tues&ion e)p$ession (F.M"8 i& could be in&e$p$e&ed as _
Ë# G($om wha&#H &ha& is# GhowH o$ Gwhy.H +n &his sense# i& is an almos& e)ac& synonym
(o$ Ëì (1FFa".
01F. ` ,2 7:n 52 7in N<# tsukusu ¼yd# tsukiru ¼Y$ 62 7in € 2 7euhn
To e)haus&# &o use &o &he (ulles&8 e)haus&i*ely# en&i$ely# comple&ely# &ho$oughly# all#
=o&e &he &wo $ela&ed se$ies o( meanings2 a *e$bal usage &ha& emphasi3es
e)haus&ion and comple&ion (e.g.# using some&hing up"# and an ad*e$bial meaning
&ha& emphasi3es &ha& an ac&ion is &ho$oughly ca$$ied ou& o$ &ha& e*e$yone is ca$$ying
ou& &he ac&ion. 9adical 108 (0".
01M. a ,2 7: 52 %i H 62 gi K 2 %ei
Ba p$ope$ nameE
The name o( a legenda$y ho$se8 &his cha$ac&e$ is &he$e(o$e by e)&ension used as a
poe&ic name (o$ (as& ho$ses. 9adical 187 (î".
017. b ,2 TiKn 52 sen X<# chi . 62 cheon E 2 ch4n
'ne &housand.
9adical 0D (ž".
018. c ,2 lP 52 $i × 62 li Ø 2 lAih
1. Li (measu$emen& o( dis&ance2 abou& 1V1 mile".<
0. ^illage# wa$d.
+n meaning /0# &his cha$ac&e$ can be used &o desc$ibe bo&h au&onomous *illages
and wa$ds# neighbo$hoods# o$ subu$bs o( la$ge$ &owns. +n some ancien& &e)&s# c a$e
desc$ibed as o$gani3a&ional uni&s# consis&ing o( 0F# F0# 70# o$ 100 households.
9adical 1MM (c".
019. d ,2 dLi 52 &ai Ž+# matsu •¼ 62 dae • 2 doih
To awai&# &o depend on.
9adical M0 (k".
0D0. e ,2 lZ (1"8 yuZ (0" 52 $a%u `a# tanoshimu ƒ-#@ (1"8 ga%u ïa (0" 62
la% • (1"8 a% ‚ (0" 2 loh% (1"8 ngoh%(0"
1. To &a%e pleasu$e in# &o en7oy.
0. ,usic.
This cha$ac&e$ is common in bo&h meanings8 howe*e$# in &his lessonQs &e)& i& is
me$ely a pe$sonal name. 9adical 7F (木".
00Mb. Fe ,2 bh lZ 52 ha%u $a%u はy?y 62 bae% la% C• 2 baa% loh%
BoLe. Ba pe$sonal nameE
C man (amous (o$ being able &o 7udge good ho$ses8 &his name is o(&en used
symbolically (o$ a $ule$ who can $ecogni3e *i$&uous and capable men.
7.1. ul&u$al no&e2 G&hose who %now &he &one.H This s&o$y became especially (amous
in hinese li&e$a&u$e and cul&u$e. La&e$# &he &e$m 知音 (音n&one# no&e8 -Bone whoE
%nows &he &one-" de*eloped# &o desc$ibe a pa$&icula$ly close ($iend o$ someone who
%nows someone else almos& ins&inc&ually. ,usic in gene$al was &hough& &o ha*e a
pa$&icula$ly g$ea& powe$ in ancien& hina# as a way o( con*eying oneQs emo&ions o$
as a way o( a((ec&ing o&he$s (o$ good o$ (o$ ill.
7.0. ,o$e on &he pa$&icle z2 >hen JŽm $eac&s &o d FG s music# he says 善MzHI. +
ha*e al$eady poin&ed ou& abo*e in &he *ocabula$y &ha& z can be an e)clama&ion as
well as a Tues&ion. This shouldnQ& cause you &oo much &$ouble# because con&e)&
should ma%e i& clea$ whe&he$ a sen&ence is a Tues&ion o$ an e)clama&ion. Clso no&e
&ha& spea%e$s—when &hey wan& &o pu& a pa$&icula$ emphasis on &hei$ desc$ip&ion o(
some&hing—will in*e$& &he sen&ence# so &ha& &he e)clama&o$y ending pa$&icle
ac&ually &u$ns up in &he middle o( &he sen&ence. Thus# HI善Mz (Gaou$ playing o( &he
ha$p is wonde$(ul]H" becomes 善MzHI (->onde$(ul]—you$ playing o( &he ha$p#H o$
in be&&e$ !nglish# pe$haps# -?ow wonde$(ul is you$ ha$p playing]-". '&he$ e)amples2
聖zÕŽˆ ?ow sagely is on(ucius]
曠z追«”÷ˆ ?ow lonely is &he husband pu$suing &he woman]
Fz簡Ž”!ˆ ?ow la$ge is &he a$my o( ^iscoun& 5ian]
7.1. e$&ain *e$b-co*e$b cons&$uc&ions and &he cons&$uc&ion o( suppo$&ing *e$bs2
The$e a$e a numbe$ o( suppo$&ing *e$bs &ha& o$dina$ily ma%e &he *e$bs &ha& (ollow
&hem passi*e ((o$ &he -passi*e *oice#- see 0.F". The mos& common a$e Ÿ (G&o be
easyH BD8E"# ¡ (G&o be di((icul&- BF0E"# ×(G&o be su((icien&- B1MME" and y (G&o be
allowable#H G&o be pe$missibleH B101E". ?e$e a$e simple e)amples o( &hei$ uses# wi&h
&he *e$b ª# -&o go*e$n wellH (F9"2
ٻ2 easy &o be go*e$ned well (easily go*e$ned"
¡ª2 di((icul& &o be go*e$ned well (go*e$ned wi&h di((icul&y"
ת2 su((icien& &o be go*e$ned well (i.e.# ha*ing su((icien& Tuali&ies &o allow i& &o be
yª2 able &o be go*e$ned well8 pemissible &o be go*e$ned well
=o&ice &ha& !nglish o(&en uses Ÿ and ¡ in e)ac&ly &he same way8 when we say G&his
ci&y is easy &o go*e$n#H we mean &ha& &he ci&y is easily go#erned.
+n gene$al# be ca$e(ul &o obse$*e &his pa&&e$n and $ead passi*ely when &hese wo$ds
a$e encoun&e$ed. 9emembe$# (o$ e)ample# &ha& yH should mean Gable &o be
s&$ummedH $a&he$ &han Gable &o s&$umH—&hus# IyH (G&he ha$p is able &o be
s&$ummedH—i.e.# i& is in good shape# has all o( i&s s&$ings# e&c." is mo$e li%ely &o be
encoun&e$ed &han FGyH# which would li%ely mean &ha& Bo aa is se$*ing as a d$um]
?ow does one use &hese wo$ds (Ÿ# ¡# ×# y" &o e)p$ess ac&i*e meaningsX +n o&he$
wo$ds# how do we say G&he du%e is able &o go*e$nH o$ GBo aa easily s&$umsHX To
unde$s&and &his# we ha*e &o e)plo$e a new pa&&e$n—one &ha& is $a&he$ di((icul& &o
comp$ehend ($om an !nglish-language poin& o( *iew.
+n Lesson F# in &he *ocabula$y i&em ×(1MM"# we saw &he s&$uc&u$e ×以 _ *e$b (×以Ø
ÙÒ# G?e is su((icien& &o p$ese$*e his *i$&ueH". ?e$e we do ha*e an ac&i*e meaning
—an e)ample o( a s&$uc&u$e consis&ing o( *e$b _ co*e$b. Bo&h *e$b and co*e$b in
&u$n become a suppo$&ing *e$b &o &he main *e$b o( &he sen&ence. ?e$e a$e &ypical
X Ÿ以^2 X is easy &o ma%e use o( &o do &he *e$b
X ¡以^2 X is di((icul& &o ma%e use o( &o do &he *e$b
X ×以^2 X is su((icien& &o ma%e use o( &o do &he *e$b
X y以^2 X is (easible &o ma%e use o( &o do &he *e$b
+n all o( &hese cases# &he co*e$b 以 (Gby means o(#H G&o useH" combines wi&h a *e$b
&o desc$ibe &he capabili&y o( a sub7ec& &o ca$$y ou& an ac&ion. =o&e &ha& &he (i$s& *e$b
_ 以 s&ill adhe$es &o &he Gpassi*eH $ule desc$ibed abo*e8 in o&he$ wo$ds# wha& we a$e
$eally saying# ini&ially# is2
X Ÿ以2 X is easy &o be used ...
X ¡以2 X is ha$d &o be used ...
X ×以2 X is su((icien& &o be used ...
X y以2 X is (easible &o be used ...
Cl&hough &he o$igins o( &hese e)p$essions may be ha$d &o unde$s&and# &he end $esul&
is no& so di((icul&—especially in &he case o( y以# which has en&e$ed mode$n
,anda$in. The end $esul& is &o ma%e y以 &he Gac&i*eH *e$sion o( y# so &ha& we can
say# in con&$as&2
¨yª2The s&a&e can be go*e$ned.
iy以ª¨:The du%e can go*e$n &he s&a&e.
+n&e$es&ingly# o&he$ co*e$bs besides 以 can be used wi&h &his pa&&e$n# &hough &he
$esul& is nea$ly un&$ansla&able in !nglish. This is &he case when &he co*e$b 爲(Gon
behal( o(H" occu$s in &his pa&&e$n# (o$ e)ample2
X Ÿ爲^2 X is easy &o ha*e &he *e$b done on behal( o(
X ¡爲^2 X is di((icul& &o ha*e &he *e$b done on behal( o(
X ×爲^2 X is su((icien& &o ha*e &he *e$b done on behal( o(
X y爲^2 X is (easible &o ha*e &he *e$b done on behal( o(
+n ou$ lesson &e)&# we ha*e 以爲X–×爲HI者# Ghe assumed &ha& in &he wo$ldV
gene$a&ion &he$e did no& e)is& one who was su((icien& &o ha*e &he ha$p s&$ummed on
behal( o(.- +& is *e$y di((icul& &o pu& &his in&o $easonable !nglish. Oe$haps2 -?e
assumed &ha& in &he wo$ld &he$e was no one wo$&hy o( lis&ening &o his playing.- +n
o&he$ wo$ds# &his pa&&e$n ma%es some commen& abou& &he sub7ec&Qs
abili&yVwo$&hiness &o $ecei*e &he bene(i& o( some ac&ion.
Nome (u$&he$ e)amples2
hiy爲µ q +&Qs (easible &o ma%e plans (o$ Ru%e ?uanQs sa%e.
Fe×爲qbc q +&Qs su((icien& &o a$$i*e a &housand li (o$ Bo LeQs sa%e.
Ž„¡爲š« 0 +&Qs di((icul& &o p$ac&ice (ilial pie&y (o$ you$ (a&he$Qs sa%e.
ƒ吾妻Ÿ爲È桑。+&Qs easy &o loo% (o$ mulbe$$ies (o$ my wi(eQs sa%e.
C(&e$ ha*ing said all o( &his# + mus& poin& ou& &ha& la&e$ w$i&e$s—pa$&icula$ly a(&e$ &he
>es&e$n ?an dynas&y (00M B..!-000 .!."—became inc$easingly sloppy wi&h &his
dis&inc&ion# so you may (ind *iola&ions o( i& $ela&i*ely ($eTuen&ly. This is pa$&icula$ly
&he case wi&h y# which ($eTuen&ly has &he meaning o( y以 in la&e$ &e)&s.
O9CT+!2 T$ansla&e &he (ollowing ( y and y以":
1. !y。趙簡Žy以!。
1. ¬yª。¬y以ª。
O9CT+!2 T$ansla&e &he (ollowing (co*e$bs wi&h suppo$&ing *e$bs"2
1. ¬×爲ª¨。
0. 不善”•×以'¬z{
O9CT+!2 Ou& &he (ollowing in&o li&e$a$y hinese2
1. +&Qs (easible &o mobili3e an a$my (o$ on(ucius.
0. +&Qs ha$d &o lis&en &o &he bi$ds (o$ ,as&e$ YuanQs sa%e.
1. ,as&e$ meng (inds i& ha$d &o $ecei*e a ci&y.
D. +&Qs su((icien& &o p$ac&ice bene*olence (o$ my sonQs sa%e.
F. +n Lu &he$e is no one (o$ whose sa%e i& is (easible &o e)plain *i$&ue.
7.D. =ominali3ing clauses wi&h 者2 +n 1.1# we lea$ned &ha& &he mos& basic and easily
unde$s&andable use o( 者 was &o indica&e &he pe$(o$me$ o( an ac&ion2
HI者2one who plays a ha$p
Q!者:one who chooses an a$my
以¥¦šª者:one who p$ac&ices go*e$nance wi&h bene*olence and *i$&ue
+( you only %now &his use o( 者# howe*e$# youQll miss ou& on i&s signi(icance.
Nome&imes when a sen&ence is (ollowed by 者# &he cha$ac&e$ -nominali3es- &he
sen&ence o$ b$ac%e&s i& as a &opic (o$ con*e$sa&ion and discussion. +n &his way &he
wo$d is simila$ &o &he !nglish ph$ases G&he (ac& &ha&- o$ G&he ac& o(H2
hi不聽op”•者2 &he (ac& &ha& Ru%e ?uan does no& lis&en &o Yuan mhongQs wo$ds...
g人£妻者2 &he (ac& &ha& &he man o( ii los& his wi(e...
入O}^Z者2 &he (ac& &ha& BsomeoneE en&e$ed &he (ields and made con&ac& wi&h
wo$&hy men...
The$e a$e &wo o&he$ common places whe$e 者 is used (o$ emphasis and cla$i(ica&ion.
The (i$s& occu$s in -de(ini&ion--s&yle sen&ences# whe$e a noun is (ollowed by 者 in
o$de$ &o single i& ou& as an i&em unde$ discussion. These usually occu$ in Xa Ò s&yle2
H 1者,2木”物Ò。 Bi$dsH a$e &hings &ha& $oos& in &$ees.
•者,ª¬”人Ò。C -$ule$- is a pe$son who go*e$ns &he people.
Cno&he$ common use o( 者 as a Gnominali3e$H is wi&h $ ph$ases. +( we $e&u$n &o &he
e)ample sen&ences o( M.D# we (ind &ha& i& is *e$y common &o pu& a 者 a(&e$ a $
ph$ase in o$de$ &o Gb$ac%e&H i&. Thus2
Ž”$¾B者E,趙Ò。The place you a$e going &o is mhao.
i盧”G„諫B者E,趙簡ŽÒ。The one whom Yong Lu $emons&$a&ed wi&h is ^iscoun&
5ian o( mhao.
-$.B者E,,óÒ。>ha& (ish (lee is shallow wa&e$.
f$不tB者E,lÒ。>ha& + donQ& d$in% is ale. RonQ& con(use such sen&ences wi&h
simple -ac&o$- uses o( d 者: ¾趙者 ŽÒ。The one going &o mhao is you.
諫趙簡Ž者,i盧Ò。The one $emons&$a&ing wi&h ^iscoun& 5ian o( mhao is Yong Lu.
.,ó者,-Ò。The one (leeing shallow wa&e$ is a (ish.
不·l者,fÒ。The one no& d$in%ing ale is +.
>eQll con&inue &o discuss e)amples whe$e -nominali3a&ion- is impo$&an&. The (i$s&
one is discussed below# in 7.F.
+mpo$&an& no&e] Cs you lea$n mo$e and mo$e abou& li&e$a$y hinese# you will (ind
&ha& sen&ences a$e o(&en open &o mo$e &han one in&e$p$e&a&ion. Ta%e a loo% again a&
&wo o( &he e)amples abo*e2
+n &his case# &he$e would be no&hing e)cep& con&e)& &o p$e*en& us ($om in&e$p$e&ing
&his sen&ence as a pa$&i&i*e (1.0"&ha& is# a sligh&ly abb$e*ia&ed *e$sion o( g人”£
妻者# -&hose people o( ii who abandoned &hei$ wi*es.- This is because g人 could be
plu$al o$ singula$# and so i& con&$ibu&es &o &he ambigui&y.
This is e*en wo$se] Because &he sen&ence has no e)plici& sub7ec&# we could *e$y
easily come up wi&h &he (ollowing &$ansla&ion2 tt'ne who en&e$s &he (ield and ma%es
con&ac& wi&h wo$&hy men.- Cgain# only con&e)& indica&es which would be be&&e$.
Nimila$ly# ou$ e)amples ($om &he beginning o( &his e)plana&ion could be $ead
di((e$en&ly# i( &he con&e)& demanded2 HI者n -&he ac& o(V&he (ac& o( playing &he
ha$p-8 Q!者n-&he ac& o(V&he (ac& o( selec&ing an a$my-8 and so (o$&h.
The mos& impo$&an& &hing &o $emembe$# in any case# is &ha& 者 can do mo$e &han
simply indica&e Gone whoe.H
7.F. !)plana&ion sen&ences wi&h 者 and Ò2 ?e$e is an impo$&an& pa&&e$n &ha& uses
-sen&ence nominali3a&ion- as desc$ibed in 7.D abo*e. >e no&ed in Lesson M &ha& Ò
(1M1" could be used &o indica&e an emphasis sugges&ed by a spea%e$. >hen we ha*e
&wo clausesone ending wi&h 者 and &he ne)& one ending wi&h Ò—&he$e is a good
chance &ha& &hey (o$m an -e)plana&ion- sen&ence2
-The (ac& &ha&V&he $eason why X... is because o( a.-
Ta%e a loo% a& &he las& &wo ph$ases o( ou$ lesson &e)&. +( 者 and Ò we$e missing# we
would simply ha*e2
This loo%s li%e &wo independen& sen&ences2 G5i does no& himsel( a$$i*e a &housand li.
?e is wai&ing (o$Vdepending on Bo Le and only &hen a$$i*es.- Tha& ma%es pe$(ec&
sense# and i( we %ep& i& li%e &his# we would be mo$e o$ less $igh&. Bu& when we add
&he pa$&icles# &hings change a li&&le bi&2
=ow we ha*e a much mo$e &$anspa$en& sen&ence &ha& emphasi3es &he $ela&ionship
be&ween &he &wo clauses2 ttThe (ac& &ha&V&he $eason why 5i does no& himsel( a$$i*e a
&housand li is because he is wai&ing (o$Vdepending on Bo Le and only &hen a$$i*es.-
O9CT+!2 T$ansla&e &he (ollowing2
1. 趙簡Ž!者,聽i盧”•Ò。
0. j爲•`7者,•(”Ò。
1. G i盧得妻者,不知Q桑Ò
D. d ÕŽ¹U¹}»者 不ÄÀ於iÒ。
F. hir兵}伐¼者,¼•不'”Ò。
O9CT+!2 Ou& &he (ollowing in&o li&e$a$y hinese2
1. The $eason why + donQ& lo*e ha$ps is because Bo aa ma%es me lis&en &o him.
0. The $eason why my en&i$e li(e + cul&i*a&e my conduc& (Ú" is because ,as&e$
Yuan (o$ my sa%e e)plained i&.
1. The $eason why i& is di((icul& &o go*e$n &he s&a&e (o$ &he sa%e o( &he people is
because &he people do no& %now loyal&y o$ (ilial pie&y.
D. The $eason why you do no& you$sel( wai& (o$ &he du%e is because Bo Le ma%es you
play a ha$p.
F. The $eason why + assume &ha& &he$e a$e no& wo$&hy men in &he wo$ld is because
on(ucius is dead.
Vocabulary 7ints
%(79"Å(1D8-1"ó(87" ’“(11a# L0"Â(1DF"
–以nopposi&e o( ‘以(10a# LM"7(99"自(1F-1"
#haracter List
i. X[FbMLPŠdK^_eST\YI_`V聽OZQcJR]H(10"
ii. GU(0"
iii. Wa(0"
i*. N(1"
Lesson ,
:u;e %u For2ives the 7orse-&aters
“”,"攻ð …i•”。¾²•îõ者–‹w:xy以€9•î得l”—˜ˆ|™š•。…i
V$#A+ULA)* (01-!1"
0D1. ð ,2 T[n 52 shin 1< 62 7in € 2 chZuhn
The s&a&e o( iin.
C s&a&e o( p$e-impe$ial hina# i& was loca&ed in p$esen&-day Nhaan)i ž# p$o*ince. ð
e*en&ually conTue$ed all o&he$ s&a&es and es&ablished &he (i$s& hinese empi$e.
9adical 11F (Ÿ# -g$owing g$ain#H -ha$*es&-".
0D0. … ,2 mI 52 bo%u ボa 62 mo% € 2 muh%
,a7es&ic# $e*e$en&.
This cha$ac&e$ is $ela&i*ely $a$e# bu& i& can be (ound ($eTuen&ly in pos&humous &i&les.
9adical 11F (Ÿ".
0D1a. ð…i ,2 T[n mI g;ng 52 shin bo%u %W #·ぼyy> 62 7in mo% gong €€Œ
2 chZuhn muh% gWng
Ru%e ,u o( iin ($. MF9-M01 B..!.".
0D1. † ,2 chcng 52 sh; 1()# nameru 7A$# katsute n¼\ 62 sang š 2
1. To &as&e# &o p$o*e# &o e)pe$ience# &o &$y8 &es&.
0. +n &he pas&<
This cha$ac&e$ is one o( a numbe$ in li&e$a$y hinese indica&ing &he pas& &ense.
Nome&imes i& is used &o $ep$esen& cons&an& o$ ($eTuen& occu$$ence in &he pas&
(-o(&en-". 9adical 10 (0".
0DD. ‡ ,2 wcng 52 bu ù# mu È# b; ボ)# m; ~)# nakunaru 7y7$# horobosu b
uぼd# ushinau >#7> 62 mang 2 2 mShng
To lose# &o des&$oy# &o die# &o be los&# &o escape.
This cha$ac&e$ is *e$y common# and i& has a wide $ange o( meaningsbu& all a$e &ied
&o loss o$ absence. 9adical 8 ({".
0DF. ˆ ,2 7In 52 shun 1»< 62 7un 2 7eun
Cs &he $adical sugges&s# &his cha$ac&e$ o(&en desc$ibes (as& ho$ses. 9adical 187 (î".
0DM. î ,2 m\ 52 me *# ba ;# ma :# uma >• 62 ma ¡ 2 mcah
9adical 187 (î".
0D7. ¢ ,2 yP 52 i +# sude ni d¥½# yamu á@# yameru áA$ 62 i s 2 y[h
1. Cl$eady8 &o end# &o s&op. <
0. BNen&ence-endingpa$&icle# used (o$ ˜(0MM".E
RonQ& con(use &his cha$ac&e$ wi&h 己(7"] 9adical D9 (己".
0D8. ‰ ,2 shK 52 sa&su øé# sai ø+# se&su Xé# korosu tud 62 sal £# swae ¤
2 saa&
To %ill.
9adical 79 (¥# Gspea$#H G&o %illH".
0D9. Š ,2 gSng 52 %y; H()# &omo Q3 62 gong Œ 2 guhng
Toge&he$8 bo&h.
Synonym2 俱(191". 9adical 10 (@".
0F0. • ,2 sh[ (1# 1"8 s: (0" 52 sho%u 1(a# 7i%i NH# taberu ƒ$# kuu y># kurau
y?># kurawasu y?Td 62 si% ¦ 2 sih%
1. .ood8 &o ea&.<
0. To cause &o ea&# &o (eed.
1. 9ice# coo%ed g$ain.
ompa$e &his cha$ac&e$ wi&h t(117"# G&o d$in%.- 9adical 18D (•".
0F1. õ ,2 $Su 52 ni%u Oa 62 yu% § 2 yuh%
,ea&# (lesh.
9adical 110 (õ".
0F0. ‹ ,2 wZi 52 i +# iu ,> 62 wi „ 2 waih
1. To name8 &o assume# &o &hin%.
0. To say B&o someoneE# Bco*e$bE<
,eaning /0 (as seen in &his lessonQs &e)&" indica&es &he pe$son &o whom one is
spea%ing# wi&h &he pa&&e$n ‹Xw. .o$ e)ample2 ÕŽ‹iw# Gon(ucius add$essed
&he du%e# sayinge#H >hen &he pe$son being add$essed is clea$ ($om &he con&e)&#
&hen &he w$i&e$ will simply gi*e ‹w# -he add$essed BhimE# saying ....H ?e$e# when
&he anecdo&e $eads …i‹w# in&e$p$e& i& &o mean GRu%e ,u said B&o &he menEe.H
9adical 1D9 (‹".
0F1. Œ ,2 3hW 52 sho 1(# moro 3u 62 7e ‰ 2 7yW
1. BOa$&icle2 plu$al ma$%e$.E<
0. B.usion pa$&icle8 eTui*alen& &o ” _ z((i$s& occu$s in Lesson 0F".E
>hen placed in ($on& o( a noun# Œ ma%es &he noun plu$al. 9adical 1D9 (•".
0FD. • ,2 7iU 52 %ai S+# mina m7# minna m·7 62 gae ¨ 2 gKai
Cll# e*e$y.
9adical 81 (©# G&o compa$eH".
0FF. Ž ,2 7I 52 %u a# osoreru IÇJ$ 62 gu ’ 2 geuih
To (ea$# &o d$ead8 (ea$# &imidi&y.
9adical M1 (心".
0FM. • ,2 7[ 52 so%u ÷a# sunawachi d7T. 62 7eu% ª 2 74%
1. 9igh& &hen8 immedia&ely8 &hen. <
0. To go &o# &o p$oceed &o. 9adical 0M («# G7oin&#H GsealH".
0F7. • ,2 c: 52 shi 1# 7i N# tsugu ¼ý# tsugi ¼ÿ# tsuide ¼,¥ 62 cha ä 2 chi
NeTuence# o$de$8 ne)&.
=o&ice &ha& in &his lessonQs &e)&# 以• would mean Gby means o( o$de$#H &ha& is# Gin
&u$n#- -one by one.- 9adical 7M (f# G&o lac%-".
0F8. ‘ ,2 ccn 52 3an H<# hajiru はp$ 62 cham ¬ 2 chLahm
To be ashamed.
9adical M1 (心".
0F9. ’ ,2 7W 52 %o G# %yo H(# iru ,$# oru I$ 62 geo T 2 gUui
1. To occupy Ba placeE# &o li*e Bin a placeE.
0. To pass by (o( &ime". <
Nynonym (meaning /1"2 %(79". ,eaning /0 occu$s a& &he beginning o( sen&ences
&o indica&e a passage o( &ime2 ’“”# Ga(&e$ &h$ee yea$s wen& byH8 ’:º# -a(&e$ a
mon&h wen& by-8 and so (o$&h. 9adical DD (Q".
0M0. “ ,2 sKn 52 san ø<# mitsu m¼ 62 sam ù 2 sKam
Th$ee8 &hi$d8 &h$ee &imes.
9adical 1 (:".
0M1. ” ,2 nicn 52 nen |<# toshi Q# 62 nyeon - 2 n:hn
9adical F1 (®# Gshield#H G&o opposeH".
0M0. " ,2 7:n 52 shin 1< 62 7in € 2 7eun
The s&a&e o( 5in.
C la$ge# p$e-impe$ial s&a&e# 5in occupied &he mode$n p$o*inces o( Nhan)i and ?enan
¯°. +n &he (i(&h cen&u$y B..!.# 5in spli& apa$& in&o &h$ee s&a&es# one o( which was 趙
(1M9". 9adical 70(â".
0M1. • ,2 wAi 52 i +# kakomu nt@ 62 wi „ 2 wLih
1. To su$$ound# &o besiege. <
0. ?and-span (measu$emen& o( ci$cum(e$ence".
,eaning /0 $e(e$s &o &he habi& o( 7udging &he ci$cum(e$ence o( a $ound ob7ec& by
using &he leng&h o( an e)&ended hand# ($om &ip o( li&&le (inge$ &o &ip o( &humb# as a
uni& o( measu$e. 9adical 11 (`".
1D1a. ¾² ,2 w\ng sh[ 52 ;7i I>p 62 wang si á시 2 whhng s:h
The pas&# in &he pas&.
0MD. – ,2 )iKng (1"8 )iLng (0-1" 52 s; ÷)# sh; 1()# ai D, 62 sang š 2
sUung(1"# seung(0-1"
1. ,u&ually# each o&he$. <
0. Yo*e$nmen& minis&e$8 &o se$*e Ba s&a&eE as a go*e$nmen& minis&e$.
1. Ohysiognomy8 (a&e# (o$&une# good (o$&une.
The ad*e$b (meaning /1" is mos& common# &hough meaning /0 is encoun&e$ed
($eTuen&ly in his&o$ical w$i&ing. ombining &his cha$ac&e$ wi&h &he pa&&e$n discussed
in 0F0# &he e)p$ession –‹w means G&hey add$essed each o&he$# sayinge.H (see
also 10.1". 9adical 109 (目".
0M — ,2 Un 52 on =< 62 eun ± 2 yKn
Y$ace# (a*o$# %indness# me$cy.
This cha$ac&e$ is o(&en used (o$ &he (a*o$s bes&owed by &he $ule$ on his people. —
is commonly used &o $e(e$ &o &he $epaymen& (o$ such g$a&i&ude &ha& a sub7ec&
unde$&a%es. 9adical M1 (心".
0MM. ˜ ,2 yP 52 i + 62 ui ì 2 y[h
B.inal pa$&icle2 indica&es emphasis o$ comple&ion o( an ac&ion.E
=o&e &ha& L(0D7-0" can se$*e &he same pu$pose. 9adical 111 (&".
0M7. ™ ,2 su: 52 sui V+# togeru QX$# tsui ni ¼,½ 62 su W 2 seuih
1. Then# &he$eupon. <
0. To (ollow# &o pu$sue.
>i&h 因 (19M-1" and 於是(11a Lesson M"# ™ is one o( &he mos& common wo$ds
indica&ing &he &empo$al seTuence o( e*en&s. 9adical 1M0 (Ô".
0M8. š ,2 %u: 52 %ai S+# tsubusu ¼Ýd# tsubureru ¼ÝJ$# tsuiyasu ¼,ád 62
gwe ² 2 %Ji
To sca&&e$# &o des&$oy8 &o be sca&&e$ed# &o be des&$oyed.
9adical 8F (ó".
0M9. › ,2 3J (1-1"8 cI (D"8 cu: (F" 52 so&su ÷é# sossuru Çcd$# tsui ni ¼,½
62 7ol ³ 2 7Uu& (1-1"8 seuih(D-F"8
1. .inally# in &he end.<
0. To die.
1. .oo& soldie$.
D. ?as&ily (used as a subs&i&u&e (o$ ´8 see Lesson 0D (o$ an e)ample".
F. To c$owd# &o &h$ong (used as a subs&i&u&e (o$ µ8 see Lesson 11 (o$ an e)ample".
,eanings /0 and /1 a$e Tui&e common# &hough &hey a$e no& encoun&e$ed in ou$
&e)&s. Synonym (meaning /1"2’(11". 9adical 0D (ž".
070. œ ,2 shZng 52 sh; 1()# katsu n¼# masaru ••$# sugureru dýJ$ 62
seung ¶ 2 sing
To &$iumph o*e$# &o de(ea&8 &o be supe$io$ &o8 *ic&o$y.
9adical 19 (à".
071. • ,2 huS 52 %a%u Sa# eru h$# uru >$ 62 hoe% · 2 woh%
To ca&ch# &o ob&ain.
Synonym2 得(11". Clso# li%e 得# • can be used wi&h ano&he$ *e$b# G&o be able &oe.H
9adical 9D (ê".
MFa. °i ,2 hu: g;ng 52 %ei %; ú,t> 62 hye gong þŒ 2 waih gWng
Ru%e ?ui (o( 5in "8 $. MF0-M17 B..!.".
8.1. ausa&i*es wi&h double ob7ec&s2 +n D.1# we saw &ha& some&imes *e$bs can be
used causa&i*ely—i·”# G&he du%e had him d$in%.- +n F.1# we saw &ha& ½ could be
used &o c$ea&e a Gpi*o&H s&$uc&u$e—i½”tl# G&he du%e caused him &oVmade him
d$in% ale.- +n line 1 o( &his lessonQs &e)&# we see — ·”l which shows &ha& &he
causa&i*e use can &a%e a Gdouble ob7ec&-—-had &hem d$in% ale.-
8.0. Nupp$essed co*e$b-ob7ec&s2 +n 1.F# 1.M# and D.0# we saw how -co*e$bs- (in &hose
cases# 以 and 爲" (unc&ioned&hey usually come be(o$e &he main *e$b (&hough
some&imes a(&e$8 see 1.M" and a$e (ollowed by a -co*e$b-ob7ec&-2
î以׉i。The ho$se %illed &he du%e wi&h i&s hoo(s (li&.# G(ee&H".
簡Ž•¼¨以!。+& is wi&h an a$my &ha& ^iscoun& 5ian besieges &he s&a&e o( Lu.
…i爲兵‰î。Ru%e ,u %illed &he ho$ses (o$ &he sa%e o( his &$oops.
+n each o( &hese sen&ences# &he co*e$b is (ollowed by i&s ob7ec&2 ×# !# 兵.
+( &he co*e$b-ob7ec& is unde$s&ood# one migh& &hin% &ha& i& would be $eplaced by &he
ob7ec& p$onoun ”—and &ha& does happen2
兵不得•,…i爲”‰#î。The &$oops we$e unable &o ea&# so Ru%e ,u %illed &he ho$ses
(o$ &hem.
?owe*e$# i& is much mo$e &ypical (o$ &he co*e$b-ob7ec& &o disappea$ al&oge&he$# &o
be -supp$essed-2
î€×,以‰i。The ho$se pu& ou& i&s hoo(s and %illed &he du%e wi&h &hem.
簡Žr兵,以•¼¨。^iscoun& 5ian $aised &$oops and besieged &he s&a&e o( Lu wi&h
'&he$ e)amples2
Ž(•-,吾爲•”。aou lo*e &o ea& (ish8 +Qll ca&ch &hem (o$ you.
iÃ¥¦,以ª¨¬。The du%e cul&i*a&es %indness and 7us&ice and by means o( &hem
go*e$ns &he people.
=ow loo% a& &wo sen&ences ($om ou$ lesson &e)&2
…i›得以解¡œ"2 Ru%e ,u in &he end was able &o by means o( i&e(By means of
what( )igure it out from the conte%t."
•°i以&2 ?e cap&u$ed Ru%e ?ui and by means o( &ha& $e&u$ned. ?e$e# &he ac&ion o(
cap&u$ing p$o*ides &he p$econdi&ion (o$ his $e&u$n.
8.1. Nupp$ession o( co*e$b-ob7ec&s and 以# Hin o$de$ &o-2 +n Lesson D# we saw a new
use o( 以# Gin o$de$ &oH2
hirs以t”。Ru%e ?uan $aised his cup in o$de$ &o ha*e him d$in%.
This usage may in (ac& ha*e de*eloped ou& o( &he -supp$ession o( &he co*e$b.- +n
(ac&# &hese &wo &ypes o( sen&ences a$e *e$y close in meaning2
î€×,以‰i。The ho$se pu& ou& i&s hoo(s and %illed &he du%e wi&h &hem.
î€×以‰i。The ho$se pu& ou& i&s hoo(s in o$de$ &o %ill &he du%e.
簡Žr兵,以•¼¨。,as&e$ 5ian $aised &$oops and wi&h &hem besieged Lu.
簡Žr兵以•¼¨。,as&e$ 5ian $aised &$oops in o$de$ &o besiege Lu.
The sen&ences a$e almos& &he same# and in (ac& i& may *e$y well be &ha& a hinese
$eade$ in ea$ly &imes would no& ma%e a clea$ dis&inc&ion be&ween &he &wo. ?owe*e$#
one migh& claim &ha& i( 以 is in&e$p$e&ed as a co*e$b# &hen &he ac&ion e)p$essed in
&he second pa$& o( &he sen&ence has al$eady occu$$ed# o$ is al$eady occu$$ing—&he
ho$se has %illed &he du%e# and ,as&e$ 5ian has besieged Lu. >hen 以 is in&e$p$e&ed
as Gin o$de$ &o#H &hen &he second pa$& o( &he sen&ence only e)p$esses in&en&ion. >e
donQ& %now i( &he ac&ions we$e ca$$ied ou&.
,ode$n punc&ua&ion o(&en (bu& no& always" dis&inguishes be&ween &he &wo %inds o(
sen&ences by pu&&ing a comma in co*e$b sen&ences. Bu&# &his $ule is no& always
(ollowed—in *e$y sho$& sen&ences# (o$ e)ample. +n ou$ lesson &e)&# we ha*e •°i以
&. Because i& is clea$ &ha& &he du%e has indeed success(ully $e&u$ned# we ha*e a
co*e$b wi&h supp$essed ob7ec&# e*en &hough &he sen&ence is no& punc&ua&ed as •°
O9CT+!2 T$ansla&e &he (ollowing (do each sen&ence &wo waysrwi&h a co*e$b
in&e$p$ej&a&ion and wi&h an Gin o$de$ &oH in&e$p$e&a&ion"2
1. f還îM,j以½¬(f。
0. 爲善”•)己jM,j以聽諫。
O9CT+!2 Ou& &he (ollowing in&o li&e$a$y hinese2
1. on(ucius said &o &he du%e# G+( ho$ses (ea$ each o&he$# &hen (É" &hey will (lee.-
0. The soldie$s (inally succeeded in a&&ac%ing Lu# and# by means o( &ha&# &hey %illed
&he + $ule$ who was s&$umming a ha$p.
1. To de(ea& &he a$my and b$ea% &he siege—&his is wha& + hope (o$.
D. Cl&hough &he men &oge&he$ a&e &he ho$se# + was 7us& &hen (_" ashamed o( i&.
F. Ru%e ,u commanded &ha& i( &he$e we$e people who a&e his escaped ho$ses# he $
would %ill &hem one by one (li&.# Gin seTuence-".
M. >hy a$e &he people ashamedX They a$e unable &o $epay my lo$dQs %indness o( &he
7. The minis&e$s &oge&he$ planned# and by means o( &ha&# &hey sol*ed &he di((icul&y.
8. C(&e$ &h$ee yea$s wen& by# 5in immedia&ely sen& people &o p$esen& on(ucius wi&h
a ho$se. on(ucius said &o &hem# G+ ha*e los& a ho$se be(o$e8 + am unable &o *alue
&hem. Olease $e&u$n i& &o &he du%e.-
8.D. Oossible con(usions in y and y以 sen&ences2 +n line D# we ha*e &he ph$ase y以
€9•î得l”—˜. +n 7.1,we lea$ned abou& &he Gac&i*eH meaning o( y以8 &his use
is clea$ly implied he$e# wi&h &he &h$ee *e$bs G €9 go ou&# die# and $epay.H
9emembe$ &ha& &he o$iginal sense o( &his ph$ase is Gwe a$e usable &o go ou&# &o die#
and &o $epay#- wi&h &he sensible !nglish &$ansla&ion# -we can go ou&# die# and $epay.-
Cnd ye&# in such a sen&ence i&Qs no& unli%ely &ha& 以 is se$*ing a double pu$pose#
whe$eby i& indica&es an ac&i*e *e$b s&$uc&u$e on &he one hand# bu& a sepa$a&e ob7ec&
&ha& is Gsupp$essed,,on &he o&he$. +n &his case# &he ob7ec& would be &he siege o(
&he du%e# which p$o*ides &he oppo$&uni&y (o$ &he men &o ac&. The end $esul& would
&hus be# in aw%wa$d bu& li&e$al !nglish2 G>e a$e usable by means o( B&his
oppo$&uni&yE &o go ou&# &o die# and &o $epayH—&ha& is# -because o( &his# we can go
ou&# die# and $epay.-
9eade$s in ea$ly hina &ended &o *iew g$amma&ical s&$uc&u$es Tui&e (le)ibly#
especially when $eading Tuic%ly8 in such cases# 以 may ha*e $egis&e$ed in &he
consciousness in any numbe$ o( ways# p$o*iding in&e$p$e&a&ions whe$e*e$ $eTui$ed
and allowing (o$ *a$ious meanings.
Vocabulary 7ints
ha$ac&e$ Lis&
i. “‡Šœ›•†’L”Ž"•‰••–˜ð‹Œ™•î(0D"
ii. •—‘…õˆ(M"
i*. š(1"
Lesson 9
%i<i =ia Loses Favor
}Ë•。 •w:x(f}Ì0͈|θŽ¹ÏÐ}(Ñ,得罪於•。•w:x是Ćҽ吾
V$#A+ULA)* (!-/.!"
070. ¸ ,2 m[ 52 bi B# mi '# iya ,á 62 mi Ú 2 mZih
Nynonym2 ž(D7-1". ?e$e# ¸ is pa$& o( a &wo-cha$ac&e$ su$name. 9adical F7 (w".
071. ¹ ,2 )ic 52 %a S# kizu Y8 62 ha è 2 hLh
.law# blemish (usually applied &o (laws in gems o$ 7ewels".
?e$e# ¹ is a pe$sonal name. 9adical 9M (Ù".
070a. ¸Ž¹ ,2 m[ 3P )ic 52 bishi %a x#n 62 mi 7a ha Ú4è 2 mZih 7[ hLh
,i3i Xia (se)ual (a*o$i&e o( &he $ule$ o( º".
07D. º ,2 wZi 52 ei ;+ 62 wi „ 2 waih
1. >ei (a small s&a&e in p$e-impe$ial hina".<
0. Yua$ds# gua$dsmen.
9adical 1DD (š".
07F. » ,2 (\ 52 h; Š)# nori -q 62 beop Û 2 (aa&
9ule# law# cus&om.
+n Buddhis& &e)&s# &his cha$ac&e$ is used (o$ -dha$ma.- 9adical 8F (ó".
07M. ¼ ,2 TiZ 52 se&su Xé# nusumu dd@# hisoka PÇn 62 7eol ü 2 si&
1. Nec$e&ly# wi&hou& au&ho$i3a&ion.<
0. To s&eal
1. -+n my own humble waye#H Gin my humble opinion.H Bad*e$b ma%ing a modes&
asse$&ion by &he spea%e$E
9adical 11M (Ü# Gca*e#H GholeH".
077. ½ ,2 7iL 52 %a S# ga ï 62 ga ß 2 ga
To d$i*e a ca$$iage8 ca$$iage.
9adical 187 (î".
078. 車 ,2 7W 52 sha 12# kuruma y$• 62 cha ä# geo T 2 gUui
a$&# ca$$iage# cha$io&.
=o&e &he classical G$eading p$onuncia&ionH in ,anda$in. 9adical 1F9 (車"g
079. ¾ ,2 yuZ 52 ge&su Ïé 62 wol Ý 2 yuh&
u&&ing o(( &he (ee& (a (o$m o(punishmen&".
This cha$ac&e$ is one o( a se$ies o( cha$ac&e$s &ha& indica&e *a$ious (o$ms o( penal
ampu&a&ion. aou wonQ& encoun&e$ i& *e$y o(&en. 9adical 18 (ü".
080. ¿ ,2 ml 52 bo ボ# haha はは 62 mo 모 2 mhuh
9adical 80 (Ê".
081 À ,2 7[ 52 shi&su 1é# tokku Qcy# hayai はá,# yamashii á•#, 62 7il Þ
2 7ah&
1. Nic%8 illness8 ache# aching# so$e. <
0. Nwi(&8 $apidly.
1. To c$i&ici3e# &o ha&e.
,eaning /0 is Tui&e common# bu& i& does no& appea$ in ou$ &e)&s. 9adical 10D (ß#
080 Á ,2 yZ 52 ya z# yo ‡# yoru ‡$ 62 ya ñ 2 yeh
=igh&8 a& nigh&8 nigh&ly.
9adical 1M (à# -e*ening-".
081. Â ,2 gLo 52 %o%u Ga# tsugeru ¼X$ 62 go Y 2 gou
To announce# &o $eTues&8 announcemen&. 9adical 10 (0".
08D. Ã ,2 shLn 52 sen X<# hoshiimama b#,•• 62 cheon E 2 sihn
To monopoli3e# &o usu$p8 (o$ ones own use8 sel(ishly.
9adical MD (.".
08F. Ä ,2 gI 52 %o G# yue Äh 62 go Y 2 gu
1. 9eason8 conseTuen&ly# delibe$a&ely8 delibe$a&e ac&ion.<
0. O$e*iously# be(o$e# in &he pas&8 p$eceden&# consis&ency.
.o$ a discussion o( meaning /1# see 9.F below. Basically# &he cha$ac&e$Qs *a$ious
uses (all in&o &wo ca&ego$ies2 meanings $ela&ed &o $eason and delibe$a&ion (/1"# and
meanings $ela&ed &o pas& ac&ion and p$eceden& (/0". 9adical MM (á".
08M. Å ,2 (Ln 52 bon ボ<# han ハ<# okasu Ind 62 beom â 2 (aahn
To commi& a c$ime# &o *iola&e# &o sin agains&8 o((ense# c$ime.
Oa$&ial synonym2 罪 (177". 9adical 9D (ê".
087. Æ ,2 yhu 52 yW ¸)# yu ¸# asobu DÇÝ# asobi DÇx 62 yu ¹ 2 yLuh
To &$a*el abou&# &o ha*e (un# &o play# &o associa&e Bwi&h ($iendsE.
This cha$ac&e$ can $e(e$ &o child$en playing o$ &o adul&s ha*ing (un o$ Ghanging ou&.H
Nome&imes i&Qs di((icul& &o (ind an app$op$ia&e !nglish eTui*alen&. 9adical 1M0 (Ô".
088. Ç ,2 gub 52 %a S# hatasu はƒd# hateru は\$# hatashite はƒ#\ 62 gwa
ã 2 gwh
.$ui&8 &o pan ou&# &o $esul&8 as e)pec&ed.
-.$ui&- was &he o$iginal meaning o( &he cha$ac&e$ (G($ui&H is now usually w$i&&en ä".
The mo$e abs&$ac& meanings de*eloped ($om &he idea o( some&hing -coming &o
($ui&ion.- 9adical 7F (木".
089. È ,2 yucn 52 en ;<# sono Ç- 62 won B 2 yIhn
>ha& would be &he bes& &$ansla&ion o( ÇÈ in !nglishX 9adical 11 (`".
090. É ,2 &co 52 &; g)# momo 33 62 do z 2 &Suh
Oeach# peach &$ee# peach blossom.
9adical 7F (木".
091. Ê ,2 gKn 52 %an S<# amaeru D•h$# amai D•, 62 gam ) 2 gKm
Nwee&8 &o be swee&8 &o (ind swee&8 &o spoil Ba childE8 &o indulge.
9adical 99 (Ê".
090. Ë ,2 (Zng 52 h; Š)# bu ù# tatematsuru ƒ\•¼$ 62 bong å 2 (uhng
1. To o((e$ B&o a supe$io$E# &o accep& B($om a supe$io$E. <
0. Ne$*ice# a&&endance.
=o&e &ha& in meaning /1 &his cha$ac&e$ can $ep$esen& bo&h gi*ing and $ecei*ing8 &he
impo$j&an& issue is &he in(e$io$ social s&a&us o( &he sub7ec&. 9adical 17 (F".
091. Ì ,2 wLng 52 b; ボ)# wasureru TdJ$ 62 mang 2 2 mShng
To (o$ge&.
9adical M1 (心".
09D. 0 ,2 %bu 52 %u a# %; G)# %uchi y. 62 gu ’ 2 hcu
,ou&h# opening.
This cha$ac&e$ can also be used as a measu$e wo$d (o$ people (li%e Gmany mou&hs
&o (eed- in !nglish". 9adical 10 (0".
09F. Í ,2 wZi 52 mi '# ajiwau DpT># ajiwai DpT, 62 mi 2 mAi
Tas&e8 &o &as&e.
9adical 10 (`".
09M. Î ,2 7[ 52 %yW H»)# oyobosu I‡ぼd# oyobu I‡Ý# oyobi I‡x 62 geup
æ 2 %ahp
1. To $each &o# &o e)&end &od &o come up &o Bin Tuali&y# abili&y# o$ *i$&ueE.
0. >hen &he &ime came &ha&. . . .<
1. Cnd (connec&s nouns only".
This is a *e$y common cha$ac&e$# wi&h a wide $ange o( meanings. Cs a con7unc&ion#
i& can only connec& nouns (li%e
B191-1E". *artial synonym2 q (11D" 9adical 09 (又".
097. Ï ,2 sZ 52 sho%u 1(a# shi%i 1H# iro ,u 62 sae% ç 2 s4%
olo$# a&&$ac&i*eness# su$(ace appea$ance8 (acial e)p$ession8 se)uali&y.
This cha$ac&e$ is signi(ican& in hinese &hough&—i& $ep$esen&s &he o(&en epheme$al
o$ decep&i*e e)&e$nal appea$ance o( &hings. 9adical 119 (Ï".
098. Ð ,2 shuKi 52 sui V+# otoroeru IQuh$ 62 soe è 2 sUui
To wi&he$# &o decline# &o wane# &o wea%en.
9adical 1DF (¹".
099. Ñ ,2 ch[ 52 chi "# shi 1# &a$umu ƒ$@# &ayumu ƒÄ@ 62 i s 2 ch:h
To g$ow slac%# &o g$ow wea%.
This cha$ac&e$ has &he GbowH componen& (w"8 i& o$iginally applied &o a bows&$ing
going slac%. 9adical F7 (w".
11a. 得罪於 ,2 dA 3u: yJ 52 tsumi wo + ni uru ¼mé+½>$ 62 deu% 7oe eo i+
] 2 dK% 7euih yW
To o((end (li&.# G&o ob&ain a c$ime in $ela&ion &oH".
The ph$ase as used in &his lessonQs &e)& does no& necessa$ily imply &ha& an ac&ual
c$ime is commi&&ed8 in &his case# ,i3i Xia losing his loo%s was o((ensi*e enough &o
&he %ing.
100. Ò ,2 7ico 52 %y; H() 62 gyo ê 2 g[u
To (alsi(y# &o (a%e# &o p$e&end# &o (o$ge8 (alsely# unde$ (alse p$e&enses.
9adical 111 (&".
101. Ó ,2 yJ 52 yo `# amari D•q# amaru D•$ 62 yeo ª 2 yIh
Le(&o*e$# $emaining# e)&$a. 9adical 18D (•".
100. Ô ,2 wZi 52 mi '# imada ,•À 62 mi Ú 2 meih
=o& ye&# ne*e$.
This cha$ac&e$ is one o( &he mos& common nega&i*e ad*e$bs# second only &o
in ($eTuency. 9adical 7F (木".
101. Õ ,2 b: 52 hi&su æé# kanarazu n7?8 62 pil ë 2 b4&
To be necessa$y# &o ha*e &o8 necessa$ily.
5us& as in !nglish# Õ can $e(e$ &o necessi&y (-aou mus& do &his]-" as well as
p$edic&abili&y and specula&ion (-?e mus& ha*e done &his yes&e$day-". 9adical M1 (心".
100a. ÔÕ ,2 wZi b: 52 kanarazushimo -nai n7?8#3-7, 62 mi pil Úë 2
meih b4&
=o& necessa$ily# no& ine*i&ably# no& always.
不Õ is also common.
10D. Ö ,2 biLn 52 hen Û<# kawaru nT$# kaeru nh$ 62 byeon ì 2 bin
To change# &o al&e$8 change# al&e$a&ion8 disas&e$.
9adical 1D9 (•".
10F. × ,2 chW 52 sho 1(# hajime はpA# hatsu は¼ 62 cho í 2 ch;
Beginning8 ini&ially# ($om &he beginning# a& (i$s&# ea$lie$.
9adical 18 (ü".
10M. Ø ,2 Ticn 52 sen X<# 3en †<# mae •h 62 7eon û 2 ch:hn
.$on&# (o$me$ly# a& (i$s&8 &o come (o$wa$d# &o s&ep (o$wa$d.
=o&e &his cha$ac&e$Qs *e$bal usage# which is also Tui&e common. 9adical 18 (ü".
107. Ù ,2 3Ung 52 3; î)# nikumu ½y@ 62 seung Ú 2 7Kng
To ha&e# &o de&es&.
9adical M1 (心".
9.1. ul&u$al no&e2 +& was common (o$ $ule$s in ancien& hina &o %eep se)ual
(a*o$i&es# and such (a*o$i&es o(&en acTui$ed conside$able powe$ o*e$ poli&ical
policies. +& was also $a&he$ &ypical (o$ $ule$sQ &as&es &o $un &o &he bise)ual.
?omose)ual ac&i*i&y was no& ($owned on pe$ se8 $a&he$# philosophe$s and s&a&esmen
o(&en c$i&ici3ed $ule$sQ o*e$indulgence in se)ual ac&i*i&y in gene$al. This pa$&icula$
anecdo&eQs pu$pose is $eally &o s&$ess &he un$eliabili&y o( $oyal (a*o$ bes&owed on &he
basis o( physical a&&$ac&ion.
This s&o$y became one o( &he mos& (amous ea$ly s&o$ies o( homose)uali&y in &he
hinese &$adi&ion# and i& is o(&en alluded &o in la&e$ li&e$a&u$e. GTo be (ond o( &he
le(&o*e$ peach- became a %ind o( euphemism &o sugges& a pe$sonQs p$edilec&ions.
9.0. Oassi*e s&$uc&u$es wi&h 於2 +n 0.F# + discussed &he concep& o( &he Gpassi*e
*oice#- and + said &ha& li&e$a$y hinese had ce$&ain de(ini&e ways o( indica&ing i&.
?e$e is &he (i$s& one we ha*e (ound in any o( ou$ &e)&s2
Oassi*e sub7ec& _ passi*e *e$b _ _¶ _ ac&o$.
+n o&he$ wo$ds# 於 (ollows &he *e$b# &u$ns i& in&o a Gpassi*eH *e$b# and is (ollowed by
&he pe$son o$ &hing &ha& is ca$$ying ou& &he ac&ion. This means &ha& 於 should be
&$ansla&ed as -by- in &hese ci$cums&ances2
¸Ž¹(_¶º•。,i3i Xia was lo*ed by &he Lo$d o( >ei.
î•_¶ð人。The ho$se was ea&en by &he people o( iin.
iª¬}¬ª_¶i。The du%e go*e$ns &he people and &he people a$e go*e$ned by
&he du%e.
ÕŽ8_¶¸Ž。on(fcius was &$us&ed by meng3i.
Be ca$e(ul# &hough—7us& because a sen&ence has 於# i& doesnQ& mean &ha& &he
sen&ence will be passi*e. 'nly $ead i& passi*ely i( &ha& is &he in&e$p$e&a&ion &ha&
ma%es &he mos& sense.
9.1. Oassi*e s&$uc&u$es wi&h 見2 This is ye& ano&he$ way o( indica&ing &he passi*e
*oice. Nchola$s specula&e &ha& &his *e$b (-&o seeH B181E" came &o ha*e &his (unc&ion
($om &he idea &ha& ac&ions a$e seen &o &a%e place.
i見‰。The du%e was %illed.
Oe$haps &his &ype o( sen&ence s&a$&ed ou& wi&h s&$ess on &he obse$*a&ion o( &he
ac&ion2 GThe du%e was seen &o be %illed.H Noon# howe*e$# i& simply became a
g$amma&ical ma$%e$ (o$ &he passi*e *oice. aouQll p$obably (ind &his pa&&e$n annoying#
because youQll disco*e$ 見 mo$e o(&en in i&s simple$ *e$bal sense o( -&o see.- '&he$
The peach was ea&en8 &he bi$d was cap&u$ed8 &he ca$$iage was s&olen8 %indness was
(o$go&j&en8 &he siege was b$o%en.
=o&e &ha& &his pa&&e$n# unli%e &he one desc$ibed in 9.0# does no& allow &he w$i&e$ &o
e)p$ess who o$ wha& is ca$$ying ou& &he ac&ion. ?owe*e$# some&imes a w$i&e$ will
use bo&h pa&&e$ns i( he wan&s &o place special emphasis2
ÕŽ”•見'_¶天¢”4。on(uciusQ wo$ds a$e hono$ed by &he %nigh&s o( &he wo$ld.
O9CT+!2 Ou& &he (ollowing in&o li&e$a$y hinese# using whiche*e$ Gpassi*eH pa&&e$n
wo$%s (o$ &he sen&ence2
1. Bo aaQs ha$p was hea$d by his mo&he$.
0. The bi$d was %illed in &he (ield.
1. .ilial pie&y is p$ac&iced in &he s&a&e o( iin. D.1 once was abandoned by my uncle.
F. >hen &he s&a&e was a&&ac%ed,&he $ule$Qs ca$$iage was s&olen by &he &$oops.
M. The lonely husband was laughed a& by &he people o( mhao.
9.D. Ou&a&i*e *e$b usages2 +n D.1# + desc$ibed special -causa&i*e- *e$b uses2
itop。The du%e hadVmade Yuan mhong d$in%.
The$e is ano&he$ special usage o( *e$bs# called &he -pu&a&i*e- usage. This is mos&
common wi&h Gs&a&i*eH o$ ad7ec&i*e *e$bs (0.D". +n &his usage# &he sub7ec& Gimpu&esH
&he Tuali&ies o( &he *e$b &o some pe$son o$ &hing.
•Z¸Ž¹。The lo$d &hough& ,i3i Xia wo$&hy.
ÕŽ¡¸Ž。on(fcius (ound meng3i di((icul& (-&$oublesome-".
«ŽÆ„。C (ilial son pu&s his (a&he$ (i$s&.
Ou&a&i*e uses a$e no& a$bi&$a$y# and &hey &end &o occu$ mo$e wi&h ce$&ain *e$bs &han
wi&h o&he$s. aouQll ge& mo$e and mo$e used &o &hem as you encoun&e$ &hem.
Nome&imes pu&a&i*e usage becomes 7us& as common as &he Go$iginalH usage. .o$
e)ample# '(81" became so common in i&s pu&a&i*e sense (-&o conside$ *aluable- n
G&o *alue# &o es&eem-" &ha& $eade$s p$obably no longe$ sense &ha& i& $ep$esen&s a
special usage.
=o&e &he way &ha& &he pu&a&i*e use combines wi&h &he passi*e pa&&e$n o( 9.1 in &he
ph$ases in line M o( ou$ lesson &e)&2
G Ø見Z,¤•罪者 The (ac& &ha& he was (o$me$ly conside$ed &o be wo$&hy and
a(&e$wa$ds $ecei*ed punishmen&e.H
9.F. ^a$ious usages o( Ä2 This is p$obably &he mos& common cha$ac&e$ in li&e$a$y
hinese &ha& indica&es $eason o$ mo&i*e. '(&en i& can simply be used as an ad*e$b#
indica&ing Gdelibe$a&elyH o$ Gwi&h a pu$pose.- +n line F o( &his lessonQs &e)&# we ha*e
&he ph$ase 是Ä†Ò ½吾車# whe$e 是 is used as a $ude p$onoun2 GThis B(ellowE
delibe$a&ely once d$o*e my ca$$iage unde$ (alse p$e&enses.-
The$e a$e mo$e impo$&an& e)amples o( Ä# howe*e$8 &his lesson gi*es &wo o( &hem2
H 爲¿”Ä,ž罪M。 .o$ &he $eason o( his mo&he$# he commi&&ed a (oo&- chopping
+n &his pa$&icula$ use o( &he pa&&e$n 爲X(”"Ä# 爲 is ope$a&ing in i&s co*e$b (unc&ion#
G(o$ &he $eason o(Q (bu& may also be implying &he sense G(o$ &he sa%e o(Q". ïð is &he
ob7ec& o( &he co*e$b# modi(ied by Gmo&he$.,,!*en mo$e common is &he pa&&e$n 以
X G ” ï*, by means o( &he $eason o( X.- +& is mo$e o$ less iden&ical in meaning &o
&he (o$me$ pa&&e$n2
以š¥”Ä,ÕŽÆ於g。.o$ &he $eason o( p$ac&icing bene*olence# on(ucius &$a*eled
&o ii.
以¸Ž¹ÏДÄ,•Ù”。.o$ &he $eason &ha& ,i3i Xiads beau&y (aded# &he lo$d ha&ed
The second common use o( Ä is &o indica&e conseTuence o( an ac&ion o$ e*en&8 i&
occu$s a& &he beginning o( a ph$ase and is &$ansla&ed as -conseTuen&ly- o$
-&he$e(o$e.- Nome&imes Ä will occu$ as &he beginning o( &he au&ho$Qs summa&ion o(
&he mo$al o$ conseTuences o( &he s&o$y8 when &he au&ho$ o( &he lesson &e)& abo*e
w$i&es Ä in &he middle o( line F# he means G&he$e(o$e# we can say &ha&eH o$
-&he$e(o$e# &he mo$al is e.H
O9CT+!2 T$ansla&e &he (ollowing2
1. 以ó,”Ä,-.”。
0. ó,,Ä-.”。
1. -.ó者,ó,Ò。
D. 以不欲€•”Ä,opuvl。
F. op不欲€•,Äuvl。
M. opuvl者,不欲€•Ò。
7. 以•¿À”Ä,¸Ž¹ÏÐ。
8. ¸Ž¹•¿À,ÄÏÐ。
9. ¸Ž¹ÏÐ者,•¿ÀÒo
10. 以JŽm不Å聽I”Ä,FGU”。
11. JŽm不Å聽I,ÄFGU”。
10. FGUI者,JŽm不Å聽”Ò。
Vocabulary 7ints
M(01M"•(0F0-1 and 0F0-0"`(01F"是(009"吾(001"
#haracter List
ii. ÍÈÉÅÒ¼(M"
iii. Ññù(D"
Lesson 1.
&nvironment6 'ot 7eredity
=o&e2 Though &his s&o$y does occu$ in d 劉向 s 說苑# + ha*e decided &o use an ea$lie$
*e$sion o( &he na$$a&i*e he$e# (ound in &he òŽ春秋# HThe Cnnals o( ,as&e$ aan.H
V$#A+ULA)* (/.,-/04"
108. ò ,2 yLn 52 an ア< 62 an 안 2 aan
1. lea$8 peace(ul# Tuie&.
0. aan. Ba su$nameE<
aou will (ind &his cha$ac&e$ mos& o(&en used as a su$name. 9adical 70 (â".
108a òŽ ,2 yLn 3P 52 anshi D·# 62 an 7a 안4 2 aan 7[
,as&e$ aan.
C (amous hinese s&a&esman. ?e was ac&i*e in &he la&e si)&h cen&u$y B..!. Cs we
shall see la&e$ in &he lesson &e)&# his pe$sonal name was ÷.
109. ó ,2 7iKng (1-0"8 7iLng (1" 52 sh; 1()# masa ni ••½ 62 7ang 장 2
7Uung (1-0"8 7eung (1"
1. Cbou& &o (ma$%s &he (u&u$e &ense o$ in&en&ion". <
0. To lead,&o b$ing# &o &a%e wi&h one# &o wea$.
1. Yene$al# commande$8 &o command# &o lead.
This is a *e$y common cha$ac&e$8 in meaning /1# i& is used as an ad*e$b &o ma$% a
(u&u$e &ense (and hence# can be synonymous wi&h 當B187-0E". 9adical D1 (|".
110. ô ,2 chl 52 so ÷ 62 cho í 2 chh
The s&a&e o( hu.
hu was a pa$&icula$ly la$ge s&a&e# cen&e$ing a$ound &he mode$n p$o*ince o( ?ubei
+& possessed a dis&inc&i*ely -sou&he$n- cul&u$e o(&en a& odds wi&h &he cul&u$e o( &he
aellow 9i*e$ plain. 9adical 7F (木".
111. µ ,2 wcng (1"8 wLng (0" 52 ; =)# kimi Ym 62 wang á 2 wShng (1"8
wohng (0"
1. 6ing# p$ince. <
0. To &a%e &he &h$one# &o decla$e onesel( %ing# &o $ule as a %ing.
=o&e &ha& &he $ule$s o( ô had al$eady Gusu$ped- &he &i&le o( %ing (see D.1". They had
been calling &hemsel*es G%ingH since 70M B..!. +n impe$ial &imes# empe$o$s
gene$ally g$an&ed &he males o( &hei$ (amily &he &i&le o( µ8 in such cases# i& is
cus&oma$y &o &$ansla&e &hei$ &i&les as -p$ince- $a&he$ &han G%ingH 9adical 9M (Ù".
110. õ ,2 3ub 52 sa ø# hidari PÀq 62 7wa ° 2 7h
9adical D8 (工# Ga$&isan#H -manu(ac&u$e-".
111. ö ,2 ySu 52 yW ¸)# u )# migi mÿ 62 u Æ 2 yauh
9adical 10 (0".
110a. õö ,2 3ub ySu 52 sayW •Ä> 62 7wa u °Æ 2 7h yauh
9e&aine$s# cou$&ie$s.
This common &e$m (o$ &he $ule$Qs suppo$&e$s ob*iously de$i*es ($om i&s loca&ional
meaning 7 (li&.# GBpeopleE &o &he le(& and $igh&-".
11D. ÷ ,2 y4ng 52 ei ;+ 62 yeong ( 2 y4ng
1. Baby# in(an&.
0. To su$$ound# &o enclose.
This cha$ac&e$ is (ai$ly obscu$e8 he$e# i& is used as a pe$sonal name. 9adical 18 («".
11F. ø ,2 )[ 52 shW 1»)# narau 7?># narai 7?, 62 seup 습 2 7aahp
To p$ac&ice# &o s&udy8 &o be &ho$oughly (amilia$ wi&h o$ p$ac&iced in8 habi&# $ou&ine.
9adical 10D (羽# G(ea&he$H".
11M. ù ,2 c[ 52 7i N# jisuru pd$# inamu ,7@ 62 sa D 2 ch:h
1. >o$ds# dic&ion# language8 $he&o$ic# o$a&o$y# speech ma%ing.<
0. To &a%e lea*e o(# &o say goodbye &o.
1. To $e(use# &o $e7ec&.
9adical 1M0 (辛# Gbi&&e$H".
117. ú ,2 lci 52 $ai `+# kuru y$ 62 lae 5# nae 래 2 lSih
To come.
9adical 9 (人".
118. û ,2 $l 52 7o%u N(a# hazukashimeru は8n#A$# haji はp 62 yo% e 2
To humilia&e8 humilia&ion.
9adical 1M1 (辰".
18Da. 何以 ,2 hA yP 52 nani wo motte 7½é3c\ 62 ha i ès 2 hSh y[h
>i&h wha&# how. BTues&ion wo$dE
Cno&he$ in*e$&ed Tues&ion ph$ase (F.M"2 Gby means o( wha&XH +& is p$obably &he mos&
commonly used o( such ph$ases.
119. ü ,2 (I 52 ba%u ;a# shiba$u #Û$ 62 ba% 박 2 bo%
To &ie up# &o bind.
9adical 100 (¿".
100. ý ,2 guS 52 %a S# sugiru dÿ$# ayamatsu Dᕼ# ayamachi Dá•.#
sugiru dÿ$# e&c. 62 gwa ã 2 gwo
1. To pass by# &o c$oss. <
0. !$$o$# mis&a%e# indisc$e&ion8 &o ma%e a mis&a%e# &o be in e$$o$.
1. To su$pass8 &o go &o e)cess# &o go &oo (a$.
9adical 1M0 (定".
101. þ ,2 dLo 52 &; g)# nusumu dd@ 62 do z 2 douh
To $ob# &o s&eal8 $obbe$y.
9adical 108 (0".
100. ÿ ,2 hKn 52 %an S<# takenawa ƒú7T 62 gam ) 2 hLhm
1. Oleasan&ly d$un%# &ipsy8 a& &he heigh& o( &he pa$&y. <
0. To be a& &he g$ea&es& le*el o( in&ensi&y.
Yene$ally spea%ing# &his wo$d is used in ea$ly &e)&s mos& o(&en in &he ph$ase lÿ#
which usually means Gwhen &he pa$&y was unde$ way#H Gwhen e*e$yone was $ela)ed
($om d$in%ing.- Re$i*ing ($om &his usage# &he cha$ac&e$ can also apply &o an e*en& o$
p$ocess a& i&s momen& o( g$ea&es& powe$ o$ e)&en&. .o$ e)ample2ÿ# Gin &he hea& o(
ba&&le.H 9adical 1MD (”".
101. 吏 ,2 l: 52 $i × 62 li Ø i s 2 leih
Cn o((icial# a cle$%# a policeman o$ gua$d.
Cl&hough &his cha$ac&e$ can be used as a gene$al &e$m (o$ o((icials# i& mos& o(&en
$e(e$s &o low-$an%ing (unc&iona$ies employed in go*e$nmen& o((ices o$ in &he palace.
9adical 10 (`".
10D. [ ,2 Z$ 52 ni O# futatsu ¬ƒ¼ 62 i s 2 yih
Two8 &wice8 second.
9adical 7 ([".
10F. 詣 ,2 y: 52 %ei ñ+# keisuru ú,d$# m!deru 3>¥$# itaru ,ƒ$ 62 ye b
2 ngaih
To go &o# &o *isi&# &o call on Busually a supe$io$E.
+n 5apan# &his meaning came &o be associa&ed especially wi&h pilg$images and *isi&s
&o sh$ines and &emples. 9adical 1D9 (•".
10M. 曷 ,2 hZ 52 %a S# nani 7½# dore ZJ# e&c. 62 gal ! 2 ho&
>ha&# how# why. BTues&ion wo$dE
This cha$ac&e$ seems &o be a *a$ian& o( &he common Tues&ion wo$d 何(18D"# &hough
schola$s a$enQ& su$e abou& &he o$iginal di((e$ences be&ween &he meanings o( &he &wo
cha$ac&e$s. 9adical 71 (w".
107. 視 ,2 sh: 52 shi 1# miru m$ 62 si 시 2 sih
To loo% a&# &o see# &o obse$*e.
9adical 1D7 (見".
108. 固 ,2 gI 52 %o G# katamaru nƒ•$# katameru nƒA$# katai nƒ, 62 go
Y 2 gu
1. Re(ini&ely# assu$edly. <
0. N&ubbo$nly8 (i$m# unyielding.
Nome&imes w$i&e$s will use Ä (08F" as a subs&i&u&e (o$ &his cha$ac&e$. 9adical 11 (0".
109. 避 ,2 b: 52 hi æ# yokeru ‡ú$# sakeru •ú$ 62 pi - 2 beih
To a*oid# &o a*e$&,&o e*ade# &o hide ($om.
9adical 1M0 (定".
110. 席 ,2 )[ 52 se%i XH# mushiro @#u 62 seo% " 2 7ih%
N&$aw ma& ((o$ si&&ing"# place# sea& Ba& a banTue& o$ o&he$ (o$mal occasionE.
9adical F1 (ß# G&$ailing hempH".
109a. 避席 ,2 b: )[ 52 seki o sakeru •YI•ú$ 62 pi seo% -" 2 beih 7ih%
To mo*e bac%wa$d on oneQs ma& (ou& o( poli&eness".
This se& &e$m can be (ound be(o$e a desc$ip&ion o( someone spea%ing &o a supe$io$
a& a banTue& o$ mee&ing8 &he spea%e$ mo*es bac%wa$d b$ie(ly# Ga*oiding his sea&#H
in o$de$ &o show $espec& (o$ &he add$essee.
111. 橘 ,2 7J 52 %i&su Hé# tachibana ƒ.Û7 62 gyul # 2 gwK&
,anda$in o$ange B&$eeE.
9adical 7F (木".
110. 淮 ,2 huci 52 wai $+ 62 hoe % 2 wLaih
The ?uai 9i*e$.
'ne o( &he ma7o$ $i*e$s o( hina# i& (lows pa$allel &o and be&ween &he aellow and
aang&3e 9i*e$s. 9adical 8F (ó".
111. ° ,2 ncn 52 nan å<# minami m7m 62 nam & 2 nLahm
Nou&h8 sou&he$n.
9adical 0D (ž".
11D. 北 ,2 b@i 52 ho%u Ša# kita Yƒ 62 bu% ' 2 bK%
=o$&h8 no$&he$n.
9adical 01 ((# GspoonH".
11F. 枳 ,2 3hP 52 shi 1# karatachi n?ƒ. 62 7i % 2 7[
The 3hi ($ui& (a %ind o( bi&&e$# medicinal o$ange# wi&h &hic% s%in"8 &he 3hi &$ee.
9adical 7F (木".
11M. 葉 ,2 yZ 52 y; `)# ha は 62 yeop ) 2 yihp
Lea( Bo( a &$eeE.
9adical 1D0 (=".
117. 徒 ,2 z 52 &o g# ada DÀ# itazura ,ƒ8?# tada ƒÀ# muda @À 62 do z
2 &Suh
1. 'nly# me$ely. <
0. +n *ain# uselessly.
1. Risciple8 (ollowe$8 (oo& soldie$.
D. BNu((i) (o$ one who engages in a ce$&ain occupa&ion o$ pas&ime8 (o$ e)ample2*徒#
=o&e &ha& &he meanings o( &his cha$ac&e$ b$oadly di*ide be&ween ad*e$bial (/1 and
/0" and noun (/1 and /D" uses. 9adical M0 (k".
118. 似 ,2 s: 52 7i N# niru ½$ 62 sa D 2 ch[h
To $esemble# &o imi&a&e.
9adical 9 (人".
119. 實 ,2 sh[ 52 7i&su p¼# mi m# minoru m-$# makoto •tQ 62 sil ê 2 sah&
1. .$ui&8 &o bea$ ($ui&. <
0. T$u&h# $eali&y8 solid,subs&an&ial# $eal.
1. 9eally# &$uly.
D. ?ones&# since$e.;
The *a$ious meanings o( &his common cha$ac&e$ seem &o de$i*e ($om &he *ege&a&i*e
meaning o( -($ui&-8 in hinese philosophy and $he&o$ic# G($ui&H is o(&en con&$as&ed
me&apho$ically wi&h &he -less use(ul- p$oduc&s o( a &$ee# li%e lea*es and (lowe$s.
onseTuen&ly# 實 came &o ha*e a se$ies o( meanings &ied &o &he idea o(
Gsubs&an&ial#H -solid#- -$eal#- and hence# -&$ue#- Gsince$e#H and so (o$&h. 9adical D0
1D0. 同 ,2 &hng 52 d; Z># onaji I7p 62 dong + 2 &Ihng
Name# eTual8 &oge&he$8 &o sha$e.
9adical 10 (`".
78a. $以 ,2 sub yP 52 yuen Äh· 62 so i ‚s 2 sh y[h
The means by which# &he $eason whye.
.o$ de&ails# see 10.1.
1D1. Œ ,2 &l 52 &o g# do w# &suchi ¼. 62 &o , 2 &hu
!a$&h# soil# clay8 land# &e$$i&o$y.
Ro no& con(use &his cha$ac&e$ wi&h 4 (9M"] +n 4 &he &op line is longe$ &han &he
bo&&om line# bu& in Π&he bo&&om line is longe$. +( i& helps# &hin% o( &he longe$ bo&&om
line as symboli3ing &he g$ea&e$ impo$&ance o( &he g$ound and &he ea$&h. 9adical 10
1D0. 異 ,2 y: 52 i +# kotonaru tQ7$# ayashimu Dá#@ 62 i s 2 yih
1. Ri((e$en&8 di((e$ence. <
0. To di((e$en&ia&e# &o &ell apa$&.
1. N&$ange# peculia$# e)&$ao$dina$y.
D. To conside$ s&$ange.
Though all &he meanings o( &his cha$ac&e$ a$e $ela&ed (some&hing &oo -di((e$en&-
may seem -s&$ange-"# be ca$e(ul &o dis&inguish &he *a$ious usages—in pa$&icula$# &he
&wo *e$bs (meanings /0 and /D". 9adical 100 (O".
1D1. 長 ,2 3h\ng (1-0"8 chcng (1-D" 52 ch; "()# ch;7i$u .Î>p$# nagai 7Ñ,#
e&c. 62 7ang 장 2 7Aung (1-0"# chZuhng
1. To g$ow up.<
0. To p$eside o*e$# &o lead8 leade$.
1. Long.
D. Clways# cons&an&ly.
9adical 1M8 (長".
1DD. ^ ,2 yJ 52 u ) 62 u Æ 2 yIh
B,ul&ipu$pose p$eposi&ion.E
This cha$ac&e$ is used in&e$changeably wi&h 於(11". 9adical 7 ([# -&wo-".
11b. 得– ,2 dA wJ 52 Bno se& $ende$ingE 62 deu% mu iÉ 2 dK% mSuh
+ dond& suppose &ha&....Bidioma&ic Tues&ion ph$aseE
This ph$ase is used &o in&$oduce $he&o$ical Tues&ions.
1DF. 耶 ,2 yA 52 ya z# 7a N2# ya z# ka n 62 ya ñ 2 yZh
B.inal Tues&ion pa$&icle.E
fnli%e z# 耳is o(&en mild in &one and is ($eTuen&ly G$he&o$icalH—&ha& is# i& conceals
an asse$&ion o( (ac& $a&he$ &han poses a $eal Tues&ion. aou will p$obably mo$e o(&en
see &his cha$ac&e$ $eplaced by an al&e$na&i*e *e$sion# G(D01". 9adical 108 (耳".
10.1. ul&u$al no&e2 diploma&ic missions. +n &he mul&is&a&e sys&em o( p$e-impe$ial
hina# diplomacy was a well-de*eloped and sophis&ica&ed a$& (&he ancien& a$& o(
o$a&o$y la$gely de*eloped ou& o( i&". Because diplomacy was o(&en a ma&&e$ o( hono$#
a $ule$ could sco$e poin&s i( he succeeded in humilia&ing a &alen&ed diploma& o$
$ende$ing him speechless. This e)plains &he %ingQs eage$ness &o shame òŽ.
10.0. Tempo$al clauses and nominali3ing wi&h ”2 ?ow does li&e$a$y hinese indica&e
a &empo$al clauseX +n some cases (as you migh& e)pec& by now"# &he w$i&e$ will
lea*e i& up &o con&e)&. +n o&he$ cases# he migh& use &he pa&&e$n (當"X ”²:當桑”²#
Ga& &he &ime o( &he mulbe$$y ha$*es&- (see Lesson M".
?e$e# we ha*e a new way &o indica&e a &empo$al clause—simply end &he -when-
ph$ase wi&h an empha&ic Ò pa$&icle. Nome&imes you migh& -nominali3e- &he ph$ase
as well. >eQ*e al$eady seen how &o nominali3e a ph$ase wi&h 者 in 7.D. ?e$e#
howe*e$# nominali3a&ion is done in a di((e$en& way# which may $eTui$e some
ÕŽúnon(ucius comes ÕŽ”úÒnwhen on(ucius comes...
i伐鄰¨n&he du%e a&&ac%s a neighbo$ing s&a&e i”伐鄰¨Ònwhen &he du%ea&&ac%s
a neighbo$ing s&a&e...
µ/橘n&he %ing plan&s an o$ange &$ee µ”/橘Ònwhen &he %ing plan&s an o$ange
The s&anda$d pa&&e$n is &o inse$& a possessi*e ” pa$&icle in be&ween &he sub7ec& and
&he $es& o( &he sen&ence. >ha& w$i&e$s a$e $eally doing when &hey Gnominali3eH li%e
&his is &o pu& &he ac&ion a& &he ($on& o( &he sen&ence as a &opic (o$ discussion2 GCs (o$
on(uciusQ comingeH8 GCs (o$ &he du%eQs a&&ac%ing a neighbo$ing s&a&eeH8 and GCs
(o$ &he %ingQs plan&ing an o$ange &$ee ....H
The$e is ano&he$ de&ail o( &his so$& o( nominali3a&ion &ha& you need &o unde$s&and.
9emembe$ &ha& li&e$a$y hinese usually doesnQ& bo&he$ &o e)p$ess a &hi$d pe$son
sub7ec& p$onoun# bu& i& le&s &he con&e)& decide ins&ead# as (ollows2
i伐鄰¨。The du%e a&&ac%s a neighbo$ing s&a&e. 伐鄰¨。?e a&&ac%s a neighbo$ing
This leads &o a p$oblem2 i( you wan& &o nominali3e &he second sen&ence# whe$e can
you pu& a ” pa$&icle when &he$eQs no sub7ec&X 'ne canno& simply say ”伐鄰¨ˆ
?owe*e$# since is a possessi*e &hi$d pe$son p$onoun# i& can be conside$ed
eTui*alen& &o an unspo%en &hi$d pe$son sub7ec& p$onoun _ ”2 Thus# i”î# G&he
du%eQs ho$se-8 î# Ghis ho$se.H Tha& being &he case# &hen nominali3ed sen&ences
wi&h a missing sub7ec& can use 2
únshe comes úÒnwhen she comes ...
伐鄰¨nhe a&&ac%s a neighbo$ing s&a&e 伐鄰¨Ònwhen he a&&ac%s a neighbo$ing
/橘nshe plan&s an o$ange &$ee /橘Ònwhen she plan&s an o$ange &$ee...
+n line 0 o( ou$ lesson &e)&# we ha*e 爲úÒ. The 爲 he$e is an adap&a&ion o( &he
co*e$bial meaning# -on behal( o(#H and is s&$ic&ly unnecessa$y he$e8 &he $es& o( &he
sen&ence is a nominali3ed GwhenH clause. The whole ph$ase means G.o$ when he
comeseH—&ha& is# Gin p$epa$a&ion (o$ his cominge.H
O9CT+!2 Ou& &he (ollowing in&o li&e$a$y hinese (use -nominali3a&ion- in &he (i$s&
1. >hen ,as&e$ aan en&e$s &he $oom# + $eTues& &o go ou& and (eed his ho$se.
0. >hen &he %ing p$esen&ed on(ucius wi&h an o$ange &$ee# ,as&e$ meng was ang$y
and des&$oyed i&.
1. >hen &he people le(& &he ci&y# &he %ing could again (Å得" d$i*e his ca$$iage.
D. >hen she ga*e bi$&h &o he$ son# &he %ing was deligh&ed and held a banTue&.
F. >hen he was abou& &o disband &he a$my# mhao &$oops a&&ac%ed and o*e$came
10.1. Li&e$a$y hinese uses o( $以:These a$e $a&he$ di((e$en& ($om &he ph$aseQs use
in mode$n ,anda$in# so pay close a&&en&ion.
+n 1.1# we saw how &he pa$&icle $ wo$%s—i& is placed in ($on& o( a *e$b and indica&es
&he &hing &ha& $ecei*es &he ac&ion o( &he *e$b. Thus# we ha*e ‰# G&o %ill#H and $‰#
G&ha& which is %illed.H $以 is simila$8 bu& no&e &ha& $ is placed in ($on& o( a co*e$b#
$a&he$ &han a *e$b. This means &ha& $以 indica&es &he &hing &ha& $ecei*es &he ac&ion
o( &he co*e$b (i.e.# &he ob7ec& o( &he co*e$b". +( &his usage is no& clea$ ye&# &hin% o( i&
&his way2
î以׉µ。The ho$se %illed &he %ing wi&h i&s hoo(s.
$以 &hen should indica&e &he &hing &ha& was used# &ha& is# &he hoo(s. 5us& as $‰ is
G&ha& which is %illed#H $以‰µ is G&he means by which &he %ing is %illed.H Cnd i( î”
$‰ is G&ha& which &he ho$se %illed#H &hen î”$以‰µ is G&he means by which &he
ho$se %illed &he %ing.H
+ hope &his use will be made clea$e$ i( we &u$n a se$ies o( sen&ences wi&h 以 in&o a
se$ies o( Xa Ò (M.1" sen&ences. aou migh& conside$ &his p$ac&ice a *a$ian& o( wha&
we did in M.D2
µ以þ人ûòŽ。The %ing humilia&ed ,as&e$ aan wi&h a $obbe$.
µ”$以ûòŽ,þ人Ò。The means by which &he %ing humilia&ed ,as&e$ aan was a
¸Ž¹以É••。,i3i Xia (ed his lo$d wi&h a peach.
¸Ž¹”$以••,ÉÒ。Tha& wi&h which ,i3i Xia (ed his lo$d was a peach.
j以車追µ。The minis&e$ pu$sued &he %ing by ca$$iage.
j”$以追µ,車Ò。The means by which &he minis&e$ pu$sued &he %ing was a
These pa&&e$ns o(&en sound $a&he$ a$&i(icial and s&il&ed in !nglish# bu& &hey wo$%
Tui&e na&uj$ally in hinese.
+n ou$ &e)& we ha*e $以\者何# -The means by which i& is &hus is wha&X- +n o&he$
wo$ds# G?ow should i& be soXH
O9CT+!2 T$ans(o$m each sen&ence in&o an Xa Ò sen&ence (using $以jand &hen
&$ansla&e &he new sen&ence you ha*e c$ea&ed2
1. 天以福Ã!”4。
0. ÕŽ以善•解¥¦。
1. 趙簡Ž以軍#K。
D. Ž以不«得罪於„q
F. µ以橘ÑòŽ。
Vocabulary 7ints
½(1D0-0" g(100-1" 今(000" _(010-1" 吾(001"
(-" Á (1DD-1" ‡(11D-0" Ñ(1F9" 善(0F-0"
É(1F1" –(0MD-1" Í(09F" \(011-1" ó(87"
#haracter List
i. [^似ú北°ö同吏Œ固óõ席徒ô淮µ異þø葉視實ùý長(07"
ii. 曷òû避(D"
iii. 詣ÿ耶(1(
i*. ÷枳橘ü(D"
)eview,Lessons 5-1.
+mpo$&an& g$amma$ pa&&e$ns2
M.12 onseTuence sen&ences2
0. µ¶¬‘þ車者罪q¾。
7.12 ^e$b-co*e$b cons&$uc&ions as suppo$&ing *e$bs2
1. µ以爲¨–×與•!者。
0. ÂÀ”y爲HI者L¾聽FG。
1. ¸Ž¹,y與ÆÉÈ者Ò。
7.F2 !)plana&ion sen&ences2
1- •î者¾.”—者,iÑ”/。
0- d [/”葉不同者 óŒ生ÖÒ。 1.òŽ¼•”車者,ñÉ”ÍÒ。
8.D : Nupp$essed co*e$b-ob7ec&s2
1. µ¿þ善橘,以•ô人”î。
0. fp„–妻。f爲得桑n”«。
1. 簡Žr兵,以解gÀ”•。
9.0-9.12 Oassi*es2
1. µ見‰於桑n。µB見E‰於p„。
0. 人•î不‚人•於îq (&wo possibili&ies"
1- 當桑”²,鄰©”÷妻以爲/見þ。
10.12 $以 sen&ences2
1. 枳者# À¿”$以得生者Ò。
0. HI者,$以½«(Ž者Ò。
1. ¶吏üg人者# µ”$以ûòŽ者Ò。
T$ansla&e &he (ollowing in&o li&e$a$y hinese2
,as&e$ aan wen& on a mission &o hu in o$de$ &o b$ea% &he siege o( &he 5in a$my. C&
noon he saw &he %ing. The %ing said# G!*en &hough wo$&hy men e)haus& &hei$ loyal&y
(o$ my sa%e# + do no& plan &o $aise an a$my. + ha*e hea$d &ha& $aising an a$my and
ye& no& ob&aining ho$ses will p$oduce disas&e$. +( + send you# ,as&e$ aan# &o choose
&he ho$ses o( &he s&a&e o( ii# + will succeed in o*e$coming 5in# and# by means o( &ha&#
+ will gi*e you &he &owns o( 5in.- ,as&e$ aan wi&hd$ew ($om his ma& and $eplied2 G+
assume &ha& &he$e is no one in hu who can choose ho$ses. + ha*e hea$d &ha& &he
$eason why Bo aa once smashed his 3i&he$ was because when he played# people all
ha&ed i& and (led. =o& only playing &he 3i&he$ is li%e &his8 choosing ho$ses is also
&hus. Cl&hough &he$e may be a good ho$se# an unwise %ing will see i& as i( i& we$e a
hal(-ea&en peach. O$esen&ing my ho$ses &o you is no& as good as using &hem &o
chase gi$ls in &he mulbe$$y bushes.- The %ing was ang$y and wan&ed &o %ill him# bu&
,as&e$ aan had al$eady (led. The %ing commanded &ha& i( &he$e was anyone sou&h o(
&he ?uai 9i*e$ who da$ed &o gi*e ,as&e$ aan (ood# he would be punished &o &he
e)&en& o( ha*ing his (ee& cu& o((. onseTuen&ly# + ha*e hea$d2 +( you a$e p$ac&iced in
$he&o$ic and go on a mission# you will no& necessa$ily ha*e good (o$&une.
Unit 2
Four Accounts from "Biographies of the Assasin-
Retainers" 刺客列傳
“Biographies of the Assassin-Retainers” 刺客列傳 make up the whole of
hapter 8! of the Shi"i 史記# a monumental 1$%-hapter histor& of 'hina
ompose( )& Sima *ian 司馬遷 +, 1-.-8! B,',E,/# a ourt historian an(
astronomer ser0ing un(er 1an 漢 emperor 2u(i 武帝+r, 1-1-83 B,',E,/,
Sima *ian (i0i(e( the hapters of his histor& into se0eral ategories4 first# the
“)asi annals 5本紀# whih are fairl& straightforwar( aounts of the (&nasties
an( emperors who rule( 'hina6 the 5ta)les5表# whih gi0e hronologies of the
reigns of the rulers of the 0arious states6 then the 5treatises5書# whih are
essa&s on ertain signifiant topis6 the 51ere(itar& 1ouses5世家# whih gi0es
aounts mostl& of the ruling families of in(i0i(ual states6 an( finall&# an(
most famousl&# the 5ranke( )iographies5列傳# whih gi0e (istinti0e an(
signifiant e0ents in the li0es of prominent people, 7n a((ition to hapters
gi0en o0er to a single figure# he also wrote a series of olleti0e )iographies#
gi0ing shorter aounts of a num)er of people with share( harateristis or
oupations, 刺客列傳 is one of these,
Beause Sima8s su)"ets here are men who arrie( out assassinations for
their masters or emplo&ers# later historians +espeiall& those of the more
'onfuian 0ariet&/ ritii9e( him for inlu(ing a(miring (esriptions of suh
morall& :uestiona)le figures in his work, 1owe0er# Sima was muh more
intereste( in the unspoken ontrat of patronage an( lo&alt& that an e;ist
)etween lor( an( retainer4 if a lor( reogni9es an( respets the skills of his
men# then those men will feel honor )oun( to (o an&thing for him# e0en if it
results in their own (eaths, <his )on(# of ourse# e;ten(e( far )e&on( the
relationship )etween masters an( their assassins an( em)rae( the whole
ethos of ruler an( rule(# king an( minister, 7n the first aount# that of 'ao =o
曹沬# an inompetent general repa&s his ruler8s faith in him, 7n the seon(
one# we see an assassin# >huan >hu 專諸# partiipating in a plot that is merel&
one moment in a ompliate( game of international politis, <he thir(# the
stor& of ?u Rang 豫讓# is :uite well-known6 this tale is ma(e more poignant )&
the assassin8s ultimate failure an( the o(( )on( of s&mpath& that e;ists
)etween him an( his inten(e( 0itim, @inall&# the stor& of Nie >heng 聶政
seems to emphasi9e in man& (ifferent wa&s the pro)lemati relationship
)etween lor( an( retainer4 Nie is plae( in a situation where his nee( for
posthumous fame is o((l& un(ermine( )& his nee( to keep his assassination
2e will rea( the first four )iographies6 unfortunatel&# the last an( most
famous# that of Aing Be 荆軻# is far too long to manage in an intro(utor& lass
+it is somewhat longer than the other four om)ine(/,
Lesson 11
Assassin-Retainers: 曹沫
\]^,_`ab)cde,fg.hijkl8iY=(4>m n8^9)D
‚ƒRSTy„i…†‡ˆ# ‰Š,‹ŒE諸•,Ž•q8•)y}-8)YE‘=(
46’^ 9)曹沬0/“”9,m<•)
$-!, 曹 =4 Co A4 sD –— B4 "o ˜ '4 hEuh
1, 'ao, Fa surnameGH
I, FAn informal plural suffi;# usuall& a((e( to the seon( person,G
Ra(ial 3$ +R/,
$-3, 沫 =4 mE A4 matsu ™š B4 mal › '4 mut
@roth# foam,
1ere# this harater is a personal name, Ra(ial 8. +œ/,
$-!a, 曹沬 =4 Co mE A4 sD matsu •žŸ B4 "o mal ˜› '4 hEuh mut
'ao =o +a general of the state of /,
$-8, $ =4 &Jng A4 &K ¡—# isamashii ¢£Ÿ¤¢ B4 &ong ¥ '4 &Lhng
'ourage# )ra0er&6 ourageous# )ra0e,
Ra(ial 1M +%/,
$-M, % =4 lN A4 r&oku ¦§¨# chikara ©ª« B4 l&eok '4 lihk
Strength# power# a)ilit&,
Ra(ial 1M +%/,
$.%, ' =4 9huOng A4 sD –— B4 "ang ¬ '4 "Dng
1, Serious# gra0e,
I, >huang, Fa surnameG
1ere# this harater is use( as a posthumous title, Ra(ial 1-% +-/,
$.oa, '( =4 9huOng gDng A4 sD kD •ž®ž B4 "ang gong ¬¯ '4 "Dng
gong Puke >huang +of Lu6 r, !M$-!!I B,',E,/,
$.1, * =4 hQo +1/6 hRo +I/ A4 kD °—# konomu ®±²# suku ³´ B4 ho µ
'4 hou +1/6 hSu +I/
1, <o like# to )e fon( of,H
I, Too(# fine# )eautiful,
Ra(ial $8 +¶/,
$.I, / =4 9hQn A4 sen ·¸# tatakau ¹¹ªž# tatakai ¹¹ª¢# ikusa ¢´£
B4 "eon º '4 "in
<o fight6 om)at# war,
Pifferentiate this harater from »+13I/ an( ¼+I%I/# whih mean “to attak,”
Ra(ial !I +½/,
$.$, 1 =4 )Qi A4 hai ¾¿#yaburu ÀÁÂ#yabureru ÀÁàB4 pae Ä '4
<o )e (efeate(6 to (efeat,
<he former use is intransiti0e# the latter transiti0e, Ra(ial !! +Å/,
$.$a, 12 =4 )Qi )ei A4 hai)oku ƢǴ B4 pae )uk ÄÈ '4 )aaih )Ok
<o )e (efeate(,
Notie the (istinti0e usage of 26 this funtion of the harater is relati0el&
rare an( is most often foun( in this ompoun(,
$.-, 9 =4 (N A4 hi É# "i Ê# tsuchi © B4 "i Ë '4 (eih
Lan(# territor&# groun(,
Ra(ial $I +Ì/,
$.., : =4hU A4 ka Í# wa Î# wasuru ϳ B4 hwa Ð '4 wSh
1armon&# peae6 harmonious6 to make peae# to harmoni9e with,
Ra(ial $% +Ñ/,
$.!, ; =4 &Su A4 &K ¡—# &u ¡# nao ÒÓ B4 &u Ô '4 &Quh
1, Still# persistentl&, H
I, <o )e like# to resem)le,
<his harater is :uite ommon in )oth meanings, Ra(ial M- +Õ/,
$.3, > =4 ;V A4 k&o Ö§# ko °# yurusu ׳ B4 heo Ø '4 hUui
<o assent to# to agree to# to permit,
Ra(ial 1-M +o/,
$.8, ? =4 huN A4 kai Í¿# e Ù# au Úž# awaseru ÚÏÛÂ# kaisuru ª¢³Â
B4 hoe Ü '4 wuih
<o meet FwithG# to assem)le6 meeting# assoiation,
Be areful not to onfuse this harater with Ý+1$/, Ra(ial 3$ +R/,
$.M, A =4 kW A4 ka Í B4 ga Þ '4 D
1an(le# )ranh,
1ere# this harater funtions as a plae-name, Ra(ial 3. +ß/,
$!%, C =4 mUng A4 mei à¿# chikau ©ªž B4 maeng á '4 mQhng
<o form an alliane# to swear an alliane6 alliane,
Ra(ial 1%8 +â/,
$!1, D =4 "N A4 ki Ö# sude ni ³ãä B4 gi å '4 gei
Alrea(&6 after ha0ingX# sine ,,,,
<his harater is fre:uentl& use( in the first lause in multilause sentenes6
this is how it appears in this lesson8s te;t, S&non&m4 `+I-3/, Be areful to
(istinguish D from f +I.!# 5right then#5 “imme(iatel&”/, Ra(ial 31 +æ#
$!I, F =4 tCn A4 (an ç¸ B4 (an è '4 tCahn
Altar# ele0ate( platform,
2hen states in earl& 'hina swore alliane# it was ommon to arr& out the
eremon& on an altar platform# aompanie( )& animal sarifies, Ra(ial $I
$!$, G =4 shQng A4 "D ʧ—# shD 駗# ue žê# agaru ÚëÂ# noboru ±Ç
Â# et, B4 sang ì '4 seuhng
On top of# a)o0e# at the front of6 to go up# to offer up6 superiors,
Anton&m4 q+.1/, Ra(ial 1 +Y/,
$!-, H =4 9hZ A4 shitsu éš# shK éí—# toru î B4 "ip ï '4 "Op
<o grasp# to hol(,
Ra(ial $I +Ì/,
$!., I =4 )[ A4 hi ð# saji £ñ B4 )i ò '4 )eih
Spoon# la(le,
1ere# howe0er# the meaning of the harater is su)or(inate( to the
ompoun( $!.a, Ra(ial I1 +I/,
$!!, J =4 shJu A4 shu éí# kubi ´ó B4 su ô '4 sCu
1ea(# nek,
1ere# howe0er# the meaning of the harater is su)or(inate( to the
ompoun( $!.a, Ra(ial 18. +J/,
$!.a, IJ =4 )[ shJu A4 hishu õ¤ö# aikuchi Ú¢´© B4 )i su òô '4
)eih sCu
<his term is an i(iomati ompoun(# with its omponent haraters not
e;pliitl& onnete( to its meaning,
$!3, K =4 "iU A4 kD °—# gD ÷—# k&D Ö§—# obiyakasu ÓóÀª³ B4 geop
ø '4 gip
<o attak# to sei9e# to pillage# to ro),
Ra(ial 1M +%/,
$!8, N =4 mE A4 )aku ù¨# )o ú# daremo…nai ûÃü...Ò¢ B4 mak ý
'4 mohk
1, No one,H
I, Pon \t,XFimperati0eG
Be areful using this harater] <ehniall& it funtions as an a(0er)# an( it is
often pree(e( )& a (efining group of people, @or e;ample# in this lesson8s
te;t we ha0e4 X LMN # “Among the retainers# no oneX,” Other e;amples4 (N
¼.# “Of the (ukes# no one attake( *i56 þNWÿ8# “Of the sol(iers# no one
wante( to kill him,” 7n later imperial prose# the imperati0e usage )eomes
fairl& ommon, Ra(ial 1-% +-/,
$!M, P =4 (Eng A4 (D ド—# ugoku žご´# ugokasu žごª³ B4 (ong 동 '4
<o mo0e# to take ation,
Ra(ial 1M +%/,
$3%, Q =4 w^n A4 mon モ¸# tou îž# toi î¢ B4 mun 문 '4 mahn
<o ask# to in:uire,
Ra(ial $% +Ñ/,
$31, Z =4 :iCng A4 k&D Ö§—# gD ÷—# tsuyoi よ¢ B4 gang 강 '4
Strong# powerful# o0er)earing,
Ra(ial .3 +弓/,
$3I, [ =4 ruE A4 "aku Êャ¨# yowai よÏ¢ B4 &ak 약 '4 &euhk
2eak# unasserti0e# &oung,
<his harater an( Z form an anton&m pair, Ra(ial .3 +弓/,
$3$, ^ =4 :_n A4 shin é¸# okasu Óª³ B4 him침 '4 hOm
<o in0a(e# to attak# to assault,
`nlike ¼+I%I/ or »+33I/# this harater ten(s to emphasi9e the unpro0oke(
or seret nature of the attak, Ra(ial M +!/,
$3-, a =4 sh^n A4 "in ʸ# hanahada ÆÒÆû# hanahadashii ÆÒÆû¤¢#
itaku ¢¹´ B4 sim심 '4 sahm
<o a great e;tent# e;essi0e# too muh# e;treme,
Ra(ial MM +甘/,
$3., d =4 hUng A4 "D ʧ—# sei ·¿# shiro ¤ろ B4 seong 성 '4 sNhng
'it&# wall# it& wall# fortress,
`nlike 7+1-$/# this harater originall& referre( to the walls of the it& itself,
2hen this harater is use(# it is often )eause the writer wants to
emphasi9e that a 5fortifie(5 it& is meant6 hene# the meaning of “astle”
that ours in Aapanese, Ra(ial $I +Ì/,
$3!, e =4 huQi A4 e Ù# kai ケ¿# kowasu ®Ï³# kowareru ®ÏÃÂ# yaburu
ÀÁÂ B4 goe 괴 '4 waaih
<o ollapse# to fall in ruins6 to ruin# to (estro&,
Ra(ial $I +Ì/,
$33, g =4 &O A4 en Ù¸# atsu アš# assuru Úっ³Â# hesu ね³# osu Ó³ B4
ap 압 '4 aat
<o rush# to o0er6 to put pressure on# to put weight on# to suppress,
Ra(ial $I +Ì/,
$38, h =4 "Nng A4 k&D Ö§—# kei ケ¿# sakai £ª¢ B4 g&eong 경 '4 gZng
Bor(er# frontier6 realm# sphere,
Ra(ial $I +Ì/,
$3M, l =4 tL A4 to ト# 9u ず# hakaru ƪ B4 (o 도 '4 tEuh
<o plan# to onsi(er6 map# (rawing,
aartial s&non&ms4 計+1I8/# 謀+3%/, Ra(ial $1 +Ñ/,
$8%, p =4 tSu A4 tD ト—# tōjiru îžñÂ# nageru Òげ B4 tu 투 '4 tQuh
<o toss# to throw# to ast asi(e# to a)an(on,
aartial s&non&m4 ‹+11M/, Ra(ial !- +手/,
$81, r =4 miQn A4 men à¸# omo Óü# tsura «# mensuru め³Â B4
m&eon ! '4 mihn
@ae# surfae6 to fae,
Rulers alwa&s fae south "r# whereas their retainers an( ministers fae
north 2r,
Ra(ial 13! +r/,
$8I, t =4 :Ln A4 gun #¸# mure ²Ã# mureru ²ÃÂ# muragaru ²«ëÂ
B4 gun $ '4 kwQhn
@lok# assem)l&,
<his harater is also written %, Like 諸+I.$/# it often ser0es as a prefi; to a
noun an( makes the noun plural, Ra(ial 1I$ +&/,
$8$, v =4 w^i A4 i ¿# kurai ´«¢ B4 wi ' '4 waih
alae# position6 throne# ro&al position,
Ra(ial M +!/,
$8-, w =4 &Cn A4 gan (¸# kao ªÓ B4 an ) '4 ngQahn
@ae# faial e;pression,
Ra(ial 181 +*/,
$8-a, wx =4 &Cn s^ A4 ganshoku ë¤+´# kaoiro ªÓ¢ろ B4 an saek )
, '4 ngQahn s_k
@aial e;pression# faial olor,
$1!a, {| =4 Z lNng A4 "irei ñâ B4 sa r&eong -. '4 hNh lihng
Language# speeh,
<his term is an i(iomati ompoun(,
1IMa, }~ =4 rL gb A4 moto no gotoshi üî±ごî¤ B4 &eo go /0 '4
&bh gu
As )efore# as pre0iousl&,
<his phrase is a 0er& ommon i(iom# an( it alwa&s omes at the en( of the
$8., € =4 )^i A4 )ai ù¿# somuku •²´ B4 )ae 1 '4 pLih
1, Pou)le,
I, <o renege on# to re"et, H
=eaning cI +use( here/ is an unommon meaning of this wor(6 meaning c1
is the stan(ar( an( shoul( )e learne( as suh, Ra(ial M +!/,
$8!, • =4 &uW A4 &aku 2¨# yakusuru À´³Â B4 &ak 약 '4 &euk
'ontrat# agreement# pat6 to agree# to form an agreement,
Ra(ial 1I% +3/,
$83, † =4 tOn A4 tan 4¸# (on ド¸# musaboru ²£Ç B4 tam5 '4
<o o0et# to )e gree(&,
Ra(ial 1.- +6/,
$88, ˆ =4 lN A4 ri ¦# risuru 7³Â# kiku 8´ B4 li 9 '4 leih
arofit# a(0antage6 to profit# to enrih,
<his wor( is often a pe"orati0e in 'hinese philosoph&# representing monetar&
gain or enrihment at the e;pense of 0irtue, Ra(ial 18 +:/,
$8M, Š =4 kuQi A4 kai Í¿# kokoroyoi ®®ろよ¢# tanoshimu ¹±¤² B4
kwae ; '4 faai
<o )e happ&# to )e (elighte(,
S&non&m4<+-!/, Ra(ial !1 +=/,
$M%, • =4 hSu A4 kD °— B4 hu > '4 hQuh
A feu(al title in anient 'hina, See -,1, Ra(ial M +!/,
I.$a, 諸• =4 9hK hSu A4 shokD ¤+®ž B4 "e hu ?> '4 "&K hQuh
5<he feu(al lor(s, ”
Literall&# 5the 0arious mar:uises#5 this )eame a stan(ar( term for (esri)ing
all of the rulers of anient 'hina,
$M1, • =4 &uCn A4 en Ù¸# tasukeru ¹³@Â B4 won A '4 wbhn
<o pull# to ai(# to assist6 assistane# support,
Ra(ial !- +手/,
$MI, ’ =4 gW A4 katsu Íš# waru ÏÂ# wareru ÏÃÂ# saku £´ B4 hal B
'4 got
<o ut off# to se0er# to separate# to e;lu(e,
Ra(ial 18 +:/,
11,1, Stan(ar( )iograph& openings4 <he 史記 set the pattern for the opening
of a )iograph&Yan d? " sentene gi0ing a simple (esription of the person
in :uestion, d is usuall& marke( )& the partile 者# whih here has no
meaning sa0e to emphasi9e, 7t is e:ui0alent to sa&ing in English “the 'ao =o
in :uestion” or “'ao =o +the man 7 wish to talk a)out/X” 7t is )est not to
translate the partile,
11,I, Note that in line I 67 is a plae-name# “Sui <own,” 2hen the harater
6 reappears in line 8# howe0er# it has gone )ak to its )asi meaning of
“then” +I!3-1/, One of the most (iffiult skills in rea(ing literar& 'hinese is
reogni9ing when a harater is )eing use( in a plae-name, Often a plae
suffi; suh as 7 is attahe(# to ai( the rea(er,
11,$, Sentenes with #+4 7n Lesson 3 +18a/ we saw #+ use( as a two-
harater 0er) meaning “to assume,” <his usage atuall& grows out of a
more ompliate( pattern# )est (esri)e( as # d + ?# “)& means of d make
?” or “to take d an( make it ?,5 <his pattern is use( in two )asi wa&s4
@irst# to represent an atual ation4
C#D!+E)<he people ma(e the wise man king,
(#FUG+\u)<he (uke appointe( =i9i dia high minister,
H#œ+家)<he fish ma(e the water its home, +Note that this last e;ample
an also )e translate( in the wa& we ha0e seen )efore4 “<he fish took some
water to make its home,”I
Seon(# to represent an assumption +often )ut not alwa&s inorret/4
JE#.!+K )<he Bing of 'hu took the man of *i for a thief,
j#曹沬+L,)<he Lor( of Lu thinks 'ao =o is a goo( general, <his pattern
is a wa& of e;pressing more learl& the 5putati0e5 usage of 0er)s mentione(
in M,-,
BE2ARE4 Note that a sentene using this pattern an( suppressing the o0er)-
o)"et +8,I/ will result in #+S
j#+,)<he Lor( of Lu ma(e FhimG a general e assume( FheG was a
general, <his usage helpe( reate the oneption of #+ as a two-harater
0er) +see 18a# Lesson 3/, As is t&pial with lassial sentene patterns# rel&
on the onte;t for interpretation]
aRA'<7'E4 <ranslate the following4
1, MU#JE+†ˆ8j)
I, N#kU+yO)
$, y#C+K,PWQj)
-, cRS‚ƒB#+\u)
., #þ+%y}#+T“ˆ8U)
11,-, B\]^+11,--./4 Sine 曹沬 is speaking to the . ruler# he politel& uses
the term \] to (esri)e .4 “an( &our great state is in0a(ing Lu,”
11,., cde,g.h+1,./4 7n earl& histories we often fin( statesmen oming
out with partiularl& striking images or figures of speeh to make a point6
earl& 'hinese literati espeiall& took (elight in the art of rhetori an(
effeti0e speeh, Sometimes it8s :uite (iffiult to un(erstan( suh
e;pressions, 7n our lesson te;t# 曹沬 sa&s to .=(Sc de,g.h,
'harater-)&-harater# we ha0e “Now Lu it&-walls ollapse# o0er *i
)or(er,5 曹is using a poeti e;aggeration here to emphasi9e how muh
territor& . has alrea(& taken from # so that the onl& thing left to is the
atual apital it&4 57f now the it& walls of Lu were to ollapse# the& woul( fall
onto the *i )or(er,5
11,!, =o(al use of k4 7n line .# we ha0e the first e;ample of the 5mo(al
a(0er)5 use of k+3$-I/Sjkl8, 7n this onte;t# the harater shoul(
pro)a)l& )e interprete( as a polite imperati0e4 5=& lor(# &ou shoul( onsi(er
it,5 7n :uestions# it ten(s to )e use( when a positi0e response is e;pete(4 @or
e;ample# jkl8V# 5<he lor( is onsi(ering it# isn8t hef5
11,3, 7n line 3# we ha0e a 0er& ommon use of …+1M%-I/4 …†‡ˆ#‰Š,,,,
<his is a sort of 5finger-in-the-air5…# use( )& speakers who are a)out to
launh into a speeh or persuasion, ?ou shoul( translate it as 5Now then ,,,,5
Voca*u+ar, -ints
+1$M/ &+3!-I/ ,+$%M-$/ 3+I../ 5+1.-/
W+1--/ @+$--/ O+13./ U+IM-$/ _+I$%-I/
b+I!!/ c+I%%/ f+I.!-1/ j+I8-I/ k+3$-I/
4+18./ m+I$./ n+8%/ s+1$$-1/ z+$%-/
•+-M/ ‚ƒ+1II# L-/ …+1M%-I/ ‹+11M/ Œ+11%-1/
Ž+.I/ y}+-a# L-/ -+1M1-$/ E‘+11a# L!/ ”+I--/
Character List
i, Gv•ˆ%$P:Ql9dH*[Z/p1D曹?;a•tN>rwJ+$1/
ii, ^€’hFŠ•'†+M/
iii, KgeACX./
i0, I沫+I/
Lesson 12
Note4 A goo( man& of the new haraters in this lesson are merel&
omponents of personal names, <hough &ou ma& want to learn the
haraters an&wa&# &ou will not ha0e to know them thoroughl& &et,
3$a, kY =4 :Z hEu A4 sono ato •±Úî B4 gi hu å> '4 k^ih hauh
After this,
A fairl& ommon time-se:uene wor(,
$M$, [ =4 lib A4 roku ”¨ B4 &uk • luhk
Ra(ial 1I +–/,
$M-, \ =4 shZ A4 "K Êí— B4 sip — '4 sahp
Ra(ial I- +\/,
$M. ^ =4 :_ A4 shihi éÉ B4 hil ˜ '4 hOt
Ra(ial 1 +™/,
$M!, ` =4 wL A4 go ÷ B4 o š '4 ggh
<he state of 2u,
<his state was loate( in the ?angt9e (elta region, Originall& e0ol0ing from a
soiet& not onnete( to the ultures of the ?ellow Ri0er plain# ` gra(uall&
entere( into the mainstream of 'hinese histor& (uring the si;th entur&
B,',E, <he personal names of its inha)itants +an( the kings8 names/ are
(ifferent from ommon northern 'hinese names# perhaps refleting their non-
'hinese origins, Ra(ial $% +Ñ/,
$M3, 專 =4 9huOn A4 sen ·¸ B4 "eon º '4 "&Kn
<o monopoli9e6 to fous on# to at single-min(e(l&,
7n this lesson8s te;t# this harater is use( as a surname, Ra(ial -1 +›/,
$M3a, 專諸 =4 9huOn 9hK A4 sen sho Û¤+ B4 "eon "e º? '4 "&Kn "&K
>huan >hu +name of a knight-assassin/,
$M8, a =4 tCng A4 (D ド— B4 (ang œ '4 tEhng
1all# reeption hall,
Although this harater ommonl& has this meaning +an( will our in later
lessons/# here it is a plae-name, Ra(ial $I +Ì/,
$MM, b =4 wV A4 go ÷ B4 o š '4 hgh
A s:ua(ron or group of fi0e men, <his harater is a militar& term6 howe0er#
in our lesson# it is merel& a surname, Ra(ial M +!/
-%%, c =4 ;K A4 sho é§ B4 seo • '4 sWui
<o assist# to ai(,
1ere the harater is part of a personal name, Ra(ial 1$% +ž/,
$MMa, bUc =4 wV 9[ ;K A4 go shisho ご¤¤+ B4 o "a seo šŸ '4 hgh "Z
2u >i;u +name of a statesman an( a(0iser/,
See the historial note 1I,1 )elow, Note that Uc is his # 5polite name5 +for
naming ha)its# see 1I,$ )elow/, 1is
# “personal name#” is k+an( a prine of ` ru(el& refers to him )& this name
later in the lesson te;t/,
-%1, g =4 liCo A4 r&D ¦§— B4 l&o ¡ '4 lNuh
'ompanion# olleague,
F1ere# this harater is the name of a king of `+r, .I!-.1. B,',E,/, aerhaps
)eause the ` kings were onsi(ere( slightl& e;oti or foreign# the 史記 refers
to them in a (ifferent mannerY`Eg#5the king of 2u# Liao# “ rather than the
more t&pial `gE, Ra(ial M,
-%I, h =4 shuN +1/6 &u^ +I/6 shuD +$/ A4 toku ト¨# tanoshimu ¹±¤² B4
seol ¢ +1/6 &eol £ +I/6 se ¤ +$/ '4 seui +1/6 &uht +I/6 s&ut +$/
1, <o persua(e, H
I, <o take pleasure in# to en"o&6 to )e happ&,
$, Speeh# (isourse# stor&,
<he three ma"or (efinitions of this harater are all pronoune( (ifferentl& in
mo(ern =an(arin, =eaning c1 is use( slightl& (ifferentl& in literar& 'hinese
than in English# in that it represents an attempt )eing ma(e to persua(e# )ut
not neessaril& its suess +in other wor(s# it must often )e translate( as
5trie( to persua(e#5 as in our lesson te;t here/, 7n meaning cI# this harater
is )eing use( for the more proper ¥i3-8/, =eaning c$ has ourre( in the
title of the te;t soure for `nit 1# the Tar(en of Stories h¦,Ra(ial 1-M +o/,
1%-), (U =4 gDng 9[ A4 kDshi ®ž¤ B4 gong "a ¯Ÿ '4 gKng "Z
E0en though this term literall& means “son of a (uke#5 it ame to appl& to all
prines in general,
-%$, i =4 guOng A4 kD °— B4 gwang § '4 gwDng
Light# )rilliane,
1ere# this harater is the name of a prine of `,Ra(ial 1% +¨/,
-%-, j =4 )[ A4 hi ð# kare ªÃ# kano ª± B4 pi © '4 )Ui
<hat# those6 that person# he# she6 those people# the&,
<his harater is sometimes use( as a ru(e referene to others6 other
pronouns an also )e use( in suh a manner +ompare use of ‘ in Lesson M/,
Anton&m4 ª Ra(ial !% +«/,
-%., k =4 &uCn A4 in ¿¸ B4 won A '4 &bhn
aersonnel# mem)er,
1ere# this harater is the personal name of bUc6 for naming ha)its# see
1I,$, Ra(ial $%+Ñ/,
-%!, l =4 ;iDng A4 k&D Ö§—# kei ケ¿# ani Úä B4 h&eong ¬ '4 h_ng
Ol(er )rother, Ra(ial 1% +¨/,
-%3, o =4 s_ A4 shi é B4 sa - '4 s_
ari0ate# seret# selfish,
Ra(ial 11. +-/,
-%8, p =4 hSu A4 shK éí—# ada Úû B4 su ô '4 hQuh
Enem&,ri0al6 re0enge# 0engeane,
Note the e;pression np# “to get re0enge,5 Ra(ial 1-M +o/,
-%M, r =4 9h[ A4 shi é B4 "i Ë '4 "Z
<o stop,
Ra(ial 33 +r/,
-1%, s =4 n^i A4 (ai ç¿# nai ®¿# uchi ž© B4 nae ¯ '4 noih
7nsi(e# within# inner# pri0ate# (omesti,
Ra(ial 11 +°/,
-11, v =4 wQi A4 gai (¿# soto •î B4 oe ± '4 ngoih
Outsi(e# pu)li# e;ternal foreign,
Note the e;pression v&# 5foreign affairs,5 Ra(ial $! +²/,
-1I, w =4 "Nn A4 shin é¸# shinjiru ¤ñÂ# susumu ³³²# susumeru ³³め
 B4 "in ³ '4 "eun
<o present# to gi0e Fusuall& to soial superiorG6 to mo0e forwar(# to approah,
aartial s&non&m4 5+3.--/, Ra(ial 1!I +´/,
-1$, x =4 fCn A4 han ¾¸ B4 )eon µ '4 fQahn
Bir( age6 (isor(erl&# mess&,
1ere# this harater is part of a name, Ra(ial 3. +ß/,
I.$), 諸x =4 9hK fCn A4 shohan ¤+Æ B4 "e )eon ?µ '4 "&K fQahn
>huan >hu +name of a knight-assasin/,
-1-, y =4 (N A4 (ai ç¿# tei ¶¿# otōto Óîžî B4 "e ? '4 (aih
Little )rother,
<his harater onstrasts with l+-%!/, Ra(ial .3 +弓/,
-1., | =4 "N +1/6 9hQi+I/ A4 sai ·¿# matsuru ŸÂ# matsuri Ÿ7 B4 "e ?
'4 "ai +1/6 "aai +I/
1, <o worship# to offer sarifies to6 festi0al,
I, A surname
1ere# this harater is part of a king8s name, Ra(ial 11$ +¸/,
$%1a, {| =4 &L 9hQi A4 &osai よ£¢ B4 &eo "e /? '4 &bh "aai
?u9hai, Fa personal nameG
Name of a king of ` +r, .-3Y.$1 ),,e,/,
-1!, } =4 &Z A4 i ¿# ebisu êó³ B4 i ¹ '4 &Nh
1, East# eastern (iretion6 eastern )ar)arian tri)es,
I, <o massare# to le0el to the groun(,
1ere# this harater is part of a king8s name, Ra(ial $3 +\/,
-13, ~ =4 m^i A4 mai ™¿# )atsu º B4 mae » '4 muih
Pim-sighte(6 poor 0ision,
1ere# this harater is part of a king8s name, Ra(ial 1%M +¼/,
-1!a, }~ =4 &Z m^i A4 i)atsu ¢º B4 i mae ¹» '4 &Nh muih
?imei, Fa personal nameG
Name of a king of ` +r, .$%-.I3 ),,e,/,
-18, • =4 "N A4 ki B4 g&e ½ '4 gwai
1, Season6 last +thir(/ month of a season,
I, ?oungest of three )rothers +following ¾ +11!/ an( ƒ F11$G/,
1ere# this harater is part of a prine8s name, Ra(ial $M +U/,
-1M, € =4 9hC A4 satsu ·š B4 hal ¿ '4 "aat
<hin woo(en ta)let for writing6 letter# orrespon(ene,
1ere# this harater is part of a prine8s name, Ra(ial 3. +ß/,
-18a, •U€ =4 "N 9[ 9hC A4 kishi satsu 8¤£ B4 g&e "a hal ½Ÿ¿ '4
gwai "Z "aat
Ai9i >ha, Fa proper nameG
Name of a prine of `,
-I%, • =4 lN A4 r&K ¦í—# ritsu ¦š# tateru ¹ÀÂ# tatsu ¹ B4 lip Á '4
1, <o set up# to esta)lish# to appoint# to plae on the throne# to take the
I, <o stan(# to oup&,
$, 7mme(iatel&,
Ra(ial 113 +•/,
I1-), ‚U =4 tQi 9[ A4 taishi ¹¢¤ B4 tae "a  '4 taai "Z
'rown prine# heir apparent,
7n this lesson8s te;t# it sa&s that 諸x refuse( to appoint one of his own sons
as heir,
-I1, 傳 =4 huCn +1/6 9huQn +I/ A4 ten ¶¸# (en ø# tsutaeru ¹êÂ#
tsutau ¹ž# et, B4 "eon º '4 h&bhn +1/6 "&uhn +I/
1, <o pass along# to transmit, H
I, <ransmission# tra(ition# )iograph&,
=eaning cI was use( )& the 史記 to (esignate )iographial aounts +usuall&
of in(i0i(uals/# an( hene# this harater )eame the stan(ar( term for
“)iograph&,” Ra(ial M +!/,
-II, ‡ =4 kjn A4 kD °—# ukegau ž@ëž# gaenjiru ëêñÂ# gaenzuru ë
êずÂ B4 geung '4 hCng
<o )e willing# to wish,
Ra(ial 1$% +ž/,
-I$, ‰ =4 &U +1/6 ;iU +I/ A4 sa ·# "a Êャ B4 &a Ä +1/6 sa - +I/ '4 &^h
+1/6 h^h+I/
1, F*uestion partile6 0ariant for Å+$-./,GH
I, 2ike(# per0erse,
<hough often use( to refer to wike( )eha0ior# this harater pro)a)l& ours
e0en more often in meaning c1# where it is use( instea( of Å, 7n the
sentene of our lesson te;t# the prine uses ‰ in one lause an( then V in
the ne;t to refer to two h&pothetial :uestions he is posing to himself4 “7s d
truef <hen in that ase,,,, 7s ? truef <hen in that aseX,” Ra(ial 1!$ +7/
-I-, ‹ =4 9hWn A4 shin é¸# makoto Ÿ®î# honni Æä B4 "eong '4 "On
<rue# authenti6 trul&# reall&,
Ra(ial 1%M +¼/,
-I., Œ =4 (Z +1/6 shN +I--/ A4 haku Éャ¨# teki ¶Ö# kanau ªÒž# kanaeru
ªÒê B4 "eok Ç '4 (_k +1/6 s_k +I--/
1, Legal wife# main wife, H
I, <o satisf&# to please,
$, <o happen# to fall in with# to )e suita)le for6 oini(ental,
-, <o go to# to proee( to,
<he proper harater for meaning c1 is È, 2e8ll see the other# orret
meanings use( later on, Ra(ial 1!I +É/,
-I!, • =4 sN A4 shi é# tsugu Ê B4 sa - '4 "ih
<o inherit6 inheritane# heir,
Ra(ial $% +Ñ/,
-I3, • =4 &_n A4 in ¿¸# on ˸# an ア¸# kageru ªげÂ# kage ªげ# hisokani
õ•ªä B4 eumÌ '4 &Om
Seret# seretl&6 (ark6 the “&in” priniple,
Ra(ial 13% +Í/,
-I8, • =4 &Rng A4 &D Η# yashinau À¤Òž B4 &ang Ï '4 &Uuhng
<o look after# to raise# to har)or# to emplo& Fin one s pri0ate ser0ieG,
<his harater usuall& refers to raising hil(ren# to raising animals# or to
looking after the age(6 here# howe0er# it refers to )ringing retainers into one8s
ser0ie, Ra(ial 18- +Ð/,
-IM, 客 =4 k^ A4 k&aku Öャ¨ B4 gaek Ñ '4 haak
Tuest# retainer# emplo&ee,
Note that the e;pression L客 is use( here a(0er)iall&# to in(iate the manner
in whih i treate( 專諸,Ra(ial -% +Ò/
1I,1, 1istorial )akgroun(4 ` an( J, <he earl& te;tual tra(ition of 'hina
ten(s to enter aroun( the ?ellow Ri0er 0alle&6 other parts of 'hina# in
partiular the ?angt9e Ri0er 0alle&# gra(uall& entere( into the ultural
awareness of the northerners, <hough these regions )e&on( the ?ellow Ri0er
a(opte( northern wa&s o0er time# the& still retaine( man& elements of their
own ultures,
<he most powerful state in the south was 'hu J+first mentione( in Lesson
1%/# whih onsiste( mostl& of the mo(ern pro0ine of 1u)ei, Tifte( with
great natural resoures an( an almost unlimite( frontier into whih to
e;pan(# its wealth an( am)itions often appeare( threatening to its northern
neigh)ors, J was partiularl& in(ifferent to the (&nasti laims of the house
of >hou Ó, As 7 mentione( )efore# the rulers of J were alling themsel0es
kings as earl& as 3%! B,',E,
J was soon fae( with a ri0al# howe0er# the ?angt9e (elta state of 2u `, 7t
entere( the 'hinese ultural sphere e0en later than J# an( its 5foreign5
nature an still )e (etete( in the o(( names of its rulers +whih ma& )e
northern sinii9ations of non-'hinese wor(s/, <he animosit& )etween the two
states ame to a hea( in the .I%s# when the talente( J statesman 2u >i;u
Uc fle( to ` after his father an( ol(er )rother were e;eute( )& the J king
(uring a struggle o0er the suession, Uc then attempte( to on0ine ` to
attak Y J an(# as arine i of ` suggests in this lesson8s te;t# \ Uc s moti0e
was largel& pri0ate re0enge for his famil&,
@or a translation of the 史記 )iograph& of bUc# see Stephen Owen# An
Antholog& of 'hinese Literature# pp, 88-M!, <he aount of 專諸 tol( here an(
in Lesson 1$ gi0es some (etails mentione( onl& )riefl& in the bUc
)iograph& +see Owen# Antholog&# p, M1/6 the& tell of how Uc uses 專諸 to
help i usurp the throne of `,
1I,I, kYZ[\]^_B`]專諸8&+1,1/4 <here was a ha)it of inserting the
harater ] )etween the tens an( ones plaes in num)ers6 in suh ases it is
pronoune( in the fourth tone +&ou/ an( is )elie0e( to )e a su)stitute for Ô
+1-M/6 (o not )other to translate, Note also the ha)it of oasionall& inserting
B )etween a time phrase an( the following sentene,
1I,$, Naming ha)its4 7n tra(itional 'hina# most men ha( at least two namesY
a personal name
an( a “polite” name , 7t was generall& onsi(ere( ru(e to refer to a li0ing
person )& his
# either to his fae or in the thir( person, Although naming praties in pre-
imperial 'hina were somewhat irregular# it is likel& that Uc was a polite
name# whereas k# later use( ru(el& )& the ` king# was a personal name
+although the 史記 generall& names people )& their
/, Names oul( also )e use( as su)stitutes for first an( seon( person
pronouns6 a oul( )e use( as a polite su)stitution for “&ou#” an( a
oul( )e use( as a ru(e form of a((ress to someone )elow oneself soiall&,
=ost ommon# howe0er# is the use of a
as a first person (esignation for oneself,
1I,-, W‰+nop",qe+`+11, $--/4 Note the ‰+ here, Sine ‰ is )&
nature an a(0er)# it tehniall& annot funtion as the o)"et of the o0er) +,
'onse:uentl&# it is plae( in the a(0er) position# )ut in terms of meaning it
is the o0er)8s o)"et4 “for the sake of himself,5 Õ +I!--1/ is use( muh the
same wa&# for e;ample# ÖÕ-×# “<he )ir(s (eparte( with eah other,”
'ompare also Lesson 84 “ØÙÐ馬ž者ÕÚR,”
7n the seon( phrase# the o0er) funtions as the main 0er) an( must )e
interprete( in translation4 57t8s not that he is a)le for the sake of 2u Fto arr&
out his poliiesG,”
1I,., bUcd(Ui8Wÿ`Eg+1, -/4 <he use of 8 here intro(ues a new
pattern# whih we will all “nominali9ation with in(iret statements,5 7n 1%,I#
we saw how sentenes oul( )e nominali9e( in or(er to turn them into
“when” lauses4 (Û +<he (uke ame/k (8Û" +As for the (uke8s oming l
2hen the (uke omes/ <he mark of nominali9ation is thus often the insertion
of 8 )etween the su)"et an( the rest of the sentene# usuall& with an
emphati " at the en(,
Another ommon use of nominali9e( sentenes is in “in(iret statements,5
<his is the grammatial term that (esri)es 5that5 lauses after thinking#
sa&ing# feeling# fearing# an( so forth4 “7 know that the ruler trusts 'ao =o56 “7
fear that the *in arm& is a)out to in0a(e 'hu56 “7 (ou)t that she kille( the
king,5 Literar& 'hinese e;presses this t&pe of sentene )& imagining the that
lause as the o)"et of the 0er)# an( then nominali9ing the lause4 “7 know
the ruler8s trusting 'ao =o”6 “7 fear the *in arm&8s a)out to in0a(e 'hu56 “7
(ou)t her killing the king,” <he onl& 0er) we know so far that ommonl& uses
this struture is d4
jŒ曹沬)<he ruler trusts 'ao =o,
Rdj8Œ曹沬" m 7 know that the ruler trusts 'ao =o,
ÜÝ,^J m <he *in arm& is a)out to in0a(e 'hu,
RdÜÝ8,^J" o 7 know that the *in arm& is a)out to in0a(e 'hu,
ÿE)She kille( the king,
RdkÿE")7 know that she kille( the king,
Note that in the last e;ample the in0isi)le pronoun 5she5 has merge( with 8
to form k +"ust as it (i( in 1%,I/,
2ARN7NT4 Not all 0er)s will take this pattern +Þ# “7 hear thatX#” usuall& (oes
not/# an( sometimes e0en 0er)s that usuall& take it will ignore it, As is
generall& the ase# all grammatial partiles are optional]
1I,!, u„h#v&+1,./4 Appl& the “passi0e” use of „ (esri)e( in 3,$4 “1e
annot )e persua(e( )& means of e;ternal affairs,”
1I,3, •U€†y‡•+1,8/4 Although there are earl& legen(s that tell of prines
who fle( a ountr& altogether rather than take its throne# “flee” here seems
to mean that •U€ simpl& refuse( rulership, 7n the ne;t lesson te;t he is
(esri)e( as going on a (iplomati mission for the state, <he entire aount
hereYwith the ela)orate plan to han( rule off to a suession of )rothersma&
0er& well reflet folk-stor& origins rather than historial fat,
1I,8, ˆ#lyz‰+1,M/4 Note the new use of ˆ# 5if# supposing#5 to intro(ue
h&pothetial situations, <his usage is still foun( in the mo(ern language term
߈, <he meaning is pro)a)l& (eri0e( from the original meaning 5to sen(# to
make54 in other wor(s# 5=aking suh-an(-suh true# the onse:uene woul(
1I,M, A(0er)ial manner phrases, Pon8t )e surprise( to see nouns use( as
a(0er)s# to e;press the manner of an ation, <his pratie is in lieu of using
an # o0er), 7n translation# the English 5as5 or “like” is implie( in )oth
#L客“8)1e treate( him as a goo( retainer +lit,# “1e treate( him )& means
of goo(-retainer5/,
L客“8)1e treate( him as a goo( retainer +lit,# ”1e goo(-retainerl& treate(
=(#là‚ƒ)Puke 1uan lo0e( Tuan >hong like a )rother +lit,# ”Puke 1uan
lo0e( Tuan >hong )& means of a )rother5/,
=(là‚ƒ)Puke 1uan lo0e( Tuan >hong like a )rother +lit,# “Puke 1uan
)rotherl& lo0e( Tuan >hong”/,
7n other ases# an instrument is simpl& plae( in a(0er) position# without an
馬#áÿ()<he horse kille( the (uke with its feet,
馬áÿ()<he horse kille( the (uke with its feet +lit,# 5<he horse footil& kille(
the (uke5/,
Voca*u+ar, -ints
Z+3./ _+I!1/ â+I--/ }+1IM-I/ e+1!I/
D+$!1/ f+18$-$/ ¼+I%I/ ˆ+$88/ m+I.-/
n+I!-I/ t+I1$/ u+$%I/ z+I.3/ S+IIM/
ƒ+I!M-1/ „+1-I/ @+$--/ †+M%/ …+183-$/
ˆ+1-%-$/ Š+$%$/ Ž+I-$-1/ 謀+3%/ ‘+1.I/
Character List
i, ^傳lis[\`av}•客yjr‹|o•‡hwŒ‰•• +I3/
ii, 專cp+$/
iii, bg•x+-/
i0, €~k+$/
Lesson 1!
TöÙy„Ž)y‘,÷ øXùi‹E•,…•)•UúÛ,yûü")Y專諸RS
-$%, ã =4 "iV A4 k&K Öí— B4 gu 4 '4 gCu
Ra(ial . +5# “ur0e(#” “hook”/,
-$1, ä =4 pZng A4 hei 6¿# h&D ð§—# hiratai õ«¹¢# tairakana ¹¢«ªÒ
B4 p&eong 7 '4 pNhng
aeaeful# alm# le0el# flat,
Ra(ial .1 +8/,
$1%a, JäE =4 hV pZng wCng A4 so h&D D •õ+žÓž B4 ho p&eong
wang 97: '4 hS pNhng wEhng
Bing aing of 'hu +r, .I8-.1! B,',E,/,
-$I, å =4 hKn A4 shun éí¸# haru Æ B4 hun ; '4 hWun
Spring +the season/,
Ra(ial 3I+</,
-$$, ç =4 sQng +1/6 sOng +I/ A4 sD –—# mo ü B4 sang ì '4 song +1/6
sDng +I/
1, <o lose6 to (ie6 to (estro&,
I, <o mourn6 mourning, H
Ra(ial $% +n/,
-$-, é =4 gQi A4 gai (¿ B4 gae = '4 goi
1, 'anop&# o0er +usuall& for a arriage/,
I, “No (ou)t#” “pro)a)l&,” Fpartile intro(uing opinionG
1ere# the harater is part of a name, =eaning c1# though ommon# (oes not
our in our te;ts, =eaning cI will our later, Ra(ial 1-% +-/,
-$-a, é{ =4 gQi &L A4 gai&o (¿よ B4 gae &eo =/ '4 goi &bh
Tai&u, Fa personal nameG
<he &ounger )rother of g,
-$., ê =4 shV +i/6 9hV +I/ A4 shoku 駨 B4 sok > +1/6 hok +I/ '4 suhk
+1/6 "Kk +I/
1, Bin(# lass# ategor&6 to )elong to# to )e su)or(inate to# to )e go0erne( )&,
I, <o instrut# to (iret# to e;hort,
1ere# the harater is part of a name, Ra(ial -- +?/,
-$!, ë =4 &Dng A4 &D Η B4 &ong ¥ '4 &bhng
1, =e(iore# ommon6 hire( la)or6 to work for hire,
I, ?ong +a mountain range in @u"ian/,
1ere# the harater is part of a person8s name, =eaning c1# though ommon#
(oes not our in our te;ts, =eaning cI will our in Lesson $1, Ra(ial .$
-$.a, êë =4 shV &Dng A4 shoku&D ¤+´よž B4 sok &ong >¥ '4 suhk
Shu&ong, Fa personal nameG
<he &ounger )rother of g,
-$3, í =4 :iCn A4 sen ·¸# hisomu õ•²# hisomeru õ•めÂ# hisokani õ•
ªä B4 "amA '4 hNhm
Sunken# hi((en# seret6 seretl&6 to sink,
1ere# this harater is the name for a plae in the state of J, Ra(ial 8. +œ/,
-$8, î =4 &Cn A4 en Ù¸ B4 &eon B '4 &Nhn
<o e;ten(# to streth6 to in0ite,
1ere# this harater is part of a plae-name, Although this harater is fairl&
ommon in literar& 'hinese# it (oes not our again in our te;ts, Ra(ial .-
-$M, ï =4 lZng A4 r&D ¦§— B4 neung D '4 lNhng
=oun(# ri(ge# tom) moun(,
1ere# this harater is part of a plae-name +an( it onl& ours in plae-
names in our te;ts/, Ra(ial 13% +Í/,
-$8a, îï =4 &Cn lZng A4 enr&D ê7+ž B4 &eon neung BD '4 &Nhn
?anling, Fa plae-nameG
Name of the fief of •U€ i-18a/, Sometimes people are referre( to )& their
plae of origin or their fief(om4 “Ai9i of ?anling,”
--%, ñ =4 guOn A4 kan ͸# miru E B4 gwan F '4 gKn
<o o)ser0e# to wath# to ontemplate, Ra(ial 1-3 +f/,
--1, ò =4 fO A4 hatsu ¾š B4 )al G '4 faat
<o issue# to sen( forth# to arise# to manifest# to open,
Ra(ial 1%. +–/,
--I, ô =4 lb A4 ro ”# michi E© B4 lo H '4 louh
aath# roa(# route,
<his harater is use( less often than I+-1/ in a)strat an( philosophial
onte;ts, Ra(ial 1.3 +á/,
--$, ù =4 :ij A4 sho é§# katsu ª B4 ha J '4 hU
1, =oreo0er# furthermore, H
I, A)out to# will,,,, Ffuture markerG
$, <emporaril&# for the time )eing,
<his harater is a 0er& ommon a(0er)6 onl& meaning c1 ours in our
te;ts, Ra(ial 1 +™/,
---, ü =4 f^i A4 hai ¾¿# sutareru ³¹ÃÂ# sutaru ³¹Â B4 p&e K '4 fai
<o a)an(on# to (isar(,
1ere# this harater is use( in the sense of “to o0erthrow5 or “to (epose,5
Ra(ial .$ +@/,
--.- þ =4 lRo A4 rD ”—# oi Ó¢# oiru Ӣ B4 no L '4 lSuh
Ol(6 to grow ol(, Ra(ial 1I. +þ/,
--!, ÿ =4 liRng A4 r&D ¦§— B4 l&ang M '4 l^uhng
1, Both# pairH
I, An oune of sil0er +tael/,
=eaning cI# though ommon# (oes not our in our te;ts, Ra(ial 11 +°/,
--3, 困 =4 kbn A4 kon °¸# komaru ®ŸÂ# komaraseru ®Ÿ«Û B4 gon
N '4 kwan
<o )e in har( straits# to )e in (iffiult&# to ause (iffiult&,
Be areful not to onfuse this harater with æ +1M!/] Ra(ial $1 +n/,
--8, 空 =4 kDng A4 kK ¨—# suku ³´# aku Ú´# kara ª«# munashii ²Ò¤¢
B4 gong ¯ '4 hKng
Empt&# 0aant# futile,
Ra(ial 11! +O# “a0e#” “hole”/,
--M, 骨 =4 gV A4 kotsu °š# hone Æね B4 gol P '4 gwOt
Ra(ial 188 +骨/,
-.%, 鲠 =4 gjng A4 kD °— B4 g&eong 경 '4 gCng
@ish )one,
Ra(ial 1M. +H/,
--Ma, 骨鲠 =4 gV gjng A4 kokkD ®っ®ž B4 gol g&eong P경 '4 gwOt
1ar(# un&iel(ing# outspoken +(esripti0e of su)or(inates/,
1IM), }V =4 rL hU A4 ikaga ¢ªë# dō Qž# ikani ¢ªä B4 &eo ha /R '4
&bh hEh
2hat (o &ou thinkf 2hat an we (of 2hat s going onf Nothing an )e (one
<he o)"et of perple;it& is often inserte( )etween }an( V, T}RV thus
means 5there8s nothing Fthe&G an (o a)out us5 or 5there8s no one who an (o
an&thing a)out us,”
-.1, 頓 =4 (bn A4 ton ト¸# tomi ni îEä B4 (on S '4 (euhn
1, <o )eat on the groun(, H
I, Su((enl&,
=eaning cI# though ommon# (oes not our in our te;ts, Ra(ial 181 +T/,
-.I, 四 =4 sN A4 shi é B4 sa - '4 sei
Ra(ial $1 +Ñ/,
-.$, 月 =4 &u^ A4 getsu げ# gatsu (š# tsuki 8 B4 wol U '4 &uht
=oon# month,
@or the tra(itional alen(ar# see 1$,1 )elow, 四月 shoul( )e translate( as “the
@ourth =onth,”
-.-, 丙 =4 )[ng A4 hei 6¿ B4 )&eong V '4 )Zng
<he thir( of the “elestial stems”6 in(iates the thir( item in a series, See
1$,1 )elow for (etails on this harater, Ra(ial 1 +™/,
-.-a, 丙U =4 )[ng 9[ A4 heishi W¢¤ B4 )&eong "a VŸ '4 )Zng "Z
<hirteenth in the !%-item &le of tra(itional 'hinese (ating +see 1$,1 )elow/,
-.., 伏 =4 fL A4 fuku X´# fusu X³# fuseru XÛÂ B4 )ok Y '4 fuhk
1, <o fall prostrate# to hum)le oneself# to su)mit to,
I, <o lie in am)ush# to plae troops in am)ush, H
Note the two ra(iall& (ifferent groups of meanings)ut )oth of them suggest
a person rouhing (own or l&ing flat, Ra(ial M +!/,
-.!, 窟 =4 kK A4 kutsu ¨š# iwaya ¢ÏÀ B4 gul Z '4 gwaht
'a0e# a0ern,
Ra(ial 11! +O/,
-.3 室 =4 shN A4 shitsu éš# muro ²ろ B4 sil [ '4 sOt
1ouse# ham)er# room, Ra(ial -% +Ò/,
-.!a, 窟室 =4 kK shN A4 kusshitsu ´っ¤ B4 gul sil Z[ '4 gwaht sOt
'ellar +f/# empt& room +f/,
'ommentators are unsure of the e;at meaning of this phrase,
-.8, 陳 =4 hUn A4 hin ɸ# tsuraneru «ね B4 "in ³ '4 "ahn
<o (eplo&# to la& out# to take up positions,
<his harater is often use( in a militar& sense, Ra(ial 13% +Í/,
-.M, 宮 =4 gDng A4 ku ¨# k&K Öí—# gK #—# miya EÀ B4 gung \ '4
aalae# ruler\s (welling,
Ra(ial -% +Ò/,
-!%, 門 =4 mUn A4 mon モ¸# kado ªQ B4 mun 문 '4 mbhn
Poor# gate,
Ra(ial 1!M +門/,
-!1, 戶 =4 hb A4 ko °# to î B4 ho µ '4 wuh
Ra(ial !$ +戶/,
-!I, 階 =4 "iW A4 kai Í¿ B4 g&e ½ '4 gOai
Ra(ial 13% +Í/,
-!$, 陛 =4 )N A4 hei 6¿ B4 p&e K '4 )aih
Stairs Fusuall& of the palaeG,
Ra(ial 13% +Í/,
-!-, 親 =4 :_n A4 shin é¸# oya ÓÀ# shitashimu ¤¹¤² B4 hin ] '4
1, Relati0es# intimates# kin# parents, H
I, <o )e intimate with# to )e frien(l& or familiar with,
$, Oneself# personall&,
S&non&m +meaning c$/4 ‰ +1./, Ra(ial 1-3 +f/,
-!., 戚 =4 :_ A4 soku –¨# seki ·Ö B4 heok ^ '4 h_k
Relati0es# intimates,
親戚 usuall& means “relations#” )ut the guests here were pro)a)l& "ust people
lose to the king, Ra(ial !I +½/,
-!!, 夾 =4 "iC A4 k&D Ö§— B4 h&eop _ '4 gaap
<o flank# to stan( on either si(e of# to insert,
Ra(ial $3 +\/,
-!3, 侍 =4 shN A4 "i Ê# haberu Æ`Â# jisuru ñ³Â B4 si a '4 sih
<o atten( upon# to ser0e,
Ra(ial M +!/,
-!8, 持 =4 hZ A4 "i Ê# motsu ü B4 "i Ë '4 hNh
<o hol(# to grasp,
S&non&m4 H+$!-/, Ra(ial !- +手/,
-!M, ! =4 p_ A4 hi ð B4 pi © '4 pWi
Pou)le-)la(e( swor(,
<his harater is 0er& rare an( is not the one most ommonl& use( for
“swor(” +for that# see b F.!%G/, Ra(ial 1!3 +c/,
-3%, # =4 &Cng +1/6 ;iCng +I/ A4 &D Η# itsuwaru ¢Ï B4 &ang Ï +1/6
sang ì +I/ '4 &^uhng +1/6 h^uhng+I/
1, <o feign# to preten(, H
I, 'arefull&# in (etail,
<his harater# in meaning c1# is a ommon su)stitute for the harater d,
=eaning cI# though ommon# (oes not our in our te;ts, Ra(ial 1-M +o/,
-31, % =4 9hN A4 hi É# oku Ó´ B4 hi e '4 "i
<o position,to plae,
Ra(ial 1II +f/,
-3I, & =4 9hN A4 sha éャ# aburu ÚÁÂ B4 "a Ÿ# "eok Ç '4 "ek
<o roast6 roaste(foo(,
Ra(ial 8! +g/,
-3$, ' =4 fb A4 fuku h¨# onaka ÓÒª# hara Æ« B4 )ok Y '4 fKk
Bell&# stomah,
Ra(ial 1$% +ž/,
-3-, ) =4 )E A4 haku ¾¨# tsunzaku i´ B4 )&eok j '4 maak
<o tear apart\ to tear open# to rip open,
Ra(ial !- +手/,
-3. 刺 =4 N A4 shi é# sasu £³ B4 "a Ÿ '4 hi
<o sta),
Ra(ial 18 +:/,
-3!, + =4 rRo A4 "D ʧ— B4 &o k '4 &Zuh
<o throw into onfusion# to run a)out in onfusion,Ra(ial !- +手/,
-33, , =4 luQn A4 ran l¸# midare EûÃ# midaru EûÂ# midasu Eû³ B4
lan m '4 l&uhn
<o riot# to )e thrown into onfusion# to (isor(er# to misgo0ern6 re)ellion,
Ra(ial . +5/,
-38, / =4 mi^ A4 metsu àš# horobiru ÆろóÂ# horobosu Æろdz B4
m&eol n '4 miht
<o (estro&# to annihilate# to )e (estro&e(,
aartial s&non&m4 ” +I--/, Ra(ial 8. +œ/,
-3M, 0 =4 hU A4 kD °— B4 hap o '4 hahp
Leaf of a (oor6 to shut# to lose,
1ere# this harater is part of a king8s name6 it (oes not our again in our
te;ts, Ra(ial 1!M +門/,
-8%, 1 =4 lo A4 r&o ¦§ B4 l&eo p '4 l^uih
Neigh)orhoo( +tehniall&# of I. families/6 0illage or neigh)orhoo( gate,
1ere# this harater is part of a king8s name6 it onl& ours in proper names in
our te;ts,
Ra(ial 1!M +門/,
-3Ma, 01 =4 hU lo A4 kDr&o ®ž7+ B4 hap l&eo op '4 hahp l^uih
1elii, Fa personal nameG
Name of i upon taking the throne +r, .1---M. B,',E,/,
-81, 2 =4 fWng A4 fK h—# hD q— B4 )ong r '4 fKng
<o appoint# to grant a fief to6 fief(om,
Ra(ial -1 +›/,
-8I, 3 =4 :_ng A4 kei ケ¿# k&D Ö§— B4 g&eong 경 '4 h_ng
=inister of state,
Ra(ial I!+s/,
1$,1, <ra(itional (ating4 A ommon wa& of in(iating (a&s an( &ears in
tra(itional 'hina was to assign eah one a two-harater (esignation, <he
first harater woul( )e one of a set of ten haraters terme( the 5elestial
stems56 the seon( woul( )e one of a set of twel0e terme( the 5terrestrial
)ranhes,5 <he two groups an( their =an(arin pronuniations are as follows4
<he ten elestial stems +tiangan •8/4
甲 5 丙 t u v w x y z
<he twel0e terrestrial )ranhes +(i9hi 9{/4
U | } ~ • € • u ‚ ƒ u „
<he s&stem (esignates or ounts &ears +or (a&s/ )& mathing the first stem
with the first )ranh# the seon( stem with the seon( )ranh# an( so forth,
2hen the en( of eah group is reahe(# that group starts o0er again, <his
means that the ele0enth (esignation of the &le will onsist of the first stem
an( the ele0enth )ranh# the twelfth will onsist of the seon( stem with the
twelfth )ranh# the thirteenth will onsist of the thir( stem an( the first
)ranh# an( so forth, Si;t& om)inations our )efore the &le repeats itself,
1ere is the full &le# )eginning with 甲U +an( rea(ing left to right
甲U 5| 丙} t~ u• v€ w• xu y‚ zƒ 甲u 5„
丙U t| u} `~ w• x` y• zu 甲‚ 5ƒ 丙u t„
uU `| w} x~ y• z` 甲• 5u 丙‚ tƒ uu `„
wU x| y} 甲~ 甲• 5` 丙• tu u‚ `ƒ wu x„
yU z| 甲} 5~ 丙• t` u• `u w‚ xƒ yu z„
<his s&stem is easiest to (eal with when &ears are )eing (esignate(6 sine
0er& earl& times# &ears ha0e reei0e( stem-an(-)ranh (esignations# whih
ha0e repeate( regularl& an( without interruption e0er& !% &ears +the present
&le )egan in 1M8-/,
1owe0erY(a&s also are (esignate( )& the stem-an(-)ranh metho(# an( this
&le also repeats without en(, <o alulate what the (a& is when fae( with
a stem-an(-)ranh (esignation# the historian must resort to (ating )ooks,
7n our partiular te;t# we are tol( that the fatal )an:uet ourre( on the
)ing9i 丙U +i,e,# the thirteenth (esignation of the &le/ (a& of the fourth
month, <he months were lunar in the tra(itional alen(ar +with eah month
)eginning with the new moon# an( the full moon ourring in the e;at
mi((le of the month# on the fifteenth/, <o keep the alen(ar roughl& in s&n
with solar &les# an 5interalar&5 month was a((e( to the alen(ar one
e0er& se0eral &ears, 7t is unlear whih (a& of the fourth month )ing9i woul(
ha0e )een# howe0er# )eause the stem-an(-)ranh &le (i( not s&n with
the months +i,e,# the& (i(n8t start o0er e0er& time the month hange(/, 7t is
also (ou)tful that the (ifferent 'hinese states of the pre-imperial perio( all
s&nhroni9e( their alen(ars to one another8s# so there is no guarantee that
an& (ate )ook woul( gi0e the right (a& in this partiular ase, 2ith the
esta)lishment of the 1an an( *in (&nasties# howe0er# (ate )ooks were
stan(ar(i9e(6 those &ou onsult after this perio( an gi0e relia)le (ata on
when a partiular (a& ourre(,
1$,I, Remin(er4 Trammatial funtion wor(s are optional] As 7 ha0e state( a
num)er of times# alwa&s e;pet funtion wor(s to (isappear from sentenes
if the onte;t woul( )e lear without them, <his is :uite often the ase with E
when it marks loation, 7n our lesson8s te;t# we ha0e +1, M/4
Voca*u+ar, -ints
æ+1M!-I/ ,+$%M-I/ þ+131/ ¼+I%I/ ì+I!$-1/
ð+I!I/ 諸•+I.$a# L11/ z+$%-/ ó+II./ õ+1M8/
E‘+11a# L!/ ö+1-./ Ž+.I/ ‘+1.I/ ø+I31/
•+-I%-1# I# $/ ‹+-I-/ •+-I!/ ú+I$I/ Û+$13/
ý+I8%/ [+$3I/ c+I%%/ v+-11/ Û+$13/ s+-1%/
‘+I%$/ J+$!!/ 身+$I/ 甲+13M/ 具+1%3-1/
‰+1.-I/ +$-$-$/ m+I.-/ "+$II-1/ á+1!!-I/
$+I81-1/ °+1I./ IJ+$!.a# L11/ w+-1I/ (+$%!/
»+13I/ m +I$./ G+$!$/
Character List
i, ùã,伏侍ÿ3ç四室宮2êäüî戶持å月/ò空%þé親ñô門ï陳骨+$$/
ii, *困夾ë戚í'#1陛階頓+1I/
iii, &0+I/
i0, 丙)+窟!鲠+!/
Lesson 1"
Assassin-Retainers: 豫讓1%
B&Š¾,Š¾a‹Œ8)‡Š¾¼•ŽU,• ŽU-••‘謀/Š¾,/Š¾8YB
-8$, 豫 =4 &b A4 &o Î B4 &e È '4 &uh
<o get rea(&# to prepare6 omfort6 to )e at ease,
1ere# this harater is a surname, Ra(ial 1.I +É# 5swine#5 5pig5/,
-8-, 讓 =4 rQng A4 "D ʧ—# yuzuru ×ず B4 &ang Ï '4 &euhng
1, <o (emur to# to (efer to# to gi0e in to6 to a)(iate Fthe throneG#
I, <o sol(# to )erate,
<hough this harater appears here as part of a name# it is an important an(
ommon one, 7n the first meaning# this term refers to a 'onfuian 0irtue4 the
a)ilit& to surren(er one8s own (esires an( nee(s for the sake of others, 7t
fre:uentl& refers to a ruler a)(iating his throne# espeiall& +in ertain
famous ases/ to a man more 0irtuous than himself, =eaning cI# though
:uite ommon# (oes not our in our te;ts, Ra(ial 1-M +o/,
-8$a, 豫讓 =4 &b rQng A4 &o "D ×ñ+ž B4 &e &ang ÈÏ '4 &uh &euhng
?u Rang# Fa proper nameG
Name of a retainer-warrior,
-8., … =4 fQn A4 han ¾¸ B4 )eomÊ '4 faahn
One of the ruling lans of ð,<his harater also )eame a fairl& ommon
surname, Ra(ial 7-%+-/,
-8!, † =4 shN A4 shi é# uji žñ B4 ssi Ë '4 sih
'lan# lineage,
Ra(ial 8$ +†/,
111a, 中ˆ =4 9hDng hCng A4 hKkD ©öž®ž B4 "ung haeng ÌÍ '4
"Kng hEhng
One of the ruling lans of ð,Note the speial pronuniation of ˆ,
-83, Š =4 9hN A4hi É B4"i Ë '4 "i
2ise# resoureful# le0er,
1ere# this harater is the name of one of the lans of ð,Ra(ial 3I +R/,
-83a, Š¾ =4 9hN )S A4 hi haku ©Æ´ B4 "i )aek ËÎ '4 "i )aak
<he Earl of >hi,
arominent general an( lea(er of the Š lan,
-88, ‹ =4 9Kn A4 son –¸# tattomu ¹っî² B4 "on Ï '4 "&Kn
<o respet# to honor6 respete(# honore(,
aartial s&non&m4 Ð +81/, Ra(ial -1 +›/,
-8M, Œ =4 hJng A4 hD ɧ— B4 hong Ñ '4 hLng
@a0or# lo0e# patronage6 to fa0or, Ra(ial -% +Ò/,
-M%, Ž =4 ;iOng A4 " ʧ— B4 &ang Ï '4 sWung
<o help# to assist6 to ahie0e# to aomplish,
<his harater appears most often as a surname or as a posthumous title for
rulers an( feu(al lor(s +as is the ase here/, Ra(ial 1-. +Ò/,
-M%a, ŽU =4 ;iOng 9[ A4 "D shi ñ+ž¤ B4 &ang "a ÏŸ '4 sWung "Z
pisount diang,
Lea(er of the • lan an( gran(son of •ÓU +from Lesson !/,
-M1, • =4 hCn A4 kan ͸ B4 han Ô '4 hEhn
Name of a lan of ð, Like •# this lan sur0i0e( the partitioning of ð an(
)eame an in(epen(ent state, Ra(ial 138 +Õ# “tanne( leather”/,
-MI, • =4 w^i A4 gi Ö B4 wi '' '4 ngaih
Name of a lan of ð, • also sur0i0e( the partition an( )eame an
in(epen(ent state, Ra(ial 1M- +×# “spirit”/,
-M$, ‘ =4 he A4 gD ÷—# au Úž# awasu Úϳ B4 hap o '4 hahp
1, <o )ring together# to unite# to fuse,
I, <o lose# to shut,
$, <o )e appropriate for# to fit in with, Ra(ial $% +Ñ/,
-M-, “ =4 9uN A4 sai ·¿# mottomo üっîü B4 hoe Ø '4 "eui
=ost# -est,
<his harater is usuall& use( to in(iate the superlati0e (egree, Ra(ial 3$
-M., • =4 :_ A4 shitsu éš# urushi žÂ¤ B4 hil ˜ '4 hOt
aaint# la:uer# 0arnish6 to paint# to 0arnish,
Buil(ings an( other o)"ets were often painte( for preser0ation purposes,
Ra(ial 8. +œ/,
-M!, – =4 tSu A4 tD ト—# 9u Ù# atama Ú¹Ÿ# kōbe ®ž` B4 (u Ú '4
1, 1ea(, H
I, FNoun suffi;# laking set meaning,G
<his harater is ommonl& use( as a noun suffi; in more ollo:uial literar&
'hinese6 it is use( in a similar wa& in mo(ern =an(arin, S&non&m +meaning
c1/4 J+$!!/, Ra(ial 181 +–/,
-M3, ˜ =4 :N A4 ki Ö# utsuwa žÏ B4 gi å '4 hei
1, pessel# ontainer# utensil, H
I, 'apait&# a)ilit&,
<he seon( meaning is an a)strat (eri0ation of the first4 the usefulness or
utilit& of an in(i0i(ual, Ra(ial $% +n/,
-M8, ™ =4 (bn A4 ton ト¸# nogareru ±ëàB4 (un Û '4 (euhn
<o flee# to a0oi(# to hi(e,
S&non&m4†+go/, Ra(ial 1!I +Ü/,
-MM, › =4 "iW A4 sa ·# a Ú B4 ha J '4 "W
<o sigh6 Alas]
Ra(ial $% +n/,
1a, dv =4 9h_"[ A4 hiki ©8 B4 "i gi Ëå '4 "_ gUi
An intimate frien( +lit,# “Fa personG who knows oneself8/,
Note that the usage of the phrase here is (ifferent from its usage in Lesson 16
the v is not refle;i0e )ut refers to the perspeti0e of the person who has the
.%%, œ =4 rSng A4 &D Η# katachi ª¹© B4 &ong ¥ '4 &bhng
'ountenane# fae& e;pression6 to a(orn Fthe faeG, Ra(ial -% +š/,
.%1, • =4 hLn A4 kon °¸# tamashii ¹Ÿ¤¢ B4 hon Ý '4 wQhn
Soul# spirit,
One of the two 5souls5 e0er& human possesses6 this soul goes hea0enwar(
after (eath, Ra(ial 1M- +×/,
.%I, ž =4 pE A4 taku 4¨# haku ¾¨ B4 )aek Î '4 paak
Soul# spirit,
<his harater refers to one of the two 5souls5 e0er& human possesses6 this
soul goes into the earth after (eath, •ž is a s&non&m ompoun( for 5soul,5
Ra(ial 1M- +×/,
.%$, Ÿ =4 kuN A4 ki Ö# hajiru Æñ B4 goe 괴 '4 kwCih
<o feel ashame(6 to shame,
S&non&m4 Þ+I.8/, Ra(ial !1 +=/,
.%-, =4 ;Nng A4 shD ¤+ž# sei ·¿ B4 seong 성 '4 sing
Surname# lan name,
Ra(ial $8 +¶/,
.%., ¡ =4 ;Zng A4 kei ケ¿ B4 h&eong ¬ '4 &Nhng
1, aunishment# sentene6 to punish, H
I, =o(el# image# i(eal6 to pro0i(e a mo(el or e;ample for +use( for ß/
¡! thus means “on0it” or generall& an&one arr&ing out man(ator& la)or
as punishment for a rime, Ra(ial 18 +:/,
.%!, ¢ =4 tL A4 to ト# nuru à B4 (o 도 '4 tEuh
1, <o paint# to oat in mu(6 paint# mu(H
I, Roa(# path +use( for á/,
Ra(ial $I +Ì/,
.%3, £ =4 ^ A4 shi é# kawaya ªÏÀ B4 heuk â '4 hi
ari0&# outhouse# toilet,
<his wor( is sometimes written ã,Ra(ial .$ +@/,
.%8, ¤ =4 ;iU A4 k&D Ö§—# hasamu Æ£² B4 h&eop _ '4 hihp
<o insert# to lasp un(erneath the arm,
Ra(ial !- +手/,
1Ma, =P =4 ;_n (Eng A4 kokoro ugoku ®®ろžご´ B4 sim (ong 심동 '4
sOm (uhng
<o )e suspiious# to )e uneas&,
.%M, : =4 (Oo A4 tD ト—# katana ª¹Ò B4 (o 도 '4 (Du
Bnife# )la(e# swor(,
Ra(ial 18 +:/,
.1%, ¥ =4 hSu A4 k&K Öí—# ada Úû# kataki ª¹8 B4 gu 4 '4 sQuh
Enem&# foe6 hatre(# feu(,
<his harater is use( interhangea)l& with p +-%8/, Ra(ial M +!/,
.11, ¦ =4 9hK A4 hK Éí— B4 "u ä '4 "&K
<o e;eute# to punish,
Ra(ial 1-M +o/,
.1I, ¨ =4 "[n A4 kin Ö¸# tsutsushimu ¤² B4 geun å '4 gCn
<o )e areful# to )e onsientious,
Ra(ial 1-M +o/,
.1$, « =4 shN A4 shaku éャ¨# seki ·Ö B4 seok æ '4 s_k
<o free# to release# to e;plain,
Beause this harater was use( in the sinii9ation of the Bu((ha8s name#
Shak&amuni# it also omes to mean 5Bu((ha5 or 5Bu((hist,5 Ra(ial 1!. +ç#
“to (istinguish5/,
.1-, - =4 :[ng A4 kei ケ¿# koro ®ろ B4 g&eong 경 '4 kZng
<ime# inter0al of timet )rief perio( of time,
¬ +I.M/ is fre:uentl& use( in the e;pression ¬- to mean “shortl& afterwar(#”
“after a while,” <he 8 here is a “(umm&” harater# inserte( for the sake of
the rh&thm6 this use is fairl& t&pial in elapse(-time e;pressions +ompare è
8 in Lesson 1!/, Ra(ial 181 +T/,
.1., ® =4 lN A4 rei é¿ B4 l&eo p '4 laih
1, Se0ere# harsh6 se0erit&# harshness,
I, Sores# ulers# )listers, H
=eaning cI +use( in this lesson8s te;t/ su)stitutes for the 5orret5 harater#
ê, E;posure to the 0arnish (estro&s the skin, 豫讓 (oes this to gi0e himself
the appearane of a leper or similar (isease( outast, Ra(ial I3 +ë/,
.1!, ¯ =4 tKn A4 (on ド¸# nomu ±² B4 tan ì '4 tOn
<o swallow,
Ra(ial $% +n/,
.13, ° =4 tQn A4 tan 4¸# sumi ³E B4 tan ì '4 taan
Ashes# haroal# l&e,
Ra(ial 8! +g/,
.18, ± =4 &R A4 a ア# oshi Ó¤ B4 a í '4 C
=ute# hoarse,
Ra(ial $% +n/,
.1M, ² =4 ;Zng A4 g&D Ö§—# kei @¢# kata ª¹# katachi ª¹© B4 h&eong
¬ '4 &Nhng
E;ternal form# shape,
Ra(ial .M +î# “feathere( hair ornament”/,
.I%, ³ =4 9huQng A4 "D ʧ— B4 sang ì '4 "ohng
@orm# appearane# shape,
1ere# ³ forms a s&non&m ompoun( with ²,Ra(ial M% +ï# “)e(#” “ouh”/,
.I1, ´ =4 :[ A4 kitsu Öš# kotsu °š# kou ®ž B4 geol ð '4 hOt
<o )eg6 )eggar,
Ra(ial . +5/,
.II, µ =4 shN A4 shi é# ichi ¢© B4 si a '4 sZh
=arketplae# it&6 to purhase in a marketplae,
Ra(ial .% +ñ# “loth”/,
.I$, · =4 shZ A4 shiki éÖ B4 sik ò '4 s_k
<o reogni9e# to know,
Ra(ial 1-M +o/,
.I-, ¸ =4 &Ju A4 &K ¡—# tomo îü B4 u ó '4 &Cuh
Ra(ial IM +Ô/,
.I., ¹ =4 rV A4 "o ʧ# nanji Òñ# nare Òà B4 &eo / '4 &Lh
?ou, Fseon(person pronoun# often informal or ru(eG
Ra(ial 8. +œ/,
.I!, º =4 :N A4 k&K Öí—# naku Ò´ B4 eup ô '4 &Op
<o weep,
Ra(ial 8. +œ/,
.I3, » =4 Ci A4 sai ·¿ B4 "ae õ '4 hEih
<alent# a)ilit&,
Ra(ial !- +手/,
.I8, ¼ =4 wji A4 i ¿# makasu Ÿª³# makaseru ŸªÛ B4 wi ' '4 wCi
<o entrust# to gi0e o0er to,
Ra(ial $8 +¶/,
.IM, ½ =4 9hN A4 shitsu éš B4 "il ö '4 "Ot
Su)stane# matter# essene6 su)stitute# pawn# hostage#
¼½ woul( mean something like ¼身# that is# “to entrust oneself,5 Ra(ial 1.-
.$%, ¾ =4 "Nn A4 kin Ö¸# chikai ©ª¢# chikazuku ©ªず´# chikazukeru ©ª
ず@Â B4 geun å '4 gahn
'lose# near6 to approah# to )e intimate with# to treat as a frien(,
7n the last two meanings this harater is s&non&mous with 親+-!--I/, Ra(ial
1!I +´/,
.$1, ¿ =4 ;Nng A4 kD °—# sachi £©# saiwai £¢Ï¢ B4 haeng Í '4
Too( fortune6 lukil&6 to fa0or,to treat well,
7n the last two meanings this harater is s&non&mous with Œi-8M/, Ra(ial
$I +Ì/,
.$I, À =4 gb A4 ko °# kaerimiru ªê7E B4 go 0 '4 gu
1, <o look )ak# to regar(6 to look after# to hee(,
I, But# howe0er# on the other han(,
$, 1ow oul(,,, +use( in rhetorial :uestions e;peting the opposite/, H
<he onrete at of looking )akwar( le( to meaning cIYwhen one makes a
ounterstatement# has a reser0ation# or ontra(its oneself# one is “looking
)ak#” so to speak, =eaning c$# use( in our lesson te;t here# is rather rare4
ÀyÁ‰# ”1ow oul( FthatG not )e eas&f5 Ra(ial 181 +T/,
.$$,  =4 Cn A4 9an ÷¸# nokoru ±®Â B4 "an ø '4 hQahn
<o (eimate6 to linger# to )e left )ehin(6 ruel,
Ra(ial 38 +ù/,
.$-, à =4 kV A4 ku ¨# kurushimu ´Â¤²# kurushii ´Â¤¢# nigai äë¢
B4 go 0 '4 fL
<o suffer# to toil6 )itter# toilsome6 to fin( )itter or (iffiult# to suffer from,
Ra(ial 1-% +-/,
.$., Å =4 huCi A4 kai Í¿# natsukashimu Òª¤²# futokoro Xî®ろ B4
hoe Ü '4 wQaih
1, <o herish# to har)or# to long for, H
I, 'heste)osom6 to store in the fol(s of the garment o0er the hest,
Ra(ial !1 +=/,
$I-a, è= =4 ^r ;_n A4 nishin ä¤ B4 i sim¹심 '4 &ih sOm
Pislo&al or traitorous intentions,
.$!, Æ =4 "[ A4 k&oku Ö§¨# goku ご´# kiwamaru 8ÏŸÂ# kiwameru 8Ïめ
 B4 geuk ú '4 gihk
E;tremel&# most6 en(# further e;tent6 to get to the en( of# to fathom, Ra(ial
3. +ß/,
1-,1, BT“d
+1, I/4 5)ut he ha( no wa& to )eome renowne(5Yliterall&# 5he (i( not ha0e
fame that was known,5
1--I, /Š¾8Y+1, $/4 <hough &ou might )e tempte( to rea( this as 5After
the& (estro&e( <he Earl of >hi ,,,#” most interpret Y here to mean
heirse(esen(ants +.$-I/, <his interpretation fits in with the use of Y in line M,
1-,$, 士+dv者Q,¶+hv者œ+11, --./4 5A knight (ies for one who
un(erstan(s him well# an( a woman a(orns herself for one who takes
pleasure in her,5 <his )eame a pro0er) in later literature, 7t is one of the
earliest e;amples of the ten(en& in 'hinese rhetori to ompare the
relationship of a retainer an( his lor( to that of a woman an( her lo0er or
1-,-, û¨©8ª+1, 8/4 1ere is the first use in our te;ts of the final sentene
partile ª +I1-I/# whih is sai( to )e a 5fusion5 of B`,Literall& meaning 5an(
that8s the en(#5 it is usuall& translate( a(0er)iall& as 5onl&5 or 5simpl&,5 1ere#
it woul( mean 57 will simpl& )e areful to a0oi( him,5
1-,., ¬-8,豫讓Ô•身+®,¯°+±,ˆ²³y„d)ˆ´Eµ,k¶y·")ˆ
fk¸,k¸·8 +11, M-11/4 <he point here is that he is (isfiguring himself in
or(er to make himself unreogni9a)le# an( then he tests the alteration with
his wife an( frien(s, Another 0ersion of the stor&# from the >hanguo e /]û
+in English 7ntrigues of the 2arring States/ tells it a little (ifferentl&, 7n that
0ersion# ü讓 first (isfigures himself# )ut when his wife reogni9es him )& the
soun( of his 0oie# he then (rinks l&e to (isguise himself further, 1is frien(s#
howe0er# still know him,
1-,!, ¹q豫讓‰+1, 11/4 2e80e alrea(& seen the rhetoriall& omple; use of q
in .,$ +57t8s not the ase that,,,5/, 1owe0er# it is onl& in this lesson8s te;t that
we see the simplest use of this negati0eYinserte( )etween d an( ? in an d?
" sentene# as follows4
¹q豫讓 )?ou are not ?u Rang,
Note that in our lesson te;t# this sentene en(s with a :uestion partile#
turning it into a rhetorial :uestion4
¹q豫讓‰f Aren8t &ou ?u Rangf
1-,3, “# e;planation sentenes4 “# was intro(ue( in 1%,$# translate( as
5the means )& whih5 +re0iew t&pial sentenes if &ou nee( to/, Beause #
an often e;press reason as well as metho( or instrument# “# an also
mean 5the reason wh&#” an( it an )e plae( in the first phrase of two-phrase
e;planation sentenes, <his pratie is often use( to make 者" e;planation
sentenes +3,./ more lear, =oreo0er# the seon( lause often has a
re(un(ant o0er) # +or sometimes +/ a((e(# simpl& to emphasi9e the
struture, 7n the following e;amples# see how the pratie sentenes from 3,.
an )e hange(4
k •ÓUýþ者,ÿ(盧8o") •ÓU+8/“#ýþ者,X#/ÿ(盧8o")<he
reason wh& pisount Aian of >hao (is)an(e( the arm& was )eause he
listene( to Tong Lu8s wor(s,
k u+jm忠者,jà8") u+8/“#+jm忠者,+#/jà8")<he reason wh&
the minister e;hauste( his lo&alt& to the fullest for his ruler was )eause the
ruler lo0e( him,
k (盧’¶者,yd選桑") (盧+8/“#’¶者,X#/yd選桑")<he reason wh&
Tong Lu o)taine( a wife was )eause he (i(n8t know how to selet mul)err&
k 孔UÒ破ÒB耕者,y受7E(") 孔U+8/“#Ò破ÒB耕者,X#/y受7E(")
<he reason wh& 'onfuius wore tattere( lothes an( plowe( was )eause he
(i(n8t aept a town from the (uke,
k =(舉þB¼者,jyÐ8") =(+8/“#舉þB¼者,X#/jyÐ8")
<he reason wh& Puke 1uan raise( troops an( attake( Lu was )eause the
ruler of Lu (i( not respet him, ?ou shoul( now )e a)le to rea( the omple;
last sentene of the Lesson 1- te;t] But if &ou nee( some help# tr& to (i0i(e it
like this4
Ç“#+ö者,But the reason wh& 7 am (oing this
,#Ÿ is )eause )& means of this 7 will shame
•qY世8 the-in-the-worl(-later-generation-
+!u )eome-other-people8s-su)"etseministers Fan( &etG
Åè= har)or-(islo&al-intentions-
#&kj者") an(-)&-means-+of that/-ser0e-their-rulers people,
Voca*u+ar, -ints
{+$%1/ _+I!1/ ð+I!I/ &+3!-I/ ‡+IM!-I q IM!-$/
‰+18%/ ¾+I!%-I/ a+$3-/ ¼+I%I/
/+-38/ ’+!$1/ 9+$.-/ ”+./ —+113/
†+M%/ h+-%I-I/ Š+$%$/ p+-%8/ b+I!!/
z+$%-/ °+1I./ 宮+-.M/ IJ+$!.a# L11/ }+1IM-I/
H+$!-/ Q+$3%/ s+-1%/ 持+-!8/ þ+131/
Character List
i, :¡®¸‘›˜¢œ‹¿²Å»ŠÆ¹ºÃ¦·½¾•–À +I3/
ii, ¼ŒµŸ¤“†Â³…Ž¨讓豫«•+13/
iii, ¥´¯•™-+!/
i0, ±°£ž+-/
Lesson 11
U\§8,4ˆˆ持Ò-豫讓)豫讓(b0 )B"8,RSTû„#qnŠ¾biY6
.$3, 橋 =4 :iCo A4 k&D Ö§—# hashi Ƥ B4 g&o + '4 kNuh
Ra(ial 3. +ß/,
.$8, 驚 =4 "_ng A4 k&D Ö§—# kei ケ¿# odoroku ÓQろ´# odorokasu ÓQろª
³ B4 g&eong 경 '4 g_ng
Startle(# surprise(6 to startle,
Ra(ial 183 +馬/,
.$M, 數 =4 shV +1/6 shb +I/6 shuE +$/6 b +-/ A4 sK ,—# shibashiba ¤º¤º#
semeru ÛめÂ B4 sak -# su ô# hok . '4 sSu+1/6 sou+I/6 sok+$/6 hKk+-/
1, <o num)er# to ount6 to )erate# to sol(, H
I, Se0eral6 num)er# :uantit&,
$, Se0eral times,
-, Small-meshe( +(esri)es fishing nets/,
Note the three (ifferent pronuniations in =an(arin for the (ifferent parts of
speeh4 a 0er) +originall& meaning “to ount” )ut )& e;tension meaning “to
)erate#” “to sol(#”Ythe i(ea )eing that the sol(er is 5ounting up5 the
wrong(oings of the person he is a((ressing/6 an a("eti0e or noun6 an( an
a(0er), =eaning c- is a rare usage# )ut it will our in Lesson I$, Ra(ial !!
.-%, 深 =4 shWn A4 shin é¸# fukui Xª¢# fukameru XªめÂ# fukamaru Xª
ŸÂ B4 sim심 '4 sOm
Peep# profoun(6 (eepl&6 to sink,
Ra(ial 8. +œ/,
.-1, 眾 =4 9hEng A4 shu éí# shK éí— B4 "ung Ì '4 "ung
'row(# multitu(e# masses,
<his harater is written a num)er of wa&s# 0 )eing the ne;t most ommon,
Ra(ial 1II +f/,
.-1a, 眾! =4 9hEng rUn A4 shK"in ¤öžñ B4 "ung in Ì1 '4 "ung &Qhn
=e(iore person# or(inar& person6 ommoners# the masses,
.-I, 遇 =4 &b A4 gK #—# gu ## ashirau Ú¤«ž# au Úž B4 u ó '4 &uh
1, <o treat& to )eha0e towar(, H
I, <o enounter# to meet,
=eaning cI# though :uite ommon# (oes not our in our te;ts, Ra(ial 1!I
11-a, 至E =4 9hN&L A4 ni itari 䢹7 B4 "i eo Ë2 '4 "i &K
As forX# when it omes to,,,,
.3a, ]士 =4 guS shN A4 kokushi ®´¤ B4 guk sa 3- '4 gwok sih
A knight renowne( throughout the state,
.-$, 喟 =4 kuN A4 ki Ö B4 wi ' '4 wCi
Peepl& +use( to (esri)e sighing/,
Ra(ial $% +n/,
.--, 歎 =4 tQn A4 tan 4¸# nageku Òげ´ B4 tan ì '4 taan
<o sigh,
?ou ma& also fin( this harater written 4,Ra(ial 3! +/# “laking”/,
.-., 息 =4 ;_ A4 soku –¨# iki ¢8# ikimu ¢8²# ikou ¢®ž B4 sik ò '4
1, <o sigh# to )reathe6 )reath, H
I, <o rest# to ease,
1ere# the harater forms a s&non&m ompoun( with 歎,Ra(ial !1 +=/,
.-!, 寡 =4 guR A4 ka Í B4 gwa 5 '4 gwC
1, Rare# few# sare,
I, Orphan# wi(ow,
Ra(ial -% +Ò/,
.-!a, 寡! =4 guR rUn A4 ka"in ªñ B4 gwa in 51 '4 gwC &Qhn
F@irst person pronoun use( onl& )& rulers,G
<hough earl& ommentators (isagree on this term\s origins# it pro)a)l&
means “the orphane( one” +i,e,# the ruler has a right to the throne )eause of
the (eath of his father/, Others assert that it is an a))re0iation of 寡68!#
“1# of few 0irtues”Ythat is# that it is a polite# self-effaing term,
.-3, 赦 =4 sh^ A4 sha éャ# yurusu ׳ B4 sa - '4 se
<o par(on# to forgi0e,
Ra(ial !! +7/,
.-8, 明 =4 mZng A4 mei à¿# m&D 8§—# akarui ڪ¢, akiraka Ú8«ª
B4 m&eong 9 '4 mNhng
1, Bright# shining,
I, <o un(erstan(# to larif&,
$, 2ise# enlightene(6 to )e enlightene(, H
-, 'lear6 lear e&esight,
., Eminent# famous# high-:ualit&,
Although this harater is use( in a 0er& )roa( range of meanings# all of the
meanings are more or less relate( to a sense of )rightness or )rilliane,
Ra(ial 3I +</,
.-M, 主 =4 9hV A4 shu éí# shK éí—# nushi ठB4 "u ä '4 "&L
Ruler# master6 host,
Ra(ial $ +:/,
..%, 掩 =4 &Rn A4 en Ù¸# ōu ÓÓž B4 eom; '4 &Zm
<o o0er# to oneal# to wipe,
Ra(ial !- +手/,
..1, 美 =4 mji A4 )i <# utsukushii ž´¤¢ B4 mi = '4 mUih
Beaut&6 )eautiful6 goo( points# assets,
Ra(ial 1I$ +&/,
..I, 寬 =4 kuOn A4 kan ͸# hiroi õろ¢ B4 gwan F '4 fKn
=agnanimous# tolerant,
Ra(ial -% +Ò/,
$!8a, Ny =4 mE )b A4 +no set ren(ering/ B4 mak )u ý> '4 mohk )Ot
E0er&one +lit,# “no one not”/,
<his phrase is a (ou)le negati0e# somewhat more emphati than m+I.-/,
'ompare it also to m +I$./,
..$, 稱 =4 hWng +1-I/6 h^n +$/ A4 shD 駗# tonaeru îÒêÂ# tataeru ¹
¹ê B4 hing ? '4 h_ng +1-I/6 hing +$/
1, <o praise6 to name# to term, H
I, <o weigh,
$, Suita)le# agreea)le6 to fit# to fin( FsomethingG suita)le# to please,
Ra(ial 11. +-/,
..-, ! =4 &uQn A4 gan (¸# negau ねëž# negai ねë¢ B4 won A '4
<o )e willing,
<his harater is use( most often as a polite re:uest wor( +“7 am willing to (o
that” or “7 am willing for &ou to (o that”/# similar to 請+1---1/, +7t is pro)a)l&
use( with 請 in a s&non&m ompoun( here,/ Ra(ial 181 +T/,
..., " =4 "_ A4 geki @Ö# utsu ž B4 g&eok A '4 g_k
<o hit# to strike# to )eat,
Ra(ial !- +手/,
..!, $ =4 &N A4 i ¿ B4 ui B '4 &i
<houghts\ intentions# will6 i(ea# signifiane,
Ra(ial !1 +=/,
..3, % =4 h^n A4 kon °¸# uramu ž«²# urami ž«E B4 han Ô '4 hahn
Resentment# hatre(6 to hate# to resent,
aartial s&non&ms4 ” +./# C +$%3/, Ra(ial !1 +=/,
..8, ' =4 )b A4 ho q# fu h# nuno à±# hiku õ´ B4 po D '4 )ou
'loth6 to unroll# to sprea(6 to relate# to tell
<he meaning “to relate” (eri0es figurati0el& from the image of a loth )eing
sprea( out, Ra(ial .% +ñ/,
-3$a, '= =4 fb ;_n A4 fokushin X´¤ B4 )ok simY심 '4 fKk sOm
7nnermost feelings an( thoughts +lit,# “)ell& an( heart”/,
..M, ( =4 )C A4 )atsu ùš# nuku à´ B4 )al G '4 )aht
<o pull up or out# to resue# to (raw Fa swor(G,
Ra(ial !- +手/,
.!%, b =4 "iQn A4 ken ケ¸# tsurugi ÂE B4 geomF '4 gim
<wo-e(ge( swor(,
<his harater is pro)a)l& the most ommon wor( in literar& 'hinese for a
swor(, Ra(ial 18 +:/,
.!1, ) =4 &u^ A4 &aku 2¨# odoru ÓQÂ B4 &ak 약 '4 &euhk
<o leap# to "ump,
Ra(ial 1.3 +á/,
.!I, * =4 tN A4 i ¿# tei ¶¿# hanashiru ÆҤ B4 he G '4 tai
<o weep6 tears,
<ehniall&# this harater represents muus flowing from the nose# )ut for
o)0ious reasons 0er& few English translators ren(er it literall&, Ra(ial 8. +œ/,
1.,1, “…過8橋q+l, 1/4 Note the fairl& ompliate( mo(ifiers here4 5un(er the
)ri(ge that he Fthe 0isountG shoul( )e rossing,5 “ pree(es )oth the 0er)
過 an( the a(0er) …,

1.,I, BU獨V#+8np8深"+l, -/4 <his sentene is in0erte( for the sake of
emphasis# muh like those (isusse( in 3,I +the less emphati 0ersion woul(
)e BU獨V#+8深np/, Literall&# it rea(s4 “)ut &ou aloneYwh& the (epth of
for his sake taking re0enge on his enem&f5Ythat is# 5wh& are &ou alone
Ftr&ing toG take re0enge for his sake so seriousl&f5
1.,$, …中ˆ†m眾!遇R+l, ./4 眾! is use( a(0er)iall& here to (esri)e the
manner of treatment +遇6 ompare 1I,M/4 “treate( me as an or(inar& person,5
7n the ne;t sentene# ]士 is use( the same wa&,
1.,-, 喟Ç歎H+l, !/4 Note the (istinti0e use of Ç+I$1-$/ here, Ç often turns
an a("eti0e that pree(es it into an a(0er) +“in an d manner#5 “d-l&”/6
howe0er# sometimes it is merel& a((e( to e;pan( the a("eti0e to two
s&lla)les for the sake of rh&thmYso (on8t make this usage into a uni0ersal
1.-., U8+Š¾,‰D成b+l, 3/4 + is use( here as a 0er)# 5to at on )ehalf of”
+ompare 1I,-/6 the first phrase is nominali9e( as a topi for the seon( half
of the sentene4 “FAs forG &our ating on )ehalf of the Earl of >hi# &our
reputation was alrea(& omplete5Yin other wor(s# 5&our earlier attempt to
assassinate me shoul( ha0e )een enough to guarantee &ou respet Fan( so 7
annot ontinue to forgi0e &ouG,5
1.-!,Uk‰+計+1, 3/4 5?ou shoul( make plans for &ourself,5 Note the use of
the a(0er) ‰ here with the o0er) +ompare 1I,-/# an( the mil( imperati0e
use of k +ompare 11,!/, <he meaning here is 5prepare to (ie,5
1.,3, uÞ,,,+l, 8/4 As in Lesson -# here the e;pression 57 ha0e hear(X”
intro(ues a general pro0er) or aphorism,
1.-8, Ç!請j8ÒB"8#+l,1%/4 7t is a little unusual for a sentene to ha0e 8
an( # onseuti0el&6 here# 8 refers to the ro)e# an( # mostl& likel& means
5in this plae,5
1.-M, û„#qnŠ¾b+l, 1I/4 <hough the general meaning of this phrase is
lear# the speifis ma& )e open to interpretation, <he „# is likel& to )e
(oing (ou)le (ut& here# as at the en( of Lesson 8 +ompare 8,-/Y57 an )&
means of this ,,,,,” q poses some pro)lems6 in the 0ersion in the >hanguo e#
this harater is missing altogether# lea0ing û„#nŠ¾b# whih :uite easil&
oul( )e taken as 57 an in this wa& a0enge the Earl of >hi,5 7f we aept the
q# howe0er# we ma& take it +as some ha0e/ to refer to going to the
`n(erworl( after (eath an( then take n to mean 5to report to5Ythis woul(
ren(er the phrase as 57 an in this wa& report 8(own )elow8 to the Earl of >hi,5
Suh a rea(ing must remain somewhat tentati0e,
Voca*u+ar, -ints
…+183-I an( 183-$/ 伏+-..-1 an( -..-I/ Š+$%$/ Q+$3%/
果+I88/E‘+11a# L!/ …+-8./ 中ˆ+111a# L1-/
†+-8!/ 反+!8-$/ ¼+.I8/ ½+.IM/
b+I!!/ 獨+II8/ V#+18-a# L1%/ m+.I%/
Ç+I$1-I an( I$1-$/ º+.I!/ ‰+18%/ 成+33/
k+3$-I/ 計+1I8/ «+.1$/ þ+131/
Voca*u+ar, List
i, 主b寡'息$"數明歎深稱眾美遇!驚 +73/
iii 赦+7/
i0 ,喟+7/
Lesson 1#
Assassin-Retainers: 聶政1%
Ç 至.,jÞáq§ak,~wZc者,,l+\!mn8o,’#páq8q)rO
Voca*u+ar, 1#!-#.1%
.!$, I =4 9h[ A4 shi é B4 "i Ë '4 "Z
>hi,Fa plae-nameG
Name of a town in •, Ra(ial 1.M +y/,
.!-, 聶 =4 ni^ A4 "D ʧ— B4 seop z '4 nihp
Nie, Fa surnameG
Ra(ial 1I8 +ª/,
.!., 政 =4 9h^ng A4 sei ·¿# shD 駗# matsurigoto Ÿ7ごî B4 "eong
{ '4 "ing
To0ernment# a(ministration# management,
1ere# this harater is a personal name, Ra(ial !! +//,
.!-a, 聶政 =4 ni^ 9h^ng A4 "D sei ñ+žÛ¢ B4 seop "eong z{ '4 nihp
Nie >heng +name of an assassin-retainer/,
.!!, J =4 "[ng A4 shD 駗# sei ·¿# i ¢ B4 "eong { '4 "Ung
2ell +for (rawing water/6 0illage# 0illage enter,
Ra(ial 3 +è/,
.-, 深J =4 shWn "[ng A4 shinsei ¤Û¢ B4 sim "eong 심{ '4 sOm "Ung
Peepwell +name of a town/,
.!3, L =4 9[ A4 shi é# ane Úね B4 "eo | '4 "U# "Z
El(er sister,
Ra(ial $8 +¶/,
.!8, M =4 tL A4 to ト# hofuru ÆXÂ B4 (o 도 '4 tEuh
Buther6 to kill# to )uther# to put to the swor(,
Buther& was onsi(ere( an 5unlean5 oupation in earl& 'hina an( hene#
(isgraeful, <his attitu(e strengthene( after the arri0al of Bu((hism, Ra(ial
-- +?/,
.!M, è =4 "iV A4 k&K Öí—# hisashii õ£¤¢# hisashiku õ£¤´ B4 gu 4
'4 gCu
Long time# for a long time,
Note the use of a 5(umm&5 8 +ompare ¬-8# Lesson 1-# line M/, Ra(ial -
.3%, N =4 pL A4 )oku ú¨ B4 )ak Y '4 )uhk
<he au Ri0er,
Loate( in mo(ern 1enan ~", Ra(ial 8. +œ/
.31, O =4 &Cng A4 &D Η B4 &ang Ï '4 &^uhng
<he &ang priniple +as oppose( to •F-I3G/6 sunlight# the sunlit si(e of
?ou will fin( that O is often use( with the name of a ri0er to in(iate the
name of a town, Beause 'hina is loate( in the northern hemisphere#
sunlight falls from the south (iretl& onto the northern )anks of ri0ers# so O is
use( to in(iate the northern )ank, +2ith mountains# the opposite is true4 O
is use( for the southern si(e of a mountain# • for the northern/,
'onse:uentl&# a town name like •O means 5the northern )ank of the au
Ri0er,5 Ra(ial 13% +Í/,
.3%a, NO =4 pL &Cng A4 )oku&D Ç´よž B4 )ak &ang YÏ '4 )uhk
au&ang, Fa plae-nameG
A town loate( in the state of €+I3-/,
.3I, P =4 &Cn A4 gon ÷¸# gen @¸# ikameshii ¢ªめ¤¢# kibishii 8ó¤¢
B4 eom; '4 &Nhm
Strit# se0ere6 solemn# ma"esti,
1ere# this harater is a surname, Ra(ial $% +n/,
.3Ia, PƒU =4 &Cn 9hEng 9[ A4 gen hKshi げ©ö¤ B4 eom "ung "a ;Ì
Ÿ '4 &Nhm "uhng "Z
?an >hong9i +a politiian from € who ser0e( the state of •/
ƒU was his “polite” name# an( it ma& ha0e in(iate( his kinship position
within his lan6 his personal name was 6,
.3$, Q =4 Oi A4 ai ア¿# aware ÚÏÃ# awaremu ÚÏò# awareppoi ÚÏÃっ
•¢ B4 ae ‚ '4 Di
<o grie0e# to mourn# to lament# to pit&6 sorrowful# lamenta)le,
Ra(ial $% +Ñ/,
.3$a, Q• =4 Oi hEu A4 ai kD Ú¢®ž B4 ae hu ‚> '4 Di hauh
=ar:uis Ai +of •/
Sholars agree that the 史記 has ma(e a mistake here# an( that the e0ents
(esri)e( atuall& ourre( (uring the reign of this ruler8s gran(father#
=ar:uis Lie 列•+r, $MM-$83 B,',E,/
.3-, R =4 ;iC A4 k&D Ö§— B4 h&eop _ '4 hahp
1eroi# hi0alrous,
1ere# R is a surname, <his harater +whih (oes not our in its regular
meaning in our te;ts/ usuall& (esri)es a foreful# ph&siall& strong man
traine( in the use of weapons who goes a)o0e the law to right wrongs,
Sometimes 0iewe( fa0ora)l&# suh men were also often seen as 0igilantes or
)ullies, <he 史記 (e(iates a olleti0e )iograph& to them, Ra(ial M +!/,
.3., S =4 l^i A4 rui ƒ¿ B4 lu „ '4 leuih
<rou)le# in0ol0ement6 to pile up# to aumulate6 aumulate(6 to )ur(en# to
1ere# this harater is a personal name, Ra(ial 1I% +3/,
.3-a, RS =4 ;iC l^i A4 k&D rui 8+žÂ¢ B4 h&eop lu _„ '4 haahp
dia Lei +a minister of the state/
S was his “polite” name6 his personal name was Tu_ …,
.3!, T =4 ;N A4 geki @Ö B4 geuk ú '4 gw_k
'rak# fissure6 gru(ge,:uarrel# enmit&# feu(,
Ra(ial 13% +Í/,
.33, U =4 kJng A4 k&D Ö§—# osoreru Ó•ÃÂ B4 gong ¯ '4 hLng
<o fear6 fear,
Ra(ial !1 +=/,
.38, V =4 &Su A4 &K ¡—# asobu Ú•Á# oyogu ÓよÊ B4 &u Ô '4 &Quh
<o pla&# to stroll# to wan(er6 to swim,
7n all e;ept the last meaning# this harater is use( interhangea)l& with †
iI83/, Ra(ial 8.+œ/,
.3M, W =4 huE A4 aru ÚÂ B4 hok ‡ '4 waahk
1, Someone# some)o(&# some people, H
I, Sometimes,
Like N+$!8-1/# this harater is use( like an a(0er)6 it is often pree(e( )& a
su)"et that e;presses the larger group4LMWd8# “Some of the
retainersesomeone among the retainers knew it”6(W¼.# “Some of the
(ukesesomeone among the (ukes attake( *i56 þWWÿ8# “Some of the
sol(iersesomeone among the sol(iers wante( to kill him,5
Ra(ial !I +½/,
.8%, X =4 &[n A4 in ¿¸# on ˸# kakusu ª´³# kakureru ª´ÃÂ# komoru
®ü B4 eun ˆ '4 &Cn
1, <o hi(e# to oneal6 hi((en# o)sure, H
I, <o )e paine( )&# to )e upset )&,
Po not onfuse this harater with •+-I3/# though the meanings of the two
haraters (o o0erlap, =eaning cI +enountere( in Lesson I./ is rare,
Ra(ial 13% +Í/,
.81, Y =4 "iOn +1/6 ;iCn +I/ A4 kan ͸# aida Ú¢û# ma Ÿ B4 gan ‰ +1/6
han Ô +I/ '4 gOan+1/# hQahn+I/
1, =i((le# mi(st, H
I, Leisurel&# alm# i(le6 on 0aation,
7n meaning c1# this harater is a 0er& ommon su)stitute for Š +II1/,
Ra(ial 1!M +門/,
I$1a, ÇY =4 rCn hEu A4 shikarunochi ¤ªÂ±© B4 &eon hu B> '4 &Nhn
Onl& then,
Literall&# “it )eing thus# afterwar(,” S&non&m4 BY+$.a/,
.8I, \ =4 huCng A4 kD °—# D Ë—# ki 8 B4 hwang ‹ '4 wEhng
Ra(ial I%1 +\/,
.8$, c =4 "_n A4 kin Ö¸# kon °¸# kane ªね B4 geumŒ '4 gOm
1, =etal
I, areious metal +usuall& gol( or sil0er/, H
Sine this harater8s meanings an )e 0er& )roa(#\c# “&ellow metal#” is
sometimes use( to speif& “gol(,” Sometimes the harater is use( with a
num)er to represent some :uantit& of gol( or sil0er +ompare Zc# whih
appears later in this lesson8s te;t/, Ra(ial 1!3 +c/,
.8-, ] =4 &N A4 itsu ¿š B4 il • '4 &aht
?i +measurement of monetar& weight/,
Tenerall& onsi(ere( to )e e:ual to I% or I- ÿ+--!-I/, Ra(ial 1!3 +c/,
.8., ^ =4 shEu A4 su ,# "u Êí# kotobuku ®îÁ´# kotobuki ®îÁ8 B4
su ô '4 sauh
Long life6 to toast FsomeoneG# to gi0e a present to6 a present,
Sine this harater is a general term for “long life#” the other meanings are
relate( to it4 one toasts someone in or(er to wish her or him long life6 one
gi0es a present in or(er to ongratulate someone on her or his long life,PƒU
is tr&ing to make 聶政 feel o)ligate( to him )& e0oking his filial feelings6 a
present gi0en to his mother woul( ha0e more impat on 政 than woul( a
present gi0en (iretl& to him, Ra(ial $$ +士/,
.8!, _ =4 guQi A4 ke ケ# kai Í¿# ayashimu ÚÀ¤²# ayashii ÚÀ¤¢ B4
goe 괴 '4 gwaai
Strange# weir(6 to fin( strange,
<his harater is often use( in the same wa& as Ž +$-I/# although _
fre:uentl& stress something unpleasant or unusuall& suspiious, Ra(ial !1
.83, a =4 ;i^ A4 sha éャ# ayamaru ÚÀŸÂ B4 sa - '4"eh
1, <o apologi9e,
I, <o refuse, H
$, <o sa& farewell to6 to fa(e# to wither +(esri)es plants# espeiall& flowers/,
aolite literar& 0oa)ular& often has o0erlapping meanings, <his harater8s
meanings pro)a)l& (eri0e( from “to apologi9e”6 thus# 5refuse5 means 578m
sorr& 7 an8t aept that” an( “to sa& farewell” means 578m sorr& 7 ha0e to go,5
<here is a onsi(era)le o0erlap of this harater an( {+$1!/, Ra(ial 1-M +o/,
.88, b =4 pZn A4 hin ð¸# )in <¸# mazushii Ÿず¤¢ B4 )in • '4 pQhn
aoor# in(igent,
Ra(ial 1.- +6/,
.8M, c =4 gJu A4 ku ¨# inu ¢à B4 gu 4 '4 gCu
Although this harater is the most ommon one in mo(ern =an(arin for
“(og#” literar& 'hinese also fre:uentl& uses Õ+3../, Ra(ial M- +Õ/,
.M%, d =4 (Qn A4 tan 4¸ B4 (an è '4 (aan
Notie the o)0ious 0isual ontent of this harater the sun oming up o0er
the hori9on, Ra(ial 3I+</,
.M1, ² =4 ;_ A4 seki ·Ö# yũ מ# yūbe ²` B4 seok æ '4 "ihk
Ra(ial $! +²/,
.MI, e =4 uN A4 9ei •¿ B4 hwi ‘ '4 heui
1, fu99# fur,
I, 'risp6 risp&, H
7n meaning cI# e is a su)stitute for the “proper” harater# ’,Ra(ial 8I +“#
IM1a, 甘e =4 gOn ui A4 kan9ei ª”¢ B4 gam hwi •‘ '4 gOm heui
@ine# (eliious foo(,
Literar& 'hinese often takes a("eti0es that (esri)e :ualities of a thing an(
uses them as poeti su)stitutes for the thing itself, 1ene# 5sweet an( risp&5
means “goo( foo(,5
.M$, f =4 gEng A4 k&D Ö§—# ku ¨# gu ## sonaeru •Òê B4 gong ¯
'4 gKng
<o suppl&,
Ra(ial M +!/,
.M-, g =4 )^i A4 )i <# sonawaru •ÒÏÂ# sonaeru •Òê B4 )i ò '4
<o suppl& ompletel&# to )e prepare(6 thorough# omplete,
Ra(ial M +!/,
.M., i =4 )N +1/6 pN +I--/ A4 hi ð# heki 6Ö# yokeru よ@Â# sakeru £@Â#
hiraku õ«´ B4 )&eok j '4 )eih+1/6 p_k+I--/
1, <o a0oi(# to shun# to sen( awa&# to (ismiss, H
I, <o open up6 to e;pan(,
$, Pissolute F)eha0iorG,
-, Eentri# stu))orn# one-si(e(# per0erse,
<his harater is use( with a wi(e 0ariet& of meanings# sometimes as a
simplifie( 0ersion of haraters with a((e( ra(ials, 7n meaning c1 +use( in
our lesson te;t/# i is a simplifiation of ©+$IM/,7n this onte;t# PƒU sen(s
awa& his ser0ants an( others on the sene so that he an talk more pri0atel&
with 聶政,Ra(ial 1!% +x/, 
1!!a, áq =4 9L ;iQ A4 sokuka •´ª B4 "ok ha –R '4 "Kk hah
?ou +polite/,
<his phrase is more polite in fla0or than U +IM-$/, 7t (eri0es its sense from
the i(ea that on is so hum)le in the presene of a superior that one annot
a((ress the person oneself# )u one an onl& a((ress the plae 5un(er his
.M!, l =4 &Eng A4 &D Η# mochiiru ü©¢Â B4 &ong ¥ '4 &uhng
<o use6 to )e useful6 use# purpose,
Ra(ial 1%1 +l/,
1%.a, \! =4 (Q rUn A4 tai"in ¹¢ñ B4 (ae in —1 '4 (aaih &Qhn
1, @ather# mother# parents +polite/,H
I, A superior or great person6 a person of great moralit&,
.M3, m =4 K A4 so – B4 hu ˜ '4 hDu
'oarse# rough +in manners/# unpolishe(,
'onsisting of three “(eer#” haraters# this harater# at $$ strokes# has the
most strokes of an& ommonl& use( 'hinese harater, ™+1I%M/ is often
su)stitute( for it, Ra(ial 1M +š# 5(eer5/,
.M8, n =4 lN A4rei é¿ B4 l&eo p '4 laih
`npolishe( rie,
mn is use( here )& PƒU to emphasi9e his humilit&6 he is suggesting that
his monetar& gift is so insignifiant that it an onl& purhase oarse foo(,
Ra(ial 11M +›# 5rie5/,
.MM, o =4 f^i A4 hi ð# tsuiyasu ¢À³ B4 )irUn '4 fai
E;pense# prie# ost6 to waste,
Ra(ial 1.- +6/,
!oo, p =4 "iOo A4 kD °—# majiwaru ŸñÏÂ# majiru Ÿñ B4 g&o + '4
1, @rien(ship# assoiation6 to "oin# to form Ffrien(shipG# to interhange, H
I, =utuall&,
$, <o meet# to lash,
S&non&m +meaning cI/4 Õ+I!--1/, Ra(ial 8
!%1, q =4 huOn A4 kan ͸# yorokobi よろ®ó# yorokobu よろ®Á B4 hwan
œ '4 fKn
Pelight# "o& +o)taine( from frien(ship or se;ual relations/,
<his harater is a 0ariant of the more ommonl& appearing •, Ra(ial 183
!%I, r =4 :[ A4 kai Í¿# gai (¿ B4 gi å '4 hUi
1ow,,,# how oul(,,,,
<his harater is use( for rhetorial :uestions when a negati0e answer is
e;pete(, Note that this is opposite of the so-alle( mo(al k intro(ue( in
Lesson 11 +see 11,!/# whih antiipates a positi0e answer when use( in a
:uestion, Ra(ial 1.1 +ž# 5)ean5/,
!%$, s =4 ;iCng +1/6 "iQng +I/ A4 kD °—# furu XÂ# oriru Ó7Â B4 hang Ÿ
+1/6 gang 강 +I/ '4 hEhng +1/6 gong +I/
1, <o surren(er# to make surren(er# to suppress, H
I, <o (esen(# to fall,
=eaning cI# though ommon# (oes not our in our te;ts, Ra(ial 13% +Í/,
.IIa, µJ =4 shN "[ng A4 shisei ¤Û¢ B4 si "eong a{ '4 sZh "Ung
=arket# 0illage,
<his ompoun( an also appear as Jµ,
!%-, v =4 "Nng A4 k&D Ö§—# owaru ÓÏÂ# owari ÓÏ7 B4 g&eong 경 '4
1, <o en(# to onlu(e6 finall&, H
I, Bor(er# frontier# (emaration +use( for hF$38G/,
S&non&ms +meaning c1/4 +$1/# ƒ+ I!M-1/, Ra(ial 113 +•/,
!%., w =4 )_n A4 hin ð¸ B4 )in • '4 )On
Ra(ial -% +6/,
1!,1, !„#nRS者+l, $/4 An e;ample of the partiti0e pattern +$,I/# e:ui0alent
to !8„#nRS者, <he use of ! here ma& seem re(un(ant# )ut !
8,,,partiti0es are fairl& ommon in sentenes where people with ertain
(istinti0e :ualities are )eing sought or (efine(,
1!,I, yO…ƒU8h+ll, 3-8/4 Note the 0er)al usage of … here6 the onte;t
suggests it must )e interprete( as “aept” or “onsi(er oneself worth& of,5
1!,$, BˆV諸•眾b+l, 8/4 <he use of 眾 here is peuliar# an( it ma& ha0e
slippe( into the te;t through a op&ing error, 1owe0er# perhaps it is use(
here a(0er)iall& to mean 5man& times54 5An( 7 ha0e tra0ele( among the
feu(al lor(s man& times,5 
1!,-, u“#stt身¬µJM者,.¿#•þý+l, 8/4 A goo( e;ample of the
e;planation sentene (isusse( in 1-,3, . is fre:uentl& use( in suh
sentenes at the )eginning of the seon( lause# to stress the onl& reason for
something, ¿ is emplo&e(# as it is throughout )& 聶政# to e;press the filial
sentiment that he is luk& to ha0e a mother who is still li0ing,
1!,., 政身uO#>!"+l, 11/4 Notie 聶政 using his own as a personal term of
a((ress +onsult 1I,$/, 聶政 is the first person in our te;ts to (o so,
1!,!, gw主8x+1, 1I/4 5arepare( thoroughl& the rites of guest an(
host5sthat is# prepare( a polite )an:uet for 聶政,
Voca*u+ar, -ints
{+$%1/ K+I$8-I/ ¥+.1%/ ý+I8%/ }+1IM-I/
Õ+I!--I/ $+$-8/ O+13./ ©+$IM/ 請+1---I/
數+.$M-$/ Z+11!/ (+$%!/ [+IM1-1/ Z+3./
驚+.$8/ `+M./ +$I8-I/ w+-1I/ ¿+.$1/
客+-IM/ •+-I8/ 親+-!--1/ h+1.M/ j+I3!-$/
a+$3-/ k+MI/ &+18I/ 至+I1$/ t+$81/
¬+I.M-1/ .+$$3-1/ u+3M/ u+$%I/ >+$.3/
讓+-8--1/ ‡+-II/ 受+1-3/ x+M8/
Voca*u+ar, List
i, èJpgQP^²_UW政VlarbwicYsOX\+I./
ii, dcvSo+./
iii, fRM+$/
i0, LeNn聶I]Tq¡+1%/
Lesson 12
Assassin-Retainers: 聶政2%
ÆÇ,‘• 舉]B-ƒU+p)ryÈÉiY6ay©!.)
!%!, ¢ =4 9Qng A4 sD –—# hōmuru Æž²Â# tomurai ¢# tomurau î²
«ž B4 "ang ¬ '4 "ong
<o )ur&# to mourn6 )urial# mourning,
aartial s&non&m4ç+-$$/, Ra(ial 1-% +-/,
!%3, £ =4 hL A4 "i Ê# "o ʧ# nozoku ±Ê´ B4 "e ? '4 h^uih
<o remo0e# to get ri( of
Ra(ial 13% +Ë/,
!%8, ¤ =4 fL A4 fuku h¨ B4 )ok Y '4 fuhk
1, 'lothes# attire,
I, 'o0ering# ase# :ui0er +for arrows/,
$, <o su)mit to# to aept,
Ra(ial 3- +月/,
!%3a, £¤ =4 hL fu A4 "ofuku ñ+X´# fuku wo nozoku X´Ì±Ê´ B4 "e
)ok ?Y '4 h^uih fuhk
<o remo0e mourning lothes6 to en( the mourning perio(,
Ritual te;ts presri)e( the perio( of time for whih one mourne( for 0arious
famil& mem)ers,
!%M, ¦ =4 &uRn A4 en Ù¸# on ˸# tōi îÓ¢# tōzakaru îÓiªÂ# tōzakeru
îÓi@Â B4 won A '4&Lhn
Pistant# far wa&6 to a0oi(# to keep at a (istane# to onsi(er a great (istane,
Note the last meaning# whih is a ommon “putati0e” use + y¦§K is a
ommon lihe/
Ra(ial 1!I +É/,
!1%, ¨ =4 wRng A4 D Ë—# mageru ŸげÂ B4 wang : '4 wSng
<o go out of one8s wa&,
<his harater is often use( in polite language to (esri)e a 0isit someone
pa&s to &ou +he has 5gone out of his wa&5 to see &ou/, Ra(ial 3. +ß/,
!11, © =4 "N +1/6 :Z +I/ A4 ki Ö# noru ±Â B4 gi å '4 kei +1/6 k^h+I/
1, 1orseman# a0alr&, H
I, <o ri(e Fa horseG,
Note the (ifferent =an(arin pronuniations for the noun an( the 0er), Ra(ial
183 +馬/,
I38a, y© =4 "K "N A 4 shaki ¤Í8 B4 ha gi Jå '4 gWui kei
Entourage# mounte( esort,
!1I, « =4 ;iRn A4 sen Û B4 seon Î '4 sZn
Rare# few# sel(om6 meager# sant&,
Ra(ial 1M. +H/,
!1$, ¬ =4 gDng A4 kD °—# ku ¨# isao ¢£Ó# isaoshi ¢£Ó¤ B4 gong ¯
'4 gKng
=erit# ahie0ement# aomplishment,
Ra(ial 1M +%/,
!1-, - =4 gRn A4 kan ͸# kanji ªñ# kanjiru ªñ B4 gam• '4
Emotion# feeling6 to feel# to )e mo0e( )&,
Ra(ial !1 +=/,
!1., ® =4 f^n A4 fun h¸# ikaru ¢ªÂ B4 )un Ï '4 fChn
Anger# fur&6 to )e angr&,
S&non&m4 • +-M/, Ra(ial !1 +=/,
!1!, ¯ =4 &C A4 gai (¿ B4 ae ‚ '4 ngQaih
<he orner of the e&e6 to stare,
Ra(ial 1%M +¼/,
!13, Ð =49N B4 sai ·¿ B4 "a Ÿ '4 "aaih
<o stare in fur&,
<his harater an( ¯+!1!/ are relati0el& rare# an( the& our mostl&
together, See the ommentar& for interpreting this phrase, Ra(ial 1%M +¼/,
!18, ± =4 :iSng A4 k&K 8öž# kiwameru 8ÏめÂ# kiwamaru 8ÏŸÂ B4
gung \ '4 kbhng
1, En(# e;haustion6 to e;haust6 impo0erishe(, H
I, <o fathom# to un(erstan(full&,
<his harater means 5the 0er& en( Fof somethingG5 or 5oming to the en( Fof
somethingG5s for e;ample# using up all of one8s mone&# following a ri0er )ak
to its original soure# an( so forth, 7n this sense# it is use( 0er& muh like m
+I$./, 1owe0er# unlike that other harater# ± an also mean
“impo0erishe(#” that is# so poor that one has no alternati0es left +ompare 5at
the en( of one8s rope5 in English/, 7n this meaning# it is s&non&mous with b
+.88/ )ut it is muh stronger an( more (esperate in tone, 7n the seon(
meaning# the sense is to 5e;haust5 some area of knowle(ge, Ra(ial 11! +O/,
!1M, ² =4 pN A4 heki 6Ö# higami õëE# higamu õë² B4 )&eok j '4
Out of the wa&# selu(e(6 one-si(e(# )iase(,
<his harater an )e su)stitute( )& i +.M./, Ra(ial M +!/,
!I%, ³ =4 On A4 an ア¸# izukunzo ¢ず´Ê B4 an ) '4 Dn
1, 1ow# where# F:uestion wor(GH
I, aeae6 peaeful
=eaning c1 is use( often# )ut not e;lusi0el&# in rhetorial :uestions,
S&non&m +meaning cI/ : +$../ Ra(ial -% +Ò/,
!I1, ´ =4 mE A4 moku モ¨# modasu üû³# damaru ûŸÂ B4 muk Ñ '4
Silent# mute,
Ra(ial I%$ +Ò# “)lak”/,
$.), B€ =4 Ur &[ A4 +no set ren(ering/ B4 7 7 ¹¹ '4 &Nh "ih
An( that is all# an( that s the en( of it,
7(iomati sentene-losing phrase, 7n fuse( form# it )eomes ª+I1-I/6 see
!II, µ =4 &Oo +1/6 &Qo +I/ A4 &D Η B4 &o k '4 &_u +1/6 &iu +I/
1, <o in0ite# to ask for,H
I, Essential6 neessit&# essential point,
7n meaning c1# this harater is a generall& aepte( su)stitute for the more
“proper” harater# Ó, Ra(ial 1-! +¶# “west”/,
!), •_ =4 tiOn niCn A4 tennen Àê B4 heon n&eon ÔÕ '4 t_n nNhn
“1ea0en-appointe(&ears” +i,e,# natural lifespan/,
!I$, ¶ =4 ;_ A4 sai ·¿# sei ·¿ B4 seo • '4 sOi
Notie the fre:uent usage of (iretions as 0er)s +i,e,# “to go east”/ or as
a(0er)s +i,e, 5eastwar(5/, Ra(ial 1-! +¶/,
!I-, · =4 shUi# shuZ A4 sui ,¿# dare ûÃ# tare ¹Ã B4 su ô '4 s^uih
2ho, F:uestion wor(G
+·# “is who#” is the most ommon wa& to ask a)out someone8s i(entit&,
Ra(ial 1-M +o/,
!I., ¸ =4 Sng +1-$/6 9Eng +-/6 9Dng +./ A4 shD 駗# "u Êí# "K Êí—#
shitagaeru ¤¹ëêÂ# shitagau ¤¹ëž B4 "ong Ö '4 hbhng +1--/6 "Kng+./
1, <o follow# to aompan&# to )e aompanie( )&,
I, <o arr& out# to un(ertake, H
$, @rom# )& wa& of, Fo0er)# use( the same wa& as ‰+1.-I/G
-, Atten(ant# entourage,
., <raks# traes# footprints +use( for ×/
¸& woul( then mean “to un(ertake an affair,5 Ra(ial !% +«/,
-18), •N =4 "N fb A4 kifu 8X B4 g&e )u ½> '4 gwai fuh
?ounger unle,
'ompare ƒN +11$a Lesson -/,
!I!, º =4 9Dng A4 sD –—# shK éí— B4 "ong Ö '4 "Kng
Anestor# lan +(esen(e( from a ommon anestor/6 anestral6 kin(re(6
shool# set, Notie that the harater onsists of the religious sarifie
ra(ial +¸/ un(er a roof, Ra(ial -% +⼧/,
!I3, » =4 9L A4 9oku ب B4 "ok – '4 "uhk
'lan# tri)e# famil&,
<here is some (e)ate among anthropologists regar(ing the full sope an(
signifiane of terms suh as º# »# an( also †+-8!/, Ra(ial 3% +方/,
!I8, ¼ =4 sh^ng A4 shD 駗# sei ·¿# "D ʧ—# sakaru £ªÂ# sakanna £
ªÒ B4 seong 성 '4 sihng
<o prosper# to flourish6 flourishing# a)un(ant,
Ra(ial 1%8 +â/,
!IM, ½ =4 (uD A4 ta 4# ōi ÓÓ¢ B4 (a Ù '4 (D
=an&# muh6 to possess man& or muh,
<hough this harater is normall& use( as an a("eti0e or a(0er)# it is not
unommon for writers to use it as a 0er)al a))re0iation of ]½+ompare the
en( of this lesson8s te;t/, @or e;ample4E½馬# 5the king possesses man&
horses,5 Ra(ial $! +²/,
!$%, ¾ =4 hV +1/6 hb +I/ A4 sho é§# tokoro î®ろ B4 heo Ú '4 h&u
1, <o (well Fin a plaeG\ to manage# to (eal with,
I, alae# loation, H
<hough the phrase in the lesson te;t is a little o)sure# ¬¾ pro)a)l& is the
e:ui0alent of “¬8¾# 5the plae where he (wells,5 aartial s&non&m +meaning
c1/4 ¬+I.M/6 partial s&non&m +meaning I/4 “+38/, Ra(ial 1-1 +Û# 5tiger5/,
!$1, ¿ =4 sh^ A4 setsu ·š# mōkeru üž@Â B4 seol ¢ '4 hit
arepare# pro0i(e# esta)lish6 to )e omplete# to )e ompletel& prepare(,
Ra(ial 1-M +o/,
!$I4 À =4 &N A4 eki ÙÖ# &aku 2¨# masu Ÿ³ B4 ik Ü '4 &_k
<o inrease6 inreasingl&6 )enefit# a(0antage,
Ra(ial 1%8 +â/,
!$$, Á =4 9huOng A4 sD –— B4 "ang ¬ '4 "ong
Strong# ro)ust6 prime Fof one s lifeG,
Ra(ial $$ +士/,
!$$a, Á士 =4 9huOng shN A4 sDshi •ž¤ B4 "ang sa ¬- '4 "ong sih
Stalwart man# strong fellow,
Notie that 士 +p./ an sometimes )e use( as a suffi; simpl& to mean 5man5
or ttfellow#” without the soial lass in(iations,
!$-, Â =4 fV A4 ho q# tasukeru ¹³@Â B4 )o Ý '4 fuh
<o assist# to help,
<his meaning (eri0es from the harater8s original use# to (esri)e the
proteti0e si(e)ars on a arriage, Ra(ial 1.M +y/,
!$., à =4 &N A4 &oku Ψ# tsubasa º£# tasukeru ¹³@ B4 ik Ü '4
2ings6 to assist# to help,
2= is a s&non&m ompoun(, Ra(ial 1I- +Þ/,
!$!, Ä =4 shN A4 se ·# sei ·¿# ikioi ¢8Ó¢ B4 se ¤ '4 sai
Strength# power# momentum# irumstanes# on(itions,
<his harater has a omple; series of meanings largel& (etermine( )&
onte;t# an( it is (iffiult to summari9e )riefl& its total range, Ra(ial 1M +%/,
3$), kÄ =4:Z shN A4 sono ikioi •±¢8Ó¢ B4 gi se å¤ '4 k^ih sai
F`n(erG these irumstanes,
A stok opening phrase,
!$3, Æ =4 &V +1/6 &b +I/ A4 go ÷# kataru ª¹Â# katari ª¹7 B4 eo 2 '4
&Lh +1/6 &uh+I/
1, 2or(s# speeh6 to (isuss# to talk a)out, H
I, <o sa& to# to a((ress,
7n meaning cI# Æ is use( like Ú +I.I-I/, @or e;ample4uÆER# “the minister
sai( to the king,,,”6 or# with the o)"et suppresse(# uÆR# 5the minister sai(
to him,,,,”
!$8, Ç =4 ;i^ A4 setsu ·š# ei Ù¿# moru ü B4 seol ¢ '4 sit
<o leak,
Ra(ial 8. +œ/,
!$M, È =4 (Qi A4 tai 4¿# (ai ç¿# hotondo ÆîQ# a&au ÚÀž B4 tae Â
'4 tSih
1, <o )e en(angere(, H
I, aro)a)l&\ no (ou)t,
Ra(ial 38 +ù/,
=an& of the speehes in this lesson8s te;t are o)sure or use wor(s in a
peuliar wa&, <he following notes shoul( larif& some of the knottier pro)lems
of interpretation,
13,1, u8“#“8,至ª«bX11, I-$/4 <his pattern is ommon with the 0er)
“4 “<he means )& whih 7 treate( him were e;tremel& shallow an( meager,5
Notie that the struture is meant to emphasi9e the manner of treatment6 an
unemphati 0ersion woul( rea( u#至ª«“8b,
13,I, u]\¬„#稱者+1, $/4 <his phrase is :uite learl& a “partiti0e” struture
+$,I/# with the implie( struture u]\¬8„#稱者, <he pro)lem with a strit
grammatial interpretation lies with the „#稱# whih implies an ati0e 0er)al
meaning for 稱+see 3,$/, 1owe0er# the onte;t :uite learl& suggests that 稱
shoul( )e rea( passi0el& here4 57 (o not &et ha0e an& F(ee(s ofG great merit
that an )e praise(”Yin other wor(s# the sentene# )& or(inar& rules# shoul(
rea( \¬„稱者, 2e more than likel& simpl& ha0e an e;ample of asual
grammar here6 the author felt that the 5utilit&5 of the merit somehow
(eser0e( insertion of an #,an( he was twisting the sentene to mean
something like “7 (o not &et ha0e great merit# the means )& whih 7 ma& )e
praise(5e:uall& ungrammatial, <his t&pe of strutural 0agueness woul( )e
inreasingl& harateristi of lassial s&nta; in the enturies to ome,
13,$, Ç‘者.深d政"+1, -/4 Ç‘ is a little re(un(ant4 “to at thusl&,5 1ere# 者
is am)iguous# referring to either a person or a on(itionseither “one who
ats thusl&5 or 5the irumstanes of ating thusl&#” though the former is
more likel&, . is use( in a wa& that ours oasionall& )ut is awkwar( to
translate6 though the harater means “onl&” +$$3-1/# it refers more to the
su)"et +the ator/ than the ation4 5Onl& one who ats thusl& un(erstan(s
me (eepl&,5
13-, …S者#-®¯°8$B親Œ±²8!+11, --./4 <he )asi meaning here is
fairt& lear# )ut the harater-)&-harater sense is more o)sure, <he phrase
#-®¯ß8$ shoul( )e interprete( merel& as a poeti e:ui0alent of “in a
state of e;ee(ing fur&5 +lit,# 5)& means of thoughts of )eing mo0e( to anger
an( staring in fur&5/, <he i(ea in general is that e0en though PƒU was
preoupie( )& his (esire for re0enge# he nonetheless took time out from his
o)session to 0isit a lowl& person like 聶政,
?ou might o)"et that this interpretation makes no sense ™of ourse he
0isite( 聶政#)eause he was hoping to emplo& him to e;at the 0er& re0enge
that he (esire(] 聶政 must )e rather (im if he thinks PƒU 0isite( him out of
a sheer altruisti (esire to pa& homage to a 0irtuous man, But# &ou must keep
in min( that we are seeing a 0er& su)tle game of politeness an( eti:uette
heresthough 聶政 knows full well P8s true reasons# the appearane of
altruism must )e maintaine(, <his is part of the ritual e;hange )etween
patron an( lient,
13,., 政.#þý+1, ./4 ## like + in Lesson 1I# line $ +see 1I,-/# is a o0er)
with a missing 0er), ?ou must suppl& something like “7 merel& use( m&
mother as an e;use,5
13,!, 請’¸&#+1, 8/4 Remem)er that # is usuall& interprete( as the
e:ui0alent of E86 here# its use is somewhat a)strat4 “7 re:uest to )e a)le to
arr& out the affair in regar(s to him,”
13,3, 請Àky©Á士,B+áqÂÃ者4 <his is PƒU8s offer to gi0e 聶政 some
ser0ants an(eor troops to help him in his mission4 “7 re:uest to inrease &our
entourage an( &our ourageous fellows# an( FtheseG will at as &our support
for &our sake,5
+ is pro)a)l& funtioning here as the 0er) “to )e#” “to make56 sometimes it
an take as an in(iret o)"et the person for whom one ats, 7n other wor(s#
+ in suh sentene (oes (ou)le (ut& as the 0er) an( as the o0er) “on
)ehalf of,5 <his is )asiall& analogous to English sentenes suh as “7 will
)ake &ou a ake,5 Other e;amples4
u+Ed)7 am )uil(ing a fortif&ing wall for ?our =a"est&,
R+UI)7 am fin(ing a wa& for &ou,
7t is often tempting with suh sentenes to rea( the (iret o)"et noun as
e;hi)iting a speial 0er)al use# an( the + as a simple o0er) +i,e,# “7 am
8walling8 for ?our =a"est&] “7 am twa&ing\ for &ou”/, 1owe0er# most tra(itional
ommentators ha0e ten(e( to rea( + as a 0er)# not as a o0er), =oreo0er#
in our lesson te;t8s sentene# suh a possi)ilit& is unlikel&# )eause the 者
suggests that ÂÃ者 shoul( )e rea( as a noun,
?et another possi)ilit& e;ists when interpreting this t&pe of sentenesto
assume a possessi0e relationship )etween the final wor(s# that is# to rea( u
+Ed as “ u+E8d 7 am making ?our =a"est&8s wall#” or e0en#
metaphoriall&# “7 am ating as ?our =a"est&8s wall,5 <here is nothing
pre0enting us from rea(ing +áqÂÃ者 as +áq8ÂÃ者# “the& will at as
&our support,5
As is often the ase# all of this am)iguit& ten(s to result in the same )asi
meanina an( ertainl& an earl& rea(er of literar& 'hinese (i( not fin( it
neessar& to think through] the s&nta; harater )& harater to arri0e at the
sense, <hese issues shoul( onl& onera" &ou if (ifferent grammatial
rea(ings pro(ue (ifferent interpretations,
13,8, •8-€Õ×,中Yya¦+1,11/4 “As for 1an8s (istane from 2ei# it is not
0ei& far in )etween them,” Õ×# 5mutual (epartureeseparation#5 is use( to
(esri)e the (istane )etween two plaes, <he point here is that PƒU is a
nati0e of the state of €# an( he urrentl& li0ing there# in the town of NO,
1owe0er# if he has someone assassinate( in the state of • +where he was
pre0iousl& emplo&e(/# the two states are too lose together,for P to esape
easil& the onse:uenes if the ruler of • (iso0ers the nature of the
13,M, ½!,yeTÅ’Ž+1, 1I/4 57f there are man& people Fin0ol0e(G# then one
annot a0oi( gi0ing rise to ’Ž,\\ yeT is awkwar( to translate literall&#
though its funtion as a (ou)le negati0e is lear4 5there annot not e;ist the
gi0ing-rise-to ,,,,” <hat is# ertain (e0elopments will )e ine0ita)le, ’Ž is also
onfusing here, B& itself# it an )e an 5anton&m ompoun(5 meaning 5gain
an( loss#5 or 5suess an( failure,5 1owe0er# the atual meaning of this
phrase in this onte;t is unlear, 7 ha0e foun( three (ifferent 0iews on the
sentene4 +1/ 7t ma& )e an e;ample of an oasional ha)it in literar& 'hinese
of taking an anton&m ompoun( +e,g,#àá,\‡Ian( using it to mean onl&
one of the two terms, <his is# fortunatel&# a relati0el& rare ha)it, 7f this is the
ase here# ’Ž means simpl& Ž#5loss#5 5failure,5 +I/ 7t ma& mean 5risk5 or
5risk& people,5 <hat is# if there are too man& people# then suess )eomes
risk&sone ma& ha0e ’Ž where pre0iousl& one onl& ha( ’,+$/ 7t ma& mean
5F(e)ates a)outG suess an( failure5Ythat is# if too man& people are
in0ol0e( in the enterprise# the& will fall to arguing o0er the )est wa& to
proee( +this might make sense in relation to ÆÇ mentione( in the following
7n summar& then# we might posit one of the following three possi)le
57f there are too man& people# &ou will not a0oi( failure,5
57f there are too man& people# then a situation will arise that oul( go either
57f there are too man& people# then there will )e (e)ates o0er the )est wa& of
(oing things,5
Voca*u+ar, -ints
›+-MM/ ¥+I%8-I/ :+.%M/ 3+-8I/ §+I$3/
y+I38/ p+!oo-1/ “+I$M/ 至+11---/ ª+88/
u+$%I/ 稱+..$-1/ c+.8$-I/ 親+-!--1# -!--$/ ú+I$I/
受+1-3/ 獨+II8/ <+11%/ u+3M/ +$1/
dv+1a# L1-/ >+$.3/ 具+1%3-$/ ¹+I8$/ €+I3--I/
*+-3./ s+1$$-I/ Ô+1-M/ É+I1!/ a+.83-I/
Voca*u+ar, List
i, ¬Á½³º¸-¤À¼±¾¶µÆ·¦£«+1M/
ii, Ä»¨Èâ¿Â©´+1%/
iii, ²®Ç+$/
i0, m¯+I/
Lesson 1/
!-%, â =4 9hQng A4 "D ʧ—# tsue ê B4 "ang ¬ '4 "euhng
2alking stik6 to walk with a walking stik# to use FsomethingG as a walking
@or a (isussion of how this harater is use(# see 18,1 )elow, Ra(ial 3. +ß/,
!-1, ä =4 fV A4 fu h# tsukasa ª£ B4 )u > '4 fL
To0ernment offie# go0ernment )ureau# hea(:uarters,
Ra(ial .$ +@/,
!-I, å =4 "[ A4 geki @Ö B4 geuk ú '4 g_k
<wo-pronge( spear# hal)er(,
Ra(ial !I +½/,
!-$, æ =4 9hZ A4 "iki ÊÖ# hoku ɧ¨# massugu Ÿっ³Ê B4 "ik 직 '4 "ihk
1, Straight# (iret6 (iretl&, H
I, Onl&# merel&,
Ra(ial 1%M +¼/,
!--, ç =4 hK A4 ko °# yobu よÁ B4 ho µ '4 fK
<o r& out# to shout,
Ra(ial $% +n/,
!-., è =4 pZ A4 hi ð# kawa ªÏ# eguru êÊ B4 pi © '4 p^ih
Skin# hi(e6 to skin# to strip,
Ra(ial 1%3 +è/,
!-!, é =4 "uU A4 ketsu ケš# kimeru 8めÂ# eguru êÊ B4 g&eol 결 '4
<o (ei(e6 (ei(e(l&6 to ut through# to gouge out,
Ra(ial 8. +œ/,
!-3, ê =4 &Rn A4 gan (¸# gen @¸# me め# manako ŸÒ® B4 an ) '4
S&non&m4¼+II/, Ra(ial 1%M +¼/,
!-8, ë =4 hCng A4 hD ɧ—# harawata ƫϹ B4 "ang ¬ '4 h^uhng
7ntestines# )owels,
Ra(ial 1$% +ž/,
!-M, ì =4 :K A4 shu éí# toru î B4 hwi ‘ '4 hUui
<o take# to aept,to apture,
<his harater is an e;tremel& ommon 0er) in literar& 'hinese, Ra(ial IM
!.%, ? =4 sh_ A4 shi é# shikabane ¤ªºね B4 si a '4 s_
'orpse# (ea( )o(&,
<his wor( is often seen now in the more omple; 0ersion í,Ra(ial -- +?/,
!.1, î =4 pb +1/6 )Qo +I/ A4 )aku ù¨# sarasu £«³ B4 pok 폭 +1/6 po D
+I/ '4 )uhk +1/6 )ouh +I/
1, <o e;pose
I, 'ruel# 0iolent# sa0age, H
Note that )oth meanings of this harater our in this lesson8s te;t, =eaning
c1 is pro)a)l& a simplifiation of 爆# whih an also mean “to air#“ “to (r& in
the sun,5 Ra(ial 3I +</,
!.I, ï =4 gEu A4 kD °—# aganau ÚëÒž B4 gu 4 '4 kau
<o )u&# to purhase# to hire,
Ra(ial 1.- +6/
!.Ia, ïQ =4 gEu w^n A4 kDmon ®žü B4 gu mun 4문 '4 kau mahn
<o offer a rewar( for information,
!.$, ð =4 ;iQn +1/6 ;uCn +I/ A4 ken ͸# ke ケ# kakeru ª@ B4 h&eon 현
'4 &uhn +1/6 &bhn +I/
1, Pistrit# ount&,
I, <o hang# to suspen(, H
=eaning cI +whih ours in this lesson8s te;t/ is atuall& a ommon
su)stitute for the “orret” harater#懸, @or this harater8s speiali9e(
usage in this ase# see the ompoun( )elow, Ra(ial 1I% +3/,
!.I), ïð =4 gEu ;uCn A4 kDken ®ž@ B4 gu h&eon 4현 '4 kau &bhn
<o hang up a rewar( in or(er to o)tain information,
<he author means here that# after e;posing the )o(& in the marketplae an(
getting no results# the • ruler hangs a )ag of gol( in a pu)li plae with a
notie of rewar(, A num)er of earl& 'hinese te;ts mention this ustom,
!.-, ñ =4 rSng +1/6 &Zng +I/ A4 ei Ù¿ B4 &eong 영 '4 wNhng +1/6 &Nhng
1, Tlor&# prosperit&6 to prosper,
I, ?ing +personal name of 聶政8s sister/,H
Ra(ial 3. +ß/,
!.., ò =4 9Ui A4 9oku ب B4 "eok Ç '4 haahk
1, <hief# )an(it, H
I, <o (o in"ur& to# to harm,
Ra(ial 1.- +6/,
11), E7 =4 wK &N A4 o&K Óמ B4 eo eup 2ô '4 wK &Op
<o sigh6 Alas]
<hese haraters are emplo&e( onomatopoetiall&6 note the (ifferent
pronuniations of )oth,
!.!, ô =4 kK A4 koku °¨# naku Ò´# nageku Òげ´ B4 gok 곡 '4 hKk
<o so)# to r&,
<his harater refers to nois& r&ing# as oppose( to º+.I./# whih is silent
r&ing, Ra(ial $% +n/,
38), “Ú =4 suJ w^i A4 iwa&uru ¢Ï× B4 so wi 소' '4 sS waih
So-alle(# known as ,,,,
!.3, õ =4 nu^ A4 g&aku EÍ´# shietageru ¤ê¹げÂ# shiitageru ¤¢¹げÂ
B4 hak 학 '4 &euhk
'ruel# oppressi0e6 to )e ruel to# to (o 0iolene to,
Ra(ial 1-1 +fB/,
1M%a, …! =4 fK rUn A4 fu"in Xñ B4 )u in >1 '4 fK &Qhn
La(&# wife,
1ere# this term is use( as a polite form of a((ress,
!.8, ö =4 &ing A4 ōzuru ÓžずÂ B4 eung 응 '4 &ing
<o answer,
Ra(ial !1 +=/,
!.M, ÷ =4 mUng A4 mD モ—# kōmuru ®ž²Â B4 mong 몽 '4 mbhng
<o )ear# to take# to suffer,
Ra(ial 1-% +-/,
!!%, ø =4 wK A4 o Ë# kegasu @ë³# yogosu よご³# kegare @ëÃ# kitanai
8¹Ò¢# et, B4 o š '4 wK
1, <o stain# to (irt&6 (irt# filth6 (irt&# filth&# orrupt, H
I, aool# pon(# water hole,
Ra(ial 8. +œ/
!!1, ù =4 fQn A4 han ¾¸ B4 pan 판 '4 faan +to )u&# to sell/6 fCahn
+merhat# pe((ler/
<o )u&# to sell6 merhant# pe((ler,
Ra(ial 1.- +6/,
!!I, ú =4 &Qng A4 &D Η# tsutsuga ë B4 &ang Ï '4 &euhng
7llness# misfortune,
<his harater ours most often in its negate( form#Tú# whih is a stan(ar(
wa& to sa& 5in goo( health#5 “still ali0e,5 TúV# 5ha0e &ou no illnessesf5 is a
stan(ar( wa& of sa&ing 51ow are &ouf5 Ra(ial !1 +=/,
!!$, û =4 :i^ A4 shD 駗# mekake めª@# sobame •ºめ# warawa Ï«Ï
B4 heop 첩 '4 hip
1, 'onu)ine,
I, Fhum)le first person pronoun use( )& womenGH
Ra(ial $8 +¶/,
!!-, ü =4 "iQ A4 ka Í# kasuru ª³Â# kasu ª³# totsugu îÊ B4 ga Þ
'4 ga
<o marr& +of women/6 to marr& off Fa (aughterG,
Ra(ial $8 +¶/,
.1a, q世 =4 ;iQ shN A4 kasei ªÛ¢ B4 ha se R¤ '4 hah sai
<o pass awa&# to lea0e the worl(,
!!. ý =4 hC A4 satsu ·š# sassuru £っ³Â B4 hal ¿ '4 haat
<o e;amine# to in0estigate# to in:uire after,
Ra(ial -% +⼧/
!!!, þ =4 9U A4 taku 4¨# sawa £Ï B4 taek 택 '4 "aahk
Swamp# marsh6 moisture# )lessing,
<he meaning 5)lessing5 (eri0es from “moisture”Ymetaphoriall& the water
that nourishes rops an( growth, Ra(ial 8. 冰/,
!!3, ÿ =4 nQi A4 (ai ç¿ B4 nae ¯ or na 나 '4 noih
+`se( onl& in the om)ination ÿV6 see )elow,/
Ra(ial $3 +\/,
!!3a, ÿV =4 nQi hU A4 ikan ¢ª B4 nae ha ¯ '4 noih hEh
2hat to (o a)out,,,f
<he first harater is also written , ÿV is thought )& mo(ern sholars to )e
a fusion of }8V +ompare }VF1IM)G/, E0en more than }V# it is use( to
in(iate perple;it& or in(eision, Literar& 'hinese writers soon forgot the
fusion an( often plae( the o)"et of perple;it& either )etween the two
haraters or after them, @or e;ample4 ÿR!V or ÿVR!# 52hat an 7 (o
a)out m& fatef”
!!8, 尙 =4 shQng A4 shD 駗# nao ÒÓ B4 sang '4 seuhng
1, Still,
I, <o esteem# to honor,
S&non&m +meaning c1/4 ;+$.!/, Ra(ial $% +Ñ/,
!!M, * =4 9hEng +1/6 hSng +I/ A4 hD ɧ—# "K Êí—# omoi Óü¢#
kasanaru ª£ÒÂ# et, B4 "ung Ì '4 hLhng +hea0&/6 "uhng +important/6
hbhng +repeate(/
1, 1ea0&# important6 to onsi(er important, H
I, Repeate(# repeate(l&,
=eaning cI# though ommon# (oes not our in our te;ts, Ra(ial 1!! +K/,
!3%, 歿 =4 mE A4 motsu モš# )otsu úš# bossuru Çっ³Â B4 mol " '4
<o perish# to (ie,
<his harater is use( interhangea)l& with ## “to sink#” “to perish#” )ut onl&
when (eath is in0ol0e(, Ra(ial 38 +ù/,
!31, 悲 =4 )W A4 hi ð# kanashimu ªÒ¤²# kanashii ªÒ¤¢ B4 )i ò '4
Sa(6 sa(ness6 to lament,
Ra(ial !1 +=/,
!3I, 旁 =4 pCng A4 )D ú—# katawara ª¹Ï« B4 )ang $ '4 pEhng
Si(e6 near)&,
Ra(ial 3% +方/,
!3$, 烈 =4 li^ A4 retsu éš# hageshii Æげ¤¢ B4 l&eol % '4 liht
pehement# intense# passionate6 heroi# mart&re(,
Ra(ial 8! +g/,
!3-, 鄉 =4 ;iQng +1/6 ;iOng +I/ A4 kv °—# k&v Ö§—# gv ÷—# mukau ²ªž#
mukeru ²@Â B4 h&ang & '4 heung +1/6 hWung+I/
1, @ormerl&# pre0iousl&# in the reent past6 to fae# to )e opposite to,H
I, pillage# town,
<he more “proper” usage for this harater is meaning cI, 1owe0er# there is
a fairl& ompliate( harater 'whih# )eause of its omple;it&# ten(e( to
)e split into its two omponents for simplifiation purposes, <hus# &ou will
fin( ',鄉 +the top part of the harater/ an( ( +11$M/ all use( to mean
“formerl&#” “pre0iousl&#” an( so forth, Ra(ial 1!$ +7/,
!3., 誠 =4 hUng A4 sei ·¿# makoto Ÿ®î# makotoni Ÿ®îä B4 seong 성
'4 sNhng
<rul&# reall&6 honest# sinere,
aartial s&non&m4)+$$M/, Ra(ial 1-M +o/,
!3!, 濡 =4 rL A4 "u Êí# nureru àÃÂ# nurasu ૳ B4 &u Ô '4 &bh
<o moisten +here# use( with speial meaning in ompoun(6 see !3!a )elow/,
Ra(ial 8. +œ/,
!33, 忍 =4 rjn A4 nin *¸# shinobu ¤±Á B4 in 1 '4 &Cn
<o )ear# to en(ure,
Ra(ial !1 +=/,
!3!a, 濡忍 =4 rSu rjn A4 "unin ñöä B4 &u in Ô1 '4 &Quh &Cn
'ompliant# gentle# willing to tolerate,
<his usage of 濡 is foun( onl& in this ompoun(, Note the (ifferent
pronuniation of the first harater in =an(arin,
!38, 骸 =4 hCi A4 gai (¿# mukuro ²´ろ B4 hae + '4 hQaih
Skeleton# )o(&# orpse,
Ra(ial 188 +骨/,
!3M, 險 =4 ;iRn A4 ken ケ¸ B4 heom, '4 hZm
Pangerous# o)strute(6 (anger# o)strution,
Ra(ial 13% +Í/,
!8%, 列 =4 lie A4 retsu éš# tsuranaru «ÒÂ# tsuraneru «ねÂ B4 l&eol
% '4 liht
Row# rank6 to line up# to rank,
列‰ thus means “to plae Fsomeone8sG name in the ranks”™that is# “to make
someone8s name known,5 Ra(ial 18 +:/,
!81, 僇 =4 lb A4 riku ¦¨ B4 l&uk - '4 luhk
<o kill# to massare6 to (isgrae# to shame,
<he 0er) is rea( passi0el& in this lesson8s te;t, Ra(ial M +!/,
18,1, 獨ˆâb至•+l, 1/4 Burton 2atson# in his translation of this )iograph&#
has an interesting omment on this passage, 1e translates âb as 5(isguising
his swor( as a walking stik5 then notes4 “<his phrase is ustomaril& taken
simpl& to mean tusing his swor( as a walking stik#\ )ut this makes little
sense here# in a((ition to )eing a rather foolish an( (isrespetful wa& to
han(le a swor(, E;amination of other passages where the phrase ours
shows that in all ases the person is tra0eling inognito an( 7 therefore
suggest the a)o0e translation, Nieh 'heng FNie >hengG oul( har(l& ha0e
approahe( the prime minister if his swor( ha( )een 0isi)le5 +2atson#
Reor(s of the 1istorian4 'hapters from the Shih 'hi of Ssu-ma 'h\ien# p, .$/,
<his shoul( (emonstrate to &ou the (egree to whih pratiall& e0er& 'hinese
te;t is open to issues of interpretation,
18,I, Nd·U+l, -/4 “No one knew who it was,5 1ere# U most likel& is merel& a
0ague suffi; to ·# inlu(e( for the sake of the rh&thm, 7t oul( also mean#
literall&# “whose son5™that is# from what famil& he ame,
18,$, 政LñÞ!]刺ÿ•Õ者,òy’+1, ./4 2e might )e pu99le( )& the phrase
òy’# sine 聶政 is alrea(& (ea(, 7t seems reasona)le to take it as ò8‰y
s ’ in other wor(s# )eause 聶政 kille( himself# the& (i( not suee( in
apturing him ali0e an( asertaining his i(entit&, One might also argue that ò
in(iates the person )e-hin( the sheme# that is# the person who hire( 聶政
+in this ase# PƒU/,
18,-, k‘ûy-+l, !/4 5'oul( this )e m& little )rotherf” Note4 +1/ the “mo(al”
use of k in a :uestion# antiipating a positi0e answer +see 11,!/# an( +I/ the
use of k as a final :uestion partile# su)stituting for the harater .
+see 1M1-./,
18,., PƒUdûy+l, !/4 7ntuiting that the orpse is her )rother# 聶ñ reali9es
that PƒU must ha0e persua(e( her )rother to ommit the assassination#
knowing that he was apa)le not onl& of arr&ing it out )ut of onealing his
i(entit& afterwar(, 1er omment here un(erlines the entral o)sessions of
the stor&4 1ow an one person reogni9e the essential :ualities of another#
an( how an one8s own (ee(s )eome known to others so that one will )e
famous after (eathf
18,!, µˆ者諸眾!+l, 8/4 <his phrase seems largel& re(un(ant4 “<hose walking
in the marketplaeYall of the row(,5 ” 諸 here as a plural marker seems
partiularl& re(un(ant,
18,3, Ç政“#÷øt,‰‹Eµù8Y者,+þý¿Tú,ûuü" +ll, M-1%/4 Note
that this is a long “# sentene# gi0ing the “reason” )ehin( \ 聶政 s )eha0ior
+see 1-,$/, Note also that the e;planation lauses are intro(ue( )& + rather
than #, <his hange (oes not affet the meaning,
18,8, PƒU4ý舉ûy困ø8中Bp8 +l, 11/4 “?an >hong9i onl& then in:uire(
after him an( lifte( m& little )rother from Fimplie( E hereG the mi(st of
(iffiult& an( filth an( assoiate( with him,5
18,M, *‰¡#ó¸ +l, 1I/4 “1e hea0il& punishe( himself Fi,e,# (isfigure(
himselfG in or(er that he woul( se0er all traes,5 <he point here is that 聶政
(isfigure( himself )efore ommitting suii(e so that he woul( )e
unreogni9a)lewnot merel& to pre0ent his rime from )eing trae( to PƒU
)ut also to protet his famil&# who woul( )e su)"et to punishment )&
18,1%, ûkÿV畏歿身8¦,/Sy8‰+ll, 1I-1$/4 <hat is# in spite of her
)rother8s efforts to remain anon&mous# 聶ñ feels she annot allow her
)rother8s heroism an( no)ilit& to remain unreogni9e(, <he k here seems
unneessar&6 it ma& ser0e as a mil( emphasis, 1owe0er# it is also :uite
possi)le that it is )eing use( for r+!%I/# whih intro(ues a rhetorial
:uestion# antiipating a negati0e response +suh a onfusion is unfortunatel&
ommonunfortunate )eause r an( k normall& ha0e opposite meanings as
rhetorial :uestion in(iators/, 7n either wa&# k is re(un(ant# )eause here ÿ
V alrea(& on0e&s the feeling of a rhetorial :uestion4 52hat oul( 7 (o
a)out fearing a punishment that woul( (estro& m&self# an( so in the en(
(estro& the fame of m& worth& )rotherf5Yin other wor(s# “1ow oul( 7 in
goo( onsiene sa& nothing )eause 7 feare( m& own (eath# an( thus
pre0ent m& )rother from ahie0ing the fame that he (eser0e(f5
18,11, 鄉ˆ政誠dkLT濡忍8Xt,y*î骸8Ä,Šó險§K#列k‰,Ly俱僇
方|•µ者,,,+ll, 1.-1!/4 <his is the “if” lause of a 0er& long# omple;
sentene4 /ˆ here means “Earlier Flit,# “in the pastG,supposing that,,,,” <he
)asi logi is as follows4 7f 聶政 ha( reali9e( +1/ that his own sister woul(
willingl& (ie to make sure that his own reputation woul( li0e on +what she
(oes not possess is either a will ompliant with her )rother8s (esires or one
that oul( )ear to see her )rother8s fame unreogni9e(/# an( +I/ that she
woul( not onsi(er important * her own possi)le (eath an( (isgrae# an( +$/
that she woul( ine0ita)l& Š risk the (angers ó險 of a long "ourne& in or(er to
5rank his name5 列‰ +i,e,# make sure that his (ee( was reogni9e(/# with the
result that +-/ )oth en(e( up perishing,,,, Note that 者 here marks the final
en( of the “if\ lause,
18,1I,,,,PƒU_„Úd!e’士b+ll 1!-13/4 'onse:uentl&# PƒU might )e
a(mire( not merel& for reogni9ing the ourage an( no)ilit& of 聶政 )ut also
for antiipating that he woul( not know his sister well enough to antiipate
her ations, Some translators assume that these last sentenes are the
"u(gment of the historian himself# an( not the wor(s of the people of ðJ.€,
Voca*u+ar, -ints
{+$1!-I/ 獨+II8/ b+.!%/ G+$!$/ 持+-!8/
侍+-!3/ 眾!+.-1a# L1./ 階+-!I/ ,+-33/ "+.../
數+.$M-I/ r+$81/ µ+.II/ N+$!8/ ·+!I-/
§+I$3/ L+.!3/ y+-1-/
+18%/ +.%-/
+1M1-./ •+-I%-$/ ó+1$I/ 果+I88/ Æ+.$!/
Q+.3$/ 諸+I.$-1/ ·+.I$/ Y+.81-1/ •_+!)# L13/
舉+11.-1/# p+!%%-1/# `+M./ dv+1a# L1-/ ¡+.%.-1/
ó+II./ ¸+!I.-./ 畏+8$/ ƒ+I!M-$/ ˆ+1-%-$/
俱+1M$/ Ú+I.I-1/
Voca*u+ar, List
ii ÿûä旁âøé烈èêë÷險 +1$/
iii üåõ+$/
i0 僇?ú歿濡ùï骸+8/
Unit 3
Two Biographies from the Biographies of Noted Women 列女傳
Like the Garden of Stories 說苑, excerpted in Lessons 1 through 10, the
Biographies of Noted Women (Lin! "hu#n Liht n$uih %&uhn 列女傳' was
compi(ed )& Li* +i#ng 劉向 (,-./ B01020'0 3s as the former text, this co((ection
was pro)a)(& edited from ear(ier sur4i4ing records0 5is purpose here was to
pro4ide information on exemp(ar& (i4es of women6 a(though 列 in the tit(e
simp(& means 7to rank8 (and the term 列傳,a s we ha4e seen, was used in the
史記 to dicate a )iograph& or co((ection of )iographies', some ha4e suggested
that 列 shou(d )e adhere as a term meaning 94irtuous9 or e4en 9mart&r09
:ndeed, man& of the women in the co((ection die rather than a)andon 4irtue,
though this is )& no means true of a(( of them0
Though the text seems to ha4e )een popu(ar with )oth men and women
readers, the (ater tradition saw it as one of the semina( works used for
teaching women how to read0 Need(ess to sa&, man& of the )ook;s examp(es
of proper 1onfucian )eha4ior are not attracti4e to modern tastes, and there is
great emphasis p(aced on the 9su)ordinate9 4irtues appropriate to women0 :n
Lesson <1, for examp(e, we ha4e a mention of the 9three fo((owings9 thought
to )e suita)(e to women= when &oung, fo((ow &our parents6 when married,
fo((ow &our hus)and6 and if &our hus)and dies, fo((ow &our son0
: ha4e chosen to use the fo((owing two )iographies as exemp(ar& (essons
)ecause of their fame and )ecause of their inherent interest—)oth of their
stories transcend to some extent the theme of the su)ordinate position of
women that characteri"es narrati4es in most of the text0 >irst is the stor& of
B?o S@ 褒姒, which is taken from the (ast chapter, consisting of )iographies of
wicked and (asci4ious women (sort of a 9don;t (et this happen to &ou9
section'0 Though the stor& main(& ref(ects the misog&nist )e(ief that medd(ing
women often ring a)out the downfa(( of a state, the )iograph& itse(f is fu(( of
fancifu( m&thic e(ements thatt ha4e )een popu(ar in 1hinese cu(ture for
thousands of &ears0 Second, we ha4e the most famous )iograph& in the
co((ection, the account of Aencius; mother0 Though the heroine demonstrates
a(( the )eha4ior 1onfucians admired in women, she does show that women
cou(d exert their own distincti4e form of authorit& within the (imitations of the
Lesson 19
¶·者¸,¹褒姒#cº, »¼½¾,¿ÀÁÂ。‹Œ5-ÃÄÅÆÇÈÉÊ幽王。幽
VOCABULARY (682-767)
Note= 3 comp(ex narrati4e with man& detai(s wi(( ine4ita)(& resu(t in a great
dea( of unfami(iar 4oca)u(ar& for the )eginning student, e4en if the grammar
and diction ar re(ati4e(& uncomp(icated0 Tr& to )e patient with a(( the new
words6 a great man& of the (though important in genera(' won;t occur again
in this text)ook0 
C/<0 褒 A= )?o D= hE åæ K: po ç C: bōu
The state of Bao0
Fadica( 1GH (è'0
C/I0 姒 A= s@ D= %i é J= sa ê 1= chKh
Si0 La surnameM
5ence, the name of the main character is actua((& 7Si of Bao08 Fadica( I/ (女'0
C/G0 童 A= tNng D= dE ëæ, warawa, ìíì warabe ìíî J= dong ï 1=
1hi(d, prepu)escent chi(d, 4irgin0
Fadica( 11, (•'0
C/H0 周 A= "hEu D= shū ðñæ J= %u ò 1= %?u
The name of a d&nast& (traditiona((& accepted dates 11<<Q<HH B01020'0
Fadica( I0 (R'0
C/C0 幽 A= &Eu D= &ū óæ J= &u ô 1= &?u
5idden, m&sterious6 supernatura(0 Fadica( H< (õ, 7sma((8'0
C/Ca0 幽王 A= &Eu wSng D= &T E ö÷ø÷ J= &u wang ôù 1= &?u wUhng
Jing Vou (of the Phou6 r0 ,/1.,,0 B01020'0
C/,0 后 A= hUu D= kE úæ, go û, kisaki üýü J= hu þ 1= hauh
10 2mpress, principa( consort0 W
<0 5ouse, c(an, ru(er0 W
The second group of meanings (house, c(an, ru(er' is rarer and more archaic,
and it occurs in (ine < (夏后'0 Fadica( I0 (ÿ'0
C//0 夏 A= xi# D= ka カ J= ha 하 1= hah
10 +ia (name of a (arge(& (egendar& d&nast&, ear(& second mi((ennium B01020'0
<0 Summer0
Fadica( IH (夂'0
C/-0 神 A= sh$n D= %in éン, shin ðン, kami かみ J= sin 신 1= s#hn
Spirit, god, di4init&0
Fadica( 11I (示'0
C-00 化 A= hu# D= ka カ, ke ケ J= hwa 화 1=fa
10 To transform, to change0 W
<0 To transform mora((& and ethica((&6 to teach0
Aeaning X1 is often used when referring to supernatura( transformations0
Aeaning occurs freYuent(& in 1onfucian po(itica( rhetoric, and it often refers
to the power of ru(er to transform his peop(e for the )etter0 Fadica( <1 (匕'0
C-10 龍 A= (Nng D= r&ũ リñæ, r&E リョæ, tatsu たつ J= (&ong 룡 1= (Ohng
Fadica( <1< (龍'0
C-<0 ! A= tKng D= tei テイ, niwa にì J= %eong 정 1= t@hng
10 1ourt (of a ru(er'0W
<0 1ourt&ard, garden0
The 7proper8 character for meaning X1 is 廷0 Fadica( HI (广'0
C-I0 ' A= &* D= &o ヨ, ware ìれ J= &eo 여 1= &Oh
:, me, m&, we, us, our0 Lfirst person pronounM
This character is a fair(& common pronoun, though it occurs in our texts on(&
in this (ess0 Fadica( - (人'0
C-G0 + A= )[ D= )oku ボク, uranau ÷íな÷, uranai ÷íない J= )ok 복
To di4ine, to te(( fortune6 di4ination, prophec&6 di4iner0
Fadica( <H (+'0
C-H0 0 A= %K D= kichi キ, kitsu キ!, yoshi "# J= gi( $ 1= g?t
3uspicious, (uck&0
This word is one of the standard answers to a di4ination, the other )eing %
(/C1', 7un(uck&,8 7inauspicious08 Fadica( I0 (R'0
C-C0 3 A= (K D= ri リ, awa &ì J= (i 1= (ih
Sa(i4a, spitt(e0
Fadica( /H (''0
C-,0 4 A= cSng D= sE (æ, "E )æ, osamu øý* J= %ang + 1= chUhng
To hide, to concea(, to store, to sa4e Lgoods or treasureM0
Fadica( 1G0 (,'0
C-/0 7 A= )@ D= hei -イ J= p&e . 1= )aih
Sacrificia( offerings6 gifts, presents, mone&0
Fadica( H0 (/'0
C--0 9 A= hT D= kotsu ú!, tachimachi た010 J= ho( 2 1= f?t
sudden(&, a)rupt(&0
Fadica( C1 (3'0
,000 < A= d* D= toku 45, hitsu 6つ J= dok 7 1= duhk
1a)inet, c(oset0
Fadica( ,H (8'0
,010 ? A= %i?o D= kE úæ J= g&o 9 1= g?au
1eremon& for offering sacrifices to 5ea4en and earth6 a(tar or temp(e for such
sacrifices0 Because such a(tars were (ocated outside the cit& wa((s (:', this
character e4entua((& was used to descri)e the su)ur)an areas of a cit&0
Fadica( 1CI (;, <'0
H1Ha0 D王 A= (@ wSng D= rei E れいø÷ J= (&eo wang = 1= (aih wUhng
Jing Li (of the Phou6 r0 /,/./<, B01020'0
,0<0 E A= mU D= )atsu >!, matsu 1つ, sue ?@ J= ma( A 1= muhk
2nd, tip, (atter part, unimportant part0
This character is often used as the opposite of B (,G', 7root,8 7)asics08 Zo
not confuse it with S(I0<'6 the two cross.(ines ha4e different (engths in
re(ation to each other0 Fadica( ,H (8'0
,0I0 K A= fO D= fu C J= )u D 1= f*h
Woman, wife0
1ompare this character to n (1-<', which can on(& refer to a wife0 5ere, K人
is a genera( term for 9women09 Fadica( I/ (女'0
,0G0 L A= (u\ D= ra E, hadaka FGか J= na H 1= (N
Bare, nude, naked6 to strip off c(othes0
Fadica( 1GH (è'0
,0H. M A= "#o D= shE ðョæ, sawagu ýìI J= %o J 1= chou
To make a racket, to a)use, to curse0
Fadica( 1G- (#'0
,0C0 N A= xuSn D= gen Kン, ken ケン J= h&eon L 1= &Ohn
B(ack, dark6 m&sterious0
Fadica( -H (N'0
,0,0 O A= &uSn D= gan Mン J= won 1= &Ohn
Fadica( 1G< (N, 7insect.(ike or repti(ian anima(8'0
HIa0 QR A= hUu gEng D= kEk&T O÷üP÷ J= hu gung þQ 1= hauh
Fear pa(ace (women;s Yuarters'0
,0/0 T A= chn D= shin ðン J= chin R 1= chan
To ha4e one s adu(t teeth come in6 to (ose one s )a)& teeth0
Fadica( <11 (S, 7teeth8'0
,0-0 U A= "?o D= sE (æ, au &÷, awaseru &ìTU J= %o J 1= %Eu
To encounter, to meet up with (often a )ad thing'0
Fadica( 1C< (V'0
,100 W A= %] D= kei Wい, kōgai O÷Xい J= g&e 1= g?i
Woman;s hairpin6 age at which a woman )egins wearing a hairpin (usua((&
fifteen' Fadica( 11/ (Y'0
,110 X A= &On D= &E ヨæ, haramu Fí* J= ing Z 1= &ahn
To )e pregnant, to concei4e0
Fadica( I- (ˆ'0
,1<0 Z A= xu?n D= sen [ン, noru \U, noberu \îU J= seon ] 1= s&Tn
To proc(aim, to make pu)(ic0
Fadica( G0 (⼧'0
,1<a0 Z王 A= xu?n wSng D= sen E T^ø÷ J= seon wang ] 1= s&Tn
Jing +uan (of the Phou6 r0 /<,.,/1 B01020'0
,1I0 \ A= ch^n D= san _ン, umu ÷* J= san 1= chSan
10 To produce, to )ear, to gi4e )irth to0W
<0 Aeans of (i4e(ihood0
Fadica( 100 (‡'0
,1G0 _ A= r[ D= n&T `ñæ, chi 0, chichi 00 J= &u ô 1= &*h
10 Breasts6 mi(k6 to nurse, to produce )reast mi(k0
<0 To gi4e )irth0 W
Though meaning X1 is much more common, meaning X< is more (ike(&
correct here0 Fadica( H (a'0
1H0)0 bc A= xi?n sh@ D= kore yori saki Oれ"býü J= seon si ]c 1=
s]n sih
Before this, ear(ier0
The character 初 (I0H' is a(so used in this wa&0 Both terms introduce some
e4ent that occurred )efore the main time frame in which the narrator has
(ocated himse(f0
,1H0 e A= &So D= &E ヨæ, utau ÷た÷, utai ÷たい J= &o d 1= &@uh
Fh&me, song, fo(k song0
Fadica( 1G- (#'0
C/Ga0 童e A= tNng &So D= dE&E e÷"÷ J= dong &o ïd 1= tOhng &@uh
1hi(dren s rh&me6 p(a&ground song0
:n traditiona( 1hinese narrati4es, chi(dren;s songs are often prophetic0
,1C0 f A= &^n D= en fン J= eom g 1= &Km
Au()err& wood0
Fadica( ,H (8'。
,1,0 g A=h* D= ko ú, yumi öみ J= ho h 1= wOh
Fadica( H, (i'0
,1/0 h A= %] D= ki キ J= gi j 1= g_i
Bam)oo winnowing )asket0
3 hi is therefore a Yui4er
(C0/.<' shaped (ike a )am)oo winnowing )asket h0 Fadica( 11I(Y'0
,1-0 j A= shK D= %itsu é!, makoto ni 1O4に J= sik k 1= saht
fru(&, rea((&, actua((&0
This character is an archaic 4ariant of the more common character l (II-'0
Fadica( G0 (⼧'0
,<00 o A= m#i D= mai mイ, )ai >イ, uru ÷U J= mae n 1= maaih
To se((
Fadica( 1HG (o'0
,<10 r A= (O D= riku リク J= (&uk p 1= (uhk
To execute,to ki((,to s(aughter0
Sometimes this character is used interchangea)(& with q( C/1'0 Note that in
this case the use of J te((s us that the king sends someone to do this0 Fadica(
C< (r'0
,<<0 u A= hao (1'6 hao (<' D= gE ûæ J= ho h 1= hUuh (1'6 houh(<'
10 To scream,to cr&, to wai(0 W
<0 To ca((, to gi4e a name to0 W
Aeaning X1 is used here, and meaning X< is used further down0 `artia(
s&non&m (meaning X1'= s(CGG'6 partia( s&non&ms (meaning X<'= $(1<0', Ü
(<H<'0 Fadica( 1G1 (t'0
,<I0 y A= cu#n D= "an uン, san _ン, kakuru か5U J= chan v 1= ch&un
To escape, to f(ee, to go into hiding0
Note that the character consists of 7ca4e8 and 7rat08 Fadica( 11C (w'0
,<G0 … A= xT D= ko J= gu 1= h$ui
+u (of Bao6 the ru(er of 褒 in the time of 幽王'0
Fadica( I/ (女'0
,<H0 ~ A= &O D= goku ûク, hitoya 64x J= ok y 1= &uhk
Lega( case6 crime6 prison0
Fadica( -G (Ç'0
,<C0 • A= sh* D= shoku ðョク, aganau &Xな÷ J= sok z 1= suhk
To redeem, to compensate for0
Fadica( 1HG (o'0
,<,0 ƒ A= )@ D= hei -イ J= p&e . 1= pei
Sexua( fa4orite (of a ru(er'0
5ere, this word is used causati4e(&= 7to make LsomeoneM a sexua( fa4orite09
Fadica( I/ (女'0
<0Cc0 ‰i A= )N f* D= hakufuku {クCク J= )aek )ok |복 1= )aak fuhk
Bofu (son of 褒姒'0
,</0 ‹ A= sh_n D= shin ðン J= sin 신 1= s?n
To stretch, to extend0
5ere, this character is used as the name of a fiefdom0 Fadica( 10< (}'0
,</a0 ‹Œ A= sh_n hNu D= shin ko ðンú J= sin hu 신þ 1= s?n h#uh
The AarYuis of Shen0
,<-0 • A= &K D= gi ~, &oi "い, ii いい J= ui • 1= &@h
Suita)(e, appropriate0
5ere, the character is part of a name0 Fadica( G0 (⼧'0
,I00 • A= %iO D= k&T キP, usu ÷? J= gu € 1= kau
5ere, the character is part of a name0 Fadica( 1IG (•'0
,<-a0 •• A= &K %iO D= gik&T ~キP J= ui gu •€ 1= &@h kau
Vi%iu (the son of the former Yueen and 幽王'0
Note the pre4a(ence of harem po(itics here0 B& remo4ing the son of the
daughter of ‹Œ (the former Yueen' from the position of grand prince, the
king a(ienates ‹Œ and pa4es the wa& for the (atter;s re4o(t mentioned
se4era( (ines (ater0
,I10 ‘ A= huU D= waku •ク, madou 1e÷ J= hok ‚ 1= waahk
To )e confused, to )e de(uded6 to )e Lsexua((&M infatuated with0
Fadica( C1 (3'0
,I<0 “ A= ch$ng (1.<'6 shng (I' D= %E éョ, noru \U J= seung ƒ 1=
s@hng (1.<'6 sihng (I'
10 To ride in a 4ehic(e0 W
<0 To take ad4antage of La situationM0
I0 LAeasure word for carriages0M
Fadica( G („'0
,II0 ” A= xO D= shutsu ðñ!, %utsu éñ! J= h&u( … 1= s_ut
To care a)out, to ha4e pit& on, to pa& attention to0
This is a 4ariant character of the more common †0 Fadica( <C (‡'0
,IG0 – A= YT D= ku ク, kakeru かWU J= gu € 1= k_ui
To ga((op, to ride a horse, to dri4e a horse6 to force, to dri4e Lsomeone to do
Fadica( 1/, (ˆ'0
,IH. — A= chK D= chi , haseru FTU J= chi ‰ 1= ch@h
To ga((op, to hurr&0
–— often occurs with the poetic meaning of 7to go hunting for p(easure09
Fadica( 1/, (ˆ'0
,IC0 ˜ A= &@ D= &oku ヨŠク J= ik ‹ 1= &ihk
3 )ow and arrow with a string tied to the arrow for retrie4a(6 to go hunting
with such a weapon0
Fadica( HC (˜'0
,I,0 ™ A= (i D= r&E リョ, kari かb J= (&eop Œ 1= (ihp
To hunt0
Fadica( -G (Ç'0
G)0 :[ A= )O shK D= tokinarazu 4üなí• J= )u( si Žc 1= )?t sih
3t an& time0
This idiomatic expression deri4es its meaning from the idea that something is
done 9at no LspecificM time09
,I/0 ž A= mi^n D = men •ン J= m&eon • 1= mKhn
Zrunk, intoxicated0
Fadica( /H (''
<<<a0 Gž A= (i* mi^n D= r&Tmen リñ•ン J= (&u m&eon ‘• 1= (#uh
To )e drunk constant(&0
,I-0 Ÿ A= ch?ng D= shE ðョ J= chang ’ 1= ch_ung
`opu(ar entertainment (often of a sexua( nature'6 prostitute0
Fadica( - (人'0
,G00 A= &Eu D= &u ó J= u “ 1= &?u
`opu(ar entertainment or entertainer6 actor0
Fadica( - (人'0
,G10 £ A= xO D= "oku )ク, tsuzuku つ•5, tsuzukeru つ•WU, tsuzuki つ•
ü J= sok z 1= %uhk
To continue6 in a seYuence0
Fadica( 1<0 (”'0
,G<0 ¤ A= "hUu D= chT ñ, hiru 6U J= %u ò 1= %au
Za&, da&time0
Zistinguish this character from Ð(<IH'0 Fadica( ,< (•'0
,GI0 ¨ A= du?n D= tan –ン, hashi F#, hata Fた J= dan — 1= d&Tn
2nd6 reason6 method0
Fadica( 11, (•'0
,GG0 © A= f_ng D= hE å J= )ong ˜ 1= fTng
Watch )eacon, warning )eacon0
Fadica( /C (´'0
,GH0 ª A= su@ D= sui ™イ J= su š 1= seuih
Watch )eacon, warning )eacon0
©ª is a s&non&m compound6 most often, a writer wi(( %ust use ©0 Fadica( /C
,GC0 - A= kUu D= kE ú J= gu € 1= kau
Bandit, raider6 to go raiding0
Fadica( G0 (⼧'0
,G,0 ± A= x] D= shitsu ð!, tsukusu つ5?, kotogotoku O4›45 J= si( œ
1= s]k
Grammarians ha4e o)ser4ed that origina((& this ad4er) seemed to app(&
most(& to p(ura( o)%ects0 >or examp(e, whereas the sentence 王•ž2Ÿ wou(d
usua((& )e interpreted as 9Jings a(( (o4e their minister(s',8 王±ž2Ÿ wou(d
more (ike(& )e aaThe king (o4es a(( of his ministers9 (i0e0,•L<HGM wou(d indicate
a p(ura(it& of kings, whereas ± wou(d indicate a p(ura(it& of ministers'0
5owe4er, as we can see from this (esson;s text, the distinction came to )e
ignored, and • and ± came to )e used interchangea)(&0 Fadica( C1 (3'0
,G/0 ² A= &u D= etsu f!, yorokobu "O¡ J= &eo( ¢ 1= &uht
To de(ight, to gi4e p(easure to6 de(ighted, happ&0
Notice that this is the 7correct8 character for a certain use of 說(G0<.<'0
Fadica( C1 (3'0
,G-0 ´ A= huE D= ka カ, hi 6 J= hwa 화 1= fN
Fadica( /C (´'0 
,H00 ¹ A= w$i D= &ui óイ, tatta た£た, tada たG J= &u ô 1= w#ih
Fadica( I0 (R'0
,H10 ¾ A= &* D= &u ó, hetsurau ¤つí÷ J= ô 1= &Oh
To f(atter, to )e o)seYuious toward0
Fadica( 1G- (#'0
,Ha0 ¿À A= )^i x@ng D= h&akushE 6¥5#¦, h&akusei 6¥5Tい J= )aek
seong |§ 1= )aak sing
The common peop(e ((it0, 7the hundred surnames 7'
,H<0 Á A= gu?i D= kai カイ, somuku ¨*5 J= goe © 1= gw?ai
`er4erse, o)stinate6 to )e stu))orn, to )e diso)edient0
Zon;t confuse this character with “ (,I<'c Fadica( G („'0
,HI0 Â A= (K D= ri リ, hanaru FなU, hanareru FなれU, sakaru ýかU J= (i
ª 1= (ih
To part from6 to separate, to distinguish6 separated from, parted6 a(ienated
from, hosti(e
Fadica( 1,< («'0
,HG0 Ã A= "_ng D= shE ðョ, sE ( J= %eung ¬ 1= %?ng
The state of Peng0
Fadica( 1<0 (”'0
C<Ia0 ÅÆ A= x] &K D= sei;i [イイ J= seo i -® 1= s?i &@h
Western 7Vi8 tri)es (name of a )ar)arian group'0
,HH0 Ç A= Yu^n D= ken ケン, inu い¯ J= g&eon ° 1= h&*n
Fadica( -G (Ç'0
,HC0 È A= rNng D= %T éñ, ebisu @±? J= &ung ² 1= &Ohng
10 7Fong8 (genera( name for 7)ar)arian8 tri)es in the west'0
<0 Ai(itar& affairs6 so(diering0
Fadica( C< (r'0
,HH0 ÇÈ A= Yu^n rNng D= ken%u W^³P J= g&eon &ung °² 1= h&*n
The 7Zog Fong8 tri)es (name of a )ar)arian group'0
,H,0 Ë A= "h_ng D= chE ョ, chōsuru 0¦?U, mesu ´? J= %ing µ 1=
To draft, to conscript, to order Lsomeone to appearM0
Fadica( C0 (¶'0
,H/0 Í A=(K D= ri J= (&eo = 1= (ih
B(ack (refers to horses'0
5ere, this character is the name of a mountain0 Fadica( 1/, (ˆ'0
,H/a0 ÍÎ A= (i shan D= ri"an J= (&eo san
Near the mountain now ca((ed Å·6 ÍÎ is a(so the site of the first ¸
emperor;s tom)0
,H-0 Ï A= ([ D= r&o リョ, toriko 4bO J= no ¹ 1= (Nuh
To capture, to take prisoner6 prisoner, capti4e0
Vou wi(( find that this character is a(so used as a pe%orati4e term for
9)ar)arian9 enemies0 Fadica( 1G1 (t'0
,C00 Ñ A= (O D= ro º, takara たかí J= noe » 1= (ouh
Goods, wea(th, treasures6 )ri)es6 to )ri)e0
Fadica( 1HG (o'0
GI1a0 Ó王 A= pKng wSng D= hei o -イ¼ J= p&eong wang ½ù 1= p@hng
Jing `ing (of the Phou6 r0 ,,0.,1- B01020'0
,C10 Ö A= sh] D= shi ð J= si c 1= s]
`oetr&6 the 1(assic of `oetr& Ö¾, a poem from the 1(assic of `oetr&0
Lines from this c(assic are often Yuoted to ornament a stor& or i((ustrate a
point0 Fadica( 1G-(#'0
,C<0 × A= &*n D= un æン, &uu ö÷, iu い÷ J= un ¿ 1= w#hn
To sa&0
S&non&m= $(1<0', a(though × is used more often for textua( Yuotations0
Fadica( , (('0
,CI0 Ø A= h D= kaku カク, kagayakasu かXxか? J= h&eok À 1= h?ak
G(orious, shining0
Notice the poetic 9redup(ication9 of the ad%ecti4e in this (esson;s text0 Fadica(
1HH ( Á, 9red9'0 
,CG0 Ý A= sUng D= %u éñ, shō ðョ J= song  1= %uhng
5&mn, ode, eu(og&0
>or use of this term, see x-011 )e(ow0 Fadica( 1/1 (Ã'0
,CH0 ß A= x]ng D= k&E キョ, okoru øOU, okosu øO? J= heung Ä 1=
To awaken, to arise6 to f(ourish, to )ecome eminent6 to raise up, to mo)i(i"e0
Fadica( 1IG (•'0
,CC0 à A= pi D= hai {イ J= )ae Å 1= pui
To pair with, to match6 to marr&, to )ecome the spouse of0 Fadica( 1CG (Æ'0
,C,0 ä A= s@ D= shi ð, matsuru 1つU J= sa ê 1= %ih
Fe(igious sacrifices6 to sacrifice (usua((& to ancestors or the ro&a( house'0
Fadica( 11I (示'0
1-010 同王!((0 <'= 5ere, 同 must )e taken as a 4er)= 9the& went together to
the king court09
1-0<0 夏后+,之-.,/0(((0 <.I'= When the dragon.spirits appear at court,
the king has to decide how to dea( with them0 9The +ia ru(er cast a di4ination
as to whether he sho ki(( them LorM a((ow them L(it0, 9gi4e9M to go awa&, )ut no
Lresu(tsM came up auspicious8 Note that the author uses / here, e4en though
proper(& speaking this character shou(d reff to peop(e, not things0
1-0I 王JK人L"M之((0 H'= This seems to ha4e )een a ritua( performed to
purge the court of e4i( spirits0
1-0G0 Qd人^nofghi之p者(((0 ,./'= 93fterward there were peop(eQa
hus)and and wifeQse((ers of utensi(s of mu()err& )ows and Yui4ers in the
shape of a winnowr )asket09 The meaning is c(ear here, )ut the grammar is
rather s(opp&0
1-0H0 m童妾之女Ua"su((0 /'= 9The& heard the daughter of the &oung gir(,
ha4e encountered a)andonment, wai(ing in the night09
1-0C0 ’P-之同“(((0 11.1<'= 3((owing a consort or concu)ine to ride in the
same carriage as onese(f is often cited in ear(& texts as a mark of excessi4e
fa4or on the part of the ru(er0
1-0,0 §¨,†:¥((0 1I'= §¨ is (acking a 4er)= 75e LtriedM a m&riad
methods00008 3s is sometimes the case, † is a (itt(e difficu(t to interpretit cou(d
mean 9stu))orn(&9 (used as a su)stitute for ÇLI</.<M', or 9persistent(&9 or
1-0/0 ¹褒姒#cº((0 1H'= This is an idiomatic grammar pattern that often
occurs with ¹0 The )asic structure is ¹.o)%ectQ Q c 4er)6 c is used as
emphasis to stress the o)%ect, which is disp(aced to the )eginning of the
sentence0 Litera((&, 7on(& Bao Si;s words Èthese LheM o)e&ed09
1-0-0 »¼½¾,¿ÀÁÂ((0 1C'= These statements are meant to indicate how
the immora( )eha4ior of the king came to inf(uence the )eha4ior of a(( socia(
c(assesQa c(assic 1onfucian sentiment0
1-0100 周-°Œ]Õ(((0 1/.1-'= The 周 ro&a( house shou(d ha4e had authorit&
o4er a(( of the feuda( (ords, )ut from this time on, the 周 had no more
authorit& or inf(uence than an& of their 4assa(s0
1-0110 Ö×%&ØØÙ周,褒姒Ú之。*Û之Ü也((0 1-'= :n ear(& texts, it was
extreme(& common for an author to i((ustrate a point )& Yuoting a (ine or two
from the Ö¾6 in fact, e4er& )iograph& in the 列女傳 has at (east one such
Yuotation0 5ere, the Yuotation refers specifica((& to 褒姒= 75ow shining were
the ancestors Phouc LVetM Bao Si destro&ed them08 The phrase that fo((ows (Û
之Ü也' is idiomatic and is used after a Yuotation to emphasi"e its re(e4ance6
it (itera((& means 7LthatM is namingdreferring to this8
1-01<0 Ý((0 1-'= This usua((& refers to a short poem composed in four.
character (ines that often ends a )iograph& or other composition0 Like most
1hinese poetr&, Ý are written in coup(et units, with the (ast characters of
each e4en (ine rh&ming0 The purpose of such poems is to summari"e the p(ot
in a pith& and succinct form0 The& ma& 4er& we(( ha4e )een composed as a
mnemonic de4ice for students, so that the& cou(d memori"e something to
remind them of the most important points of a piece0
Vo!"#$!%& 'ints
妾(CCI.1' 初(I0H' 衰(<-/' 同(IG0' 6(HH/'
>(G,1' B(GG1' C(<-C.<' F(GG0' G(<<<'
I(C0,' ^(1-0.1' `(<HH' n(1-<'
p(G-,.1' q(ICG' s(</<' t(-0' v(H,I'
w(CG-' |(IH1.<' •(1HG' ‚(1G,' „(H1I'
Š(GGG' Žˆ(<1G), L1<' š(G<H.<' œ(11,' ¥(1I0'
§(,1' ³(HI-.I' ¶(--' ·(1,C' º(C<H.1'
Ê(1,<' Ò(<HC.<' É(<G-' Õ(IG<.1' á(C<H.1'
C(!%!te% List
i0 “×'化后周¹夏K•幽!Ë9‘ÈE´N神童¨ß4uÖ–T龍(I1'
ii0 +0Z-²±r¤Ç™‹äϾeØU?à(<0'
iii0 _Á\yh£oÝÍ(G'
i40 Ÿ”X姒…ƒÉ7˜gf<ž3©ª~WÕOL褒MÑ•(<C' 
Lesson 2)
VOCABULARY (768*8)+)
,C/0 Ê A= "Eu D= shE ðョ J= chu ( 1= %?u
Pou (a sma(( state near ) and *'0
Fadica( 1CI (;'0
,C-0 Ë A= mng D= mE + J= maeng , 1= maahng
10 Beginning, initia( (used to descri)e the first month of each season'0
<0 Aeng0 La surnameMW
Fadica( I- (ˆ'0
,,00 Ì A= k_ D= ka カ J= ga - 1= E
`air of whee(s6 ax(e tree0
5ere, this character is a persona( name0 Fadica( 1H- (.'0
,C-a0 ËÌ A= mng k_ D= mo ka +カ J= maeng ga ,- 1= maahng E
Aeng Je (the phi(osopher Aencius ˈLI,<.</- B01020M'0
A= sh (1'6 she (<' D= seki [キ, sha ð/, suteru ?0U J= sa ê 1= se
(1'6 s$ (<'
10 Lodging, a)ode6 to (odge at, to reside in,
<0 To re%ect, to cast aside, to throw awa&, to (et go0
With meaning X< the word is often written as 10 Fadica( 1IH (2'0
,,<0 Ð A= mO D= )o ボ, haka Fか J= m&o 3 1= mouh
Tom), gra4e mound0
Fadica( I< (4'0
,,I0 Ò A= x] D= ki キ, ureshigaru ÷れ#XU J= hui 5 1= h_i
To en%o&, to )e p(eased6 to p(a&, to amuse onese(f0
Fadica( I/ (女'0
,,G0 Õ A= &\ng D= &E ヨ J= &ong 6 1= &*ng
To (eap and %ump a)out0
With Ö (HC1', Õ forms the compound ÕÖ, meaning 7to (eap a)out and
dance Lwith enthusiasm or %o&M08 Õ is sometimes written 70 Fadica( 1H, (8'0
,,H0 × A= "h* D= chiku ク, kizuku ü•5 J= chuk 9 1= %Tk
To )ui(d (usua((& through ramming earth'0
Fadica( 11/ (Y'0
,,C0 Ø A= mSi D= mai mイ, uzumeru ÷•´U J= mae n 1= m#aih
To )ur&0
Fadica( I< (4'0
,,,0 à A= pSng D= hE :, )E ;, katawara かたìí, soba ¨< J= )ang =
1= pUhng
Side, )eside6 to )e at the side of0
Fadica( - (人'0
,,/0 á A= x@ D= gi >, ge K, tawamureru たì*れU J= hui 5 1= hei
Game6 to p(a&, to tease6 drama0
Fadica( C< (r'0
,,-0 â A= g[ D= ko ú J= ga - 1= g*
Aerchant6 mercanti(e acti4ities0
Zon;t confuse this character with o(,<0'c Fadica( 1HG (o'0
,/00 ã A= xu#n D= gen Kン, terau 0í÷ J= h&eon L 1= &uhn
To disp(a& Loften goods in a shop or market sta((M0
Fadica( 1GG (?'0
,/10 æ A= xf D= shi ð, utsuru ÷つU J= sa ê 1= sSai
To mo4e Lone s p(ace of residenceM0
Zon;t confuse this character with @(HH,'c Fadica( C0 (¶'0
,/<0 ç A= xu$ D= gaku Mク, manabu 1な¡, manabi 1な± J= hak A 1=
To stud&6 stud&, erudition0 Fadica( I- (ˆ'0
,/<a0 çR A= xu$ gEng D= gakk&g X£5 J= hak gung AQ 1= hohk gTng
,/I0 é A= "[ D= so ( J= %o J 1= %N
`(atter (used in re(igious sacrifices'0
Fadica( - (人'0
,/G0 ê A= dUu D= tE B, "u C J= du D 1= dauh
10 Bow(W
<0 Beans
5ere, meaning X1 is more specificQa specia( )ow( used in re(igious sacrifices0
Fadica( 1H1 (ê'0
,/H0 ë A= &] D= &T ó J= eup E 1= &?p
To )ow0
Fadica( CG (F'0
,/C0 î A= tu@ D= tai –イ, shirizoku #bG5 J= toe H 1= teui
To retreat, to withdraw0
5ere, íî refers to proper considerations of when to ad4ance or retreat
under the guide(ines of ritua( I0 Fadica( 1C< (V'0
,/,0 ò A= &@ D= gei Kイ J= &e J 1= ngaih
3rt, craft, artistic accomp(ishment0
Fadica( 1G0 (,'0 
I-Ia0 ñò A= (iO &@ D= riku gei b5Kい J= &uk &e LJ 1= (uhk ngaih
The Six 3rts0
>or a 1hinese gent(eman of ancient times, the Six 3rts he was supposed to
master were rites, music, archer&, charioteering, writing, and mathematics0
,//0 õ A= r* D= %u J= &u ô 1= &Oh
Scho(ar, 1onfucian, 1onfucian gent(eman0
This is the character that comes c(osest to designating 1onfucianism as a
phi(osoph& or wa& of (ife0 Fadica( - (人'0
,/-0 ø A= %i#n D= "en Mン, yōyaku "÷x5, yōyō "÷"÷ J= %eom N 1=
Gradua(6 gradua((&, fina((&0
Fadica( /H (''0
,-00 ú A= shT D= shu ðñ J= %u ò 1= %&T
Beautifu(, handsome, fine0
Fadica( I/ (女'0
,-10 績 A= %] D= seki [キ, tsumugu つ*I J= %eok O 1= %]k
Spinning thread6 unthreading si(k cocoons0
This acti4it& was considered c(assic women;s work0 Fadica( 1<0 (”'0
1Ha0 Ô若 A= "@ ruU D= %i%aku ³³¥5 J= %a &ak PQ 1= %ih &euhk
Same as usua(6 nothing different0
This phrase is an idiomatic expression that can a(so mean 7ca(m,8
,-<0 斷 A= du#n D= dan Rン, dan%iru G^³U, tatsu たつ J= dan — 1=
d&uhn (to )reak'6 d&un (to decide'
To )reak, to se4er, to cut off6 to decide0
Fadica( C- (S, 7axe8'0
,-I0 織 A= "h] D= shoku ðョク, shiki ðキ, oru øU, ori øb J= %ik T 1= %]k
To wea4e6 wea4ing6 wo4en c(oth0
Fadica( 1<0 (”'0
,-G0 斯 A= s] D= shi ð, kaku か5, kakaru かかU J= sa ê 1= s]
10 This, these, Lsu)stitution for Û (1GH' MW
<0 Then, Lsu)stitution for ® (1HI'M0
3s &ou can see, this character is genera((& used to express two meanings that
are more often represented )& other characters0 Fadica( C- (S'0
,-H0 廣 A= gu^ng D= ko ú, hiroi 6い, hiromeru 6´U J= gwang U 1=
Broad6 to )roaden0
Fadica( HI (广'0
<0Ia0 c€ A= sh@ &f D= kore wo motte OれVW£0 J= si i c® 1= sih &Kh
1onseYuent(&, therefore0
This phrase is an idiomatic in4ersion of €c, 7)& means of this08 S&non&m=†
,-C0 寧 A= nKng D= nei Xイ J= n&eong Y 1= n@hng
10 3t peace, peacefu(, ca(m0 W
<0 5ow0 Lrhetorica( Yuestion, same meaning as Z(C0<'MW
I0 To prefer to, rather0
Note that whereas meaning X1 occurs here first in the s&non&m compound ·
寧, the second meaning occurs two (ines (ater0 The third meaning doesn;t
occur unti( Lesson G00 Fadica( G0 (⼧'0
,-,0 害 A= h#i D= gai Mイ, sokonau ¨Oな÷ J= hae [ 1= hoih
5arm, damage, disaster6 to harm0
Fadica( G0 (⼧'0
,-/0 免 A= mi^n D= men •ン, manugareru 1¯XれU J= m&eon • 1=
To a4oid, to escape0
Fadica( 10 (\'0
,--0 廝 A= s] D= shi ð J=si c 1= s]
Aenia( ser4ant0
Fadica( HI (广'0
/000 役 A= &@ D= eki fキ J= &eok ] 1= &ihk
Ser4ant6 ser4itude0
Fadica( C0 (¶'0
/010 乏 A= fS D= )E ボæ, toboshii 4;#い J= pip ^ 1= faht
To )e (acking0
Fadica( G („'0
/0<0 糧 A= (iSng D= r&E リョæ, rE ºæ, kate か0 J= (&ang _ 1= (uhng
`ro4isions, grain, food0
Fadica( 11- (`'0 
/0I0 男 A= nSn D= dan Rン, nan aン, otoko ø4O J= nam b 1= n#ahm
Aan, ma(e6 son0
Fadica( 1- (c'0
/0G0 墮 A= duU D= da R J= ta d 1= doh
10 To fa((, to sink0
<0 To )ecome indo(ent, (a"&, or care(ess0 W
The second group of meanings acts as a su)stitute for e0 Fadica( I< (4'0
/0H0 " A= YKn D= kin キン, gon ûン J= geun f 1= k#hn
To stri4e, to make an effort0
Fadica( 1- (c'0
<-a0 ˆ% A= "fs] D= shishi J= %a sa Pê 1= %K s]
Pisi0 (one of 1onfucius; most important discip(es'
<0010 ÛÚÛÜ€ÝÞˆ也((0 <'= Note the causati4e usage of Ý and Þ here=
9This is no the means )& which : LcanM cause m& son to reside9 h 9This is not
the p(ace : can raise m& son09
<00<0 ùú者ˆ,û€ü之((0 C'= Both of the anecdotes in this (esson;s text
conc(ude with a Ö¾ Yuotation, as in the (ast (esson;s text (compare 1-011'0 :n
this case, the Yuotation is from poem no0 HI= 9That fine person d what do we
gi4e heri9 :t;s difficu(t to know exact(& wh& the author thought this Yuotation
was appropriateQperhaps )ecause it carries the idea that such a 4irtuous
woman is worth& of our respect and esteem0 The same ma& )e said of the
Yuotation at (ine 1G, which is taken from the same poem= ùú者ˆ,û€'之
7That fine person d what do we offer heri9 (the character ' occurs here with
the archaic meaning 9to gi4e,9 9to offer9'0
<00I0 問®廣知((0 -'= 95e inYuires Lof his e(ders or teachersM and so )ecomes
)road(& know(edgea)(e0 9 ËÍ means that this is the true goa( of education0
<00G0 c€Ý®·寧,動®遠害(((0 -Q10'= 3 t&pica( rhetorica( de4ice gi4ing
different )eha4ior under different conditions0 :n this case, Ý wou(d mean
(i4ing at home (in retirement or at (eisure', whereas 動 wou(d mean in pu)(ic
office ((it0, 9in motion9'0 
<00H0 =道Š":爲,寧能è2^ˆ"z:乏糧食哉((0 ::'= 9:f in the midd(e of &our
path &ou cast aside Lthese thingsM and do not do LthemM, how cou(d &ou
c(othe &our hus)and and chi(dren or not cause them to )e perpetua((&
without grain or foodi9 Note= (1' è in a causa( 4er)a( sense, 9to c(othe,9 and
(<' the somewhat awkward causa( phrase z:乏, 9for a(ong time to cause to
not (ack09
<00C0 女®Š2Ü食,男®墮修德,:爲竊盜,®gÏ役ð(((0 11.1<'= 9:f a woman,
then to cast aside the food that she ser4es6 if a man, then to )e care(ess in
cu(ti4ating 4irtueQLif these conditions occurM, then if one does not )ecome a
thief or a ro))er, then one )ecomes a prisoner or a ser4ant09 This 4er&
comp(icated sentence shows the su)t(et& emp(o&ed in using ®0 :n the first
case, two sets of c(auses gi4e two contrasting conditions (and note that the
first c(ause in each case is nothing more than a sing(e noun'= 9if a woman,
then000 if a man, then00008 Second, the two so(e a(ternati4es to a precondition
are enumerated with a :000 ® pattern= (if not +, then V'0 The unstated
e(ement here is the (ink )etween the two parts of the sentence, which cou(d
ha4e )een represented )& &et another ®=女®Š2Ü食,男®墮修德,®:爲竊
盜,®爲Ï役ð0 The author pro)a)(& thought that another ® at that point
wou(d )e confusing0
:ncidenta((&, &ou might notice how much the speech of ËÍ is rooted in
carefu((& )a(anced sentences, contrasting different actors and actions, (isting
different a(ternati4es, and predicting different resu(ts0 3n awareness of these
para((e( rh&thms wi(( he(p &ou considera)(& to read such passagesjwhich
predominate in the rhetoric of 1hinese phi(osoph& and prose in genera(0
<00,0 )ˆÜ((0 1I'= aa3 superior man wou(d assumedthink09 This phrase, found
in a num)er of ear(& texts, often introduces pro4er)s, o)ser4ations, or
%udgments of a 91onfucian9 nature0
Vo!"#$!%& 'ints
u(,I<.<' Ï(HI0' Ñ(<1-.I' Ó(</,' Ô(<<1'
Ö(HC1' Þ(CI0.1' o(,<0' è(CI1' ì(G/G.1'
ï(G<G' ô(,1' 化(C-0.<' Ö(,C1' ×(,C<'
û€(1/Ga, L10' `(<<H' Š(GGG' )ˆ(</a, L<' z(IGI.G'
食(<H0.<' 哉(<1C' ·(C<0.<' 動(IC-' 遠(C0-'
Â(,HI' 禍(-' 患(I-' 修(1GC' 竊(<,C.<'
盜(I<1' Ï(,H-' (H-0' !(H-1' #(HGH.<'
C(!%!te% List
i0 免Ëç害寧廣役á斯斷Îî(1<'
ii0 乏àõ"墮ø男×糧織êâ(1<'
iii0 ØÐæë績òÊ(,'
i40 éúÒ廝hÕÌ(,'
Lesson 21
ˈÞ*,"dŽ•。ËÍ; 之$%&ˆ若dŽ•,û也ý*ˈ$%&:A。*Õ•
之I,©ª«, ¬•-,®¯•,°è±"²ð,†d³n之修"]´µ之¶。· $%
º之道也。†ÁÑ®º‰wÍ,’®º‰ ^,^ˆ,I也。今ˆô人也,"
VOCABULARY (8)6-8+))
/0C0 i A= Y[ D= shu ðñ, metoru ´4U J= chwi Ð 1= ch$ui
To marr& (used of men'0
This is the ma(e eYui4a(ent of Â(CCG'0 Fadica( I/ (女'0
G0,a0 kl A= s] sh@ D= shishitsu ##つ J= sa si( êœ 1= s] s?t
/0,0 m A= t^n D= tan –ン, hadanugi FG¯> J= dan — 1= tSan
To (a& )are, to strip Lusua((& to the waistM6 to )e partia((& naked0
Fadica( 1GH (è'0
1-0)0 ^ˆ A= fT "f D= fushi Ñ# J= )u %a DP 1= fT %K
5us)and, (ord, master0
5ere, the wife uses this word as a po(ite term for her hus)and, )ut it can a(so
)e a po(ite term of address to show respect to an& man (this is how it is used
in Lesson <H'0
/0/0 q A= )N D= )otsu J= )a( Ò 1= )uht
Note the t&pica( ad4er) suffix r (<I1.I' attached to this character in this
(esson;s text0 Fadica( 1- (c'0
/0-0 x A= "h#o D= shE ðョæ, mesu ´?, &omu "* J= so Ó 1= %iuh
To summon, to send for, to )eckon0
Fadica( I0 (ÿ'0
/100 z A= sh* D= %uku ³P5, i"ure い•れ, tare たれ J= suk Ô 1= suhk
Who, which, what, LYuestion wordM
Fadica( I- (ˆ'0
/110 { A= c*n D= son, "on )ン, "on%iru Gに³U, sonsuru ¨^?U J= %on Õ
1= ch&Ohn
To )e present, to exist, to sur4i4e6 to preser4e0
Fadica( I- (ˆ'0
/1<0 | A= %@ng D= kei ケイ, k&E キョæ, keisuru Wい?U, uyamau ÷x1÷
J= g&eong Ö 1= ging
To respect, to honor, to re4ere6 respect, honor0
Fadica( CC (w'0
/1I0 ~ A= sh_ng D= shE ðョæ, sei Tい, koe O@ J= seong § 1= s]ng
koice, sound0
Fadica( 1</ (×'0
/1G0 € A= &Sng D= &E ヨæ, agu &I, agaru &XU, ageru &KU J= &ang Ø
1= &uhng
To spread, to propagate, to raise0
Fadica( CG (F'0
/1H0 • A= %i D= kai カイ, imashimu い1#* J= g&e Ù 1= gaai
To warn, to admonish, to prohi)it0
Fadica( C< (r'0
/1C0 ‡ A= "$ D= seki [キ, shaku ð/ク, semeru T´U J= chaek Ú 1=
To )(ame, to take to task6 )(ame, censure6 responsi)i(it&, gui(t0
Fadica( 1HG (o'0
/1,0 ‹ A= (i* D= r&T リñæ, ru U, todomu 4e* J= (&u ‘ (&u ô' 1= (#uh
To detain, to keep6 to remain0
Fadica( 10< (}'0
/1/0 • A= gT D= ko ú J= go Û 1= gT
Gir(, maiden, maiden aunt6
Fadica( I/ (女'0
/1/a0 •Í A= gTm[ D= ko)o O; J= go mo ÛÜ 1= gT mNuh
/1-0 ‘ A= &Eng D= &E ヨæ J= ong Ý 1= &*ng
To em)race, to ho(d, to possess, to press upon, to (ean upon0
Fadica( CG (F'0
/<00 ’ A= &Kng D= ei fイ, &E ヨæ J= &eong Þ 1= &@hng
1o(umn, pi((ar0
Fadica( ,H (8'0
/<10 œ A= g\u D= kE úæ, iyashii いx#い J= gu € 1= gSu
10 :((icit, care(ess0 W
<0 :f, supposing0
Fadica( 1G0 (,'0
/<1a0 œ• A= g\u d$ D= kEtoku O÷45 J= gu deuk €ß 1= gSu d?k
:((icit gain6 to o)tain )& i((icit means0
/<<0 ž A= sh^ng D= shE ðョæ J= sang à 1= s$ung
Feward6 to reward0
Fadica( 1HG (o'0
/<I0 ¡ A= (O D= roku 5 J= nok á 1= (uhk
Sa(ar&, monetar& compensation0
Fadica( 11I (示'0
/<G0 £ A= dS D= tatsu たつ, tassuru た£?れ J= da( â 1= daaht
To reach, to get in contact with, to )e successfu(
Fadica( 1C< (V'0
/<H0 ¥ A= %i#n D= sen [ン, fumu Ñ* J= cheon ã 1= chKhn
To tread upon6 to freYuent0
Fadica( 1H, (8'0
/<C0 © A= %]ng D= sho ðョ, sei [イ, shirageru #íKU J= %eong 정 1= %]ng
2ssence6 pure6 to purif&6 to )e ski((ed or we(( 4ersed in0
Fadica( 11- (`'0
/<,0 ª A= w[ D= go û J= o ä 1= lgh
Fadica( , (('0
/</0 « A= f#n D= han {ン, meshi ´# J= )an å 1= faahn
1ooked rice6 food6 pro4isions0
Fadica( 1/G (食'0
/<,a0 ª« A= wu f#n D= gohan ›F^ J= o )an äå 1= lgh faahn
`reparation of the fi4e edi)(e grains0
The (ist 4aries depending on the source, )ut it usua((& inc(udes two different
kinds of mi((et, wheat, )ar(e&, and rice0
/<-0 ¬ A= m@ D= )eki æキ J= m&eok ç 1= mihk
Strainer6 to strain0
5ere, the necessar& straining of a(e to remo4e sediment ser4es as a
s&necdoche for the )rewing of a(e in genera(0 Fadica( 1G (
, 7co4er8'0
/I00 è A= %i?ng D= sho ðョæ J= %ang 1= %$ung
LiYuid, )rew0
Fadica( /H (''
/I10 ¯ A= %iO D= k&T キñæ J= gu € 1= kSuh
10 > W
<0 mnc(e0
Fadica( 1IG (•'0
/I<0 ° A= f$ng D= hE åæ, nuu ¯÷ J= )ong ˜ 1= fOhng
To sew, to stitch, to mend0
Fadica( 1<0 (”'0
/II0 ± A= chSng, shSng D= shE ðョæ J= sang à 1= suhng
1(othes, ro)es0
Fadica( 1GH (è'0
/IG0 ³ A= gu] D= kei ケイ, neya éx J= g&u ê 1= gw?i
Women s Yuarters0
Fadica( 1C- (y'0
/IH0 ¸ A= ku@ D= ki キ J= gwe ë 1= gwaih
`ro4isions, food6 to offer a present Loften of foodM0
Fadica( 1/G (食'0
/IC0 ¹ A= w* D= mu ì, nai ない J= mu í 1= mUuh
10 To not ha4e6 nonpossession0 W
<0 Nonexistence, nothingness6 to not exist0
I0 7Zon;t00008 Lnegati4e imperati4eM
This character is used interchangea)(& with ] (IC'0 2ar(& texts tend to show
propensities for using one or the otherjfor examp(e, the îˆ(Lessons II.G0'
tends to use ¹0 Fadica( ,1(¹'0
/I,0 º A= &Eu D= &E ヨæ, shE ðョæ J= &u ô 1= &#uh
L3rchaic 4ersion Ü0M
Fadica( CC (夂'0
/I/0 » A= &K D= gi ~ J= ui • 1= &@h
brnament, decoration6 ceremon&6 ritua( rega(ia0
Fadica( - (人'0
/I-0 ¼ A= w$i D= i イ J= &u ô 1= w#ih
This character su)stitutes for the more proper ¹ (,H0'0 Fadica( C1 (3'0
/G00 ½ A= &@ D= gi ~ J= ui • 1= &ih
To de(i)erate6 de(i)eration, matter for de(i)eration, concern0
Fadica( 1G- (#'0
/G10 ¿ A= "h@ D= sei [イ J= %e ï 1= %ai
To determine, to decide6 to regu(ate, to go4ern0
Fadica( 1/ (刀'0
,,a0 ô人 A= ch$ng r$n D= sei%in Tい³^ J= seong in §ð 1= s@hng &#hn
3du(t, grown.up0
/G<0 Å A= "ai D= sai J= %ae 1=
10 L3rchaic partic(e, rough(& eYui4a(ent to ®MW
<0 To carr&, to transport0
Aeaning X<, though the most common meaning for this character, does not
occur in our texts0 Fadica( 1H- (.'0
/GI0 Æ A=fei D= hi ñ J= )i ò 1= f$i
L3rchaic 4ersion of Ú0M
Fadica( << (ó, 7)ox,8 7)asket8'0
/GG0 È A= &] D= i イ J= i ® 1= &]
Lkague, archaic, third person pronoun0M
This character is one of the exceptions to the genera( ru(e that (iterar&
1hinese a4oids a third person su)%ect pronoun0 Fadica( - (人'0
/GH0 É A= %i#o D= k&E キョ¼, oshieru ø#@U J= g&o 9 1= gaau
To teach, to instruct6 teachings, doctrine0
Fadica( CC0
/GC0 Ë A= "$ D= taku –ク, erabu @í¡ J= taek ô 1= %aahk
To se(ect, to pick0
Fadica( CG (F'0
/G,0 Ì A= (*n D= rin リン J= (&un õ 1= (uhn
Natura( re(ationships, right princip(es0
Fadica( - (人'0
/G/0 Í A= %] D= ki キ, hata Fた J= gi j 1= g_i
10 Loom (for wea4ing'0 W
<0 Aechanism, de4ice0
I0 1risis, turning point, significant moment0
Fadica( ,H (8'0
/G-0 示 A= sh@ D= %i é, shi ð, shimesu #´U J= si c 1= sih
To demonstrate, to show0
Fadica( 11I (示'0
/H00 Ï A= gu?n D= kan カン J= gwan ö 1= gun
5at, cap6 chief, top, foremost0
Fadica( 1G (
<1010 妾m^K之道,kl:-8÷(0 <'= The wife of ˈ )egins with Yuoting a
pro4er)ia( expression0 5er point here is that pri4ate matters )etween
hus)and and wife do not )e(ong to (
' the ritua((& proper )eha4ior prescri)ed for their pu)(ic (i4esjthat is, that
hus)and and wife shou(d )e more informa( with each other in the )edroom0
<10<0 今者((0 <'= 者 can )e added to an& part of speech simp(& to emphasi"e0
5ere, Aencius; wife is simp(& stressing that the incident occurred 7%ust now09
<10I0 cs妾也((0 I'= 7This is treating me as a guestdstranger09 Note the
putati4e use of s here0
<10G "‡I人,:ˆ遠‰((0 C'= 7000and &et &ou )(ame others for their L(ack ofM
propriet&Qisn;t that indeed far off the marki9
There are a num)er of idiomatic structures here0 The 4er) ‡
characteristica((& takes as an o)%ect the aspect the su)%ect finds (acking in a
person, and go4erns the person who is )eing critici"ed0 3nother examp(e=
øù‡ú王,9Guan Phong )(amed the king for his fai(ure to go4ern09
遠 can )e used to signif& that someone is 7far off the mark9Qserious(& in error
or serious(& in the wrong0 There is another (iterar& 1hinese ha)it here, one
that is a (itt(e difficu(t to grasp0 Literar& 1hinese tends to think of ad%ecti4es
modified )&
as a sing(e word or termQfor examp(e, :û means 9unfi(ia(9 as opposed to
simp(& 9not fi(ia(,9 and :ü is emp(o&ed as another wa& of sa&ing 7eas&8
rather than simp(& 7not hard09 3s a resu(t, when : n ad%ecti4e is used in a
rhetorica( Yuestion, the ad4er) ˆ (9indeed9' is a(most a(wa&s inserted
)etween the two words= :ˆ遠‰, 93ren;t &ou (indeed' far off the marki :f the
writer had said :遠‰, the phrase wou(d more (ike(& )e a straightforward
inYur& for information= 93re &ou c(ose )&i8 >or a simi(ar use of ˆ, see Lesson
1G, (ine 1I, :ü‰0
<10H0 )ˆ˜™"š›((0 10'= 73 superior man weighs himse(f and then proceeds
to his position9Qin other words, a superior man e4a(uates his own a)i(ities
and tries to find a position in the go4ernment that suits those a)i(ities0
<10C0 °Œ:¢®:£2»((0 11'= 7:f the feuda( (ord does not (isten Lto himM, then
he does not communicate with his superiors09 Though °Œ (<HIa, Lesson 11'
is technica((& p(ura(, it is sometimes emp(o&ed with a singu(ar meaning0 The
idea here is that the superior man disdains to protest )ad po(icies to his ru(er
if the ru(er is unwi((ing to heed his ad4ice0
<10,0 ·$%&¡=¸,¹ºx。*(((0 1I.1G'= ËÍ here Yuotes from the c(assic
)ook of di4ination, the Vi%ing ·¾0 Dust as Ö(,C16 7poetr&8ýcan )e used as an
a))re4iation of Ö¾, · can )e used as an a))re4iation of ·¾0 The (anguage
of the ·¾ is particu(ar(& o)scure0 5ere, we ha4e an excerpt from the text on
5exagram I,= 7She prepares food within and does not ha4e that which she
pursues LoutsideM09
<10/0 Ö$%&]Ú]»,¼•食c½。*((0 1G'= This is taken fromÖ¾, no0 1/-=
7She has no adornment, no ornaments d on(& a(e and foodQthese her
concerns09 Note that Ú is used here as an archaic su)stitution for the
character þ, meaning 9adornment,9 9decoration09 Note a(so that the second
of the two (ines fo((ows the specia( grammar pattern : discussed at 1-0/0
<10-0 ˆ?‰ˆt((0 1H'= 7Vou conduct &ourse(f in accordance with &our
<10100 Å•Å¥,ÆÇÈÉ(((0 1,.1/'=Ö¾, no0 <--= 7With facia( expression and
with smi(es d without anger she teaches09
<10110 É化列Ê((0 1/'= 75er teaching and mora( transformati4e powers made
%udgments9 ( 列 h 7to rank96 Êh7to distinguish and di4ide up9'0
Vo!"#$!%& 'ints
n(G10' ²(,G/' o(I1C.<' 妾(CCI.<'
竊(<,C.1' 墮(/0G.<' s(G<-' t(HH.I' u(GIG.<'
v(-G.1' I(-/' }(I-/' ‚(GC1' ƒ(I<,'
„(H,,' …(I<0.<' †(CCH' ˆ(<I0.<' Š(H/,.1'
Œ(HG/.<' Ž(IG' •(<-,' •(H/1.<' “(HGG'
”(C,G.1' ˜(HHI.<' ›(I/I' Ÿ(I/,' (CHG.1'
¦(I/.I' §(HHG' ®(G</' 修(1GC' ´(I,/'
µ(G11' ·(G/.<'x(<C,.<' ¾(</G' ‰(1<<.I'
Â(CCG' Ç(G-' Ý(,CG' ò(,/,' 斷(,-<'
C(!%!te% List
i0 ªÈ»Ï¿x{z¼€É|¹Í‹¡©~œžÅ£ÿ(<<'
ii0 ÌÆ••Ë示±½‡«(10'
iii0 ‘º’襳(C'
i40 ¬qi°¯m¸(,'
Unit 4
Lessons 22—30
Excerpts from the Mencius 孟子
The Mencius 孟子 is divided into seven chapters; each chapter is designated
after a person mentioned in the first line of the chapter. Each chapter is
subdivided into two parts 上 and 下 !modern English"language scholars label
these #$% and #&%'. Each section( in turn( is composed of a series of
conversations that Mencius holds with rulers( disciples( and competing
philosophers. Thus( 孟子梁惠王上 is usuall) called in English Mencius( *ing +ui
of Liang( ,art $.
This is )our first ma-or introduction to philosophical language. .ou will find
here a whole set of problems that )ou did not have with narrative distinctive
forms of reasoning !particularl) the habit of ma/ing points through metaphor
and analog)'( rhetorical devices( and even less dependence on grammatical
particles. The best advice is *eep calm and get used to the wa) the
language wor/s.
Lesson 22
孟子梁惠王上(Section 1)
Vocabulary (81!8")
012. 梁 M li3ng 4 r)5 HIJ * l)ang K 6 l7uhng
2. The state of 8ei L !alternative name'.9
2. &eam( rafter.
3. &ridge.
:adical ;1 !M'.
<1b. 惠王 M hu= w3ng 4 /ei 5 NOPQ * h)e wang RS 6 waih w>hng
*ing +ui !of Liang?8ei; 3;0"32@ &.6.E.'.
012. 叟 M sAu 4 s5 TJ * su U 6 s3u
Bld man( venerable elder.
+ere( this character is used as a polite second person reference. :adical 2@
201b. '( M dC fD 4 taifu WOX * dae bu Y 6 daaih fD
6ourt gentleman; court aristocrac).
013. + M shE 4 sho ZI * seo [ 6 s)u
6ommoners( peasants.
6onseFuentl)( +, also means Gcommoners(G as distinguished from 王( '((
and *. :adical 13 !\'.
01H. / M IhJng 4 sei ]^ * -eong _ 6 -Kng
2. To march( to go on militar) campaign; to punish rebels.
2. To struggle over( to fight for. 9
Meaning L2( used here( is an unusual meaning for this character and ma) be
a confusion for ` !<2'. :adical <o!a'.
011. 0 M wJi 4 /i b( abunai cdeO * wi f 6 ngCih
vangerous; to be endangered.
:adical 2<!g'.

01<. 4 M sh= 4 shi Z( shiisuru hOij * si/ 6 si
This word is used to describe a social inferior /illing his master or a social
superior. :adical 1<!k'.
022b. =; M gAu wMi 4 iyashiku mo Olhmn * gu wi of 6 g3u
Nf( supposing.
The ; here does not add appreciabl) to the meaning of =!022"2'.
01;. @ M duO 4 datsu pq( ubau QrQ * tal s 6 d)uht
To seiIe( to grab( to usurp( to deprive.
:adical H2 !t'.
010. A M )Cn 4 en uv( )5 wJ( )D xJ( akiru cyj * )eom z 6
To be satisfied( to be content.
This word often appears in the simpler version {. :adical 20H !|'.
01@. C M )P 4 i ^( )ui x^( suteru i}j * )u ~ 6 wCih
To abandon.
:adical 2<2 !•'.
22.2.孟子見梁惠王!l. 2' $s in Lesson 22( here 見 is used in its semiformal
meaning !203"3'( Gto have an audience with Qthe rulerR.%
-?&,上下./利,而國0#!ll. 2"H' Though there ma) be more than one 
possible interpretation( it is probabl) best to ta/e this long sentence as
consisting of an initial #if% clause( followed b) #then% at '(曰. The power of a
ruler to set the moral habits of ever)one below him is a commonplace in
6hinese philosoph).
22.3. 123國!l. H' $ t)pical wa) of measuring the siIe of a state—how man)
carriages it could mobiliIe in time of war. Totice that this phase is introduced
as the topic of discussion #$s for a state of ten thousand carriagesU.%
22.H. 19千:!l. 1' +ere( : represents the idea #from it% #$s for ten
thousand( ta/e a thousand from it.G
22.1. 不;不<!l. 1' Gdoes not ma/e not much.G Vigure out what this phrase
means( and wor/ out a decent translation for it.
22.<. >!而?利!l. <' Tote the putative usage of the location words > and ?
here Gto ma/e secondar)G and #to ma/e primar).G
22.;. 不@不A!l. <' $ conditional sentence #QNfR the) do not W( the) do not ..G
This is a t)pical literar) 6hinese wa) of sa)ing #The) do not . unless the) W.%
22.0. B有而C5D7!l. <' Mencius often uses the pattern U B有 7 to
emphasis the idea of impossibilit) #There has never )et been a person
who....% +ere( he wants to show that once benevolence is cultivated( asocial
behavior such as the abandonment of oneXs parents becomes impossible.
$lso notice the philosopherXs rhetorical association of the complementar)
virtues of and ! with the personal !famil)' level and with the public
!government' level.
Vocabulary $ints
見€203"3' •!<0@' 亦!230"2' 有以!30a( L<' 利!300'
!1H' .!<00"2' 1!;2' 2!;32"3' <!<2@'
=!022"2' ?!210'
#haracter List
i. 0+/梁C!1'
ii. 叟@!2'
iv. 4A!2'
Lesson 2%
孟子梁惠王上(Section %)
Vocabulary (8&'!"')
0<0. ‡ M hM 4 /a ü * ha ý 6 h>h
This character is a northern term for #river(% as opposed to þ( a southern
term. &) itself( ‡ often refers to the .ellow :iver ÿ‡( -ust as þ!2202' b)
itself can refer to the .angtIe 長þ. :adical 01 !水'.
0<0a. ‡ˆ M hM n7i 4 /adai かだO * ha nae ý내 6 h>h noih
+enei !lit.( Gwithin Qi.e.( this side ofR the .ellow :iverG; name of a province of
0<2. ‰ M Yi5ng 4 /)o bI * h)ung 흉 6 hDng
Zisaster; famine; inauspicious.
:adical 2; !⼐'.
0<2. ‹ M )P 4 i ^( utsuru Qつj( utsusu Qつi * i 이 6 )=h
To move( to transfer.
:adical 221 !禾'.
0<3. • M d5ng 4 t5 トJ( higashi ひがh * dong 동 6 dDng
:adical ;1 !M'.
0<0b. ‡• M hM d5ng 4 /at5 かとQ * ha dong ý동 6 h>h dDng
+edong !lit.( Geast of the .ellow :iver%; name of a province of L'.
0<H. Ž M sE 4 Io/u ゾク( awa cわ * so/ 속 6 sD/
:adical 22@ !米'.
0<1. › M )E 4 )u x( tatoeru Wとえj( tatoi WとO * )u 6 )uh
Metaphor( parable( analog); to ma/e an analog)( to illustrate with a stor).
:adical 30 !Ý'.
0<<. 填 M ti3n 4 ten テv( hamaru はまj( hameru はめj * -eon 전 6
To fill up( to add in.
+ere( however( this character is used for its sound value in the following
term. :adical 32 !土'.
0<<a. 填• M ti3n r3n 4 tenIen }んぜん * -eon )eon 전연 6 t=hn )=hn
8ith a bang( with a flourish.
These characters describe the sound of militar) drums.
0<;. Ÿ M r7n 4 -in ジv( nin v( ha は( )aiba lOr * in ! 6 )ahn
&lade of a weapon.
Tote that the character consists of a mar/ pointing to the #edge% of the
character for #/nife. :adical 20 !"'.
0<0. ¤ M )7 4 ei u^( hi/u ひm * )e # 6 )aih
To drag( to trail behind one.
:adical ;3 !曰'.
0<@. ¥ M IAu 4 s5 TJ( hashiru はhi * -u $ 6 -3u
To run( to run awa)( to flee.
Tote the difference in this literar) 6hinese meaning from the modern
Mandarin meaning of ¥. :adical 21< !¥'.
0;0. § M bE 4 ho %( bu &( aruku cjm * bo ' 6 bouh
,ace; to pace; to ta/e a wal/.
:adical ;; !¨'.
0;2. ² M wMi 4 i ^( tagau WがQ( tagaeru W(j * wi f 6 wCih
To go against,to violate( to interfere with.
:adical 2<2 !•'.
0;2. ³ M nOng 4 n5 )J * nong * 6 nEhng
Varmer; farming; agricultural activities.
6onseFuentl)( ³´ would mean #the farming season(% #the time for
agricultural wor/.G :adical 2<2 !+'.
0;3. µ M g\ 4 /o/u ,ク * go/ - 6 gD/
Edible grains.
:adical 221 !禾'.
0;H. ¸ M g\ 4 /o , * go . 6 g]
Vishing net.
:adical 222 !/'.
0;1. º M wD 4 5 0J( ike ON * o 6 wD
,ool( pond( water hole.
This character can be used interchangeabl) with 1!<<o'. :adical 01 !水'.
0;<. » M chP 4 chi 2( ike ON * -i 3 6 ch=h
,ool( pond.
:adical 01 !水'.
0;;. ½ M biJ 4 betsu 4q * b)eol 5 6 bit
Turtle !usuall) freshwater'.
:adical 201 !6(#to striveG'.
0;0. ¾ M f\ 4 fu 7( ono P8 * bu 9 6 f]
:adical <@ !¿'.
0;@. ¿ M -Kn 4 /in bv * geun : 6 g^n
:adical <@ !¿'.
000. Á M lPn 4 rin Hv( hayashi はlh * lim ; 6 lChm
:adical ;1 !M'.
002. Â M c3i 4 Iai * -ae < 6 ch>ih
Timber( usable wood; talent.
GTalentG can also be =; writers would often pun on the two meanings. :adical
002. M M mE 4 mo/u >ク( ki y * mo/ ? 6 muh/
Tree( wood.
ÂM thus means #trees with usable timber.G :adical ;1 !M'.
003. É M hCn 4 /an üv( uramu Q@A( urami Q@B * gam C 6
:esentment; to resent.
:adical <2 !…'.
00H. Ë M sh_ 4 shi Z( hajimaru はDまj( hajimete はDめ} * si E 6
To begin; at first( originall); beginning( origin; to begin to; for the first time.
:adical 30 !F'.
001. Ì M m\ 4 b5 GJ( ho %( une QH * mu I !m)o J' 6 m3uh
Mu `measurement of area used for arable land; roughl) 2?1 acre'.
:adical 202 !Û'.
00<. Í M Ih3i 4 ta/u * tae/ K 6 -aah/
+omestead( farm.
:adical H0 !⼧'.
00;. Ñ M bO 4 ha/u Lク * bae/ M 6 baah/
8hite sil/.
:adical 10 !N'.
000. Ò M -K 4 /ei O^( niwatori PわとQ * g)e R 6 g^i
:adical 2;2 !S'.
00@. Ó M t]n 4 ton トv( buta dW * don T 6 t)Ehn
:adical 212 !U'.
0@0. Õ M Ih= 4 tei テ^ * che V 6 -ih
:adical 10 !⺕( #broom%'.
0@2. Ö M YE 4 chi/u 2ク * chu/ W 6 chD/
To rear( to raise Qlivestoc/( children( or dependentsR.
:adical 202 !Û'.
0@2. Þ M -K 4 /i b( ueru QXj * gi Y 6 gJi
:adical 20H !|'.
0@3. à M Yi3ng 4 shō ZIJ * sang Z 6 ch7uhng
ahelter for the elderl); a countr) school.
This character refers to what was apparentl) a [ institution !both as shelter
and as school'( though little is /nown about it. :adical 13 !\'.
0@H. á M YE 4 -o ジI * seo [ 6 -euih
2. ,reface( forward( introduction
2. aeFuence( order.
3. $ countr) school in ancient times. 9
The first two meanings( though the most common( do not occur in our teYts.
Meaning L3 is N used here; again( we /now ver) little about such schools.
:adical 13 !\'.
0@1. å M t= 4 tei テ^ * -e \ 6 daih
Moral behavior befitting a )ounger brother; sibling respect.
This character is the #sibling% eFuivalent of ä !<0'. :adical <2 !…'
0@<. æ M b^n 4 han Lv * ban ] 6 b^an
:adical 202 !^'.
0@;. ç M b3i 4 ha/u( shiroi * bae/ M 6 baah/
:adical 20< !ç'.
0@<a. æç M b^n b3i 4 hanba/u はんrm * ban bae/ ]M 6 b^an
+air spotted with white; the elderl).
0@0. è M fE 4 fu 7( ou PQ * bu 9 6 fuh
To carr) QburdensR on the bac/.
:adical 21H !_'.
0@@. é M dCi 4 tai `^ * dae Y 6 daai
To carr) QburdensR on the head.
:adical <2 !a'.
@00. ë M lP 4 rei * l)eo b 6 lCih
2. Man)( numerous.
2. &lac/.
:adical 202 !c( #millet%'.
@00a. ëŒ M lP mPn 4 reimin XOBん * l)eo min bd 6 lCih mChn
The common people.
@02. ì M h3n 4 /an üv( samui eAO * han f 6 h>hn
6old; impoverished.
:adical H0 !⼧'.
@02. í M -ibn 4 /en * geom g 6 gPm
To regulate( to restrain; to inspect.
:adical ;1 !M'.
@03. ï M 7 4 ga ü( ueru Qえj * a h 6 ngoh
+ungr)( starving.
This character has a stronger meaning in literar) 6hinese than it does in
modern Mandarin. :adical 20H !|'.
@0H. ð M pibo 4 h)5 iIJ * p)o j 6 pPuh
To die of hunger; corpse of one who has died of hunger. :adical ;0 !⽍'
@01. ô M su= 4 sei ]^( sai k^( toshi とh * se l 6 seui
2. +arvest,
2. .ear Qoften of ageR.
The agricultural meaning is primar) !and is used here'( but the second(
derived meaning is probabl) more common. Tote that this character is not
limited in literar) 6hinese to referring to #)ear of life% as it is in modern
Mandarin. :adical ;; !¨'.
23.2. ‚,3ƒ國E!l. 20' Tote that this is a topic of the sentence #$s for m)
relationship with the state....% Tote also that E can occur in the middle of a
sentence in order to emphasiIe a topic. 7 is sometimes used in a similar wa).
23.2. „…:†#!l. 2' #N eYhaust m) heart?mind on them and that is all.% …
suggests both his emotional commitment as well as his intellectual effort. The
† emplies that the /ing does nothing but tr) his best.
23.3. “”‚,3•…7!l. 2' GThere is no one who uses his heart?mind as N do.G
“ is the verb( with a 7 phrase as its ob-ect; ”‚, is a phrase modif)ing •…
23.H. 不–—,不–<!l. 3' This structure is odd in English( but the –
represents not a general increase on each side but an intensification of
growing fewer or greater #do not grow fewer( do not grow more.% aee Lesson
2 for a similar usage of – !H;'.
23.1. œ••3!l. H' #:umblingl)( the) drum them Qi.e.( the soldiersR into
battle.G The sound of the drums order the soldiers into battle.
23.<. ¦8§而>¨!2. H' Tote that in writing in a particularl) succinct st)le(
Mencius leaves out an eYplicit verb in the first clause. auppl) GranG or Gwent.G
23.;. 以©ª§«8§!2. 1' $gain( notice the succinct st)le. :ead as ¥©ª§7
23.0. 王”¯°,Š“±...!l. <' +ere is our first use of “ as a negative
imperative( not as a negated verb of eYistence or possession GNf .our Ma-est)
/nows this( then do not hope that....G
23.@. Œ3<ƒ‘國!l. <' That is( Œ3<ƒ‘國3Œ. +ere is yet another
specialiIed usage of the preposition ƒ; here it is used to eYpress the
comparative degree. $d-. ƒ noun can be read as Gis more adjective than
noun.XX Vor eYample 王惠ƒn子( Gthe /ing /inder than the prince.G
23.20. 不¬¶|!l. ;' $ common idiom( literall)( Gcannot be overcomingl)
eaten(G Gcannot be eYhaustivel) eaten.G English eFuivalent Gmore than
enough to eat.G
23.22. ·¸不¹º»!l. ;' This is a rather rare use of ·( meaning Gsmall"
meshed.G !Nn fact( later readers chiefl) recall this meaning as pertaining to
this passage specificall).' 8h) !ecologicall) spea/ing' is it important not to
put small"meshed nets in the ponds and poolsc
23.22. ÅÆÇÈ!ll. 0"@' This eYpression is adverbiall) subordinated to the
clause “É Gin the course of nourishing?raising the living and mourning for
the dead....dd
23.23. ©Ì3Í!2. @' $gain( displacing the topic to the beginning of the
sentence G$s for a homestead of five mu....% !6ompare Lesson 22( line H.'
23.2H. ©ª7!l. 20' That is( fift)")ear"olds.
23.21. Ü@5´!l. 22' 6ommentators are somewhat puIIled b) this line(
because at first it seems to merel) repeat the earlier idea of 不²³´.
+owever( modern commentators have speculated that since Ü is a
contraction of o and 3!see 1.;'( the phrase ma) mean o@3ƒ5´( Gdo not
seiIe them from their farming seasons(G GthemG in this case meaning Gthe
farmers.G The phrase refers to the habit of drafting corvMe labor to build large
government pro-ects such as irrigation s)stems and bridges. 8hat Mencius is
suggesting is that the /ing should not pull farmers awa) from their wor/
during the farming seasons( but onl) when agricultural wor/ is relativel) light.
23.2<. •而不王7,B3有E!l. 23' G$s for one who Qwould behaveR thusl) and
)et could not rule as a true /ing( there has never )et been he Qi.e.( such a
personR.G Tote the idiomatic inversion of verb and direct ob-ect pronoun after
a negative. This is a variant version of the B有 pattern first encountered in
Lesson 22( line <.
23.2;. |,|!l. 23' That is( eat food appropriate for people.
23.20. 不¯ñ!2. 23' ñ(which can mean #to release(% #to open(% refers
specificall) to the opening of the public relief granariesethat is( though there
is famine( )ou donXt realiIe )ou should be distributing relief grain.
23.2@.ú下3Œû:!l. 21' #... all the people of the world will come to )ou.G
Tote that 3!implied b) the ƒ3 of :'.can impl) the second person pronoun;
this is particularl) common when the person being addressed is of a high
social status. Nn general( this comment refers bac/ to the /ingXs earlier
anYiet) about depopulationein an age when conscripted armies often
guaranteed the strength of the state( rulers worried when their population did
not increase. Nn this case( Mencius suggests that people will leave their own
states and move to the /ingXs.
Vocabulary $ints
‚,!1H<a( L1' †!22"2' •!<<1' ‘!20@' ’!1<1'
•!1@<' –!H;"3' ˜!312"2' ™!312' ¡!233'
£!2;@' ¦!1;@"2' ©!02;' 而>!31a( L2' ¨!H0@'
-!<H3"2' ”!22@"3' “!3<"3' ±!202' ¶!2;0'
Å!H20' Ç!H33"2' Î!@2"2' Ï!200' Ô!10@'
Ù!212' Û!2@H' @!01;' Ý!2@H' â!0H1'
ã!;20' ä!<' ê!HH2' 王!322"2' î!10<"2'
ø!2;;' ù!;@H"2'
#haracter List
i. ËÍìMÁ•§ô»‡ç‹è¥²ÒÞ!2;'
ii. ‰Ÿ›Ñá鿾ÂÖ̵Ž³!2H'
iii. œÕ¤íæïë½!0'
iv. àåÉðp¸Ó!;' 
Lesson 24
孟子梁惠王上(Section &)
Vocabulary ("'&!"21)
H@0b. q王 M Yi^ng w3ng 4 -5 5 D˜QPQ * )ang wang ™S 6 sJung
*ing Wiang !of Liang; r. 320"2@<b.c.e.'.
@0<. z M wD !2'; wE !2'; 7 !3' 4 o 0( a/u šク( nikumu PmA * o › !2"
2'; a/ œ !3' 6 wD !2'; wu !2'; ngo/?o/ !3'
2. +ow( what !used li/e 何 Q20HR or • Q<20R'9
2. To hate( to loathe.
3. Evil( bad.
:adical <2 !…'.
@0<a. z乎 M wD hD 4 izukunika OžmPか * o ho 6 wD fEh
&) means of what( how. QFuestion phraseR
Modern linguists are unsure of the source of this eYpression. aome see it as
merel) an eYpanded version of @0<"2; others see it as a derivative of ƒz(
that is( #through whatc%
@0;. { M d=ng 4 tei テ^( -5 ジIJ( sadameru eだめj * -eong _ 6
To settle( to decide( to pacif).
:adical H0 !⼧'
@00. • M sh= 4 shi Z( tashinamu WheA * gi Y 6 si
To be fond of,to have a taste for. :adical 30 !Ý'.
@0@. • M mi3o 4 b)o( m)o( nae * m)o J 6 m=uh
aprout !usuall) rice'.
:adical 2H0 !Ÿ'.
@20. … M hCn 4 /an üv( hideri ひQ * han f 6 hOhn
Zrought( dr) spell( dr) season.
:adical ;2!¡'.
@22. † M gbo 4 /o , * go . 6 gOu
Zr)( withered; to wither.
:adical ;1 !M'.
@22. ‡ M )Ou 4 )u x( )D xJ( abura cd@ * )u ~ 6 )Cuh
Bil( varnish.
:adical 01 !水'.
@22a. ‡• M )Ou r3n 4 )DIen ¢Qぜん * )u )eon ~연 6 )Cuh )=hn
$bundantl)( plentifull) !lit.( #oilil)%'.
@23. ˆ M Iu> 4 sa/u kク( tsukuru つmj * -a/ £ 6 -o/
To ma/e( to produce( to arise.
:adical @ !,'.
@2H. ‰ M )]n 4 un Jv( kumo mn * un ¤ 6 wChn
:adical 2;3 !‹( #rain%'.
@21. Š M p7i 4 hai L^ * pae ¤ 6 pui
6opious( abundant !describes water'.
:adical 01 !水'
@2<. ‹ M )\ !2'; )E !2' 4 u J( ame cめ * u ¥ 6 )]h !2'; )uh !2'
2. :ain
2. To rain; to let fall precipitation.
8hereas ‹ b) itself can mean #to rain(% the eYpression 下‹ is also used.
:adical 2;3 !‹'.
@2;. Œ M bO 4 botsu Gq * bal ¦ 6 buht
audden( abrupt.
This character is a variant of § !000'. :adical 01 !水'.
@20. Ž M )E 4 g)o ¨I( fusegu X©ª * eo « 6 )uh
To bloc/( to hinder( to prevent.
:adical 223 !¬'.
@2@. • M mE 4 bo/u ,J * mo/ ? 6 muh/
To herd; herdsman.
:adical @3 !-'.
0a. ,• M rMn mE 4 -inbo/u Dん®m * in mo/ !? 6 )Chn muh/
:uler !figurative Gherdsman of men G'.
@20. ’ M )_n 4 in ^v( hi/u ひm * in ! 6 )3hn
To stretch( to stretch out; to pull( to pull toward one; to lead( to direct( to
steer Qa carriageR.
:adical 1; !¯'.
@22. “ M ling 4 r)o( /ubi * l)eong 6 lPhng
:adical 202 !^'.
Most commentators assume that Mencius left L after 惠王 died and his
mediocre successor q王( failed to impress the philosopher.
2H"2. rs,曰!l. 2' There is a special nuance of meaning associated with the
characters ¹ and r that )ou should be familiar with. [enerall) spea/ing( the
ruler( his palace( and his associations are generall) thought to be private or
internal !ˆ'( whereas the world of public officials and the area outside of the
palace is eYternal !°'. +ere( r has the sense of Gemerge from having an
2H.2. ±3不t,6,u3而不見vw:!l. 2' 孟子is not impressed with the /ing
when he sees him first from a distance; when he approaches !u'( he does not
feel an) better about him. ,6!Ga ruler of peopleG' is often used idiomaticall)
to mean a capable or -ust ruler. vw: Gthat which was to be feared in him.G
:emember that w!03' can refer not merel) to fear but to the sense of awe
that a great ruler will supposedl) inspire in his people.
2H.3. ú下z乎{!l. 2' The Fuestion phrase z乎 tends to ta/e a verb in the
passive #&) what QhowR will the world be pacifiedc% Nt is li/el) that q王 is
eYpecting 孟子 to flatter him and suggest that he( the /ing( is the one who
can pacif) !i.e.( conFuer' the world.
2H.H. }~Ã3!l. 3' #8ho will be able to give him Qthe right to pacif) the
worldRc% The use of
here suggests granting allegiance.
2H.1. 王¯(•乎!l. H' This is the first use of ( as a demonstrative pronoun
!#this(% #that(% etc.; 2@0"3' in the lesson teYts. Nt occurs generall) when the
spea/er is drawing attention to something for the purpose of illustration(
eYample( and so forth. #.our Ma-est) /nows about sprouts( rightcG
2H.<. Ø‚ƒ3„!l. H' This is not the seventh and eighth months of the
present lunar calendar !roughl) eFuivalent to $ugust and aeptember'( but
those of the [ d)nast) calendar. $ctuall)( 4une and 4ul) of the modern
8estern calendar is meant.
2H.;. Œ••3!l. 1' +ere( 3 is a Gdumm)G ob-ect( inserted for the rh)thm of
the language. !Vor dumm) ob-ects in English( compare slang eYpressions li/e
GZonXt overdo itf%'.
Vocabulary $ints
s!<;3"2' t!330' w!03' x!2<@"H' }!020'
!2@2"3' (!2@0"3' „!222' •!;<1' ”!<;1'
#haracter List
i. ˆ{’z‹‰!<'
ii. •Ž•“!H'
iii. …†!2'
iv. •Š‡Œ!H' 
Lesson 2
孟子梁惠王上(Section (,)art 1)
何3?G對曰:「將以ÉÊ$G王曰:「Ë 3,吾不Ì5ÍÎ,Á“ø而uÈÏ$G對
「王“õƒ8Ö3以王; ×E,以ÛÒ',Ýz¯3?王ÁÞ5“ø而uÈÏ,Š-Ñ
何ß :?G王«曰:「®”何…Â?óò×5à而Ò3以ÑE,á乎8Ö3âó×
Vocabulary ("22!"44)
202b. ±²王 M FP Yu^n w3ng 4 sei sen 5 ©O©んPQ * -e seon wang \
ùS 6 chCih s)Dn w>hng
*ing Wuan of gi !r. 32@"302 b.c.e.'.
@22. µ M wMn 4 bun &v( mon >v * mun ú 6 mChn
2. Literar); literature.
2. 6ulture; civil societ).
3. ,attern( ornament.
+ere( this character is the posthumous title of a du/e. Though it is an
eYtremel) common character( it does not occur outside of names in our teYts.
:adical <1 !µ'.
2<2a. ´µ!n' M -=n wMn !g5ng' 4 shin bun !/5' hんdんûQ * -in mun
!gong' üú 6 -eun mChn gDng
Zu/e 8en of 4in !r. <3<"<20 b.c.e.'
@23. º M nP 4 -i ジ * ni ý 6 n7ih
To obstruct( to bloc/.
This character is fairl) rare( and it later comes to be used as the siniciIed
aans/rit word for Gnun.G +ere( it is part of a personal name. :adical HH !þ'.
223b. ¹º M Ih>ng nP 4 chD-i ÿゅQD * -ung ni 중ý 6 -uhng n7ih
hhongni !polite name of 6onfucius 孔子.'
@2H. À M bbo 4 ho %( h5 %J( hosuru ほij( tamotsu Wnつ( yasunzu l
iんž * bo ' 6 bOu
To protect( to preserve( to loo/ after.
:adical @ !,'.
20Hb. 何– M hM )Ou 4 nani ni yorite ePPよQ} * ha )u ý~ 6 h>h
&ecause of whatc Qidiomatic inversionR
This phrase is s)non)mous with 奚– !211b'.
@21. Ã M h] 4 /o , * ho 호 6 wEh
+u !general name for #barbarian% tribes to the north'.
+ere( this character is a surname. :adical 230 !Ù'.
@2<. Ä M hM 4 /otsu ,q * heul 흘 6 haht
To gnaw
+ere( this character is a personal name. :adical 222 !齒'.
@21a. ÃÄ M h] hM 4 /o /otsu ûûつ * ho heul 호흘 6 wEh haht
+u +e !a courtier of the /ing'.
@2;. Ç M Fi^n 4 /en Ov( hiku ひm * g)eon 견 6 hKn
To drag( to lead b) a rope.
:adical @3 !-'.
@20. - M ni] 4 g)D ぎゅQ( ushi Qh * u ¥ 6 ngCuh
6ow( steer( oY.
:adical @3 !-'.
@2@. É M Y=n 4 /in bv( chinuru ÿぬj * heun 흔 6 )ahn
To smear blood Qon somethingR in an act of ritual consecration.
:adical 2<H !酉'.
@30. Ê M Ih5ng 4 sh5 ZIJ( shu Zュ( /ane かH * -ong 종 6 -Dng
:adical 2<; !金'.
@32. Í M h] 4 /o/u ,ク * go/ - 6 huh/
!ised in the compound below.'
:adical 2H0 !角'.
@32. Î M sE 4 so/u Tク * so/ 속 6 chD/
!ised in the compound below.'
:adical 2H0 !角'.
@32a. ÍÎ M h] sE 4 /o/uso/u ûmそm * go/ so/ -속 6 huh/ chD/
Trembling with fear.
:adical 2H0 !角'.
202a. ÈÏ M s_ d= 4 shichi hÿ * sa -i 사 6 sMi deih
EYecution ground.
232b. •Š M r3n Ie 4 shikaraba sunawachi hか@rieわÿ * )eon
chi/ 연칙 6 )=hn -^/
Nf that is so( then.... QfreFuentl) used locutionR
@33. Ñ M )3ng 4 )5 wJ( hitsu-i ひつD * )ang ™ 6 )7uhng
aheep( goat.
:adical 223 !Ñ'.
@3H. Ú M bibn 4 hen ヘv * p)eon 6 bPn
Tarrow( tin)( cramped.
:adical 2H1 !Ð'.
@31. à M c3i 4 sai k^ * -ae < 6 ch>ih
6ost( eYpense; wealth.
:adical 21H !_'.
@3<. ä M sh^ng 4 sh5 h˜Q( kizu yž( itamu OWA( itameru OWめj *
sang Z 6 sJung
Nn-ur)( wound; to wound( to be wounded( to be hurt !emotionall) or
:adical @ !,'.
@3;. æ M shE 4 -utsu ジュq( sube iべ * sul 술 6 seuht
$rt( techniFue( strateg).
:adical 2HH !ó'.
@30. ç M FPn 4 /in bv( tori とQ * geum 금 6 /Chm
:adical 22H !内'.
@3@. è M sh>u 4 -D ジュJ( kedamono Nだn8 * su U 6 sau
:adical @H !犬'.
@H0. ê M p3o 4 h5 %J * po 포 6 pCauh
:adical 13 !\'.
@H2. ë M ch] 4 chD * -u $ 6 ch)Eh
êë is a s)non)m compound. :adical 13 !\'.
@H2. ï M tuO 4 ta `( hoka ほか * ta 타 6 t^
Bther( another.
Tote This character is not used in literar) 6hinese as a third person pronoun(
as it is in modern Mandarin. :adical @ !,'.
@H3. ñ M c\n 4 son Tv * chon 촌 6 ch)]n
To consider.
:adical <2 !…'.
@HH. ò M duO !2'; dE !2"3' 4 do ド( ta/u `ク( watasu わWi * ta/ !2';
do ! !2' 6 douh!3'; doh/!2(2'
2. To consider( to infer( to calculate. 9
2. To measure.
3. To cross !usuall) a river; used for "'; to endure.
:adical 13 !\'.
H<1a. ÷÷ MFK FK 4 se/ise/i ©y©y * cheo/ cheo/ ## 6 chK/ chK/
To match; to be sad !see 21.20'
This is the longest sustained passage in the Mencius( and it lasts through
Lesson 2;. Nf )o have trouble following the argument( )ou ma) want to
consult the paraphrase following Lesson 2;.
21.2. ±³´µ3¶,¬·¸乎!l. 2' ±³nand ´µnwere two of the so called
Vive Bverlords ©$( five rulers of the seventh and siYth centuries &.6.E. who
managed to unif) 6hina temporaril) through warfare and political
machination. .ou encountered ±³n in Lessons H and 22. $ third overlord( %
&n( appeared in Lesson 0. MenciusX distaste for their approach to governing
ma) be observed here. ¬·¸乎 is an idiomatic Fuestion used to politel)
solicit information G6an the) be gotten hear aboutcG
21.2. ¹º3»,“ʳµ3¶7,'以>¼“½:!ll. 2"2' ¹º3»is the larger
group among which there are no ʳµ3¶7. Tote use of Ê here in the
somewhat colloFuial meaning of Gto sa)(G Gto spea/ of.G 孟子 is sa)ing he
cannot tal/ about these men because( since he was a later generation !>¼'
disciple of 6onfucius( no one has passed on an) information about them to
him. This is somewhat disingenuous( since the Vive Bverlords were Fuite
famous in 6hinese culture.
21.3. “以,Š王乎!ll. 2"3' Gaince N do not possess the wherewithal Qto discuss
the BverlordsR( then Qis it all right with )ou if N discussR /ingl) rule insteadcG
21.H. ¿何”Š¬以王#!l. 3' Gjirtue li/e what then can rule as /ingcG—that is(
Gwha sort of virtue must N possess that it ma) be possible for me to rule as a
true /ingcG 8hen the 孟子 teYt uses 王 as a verb( it usuall) implies Grule li/e
one of the virtuous /ings of ancient times.G
21.1. Á‚,7,¬以ÀŒ乎Â!l. H' Á‚,7kGsomeone li/e me.G The use of
both 乎 !222"2' and Â!22<' here suggests incredulit) on the /ingXs part.
21.<. ¾¸3ÃÄ曰!l. 1' This is the same as ¾¸3ƒÃÄ. +ere( 3 comes
before its proper antecedent( and it ma) be translated as Gthe following.G
Tote that 曰 here merel) introduces the Fuoted words of ÃÄ and need not be
translated. $lso note the rather complicated narrative situation 孟子 is
relating to the /ing a stor) about the /ing that the courtier ÃÄ had related to
him( 孟子( earlier.
21.;. -何3!2. <' Even though 何 does not usuall) mean Gwhere(G it ta/es on
this meaning when it modifies the verb 3( #to go.G
21.0. ÍÎ!l. ;' is a good eYample of a Gbinome.G &inomes tend to be #rh)ming
binomesG !li/e this one'( Galliterative binomes(G or GreduplicativesG !the same
character repeated'. The meanings of binomes are often in dispute( because
their general modal Fualit) invites imprecision as the centuries go b). +ere(
commentators agree that the cow is showing fear of some sortebut is it
trembling or cr)ing outc
21.@. 不Ó有Ô!l. 0' Totice that we have a new fusion particle here( Ô!213'(
which was used previousl) as a plural prefiY. +ere( it is a fusion of 3 and 乎; it
is also important to /eep in mind that 乎 can be a Fuestion mar/er( an
eYclamation mar/er( or !as in Lesson 22' a substitute for ƒ. Nn this sentence(
it is the Fuestion mar/er #N do not /now if there was thiscG Mencius is
indirectl) as/ing the /ing for confirmation of the anecdote.
21.20. 8Ö‘以王;×E!l. @' GThe common people all too/ .our Ma-est) to be
cheap.G .ou ma) want to review the 以; structure( discussed in 22.3. ×!02'
here does not impl) love( but rather the /ingXs begrudging the eYpense of the
21.22. •,”有8Ö7!l. 20' This laconic comment is vague. Most modern
readers ta/e it as #That is so( there trul) were commoners Qwho thought N was
21.22. Ü不Ì5()!l. 20' Nn some W. E sentences( Ü comes close to acting
li/e å. +ere !with an implied W phrase and an implied E'( it means
something li/e #indeed( it was a case of....%
21.23. 王“õ...!l. 22' Tote the putative sense of õ here( #to find strangeG
G.our Ma-est)( do not find it strange that ....%
21.2H. 以ÛÒ',Ýz¯3!l. 22' #.ou eYchanged something small for
something big( so how could the) /now it Qi.e.( that )our motives were not
selfish( but involved concern over the suffering of the animalRc%
21.21. ®”何…Â?óò×5à而Ò3以ÑE,á乎8Ö3âó×E!l. 23' The /ing
goes bac/ and finds he is puIIled b) his own motives. $s we have seen
before( ò negates one eYplanationethe one that the common people
accepted. Vinall)( the /ing uses the pattern discussed in ;.2 #+ow
appropriate is the common people thin/ing me cheapfG
21.2<.®åæE!l. 2H' The use of æ here ma) seem strange( because the
/ing is not emplo)ing an) conscious art. Nt ma) be that 孟子 is spea/ing of the
methods itself emplo)s through human beings to accomplish its will; the
feeling of pit) aroused in the /ing will help him to understand in a greater
sense. ,art of the point ma) also be that the common people are incapable of
such emotions.
21.2;. 6子3ƒçèE!22. 2H |21' $ topic( mar/ed off b) an emphasis E. Vor
this pattern( compare Lesson 23( line 2 ‚,3ƒ國E.
21.20. ®以6子遠êëE!ll. 21"2<' To the modern reader this ma) seem a
h)pocritical approach to the problem. Vor 孟子( however( forms of emotion
and behavior are intimatel) connected with class status and occupation.
aince the 6子 must remain sensitive to suffering in order to perform his tas/
as administrator( he must avoid coarsening that sensitivit).
21.2@. ƒó…有÷÷:!ll. 2;"20' 6ommentators are of two minds about the
meaning of the reduplicative ÷÷ here. aince ÷ can mean #sad% or
#grieving(% some ta/e it to mean Gfeeling of compassion(% that is( a renewal
of the compassion that the /ing felt when he beheld the suffering of the oY.
Bthers base an interpretation on the meaning of ÷ as #/in% or Grelation(G
eYtending it to the idea of #to recogniIe a match(% #to feel a
correspondence.G The idea then is( G8hen N heard )our eYplanation( N
recogniIed the truth of it within m)self.G Tote also the redundanc) of the final
:( which corresponds to the idea of ƒó…. This is a fairl) common violation
of grammar.
21.20. °…3v以以øƒ王7,何E!l. 20' The /ing now moves the discussion
bac/ to the sub-ect at hand 8h) should his s)mpath) with the animal prove
that he has the sort of mind suitable to rule as a #true /ingG !i.e.( the sort of
mind capable of protecting the people'c
Vocabulary $ints
»!33;"3' Ê!H2"2' ¼!22;' ½!H22"2' Ž!@20' Æ!3@0'
!;;2"2' Ì!<;;' ø!2;;' Ò!H0"2' 8Ö!;1a( L2@' Ù!232'
õ!3H2"H' z!@0<"2' Á!220"2' Þ!100"2' ß!0H<' á!;2@'
â!212"2' !1H' é!023' Ù!212' ì!H02"2' (子!2@0b( L22'
ð!21<"2' ô!<0"2' ø!H@3"3'
#haracter List
i. ïÀäòµ-çÑÃæÊ!22'
ii. Çèà!3'
iii. ºë!2'
iv. êñÚÎÍÉÄ!;'
Lesson 2&
孟子梁惠王上(Section (,)art 2)
以>?@,s,曰:%ó不~&,®”不~E$;長7 AB,s,曰:%ó不~&,®
K,以LM)N$&ö,ù…,–ÔÝ而"$mO7,Õ以ÀP @F不O7,“以ÀI
Ö7,:何Ã?S,•> ¯TUFò,•>¯長V$W‘•,…;X$王šò3ãY王
•£ ž,0*¾,Z[ƒÔ\,•>]ƒ…Ã?G王曰:「6,吾何]ƒ ®?將以õ吾
Vocabulary ("4!"(2)
@H1. - M -Dn 4 /in bv * g)un o 6 gw^n
4un !measurement of weight( eFual to 30 ¿; a ¿ is roughl) eFuivalent to an
English pound'.
:adical 2<; !金'.
@H<. . M )\ 4 u J( ha は * u ¥ 6 )]h
:adical 22H !.'. 
@H;. 0 M FiD 4 shD ZュJ( aki cy * chu p 6 ch^u
:adical 221 !禾'.
@H0. 1 M h3o 4 g5 qJ * ho 호 6 h>uh
:adical 02 !r'.
@H;a. 01 M FiD h3o 4 shug5 * chu ho p호 6 ch^u h>uh
$utumn hair !particularl) fine hair shed b) animals when growing winter
@H@. 3 M )] 4 )o w( kago かs( koshi ûh * )eo t 6 )Eh
6art( cartload.
:adical 21@ !u'.
@10. 4 M YKn 4 shin Zv( ma/i まy( ta/igi Wyぎ * sin v 6 s^n
:adical 2H0 !Ÿ'.
@12. 6 M fAu 4 iya Ol( ina Oe * bu 9 6 f3u
GTo % !giving a negative answer to a )es"no Fuestion'.
This character can also end a sentence( turning it into a )es"no Fuestion.
:adical 30 !Ý'
@12. > M ch^o 4 chō 2IJ( koeru ûえj * cho w 6 chKu
To leap over( to pass over( to surpass.
:adical 21< !¥'.
@13. @ M hbi 4 /ai ü^( umi QB * hae x 6 hOi
:adical 01 !水'.
3H3a. 長7 M Ihbng Ihl 4 chō-a ÿ˜QDy * -ang-a z{ 6 -Mung -M
Elder; person older than oneself.
@1H. A M IhM 4 setsu ]q( oru Pj( oreru PXj * -eol | 6 -it
To brea/ off( to snap.
&ut see 2<.1 below. :adical <H !}'.
@11. B M IhK 4 shi Z( /i b( eda えだ( e え * -i 3 6 -K
&ranch Qof a treeR.
&ut see 2<.1 below. :adical ;1 !M'.
@1<. C M l7i 4 rui ~^( tagui WªO * l)u • 6 leuih
aort( /ind; analog).
:adical 202 !^'.
@1;. E M )>u 4 )5 wJ( osanai PeeO * )u ~ 6 )au
.oung( )oung people.
:adical 12 !€'.
@10. F M )En 4 un Jv( megurasu めª@i * un ¤ 6 wahn
To turn( to rotate; to pass on( to transmit.
:adical 2<2 !¥'.
@1@. G M Ihbng 4 sh5 ZIJ( tanagokoro Wesû• * -ang z 6
,alm of the hand.
GTo turn QsomethingR on the palm of the handG was a common proverb in
earl) 6hina for being able to do something easil). :adical <H !}'.
1H<b. ‚I M gub FK 4 /asai かeO * gwa cheo ‚ƒ 6 gw3 ch^i
,rincipal wife.
@<0. L M )E 4 go q( g)o ¨I( gyosuru ぎ˜ij( osamu PeA * eo «
6 )uh
To govern( to control.
:adical <o!a'.
@<2. N M b^ng 4 h5 %J( kuni mP * bang „ 6 b5ng
atate( countr).
:adical 2<3 !…'.
@<2. O M tuK 4 sui †^( osu Pi * chu p 6 tJui
To eYtend( to push.
:adical <H !}'.
H12a. P@ M s= hbi 4 shi/ai hかO * sa hae 사x 6 sei hOi
Q8ithinR the four seas; the whole world.
@<3. T M FKng 4 /ei O^( karui かjO * g)eong ‡ 6 hKng
Light; lightness; to treat lightl)( to scorn; eas)( simple.
:adical 21@ !u'.
@<3a. TU M FKng Ih>ng 4 /eich5 NOÿ˜Q * g)eong -ung ‡중 6
hKng ch]hng
This term is a t)pical #anton)m compound(% whereb) two opposites together
form an abstract concept.
@<H. V M dubn 4 tan `v( mi-i/ai BDかO * dan ˆ 6 d)]n
ahort; shortness.
:adical 222 !‰'.
3H3b. 長V M ch3ng dubn 4 ch5tan ÿ˜QWん * -ang dan zˆ 6
ch7uhng d)]n
This term is another anton)m compound.
@<1. Y M )= 4 )o/u wク( somosomo そnそn * eo/ Š 6 )K/
Br Qis it a case that...cR.
:adical <H !}'.
@<<. Z M g>u 4 /5 ,J( kamau かまQ * gu o 6 /au
To construct( to build up; to provo/e.
:adical ;1 !M'.
@<;. _ M fMi 4 hi i * bi ‹ 6 f7ih
Vatt) QfoodsR.
:adical 230 !Ù'.
@<0. a M nubn 4 dan pv( atatakai cWWかO * nan Œ 6 n)]hn
$s does T here( a describes clothes. :adical 0< !•'.
@<@. b M t_ 4 tai `^( karada か@だ * che V 6 t3i
a)non)m -!32'( although b is almost alwa)s used onl) to refer to the
corporeal bod). :adical 200 !Ž'.
@;0. c M cbi 4 sai k^ * chae • 6 chOi
fright( multicolored.
+ere( this character is used for •. :adical 2<1 !‘'.
@;2. g M )Kn 4 on 0v( in ^v( ne H( oto Pと * eum ’ 6 )^m
Tote( sound.
:adical 200 !g'.
023a. ég M shJng )Kn 4 seion ]^0v( kowane ûわH * seong eum“
’ 6 sKng )^m
aound( music.
@;2. i M pi3n !2'; biCn !2"3' 4 ben 4v( bin ”v * b)eon • !2'; p)eon
– !2' 6 p=hn !2'; bihn!2"3'
2. [lib( specious. 9
2. Then( thereupon.
3. 6onvenient; convenience.
:adical @ !,'.
@;2a. ij M pi3n b= 4 benpei べん—O * b)eon p)e • 6 p=hn pei
aeYual favorite.
2<.2. :何Ã!l. 3' Zifficult to translate( but here the idea of : refers to the
strange eYception of the /ingXs merit having no effect on the common people.
#8h) alone is thatc%
2<.2. ;不•+:!ll. 3"H' Tote the use of ; here as Gbecause(G derived from
the coverbal usage #for the sa/e of.%
2<.3.8Ö3不見À,;不•7:!l. H' GThe common peopleXs not being protected
is because )ou arenXt using )our merc) on them.G Tote the passive use of 見
here !@.3'. Nt is also interesting that Mencius eFuates a virtue—merc)—with
an abilit) li/e ph)sical ength or /een e)esight.
2<.H.m王3不王,不;E,ò不~E!ll. H"1' #6onseFuentl)( .our Ma-est)Xs not
ruling as a true /ing is a Xnot doing(X not a Xnot being"able.X% That is( the /ing
is deliberatel) not ruling as a true /ing( though he has the abilit). The
difference between willful #not doingG and inabilit) is the sub-ect of discussion
for the neYt several lines.
2<.1. ;長7AB!ll. <";' 6ommentators feel the need to eYplain this vague
phrase. Literall)( it should mean( #to brea/ a branch for the benefit of oneXs
elders(% but there is no obvious cultural tradition that ma/es it clear wh) such
an action is significant. &rea/ off a branch of fruitc Vetch firewoodc Most
commentators now argue that A should be ta/en in a somewhat unusual
meaning( #to massage(% and that B should be read as ˜( #-oints%—thus the
sentence would mean #to massage oneXs eldersX-oints for them.G
2<.<. D吾D,以8,3D!ll. 0"@' The first D here !li/e the E in line @' is used
putativel)( or with a sense of fulfilling proper social roles GNf N?we consider our
elderl) as elderl)....% Nn other words( #Nf N?we treat our elders as the) ought to
be treated....% The following phrase tells )ou to eYtend the behavior that )ou
grant to )our own famil)Xs elders to the wa) )ou treat other peopleXs elders.
8 is used in the same wa) here that ã was used in Lesson 23,and the wa)
O is used in lines 20"22 of this lessonXs teYt.
2<.;. ö,ù…,–ÔÝ而"!l. 20' #The QpoemR simpl) sa)s to ta/e up this
heart Qof oneXs ownR and appl) it to those Qother peopleR.G Tote that here the
contraction of Ô gives us –3乎Ý( with 乎 functioning as the eFuivalent of ƒ.
2<.0. “ï:!l. 22' #There is no other reason than this.% This is an idiomatic
eYpression introducing the sole reason for something. Tote that : can be
bro/en down as Gthanm this% in this case !see 23.@'( though sometimes the
phrase occurs simpl) as “ï !see Lesson 20 for an eYample'.
2<.@. W‘•,…;X$王šò3!l. 23' #Things are all thus; the heart?mind acts
especiall) that wa). .our Ma-est)( please measure itfG Nn other words( thin/
about what sort of heart?mind )ou have( and how it might be used to protect
the people. $t this point( however( Mencius ironicall) turns to an accusation
of the /ingXs militaristic policies.
2<!l. 2<' 8hen describing /ingl) pastimes( the character d often
ta/es on connotations of seYualit) and seYual pleasures. &ecause this phrase
is contrasted with music ég( it is li/el) that this term refers to an arousing
displa) of dancing girls.
2<.22. ij不ÕÄk™klÃ!l. 2;' #$re )our favorites insufficient to carr) out
)our commands in front of )ouc% The characters Ä and k here wor/ together
as a compound( #to be sent b) command.G The commands are not
necessaril) seYual in nature here.
2<.22. 而王n;®Â!l. 20' ; is ambiguous here. Mencius is not as/ing the
/ing if he is indeed acting in a militaristic manner !the /ing has alread)
granted the truth of that'; rather( he is as/ing him if he is acting
militaristicall) in order to obtain additional luYuries. +ence( a translation
might render ; as both #to do% and #for the sa/e ofX% !i.e.( the coverb
eaning' #+ow could .our Ma-est) do this for these reasonsc% The /ing then
replies( #To( N am not doing this for these reasons.%
Vocabulary $ints
*!2H0"2' +!3H@' /!1H0"H' 2!;02' 7!2<1'
ç!@31' è!@3@' 9!<23' À!@2H' ;!12@'
õ!3H2"2' <!100' =À!22Ha( L;' 8!2@<"2' s!<3;"2'
H!101"2' J!H0<' K!H2H' M!3HH' ù!;@H"2'
–!H;"H' ï!@H2' È!320"3' S!<@"2' ò!@HH"2'
W!;2' •!;<1' £!2;@' 0!011' [!1'
]!3@1' ` !2@2' Ý !2@H' e!32;' f!22'
#haracter List
i. iLAOB@V0.TFcgCb!21'
ii. 6YG1a_4>3N!20'
iii. EZ-!3'
Lesson 2(
孟子梁惠王上(Section (,)art %)
3!,æç7不èéƒ Êê#$D7ÐÑ|Ù,ëŒ不Þ不ì,•而不王7,B3有
Vocabulary ("(%!1''')
@;3. • M l= 4 ri H( nozoku 8ãm * li ä 6 leih
To rule over( to control.
:adical 2H0 !Ÿ'.
222b. ž國 M Ih5ng guO 4 chDgo/u ÿゅQsm * -ung gu/ 중å 6 -Dng
The central states.
This term does not mean #6hina% )et. 
@;H. Ÿ M f\ 4 bu &( naderu ej * mu I 6 f]
To stro/e( to pat; to pacif)( to soothe.
This verb is freFuentl) used as a euphemism for the suppression of
#barbarian% peoples.
:adical <H !}'.
H12b. P M s= )P 4 shiXi hO * sa i 사이 6 sei )=h
The barbarian tribes in all four directions !general term for barbarian tribes on
all sides'.
@;1. ¢ M )u3n 4 en uv( yoru よj * )eon 연 6 )Ehn
To follow along( to climb.
:adical 220 !æ'.
@;. ¤ M I^i 4 sai k^( waIawai わçわO * -ae < 6 -5i
:adical 0< !•'.
@;;. ¦ M dP 4 te/i テb( kataki かWy( tekisuru }yij * -eo/ è 6
To oppose( to withstand; enem)( opponent.
:adical << !é'.
@;0. « M -P 4 shD ZュJ( atsumaru cつまj( atsumeru cつめj * -ip ê
6 -aahp
To assemble( to gather together; a literar) collection.
+ere( this character is used adverbiall) #collectivel)(% #all together.G :adical
2;2 !S'.
;36. 5| M FP )K 4 sonoitsu そ8Oつ * gi il Yë 6 /7ih )^t
Bne of them.
This term is idiomatic enough for the meaning to be not immediatel)
apparentebut it still ma/es sense literall) Gtheir one.G
@;@. ¯ M shK 4 shi Z( se ]( hodokosu ほìûi * si E 6 sK
To eYtend( to suppl).
:adical ;0 !™'.
@00. ° M sh= 4 shi Z * sa 사 6 sih
Bfficial( officeholder.
:adical @ !,'.
@02. ³ M )l 4 )a( no * )a í 6 )Mh
8ilderness( countr)( fields.
:adical 2<< !里'.
@02. ´ M sh^ng 4 sh5 ZIJ * sang Z 6 sJung
:adical 30 !Ý'.
@03. ¸ M ln 4 r)o HI( tabi Wî * l)eo b 6 lMuih
To travel; traveler.
:adical ;0 !™'.
@0H. ï M fE 4 fu 7( omomuku PnAm * bu 9 6 fuh
To hurr) to( to rush to( to head toward.
:adical 21< !¥'.
@01. º M sE 4 so T( uttaeru QðWえj * so ñ 6 sou
To lodge a complaint about.
This character is a different version of ò. :adical <2 !…'.
@0<. ó M hDn 4 /on ,v( kurai m@O * hon ô 6 f^n
atupid( muddleheaded.
:adical <2 !…'.
@0;. À M m_n 4 bin ”v( hashikoi はhûO * min d 6 m3hn
6lever( Fuic/"witted.
:adical << !é'.
@00. Â M sh= 4 shi Z( kokoromiru ûû•Bj( tamesu Wめi * si E 6
To tr)( to test.
:adical 2H@ !ö'.
@0@. Ã M hMng 4 /5 ,J * geung õ 6 hChng
6onstant( regular( reliable.
:adical <2 !…'.
@@0. Ç M f^ng 4 h5 %J * bang „ 6 fong
2. Zissipated( unrestrained. 9
2. To release( to let go.
:adical << !é'.
@@2. É M ch_ 4 shi Z * chi ö 6 chP
EYtravagant( wasteful QbehaviorR.
:adical @ !,'.
@@2. Ê M YiCn 4 /an üv( ochiiru PÿOj * ham ÷ 6 hahm
To sin/ into( to fall into.
:adical 2;0 !ø'.
@@3. Ì M wbng 4 /5 ,J( ami cB * mang ù 6 mOhng
Tet; to trap( to catch in a net.
This character is used for ú. :adical 222 !/'.
203b. ®m M sh=gE 4 sono yue ni そ8¢えP * si go E. 6 sih gu
Vor this reason.U
@@H. Ð M )bng 4 g)5 ¨IJ( /5 ,J( aogu cPª( aomuku cPAm *
ang û 6 )Muhng
To loo/ up.
+ere( this character is part of a sentence pattern; see below. :adical @ !,'.
@@1. Ó M f\ 4 fu 7( fusu Xi( utsumuku QつAm * bu 9 6 f]
To loo/ down.
+ere( this character is part of a sentence pattern; see below. :adical @ !,'.
@@Ha. ÐÓ M )bng f\ 4 aoide wa cPOわ...fushite wa Xh}わ... *
ang bu û9 6 )Muhng f]
Bn the one hand... on the other hand...!see 2;.20'.
@@<. Ö M bbo 4 h5 %J( aku cm * po 포 6 b3au
To be full !from eating'.
:adical 20H !|'.
@@;. Ü M -iE 4 /)D bュJ( sukuu imQ * gu o 6 gau
To rescue( to save.
Tote that ÜÈ has the idiomatic meaning #save from death.G :adical << !é'.
M shCn 4 Ian üv( taru Wj * seom ý 6 sihm
To be sufficient.
:adical 21H !_'.
@@@. ß M Yi^ 4 /a ü( hima ひま( itoma Oとま * ga þ 6 hCh
Vree time( leisure.
:adical ;2!¡'.
2000. â M hM 4 /5 * hap ÿ 6 hahp
G8h) not...?G Qfusion of 何 and
in a rhetorical FuestionR
aometimes writers use this character interchangeabl) with -!H3H"2'. :adical
200 !皿'.
2;.2 以Áv;,õÁv^!l. 2' Most readers probabl) read Á here instinctuall)
as 220"3( an informal second person pronoun often used instead of 汝
!121'ethat is( Gb) means of what )ou are doing to search for what )ou want.G
+owever( this seems an unusuall) rude pronoun to use with the /ing !and in
the rest of the teYt Mencius simpl) addresses him as 王'.Nt ma) be that Á has
the sense of Gseemingl)G or Gli/e(G with G)ouG implied G&) means of doing
this sort of thing to see/ the sort of thing )ou wish.G infortunatel)( this would
be a rather clums) usage as well.
2;.2. Á®5XÃ?曰:£有X:!ll. 2"3' This phrase ma) seem confusing at
first( but a character"b)"character reading still ma/es sense GLi/e this its
eYtremit)cG Mencius replies G,robabl) Q)our behaviorR possesses Qaspects
that are evenR more eYtreme than that.G Tote that X: is eFuivalent to Xƒ3(
and that we have a case of comparative degree here !23.@'( where X!3;H;
normall) GeYcessiveG' should be read Gworse.G
2;.3. ™千里7ª,±«有5|!ll. <";' G$reas that are a thousand li sFuare
number nine( and gi altogether owns?occupies one of them.G Vrom ver) earl)
on( 6hinese geographers conceived of their world as a large sFuare(
composed of @ areas in a 3 Y 3 arrangement.
2;.H. 以|¬‚!l. ;' G&) means of one to cause eight to submit....% Tote that
!<00"3'( which usuall) means Gto submitG when used as a verb( has to be
interpreted causativel) here.
2;.1. -亦ô5®#!l. ;' G,erhaps we should indeed return to the
fundamentals.G The claim of getting bac/ to Gthe basicsG was a constant in
6hinese philosoph). Mencius argues that a basic attention to the peopleXs
livelihood is more important than militar) eYpansion.
2;.<. Å*;~!l. 22' #Bnl) a shi is capable of that.% The ; here is vague |it
could possibl) impl) effort ma/ing( that is( onl) shi could carr) out the action
of being able to do it. +owever( it could be emplo)ed simpl) for the rh)thm of
the language.
2;.;. ÁŒ,Š“ÃÄ,Æ“Ã…!l. 22' atrict grammarians might be confused
b) the connectives emplo)ed here. The cruY lies with Š which conceals the
fact that an #ifd should also be supplied to the second clause( in addition to
the sense of GthenG attached to the Š GNf itXs the common people QweXre
tal/ing aboutR( then if the) donXt have a constant livelihood( the) therefore
wonXt have constant hearts.G $ll commentators N am aware of ta/e the
meaning thus( because the) all believe that Mencius is sa)ing that * possess
some integral Fualit) as a social class that ma/es them able to maintain their
ethical standards even when undergoing material suffering( as opposed to
the common people( who blow with the wind( as it were. $s far as N /now( no
one has interpreted this line to mean #Nf )ouXre tal/ing about the common
people( then the) donXt have a stead) livelihood and conseFuentl) donXt have
stead) hearts.G Even though it is a simpler reading( it goes against !2' the
literatus eYpectation that the common people can be successfull) governed
b) a virtuous ruler( and !2' the literatus assumption that the common people
are inherently less morall) sensitive and are not so simply because of their
poorer economic circumstances.
2;.0. •>Ë而H3!l. 23' GNf onl) then )ou punish them accordingl)eliterall)(
#follow and punish them.G Ë can be used to indicate acting in an eYpected
manner or in accordance with other factors.
2;.@. :有,ÍÎ,ÌŒ而¬;E!222. 23"2H' This is another puIIling
sentence. Virst of all( notice the new !but luc/il) relativel) rare' use of : as a
Fuestion word #+ow ...c% This use is usuall) rhetorical and probabl)
represents a dialect variant of •!<20"2'.
$s for the rest of the sentence( it is generall) accepted that the ÌŒ而¬; is a
sort of rhetorical emphasis of a more simple idea( ¬以ÌŒ( #to be capable of
entrapping the people.G 8e might translate it literall) as #entrapping the
peopleeand could such a thing be donecfG $nother possibilit) is that the ¬;
refers bac/ to the act of being benevolent G+ow could there be a benevolent
man on the throne( who could entrap the people and )et still be capable of
doing QbenevolenceRcG :egardless( if we ta/e the whole phrase as a more
eYcited version of one of MenciusX favorite B有 sentences( we ma) have
something close to B有而ÌŒ7.
2;.20. ÐÕ以¶ÑÒ,ÓÕ以ÖI子!ll. 2H"21' The characters Ð and Ó initiall)
meant Gto loo/ upG and Gto loo/ downG respectivel)( but the) soon developed
a distinctive usage in which each stood at the head of its own clause and
eYpressed the idea GBn the one hand... on the other hand....% +ere( the
original meanings of the words ma) still be present in the fact that loo/ing
after oneXs parents is something one does GupwardG sociall)( whereas loo/ing
after oneXs wife !f' and children is something one does GdownwardG sociall).
Later on( the two characters !in reverseÓÐ' became a compound meaning
Gright awa)(G Ginstantl)G !i.e.( the time it ta/es to loo/ down then loo/ up'.
2;.22. Ú而3R!l. 21' Vor some reason not clear to us now( Ú alwa)s ta/es 而
when it functions as a pivot verb. Tormall) we would eYpect ڌ3R( #drive
!the people' to go to the good.G The pivot verb 率 Gto leadG functions the
same wa). Tote also that the pivot Πis suppressed.
Vocabulary $ints
"!2H;"2' š!1@1"2( 1@1"3' 土!3H2' ›!30"3' %!2H2'
!H2<"2' ¡!31<"2' M!002' X!3;H' £!<3@"2'
¥!;<0' 以;!20a( L;' ¶!2;0' ‚!1H<"2' ¨!3;2'
©!3;2' @!@13' ™!222"2'
!<00"3' -!H3H"2'
®!;H' ’!1<1' ²!230' µ!;;@' ¶!<@;'
î!10<"2' ¹ !202"3' Ž!@20' ¾!<3H' Ä!;23"2'
Å!03@' =!022"2' È!H23"2' H!101"2' :!1<2'
Ï!0H2' Ö!0@2' Ô!2H0"2' ô!@01"2' ‰!0<2'
Ø!;@0' Ú!;3H' T!@<3' 奚!211'
#haracter List
i. дÇܯ³«!0'
ii. °ÃŸ¦¸ß¤¢ÌïÊÖ!22'
iii. ÓÀ!2'
iv. É»ºâ•Þ!<'
Summary of Lessons 2!2(
Nt ma) be difficult for )ou as a beginning student to follow the logical
reasoning behind the eYtended argument in this portion of the Mencius. +ere
is a step"b)"step summar)
2. *ing Wuan of gi as/s Mencius if he can provide information on the careers
of two of the famous Vive Bverlordseobviousl) hoping to receive a lesson in
practical politics. True to his ideals( Mencius claims that the disciples of
6onfucius /new nothing of this and so offers to instruct the /ing in /ingl)
virtue instead. 8hen the /ing inFuires as to what Fualities a Gtrue /ingG must
possess( Mencius claims that the most important Fualit) is a heart?mind
capable of guarding and loo/ing after the common people. +e also asserts
that the /ing possesses such a heart?mind.
2. Mencius proves his point b) relating an anecdote concerning the /ing
himself +e has heard that the /ing refused to let an oY be sacrificed in a
religious ceremon) because he could not stand to see the animal suffering
and unhapp). +owever( since the /ing substituted a sheep for an oY in the
ceremon)( how can we /now that the /ing was genuinel) affected
emotionall) and was not merel) being cheap !as the common people
thought'c Mencius suggests that the important point to the stor) is not the
/ingXs sparing of an animalXs life( but rather that the /ing possesses a
spontaneous moral sense !perhaps more emotional than intellectual' that
cannot bear to see living things suffer. Mencius also argues that this
spontaneous moral sense is the propert) of the GgentlemanG or superior
individual !i.e.( one of those who should rule'.
3. The /ing ac/nowledges that his merc) was a spontaneous emotional
reaction and compliments Mencius for having the abilit) to read his
ps)chological state. &ut what does this have to do with being able to loo/
after the common people( the Fualit) that supposedl) defines a true /ingc
Mencius argues !in a somewhat roundabout wa)' that the spontaneous sense
of pit) the /ing felt is precisely the mental Fualit) that a true /ing must
possess. +e claims that good government will result easil) and naturall)
when the /ing is able to eYtend this sense of pit) to the common people—
something that the virtuous ancients accomplished. !+ere( Mencius draws
upon another favorite argumentthe idea that the eYtension of compassion
can be seen as an empathic application of the feelings one has for oneXs own
famil) members to people outside of oneXs famil)'. +e also claims that the
failure to eYtend this sense of pit) is a blatant act of will( not an inabilit).
H. Mencius then as/s whether the reason wh) the /ing has so far not
eYtended this sense of compassion is because he is much happier stirring up
political and militar) chaos among the states. +e then as/s the /ing what
such violent behavior see/s to accomplisheif it is merel) to indulge his love
of luYur)( surel) his own modest court can suppl) his greatest desiresf The
/ing naturall) denies this essentiall) absurdist argument( leading Mencius to
conclude that he hopes to accomplish the ultimate ambitioneto unite all of
6hina under his control. Mencius then suggests b) analog) that violent
militar) action cannot accomplish unificationeif the tin) state of hou cannot
conFuer the much larger state of 6hu( then gi surel) cannot conFuer all of
1. Mencius states that the onl) wa) to unite all of 6hina is to treat the people
well; if good administration brings prosperit) to all the people of gi( then all
the other people of 6hina will come to gi( and the other rulers will willingl)
ac/nowledge the *ing of giXs hegemon).
<. Mencius closes with some practical advice. Zo not eYpect the people to be
capable of altruistic moral behavior in bad times( he suggests; the) will
naturall) brea/ the law if it is a matter of survival. Nf )ou plan ahead(
however( and push through agricultural reforms !here( Mencius repeats the
program given in Lesson 23'( then bad times can be handled with little
suffering on the peopleXs part.
Tote that this argument restates in dialectical form some of the essential
points of Mencian philosoph) !2' good government rests in a basic agrarian
polic) that guarantees the peopleXs livelihood; !2' such a polic) will result in a
nonviolent eYpansion of the prestige and power of the ruler( even to the
eYtent that he can unif) all of 6hina !see Lesson 2H'; and !3' putting such a
polic) into practice should be relativel) eas)( because it is a mere eYtension
of the feelings of compassion that the true GgentlemanG possesses
instinctuall) and naturall) an)wa).
Lesson 28
孟子梁惠王下(Section 1)
+幾乎ã•3Ô,–Q3ÔE$G曰:「¬·¸Ã?G曰:「:ÔÔ, Ã,ÔÔ,}
8Ö¸王u馬3g,見.旄3美,,¹首蹙額而相告曰:%吾 王3˜Û獵,(何Äóû
ƒ°極E?Ñ子不相見,JKI子離散ã& °“ï,不ÃŒ同ÔE$•王•Ôƒ°$8
Ö¸王Ê•3é,管籥3 g,,欣欣•有喜d而相告曰:%吾王+幾“¹病Ã?何以~
•ÔE?&•王Û獵ƒ°$8Ö¸王u馬3g,見.旄3美,,欣欣•有 喜d而相告曰:
Vocabulary (i''1*1''")
310b. 莊暴 M Ihu^ng bCo 4 s5 bo そQ® * -ang po z포 6 -5ng bouh
hhang &ao !evidentl) an adviser to the /ing'.
2002. 幾 M -K 4 /i b( hotohoto ほとほと * gi Y 6 gJi
$lmost( nearl).
:adical 12 !€'.
013a. +幾 M shE -K 4 sho/i h˜y * seo gi [Y 6 s)u gJi
2. $lmost( on the point of; probabl)( seemingl).
2. hope...( hopefull). 
30Ha. •d M biCn s7 4 iro wo henzu O•をへんž * b)eon sae/ •색 6
bin sK/
To grow pale( to loo/ nonplussed or upset.
Tote that 乎 !here functioning as the multipurpose preposition( li/e ƒ' is
inserted between these characters.
210c. ?王 M Yi^n w3ng 4 senX5 ]vPQ * seon wang ùS 6 sKn
The former /ings( the /ings of antiFuit).
These figures are alwa)s considered the paragons of virtue and good
2002. 俗 M s] 4 Io/u ゾク * so/ 속 6 -uh/
6ommon( vulgar( popular.
:adical @ !,'.
22;a. ¼俗 M sh= s] 4 seIo/u ©ãm * se so/ l속 6 sai -uh/
2003. 籥 M )u7 4 )a/u ヤク * )a/ 약 6 )euh/
:adical 220 !竹'.
200H. 蹙 M cE 4 shu/u Zュク * chu/ W 6 chD/
To /nit Qthe browsR( to wrin/le.
:adical 21; !Õ'.
2001. 額 M M 4 ga/u ク( hitai ひWO * ae/ ! 6 ngaah/
:adical 202 !^'.
200<. 散 M sCn 4 san kv( sanjiru eんyj * san " 6 saan
To scatter( to be scattered.
:adical << !é'.
2@Ha. Û獵 M ti3n li7 4 denr)o んQ˜ * -eon r)eop 전# 6 t=hn lihp
To hunt.
200;. 旄 M m3o 4 b5 GJ * mo $ 6 m>uh
,ennant( flag.
:adical ;0 !™'. 
2000. 欣 M YKn 4 /in bv * heun 흔 6 )^n
+app)( delighted.
Nn literar) 6hinese( repeating the ad-ective or adverb !欣欣•' is done for
emphasis. :adical ;< !%'.
200@. 病 M b=ng 4 b)5 ”IJ( yamai lまO * b)eong & 6 behng
aic/; illness.
:adical 20H !\'.
20.2.王s暴以˜Ô!l. 2' #The /ing told me that he li/ed music.G Tote the
appearance of the thing said as the ob-ect of the coverb 以; a more t)pical
wa) of eYpressing this idea would be 王以˜Ô告暴. 莊暴 is spea/ing; he is
using his own
as a first person reference.
20.2. Š±國5+幾乎!l. 2' 5 appears as the #modal% particle( here meaning
something li/e Gno doubt(G Gcertainl)G !;3"2'. +幾( whereas often used as the
adverb #almost(% can be used idiomaticall) without an ad-ective to mean #at
the point of success(% #near its goal.% 乎 is eYclamator) here !222"2'.
20.3. -˜¼俗3Ô†!l. H' There are compleY philosophical issues underl)ing
music theor) in ancient 6hina. The disciples of 6onfucius !the '' in general
saw music as an essential complement to ritual á( and rulers usuall)
emplo)ed large state orchestras for the performance of music. +owever(
man) philosophers !especiall) the '' also ac/nowledged the sensual appeal
of music and thought that some forms of music !especiall) the popular forms'
were in-urious to morals. This was considered particularl) true of music
coming from the earl) state of hheng ( !see Analects 21.20'.
20.H. :ÔÔ,Ã,ÔÔ,}Ô!ll. 1"<' Nn these phrases( both meanings of Ô are
used #Q$s forR the pleasure of solitar) music( or the pleasure of music with
others( which is QmoreR en-o)ablecG 6hinese philosophers made much of the
20.1. •王•Ôƒ°...!l. ;' Mencius constructs a series of elaborate
conditionals here Virst( he gives two eYamples of the /ing ta/ing his pleasure
—if the /ing behaves thus and the common people are angr) and upset at his
behavior( then °“ï,不ÃŒ同ÔE !for “ï( see 2<.0'. +owever( if the /ing
does the same thing and the common people are happ) and show their
concern for his welfare( then °“ï,ÃŒ同ÔE. Mencius is not teaching the
/ing how to behave but giving him a diagnostic on how to tell whether he is
behaving correctl) or not.
Totice also that when /ings GdoG things( it often implies the) are having it
done. •Ô would most li/el) mean Ghave music performed.G
20.<.吾王+幾“¹病Ã?何以~•ÔE?!ll. 23"2H' +ere( the term +幾 means
Gprobabl)(G Gno doubt.G Tote also here that sometimes in literar) 6hinese
reading the contrafactual condition !Gif notG; Gor elseG' goes uneYpressed and
is onl) implied b) the logic of the sentence GBur /ing no doubt has no illness;
if not( how could he have music performedcG
Vocabulary $ints
˜!312"2' Ô!2H0"2 and 2H0"2' ï!@H2' -!<H3"2' –!23H"2'
管!222' g!@;2' ,!221"2' ¹!202"2' 首!3<<'
告!203' J!H0<' K!H2H' 離!;13' Ê!@30'
.!@H<' 喜!H<'
#haracter List
i. 俗幾散病!H'
ii. 欣!2'
iii. 旄!2'
iv. 籥蹙額!3'
Lesson 2"
孟子告子上(Section 1')
孟子曰$「¼,óv^E$)G,亦óv^E$*7不¬·+, ˼ ã而9)G7E$
v^€XƒÆ,Š-¬以·Æ7何不•E?Ä,3vz€XƒÈ7,Š-¬以š ,7何
Vocabulary (1'1'*1'2')
2020. ) M YiOng 4 )D xJ( kuma mま * ung C 6 hEhng
:adical 0< !•'.
2022. + M -i^n 4 /en Ov( kensu Nんi( kaneru かHj * g)eom D 6
aimultaneousl); to possess simultaneousl).
:adical 22 !‚'.
22@6. ”Ä M r] sh_ 4 moshi nh * )eo sa t사 6 )Eh sP
Nf; if we suppose.
2022. - M f3n 4 han Lv( bon Gv( subete iべ} * beom E 6 fCahn
$ll ever); generall).
:adical 2< !F( #table%'.
2023. / M d^n 4 tan `v * dan ˆ 6 d^an
:ound bamboo bas/et for holding rice.
:adical 220 !竹'.
202H. 1 M gJng 4 /5 ,J( atsumono cつn8 * gaeng G 6 g^ng
aoup( gruel.
:adical 223 !Ñ'.
2021. 2 M f] 4 !no set rendering' * bul H 6 f^t
Q6ontraction of #
and 3.R
$s did Ü !2<3'( this character originall) occurred when 3 was inverted and
placed before the verb !see 1.;'. $s time passed( writers and readers soon
confused it with
and simpl) used it as a negative. :adical 1; !¯'.
202<. 3 M hD 4 /o/u ,ク * ho 호 6 fD
To abuse; abusivel).
:adical 30 !Ý'.
202;. 4 M lr 4 -i ジ( ni * * i 이 6 )Ph
2. Qaame as • !232"3'( an adverb mar/er.R
2. .ou. Qinformal second person pronoun( same as 汝 !121'R
:adical 0@ !I'.
2020. 6 M cu 4 shu/u Zュク( shD ZュJ( keru Nj * chu/ W 6 chD/
To trample on( to /ic/.
:adical 21; !Õ'.
202@. 8 M YieYi7 4 setsu ]q( isagiyoshi eぎよh * seol J 6 sit
8orthwhile( to consider worthwhile.
This character usuall) appears in negated form不8( #unworth)(% #to
disregard(% #to re-ect as unworth).% :adical HH !þ'.
2020. : M biCn 4 ben * b)eon • 6 bihn
To distinguish( to discern( to tell the difference.
:adical 2<0 !K'.
H1@a. ;< M g5ngsh= 4 /)ushitsu yゅhつ * gung sil LM 6 gDng s^t
2@.2. ”Ä,3v^€XƒÆ!ll. H"1' Tote that € often follows the noun on
which it comments( thus calling for the following translation #$mong W( there
was no one who...(%for eYample( N€~對(#among the retainers( there was no
one who could answer.G +ence( here we have( Gsupposing that among those
things that people desire there is nothing greater than life....% Tote also that
€ must be read as #nothing% rather than #no oneG !the more common
2@.2. –®ŠÆ而有不•E!l. <' This is difficult to anal)Ie. –®ŠÆ means #Nf one
QgoesR through this Q/ind of disreputable course of actionR( one can remain
alive.U% 而有不• then gives the eYception( #and )et there are Qcases whenR it
is not used(G that is( there will be times when a human being will realiIe that
a certain course of action even though disreputable will /eep him?her alive
but he?she refuses to do it out of a sense of honor.
2@.3. ®mv^有XƒÆ7!ll. <";' This is one of the places where Mencius
comes close to ma/ing a s)llogism in the traditional 8estern sense
$ ,eople prefer life and hate death.
& ,eople can do certain things to remain alive and avoid death.
6 Nn certain cases( people will not do those things.
Z Therefore( there are things that people prefer to life and hate worse than
2@.H. .7~Üdž!l. 0' The use of the imperative here must be because of
the ~( which must have the same effect as ^ in analogous sentences
!compare 1.; and an analogous sentence from Lesson 1( ó~Üw乎'. Zo not
translate as imperative. Tote also that Ü is a contraction of o and 3 here as
2@.1. óÊ3,!l. @' Though this phrase would probabl) in most conteYts
mean #people who practice the 8a)(G here( it obviousl) refers to someone in
desperate conditions. +ence( it is interpreted b) all commentators to mean
Gpeople wal/ing the road(G that is( Gvagrants.%
2@.<. ;;<3美?I=3>?vÓ?@7·óÃ?!ll. 20"22' Mencius gives a
series of reasons wh) a man might accept an official position. ; here means
#is because(% and since the whole sentence ends with a Fuestion )ou can
begin each phrase with #Ns it because of... % vÓ?@7 is a partitive( with a
missing 3 after Ó Gthose among whom N /now who are poor and destitute.%
·ó !more eYplicitl)( ·ƒó' here would be #benefit from me Qand m)
wealthR.G Tote that Mencius is careful to sa) that it is wrong to accept an ill"
gotten salar)( even when emplo)ed for noble ends.
2@.;. A;-È而不5!l. 22' G4ust now for the sa/e of oneself d)ing Qi.e.( it was
a case involving life or deathR and )et )ou did not accept it.G Mencius is
referring to the case of the beggar who would not accept food when given
contemptuousl). Totice the vagueness of the coverb ; here Goneself d)ingG
is the reason )ou would normall) accept the food— that is( )ou would accept
it for the reason of avoiding death. 而 has a strong contrastivemeaning here
Gand )et....# $ more fluid translation GEven though it was a matter of life and
death )ou nevertheless did not accept it.G
2@.0. ®亦不¬以"乎!ll. 22"23' That is( should a man not be capable of
refusing !lit.( Gstopping(G"Othese temptations as wellc
Vocabulary $ints
!;;2"2' =·€022a( L22' z!@0<"2' ,!3@'
š!1@<"2' ®m!203b( L2;' Ü!2<3' Ç!H33"2' 0!;0H"2'
7!122' 1!;2' 9!220"2' –!H;"1' >!2@2"2'
?!<20' @!002' ®!;H'
#haracter List
i. +-24!H'
ii. )1:!3'
iii. 8!2'
iv. 3/6!3'
Lesson %'
孟子梁惠王下(Section is+
dÈÜ_$&6š ߃ù*7$G
Vocabulary (i'21!1'% 2)
2022. P M tMng 4 t5 トJ * deung e 6 tChng
The state of Teng.
P was a small state on the border of ± that was in constant danger of
invasion and eYtermination. :adical 230 !ÙO.
@22a. µn M wMn g5ng 4 mon/5 nんûQ * mun gong úf 6 mChn
Zu/e 8en !of Teng'.
2022. Q M -iM 4 /etsu Oq( tsukusu つかi * gal g 6 /it
To devote( to put forth effort( to eYhaust.
,artial s)non)m „!211'. :adical 22; !±'.
2023. R M YK 4 sha/u Zhク( se/i ]b( mukashi Aかh * seo/ i 6 sK/
The past; in the past.
:adical ;2!¡'.
201c. '王 M tCi w3ng 4 dai5 だOPQ * dae wang YS 6 daaih
*ing Tai !one of the ancestors of the [ ro)al house'.
Though the name is written '( here the character is actuall) an earl) form of
202H. T M bKn 4 hin iv * bin j 6 b^n
&in. Qa place"nameR
Tame of an ancient land( the original home of the [; located in modern
ahaanYi kl. :adical 2<3 !a'.
2021. U M dP 4 te/i テb * -eo/ è 6 dih/
Tame of a 8estern barbarian tribe. :adical @H !犬'.
202<. Y M IhD 4 shu Zュ( -u ジュ( tama Wま * -u $ 6 -)D
,earl; -ewel.
:adical @< !Z'.
202;. Z M )E 4 g)o/u ぎ˜m( tama Wま * o/ m 6 )uh/
:adical @< !Z'.
2020. \ M FP 4 /i b( shi Z * gi Y 6 /7ih
Bld !but not elderl)'( in one s siYties. :adical 221 !D'.
32Hb. *^子 M 7r s^n I_ 4 ni san shi Peんh * i sam -a 이n{ 6 )ih
s^am -P
M) followers( m) disciples.
Literall)( #Qm)R two or three childrenGeever since 6onfucius used this term
affectionatel) when spea/ing to his closest followers( it has been a cliché( and
it need not be limited to onl) two or three people.
202@. ` M )] 4 )u x( koeru ûえj * )u ~ 6 )Eh
To cross( to pass over.
:adical 21; !Õ'.
012a. 梁À M li3ng sh^n 4 r)5Ian Q˜Qçん * l)ang san K" 6
l7uhng s^an
Mt. Liang.
2030. b M FP 4 /i b * gi Y 6 /7ih
Mountain path.
+ere( this character is the name of a mountain. :adical H< !À'.
2030a. bÀ M FP sh^n 4 /iIan yçん * gi san Y" 6 /7ih s^an
Mt. gi.
2032. c M shAu 4 shu Zュ( su †( mamoru まnj * su U 6 s3u
To guard( to /eep( to defend.
:adical H0 !⼧'
22;b. ¼c M sh= shAu 4 yoyo wo mamori よよをまnQ * se su lU
6sai s3u
To preserve for generations; to guard for generations.
2032. d M YiCo 4 /5 ,J * h)o o 6 haauh
To devote( to put an effort into( to tr) one s best.
:adical << !p'.
2032a. dÈ M YiCo s_ 4 shi wo itasu hをOWi * h)o sa o사 6 haauh
To render service at the cost of one s life.
30.2. ”3何Š¬!ll. 2"2' More elaborate rhetorical form of ”何!22@b' or q何
!<<;a' G8hat can N do that is then B*cG
30.2. ¶3以WX!l. 2' ¶ here has a meaning deriving from #to serve(% #to
attend on.G aince the gist here is that the barbarians are being bribed( #to
appease% or #to bribeG would be the best translation.
30.3. 吾¸3E,6子不以5v以Å,7],!ll. H"1' #N have heard the following $
superior person does not b) means of that b) which he nourishes others
harm others.% This rather complicated sentence means $ good ruler will not
use the resources of his state to do violence( either to others or to his own
people. '王 basicall) believes that it would be better to surrender his land to
the U rather than cause the suffering of war.
30.H. •·!l. ;' :emember that • can sometimes mean Gto go where one
belongs.G +ere( it seems to mean( vaguel)( #to go where one wants to go%
and thereb) something li/e #to hurr) off to the mar/et place.% +owever( the
sense of the people supporting '王 and following him off to eYile allows • to
also suggest a secondar) meaning #to give allegiance to.%
30.1. ¼cE,ò-3v~;E,dÈÜ_!l. ;' Though this ma) seem undul)
critical of '王( the best wa) to read this in conteYt is a criticism of his
decision b) some of his peopleesince the /ingdom is the legac) of his
ancestors !¼c'( he does not have the right to abandon it. aome
commentators( however( interpret the lines to mean that some people
eYhorted themselves to sta) on their own land and defend it.
Vocabulary $ints
V!3;3' X!<@0' Ø!;@0' 犬!;11' [!H31"2'
土!3H2' ]!;@;' ,!3@' M!3HH' ß!0H<'
#haracter List
i. cRZY!H'
ii. dQ`!3'
iii. bU!2'
iv. \PT!3'
Lessons 31—32
Two Warríor Women
Both of these texts date from the “Síx Dynastíes" períod (222-589 C.E.); for
most of thís tíme, north Chína was under the controí of a seríes of non-
Chínese empíres and the south was ruíed by a seríes of short-ííved regímes.
We know most about the cuíturaí íífe ín the south duríng thís tíme because
most educated Chínese ííved there, but a number of ííterary texts survíve
from the north as weíí.
The story of Lì |ì 李寄 ís preserved ín the Soushén|ì 搜神 記 (ín Engíísh Record of
Searches ínto the Magícaí), a fourth-century southern coííectíon of odd
anecdotes and íegends. It ís a príncípaí source for so-caííed 志怪 (“recordíng
the strange") narratíve, and ít ís one of the earííest anthoíogíes to
demonstrate Chínese fascínatíon wíth ghost storíes and other occuít
The “Poem of Muían" 木蘭詩 ís probabíy the most famous poem to survíve
from the north duríng the Síx Dynastíes períod, though no one ís quíte sure
when ít was wrítten (the fífth century seems to be most ííkeíy). It ís composed
ín a popuíar baííad styíe and may have come from a foík song, though ít was
probabíy “cíeaned up" by the híghíy ííterate schoíars who transmítted ít.
Lesson 31
VOCABULARY (1033-1092)
1033. 越 M: yuè |: otsu ðñ, etsu òñ K: woí ó C: yuht
Yue (generaí name gíven to a coastaí regíon of southeast Chína; prevíousíy a
state name). Radícaí 156 (ô).
1034. 閩 M: mìn |: mín õö K: mín ÷ C: máhn
Name of a sectíon of 越, thís character ís now often used as a poetíc term for
Fu|ían 9ø provínce. Radícaí 169 (ù).
1035. 嶺 M: íìng |: reí úû, ryo üýþ, mine ÿね, ne ね K: íyeong 령 C:
Peak, mountaín range.
Radícaí 46 (山).
1036. 蛇 M: shé |: |a ジャ, da ダ, hebi へび K: sa 사 C: sèh
Snake, serpent.
Radícaí 142 (虫).
1037. M: ba |: hachí ハチ K: paí 팔 C: baat
Radícaí 12 ().
1038. ! M: zhàng |: |o ジýþ K: |ang 장 C: |euhng
Zhang (measurement of íength, equaí to approxímateíy 10 Engíísh feet).
Radícaí 1 („).
341a. $% M: tú sú |: tozoku とぞく K: to sok 토속 C: tóu |uhk
The íocaí popuíatíon; popuíar sentíment.
Aíthough ín thís íesson's text the term ís obvíousíy meant to refer to the íocaí
popuíace, the compound ís very cíose ín meaníng to 世% (227a, Lesson 28).
1039. & M: cháng |: |o ジýþ, sho シýþ, tsune つね K: sang 상 C:
1. Aíways, ínvaríabíy. *
2. Constancy; constant ruíe.
Note: The ííterary Chínese meaníng of thís character ís sííghtíy dífferent from
íts modern Mandarín meaníng, "often." Radícaí 50 (巾).
1040. ( M: yè |: ya ヤ K: ya 야 C: yéh
To smeít, to fuse.
Here, thís character ís used ín a píace-name. Radícaí 15 (冫, “íce").
863a. 東( M: dong yè |: toya とうや K: dong ya 동야 C: dung yéh
Dongye (name of a dístríct).
1041. ) M: du |: to ト, tsu つ, míyako ÿや K: do ! C: dou
Cíty, town, capítaí
Radícaí 163 (").
1042. * M: wèí |: í û K: wí # C: waí
Commandant, commander, coíoneí.
Radícaí 41 ($).
435b. ,- M: shú chéng |: zoku|o ぞ%く&'う K: sok seong 속 C: suhk
The meaníng of , here ís 435-1. In bureaucratíc íanguage thís character can
be prefíxed to admínístratíve uníts to índícate the scope of a pubííc offíce.
343C. 長. M: zháng íì |: chorí ('う) K: |ang íí 장* C: |éung íeíh
Hígh-rankíng offícíaís.
1043. = M: mèng |: mu +, yume ,- K: mong . C: muhng
Dream; to dream.
Radícaí 36 (/).
1044. ? M: yù |: yu 0, satosu 1と2 K: yu 3 C: yuh
To ínform, to teíí, to warn.
Radícaí 149 (Ò).
1045. @ M: wu |: fu 4, miko ÿ, kannagi 5678 K: mu 9 C: mòuh
Wízard, wítch, shaman.
Radícaí 48 (:).
1046. A M: zhù |: shuku シ;<, shu シ;þ, iwau =>う K: chuk ? C: |uk
To ínvoke, to pray to; to congratuíate.
Here, thís character ímpííes the term A1, “príest," “príestess." Radícaí 113
1047. C M: dàn |: tan Aö K: dam B C: daahm
To bíte, to devour.
Radícaí 30 (`).
173a. I長 M: íìng zháng |: ryocho )'('う K: íyeong |ang 령장 C:
ííhng |éung
Dístríct magístrate.
1048. J M: bíng |: heí K: byeong C: bíng
Together, aíí.
Here, thís character ís used as part of a synonym compound, JK.Radícaí 1
1049. O M: qì |: kí C K: gí D C: heí
Vapor, míasma; essence, ínner substance.
Radícaí 84 (E, “qí").
1050. V M: bì |: hí F, hashitame GHI- K: bí J C: péíh
Maídservant, femaíe síave.
Radícaí 38 (E)
1051. ^ M: sòng |: so Kþ, okuru LくM K: song N C: sung
To send, to see off,to escort.
Radícaí 162 (O).
1052. _ M: xué |: ketsu Pñ, ana Q7 K: hyeoí R C: yuht
Cave, hoíe.
Radícaí 116 (_).
1053. c M: níè |: kítsu Cñ K: gyo S C: ngíht
To bíte, to chew.
Radícaí 30 (`).
1017a. jk M: èr shí |: kono toki TとU K: í sí VW C: yíh sìh
At thís tíme (varíant for fk)
1054. l M: yù |: yo X K: ye Y C: yuh
To prepare, to make ready.
1055. n M: mù |: bo [, tsunoru つTM K: mo \ C: mouh
To draft, to conscrípt.
Radícaí 19 (]).
1056. o M: suò |: saku ^<, motomeru _と-M K: sak ` C: saak
To search, to íook for.
Radícaí 120 (a).
309a. qr M: |eung íè |: shoraku H'うbく K: |ang rak 장c C: |eung
|íangíe (name of a county).
1057. 李 M: íì |: rí ), sumomo 2__ K: í V C: íéíh
1. Píum.
2. Lí. |a surname|*
Radícaí 75 (木).
1058. t M: dàn |: tan Aö K: tan d C: daan
1. Bírth.
2. Preposterous´ rídícuíous.
Here, thís character ís a personaí name. Radícaí 149 (Ò).
1057a. 李t M: íì dàn |: rí tan )I6 K: í tan Vd C: íéíh
Lí Dan. |a proper name|
Radícaí 75 (木).
1059. 寄 M: |ì |: kí K: gí D C: geí
To send; to íodge, to stay temporarííy.
Here, thís character ís a person's name. Radícaí 40 (⼧).
1060. † M: tí |: teí eû K: |e f C: tàíh
A kínd of ííght-red síík.
Here, thís character ís part of a person's name. Radícaí 120 (a).
1061. ‡ M: yíng |: eí òû K: yeong g C: yìhng
To wínd around, to coíí.
Thís character ís a varíant of h, and ít ís used here as part of a person's
name. Radícaí 120 (a).
1060a. ݇ M: tí yíng |: teíeí i=j= K: |e yeong fg C: tàíh yìhng
Tíyíng (name of a fíííaí gírí from the Han k dynasty).
Thís gírí's fuíí name was Chunyu Tíyíng lm†‡. In the second century B.C.E.,
when her parents were convícted of a críme, she offered herseíf as a síave to
redeem them. The emperor feít sorry for her and freed her parents. Radícaí
120 (a).
1062. ˆ M: |ì |: saí ^û, seí nû, sukuu 1くう K: |e f C: |aí
To rescue, to assíst.
Radícaí 85 (o).
1063. “ M: záo |: sa ^, so Kþ, satsu 1つ K: |o p C: |óu
Earíy; morníng.
Radícaí 72(•).
1064. ˜ M: qíán |: sen nö, zení qr K: |eon s C: chìhn
Copper cash.
Radícaí 167 (t).
1065. Ÿ M: ííán |: ren úö, awaremu Q>uv, urayamu うbやv K: íyeon
w C: íìhn
To íove, to cherísh, to feeí sorry for; to admíre, to envy.
Radícaí 61 (x).
283a. §R M: gào qìng |: tsugete kou つyiう K: go cheong z{ C:
gou chíng
To request.
Thís term ís a synonym compound.
1066. ª M: zhà |: seku n<, kamu 5v K: sa 사 C: |a
To bíte.
Radícaí 30 (_).
1067. ® M: míào |: byo |ýþ K: myo } C: míuh
Tempíe, shríne.
Radícaí 53 (~).
1068. ² M: shí |: sekí nC, shaku シャ<, ishi =H K: seok • C: sehk
1. Stone, rock.
2. Shí (measurement for ííquíds, roughíy equívaíent to an Engíísh gaííon),
Radícaí 112 (²).
1069. ³ M: mì |: beí €û, maí •û, kome -, yone ‚ね K: mí ƒ C:
Radícaí 119 (³).
1070. ´ M: cí |: shí シ, mochi _( K: |a „ C: chìh
Ríce baíí.
Radícaí 119 (³).
1071. µ M: mì |: mítsu õñ K: míí … C: maht
Radícaí 142 (虫).
1072. ¶ M: chao |: sho K: cho † C: chíu
Roasted baríey fíour.
Radícaí 199 (‡, “wheat").
1073. · M: guàn |: kan ˆö, sosogu ‰‰Š K: gwan ‹ C: gun
To water, to soak, to fíow ínto.
Radícaí 85.(o).
1074. º M: qun |: kín Cö, kon Œö K: gyun • C: kwan
Graín bín.
Radícaí 31 (_).
1075. ¼ M: chè |: sekí nC, shaku シャ< K: cheok Ž C: chek
Chí (measurement of íength, equívaíent to about 10 ínches; usuaííy
transíated as “foot").
Radícaí 44 (•).
1076. ½ M: |ìng |: kyo Cýþ, kagami 5•ÿ K: gyeong ‘ C: geng
Radícaí 167 (t).
1077. ¿ M: xíang |: ko Œþ, ka ˆ, kaoru 5LM, kaori 5L) K: hyang ’
C: heung
Scent, fragrance; fragrant; íncense.
Radícaí 186 (¿).
1078. Ä M: zhuó |: shaku H“く, kiru UM K: |ak ” C: |euk
To cut, to hack
Radícaí 69 (•).
1079. Å M: chuang |: so K: chang – C: chong
Radícaí 104 (—).
1080. Æ M: tòng |: tsu つ, itamu =Iv K: tong ˜ C: tung
Sore, achíng, paínfuí
Radícaí 104 (~).
1081. Ç M: |í |: kyu C;þ, ísogu =‰Š, aseru Q™M K: geup š C: gap
1. Severe, sharp. *
2. Swíft, quíck; to hurry.
3. To be anxíous; to be ín a state of crísís.
Thís character ís common ín aíí of these meaníngs, though oníy meaníng #1
occurs ín our texts. Radícaí 61 (x).
1082. É M: yòng |: yo Xþ, odoru L›M K: yong œ C: yúng
To íeap, to |ump.
Thís character ís aíso wrítten • (774). Radícaí 157 (ž).
1083. Î M: dú |: doku Ÿ< K: chok C: duhk
Radícaí 188 (¡).
1084. Ï M: íóu |: ro ¢ K: íu £ C: íàuh
ÎÏ ís a common synonym compound (ín fact, ít ís rare to see these two
characters separate from each other). Radícaí 188 (¡).
1085. Ñ M: zhà |: ta A K: ta ¤ C: |a
To upbraíd, to píty.
Radícaí 30 (_).
1086. Õ M: qíè |: kyo Cýþ, obieru LびjM K: geop ¥ C: híp
Tímíd, cowardíy; to be afraíd.
Radícaí 61 (x).
1087. Ú M: mìn |: bín |ö, mín õö, awaremu Q>uv K: mín ÷ C:
To píty.
Radícaí 61 (x).
1088. Ý M: huán |: kan ˆö, yuruyakana ,Mや57, yukkuri ,%く) K:
wan ¦ C: wùhn
Síow, graduaí; síowíy, íeísureíy.
Radícaí 120 (a).
1089. á M: pìn |: heí §û K: bíng ¨ C: píng
To marry, to wed, to betroth.
Radícaí 128 (©).
1090. ã M: bàí |: haí ハû, haisuru G=2M, ogamu L•v K: bae ª C:
To bow; to do reverence to; to appoínt |to a post|.
ã× ís a standard way of sayíng “was appoínted as..." Radícaí 64 («).
1091. è M: yao |: yo Xþ K: yo ¬ C: yíu
Strange, weírd, supernaturaí; demon, phantom; bewítchíng, seductíve.
Radícaí 38 (E).
1092. ë M: ge |: ka ˆ, utau うI=, utai うI= K: ga - C: go
Song; to síng.
Radícaí 76 (®).
31.1. 東()*+,-長./有01(í. 2): The grammar here ís ambíguous: Is thís
sayíng that quíte a few offícíaís díed, or that quíte a few members of the
offícíaís' househoíds díed? I favor the former.
31.2. 6789(íí. 2-3): 6 ís odd here; íts meaníng can be deríved from the
context. The author probabíy uses ít as a synonym for the common e6, “as
before"-that ís, “aíí aíong" (wíthout change).
31.3. :;<=,:>?@A(í. 3): “Sometímes ít wouíd gíve peopíe dreams, and
sometímes ít wouíd descend and ínform shamans and príests." Note the other
meaníng of : here (579-2), as opposed to “someone." The snake, whích ís
reaííy a demon, ís communícatíng through vísíons to the íocaí popuíatíon,
teíííng them what ít wants.
31.4. NOP7Q(1. 4): Here, ít becomes cíear that the snake-demon ís not
kííííng peopíe dírectíy, but generatíng a poísonous aura so that íocaí peopíe
are dyíng of íííness.
31.5. <TUVW(í. 4): "Maídservants born ínto peopíe's famíííes."
31.6. 有YTE(í. 4): "Daughters from househoíds that had commítted crímes."
If the príncípaí maíe of a famííy commítted a críme, ít was not unusuaí for the
entíre famííy or cían to receíve puníshment.
31.7. v有„w,…有ev(íí. 7-8): “You have not had a síngíe son; even though
you have |chíídren, í.e., daughters|, ít's as íf you had none." Even though
technícaííy ungrammatícaí, v有 ís occasíonaííy used for emphasís
31.8. –8—˜(í. 9): Thís ís a good exampíe of how – came íncreasíngíy to be
used wíth an actíve meaníng (contrast wíth 7.3). It may be used here as ít ís
typícaííy used ín medíevaí Chínese, to convey a mííd suggestíon or request.
31.9. ª蛇«(í. 10): "a snake-bítíng dog." Evídentíy, a dog traíned to hunt
snakes (even 80-foot-íong demon-snakes!).
31.10. 8數© (1. 13): "She obtaíned severaí sword |bíows|." Note two
ídíomatíc usages here: fírst, words for "sword" or "knífe" can be used to mean
"wounds |ínfíícted by those weapons|"; second, ín Chínese, when one "gets"
8 such a wound, ít means (unííke ín Engíísh) that one has ínfíícted ít, not
receíved ít.
31.11. ×蛇‘•(1. 14): Thís ís the fourth, and íast, way of índícatíng the
passíve voíce ín ííterary Chínese: × + actor + (‘) verb. Thís pattern can stííí
be found ín modern Mandarín, especíaííy wíth ¯ substítutíng for °.
Consequentíy, thís phrase means "were eaten by the snake."
Voca!"a#$ %&n's
東(863) 庸(463-2) 高(92) 西(623) 隙(576)
(263-2) 2(415) 4(928) 5(933)
9(14) :(579-2) D(684) K(249) P(515-1)
Q(545-2) X(1011) d(575) s(6531) z(658)
~(211-2) ‚(264-3) ƒ(839) ‰(613) Ž(599)
’(632) 7e(4a, L4) ”(729) ›(345) ž(64)
£(437) ¤(16) ¥(409) ](38-2) ¬(972-2)
-(352) °(535-2) »(22) ±(150) ¾(124-2)
À(990-2) Ê(692-2) Ô(346-2) ±(372) Ù(579)
Þ(870) â(687-1) I(173-2) ²(567) æ(822)
ç(159) ê(72) î(811)
C(a#ac'e# L&s'
í. =寄¼@&Çã李ëOˆ²o越^)¿¶ (19)
íí. !嶺J®Ÿ“A_蛇³Ý˜½(13)
ííí. è*·Æátl(7)
ív. (nªÑCcºVÕÚÄŵ´‡†?É閩ÎÏ(21) 
Lesson 32
ÙÑÖÚ¹,北ÑÖ長Û。 10
î里ïð¸,ñ山ò±ó。 15
–ǽ‘B,木蘭7h尙Ê郎。 20
開我東閣ù,¯我西閣床。 25
0123ô,41567。 30
VOCABULARY (1093-11)0)
1093. ´ M: |í |: shoku シý<, soku K< K: |euk = C: |ík
1094. 蘭 M: íán |: ran >ö K: ían ? C: íàahn
Here, thís character ís part of a píant name. Radícaí 140 (@).
882a. 木蘭 M: mù íán |: mokuran _くb6 K: mok ían A? C: muhk
Here, thís píant name ís used as a woman's name.
1095. ¹ M: zhù |: cho チý, hi B K: |u C C: chyúh
|Loom| shuttíe.
Radícaí 75 (木).
1096. ¿ M: 사 |: shí シ, omou L_う K: sa 사 C: sí
To thínk, to thínk of, to íong for.
In poetry thís word often has connotatíons of íongíng for one's absent spouse
or íover. Radícaí 61 (x).
1097. D M: yì |: oku ð<, omou L_う K: eok E C: yík
To thínk, to remember, to thínk of.
Radícaí 61 (x).
1098. Â M: zuó |: saku ^< K: |ak ” C: |ohk
Past |days|, yesterday.
Radícaí 72(F).
1099. Æ M: tíè (1); tíe (2) |: cho チýþ, |o ジýþ K: che G (1); cheop H
(2) C: típ
1. Record book, íegaí document, procíamatíon. *
2. To stíck, to adhere, to appíy. *
The second meaníng ís used íater on ín the poem, coupíet 27. Radícaí 50 (巾).
121a. –Ç M: kè hán |: kakan 556 K: ga han -I C: hak hòhn
"Khan" (northern tríbaí ruíer). |sínícízatíon|
Note that 木蘭 ís íívíng under one of the “northern" non-Chínese dynastíes
that occupíed the Yeííow Ríver píaín from the fourth to the síxth centuríes.
The character Ç (whích ííteraííy means “sweat," “perspíratíon")ís used here
ín the second tone ín the sínícízatíon of the term.
1100. È M: díán |: ten eö K: |eom J C: dím
Speck, dot; to check, to count; to seíect, to choose.
Radícaí 203 (é).
1101. Ê M: shu |: sho シý, fumí Kÿ, kaku 5く K: seo L C: syu
Letter, book, document; caííígraphy; to wríte caííígraphy.
Radícaí 73 (•).
174a. ÅÊ M: |un shu |: gunsho Š6H' K: gun seo ML C: gwan syu
Mííítary conscríptíon íísts.
1102. Ë M: |uàn |: ken Pö, kan ˆö, maki NU K: gwon O C: gyún
Scroíí; chapter (ín a tradítíonaííy arranged book).
Radícaí 26 (P).
1103. Ì M: yé |: yí û, jii &=, jijii &&= K: ya 야 C: yèh
Father |ínformaí|; master, eíder.
Radícaí 88 (|).
1104. Í M: a |: a Q K: a R C: a
|Coííoquíaí prefíx partícíe used to desígnate affectíon; often affíxed to kínshíp
terms an personaí names.|
Radícaí 170 (").
1105. Î M: ér |: |í ジ, ní G, ko K: a R C: yìh
Son, chííd.
Radícaí 10 (S).
1106. Ò M: an |: an Qö, kura くb K: an T C: on
Radícaí 177 (U).
1107. Ô M: tì |: taí Aû, teí eû, kaeru 5jM, kawaru 5>M K: ch Ge
C: taí
To repíace, to exchange.
Radícaí 72(•).
1108. Ö M: máí |: baí Vû, kau 5う K: mae W C: máaíh
To buy.
Radícaí 154 (X).
1109. Ø M: |ían |: sen nö K: cheon Y C: |ín
Saddíe bíanket.
Thís type of bíanket was píaced underneath the saddíe to prevent ít from
chafíng the horse's back. Radícaí 177 (U).
1110. Z M: pèí |: hí F, kutsuwa くつ> K: bí J C: beí
Reíns, horse bít.
Radícaí 159 ([).
1111. Û M: bían |: ben €ö, muchi v( K: pyeon \ C: bín
Horse whíp, rídíng crop.
Radícaí 177 (U).
1112. Ý M: níáng |: |o ジýþ, musume v2- K: nang ], íang ^ C:
Mother |ínformaí, coííoquíaí|; gírí, woman.
Radícaí 38 (E).
1113. Þ M: mù |: bo [, kure くu, kureru くuM K: mo \ C: mouh
Dusk, twíííght; to grow íate; íate.
Radícaí 72 (•).
582a. àá M: huáng hé |: koga う• K: hwang ha _` C: wòhng hòh
The Yeííow Ríver.
1114. â M: bían |: hen §ö, atari QI), hotori aと) K: byeon b C:
Síde; besíde.
Radícaí 162 (O).
1115. ã M: huàn |: kan ˆö, yobu ‚c K: hwan d C: wuhn
To caíí to, to summon.
Radícaí 30 (`).
1116. ä M: dàn |: tan Aö, dan ダö, tadashi IeH K: dan f C: daahn
1. Oníy. *
2. But, however.
The fírst meaníng ís more typícaí of ííterary Chínese, but the second meaníng
can be found as weíí, especíaííy ín more coííoquíaí wrítíng. Radícaí 9 (<).
1117. æ M: míng |: meí gû, naku 7く, naru 7M K: myeong h C:
To síng, to chírp, to make noíse, to ríng.
As you can see from the radícaí, thís character orígínaííy referred to the
noíses made by bírds, but ít can appíy to anythíng that makes noíse. Radícaí
196 (i).
1118. ç M: |íàn |: sen nö K: cheon Y C: chín
To spíash; |descríptíve of water spíashíng|.
Radícaí 85 (o).
1119. é M: heí |: koku Œ<, kuro くj K: heuk k C: hak
Radícaí 203 (é).
1119a. é山 M: heí shan |: kokuzan くl6 K: heuk san km C: hak
Mt. Bíack.
Thís mountaín ís íocated aíong what was Chína's northeastern frontíer.
1120. ê M: yan |: en òö K: yeon n C: yín
Name of a state ín modern Hebeí á北 provínce; ít aíso becomes the generaí
name forth area. Radícaí 86 (*).
1120a. ê山 M: yan shan |: enzan j6l6 K: yeon san nm C: yín saan
The Yan Mountaíns.
A range of mountaíns íocated aíong what was Chína's northeastern frontíer.
1121. í M: |íu |: shu K: chu o C: |au
|Onomatopoeíc for the noíses made by bírds, babíes, or anímaís.|
Thís term couíd mean the whínnyíng of enemy horses; however, ín poetry ít ís
appííed more often to the twítteríng of bírds, and hence, ít ís ííkeíy that here ít
refers to the seemíngíy "nonsensícaí" sounds of an aííen íanguage. Compare
the Engíísh word "barbarían," deríved from a term of the ancíent Greeks, who
thought foreígners made a “barbar" noíse when they taíked. Radícaí 30 (`).
1122. ñ M: guan |: kan ˆö, seki ™U K: gwan ‹ C: gwaan
Mountaín pass; customs barríer; border post.
Radícaí 169 (ù).
1123. ó M: feí |: hí F, tobu とc K: bí J C: feí
To fíy.
Radícaí 183 (ó).
1124. ô M: shuò |: saku ^< K: sak ` C: sok
Radícaí 74 (\).
1125. ö M: tuò |: taku A< K: tak p C: tok
Watchman s rattíe (sounded by the níght watch ín mííítary camps and ín
Radícaí 75 (木).
1126. ù M: zhào |: sho シýþ, terasu ib2 K: |o p C: |íu
To shíne |on|, to gíeam.
Radícaí 86 (*).
1127. ú M: tíè |: tetsu eq K: cheoí r C: tít
Iron, steeí
Radícaí 167 (t).
309b. qÅ M: |íang |un |: shogun H'うŠ6 K: |ang gun 장M C: |eung
Generaí; commandíng offícer.
6c. 天W M: tían zì |: tenshí i6H K: cheon |a Y„ C: tín |í
Emperor (íít., “son of Heaven “).
Note that here the author uses a standard Chínese term, ínstead of the
earííer non-Chínese –Ç.
548a. 明堂 M: míng táng |: meído -=›う K: myeong dang hs C:
mìhng tòhng
Haíí of Líght (specíaí audíence haíí erected ín ímperíaí paíaces).
1128. 策 M: cè |: saku ^< K: chaek t C: chaak
Pícn, scheme; to pían; bamboo sííps for wrítíng (hence, “to record," “to make
a rem of").
Radícaí 118 (u).
1129. 勳 M: xun |: kun <ö, ísao =1L K: hun v C: fan
Merít, honor, merítoríous achíevement.
Synonym: ‰ (613). Radícaí 19 (]).
1130. 轉 M: zhuán (1); zhuàn (2) |: ten eö K: |eon s C: |yún (1);
1. To turn, to revoíve.
2. Revoíutíon, spín, stage, íeveí, promotíon. *
Here, meaníng #2 (“stage," “íeveí," or “promotíon") ís beíng used ín a
technícaí mííítary sense. Radícaí 159 ([).
668a. 尙Ê M: shàng shu |: shosho H'うH' K: sang seo 상 C: seuhng
Secretaríat (hígh-íeveí government bureau).
Thís common bureaucratíc term uses meaníng 668-2 of 尙(“to esteem," “to
1131. 郎 M: íáng |: ro ¢þ K: íang ] C: íòhng
1. Lad, boy, young gentíeman. *
2. Chíef, head (used ín bureaucratíc títíes). *
Meaníng #2 occurs fírst, ín coupíet 20; meaníng #1 occurs ín coupíet 29.
Radícaí 163 (")
1132. 借 M: |íè |: sha シャ, shaka シャ<, karu 5M K: cha w C: |e
To borrow.
Radícaí 9 (<).
1133. 駝 M: tuó |: da ダ K: ta ¤ C: tòh
Radícaí 187 (Ó).
285a. 6x M: gù xíang |: kokyo U'う K: go hyang z’ C: gu heung
Home víííage; home.
Thís term empíoys meaníng 674-2 of 鄉.
1134. 郭 M: guo |: kaku ˆ<, kuruwa くM> K: gwak y C: gwok
Cíty waíís; outer cíty waíís.
Aíthough thís term ís used vagueíy to refer to cíty waíís ín generaí, ít
sometímes desígnates outer defense works, as opposed to - (375), the cíty
waíí proper. Radícaí 163 (z).
1135. 扶 M: fú |: fu 4, tasukeru I2{M K: bu | C: fùh
To support, to prop up, to aíd; to íean on.
Radícaí 64 («).
1136. 妝 M: zhuang |: sho シýþ, yosoou ‚‰Lう K: |ang 장 C: |ong
To put on makeup, to adorn oneseíf; adornment.
Thís word often appears as the character }. Radícaí 38 (E).
1137. 磨 M: mò |: mí õ, migaku ÿ•く, suru 2M, togu とŠ K: ma ~ C:
mòh (to whet); moh (whetstone)
To rub, to scrape, to poíísh, to sharpen, to whet; whetstone.
Radícaí 112 (²).
1138. 霍 M: huò |: kaku ˆ< K: gwak y C: fok
|Onomatopoetíc for the sharpeníng of a knífe.|
In ancíent Chínese, thís word wouíd have ended ín a gíottaí stop, producíng
somethíng cíoser to a “hwak" sound-much more appropríate than the
modern Mandarín pronuncíatíon. Radícaí 173 (•).
1139. 向 M: xíàng |: ko Œþ, kyo Cýþ, mukau N5う K: hyang ’ C:
To face; prevíousíy,recentíy.
For more on thís character and íts usage, see note on 鄉 (674). As thís
character can have both temporaí and spatíaí sígnífícance. Don't confuse ít
wíth 尙(668)-aíthough ííterary Chínese wríters sometímes díd. Radícaí 30
1140. 豬 M: zhu |: cho チý K: |eo C C: |yu
Radícaí 152 (€).
1141. 開 M: kaí |: kaí ˆû, hiraku Bb%く, aku Qく, etc. K: gae • C:
To open; open, opened.
Radícaí 169 (ù).
1142. 閣 M: gé |: kaku ˆ< K: gak ‚ C: gok
Room, chamber, pavíííon.
Radícaí 169 (ù).
1143. 床 M: chuáng |: sho シýþ, toko と K: sang 상 C: chòhng
Couch, bed, raísed daís.
Thís word aíso appears frequentíy as ƒ. Radícaí 53 (~).
1144. 脫 M: tuo |: datsu ダñ, nugu „Š K: taí … C: tyut
To remove, to take off, to shed; to escape |from a díffícuít sítuatíon|.
Radícaí 130 (†).
1145. M: páo |: ho ‡þ K: po ˆ C: pòuh
Long gown, íong robe.
Radícaí 145 (•).
1146. ! M: zháo |: chaku (“く, kiru UM K: chak ‰, |eo C C: |euk
To wear, to put on |cíothes|.
Radícaí 140 (Š).
1147. " M: |íù |: kyu C;þ, furu KM K: gu ‹ C: gauh
Oíd, prevíous, former. Radícaí 134 (Œ).
1148. $ M: chuang |: so Kþ, mado N› K: chang – C: cheung
Radícaí 116 (_).
1149. & M: bìn |: bín |ö K: bín • C: ban
Síde tresses, haír at the tempíes.
Radícaí 190 (Ž, “haír").
1150. ( M: hua |: ke P, ka ˆ, hana G7 K: hwa • C: fa
Radícaí 140 (••).
1150a. (à M: hua huáng |: kako 5う K: hwa hwang •_ C:fa wòhng
"Fíower yeííow".(a yeííow makeup powder spread on the forehead).
1151. ) M: kàn |: kan ˆö, miru ÿM K: gan ‘ C: hon
To see, to íook at.
Radícaí 109 (»).
1152. + M: bàn |: han ハö, ban Vö, tomonau と_7う K: ban ’ C:
Companíon; to accompany.
Radícaí 9 (<).
749a. *+ M: huò bàn |: kaban 5“6 K: hwa ban •’ C: fó buhn
Army chums; army squadron (a * consísted of fíve men).
1153. - M: huáng |: ko Œþ K: hwang _ C: wòhng
Afraíd, surprísed, astoníshed.
Radícaí 61 (x).
195a. E郎 M: nû íáng |: |oro &'jう K: nyeo rang ”^ C: neuíh íòhng
Young woman (possíbíy wíth a punníng sense: “femaíe boy").
1154. 0 M: xíóng |: yu 0þ, osu L2 K: ung • C: hùhng
Vírííe, mascuííne; maíe (of a specíes).
Radícaí 172 (–).
1155. 1 M: tù |: to ト, usagi う18 K: to 토 C: tou
Rabbít, hare.
Radícaí 10 (S).
1156. 2 M: |íáo |: kyaku Cャ<, ashi QH K: gak ‚ C: geuk
Foot, íeg.
Radícaí 130 (†).
1157. 3 M: pu |: boku [<, utsu うつ K: bak — C: pok
To beat, to stríke, to pound.
Here, thís character ís part of a bínome. Radícaí 64 («).
1157a. 3ô M: pu shuò |: bossaku ˜%1く K: bak sak —` C: pok sok
To íeap about (?).
Thís term seems to be a poetíc bínome, but íts meaníng ís uncíear. See 32.7
1158. 4 M: cí |: shí シ, mesu -2 K: |a „ C: chí
Femaíe (of a specíes).
Wherea s 0 (1154) ís quíte often used fíguratíveíy (boíd, strong, forcefuí,
etc.), 4 tends to be used oníy as a technícaí índícatíon of femaíe gender or
sex. Radícaí 172 (–).
1159. 6 M: mí |: meí gû, mayou ÿ“‚う K: mí ƒ C: màíh
To wander, to be íost.
Radícaí 162 (™).
1160. 8 M: shuang |: so Kþ K: ssang š C: seung
Paír, coupíe.
Radícaí 172 (–).
32.1. Note on styíe and metrícs: Thís baííad was composed sometíme
between the fourt and síxth centuríes, ín north Chína (then sufferíng under a
seríes of short-ííved and víoíent non-Chínese dynastíes). It ís wrítten ín earíy
Chínese baííad styíe, wíth foík-ííke repetítíon and díaíogue. Those who know
Mandarín wííí aíso notíce that ín thís íatest of íesson text we have studíed,
there appear many of the words (especíaííy coííoquíaí expressíons) that are
found even today ín ordínary speech.
Most Chínese poems are wrítten ín coupíets (wíth even íínes rhymíng), and
poems tend to be wrítten excíusíveíy ín íínes of eíther fíve characters or
seven characters. However, foík poetry sometímes varíes íts ííne íengths.
Whereas thís baííad ís basícaííy wrítten ín fíve-character íínes, there are extra
characters ín coupíets 12, 14, 20, 21, 24, 29, and 31.
The rhyme changes severaí tímes ín the course of thís poem; modern
Mandarín pronuncíatíon, though often dífferent from the ancíent Chínese, stííí
aííows one to more or íess hear the changes. Rhyme groups here faíí ínto the
foííowíng coupíets: 1-4, 5-6, 7-8, 9-12, 13-14, 15-17, 18-29, and 30-31.
32.2. ¾E¾‘¿(coupíet 3): The fíexíbíííty of the character E íeads to some
ambíguíty of meaníng here and ín foííowíng íínes. Here, ít suggests some
observer addressíng 木蘭: “I ask you, gírí, ís there somethíng/someone you're
thínkíng of?" Thís possíbíííty ís made more ííkeíy by the occasíonaí
substítutíon of E for the character Ó (525).
Sínce ¿ can mean “to íong for" as weíí as “to thínk about" (especíaííy ín
poetry), ít ís ííkeíy that the speaker ís askíng 木蘭 íf she ís thínkíng of an
absent íover. (Other baííads of thís era descríbe íoneíy women thínkíng of
theír absent íovers or husbands as they work over theír íooms).
32.3. ËË有Ìy(coupíet 6): Redupíícatíon of a noun (especíaííy ín poetry) ís
used to emphasíze íncíusívíty: “Every síngíe scroíí..." Sínce every famííy was
requíred to contríbute an abíe-bodíed man to the army, there ís no one ín 木
蘭's famííy who can go except her father.
32.4. 策勳十G轉(coupíet 19): “Her recorded merít |showed| tweíve degrees."
Thís refers to merítoríous deeds that resuíted ín promotíon-ín the course of
the war, 木蘭 has been promoted tweíve tímes. Note aíso that 強 ís used here
ín an earíy coííoquíaí sense, meaníng “over," “and more." Less coííoquíaí
ííterary Chínese wouíd have used " (301) ínstead.
32.5.木蘭7h...(coupíets 20-21): These íínes are 木蘭's speech to the –Ç.
Note the ínsíde |oke wíth the reader ín the íast ííne: “To see me, your son/íad
32.6. 開我東閣ù(coupíet 25): Aíthough the foík styíe ís often very síoppy ín the
way ít uses pronouns, the use of 我 here suggests that 木蘭 ís speakíng now
(and ít ís ííkeíy that she ís speakíng untíí the end of the poem).
32.7. 0123ô...(coupíets 30-31): Here, we have reference to some bít of
rabbít íore that ís no íonger known. The maín poínt ís obvíous, though:
Whereas those who know rabbíts weíí may be abíe to detect the dífference ín
the sexes, when they're runníng together ín the fíeíds, no one can teíí the
maíe from the femaíe.
Voca!"a#$ %&n's
µ(187-1) ·(793) ¸(848-1 and 848-3) Q(545-1) Ã(282)
Å(174) Ñ(522) ¹(496-2) Â(625-3) Õ(854-1)
×(245) ä(590) å(222) ë(925) ì(611-1)
ï(984) ð(756-2) ò(944-3) O(1049) t(583-1)
÷(901) ø(403) ýþ(633a, L17) æ(822) 明(548-5)
^(1051) 還(198) #(833) 理(44) %(914)
½(1076) 5(647) ›(777) :(354) ô(869)
C(a#ac'e# L&s'
í. äÎË向¿ÞÊùê策"(!轉6開ñ0óæ(20)
íí. 借勳床À扶Âô)脫蘭ÖÚâ郎郭閣Í48Û&éÈ(23)
ííí. +1í妝$ú霍Ò(8)
ív. ³ãÝÆ-3Ô¹öçÌ磨2豬Ø駝(17)
Unit 6
Lessons 33—40
Zhuangzi: The "Autumn Waters"
The Zhuāngzǐ 莊子 is attributed to a philosopher of the fourth century B..!.
and his disciples. "t is a #uch longer $or% than the 孟子. The current te&t is
di'ided into three parts( the 內篇 )*inner chapters+,- se'en in nu#ber. the 外
篇 )*outer chapters+,- fifteen in nu#ber. and the 雜篇 )/#iscellaneous
chapters+,- ele'en in nu#ber. 0enerally spea%ing- the /inner chapters/ are
said to be by 莊子 hi#self- the outer chapters are by his *school-+ and the
#iscellaneous chapters are frag#ents fro# 'arious sources that so#eho$
found their $ay into the $or%. 1o$e'er- the real circu#stances of the
co#pilation of this $or% are #uch #ore co#plicated2the te&t see#s to ha'e
been a du#ping ground for all sorts of philosophical ideas that $ere 'aguely
related to those of 莊子. 3e $ill be reading the *4utu#n 3aters+秋水 chapter-
$hich is the se'enteenth and hence- one of the /outer/ chapters. 4lthough
probably not by 莊子 hi#self- it is $ritten in the style of the *inner chapters+
and is one of the #ost ad#ired parts of the boo%.
The style of the 莊子 is difficult. the author)s, en5oy playing $ith the la$s of
classical synta&- engaging in parado&- and generally $riting in a lo6uacious
#anner that is probably #eant to i#itate real speech. "f " $ere to $rite a
thorough co##entary on our lessons- " $ould probably end up translating the
te&ts line by line. The best things to do $hen approaching the 莊子is to %eep
the rules of gra##ar in your head but don7t follo$ the# rigidly- don7t be put
off by particles that see# to be there for no good reason- and loo% first for
the o'erall shape of the sentence and the argu#ent as clues to the #eaning.
Lesson 33
The dialogue bet$een the 9i'er !arl and 9uo of the :orthern ;ea #a%es up
the first t$o<thirds of the chapter- and the first four lessons of this unit. The
argu#ent is sophisticated and rather difficult to follo$. an !nglish language
su##ary of it #ay be found after Lesson 3=.
3>0c. 莊子 ?( zhuāng zǐ @( sAshi ÒÓÔ B( 5ang5a ÕÖ ( 5Ang 5C
Zhuangzi )the philosopher,.
88=8. 川 ?( chuān @( sen ×Ø- %a$a ÙÚ B( cheon Û ( chyDn
9adical 4E )川,.
88=F. 涇 ?( 5Gng @( %ei ÜÝ- %yA Þßà B( gyeong á ( gGng
To flo$ $ithout obstruction. unobstructed current.
9adical H> )水,
88=3. 涘 ?( sI @( shi â B( sa ã ( 5ih
9adical H> )水,.
88=4. 渚 ?( zhJ @( sho âß- nagisa äåæ B( 5eo ç ( 5yK
"slet- sandbar.
9adical H> )水,.
88=>. 崖 ?( yL @( gai èÝ- gake éê B( ae ë ( ngMaih
liff- high ban%. $all. li#it- border- boundary.
9adical 4= )¢,.
88==. 辯 ?( biMn @( ben ìØ- wakimaeru Úíîïð B( byeon ñ ( bihn
To distinguish- to #a%e out. debate- discussion.
This character is often used interchangeably $ith ò)80F0,. The presence of
the ó ele#ent here indicates that this $ord is used #ore regularly to #ean
*to #a%e distinctions in speech+—that is- *to argue-+ *to debate.+ 9adical
8=0 )ô,.
H>Hc. 河" ?( hN bO @( %aha%u Ùõö B( ha bae% ÷ø ( hPh baa%
*9i'er !arQ+ )god of the Rello$ 9i'er,.
88=E. : ?( &uLn @( sen ×Ø- megurasu ùúûü B( seon ý ( syShn
To spin- to turn- to re'ol'e.
9adical E0 )k,.
3H8a. 5< ?( #iMn #S @( #en#o%u ùþÿö B( #yeon #o% 면목 (
#ihn #uh%
88=H. > ?( yLng @( yA ヨà B( yang 양 ( yUuhng
Vcean- sea- 'ast stretch of $ater.
9adical H> )水,.
WH8a. EF ?( yX yJ @( yago やご B( ya eo 야어 ( yNh yKh
9ustic saying- pro'erb.
F0=d. "Z ?( bO yC @( ha%ui õöい B( bae% i ø ( baa% yIh
4 recluse $ho refused to ser'e the 周 dynasty because he re#ained loyal to
the 商. he $as often ad#ired by onfucians. 1e $ent to li'e as a her#it in the
#ountains- $here he e'entually star'ed to death.
88=W. a ?( dJ @( to ト- tsu ツ- #iru みð B( do 도 ( dOu
To obser'e- to gaze at.
9adical 80W )<,.
88E0. o ?( $ā @( a ア- kaeru Ùïð- kawazu ÙÚず B( $a 와 ( $ā
9adical 84F )虫,.
88E8. q ?( 5D @( %A コà- kakawaru ÙÙÚð B( gu 구 ( %Yui
To restrain,to restrict,to li#it. to hold to stubbornly.
9adical =4 )手,.
88EF. r ?( &D @( %yo Þß- %o コ B( heo 허 ( hYui
8. !#pty. Z
F. Locality,place of residence. Z
1ere- the second #eaning is i#plied )r is substituted for 墟,. The first
#eaning occurs in line 80. 9adical 848 )虍,.
88E3. t ?( chOng @( chū チュà- #ushi むÔ B( chung 충 ( chShng
"nsect- bug.
This character is often used interchangeably $ith the radical alone )虫,.
9adical 84F )虫,.
88E4. u ?( bGng @( hyA Þßà- kōri こお B( bing ! ( bGng
9adical 8>)",.
88E>. v ?( dJ @( to%u ト#- atsushi $%Ô B( do% & ( dD%
8. To restrict- to ha#per. Z
F. Large- substantial,generous.
3. ;erious.
9adical 88H )',.
88E=. w ?( 6D @( %yo%u Þß#- magaru îéð- mageru î(ð B( go% )
( %D%
ur'ed. cra#ped,one<sided. $rongdoing- /croo%ed,,beha'ior.
9adical E3 )B,.
88EE. y ?( shS @( so%u *#- tabaneru +,-ð- tsukaneru %Ù-ð B( so%
. ( chD%
To tie up- to bind.
9adical E> )¡,.
88EH. € ?( ch[u @( shD âュà- minikui み/öい B( chu 0 ( chLu
\gly- unsightly- disgraceful. inferiority.
9adical 8=4 )1,.
88EW. ˆ ?( yCng @( ei 2Ý- michiru み3ð- mitsuru み%ð B( yeong 4 (
To fill
9adical 80H )5,.
88H0. ‰ ?( $Xi @( bi 6- o お B( #i 7 ( #Nih
1ere- this character is part of a place<na#e. 9adical 44 )8,.
88Hoa. ‰Š ?( $Xi l] @( biryo 9: B( #i lyeo 7; ( #Nih lUuih
The 3Xil^ roc%.
4 #ythical roc% $here $ater drains out of the ocean.
88H8. ’ ?( 5iāng @( %A コà B( gang < ( gAng
9i'er )the southern ter#,. the Rangtze 9i'er.
"f a $riter $ants to be #ore specific- he $ill use i’ to designate the
Rangtze. 9adical H> )水,.
88HF. “ ?( liLng @( ryA =ßà- hakaru õÙð B( lyang > ( lUuhng
To #easure.
9adical 8== )?,.
88H3. — ?( bǐ )8,. bI )F, @( hi @- kabau Ù,Ó- kuraberu öûAð B( bi B
( bNi )8,. bei )F,
8. To co#pare.Z
F. To protect- to lodge )used for C,.Z
The second #eaning is used here. the first #eaning occurs in line 8>. 9adical
H8 )—,.
8>>c. ¦' ?( &G yǐ @( nanzo motte äþDÿEF B( hae i GH ( hMih yCh
1o$. _6uestion phrase`
This ter# has the sa#e #eaning as †'.o#pare $ith ¦+)8>>a- Lesson >,
and ¦I )8>>b- Lesson E,.
88H4. ª ?( lXi @( rai JÝ B( noe K ( leuih
aile of roc%s. 9adical 88F ),.
88H4a. ª« ?( lXi %Ang @( rai%D ûいöÓ B( noe gong KL ( leuih hDng
4nthill- s#all hole.
88H>. ° ?( tC @( tei MÝ B( 5e N ( tMih
Tare )a %ind of $ild grass that produces an edible grain,. 9adical 88> )O,.
88H=. ² ?( cāng @( sA- %ura B( chang P ( chAng
;torehouse- granary. 9adical W )µ,.
88HE. º ?( zhAu @( shD âュà B( 5u Q ( 5āu
aro'ince- district.
9adical 4E )川,.
43oa. ¹º ?( 5iJ zhAu @( %yDshD íRÓÔRÓ B( gu 5u 구Q ( gLu 5āu
The :ine aro'inces )i.e.- all of hina,.
88HH. ¿ ?( zhAu @( shD âュà- fune S- B( 5u Q ( 5āu
9adical 83E )¿,.
88HW. Á ?( tAng @( tsu ツ- tsūjiru %ÓTð- tōru Uおð- etc. B( tong V (
8. To pass through- to ha'e access to- to co##unicate $ith. Z
F. To be successful. success.
3. \nity.
9adical 8=F )W,.
88W0. Â ?( hLo @( gA Xà B( ho Y ( hPuh
8. 1air.Z
F. ?artial- bra'e- heroic.
?eaning b8- used here- is an error for Z )W4H,. 9adical 8>F )[,.
88W8. Æ ?( dI @( tei MÝ B( 5e N ( dai
ceity. supre#e deity. e#peror.
"n the pre<i#perial period- this character could be applied to ancient sagely
rulers )see ÅÆ belo$,. 1o$e'er- it did not beco#e a set ter# for an earthly
ruler until the establish#ent of the \ e#pire. 9adical >0 )],.
HFEb. ÅÆ ?( $J dI @( gotei ご+い B( o 5e ^N ( dgh dai
The Ti'e !#perors.
Ti'e legendary rulers $ho are credited as the founders of ci'ilization. The list
'aries depending on the authority citing the group- but Rao _ and ;hun `
are al$ays included.
F=0a. ÈÉ ?( sān $Lng @( san7A æþおÓ B( sa# $ang ab ( sāa#
The Three Bings.
The founders of the s- 商- and 周 dynasties.
88WF. Í ?( rUn @( 5in cØ- nin dØ- makasu îÙü- makaseru îÙeð B(
i#f ( yah#
9esponsible. to ta%e responsibility. to entrust. to hold an office. duty- tas%.
9adical W )µ,.
88W3. Î ?( lLo @( rA gà B( no h ( lPuh
To toil at- to #a%e an effort.
9adical 8W )i,.
88W4. Ñ ?( bO @( ha%u j#- ba%u k# B( ba% l ( bo%
Learned- broad in learning.
9adical F4 )m,.
33.8 .涇流之大,兩涘渚崖之間不辯牛馬 )l. 8,( The first phrase is a topic for
discussion( *4s for the greatness of the unobstructed flo$.+ The second
phrase describes the greatness- so you #ay $ant to add so#ething li%e *it
$as such thate+ or /it $as so great thate.+ 兩涘渚崖之間 is a place<topic. the
style is 'erbose here and gi'es a good e&a#ple of the style of the 莊子·it
lo'es to pile $ords on top of one another. "f one had to co#e up $ith a literal
translation- one #ight say( /"n bet$een the sandbars and cliffs of the t$o
ban%s./ This is an elaborate $ay of saying /fro# either side of the ri'er./ The
point of the entire sentence is that the floods $ere great enough to e&pand
the ban%s of the ri'er considerably on either side- so that if you $ere on one
side of the ri'er loo%ing to the opposite ban%- you $ould not be able to tell a
horse fro# a co$.
33.F. '()之*+,-. )l. F,( /1e too% all the beauty of the $orld to be
e&clusi'ely in hi#self-/ that is- he thought he $as the only #ar'elous thing in
the $orld.
33.3. 於!)l. 3,( 4 good e&a#ple of the nonspecific )e'en chatty, use of
particles in the 莊子. ! ser'es no real purpose here other than as a 'ague
sentence pauser- perhaps reflecting so#e 6uality of oral speech.P is also
used fre6uently in this $ay.
33.4. :;5<)l. 3,( The use of : here is a little puzzling- since it usually
#eans /to turn-/ /to re'ol'e./ :or#ally this phrase should #ean /he turned
his face-/ but the ri'er god is already loo%ing out to sea. "t could possibly
#ean /to turn his face fro# side to side./ 4. . 0raha# thin%s that : #eans
/to scre$ up the face-/ that is- to ha'e an e&pression of irritation or disgust-
but " cannot disco'er any precedent for this interpretation.
33.>. @)l.3,( here is a proper na#e- the na#e of a sea god. Throughout this
section- he is referred to as 34@- /9uo of the :orthern ;ea./
33.=. IJ百'+K.@L)l. 4,( The final L here is probably a 'ague topic
#ar%er- setting off the end of the pro'erb )alternati'ely- the pro'erb could
si#ply be an inco#plete sentence- and L could only #ean *a person
$hoe+,. The phrase di'ides into t$o parts( IJ百 #eans *to hear the 3ay a
hundred _ti#es`.+ The second part co##ences $ith the 'erb '+- *to
consider-+ *to belie'e.+ K.@ is an idio#atic in'ersion of K@Œ- *no one is
as good as hi#self7 )/hi#self+ here refers bac% to the original sub5ect of the
sentence,. ;ince K is a negati'e $ord- it replaces
in the e&pression 不@- *not as good as./ The $hole phrase can be translated
as follo$s( /"f one hears the 3ay a hundred ti#es- he then belie'es that no
one is as good as hi#self./ The ri'er god uses this e&pression to describe a
person $ho has so#e #inor acco#plish#ent but nonetheless thin%s hi#self
superior to e'eryone around hi#.
33.E. NTIUVW之I0Y"Z之[L)ll. 4<>,( /" ha'e heard of people )L, $ho
belittled the fa#e of onfucius and scorned the righteousness of "Z./ I
could also #ean /learning-/ /%no$ledge/ )i.e.- $hat one hears,.
33.H. 至於子之e)l. >,( e here can be interpreted in the specialized sense of
*gate of a teacher-+ so that 至於e can #ean *beco#e the disciple of.+
33.W. 7j於大k之l )l. =,( :otice that the author inserts an unnecessary 7
passi'e #ar%er in order to e#phasize the passi'e structure.
33.80. {•p‚F大ƒ )ll. H<W,( The passi'e p $ith the co'erb
#a%es this phrase a little difficult to translate coherently. Literally- it says-
*Rou $ill be possible $ith _#e` to spea% of the 0reat arinciple-/ that is- *" can
no$ spea% of the 0reat arinciple $ith you.+ 9e'ie$ E.3 for this structure.
33.88. 不•†時‡0不ˆ )8. W,( The phrase
• is fre6uently used in literary hinese to e#phasize the inability to %no$-
and so#eti#es to gi'e the idea of *ne'er+ *" don7t %no$ $hen _the process of
ri'ers flo$ing into the sea` e'er stops _i.e.- *the process ne'er stops+`- and
yet the ocean ne'er fills up./
33.8F. •秋不Ž,水•不• )l. 80,( *"t does not change in spring or autu#n- and
it does not %no$ flood or drought.+ "n both phrases- antony# co#pounds )•
秋-水•, are placed in the front. The ocean is so 'ast that seasonal changes in
$ater flo$ and te#porary disasters ha'e no effect on it.
33.83. •;‘’河之流不p+“” )ll. 80<88,( The first part is a topic( *4s for this
its surpassing of the currents of the Rangtze and Rello$ 9i'ers/ )note the
stylistic redundancy of • and ;,. p+ is gra##atically functioning li%e p‚ in
line H( *_the flo$` is possible to recei'e the benefit of.+ "n better !nglish( *The
degree to $hich it surpasses the currents of the Rangtze and Rello$ 9i'ers
cannot be calculated.+
33.84. 0\•T'• %–L )l. "",( The no#inalizing L here indicates that this is
the first part of a /conse6uence<cause/ sentence( *The reason $hy " ha'e
ne'er #agnified #yself because of this )'•, is becausee.+ The reason
e&tends to the P in line 8F.
33.8>. %')l. "",( 1ere- ' is acting as a full 'erb e6ui'alent to '+. Thus- the
$hole phrase #eans *" ta%e #yself to bee.+
33.8=. 7U)l. "F,( 1ere- 7 is a passi'e #ar%er- and U is the transiti'e 'erb *to
belittle-+ to consider s#all. The t$o $ords function as a noun )li%e 7UL,-
*those things that are considered s#all.+
33.8E. ³´之”O之„)l. 84,( *3hen $e gi'e a na#e to the nu#ber of things-
$e call the# 7ten thousand.7+ This is reference to the co##on idio# „´
used to describe all the pheno#ena in the $orld.
33.8H. µ¸¹º,»¼之½¾,¿À之½,µ¶·!)ll. 84<8>,( The logic here is a
little strange- but the o'erall point is clear. ¸ here is synony#ous $ith n-
though it7s probably being used as a 'erb( /aeople cro$d the :ine aro'inces./
The rest- then- is a co##ent that out of all the places that are habitable-
people see# to occupy only one of the#( /as for the places $here edible
grains gro$- and as for the places $here boats and carriages can reach-
people occupy only one of the#./ Vne possible reading is that the author
tends to thin% of µ as synony#ous $ith /people $ho belong to our cultural
$orld-/ /ci'ilized #en./ Thus- hina is 5ust one s#all part of the larger
habitable $orld.
33.8W .,•h)l. 8=,( That is- all of these things are #erelyfe&clusi'ely
concerned $ith the hu#an $orld )and conse6uently of no #ore significance
than a hair on a horse,.
33<F0. "ZÏ之'+Ð)l. "E,( *"Z refused it _i.e.- the hu#an $orld` in order to
#a%e his fa#e.+ 莊子 here #eans that e'en though "Z see#ingly re5ected
the hu#an $orld- because the action of re5ection only had significance $ithin
the conte&t of hu#an 'alues- it $as #erely a $ay of #a%ing a reputation for
hi#self in that sa#e hu#an $orld—thus he $as 5ust as #uch a part of the
hu#an $orld as onfucius.
33.F8. {?之%–於水¤)88. 8E<8H,( /you 5ust no$ are considering yourself
great in relation to $aterfri'ersg/ :ote that the no#inalizing 之 particle
co#es after the ad'erb. #ore properly the phrase should read {之?%–.
Vo(a)u*ar+ ,ints
Chara(ter List
i. ÍÎÑ川ºÆw—’ˆ¿rÁ)83,
ii. ²u‰崖:y渚atÂ辯€“)83,
iii. q>v)3,
i'. 涇涘ª°o)>,
Lesson 3#
G˜LP。p˜L,”之½不‹qP_ 不p“L,”之½不‹cP。p'ó•L,´之
¹不 •,大µp.。Mºq之至PQm
88W>. x ?( zhUng @( shA âßà- akashi $ÙÔ B( 5eung » ( 5ing
To 'erify. assured. proof.
9adical 84W )ó,.
88W=. y ?( &iMng @( %A コà- %yA Þßà B( hyang ¼ ( heung
To #a%e clear.
9adical EF)½,.
88WE. z ?( yLo @( yA ヨà- harukani õðÙ/ B( yo ¾ ( yIuh
Tar- distant _in ti#e or space`.
9adical 8=F )¿,.
88WH. { ?( #Un @( #on ÀØ- modaeru ÿÁïð B( #in  ( #uhn
Bored- depressed- frustrated- $orried.
9adical =8 )Ã,.
88WW. | ?( duO @( tatsu Äツ- tachi Äチ- hirou ÅÆÓ B( tal Ç ( 5yut
To pluc%- to pic% up.
1ere- this $ord is directed to$ard so#ething so close in ti#e that one can
al#ost *pic% it up.+ 9adical =4 )手,.
8F00. È ?( 6I @( %i Þ- tsumadatsu %îæ% B( gi É ( %Nih
To stand on tiptoes _in anticipation`.
9adical 8>E )Œ,.
8F08. ‚ ?( thn @( tan ÄØ B( tan Ê ( tLan
Le'el- un'arying.
9adical 3F )Ë,.
8F08a. ‚ƒ ?( thn tK @( tanto B( tan do Ê ( tLan tPuh
The le'el road )#etaphorical for a cal# life,.
8F0F. ˆ ?( yS @( i%i ÝÞ B( yeo% Ì ( $ih%
;cope- real#.
9adical 3F )Ë,.
8F03. • ?( &I @( sai ÍÝ- hosoi ÎÒい- komakai こîÙい B( se Ï ( sai
Tiny- slender.
9adical 8F0 )Ð,.
8F04. Ž ?( nC @( gei ÑÝ- kagiri Ùå B( ye Ò ( ngMih
To distinguish. distinction- border- point of de#arcation.
9adical W )µ,.
8F0>. ” ?( 6Cng @( 5A cßà B( 5eong Ó ( chIhng
8. onditions- circu#stances. Z
F. Teelings- e#otions- passions.
The first #eaning )used here, is #ore co##on in philosophical $riting- but in
general #eaning bF is #ore co##on. 9adical =8 )Ã,.
8F0=. • ?( $Yi @( bi 6- #i Ô B( #i 7 ( #Uih
Tiny. too s#all to see. subtle- #ysterious.
9adical =0 )Õ,.
8F0E. Ö ?( fK @( hA ×à- fu Ø- bu Ù B( bu Ú ( fD
!nor#ous- gigantic.
9adical 3F )Ë,.
8F0H. — ?( yGn @( in ÝØ B( eun Û ( yān
8. 0reat- large- flourishing. Z
F. The ;hang 商 dynasty )alternati'e na#e,.
9adical EW )Ü,.
8F0W. › ?( cD @( so * B( 5o Ý ( yGn
8. oarse- poor 6uality.
F. Large- i##ense. Z
The second #eaning is relati'ely rare- though it is the one used in this te&t.
9adical 88W )±,.
8F80. • ?( lSn @( ron gØ- ronjiru ÆþTð B( "on Þ ( leuhn
To discuss- to debate.
9adical 84W )ó,.
8F88. ¤ ?( 5iMn @( sen ×Ø- iyashii いやÔい- iyashimu いやÔむ B( cheon Û
( 5ihn
Baseborn- of lo$ social status. to despise- to consider base.
9adical 8>4 )ß,.
8F8F. ¥ ?( lI @( rei àÝ B( ye Ò ( daih
9adical 8E8 )á- *to reach to+,.
4=0a. e¥ ?( #Nn lI @( #onrei ÿþâい B( #un ye ãÒ ( #Shn daih
0ate%eeper- porter.
8F83. ¦ ?( huP @( %a ä B( h$a å ( fo
3ealth- goods.
9adical 8>4 )ß,.
8F84. ¬ ?( $D @( u à B( o ^ ( $D
cirty- polluted. sinful- corrupt.
9adical H> )水,.
8F8>. - ?( shD @( shu âュ- kotoni こU/ B( su æ ( sySh
cifferent- distinct. special- e&ceptional.
9adical EH )ç,.
8F8=. ± ?( nIng @( nei èÝ B( nyeong é ( nihng
To flatter.
9adical W )µ,.
888E. ² ?( chhn @( ten MØ- hetsurau ê%ûÓ B( cheo#ë ( chC#
To flatter.
9adical 84W )ó,.
8F8H. ³ ?( 5uN @( sha%u âì# B( 5a% í ( 5eu%
1igh station. noble title. official office.
9adical HE )î,.
8F8W. µ ?( 6uMn @( %an äØ- susumeru üüùð B( g$on ï ( hyun
To persuade. persuasion.
9adical 8W )i,.
8FF0. · ?( chǐ @( chi チ- haji õT- hajiru õTð B( chi ð ( chC
;ha#e. to be asha#ed.
9adical =8 )Ã,.
3H=a. ºq ?( yuY fUn @( ya%ubun やöñþ B( ya% bun òó ( yeu% fahn
To agree to one7s allotted fate.
34.8. \大(™0ŸZÃ )l. 8,( Throughout this lesson- note again the use of size
and 6uantity $ords in the putati'e sense( S- *to consider big+. Ÿ- *to
consider s#all+. * w to consider fe$finsignificant+. –)#ost i#portant of all,-
/to #a%e a big deal out of-/ /to consider significant./
34.F. s9pt)l. F,( /!ndings and beginnings ha'e no precedence-/ that is- it
is i#possible to guess $hen a process $ill begin or end si#ply by seeing ho$
for#er processes began and ended. t here has the #eaning of FH><F-
referring to past acti'ity or precedence.
34.3. t大•...)l. F,( This phrase introduces a series of phrases connected to
the pre'ious descriptions of things. 1ere- /0reat Bno$ledge/ )probably
related to the idea of /0reat ;cope/ 大k #entioned in the last lesson,
obser'es the $orld in se'eral $ays.
34.4. }於uv_tŸ0不w,大0不–,•“pc)ll. F<3,( " $ill guide you through
the first part so that you can see the pattern. /"t _0reat Bno$ledge` obser'es
both distant and near. conse6uently- though a thing be s#all it $ill not
consider it insignificant- and though a thing be great it $ill not consider it
significant. _thus` it %no$s that #easuring _things` has no ending./ The idea
here is that you can ne'er stop #easuring things- because #easuring is
based co#pletely on relati'e categories. for e&a#ple- so#ething #ay be big
one ti#e and then s#all the ne&t- depending on $hat you are co#paring it
34.>. ';至Ÿ‡c;至大之ˆ)8. =,( The spea%er has no$ s$itched o'er to
discussing a person $ho does not possess 大•( /4s for _one $ho` #a%es use
of )', _the standpoint of` the s#allest to see% to fatho# the real# of the
34.=. %•)l. E, is 'ague. !ither )8, he $ill be able to /obtain hi#self-/ that is-
understand hi#self. or- )F, he $ill be able to /get _things` for hi#self-/ that is-
figure out the #eaning of the $orld for hi#self.
34.E. •之•L‘BCD至’p˜,至大不p“。
)88. H<W,( The 9i'er !arl no$ puts for$ard a proposition( /Those in the $orld
$ho deliberate _i.e.- philosophers and the li%e` say that the s#allest thing has
no for#- and the biggest thing cannot be enco#passed./ )The author uses ’
here in a so#e$hat peculiar sense- to #ean /#inute-/ /tiny./, The ;ea. 0od
denies this proposition $ith an argu#ent that is difficult to #a%e out precisely
)the te&t #ay be corrupt,. 1ere is the ;ea 0od7s argu#ent put forth in the
follo$ing lines )based in part on 4. . 0raha#7s interpretation,(
8. "t is true that $hen you loo% at so#ething 'ery big fro# a s#all standpoint-
it #ay be too big to see. li%e$ise- if you loo% at so#ething 'ery s#all fro# a
big standpoint- _it #ay be too s#all to see. This is $hat $e #ean by the
ter#s ’ and – )there is no $ay to %no$ $hy the author uses this character
for the second ter# $hen later on he uses ›,.
F. 1o$e'er- these are relati'e ter#s. t˜™,•š之GP( *onse6uently- as
for the con'enience of #a%ing distinctions- this is _so#ething` possessed by
circu#stances-/ that is- #a%ing distinctions is so#ething $e do for our o$n
con'enience and can change as the situation changes. •š之GP is best read
as •š之½GP.
3. ?oreo'er- $hen $e use ter#s li%e ’ and ›- $e are tal%ing about things
that are still tied to physical ob5ects that $e can concei'e of in our #inds and
con'ey in $ords. $e relate the# to actual ob5ects that ha'e for# )G˜L,.
They #ay be too big or too s#all to see- but $e can still concei'e of the#.
4. 1o$e'er- if you are tal%ing about the /for#less/ p˜ and *that $hich
cannot be enco#passed/ 不p“- you are tal%ing about things that can no
longer be co#prehended by the hu#an #ind- not si#ply things that are 'ery
s#all or 'ery big. )"t is li%ely that the author here is tal%ing about the
infinitesi#al and the infinite.,
34.H. S%•6大L不, )ll. W<80,( *:o$ then- if you loo% at the big fro# the
point of 'ie$ of the tiny- then _the big thing $ill see#` to not end-/ that is-
so#eti#es things $ill see# to be infinite- but they do so only because one7s
perspecti'e #a%es the# appear that $ay.
34.W. p'ó•L )l. 8F,( 1ere- a passi'e p pattern is interrupted by a co'erb
and its ob5ect. 1ence- $e ha'e p•L- *a discussable thing+. p'ó•L- *a
discussable by #eans of $ords thing.+ The phrase p'žŸL has the sa#e
34.80. 不œ’›!)l. 83,( *Vne does not deter#ine categories of 'ery s#all or
'ery big in the#-/ that is- they ha'e transcended or gone beyond such finite
#easure#ents of size.œ )80W,- $hich tends to ha'e #eanings connected to
the idea of /appoint#ent/ or *set ti#e-/ here has a 'aguer sense of *to
deter#ine-+ *to appoint.+
34.88. t大µ之2...)ll. 83<84,7 This passage to the end of the chapter #ay
see# a non se6uitur. 3hat does a discussion of the beha'ior of the *0reat
?an/ ha'e to do $ith #etaphysical categories of size analyzed earlierg
onse6uently- so#e ha'e assu#ed that the rest of this lesson7s te&t has
been interpolated and ha'e re#o'ed it. 1o$e'er- if the author is atte#pting
to sho$ ho$ our #ental categories are con'entional and arbitrary- then he
can also clai# that our beha'ior in the $orld should not be based on absolute
and unchanging standards as $ell. 
This passage sets the pattern for the ne&t se'eral lines. Tirst- a type of
conduct is described- follo$ed by a phrase or phrases that suggest that the
/0reat ?an/ is not arrogant enough to brag of his o$n conduct or to conde#n
anyone $ho does the opposite. 1ence- $e ha'e /Tor this reason- as for the
conduct of the 0reat ?an- it does not issue forth _#anifest itself` in har#ing
others- but it does not #a%e #uch of bene'olence and %indness./
34.8F. ©!不ªµ,不–¼¤i,不¤«¬)l. 8>,( /3hen he $or%s at so#ething-
he does not borro$ anyone else7s _labor`. ho$e'er- he doesn7t #a%e a big
deal o'er the fact that he eats fro# his labor _i.e.- earns his food by $or%ing`-
and he doesn7t denigrate the greedy or corrupt./ "t is not clear ho$ this last
clause fits in. perhaps the author #eans th greedy and corrupt are adept at
#a%ing others do their $or% for the#. There is also another possibility( ;ince
this is the only ite# in the list that consists of three clauses rather than t$o-
there #ight originally ha'e been a phrase before 不¤«¬ that got left out at
so# stage in the copying of the te&t.
34.83. +-°n,不¤ô² )l. 8=,( /"f his beha'ior lies $ith follo$ing the cro$d
nonetheless he does not despise the flatterers./ "n ter#s of hinese rhetoric-
this probabl #eans that he is content to be a co##oner and yet does not
despise those $ho flatter th ruler in order to gain high status or office.
Vo(a)u*ar+ ,ints
Z)W4H, Ã)E0F, o)W>8, “)88HF, p)H3=<8,
r)803W<F, 9)HH4, w)>4=<8, ˆ)EEW, r)88EF<8,
&)4=, Ì)34, ƒ)>0=<F, „)40F<F, †)W,
‰)88>W, Š)4EE, W)W0E, •)H40, ’)HF=,
)F=3<8, ^)800<F, ™)WEF<3, š)=3=, œ)80W<8,
大µ)80>a- L8=, )EWE, ¡)F=>, ¢)3=W, §)W3>,
®)800F, ¯)>W><4, ˜)343<F, ´)HF3, ¶)EF8,
d)8>8<F, q)=3<F,
Chara(ter List
i. µ•·”-—•¤z)W,
ii. ¬³•¦)4,
iii. ±ˆ²¥)4,
i'. Ž‚õ{|ö›x})W,
Lesson 3-
8FF8. ú ?( chā )difference,. cG )une'en, @( shi â- sa Í B( cha 7 ( chā
)difference,. chG )une'en,
cifference- gap. une'en.
9adical 4H )8,.
8FFF. ü ?( 6iD @( %yD Þュà- %u #- o%a おÙ B( gu 구 ( yāu
9adical 8 )·,.
8FF8a. ú” ?( chā shJ @( sa no sD æ9üÓ B( cha sa% 7: ( chā sou
alculation )lit.- *counting+, of difference.
8FF3. 趣 ?( 6S @( shu âュ- omomuki おÿむí B( ch$i ; ( cheui
areference- bias- tendency. interesting- a#using- pleasant.
9adical 8>= )<,.
8FF4. _ ?( yLo @( gyA =ßà B( yo ¾ ( yIuh
!#peror Rao.
4 legendary sage<%ing of ancient ti#es. 9adical 3F )Ë,.
8FF>. 桀 ?( 5iN @( %etsu Üツ B( geol > ( giht
_Bing` @ie.
3ic%ed last ruler of the s dynasty. 9adical E> )¡,.
8FF=. 操 ?( cāo @( sA *à- ayatsuru $や%ð B( 5o Ý ( chAu
To grasp- to hold.
9adical =4 )手,.
8FF3a.趣操 ?( 6S cāo @( shu no sA ÔR9ÒÓ B( ch$i 5o ; ( cheui chAu
The selection )lit.- *grasping+, of preferences.
8FFE. ` ?( shSn @( shun âュØ B( sun ? ( seun
_!#peror` ;hun.
jirtuous successor to _. 9adical 83= )@,.
8FFH. 噲 ?( %uMi @( %ai äÝ B( %$ae A ( faai
Buai. _a proper na#e`
4 ruler of B. he surrendered the throne to 之 $ith disastrous results. ;ee 3>.E
belo$. 9adical 30 )C,.
8FFW. 武 ?( $J @( #u D- bu Ù B( #u E ( #Ouh
8. _Bing` 3u )'irtuous founder of the 周 dynasty,. Z
F. ?ilitary- #artial
?any $ould consider 武7s father- Bing 3en F- the true founder- but 武 $as
the leader $ho actually o'erthre$ the 商 dynasty. 9adical EE )‡,.
HWEa. 白公 ?( bO gAng @( ha%u%A õöこÓ B( bae% gong øL ( baah%
Lord Bo.
4 noble#an $ho re'olted against the Bing of G and $as defeated. :ote(
there is a tradition in ?andarin of reading the character 白 as bO $hen it is a
part of a na#e. consult F.E.
8F30. 麗 ?( lI @( rei àÝ- rai JÝ B( lyeo ; ( laih
8. Beautiful- lo'ely.
F. 9after.Z
This character is used here in #eaning bF,in $hich it substitutes for H.
9adical 8WH )I,.
8F38. 衝 ?( chAng @( shA âßà- tsuku %ö B( chung 충 ( chDng
To stri%e- to hit- to pound.
9adical 844 )2,.
8F3F. 窒 ?( zhI @( chitsu チツ B( 5il J ( 5aht
To stop up- to bloc%.
9adical 88= )穴,.
8F33. 騏 ?( 6C @( %i Þ B( gi É ( %Uih
car% blue horse.
1ere- this character is part of a horse7s na#e. 9adical 8HE )馬,.
8F33a. 騏驥 ?( 6C 5I @( %i%i íí B( gi gi ÉÉ ( %Uih %ei
ki5i. _a proper na#e`
This horse $as #entioned in Lesson E by an abbre'iated na#e )驥. F3=,. 1e
is also fa#ous for being one of the eight horses that Bing ?u K of the 周
e#ployed during his legendary tra'els to the 3est. 9adical 8HE )馬,.
8F34. 驊 ?( huL @( %a ä B( h$a å ( $Mh
)Ter# for a good horse,.
1ere- this character is used in the na#e of a horse. 9adical 8HE )馬,.
8F3>. 騮 ?( liK @( ryD =ュà B( lyu L ( lMuh
)Ter# for a good horse,.
1ere- this character is used in the na#e of a horse. 9adical 8HE )馬,.
8F34a. 驊騮 ?( huL liK @( %aryD ÙRÓ B( h$a ryu åL ( $Mh
1ualiu. _a proper na#e`
4nother of KÉls horses. 9adical 8HE )馬,.
8F3=. 捕 ?( bJ @( bu Ù- ho ×- toraeru Uûïð- toru Uð B( po M (
To catch- to apprehend.
9adical =4 )手,.
8F3E. 鼠 ?( shJ @( so *- nezumi -ずみ B( seo N ( syK
9at- #ouse.
9adical F0H )鼠,.
8F3H. 狸 ?( lC @( ri =- tanuki +Oí B( li P ( lUih
Though this character is used in the #odern hinese co#pound for *fo&+ Q狸
)so that so#e readers #ista%e it for such in this passage,- it here refers to the
hinese badger2an ani#al so#e$hat rese#bling the :orth 4#erican
raccoon in appearance and beha'ior. "t is a close relati'e of the @apanese
tanu%i- $hich is $ritten $ith the sa#e character. 9adical W4 )R,.
8F3W. S ?( shYng @( sei ×Ý- shA âßà B( seong T ( sāng
9adical W4 )R,.
8F40. 技 ?( 5I @( gi =- waza ÚU B( gi É ( geih
4rt- techni6ue.
9adical =4 )手,.
8F48. V ?( chG @( shi â B( chi ð ( chG
9adical 8W= )W,.
8F4F. ! ?( &iD @( %yu Xà B( hyu Y ( yāu
V! is a synony# co#pound. 9adical 8W= )W,.
8F43. # ?( cuA @( satsu Íツ- tsumamu %îむ B( ch$al Z ( chyut
To snatch.
9adical =4 )手,.
8F44. $ ?( zho @( sA *à- nomi 9み B( 5o Ý ( 5Ou
9adical 84F )虫,.
8F4>. & ?( chYn @( shin âØ- ikaru いÙð B( 5in [ ( chān
To open the eyes $ide. to glare. to be furious.
9adical 80W )<,.
8F4=. , ?( yK @( gu \- orokashii おÆÙÔい B( u ] ( ySh
Toolish- decei'ed- stupid.
9adical =8 )Ã,.
8F4E. - ?( $D @( fu Ø- bu Ù- shiiru Ôいð B( #u E ( #Puh
Talse. to be decepti'e.
9adical 84W )ó,.
8F4H. . ?( shMn )8,. chLn )F, @( sen ×Ø- zen ^Ø- yuzuru _ずð B( seon
ý ( sihn )8,. si# )F,
8. To abdicate. Z
F. To #editate. #editation.
?eaning bF is a sinicization of the ;ans%rit dhyana and does not occur until
the arri'al of Buddhis# in hina. 9adical 883 )`,.
8F4W. / ?( dMi @( tai ÄÝ B( dae a ( doih
8. 0eneration- era. reign- dynasty. Z
F. To trade- to e&change- to replace.
9adical W )µ,.
F=0b. È/ ?( sān dMi @( santai æþ+い B( sa# dae a ( sāa# doih
The Three cynasties.
This ter# refers to the s- 商- and 周 dynasties. o#pare it $ith ÈÉ)F=0a-
Lesson 33,- $hich refers to the founders of the Three cynasties.
8F>0. 0 ?( 5I @( %ei ÜÝ- tsugu %ú B( gye b ( gai
To continue- to inherit.
9adical 8F0 )Ð,.
8F>8. 2 ?( cuMn @( san ÍØ B( chan c ( saan
To usurp.
9adical 88H )',.
3>.8. @´之外,@´之內)l. 8,( 4lthough @ has the #eaning of *if+ here- $hen
the character is repeated li%e this in t$o contrasting phrases- it #eans
/$hether... or....+
3>.F. 'J}之...)l. F,( The follo$ing phrases are a little obscure. " $ill illustrate
their #eaning )in true 莊子 fashion, $ith a $hi#sical e&a#ple. The 3ay does
not see anything significant about sil'er$are- and it doesn7t pri'ilege %ni'es
o'er spoons- or for%s o'er %ni'es. The sil'er$are ite#s the#sel'es- ho$e'er-
tend to see the#sel'es as #ost i#portant( *3e spoons are far superior to
those stupid for%s./ 1o$e'er- the coo% )identified here as ®, 'alues each
ite# based on its utility2that is- hefshe does not consider a utensil to ha'e
any intrinsic 'alue( *This for% is good for stabbing- this %nife for cutting-/ and
so forth.
3>.3. û;½大0大之,f„´K不大 )l. 3,( The first of se'eral si#ilar phrases.
The general point to all of the# is this( "f you define a certain thing based on
a relati'e 6uality it possesses )and all 6ualities are relati'e,- then one #ight
agree )relati'ely spea%ing, that all things can be defined by that 6uality.
Literally- the sentence reads( *if you go by its that<$hich<is<considered<big
and consider it big _i.e.- if you use as your standard of 5udg#ent the 6uality in
it that is considered *big+`- then a#ong all the things in the $orld there is
nothing that is not big./
3>.4. ú”ah)l. >,( :otice that ú” is placed at the beginning of the phrase-
though it is the i#plied ob5ect of the 'erb a( *then as for the calculation of
difference- $e #ay see _it`.+ Best to translate this phrase as the passi'e( *the
calculation of difference is seen.+
3>.>. 'ý}之,û;½G0G之,f„´K不G )l. >,( *"f you obser'e it fro# the
point of 'ie$ of #erit- then if you go by the 6uality in it that possesses
_#erit` and consider it to ha'e _#erit`- then a#ong all the things of the $orld
there is nothing that does not possess _#erit`./ :ote that )8, the second G
#ust be ta%en as a putati'e 'erb #eaning *to consider _so#ething` to
possess-/ and )F, the pattern K不G 'iolates the general rule that G is
negated and replaced by p2he 'iolation here co#es about through the need
to #aintain parallelis# stylistically.
3>.=. •_桀之%$0ùd,f趣操ah )l. W,( *"f $e %no$ that _ and 桀
considered the#sel'es to be right and considered each other to be $rong-
then the selection of preferences is seen.+
3>.E. 昔L_`¨0Æ,之噲¨0絕 )ll. H<W,( _ and `- t$o of the greatest
legendary rulers of pri#ordial hina- are both said to ha'e abdicated their
thrones to the #ost talented person a'ailable- rather than to their o$n sons(
_ abdicated to `- $hereas ` abdicated to d- $ho ended the practice of
abdication by passing the throne to his o$n son )and thus beginning the s
dynasty,. These legends of abdication beca#e the focus of political debate in
hinese philosophy( 3as it best for the e#pire for rulers to choose talented
successors or to establish a #ore stable hereditary lineg This issue e#erged
later in the person of 之- a #inister of the state of B in the fourth century
B..!. 1e persuaded 噲- the ruler of B- to abdicate the throne in i#itation of
the ancient sage rulers- but the result $as anarchy rather than stability.
These t$o phrases are so#e$hat a$%$ard to translate cause of the
succinctness of the style. $riters $ill often use allusions in a 'ague $ay
because they assu#e they are #erely re#inding their readers of so#ething
they already %no$. Æ $ould be used as a 'erb here( /continued the rule of
e#perors./- 絕 si#ilarly refers to a /se'ering/ of coherent rule in B.
3>.H. ()pd,)*0pŠ¤§••(™之ƒ,„´之”LP )ll. 8F<83,( *co
you no doubt ta%e 7right7- as your teacher and consider m$rongl to be nothing-
and ta%e 7go'erning7 as your teacher and consider 7chaos7to be nothingg This
is not yet understanding the principles of hea'en and earth- and the
conditions of all the things of the $orld./
3>.W. ;不p2•h)8. i4,( /"ts i#practicability _lit.- its not<able<to<be<
practiced, is clear.,,
3>.80. $RF0不+,d,f-P)ll. 84<8>,( *"f it is thus _and yet` #oreo'er you
spea% _in this #anner` and do not gi'e it up- then if you are not foolish you
are being decepti'e./
3>.88. ÆÉ-.,È/çe0 )l. 8>,( This is another phrase that is a$%$ard to
translate. By saying -. the author doesn7t #ean that there are different
kinds of abdications- but rather that the appropriateness of abdication
#anifests itself differently $ith different rulers. The sa#e use applies to 0 as
$ell- $hich here refers to the inheritance of the throne by fa#ily #e#bers
after the death of the ruler.
Vo(a)u*ar+ ,ints
÷)W0=<8, Ž)80F4, ø)H8, ¤)8F88, °)88H>,
±)80=W, a)88=W, ý)=83, d)8>8<F, 昔)80F3,
湯)FF3<F, 絕)FF>, 梁)H>8<F, 城)3E>, 穴)80>F,
-)8F8>, 器)4WE<F, 驥)F3=, 馳)E3>, 不如)4a- L4,
")FHF, %)E4F, ))F0><F, ƒ)44, ”)80F><8,
)EE8<F, 1)==, /)40, ®)800F, 5)=F8,
Chara(ter List
i. ü/_,武0`)E,
ii. ú操桀衝趣麗)=,
iii. .騏V鼠)4,
i'. 噲技捕#S狸&窒2$-騮驊!)84,
Lesson 36
莊子秋水 )4,
VOCABULARY (/-/./1#$
8F>F. g ?( yhn @( en 2Ø B( yeon ¬ ( hCn
V'erflo$- e&tre#es.
9adical 844 )2,.
=Ha. ÿg ?( fhn yhn @( han7en õþïþ B( ban yeon -¬ ( fLan hCn
Vpposites going to e&tre#es )g,. the re'ersalfreturn of o'erflo$ing )g,.
This ter# is debated and is open to interpretation.
8F>3. i ?( 5ihn @( %en ÜØ B( geon ® ( gCn
cifficulty- trouble.
9adical 8>E )Œ,.
>HEa. jk ?( &iU shG @( shashi Ô¯Ô B( sa si ã° ( 5eh sG
ycles of fading and flourishing )lit.- spreading,.
Tor k see WEW.
8=>a. lú ?( cYn cG @( shinshi ÔþÔ B( cha# chi ±ð ( chāa# chG
\ne'en. at odds.
:ote the distincti'e ?andarin pronunciation in this co#pound.
8F>4. p ?( yOu @( yA ヨà B( yu ¾ ( yMuh
Tar<reaching- i#partial- generous.
9adical 8F0 )Ð,.
8F>>. r ?( shU @( sha âì B( sa ã ( sNh
0od of the soil. altar to the god of the soil.
9adical 883 )`,.
8F>=. t ?( fMn @( han jØ- u%abu ÓÙñ B( beo#² ( faan
To float- to drift. broad- #easureless )li%e a flood,.
9adical H> )水,.
4>F. ¨k ?( sI fāng @( shihA ÔÎÓ B( sa bang ã ( sei fAng
The four directions. in all directions.
8F>E. u ?( zhXn @( shin âØ B( 5in [ ( 5Ln
ce#arcated borders of a field.
9adical 80F )³,.
8F>H. y ?( chNng @( 5A cßà- shA Ô:Ó- u%eru Óêð B( seung ´ (
To recei'e _aid or support`.
9adical =4 )手,.
8F>W. } ?( shI @( 5i c- tano#u +9む B( si ° ( chCh
To depend on- to rely on.
9adical =8 )Ã,.
8F=0. • ?( #hn @( #an µØ- #itsuru み%ð B( #an ¶ ( #Khn
Tull filled up.
9adical H> )水,. 
8F=8. ƒ ?( &iāo @( shA âßà- kesu êü- kieru íïð B( so · ( sGu
To destroy- to erase- to e&tinguish. to 'anish.
9adical H> )水,.
8F=8a. ƒ„ ?( &iāo &G @( shAso%u Ô:ÓÒö B( so si% ·¸ ( sGu sG%
ycles of dying and li'ing. cycles of breathing.
8F=F. … ?( zhPu @( shD âュà B( ch$i ; ( 5aauh
To rush- to gallop.
9adical 8HE )馬,.
8F=3. Ž ?( rU @( netsu èツ- atsui $%い B( yeol ¹ ( yiht
To heat. to burn.
9adical H= )•,.
8F=4. • ?( nI @( de%i ºÞ- oboreru お»âð B( nyo ¼ ( nG%
To dro$n.
9adical H> )水,.
8F=>. ‘ ?( shJ @( sho âß- atsusa $%æ- atsui $%い B( seo N ( syK
1eat )fro# the $eather,.
9adical EF )½,.
8F==. • ?( bO @( ha%u j#- usui Óüい B( ba% l ( boh%
Thin. to #a%e light of- to consider uni#portant.
9adical 840 )½,
H=a. š› ?( 6S5iS @( %yoshD í:ÔRÓ B( geo ch$i ¾; ( heui 5auh
0oings and co#ings. failure and success.
8F=E. • ?( zhC @( te%i MÞ B( cheo% ¿ ( 5aa%
To falter- to hesitate.
9adical 8>E )Œ,.
8F=H. ž ?( zhK @( cho%u チß# B( cho% À ( 5uh%
To falter- to hesitate.
• and Á occur #ost often as a t$o<character bino#e. 9adical 8>E )Œ,
8F=W. Ÿ ?( 6D @( %utsu #ツ- kogomu こごむ B( gul  ( $āt
To bend. $rongdoing. to be $ronged.
9adical 44 )8,.
8FE0. ?( shYn @( shin âØ- nobiru 99ð- nobosu 9»ü B( sin à (
To stretch.
This character is a different 'ersion of Ä)EFH,. 9adical W )µ,.
8FE8. £ ?( luP @( ra%u J# B( na% Å ( loh%
8. To fall
F. To halter- to bridle. Z
Though #eaning bF is used here- in a substitution for Æ- #eaning b8 is the
one you should learn. 9adical 840 )Ç,.
8FEF. ¥ ?( chuān @( sen ×Ø- ugatsu Óé% B( cheon Û ( chyDn
To pierce.
9adical 88=.
8FE3. ¦ ?( bC @( bi 6- hana õä B( bi B ( beih
9adical F0W )¦,.
8FE4. È ?( &Sn @( 5un cュØ- 5un5iru TRþTð B( sun ? ( sYun
8. To die or co##it suicide for one s lord.
F. To see%- to follo$. Z
"n #eaning bF this character is used for É. 9adical EH )ç,.
3=.8. \Ïš趣+)l. 8,( *"f " refuse or accept things. if " prefer the# or discard
3=.F. †ø†¤§Oÿg。pq0h,‚J大i )l. F,( These phrases and #any of
the prases that follo$ are $ritten in the aphoristic style characteristic of
Taoist *$isdo#ll literature )for e&a#ple- you #ay find so#e rese#blances
here to the poetic rhyth#s of the Laozi Ê子- if you7'e read that te&t before,.
:otice ho$ e'erything is balanced in parallel structures. #any of the lines
also rhy#e )although one cannot al$ays detect the rhy#e in ?andarin
pronunciation,. " $ill render these phrases to help get you started( /3hat is
nobleg 3hat is baseg This is called mopposites going to e&tre#e7. do not
restrain your aspirations- or else you $ill be in great trouble $ith the 3ay./
"ncidentally- 0 he is a substitution for {)808E<F,- *you+ )here- possessi'e( 0
h- *your aspirations+,. 3hat #any of these phrases actually #ean is open to
3=.3. m¤@¯之Gn )l. 3,( This is a rhetorical structure. a literal translation
produces a strange nu#ber of sentences( /Be sole#nQ Li%e the state7s
possessing a ruler./ 3hereas the #eaning is #ore or less *Be sole#n li%e the
ruler of a state-/ the use of the no#inalize sentence ¯之Gn )rather than the
si#pler ¯之n, is probably #eant to e#phasize the lord7s beha'ior in the $ay
he treats his state. Li%e$ise- q之Gr in the ne&t sentence probably puts the
e#phasis not si#ply on the god of the soil- but on his beha'ior during the
sacrifice itself. These subtleties are 'ery difficult to e&press in !nglish. :otice
the differences in the t$o #ain !nglish translations( 3atson si#ply ignores
the structure for the sa%e of fluency( *Be stern li%e the ruler of a state—he
grants no pri'ate fa'or./ 0raha# tries to e&press the structure( /;ternQ 4s a
lord to his state- no pri'ate fa'ours./
3=.4. vw„´,;xyz )8. >,( This phrase continues the passage7s e#phasis
on the necessity of treating others $ith i#partiality. *!6ually cherish all the
things in the $orld. then- $hich of the# $ould recei'e your shelterg/ That is-
no one specific person $ould recei'e your shelter2e'eryone $ould recei'e it-
or no one. 1ere-;x $ould #ean /$hich of the#-/ and the ter# can be
considered analogous to ;·- *one of the#+ )E3c- Lesson FE,.
3=.>. •不p‚ )l. =,( The 'erb ‚ here has its basic #eaning of *to raise-/ but
the ideal is to *hold up/ the years so that they do not continue to progress.
3=.=. p¢0不Ž )l. H,( This phrase contains an idio#atic double negati'e(
/there is no #o'e#ent _that it` then doesn7t change-+ that is- it changes
e'ery ti#e it #o'es.
3=.E. • JLŠ‹於ƒ )l. 80,( "t is often difficult in philosophical argu#ents to
deter#ine i##ediately ho$ Š is functioning. ;o#eti#es it gi'es the
preconditions that #ust e&ist before a goal can be obtained( *"n order to
achie'e 4- one #ust do B.+ 1ere- ho$e'er- the #eaning is opposite( *"f one
can do 4- then one certainly $ill be able to do B./
The point here can be #ade clearer through another $hi#sical e&a#ple. "f
you understand physics )an e&a#ple of J,- then you7ll understand the la$ of
gra'ity )ƒ,. if you understand gra'ity- then you7ll understand applicable
circu#stances or contingencies )Œ, $here gra'ity applies )e.g.- if you see a
hea'y safe hanging fro# a fraying rope- you %no$ it $ill soon fall,. "f you
understand these contingencies- then you $on7t let things har# you )i.e.- you
$on7t stand under the safe,. 
3=.H. dO;•之P,ó~¤–— )ll. 88<8F,( /"t is not that " #ean that he #a%es
light of these things. _rather- this` #eans that he e&a#ines closely safety and
3=.W. •¤µ之2)ll. 83,( This and the follo$ing phrases are also $ritten in
aphoristic style and are open to interpretation. Vne tentati'e suggestion( /"f
you are %no$ledgeable about hu#an conduct- and you root yourself in
71ea'en7 and find your place in 7obtaining7 _but see follo$ing note`- then e'en
if you hesitate- or find yourself bent o'er or stretched out- you7ll still be able
to return to the essential and spea% of the ulti#ate/ _or /your $ords $ill
reach the ulti#ate/`. 9egardless ho$ you translate it- the passage does see#
to argue that #aintaining a lin% $ith ( $ill allo$ one to deal $ith the
'agaries of e'eryday life. "n the follo$ing lines- it beco#es clear that ( is
/the natural/ or /the pre<ci'ilized-/ $hereas µ is /the artificial./
3=.80. €¤• )l. 83,( This phrase is potentially proble#atic- since it #eans
/find one7s place in gainfprofit./ \sually • as a noun is denigrated in Taoist
$riting- because it i#plies a preoccupation $ith $orldly gain. onse6uently-
so#e co##entators feel that the • here is a #ista%e for ¹.
Vo(a)u*ar+ ,ints
趣)8FF3, f†)=EEa- L8H, ø)H8, q)88E8, o)40E,
q)48>, s)84, k)F8F<4, ˆ)80FF, v)8088,
w)>3><8, x)H80, z)=3>, {)80F<F, |)W=4,
r)88E8<F, €)3H3, ˆ)88EW, •)8F80, 馳)E3>,
†)H=F, ˆ)=W0<8, ‹)HF4, )EWE, •)E4W,
•)W08, ’)W3H, “)W3W, ”)=>><F, ˜)EW=<8,
†)W, œ)E4, ¡)=FF<F, §)F<F, ™)>8F,
©)8038, «)4F4,
Chara(ter List
i. Ÿy•r£•)=,
ii. ‘Ž¥i)4,
iii. }tƒ•g…¦)E,
i'. Èup•ž)=,
2ummar+ o3 Lessons 33!36
8. The !arl of the Rello$ 9i'er- pleased $ith his po$er- is suddenly confused
$hen he reaches the sea and realizes that his great size is nothing co#pared
$ith that of the ocean. This confusion puts his #ind in a state of readiness- so
that he is prepared to discuss the relati'ity of conceptual categories $ith the
sea god.
F. The sea god de'alues the category of /greatness/ by pointing out that
e'en the sea is s#all $hen seen in the conte&t of the uni'erse. 1e then
#o'es fro# a discussion of abstract categories to a discussion of hu#an
society )a #o'e often #ade by 莊子 and his disciples,—perhaps social
relations- politics- and philosophy- concerned as they are $ith hu#an
#atters- deal $ith only a 'ery s#all part of the uni'erse at large )this is an
/anti<onfucian/ #o'e,.
3. The earl no$ as%s( coes this #ean that there are absolute categories- but
$e #ust be careful to realize the full scale of thingsg :o- says the sea god-
categories are always relati'e. 4nd since e'erything is relati'e- a $ise person
$ill %eep hi#self open to change and not be upset $hen things don7t follo$
predictable patterns. 4fter all- one7s o$n life is insignificant in relation to
other things. "f one tries to base e'erything on absolute categories- he $ill
only end by confusing hi#self.
4. "n a rather sophisticated digression- the earl as%s about the conceptions of
the infinitesi#al and the infinite. 3hen $e tal% about the s#allest and largest
things $e can concei'e of- are these in fact infinitesi#al and infinite )or- as
he puts it- /$ithout for#/ and *unable to be enco#passed/,g :o- says the sea
god- as long as $e can conceive of the size of a thing- no #atter ho$ big or
s#all it is fro# our perspecti'e- it is still finite. The infinitesi#al and the
infinite are beyond hu#an conception and are independent of any corporeal
>. The sea god then goes on to continue the lesson relati'ity offers for hu#an
conduct( The $ise #an will follo$ a code of conduct- but he $ill not boast of
his conduct- nor $ill he #a%e it an absolute code that he e&pects others to
=. The 9i'er !arl- ho$e'er- still finds that he #ust #a%e 5udg#ents- and as%s
$hat procedure he should follo$. The sea god suggests that different
5udg#ents $ill result fro# different perspecti'es( "t isn7t so #uch that one
should not #a%e 5udg#ents at all- but rather that $hen one does #a%e the#-
one should be a$are that such 5udg#ents are rooted in contingent factors
present only in that situation. Vpposites are dependent on each other to
co#e into e&istence. different things are good for different tas%s. 1istory7s
lessons are not absolute- but rooted in circu#stances.
E. The 9i'er !arl is no$ co#pletely frustrated- because he feels that the
contingency of circu#stances $ill #a%e it i#possible for hi# to e'er #a%e
any decisions or choices. The sea god tells hi# that if he re#ains aloof and as
tolerant as possible a#ong all the possible choices- he can *go $ith the flo$/
and pic% $hat see#s best at any gi'en #o#ent. The i#portant thing is to not
try to deliberately change things or alter the forces of transfor#ation. "f the
$ise #an acts in this $ay- he $ill beco#e a sort of /#agician-/ see#ingly
indifferent to the constraints of the physical cos#os2or rather- he $ill re#ain
indifferent to the forces of change and $ill be happy in the#. The i#portant
thing abo'e all is to not be /deliberate/ or try to 'iolate the natural
inclinations of things.
Lesson 31
VOCABULARY (/1-./4"$
8FE>. Ë ?( %uC @( %i Þ B( gi É ( %$Mih
The Bui.
4 #ythological beast said to ha'e only one leg. 9adical 3> )ï,.
8FE=. Í ?( &iLn @( %en ÜØ- gen ÑØ B( hyeon ð ( yIhn
9adical 84F )虫,.
8FEE. Ï ?( fYng @( fD Øà- %aze Ùñ B( pung ò ( fDng
3ind- breeze.
9adical 8HF )Ï,.
8FEH. Ñ ?( chXn @( chin チØ B( cha#± ( chL#
1op along- li#p.
9adical 8>E )Œ,.
8FEW. Ò ?( chuA @( ta%u Ä# B( ta% ó ( cheu%
1op along- li#p.
ÑÒ is a synony# co#pound. 9adical 8>E )Œ,. 
8FH0. Ö ?( tuP @( da ô- tsuba %, B( ta õ ( tNuh
To spit. spittle.
9adical 30 )C,.
8FH8. × ?( pYn @( fun ØØ- fu%u Sö B( bun ó ( pan
To spit- to e#it 'iolently.
9adical 30 )n,.
8FHF. Ù ?( $S @( #u D- %iri í B( #u E ( #ouh
Tog- #ist.
9adical 8E3 )ö,.
8FH3. 雜 ?( zL @( zA ÷à- zatsu øツ- #a5iru îTð B( 5ap ù ( 5aahp
To be #i&ed together.
9adical 8EF )ú,.
=d. (Û ?( tiān 5G @( ten%i Fþí B( cheon gi ÛÉ ( tGn gYi
:atural capability.
This #eaning is deri'ed fro# the generalized use of Û )H4H<F, to #ean
*#echanis#+. hence- this ter# is literally /1ea'en_<endo$ed` #echanis#./
8FH4. à ?(5ǐ se%i ×Þ B( cheo% ¿ ( 5e%
bone- spine.
9adical 830 )û,.
8FH>. á ?( &iN @( %yo Þßà B( hyeop ü ( hip
9adical 830 )û,.
8FH=.â ?( pNng @( hA ×à B( bong ý ( fShng- pShng
8. Tu#ble$eed- arte#isia plant.
F. Boo#ing- roaring. _ono#atopoetic`Z
9adical 840 )Ç,.
?( zhǐ @( shi â- yubi _9- sasu æü B( 5i þ ( 5C
Tinger. to point to. to head to$ard.
1ere- the sense of this character is /to hold up a finger against/·that is- the
$ind cannot *blo$ o'er+ one7s finger. 9adical =4 )手,. 
8FHH. ç ?( 6iD )8,. yOu )F, @( shA âßà. fumu Sむ )F, B( chu 0 (
chāu )8,. yMuh )F,
8. The loach )a %ind of fish,.
F. To tra#ple. Z
?eaning bF- used here- is a substitution for ÿ. 9adical 8W> )魚,.
8FHW. ë ?( fYi @( hi @- tobu Uñ B( bi B ( fYi
To fly.
This character is a nonstandard 'ersion of 飛used here in a causati'e sense.
9adical 84F )虫,.
3E.8. The 秋水 chapter here proceeds to gi'e a series of short anecdotes. "t is
li%ely that the original editor of the 莊子 had a large body of #iscellaneous
#aterial that he added to longer te&ts $hene'er he thought there $as a
si#ilarity in content. ?ost of these anecdotes see# to e#phasize )8, the
relati'ity of hu#an %no$ledge and of conceptual categories- )F, the
i#portance of being content $ith one7s fate- and )3, the dangers caused by
li#itations in one7s perspecti'e.
3E.F. Ó如h)l. F,( 1ere- it see#s li%ely that the Ë is boasting of his ability to
get along $ith one leg and is surprised at the success of the #illipede. Thus-
#ost readers ta%e it as *as for #e- there is nothing that co#es up to _#e`+
)although the usual $ay of e&pressing this idea $ould ha'e been KÓ如,. This
is thus a 'ariant of the 不如 pattern )4.=,.
3E.3. Ó重i\àá02,fG©P )l. =,( :ote the use of f here- $hich
introduces a reason or cause.©)*to rese#ble-+ *to i#itate+. 33H, is also used
in an unusual $ay and is probably best interpreted as *a physical for#/ )i.e.-
so#ething that rese#bles bodies in general,. /" go by #o'ing #y bac%bone
and ribs2_but` then " ha'e a physical for# _unli%e you`./
3E.4. 'nŸ不Ú+大Ú)l. W,( mm" #a%e the #ultitude of little non<'ictories into a
big 'ictory./
Vo(a)u*ar+ ,ints
Ì)"0=>, Î)"03=, Ó)8>=<F, Ø)"0F=, Ú)FE0,
Ü)FW=<8, ¢)3=W, –)=F0<8, ã)83F, ê)W>4,
ì)H4, î)8E,
Chara(ter List
i. æ雜Ï)3,
ii. âÙ)F,
iii. Ë)8,
i'. Ö×àáÑ Íëç)W,
Lesson 34
L,漁S之勇P。陸2不避兕虎L,獵S之勇P。白刃交於前,6…@¾L 烈x之勇P。
VOCABULARY (/"0.303$
8FW0. 匡 ?( %uāng @( %yA B( g$ang ) ( hAng
Buang. _a place<na#e`
:a#e of a territory- part of 宋.9adical FF )*,.
8FW8. 宋 ?( sPng @( sA *à B( song + ( sung
The state of ;ong.
:a#e of an early hinese state- located 5ust north of G.9adical 40 ),,.
8FWF. 匝 ?( zā @( sA *à B( 5ap ù ( 5aap
To go around. a surrounding circle.
9adical FF )-,.
8FW3. 絃 ?( &iLn @( gen ÑØ- ito いU B( hyeon ð ( yIhn
;tring. a stringed instru#ent.
1ere- this character is used as a 'erb( /to play an instru#ent./ 9adical 8F0
8FW4. 惙 ?( chuP @( tetsu Mツ. yamu やむ )F, B( cheol Ç ( 5yut
8. To be grie'ed- to be distraught.
F. To stop. Z
1ere- #eaning bF is a substitution for .. 9adical =8 )/,. 
FWb. 子路 ?( zǐ lS @( shiro ÔÆ B( 5a ro Ö0 ( 5C louh
Vne of 孔子ls #ost fa#ous disciples. his full na#e $as VI and his polite
na#e $as 子路. :ote that 孔子 later addresses hi# by his personal na#e.
8FW>. 娛 ?( yK @( go X- tanoshimu +9Ôむ B( o ^ ( ySh
aleasure- en5oy#ent. to en5oy. to be happy.
9adical 3H )6,.
8FW=. 諱 ?( huI @( %i Þ- imu いむ B( h$i 1 ( $Lih
@o a'oid,to see% to a'oid.
9adical 84W )ó,o
8FWE. 紂 ?( zhPu @( chD チュà B( 5u Q ( 5auh
_Bing` Zhou.
3ic%ed last ruler of the 商 dynasty. 9adical 8F0 )Ð,.
8FWH. Ð ?( 5iāo @( %A コà B( gyo 2 ( gāau
9i'er serpent.
9adical 84F )虫,.
8FWW. 漁 ?( yK @( gyo =ß- ryA =ßà- sunadoru üä3ð- isaru いæð B(
eo 어 ( ySh
Tishing. fisher#an.
9adical H> )水,.
8300. 陸 ?( lS @( ro%u g#- ri%u =#- oka おÙ B( yu% 4 ( luh%
dry land.
9adical 8E0 ),.
8308. 兕 ?( sI @( shi â- 5i c B( si ° ( 5ih
hinese illustrations picture the ani#al this character designates #ore as a
sort of fierce $ild bull. 9adical 80 ),.
830F. 虎 ?( hJ @( %o コ- tora Uû B( ho Y ( fK
9adical 848 )虍,.
8303. ?( lCn @( rin =Ø- nozomu 9Dむ B( li#5 ( lMh#
To be on the edge of. to o'erloo%. te#porary.
9adical 838 )6,.
H3=a. p#† ?( $K 5ǐ hN @( ikubaku mo naku shite いö,öÿäöÔF B(
#u gi ha EÉ÷ ( #Puh gNi hPh
n no ti#e at all- soon.
Vb'iously- this phrase $ill also appear as 7#†
>E8a. •虎 ?( yLng hJ @( yA %o 8Óこ B( yang ho 양Y ( yUuhng fK
Rang 1u.
4 notorious ad'enturer.
3H.8. The 莊子 en5oys telling stories about 孔子. ;o#eti#es it #a%es fun of
hi#. so#eti# it appropriates hi# as a sage of special $isdo# $ith a
perspecti'e 6uite different fro that of a con'entional 9. This anecdote is an
elaboration of an enig#atic passage in the collection of onfucius7 aphoris#s-
the Analects •F- that states that the ?aster )onfucius, /$as put in #ortal
danger/ in 匡. Later accounts suggest that this occurred because $hile
tra'eling he $as #ista%en for an unsa'ory ad'enturer fro# : by the na#e of
3H.F. 0絃歌惙 )l. 8,( Because #ost readers %no$ the story alluded to here-
there is little chance they $ould be confused by this other$ise a#biguous
passage. onte&t e'entually #a%es it clear to us( The people of 宋 are
besieging the house that onfucius presently occupies- but he sho$s no
alar#- instead playing his zither and singing.
3H.3. †S子之娛)ll. 8<F,( 4 rhetorical pattern. e6ui'alent to S子†娛- but #ore
strongly stated.
3H.4. I- ¶hQ )l. E,( /Rou- be cal#Q/ I here is the personal na#e of 子路.;ee
FWb.¶- /to d$ell-/ /to reside-/ has to be e&panded to so#ething li%e /be still-/
/be cal#./
3H.>. \§G½"h )8. E,( /"n #y fate there is that $hich is _already`
controlled-/ that is- there are so#e things " can do nothing about. The h
suggests /already/ here.
Vo(a)u*ar+ ,ints
遊)FHE, 歌)80WF, 6)8W><F, Á)88HW<F, _)8FF4,
`)8FFE, 桀)8FF>, š)=3=, 適)4F><3, 避)3FW,
龍)=W8, 勇)34H, 獵)E3E, 白)HWE, 刃)H=E,
交)=00<3, 烈)=E3, î)8E, ()EH=,
Chara(ter List
i. 宋虎陸)4,
ii. 娛漁紂ÍÐ)>,
iii. 匡)8,
i'. 兕 匝惙諱)4,
Lesson 3"
之不Ü‚,•之]@‚。 \p½G\H,I<;k。m公子>JK大„,L(0jBC
VOCABULARY (30#.3-4$
8304. ; ?( sDn @( son *Ø- mago îご B( son ¢ ( syDn
0randson- grandchild.
1ere- the character is part of a t$o<character surna#e-公;- *grandson of the
du%e.+ This is typical of so#e early surna#es- $hich see# to ha'e been
granted to relati'es of royal fa#ilies once they $ere no longer eligible to
inherit noble positions. 9adical 3W )子,.
804c. 公;龍 ?( gong sun long @( %Ason ryD こÓ ÒþR B( gong son
0ongsun Long.
:a#e of a pro#inent logician and philosopher. The logicians- li%e the ;ophists
in ancient 0reece- $ere fa#ous for being #ore interested in the technical
side of argu#entation and persuasion than in unco'ering philosophical
$isdo#. 莊子 $as influenced by their lo'e of parado&- but he $as also critical
of the#. he felt that their #anipulation of language de#onstrated that it $as
ulti#ately inade6uate as a tool to con'ey reality- and that ulti#ate reality lay
beyond language. 公;龍 beca#e #ost notorious for his parado& 白馬d馬- *a
$hite horse is not a horse./
830>. > ?( #Ou @( bA £à B( #o ¤ ( #Muh
This character is relati'ely rare- e&cept in na#es )as it is used here,. 9adical
W3 )牛,.
4WFa. => ?( $Ui #Ou @( gi bA å»Ó B( $i #o ¥¤ ( ngaih #Muh
?ou of 3ei.
:a#e of a = prince. Later in the te&t he is referred to as 公子>- *arince ?ou.+
830=. D ?( 5iān @( %en ÜØ- katai Ù+い B( gyeon ¦ ( gGn
1ard- unyielding.
9adical 3F )Ë,.
830E. F ?( #Lng @( bA £à B( #ang § ( #Phng
To be confused. di#- hard to #a%e out.
This character is one of a series of descripti'e $ords in literary hinese that
can describe both one7s surroundings and one7s #ental state. 9adical 840 )Ç,.
830H. H ?( huI @( %ai äÝ- kuchibashi ö3,Ô B( h$e ¨ ( fui
1ere- this $ord is used co#ically to describe the #outh. 9adical 30 )C,.
830W. K ?( 5G @( %i Þ- tsukue %öï B( g$e © ( gYi
4 long- narro$- bench<shaped piece of furniture used to lean on $hile sitting
on a #at. 9adical E> )¡,.
>Hoa.JK ?( yǐn 5G @( ki wo yoru íª8ð B( eun g$e Û© ( yLn gYi
To lean on an ar#rest.
This #eaning of J tends to occur al#ost e&clusi'ely in the e&pression JK.
8380. z ?( %hn @( %an äØ- %on コØ B( ga#« ( hL#
a'ed in- cru#bling.
9adical 3F )Ë,.
8388. P ?( tiMo @( chA チßà- haneru õ-ð- tobu Uñ B( do 도 ( tiu
To leap- to 5u#p.
9adical 8>E )Œ,.
8388a. P梁 ?( tiMo liLng @( chAryA 3:Ó:Ó B( do ryang 도> ( tiu
To hop about )often in a superior or boasting #anner,. _idio#atic phrase`
838F. Q ?( hLn @( %an äØ B( han ¬ ( hPhn
3ell ri#. railing around a $ell
9adical E> )¡,.
8383. S ?( &iD @( %yD Þュà- yasumu やüむ- ikou いこÓ B( hyu Y (
To rest.
9adical W )µ,.
8384. T ?( 6uY @( Üツ- kaku Ùö- kakeru Ùêð B( gyeol - ( %yut
To lac%. to be #issing.
9adical 8F8 )®- *pot+,.
838>. U ?( zhPu @( shD âュà B( chu 0 ( 5au
9adical WH )¯- *tile+,.
838=. X ?( yU @( e%i 2Þ B( ae% ° ( yih%
9adical 830 )û,.
838E. Z ?( yC @( i Ý- otogai おUéい- ago $ご B( i H ( yIh
hin- 5a$.
9adical 8H8 )±,.
838H. [ ?( 5uN @( %etsu Üツ B( g$ol ² ( %yut
To slip- to stu#ble.
9adical 8>E )Œ,.
838W. \ ?( nC @( dei ºÝ- doro 3Æ B( ni ³ ( nMih
?ud- #ire- dirt.
9adical H> )水,.
83F0. ´ ?( #P @( botsu £ツ- #otsu Àツ- bossuru »Eüð B( #ol µ (
To sin%.
:ote( The #odern ?andarin use of this character )i.e.- ]G, does not occur in
literary hinese. 9adical H> )水,.
83F8. ^ ?( fD @( fu Ø B( bu Ú ( fD
9adical 8>E )Œ,.
83FF. ` ?( hLn @( %an äØ B( han ¬ ( hPhn
?os6uito lar'a.
9adical 84F )虫,.
83F3.a ?( &iU @( %ai äÝ- %ani Ù/ B( hae G ( hLaih
9adical 84F )虫,.
83F4. b ?( %Y @( %a ä B( g$a ¶ ( fA
lass- order- series.
1ere- this character is used in a co#pound. 9adical 88> )O,.
83F>. c ?( d[u @( to ト B( du · ( dLu
cou )4 dry #easure#ent- usually translated as *pec%+,. 1ere- this character
is used in a co#pound. 9adical =H )c,.
83F4a. bc ?( %Y d[u @( %ato ÙU B( g$a du ¶· ( fA dLu
83F=. e ?( huP @( ga%u è#- %a%u ä# B( ha% ¸ ( %o%
9a'ine. hole.
9adical 3F )Ë,.
83FE. f ?( %uM @( %o コ- %a ä- matagaru î+éð B( g$a ¶ ( %$ā
To bestride- to occupy.
9adical 8>E )Œ,.
83FH. ¹ ?( zhI @( chi チ B( chi ð ( 5ih
To stay. at peace. cal#.
9adical 8>E )Œ,.
83FW. i ?( &G @( shitsu âツ- hiza ÅU B( seul º ( sāt
9adical 830 )û,.
8330. j ?( zhC @( chitsu チツ B( 5ip » ( 5āp
To 5a#- to get stuc%.
9adical 8F0 )Ð,.
8338. k ?( 6Dn @( shun âュØ B( 5un ¼ ( sYun
To hesitate- to fall bac%.
1ere- this character is part of a co#pound. 9adical 8=F )W,.
833F. l ?( &Kn @( 5un cュØ- meguru ùúð B( sun ? ( chUuhn
To patrol- to #a%e rounds.
1ere- this character is part of a co#pound. 9adical 8=F )W,.
8338a. kl ?( 6Dn &Kn @( shun5un ÔRþTRþ B( 5un sun ¼? ( sYun
To hesitate- to fall bac%- to $ithdra$.
8333. m ?( 6uU @( %ya%u Þì#- shirizoku ÔDö B( ga% ½ ( %eu%
To $ithdra$- to #o'e bac%.
9adical F= )¾,.
8334. o ?( rUn @( 5in cØ B( in ¿ ( yahn
*Tatho#+ )#easure#ent for height or depth- e6ual to appro&i#ately = feet,
9adical W )µ,.
833>. d ?( yJ @( u à B( u ] ( yKh
_!#peror` Ru. 
4ncient sage<ruler- controller of the floods and founder of the s. 9adical 884
833=. r ?( lMo @( ryA =ßà- rA gà B( lyo Á ( louh
1ea'y rains. floods.
9adical H> )水,.
?( sJn @( son *Ø- sonsuru Òþüð B( son ¢ ( syKn
Loss- di#inish#ent. to lose.
9adical =4 )手,.
4F>a. 適適$ ?( tI tI rLn @( te%ite%izen FíFíñþ B( 5eo% 5eo% yeon ÂÂ
¬ ( tG% tG% yIhn
To be startled. ;ee 3W.E belo$.
833H. | ?( guG @( %i Þ B( gyu à ( %$āi
o#pass- rule. to regulate-to #easure.
9adical 84E )7,.
833Ha. ||$ ?( guG guG rLn @( %i%izen ííñþ B( gyu gyu yeon Ãì
( %$āi %$āi %$āi
To be at a loss. nit<pic%ing- o'erparticular.
;ee 3W.E belo$.
833W. • ?( $Nn @( bun ÙØ- ka Ù B( #un ã ( #ān
9adical 84F )虫,.
8340. • ?( 5S @( %yo Þß B( geo ¾ ( geuih
entipede. fly.
1ere- this character is part of a co#pound. 9adical 84F )虫,.
WHFa. 商• ?( shāng 5S @( shA%yo Ô:Óí: B( sang geo ľ ( sYung
8348. ‚ ?( #iMo @( #yA B( #yo Å ( #iuh
?ar'elous- #ysterious- e&ceptional.
9adical 3H )6,. 
834F. Æ ?( cǐ @( shi â- fumu Sむ B( cha ( chC
To tread on- to tra#ple on.
9adical 8>E )Œ,.
8343. † ?( 6uLn @( sen ×Ø- izumi いずみ B( cheon Û ( chyShn
ree%- spring- strea#.
9adical H> )水,.
>HFb. …† ?( huLng 6uLn @( %Asen こÓ×Ø- yo#i 8み B( h$ang cheon Ç
Û ( $Phng chyShn
The Rello$ ;prings )the under$orld,.
8344. ‡ ?( dYng @( tA トà- noboru 9»ð B( deung È ( dāng
To cli#b- to ascend.
9adical 80> )É,.
834>. ˆ ?( huLng @( %A コà- A Êà B( h$ang Ç ( $Phng
;upre#e- e&alted. the e#peror.
9adical 80= )白,.
80>d. 大ˆ ?( dM huLng @( tai%A +いこÓ B( dae h$ang aÇ ( daaih
The s%y.
This ter# is a poetic e&pression.
834=. ‰ ?( shI @( se%i ×Þ- sha%u âì# B( seo% Ë ( sG%
Vpen- spacious- spread out.
9adical 3E )大,.
834E. ‹ ?( lKn @( rin =Ø- shizumu Ôずむ B( lyun Ì ( lUuhn
!ngulfed- sun%- lost.
9adical H> )水,.
834H. Œ ?( cU @( so%u *#- hakaru õÙð B( cheu% Í ( chāa%
To predict- to fatho#.
9adical H> )E i,.
834W. Ž ?( #Cng @( #ei ÎÝ- #yA Ôßà B( #yeong Ï ( #Chng
car%- obscure- unseen. #ysterious. #ystery.
9adical 84 )Ð,.
83>0. ’ ?( %uG @( %i Þ- ukagau ÓÙéÓ B( gyu à ( %$āi
To peer at- to loo% at secretly.
9adical 88= )穴,.
83>8. “ ?( zhuG @( sui ÑÝ- kiri í B( chu 0 ( 5Yui
9adical 8=E )ú,.
>H>a. •– ?( shPu lCng @( 5uryA TR:Ó B( su neung æÒ ( sauh
4 to$n located in B.
308b. —子 ?( yKzǐ @( yoshi 8Ô B( yeo 5a ÓÖ ( ySh 5C
Roung boy.
This ter# is rare.
83>F. ˜ ?( hLn @( %an äØ B( han Ô ( hPhn
1an. _a place<na#e` )\sed in place<na#e belo$.,
9adical 8=3 )Õ,.
83>3. ™ ?( dān @( tan ÄØ B( dan Ö ( dāan
can. _a place<na#e` )\sed in place<na#e belo$.,
9adical 8=3 )Õ,.
83>Fa. ˜™ ?( hLn dān @( %antan Ùþ+þ B( han dan ÔÖ ( hPhn
4 city that $as the capital of ×.
83>4. š ?( pK @( ho × B( po M ( pPuh
)\sed in bino#e co#pound belo$.,
9adical F0 )Ø,.
83>>. › ?( fK @( fu%u Ø# B( bo% Ù ( baah%
)\sed in bino#e co#pound belo$.,
9adical F0 )Ø,.
83>4a. šÚ ?( pK fK @( hofu%u ÎSö B( po bo% MÙ ( pPuh baah%
To cra$l on the hands and %nees.
83>=. ž ?( yU @( gyA =ßà B( eop Û ( yihp
Vccupation- profession.
9adical E> )•,.
83>E. Ÿ ?( 6D @( %a ä B( geo ¾ ( %Yui
To gape.
9adical 30 )C,.
83>H. ¡ ?( yI @( itsu Ýツ B( il Ü ( yaht
To $ithdra$. to let go. liberated- free<spirited.
9adical 8=F )¿,.
3W.8. D白 )l. F, $ere set e&a#ples e#ployed by logicians to discuss the
inherent 6ualities a physical substances. *To distinguish hard and $hite+
#eant to engage in logical debate.
3W.F. $不$,p不p)l. F,( *" said that $hat $as not true $as true- and $hat
$as n feasible $as feasible.+
• •之不Ü‚,•之]@‚ )l. 3,( This is a sentence incorporating t$o indirect
6uestions. 4n indirect 6uestion structure is relati'ely rare in literary hinese-
but it bears so#e attention. Rou #ay re#e#ber that indirect statements
)8F.>, tend to follo$ a 'erb of %no$ing or perception- are no#inalized by 之-
and usually close $ith a P(
N•\Ý之•ÞGP。" %no$ that the kin ar#y is about to in'ade hu.
Indirect questions are #ar%ed by a final 6uestion particle- rather than by P.
"nstead of describing an e'ent or fact that is percei'ed or %no$n by the
sub5ect- they #erely infor# the reader that the sub5ect %no$s the truth of an
e'ent or fact. 4n indirect 6uestion can be represented in !nglish by
N•\Ý之•ÞG‚。" %no$ $hether the kin ar#y is about to in'ade hu.
co not be confused by the fact that sentences that contain indirect 6uestions
end $ith a 6uestion particle2they aren7t 6uestions per se.
"n our lesson te&t here- $e ha'e
• go'erning t$o indirect 6uestions(
••之不Ü‚( " don7t %no$ $hether #y discussions do not co#e up _to his`. _不
•`•之]@‚( _" don7t %no$` $hether #y %no$ledge doesn7t co#pare $ith his.
]@ can of course be analyzed as 不之@p不@之- *not as good as it.+
;ince the 不• controls t$o contrasting possibilities- $e ha'e a *$hether...
or...+ sentence( *" don7t %no$ $hether #y discussions do not co#e up to his-
or $hether #y %no$ledge doesn7t co#pare $ith his./公;龍 is unsure $hether
the difficulty he has understanding 莊子 is because his understanding of
argu#entation )•,is inade6uate- or because his le'el of %no$ledge )•, is
3W.4. 子Õ不ISzn之o¤ )ll. 4<>,( *1a'e you alone not heard about that frog
in a cru#bling $ellg+ 子Õ不I is used at ti#es to introduce a parable or fable.
the i#plication of the phrase is *are you the only one clueless enough not to
ha'e heard the fa#ous story of e.g+ The use of the de#onstrati'e S )8W0<3,
also suggests the introduction of an e&a#ple or parableq2co#pare Lesson
F4- line 4( ɕSߤ. Tor yet another e&a#ple- see this lesson7s te&t- lines
8E<8H( R子Õ不IS•–—子之?2於˜™‚.
3W.>. S子¦不時來ä}¤)ll. E<H,( 1ere- a rhetorical 6uestion ¦不 )*$hy don7t
you...+. sa#e as †不, fuses $ith the e&pression 不時 )*anyti#e+. 4b- Lesson
8W, because t$o 不 in a ro$ )i.e.-¦不不時à$ould be a$%$ard.
3W.=. n之4B )l. W,( *told hi# about the sea- saying....+ :ote the si#ilarities
bet$een this parable and the account in Lesson 33( @ust as the sea god had
to describe the ine&haustibility of the sea to the 9i'er !arl- so the sea turtle
has to describe the sea to the $ell frog.
3W.E. 0水]+st)l. 80,( *and yet the $ater did not because of it _lit.- *for its
sa%e/` add to its increasing./ :ote )8,] as a fusion of 不之- $hich #eans that
the co'erb + has its ob5ect preceding it in an idio#atic in'ersion- and )F, the
use of s to indicate co#parati'e increase or decrease )4E<3,.
3W.H. 不+x久y†,不'–U%(L)l. 88,( These parallel sentences are saying
the sa#e sort of thing. aroperly spea%ing- ' should be used in both clauses.
instead- the author presses + into a function 'ery close to ' so that he
doesn7t ha'e to repeat the sa#e $ord in both clauses )this is a rule
so#eti#es follo$ed in constructing parallel patterns,. *To not for either a
short or long period of ti#e #o'e or shift- nor for either a great bit or little bit
ad'ance or recede./
3W.W. 適適$,||$)l. 8F,( 0ood e&a#ples of ho$ nuances of bino#es
beco#e lost. 適 _nor#ally #eans *to go-+ *to be appropriate-+ and |
nor#ally #eans *co#pass-+ *rule.+ 1ere- they are used in a strange #anner-
and the best the traditional co##entators can do is say- *適適 is the #anner
of being surprised or frightened- and || is the #anner of being at a loss %
€.+ Vb'iously- they are si#ply e&trapolating #eanings fro# the 'erbs these
ad'erbial bino#es #odify.
3W.80. RS•不•d之},0ž~}於莊子之ó)ll.8 F<83,( /?oreo'er- if you
%no$ that you don7t understand the borders of 7$hat is7 and 7$hat isn7t-7 and
yet you still $ant to obser'e Zhuangzi7s $ords ....+ The prince no$ dri'es the
point ho#e— 公;龍 should realize that he doesn7t ha'e the ability to
understand 莊子)no #ore than the frog can understand the turtle,.
3W.88. RS•不••¢‚之ó0%適·時之£L)l. 84,( /?oreo'er- if you %no$ that
you don7t %no$ ho$ to discuss _his` #ost #ysterious $ords and _instead`
pursue a #o#ent7s profit....+ The prince suggests that 公;龍7s ability is
e#ployed only as a profession )$hich he later defines by the ter# ž,. he can
use his logic and philosophy to #a%e #oney for hi#self )as a teacher and
ad'iser,- but he cannot use the# to understand the cos#os as profoundly as
莊子 does.
3W.8F. RƒkÆ…†0‡大ˆ )ll. 84<8>,( /?oreo'er- that one _i.e.-莊子` happens
to be treading the Rello$ ;prings and cli#bing up to the 1ea'ens./
3W.83. ?2於˜á)ll. 8E<8H,( /studied ho$ to $al% in ˜™.+!'idently- the
inhabitants of the city $al%ed in an attracti'e- sinuous #anner that others
atte#pted to i#itate.
Vo(a)u*ar+ ,ints
?)EHF, A)4W3<8- 4W3<F, E)44E, 辯)88>>, ‹)HF4, •)8F80,
G)8848, L)WW4, o)88E0, N)HEE, 崖)88=>, V)WH4,
W)F33, _)8WH, d)FH4, p)WF, t)=3F,
x)>84, y)W=F, €)HWH, 馳)E3>, Í)88WF, })=04<F,
適)4F><4, Š)8H=, •)E0>, Á)88HW<3, •)80>=, •)=43<F,
)8FHE, •)FW3, )8F=,
Chara(ter List
i. S;wž´†‡ˆd)W,
ii. ŽmDe‚c\’F|¡âh,
iii. ‹ŒbTiPf[˜Zâ80,
i'. oš›ãHM‰KQr>UjXä••aåf„lk™“)F>, 
Lesson #0
Vo(a)u*ar+ (3-".31#$
83>W. æ ?( diMo @( chA チßà- tsuru %ð B( 5o Ý ( diu
To fish _$ith a line and hoo%`.
9adical 8=E )金,.
83=0. ì ?( gān @( %an äØ- sao æお B( gan ¬ ( gAn
Tishing pole.
9adical 88H )',.
83=8. ï ?( guG @( %i Þ- %in ÞØ- kame Ùù B( g$i 귀 ( g$āi
9adical F83 )ï,.
83=F. ] ?( 5Gn @( %in ÞØ- haba õ, B( geon ® ( gān
Berchief. cloth. head turban.
1ere- this character is used as a 'erb( *to $rap in a cloth.+ 9adical >0 )],.
83=3. ñ ?( sI @( su Ñ- shi â- ke ê B( sa ã ( 5ih
Bo&- trun%.
1ere- this character is used as a 'erb( *to put in a trun%.+ 9adical 88H )',.
=>c. ø子 ?( huI zǐ @( eshi ïÔ B( hye 5a 혜Ö ( $aih 5C
?aster 1ui.
:a#e of a philosopher and friend of 莊子. li%e 公;龍 )804c- Lesson 3W,- he is
associated $ith the logician school.
83=4. û ?( sAu @( sA *à- sagasu æéü B( su æ ( sLu
To search.
9adical =4 )手,.
83=>. ü ?( yuān @( en 2Ø B( $on 원 ( yDn
_aart of a na#e )see belo$,.`
9adical 8W= )W,.
83==. 鶵 ?( chK @( sD Ñà B( chu 0 ( chPh
hic%- fledgling.
1ere- this character is part of a bird7s na#e. 9adical 8W= )W,.
83=>a. ü鶵 ?( yuān chK @( ensD ïþüÓ B( $on chu 원0 ( yDn
This #ythological bird ne'er beca#e fa#ous in hinese lore- but later
traditions identify it as being the sa#e as the 鳳凰 )usually translated as
83=E. ÿ ?( $K @( go X B( o ^ ( rgh
_aart of a tree na#e )see belo$,.`
9adical E> )¡,.
83=H. 桐 ?( tOng @( dA ドà B( dong 동 ( tShng
_aart of a tree na#e )see belo$,.`
9adical E> )¡,.
83=Ea. ÿ桐 ?( $K tOng @( godA ご3Ó B( o dong ^동 ( rgh tShng
The pa$lonia tree.
4 se#itropical tree $ith large lea'es rese#bling those of the banana plant. it
is related to the beech.
83=W. 練 ?( liMn @( ren àØ B( lyeon 련 ( lihn
8 To train- to practice.
F. Tine 6uality ba#boo )used for 楝,Z
?eaning bF is i#plied here- but you should learn #eaning b8 for this
character. 9adical 8F0.)Ð,.
83E0. 醴 ?( lǐ @( rei àÝ- rai JÝ B( lye 례 ( lLih
;$eet )of li6uids,.
9adical 8=4 )1,.
83E8. 腐 ?( fJ @( fu Ø- kusareru öæâð B( bu Ú ( fuh
9otten- decaying.
9adical 830 )û,.
83EF. 嚇 ?( hU @( %a%u Ùö B( hyeo% 혁 ( haa%
;hoo- scat- _i#perati'e`
9adical 30 )n,
83E3. 濠 ?( hLo @( gA Xà B( ho Y ( hPuh
The 1ao 9i'er.
9adical H> )水,.
83E4. 鯈 ?( chOu @( cho チß B( 5o Ý ( yMuh
9adical 8W> )魚,.
=F>a. °容 ?( cOng rOng @( shAyA ÒÓ8Ó B( 5ong yong 종용 ( chShng
4t ones ease- co#fortably. cal#- tran6uil.
4 rhy#ing bino#e. 
40.8. ”@!)l.8,( The e#issaries are announcing in advance $hat the Bing of
hu $ishes to tell 莊子. thus- e'en though this is not a typical #eaning of the
character- @ is best ta%en as /to announce/ here. o#pare !nglish usage- /to
for$ard a #essage./
40.F. é'ê內ëh)l. 8,( This is the euphe#istic language of re6uest( /" $ish to
burden you $ith _affairs` $ithin the borders-/ that is- " $ish to e#ploy you in
#y go'ern#ent. Vf course- 莊子 ta%es the sense of /burden/ literally.
40.3. 子之不•魚之O全h)ll.83<84,( 全)8=E, is used here in an al#ost technical
logical sense- #eaning /decisi'ely pro'en/ )deri'ed fro# the sense of /to be
40.4. 子B汝–C魚O云L)ll. 84<8=,( :ote the use of 云)E=F, here( "t
so#eti#es co#es at the end of a phrase to #ar% the end of the 6uotation
)/end 6uote/, or gestures 'aguely to$ard the rest of the thought )/etcetera/,.
/Rou said 7how do you %no$ that the fish are happy7 and so forth./ The 5o%e
here is that by phrasing the 6uestion in this $ay- ø子 supposedly ad#its that
莊子 did %no$ and only $anted to %no$ how he %ne$. Later- the 5o%e rests on
the #ultiple #eanings of – as both /ho$/ and /$here./ "t is nearly
i#possible to con'ey the pun in !nglish- though the rather archaic $ord
/$hence/ )#eaning both /fro# $here/ and /ho$/, $or%s so#e$hat( /3hence
do you %no$ the fish are happyg/
Vo(a)u*ar+ ,ints
ç)>E0, 大S)80>b- LFF, ê)3EH, ë)>E>, í)>3F<8,
ð)W0><F, ò)=WE, ó)80=E, ˜)EW=<3, õ)H8E,
÷)H=H, ‰)88H0, ƒ)>0=<8, /â8F4W<F, 飛)88F3,
實)33W<8, †)8343, V)8F48, 鼠)8F3E, L)W44,
梁)H>8<8 and H>8<3, 全)8=E, 循)43,
Chara(ter List
i. ]桐練æï )>,
iii. ÿ)8,
i'. 嚇û濠ì!腐醴鯈ü鶵)80,