· ... 0' F~ .:··-IDAMEI,NIALS FO'!. AIM .AJR.





Observe Your S1l.],rnJlJ.lndillgs Tl:u~ Nude as ·at Basis

23 24

What Is Line? 13e'ginneiFs" W'oiJ.-l



1 deal Proporlion~ &f ale

I deal Ptoportion,j Female

'VariQus Stand'arCh' of Proportun» Jde,(J,l ,Proportions at 'Varivus' -,4gC8 The F we Diagram

jr'h~3' Fla: Diagrarn

'Qttick; Se,~'~up of Proporfi,otl$ P'roportio'M by A res ,(J-jtil ,R e(td' V-nit~:

Pfop<n1.wn in Belauo« to the Horium T he John ,(jild Mary Problems

F ifl,(l'ing Prvportion at Any Spot in 'YOtlf Picture ~~ H,angi'ng'~~ F'i,gures' on the Horizon

We Begin to D~yjtO; First the "'if tl,n.nikin If rame ,~1 o'Venlent in, the M'(l:nnikbl Frame'

Detede o.t tho' ,i\:t'antlik.i'n Frame Ex,pDnnWttting with tlte l'vj",annikin F'i',(Jrn.e Outline8 in Relation to SolKl Farm

216 21 28 29 30 31

33 34,



QrO !iJI'O

39 40' 41 42

The Mannikin Figure


Adding Bulk to the Fnlme'

Adding Perspective to the Solid iWannikin Arts of ,M Ord)6"J'nerU in P t:n'~',recti:ve

PWc1n~ the M'{#i-ntkin at ,Any Spot ,or Level'

44 45 48


"T L

. ./

Du.u.oing the ,Al'tlnniki,c~ frOrft An,y' V iewpo·i.:n.t G llfnbif,ling ,Ate", (,/ M,Qve'ment toith the Box Landf.it(J~·ks You Should Koow

La ndmru"h' Y Ull S I! cn:J(J; Knotf.'

48 4:9 50 51 ,52

, Sketching the .Figu.re in Action p"ofJl.llnnginutioll ,Dr,ate SOfne oj These" B·u.t: DtaRi wt a.ny 0.1 Your Own TIl f;l F emale M annik'ln


The 1\1 ale Clnd Female Skeletons

53 54 55 Sf)


5"'" ,

Req uirem en ts of S uecessf ul Figure Dra win g


:EL1L USl'IlA T.~ON8

1 tnportant Bone.,:

l\'I·tl;s'cle.~' on. the Front of the l~igule A.fuscles on the Back of "the Ftgilf,e J1 usclcs ot the A f1n~ Front \' iew

,~.f uscles ol the Artu, '7.uded Viele,s ,~1 uscles of the Leg; Front 'Vi,;.oa.~

~iuscl.es oj the L€~g:> BIlek and S ide V'ieu) ,~10U; lust Piny u;.u.ft \vJUtt }r ou. Haoe Learned t'f'ry lhdld:ng l"'I'igure~' UJithout lHodel or Cops]

5,g 60 61 '62 6;3



c.t-·! U;.



P oreshorteni n.g. and 'Ln,gh,l mill g

(is 69


Block: Forms JI elp"to DCDelup Your Sense of ,Ii'tdk Feel Free to Invent Your ()wn Blocks

Hou: To Use an Arr·,Store W~ooden lfannikin

QUick Sketches from ~'he '-\7ond'en III wln£kJn F ores h ortening

Senne Pen Sketches [o« F(rrc;s/!01tenlng P lane I!}'






• ,I




Simple Lightiin,g on the Figure True M,odelin.g of llound,~d F onn



Grouping Sh~ldow h-t asses The M «in Valu,e.s Stated

TIle Fast S tatel7wnt ,oj V· alues Procedure

Proced tl:fe

T he Visu(tl~S urv.ey Proced ute Drawing ,frcnn the Alod'el

v. 'THE STANDIN'G FIG'URE Variety in the Standing Pose


The ':Veight nn (Jne Foot Distnbuted w eight,

There ,Ar,e; Marty Ways of Sl:anding S/utdvtv Definc.s' Farm,

T'.1lYe Nearly ,F font Light'ing Building fnn» the S keleto« A.ccentit~g the ,F orn~

.1'iootofny Te~1

A Typical Problem,

I Ll.l'STR.-o\. TIONS

T um.iflg ,aM TWi:$Nng Turning ,and' Twisting T urfling (jnd Twisting T 'urning: and Tu.is.ting 'Turning and TuJis;ting T'u.rni:ng ,and' TwisUng 1;1 enline ll'rlti ,P,eflcil



L19 80. 81


83 84, ,85 86 87 88 89

91 92

00 94 95 96 '97 98 99





111 ]12


Qui.:ck Sketcll;.ing wit/;t Pen and Pen.cil

A, Typical iProh]ern


V'I'l' F'O"RW' "'A- nn ~j[O' '\lE-'I\.~ENT'1 'T'lIl"E TIP"'P'ED" ][ IN'-E 0'" F· DALA' 'NC- 'E'

,Jl.' ", ", 111.. " J," .... 1l ' , ,L:\,.I, ' ' :,' ,r. '" " ,'- ",,,,, : .. , ,I 4 Q, ".' ,

The 1\4echani,cs of Movement

115 116

ILL usr8A nONS

Sntl;1)sfu)'t8 of \\,7' t:dking Poses Snapsh.at~ of Runnin.,g Poses The Til,ped Line of .Balance Springlike ~t ot.jeJnent

Action Too Fast j.ot the Eye Twisted F,onva1'd LWOtrem.ent Mone,nenJ 1teOO to Toe

F (£St &lovement

Pwh rOf the Bac,k Leg

,A Typical Problem

118 119 120 121 .122 123 124 ][25 126



')"III D' A, LA" NC'E R'H' 'y"lf"HM" R"'END"E'RlM'-N' 'G

v ' ,. ' ,',,', .. .s : ," " ,', 'j' , .' '" [ J!. '_' '~ , " '.',' " .m" ',,"



B(tlance Bulltflce

130 131 32

l-q(l' ~

,Two A:f ethods of A,ppnulClt

Dle~n{;ng Form 'l.vtth Just Tone and Accent Stressing C on.'S:tructi'Oll

T 1'00 M it~ru>te Studies


184 135 136,





Cras8ing Lines olllhyth1?l

""'5" ~ ... ,.


Relating One Contour to Another

Defintng by Edg'tJ.s and Shadow without Outline

A Typ~c~m, Problem

138 139 140 141 142






F' p" '" t B 1., D' .J:

!ue' m.1'l', ',·r'USr~, ' " 'ra;w;lng

141' '\
159 -

Th,e I ncompl'et'c Statement May Be Interesting

Poi'n;t Tech,nique

Planning a Pen Drn,wing

K,neeling and Sitting

K'n6eling and' T'wMtin,g or' Bending

Getting Full Val1Je Range with Ink and Pencil lnk and P'cncil in C ombinatiQil

Pen Dratmng

A ;i"';r ,..,. ;;. 'T ' t

' ~OI5'e:r, reatmen:

A Typical Problem


Sketches of Re,cl'ill"lug' Pose's St,udy

COMBe Gram 'P'apf!'1 Studies ,Study in F ore'shortening'

Cemented' Tu&ue Of)erl'ay~ Spatter and Brush Dr,awing ,Pen ShJd'ies

160 161 164, 165 1,66


A Typic~l Problem





H ad B ·:lJ"

e.-- "- UlW!ng

Block» a,oo P'ianes

Bone;g ,and M'U$cles' o.f the H cad The Muscle's in ,Light o.nd Sh~w Feahtres

Setting the F e,(J,tu1es into the Head Sbuli'es

Studies ,at M i8~ "~G'''' ¥,oung and Old


172, 173 174 175 176 1'71 118 179





M eke StUll'ies Like Theee of Your F ~iend.$ PrOl)omon of the' ,Baby fI,e'ad

Baby Heads



ThB Foot

A TYp'.tc:tlJ1 Problem



Draw FigureI' T.hen Cost'Uitle Clothing Htudi:ed frotn, L,jfle RendeJin,g D"Ulpery

Dratv the ,II alftunes ana Shadotm EUn"iination atld Subot(;Unation

study trom, Life

,Brush and Spa"ter Illustration

A l~Vl),~ci:tl. Problem




How Artists Work

H:l1U l~rng 'Your Studio Ahou t Your Prices.

I utrod uerung Yourself Do I.e YOtU' Way


181 182 18.3 184 185 186




DEAH R .,;A rH~R:

For m a 11 v veal'S the u c( ~d of n, f urther hook On

. .: .~ -

the subject of Ilgl1r:e dn~'wiug has been apparent: to me. I 'have waited for such a book to npp,ear which could be recommended to the Tnany young arrists with 'Vv,hOIU I have come in. canlacl .. Fjually, I have come to the realization that such a hook, l'cgfH(UeSS of one's ability as HI[ author, could be written oulv hv a man actuallv

• " Ii

in the field of corn mercial art ~ who in. his ex per 1-

encc had met and countered with the actual PIO i ).leI a", tha t m US t I· :J>C'C 1 arified. I recall how frantically, in the earlier days of Iny own expertcnee, ] searched for practical information that rnigh.t lend a helping hand 1.11 n~akiIlg my work marketable. neing in the not unusual position of ha viug toO S,lIJ pport nil yself, it was the predica-

f 1 ,. k d1' 1 "

men t.o na vt ng 1:0 maxe go,o·.. at art or JeJl.ng

forced to hun to some thing else,

Across. this wide COllntryT there are manv of

. "

you in that predicament. 'You) also possessed of

that u naccountahle ur ge which seemingly comes fro]ll. nowhere, \ v ant to speak the language of art. You love to dra w. Y Ott wish to dra V{ \~le]l. If there is, any chance, you gready wish to make a living at it. Perhaps ill can help you. I sincerely hope SOl for I think I lave lived. lb:rough every min ute you are now' living. Perhaps I can compile some of the informa tion that experience tells. me you want and. need. I do not preten d '~O underval ue the Sue work that has been done; the difii.culty has always. been in finding it and sorting out what is of practical v,a]ti.e and putting it into practice, M believe that the g:reater chances of success He In ~h,e menta] approach to the 'wo!lrk, rather than in sheer technical knowledge, and since the mental a pproach 'bas, not often been stressed, here rules the 0Pl)ortunity to serve you.

] not only assumethat my reader is interested

in drawing hut tha.t he wishes Irom his toes, up' b) become an efih:.:ieut and ,s,elf-su.pporting. craftsI[}.;;LU. I assume that the des ire to express YOUI- self wi th pen an d pen ei] is no t only ur geut '1)U t

almost undeniable, and that vou feel YOU mU8~' do

,~ r1.

sotnething about U.l fee] that talent means little

unless coupled with an insatiable desire to give an exce l1en t persoual deJnol.lstra tion of a hi]] ty . I feel also that tale n t m ust be in corn pany \V"[ th a capf:\city for unlimited effort, which provides the pO"\ver that eventually hurdles the di Hicu t~ tics 'that would frustrate lukewarm enthnsiaxm.

Let us try to define that q' ualitv which makes

~ , .

an artis t .:. tick." Every bit of work he docs starts

out with the premise that it 'has a ]nt~ss.iigc~ a pur-· pose.~ .8L job to do. What is the most direct answer I' the shnpiest interpretation of that message he can make '( Stripping a, s u hj eel: to its 'harest and roost eln!ci,ent essentials :]s at men tal procedi re. Every inch. of the surface of Ids work should be considered as to whether. it bears important relationship to a, \iv,hole plllpOSe.. He sees) a.nd. his plcturc tens, us the Importance oj what 'he sees and how he feels. a bou t it. Then within hi S. picture he stresses what is of greatest im portancc ~ and su hordina tes wha 1: must he there but is of lesser- importance .. He wiU place his area of greatest contrast a bouit the head of the most important character, He \ViII. search diHgenUy for means to make that character exp.ress the emotion in acial e;xpress,io.u and pose tha t is to be the all important theme, He' wHI first draw a ttention to that character l' by every means available, ]n other words, he plans and. tbin:[k:s, and does 'not :pa$s\ru.v.e~.y accept s.:mrnply beca use it exjs:b s. Not f'al back in. the annals of art the ability to achieve lust ,3, lifelike appearance luigJh t ha. ve mused. some wonder i!l' a spe.ctator·, enough to


i\N OPE'NIN(;, CI-lA T

capture his interest. Today with color photog-

ra phy and the excellence 01 the. camera goin g perhaps [even. further in that respect, 'we are SUT~ feitcd with realism par excellence, until mere ]ile1j:ke r epresentation is not enough. There is no . other course than snm ahow to gP beyond 0 bvious fact to :pertb1J.e]lt: fact, to. characterization,

to the emotional and dramatic, to selection and taste, to simplification, subordination, and accell tua tion, It is ten per cen t 'how yon dra \V j au d ninety per cent what you drrlU). Equally de-Sning everything wtthin Your picture area, in value,

~ ~

edge and detail, 'will add no more than can he

achieved in phot:oblTaLphy. Snhordination inay be achieved bv diUusion .. bv closeness of color and

~ ~ ~

value to S urro un ding areas, l)y sllrnp 1 ification of

insistent detail,. or hy omission, Accentuation


is achieved by the opposite in each case, by

sharpness, contrast, detail, or any added device.

I take this. Opportunity to impress npon you.~ my reader? how important you really are in the whole of. art procedure. You, ynur personali ty" your indivtduality come first. Your pictures ale your by-product, 'Everything about your pi l,":tures is, an d should be, a H tile of you. They will be are:Hcction. of your knowledgE:, your expcrience, vo ur 0 bservation ~ your Ii kes and dis-

J ~ ~

liles" you.]' good taste, and your thinking. So the

real concentration is centered on youi and yOlur work follows along in the wake of what: mental sell-improvement you are making. It has taken 111e a ~ ifetime tOo reali ze th a t. So befure we talk at all about drawing~ it is. important to sell you strongly on yourself; to phlll1t that: urge SiQ definitely in your consciousness that you ~ UUL"t know at onee tlla.t B10st of It ,COIr'U:::'S frorn the other


end of yom' pencil ra ther than the business end.

As a. student 1 thought there 'was [II Iormula of SO~H~ khtd that I would get hold of somewhere, an'a therebv become an artist, There is a. Ior-


mula, but it has not been in books. It Is really

plain old cour.age~ standing on one's own lc,et,

and forever seeking enl~glltenrnent.; coura.ge to ,deve]op your w.ay, but learning from the other lello,v; experimen tatiou wi th your own ideas, o bs erving for voursclf, a. rigid disci p.]irm e of do']ng over tha t which you can improve, I have never found. a book that stressed the Importance of myself as the caretaker of Illy ability, of stay]]]g_ health v men tally and physicall v, or that 'ga ve

~ ... oJ oJ ' .' ,

me an link1.i'ng th~t nly courage 'might be strained

to 'ithe utmost. Perhaps that is not the ",ray to write books, but 1 can see no harm in the author realfzin g, that he .is. dealing with persona]! tics, and that th.e.re is something more ,iul.portant than tec,hnique. in art we are dealin g. \-vith something far removed fn:H[L1 a cold science, where the 11 uman element is. everything." At least I am, determined to establlshed a fellowship with 'mlY reader 1c w el co min g' him to the L-r.a(t at which I have spent so many years. If I have any blue chips, I C:ElJ.n pass. on to hun; I lay them before 'binli so that he ma.y jom in the ganle. I cannot prof.ess to .know more than the experience of one mdrvidual, However ~ one individual exp~r],~nce if 'wide enou.gh uright well rover many of the problems that wil] doubtless come to others, So 1111 lions of those p:ro'b]e'm:s rna y provide iike solutions u I call layout an assortment of facts and fuudamentais that "were helpful to me, I can speak of the idea1izations.~ the practical hints and devices that 'win undoubtedly make dra,vings more salable. S.IJr[C®· the requirements are almost universal, and since 111)' own expertence does not 'vary greatly from the averag'e- experience of my contemporaries, ] .offer ~ny material \vnhout setting 11 p myself and Rly wor k as a criterion, In fact, I 'would ,p re fer , ~.f it were possible ~ to suhordina te EOY own viewpoint, or technical a pprnach ~ and. leave the reader as nee as possible for indivtdual decision and self -exprf~ssion, I use my experience merely to clari~y the genc.ra 1 req uirernents,

I t should he obvious tha t~ ,first of all, sala ble




.' , : 'd" ','" .', ,,' 1 l"\.

ngure drawing must he good drawing,. and itl':good drawing'" means a gn;at deal more to the professional than to the beginner. It IDea 11S that a. figure- must be (''ODvincing' and appealing at the same time, It rn ust he of idealistic rather th an literal Or' normal proportion. It !R us t he rei a ted in perspective to a constant eye lever or vie~-. ,point.. TIle aaatomy must be 'COITect:; whether exposed to' the eye or concealed beneath drapery 1O,r costume. The li ght ~n:d shadow III 1J8t be so handled as to ,hnpart a livi.ng qualify. Its action Of g'cst1Jlre~ its. dramatic quality, expression, and emotion must be convincing; Good dra\ving 'is neither an accident nor the 'result of ~1. inspired m'rlOlllellt when the M1L';es lend a guiding hand. 'Good drawing 'ms a eo-ordination of' many lactors, all understood and handled expertly, as in a deUca te' surgical operation. Let us say that each factor becomes an mstrument or part of a me,ans 0.1 expressio«. It is 'when the moans of expression is develope91 as a whole that Inspiration


and individual 'fe-eHng: come' into play. It is pos-


sihlc for anybo~y to be (. o.ff:> at any time in any

one or more of the factors. Every artist will do

4>1; d '~d "b .J <1" T- b bad ill h

goo one-s. an: - nan one'S. I ae au WIl iave

to be thrown out and done OV(~r. The artist should, of course, make a eritica] analysis to detormine w'by a drawing is' bad, uSl1lally he 'will be forced to go hack to. fundamentals 1 for. bad dramng sprin gs from basic faults as surely as good drawing springs ,{Tom basic merits.

Therefore a useful book of figure dl',awing cannot treat one phase alone, as the study of anatomy; it must abo seek out and. eo-ordinate all the basic factors 1upon 'which good draw,in,g: depends, It must consider both aesthetics and sales possthilities, technical rendering and tn?'iea] problems to be solved. Otherwise' 'the read~,

er is only partially informed; he is. taught but one angle; and then, left to Hounder +

May I assume that YoOu as a young artist are faci ng a bread-and- butter pro blem? \Vhenever

YoOu achieve suiI:h':'i,ent technical ability, there wtll he an income ,,""aiting for you." FrOIO that point on yOUT' earnings win increase in ratio to your improvement . In the fields of practical art the ranks, thin out at the "top, lust as they do everywhere else. There ]$ not aJ'.IJ. advertising agen.cy~ a magazine publisher, a lithograph house, Of an art dealer' s that 'win not gladly open its doors to real abili ty that is. new and d iffe.rent .I t is mediocrity to which t.he door is closed. U nfortuna tely mos t of us are medi OCTe- when we start out; 'by and large., most commercial artists of outstanding ability had no more than a venlLg:c taWen t at the start.

May I confess that two weeks after entering art 5 choo], I was a.d vi sed. to g(J back houle? That experience has made me much mnre tolerant of an tnauspicious beginIling than m mJight otherwise have 'been, and i:t has given me additional mcentive in tea,ehing.

IndividuaHty of expression is, without question, an artist's '1l110St valuable asset, You could make ,no more fatal error than to ,atternpt to dup liea te, for the sale of duplication alone, either my work or that of any other judi vidual. Use another's style as a crutch on.1y~until you ean walk alone. Trends of popularity are as change.able as the weather .. AnatOTI1Y, ,perspective, v.a] ues remain con stant; htl t you must d iligun tly search. for new \vays to apply them. The grea.test problem here is to 'provide you with a sol[d basis that will nurture individuality and not produce imitation. I grc.1tnt that a certain amount of imitauon in, the earltest phase of' lea:lil.lI.ing InaJ.y he necessary in order that self -expression rna y have an essential blfl::ckgrourui. But there can he no progress in any art or cralt without an aceu .... mulation of individual experience. The experience comes best duough y01!ll' O\VIl e:llort or observatiou, thl:OUgh self-instruction, the reading of a book, or the study of an old In, aster. These

, .

experiences are bundled. together to form .rOll!