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ACS Practice Test 2

Acids & Bases:

1. HCl is a strong acid. What is the pH of 200 mL of 0.002 M HCl? (A) 2.0 (B) 2.7 (C) 3.4 (D) 4.0 2. The pH of a 0.03 M HCl solution is (A) 1.5 (B) 2.5 (C)




3. The pH of a 1.0 103 M Ba(OH)2 solution at 25 C is (A) 2.7 (B) 3.0 (C) 11.0 (D) 11.3 4. The pH of a solution is 5. If the pH of this solution is decreased to 2, by what factor is the concentration of hydrogen ion increased? (A) 2 1/2 (B) 3 (C) 10 (D) 100 (E) 1000 5. What is the pH of a 0.01 M NaOH solution? (A) 1012 (B) 12 (C) 12
Atomic Structure:



6. Which particle has the smallest mass? (A)hydrogen atom (B)alpha particle (C)beta particle (D)proton (E)neutron

7. A sodium ion differs from a sodium atom in that the sodium ion (A) (D) is more reactive. (B) exists only in solution. has fewer electrons. (C) is an isotope of sodium. (E) has a negative charge on its nucleus.

8. What is the number of unpaired electrons in an isolated free iron atom (atomic number 26) in the ground state? (A) zero (B) two (C) three (D) four 9. Which ion has twentysix electrons? (A) Cr2+ (B) Fe2+ (C) Ni2+ (D) Cu2+

10. The element in Period 5, Group 3A, has the outer electron configuration (A)

5s25p1 (B)

3s23p5 (C)

3s23p3 (D)


11. Use the section of a periodic table to determine the type of bond that will form between W and E.
I Fir st Per iod Second Per iod Third Per iod Four th Per iod X Y Z II Q R S I II M N M ain Gr oups IV V VI T U V W V I I (O) D E G J K L






ionic (D)



van der Waals

2 12. Which characteristic is generally true of nonmetallic oxides? (A)They are in general ionic compounds. (B)They are in general covalent compounds. (C)They react with water to form bases. (D)They cannot be prepared directly from the elements. (E)They react with acids to form a salt and water 13. Which atom description represents an element that could form a covalent compound with an atom of a nonmetal?
(A ) Nucleus 3p, 4 n (B) Nucleus 11 p, 12 n (C) Nucleus 29 p, 35 n (D) Nucleus 8p, 10 n n=1 2e n=1 2e n=1 2e n=1 2e n=2 8e n=2 8e n=2 6e n=3 1e n=3 18 e n=3 n=4 1e n=4 n=4 n=2 n=3 n=4

14. Hydrogen bonding is shown by molecules containing hydrogen attached to (A) highly electronegative atoms. (B) highly electropositive atoms. (C) any atoms. (D) only oxygen. 15. Which best represents hydrogen bonding in liquid methanol (CH3OH)?
















16. In the electrolysis of aqueous copper sulfate using inert electrodes, passage through the cell of 96,500 C will liberate Atomic Molar Mass Cu 63.5 gmol1 (A)63.5 g of copper. (B)31.7 g of copper. (C)16.0 g of oxygen. (D)32.0 g of oxygen.

17. A solution of copper(II) sulfate is electrolyzed between inert electrodes. Assuming no gas evolution at the cathode, for how many seconds must a current of 1.93 A flow to deposit 0.640 g of copper metal? Atomic Molar Mass 1 Cu 63.5 gmol Conversion Factor 95,500 C = 1 F (A) 9650 s (B) 2000 s (C) 1930 s (D) 1000 s (E) 965 s

18. How many grams of aluminum is deposited electrolytically in 30 min by a current of 40 A? Atomic Molar Mass Al 27.0 gmol1 Conversion Factor 95,500 C = 1 F (C) 9.0 g (D) 13.5 g


3.0 g


6.7 g


27.0 g

19. How many coulombs are required to liberate one mole of iron from a solution of Fe2(SO4)3? 96500 96500 (A)96500 (B)6 96500 (C) (D) (E) 3 96500 6 3 20. Two electrolytic cells, one containing a silver nitrate solution and the other containing a copper(II) sulfate solution, were connected so that the same current passed through both cells. A current was passed through both solutions until 53.95 g of silver had been deposited. What mass, in grams, of copper was deposited? Atomic Molar Masses Ag 107.9 gmol1 Cu 63.5 gmol1 (A) 15.9 (B) 27 (C) 31.8 (D) 54 (E) 63.6

21. The value of the equilibrium constant K for a reaction at equilibrium is altered by (A)changing the effective concentration of reactants. (B)changing the effective concentration of products. (C) changing the temperature. (D) adding a catalyst. (E) adding water. 22. Which is true, by definition, for a system that has reached a state of chemical equilibrium? (A)The substance having the smaller volume has a tendency to form at the expense of the other substances. (B)No further reaction occurs in either direction. (C)The concentrations of reactants and products are necessarily equal. (D)The opposing reactions have equal velocities. (E)The total mass of the products is equal to the total mass of the reactants.

4 23. The reversible reaction. 2H2 + CO CH3OH(g) + heat is carried out by mixing carbon monoxide and hydrogen gases in a closed vessel under high pressure with a suitable catalyst. After equilibrium is established at high temperature and pressure, all three substances are present. If the pressure on the system is lowered, with the temperature kept constant, what will be the result? (A) The amount of CH3OH will be increased. (B) The amount of CH3OH will be decreased. (C) The amount of each substance will be unchanged. (D) The amount of each substance will be increased. (E) The result cannot be predicted from the information given. 24. In which gas reaction would a change in pressure have no appreciable effect upon the composition of the equilibrium mixture? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) H2 + I2


2SO2 + O2 2SO3 4HCl + O2 N2 + 3H2

2Cl2 + 2H2O

2NH3 2NO2

2NO + O2

25. The numerical value of the equilibrium constant for any chemical change is affected by changing (A) the catalyst. (B) the concentration of the products. (C) the concentration of reacting substances. (D) the pressure. (E) the temperature
Formulas & Equations:

26. The ions present in solid silver chromate Ag2CrO4 are (A) Ag+ and CrO42 (B)Ag2+ and CrO44 (C)Ag+, Cr6+, and O2

(D)Ag+, Cr3+, and O2

27. Substances that contain water incorporated in the crystal in definite proportions by weight are (A)anhydrous. (B)amorphous. (C)hydrates. (D)polymorphous. (E)zeolites. 28. Three compounds having the formulas NaCl, CaCl2, and AlCl3 exist. Comparison of these formulas indicates that (A) the chlorine atom can accept l, 2, or 3 electrons. (B) combined chlorine has a positive oxidation number. (C) the combining capacity of chlorine varies. (D) the combining capacities of the metals are different. (E) each metal has a variable combining capacity. 29. The chemical equation 2CO2 2CO + O2 informs us that (A)when 2 mol of CO2 decompose, less than 2 mol of CO will be formed and the quantity of O2 formed will be less than 1 mol. (B)only under special conditions will 2 mol of CO2 yield 2 mol of CO and l mol of O2.

5 (C)carbon dioxide decomposes, but that the relative amounts of CO2, CO, and O2 involved in the reaction are a function of conditions. (D)regardless of conditions, the decomposition of l mol of CO2 will yield l mol of CO and 1/2 mole of O2. (E)the tendency of CO2 to decompose is equal to the tendency of CO and O2 to combine.

30. At constant volume, the pressure of gas Y increases with increasing temperature because as the temperature increases, (A) molecules of Y move faster. (B) the molecular volume of Y increases. (C) the mass of Y molecules increases. (D) molecular collisions are more elastic. (E) molecules are closer together. 31. A student collected 40 mL of H2 gas when the temperature was 20 C and the pressure was 720 mmHg. The next day the temperature was 20 C, but he had only 38.4 mL of gas. The new pressure is (A)691 mmHg (B)700 mmHg (C)721 mmHg (D)750 mmHg (E)760 mmHg 32. A container holds 3.0 g of hydrogen. If it is evacuated and filled with methane, CH4, at the same temperature and pressure, what mass of methane does it now hold? Atomic Molar Masses 1 C 12.0 gmol H 1.0 gmol1 (A) 16 g (B) l9 g (C) 22.4 g (D) 24 g (E) 48 g 33. If the temperature of 10.0 L of a gas is decreased from 0.00 C to 27.3 K and the pressure is increased from 10.0 atm to 100.0 atm, the new volume will have a value nearest to (A) 1000 L. (B) 10.0 L. (C) 1.00 L. (D) 0. 100 L. (E) 27.3 L. 34. Both the pressure and the absolute temperature of a certain gas sample are doubled. In the absence of dissociation, the density of the gas is (A)quadrupled. (B)doubled. (C)unchanged. (D)decreased by onefourth (E)decreased by one half.
Introductory Concepts:

35. Most nonmetals (A) are relatively good reducing agents. (B) form hydroxides that are basic or amphoteric. (C) are lustrous and highly conductive. (D) form anions more readily than cations. (E) have only 1, 2, or 3 electrons in the outermost shell. 36. Scientists have not been able to attain a temperature lower than about 273 C. Theory predicts that we shall never reach a temperature much lower than this because (A)all gases liquefy before reaching this temperature. (B)that would imply zero volume for molecules. (C)there can be no negative values for temperature. (D)molecules cannot have kinetic energy less than zero. (E)molecules cannot have a negative mass. 37. Which is most likely to be characteristic of a atom showing metallic properties?

6 (A)a low atomic number (B)a high ratio of protons to neutrons electrons (D)fewer than three valence electrons 38. Which is correct for most metals? (A)form complex ions (B)have variable valence (D)are amphoteric (E)give up electrons to chlorine (C)more than five valence

(C) have colored ions

39. Antimony reacts spontaneously with chlorine to form antimony chloride. The reaction would proceed with reduced velocity if one were to (A) use smaller particles of antimony. (B) use larger particles of antimony. (C) increase the pressure on the chlorine gas before the antimony is introduced. (D) increase the temperature of the chlorine. (E) carry out the reaction in sunlight.

no catalyst present catalyst present


reaction coordinate

Which statement concerning the reaction coordinate diagram is true? (A) The catalyst decreases the activation energy. (B) The reaction is endothermic. (C) The addition of a catalyst slows this reaction. (D) A and B have lower potential energy than C and D. 41. Which is necessarily true of the role of a catalyst in equilibrium? (A) It affects the equilibrium constant. (B) It shifts equilibrium to the products. (C) It decreases the time interval necessary for establishment of equilibrium. (D) It has a greater effect on the forward reaction rate than on the reverse reaction rate.

7 42. Two reaction pathways are indicated: one for the uncatalyzed reaction and one for the reaction in the presence of a catalyst.


D X + YZ XZ + Y reaction coordinate

The activation energy in the presence of this catalyst is represented by (A) A (B) B (C) C (D) D (E)

E minus B

43. The following mechanism has been proposed for the formation of ethylbenzene: CH3CH2Br + AlBr3 AlBr4 + CH3CH2+ CH3CH2+ + C6H6 C6H6CH2CH3+ C6H6CH2CH3 + AlBr4 AlBr3 + HBr + C6H5CH2CH3 Which substance serves as the catalyst? (A) AlBr3 (B) AlBr4 44. The table presents data for the reaction: 2H2(g) + 2NO(g)
1 k





2H2O(g) + N2(g)

The temperature of the reaction is constant. The initial rate is in arbitrary units. Initial Concentration (molL1) Initial Exp. [NO] 103 [H2] 103 Rate I 6.0 1.0 18 II 6.0 2.0 36 III 1.0 6.0 3 IV 2.0 6.0 12 What is the rate law for this reaction? (A) rate = k1 [H2] [NO] (B) rate = k1 [H2]2 [NO]2 (C) (D) rate = k1 [H2] [NO]2

rate = k1 [H2]2 [NO]

45. The anode product in the electrolysis of solutions of hydrogen chloride depends on the concentration of the solution. The best experimental evidence for this is:

8 (A) The electrolysis of 1 M HCl between inert electrodes requires a potential of 1.3 V, while the electrolysis of 0.01 M HCl requires 1.7 V. (B) Hydrochloric acid is completely dissociated in dilute solution. (C) The anode product from the 1 M solution is a greenish yellow gas while that from the 0.01 M solution is a colorless, odorless gas. (D) Two gases are formed in the electrolysis of both solutions but the greenishyellow gas dissolves in the more dilute solution so that only the colorless gas is observed. (E) When either of two ions may be oxidized at an anode, the one requiring the lowest potential will be oxidized and this potential depends on the concentration as well as on the relative ease of oxidation. 46. Anhydrous calcium chloride, frequently used as a drying agent for gases and liquids in the laboratory, readily deliquesces in the air. Which conclusion can be drawn from this fact? (A)A concentrated calcium chloride solution has a vapor pressure that is greater than the actual pressure of the water vapor in the air. (B)A concentrated calcium chloride solution has a vapor pressure that is less than the actual pressure of the water vapor in the air. (C)The deliquescence of calcium chloride is not related to the humidity. (D)Calcium chloride forms a solution with evolution of heat. (E)Calcium chloride is not very soluble in water. 47. Which would be most effective for drying moist carbon dioxide gas? (A) solid calcium oxide (B) activated charcoal (C) a concentrated sodium hydroxide solution (D) concentrated sulfuric acid (E) a one-molar solution of calcium chloride 48. How can you decide most easily whether a given gas is hydrogen or oxygen? (A) Determine its solubility in water. (B) Pass an electric spark through it. (C) Place a piece of glowing charcoal in the gas. (D) Determine its molar mass. (E) Smell the gas. 49. Which gas can be least readily collected by the displacement of water from the container? (A) H2 (B) N2 (C) O2 (D) NH3 (E) CO2
Metals & Non-Metals:

50. Which will react with cold water to produce a gas that will burn in air? (A)hydrogen peroxide (B)potassium metal (C)calcium carbonate (D)zinc metal (E)acetylene 51. Which has the least tendency to give off oxygen when heated? (A) KClO3 (B) Fe2O3 (C) HgO (D) BaO2 (E)


52. The best experimental evidence for the fact that calcium is more metallic than bismuth is that (A) calcium is harder and more rigid than is bismuth. (B) calcium is farther to the left in the periodic table than is bismuth. (C) calcium hydroxide is a stronger base than is bismuth hydroxide. (D) the valence electrons of calcium are less firmly held than those of bismuth. (E) bismuth has more valence electrons than does calcium 53. Which property of lithium is not shared by the other alkali metals? (A) low electronegativity (B) direct reaction with atmospheric nitrogen (C) soluble hydroxide (D) oxidation state of +l in compounds

9 54. Which metal occurs in the earth's crust primarily as the free element? (A) gold (B) zinc (C) iron (D) aluminum
Molecular Geometry:
:O C N H 55. The molecule stars. The predicted CNH bond angle is about (A) 60 (B) 90 (C) 109 (D)

has been detected in gas clouds between 120

56. The bond type and molecular polarity of SiCl4 are Bond Type (A) polar (B) polar (C) nonpolar (D) nonpolar 57. Which of these is a nonpolar molecule?

Polarity of Molecule nonpolar polar polar nonpolar







58. Which molecule is nonpolar? (A) CCl4 (B) HCl


CF3Cl (D)




59. Which molecule has the largest dipole moment? (A) CO2 (B) H2S (C) CCl4 (D)
Oxidation & Reduction:

60. Which process represents a general method for the preparation of a metal from its compounds? (A)neutralization (B)reduction (C)oxidation (D)fusion (E)sublimation 61. Which reaction involves neither oxidation nor reduction? (A) formation of sulfur dioxide from sulfur (B) Formation of water by action of sodium hydroxide and nitric acid (C) formation of iron(II) sulfate by action of iron on copper sulfate solution (D) photosynthesis by green plants in the sunlight (E) union of iron with sulfur 62. The fact that Na3AsS3 can be converted into Na3AsS4 in an aqueous suspension of sulfur indicates that sulfur (A) is electropositive. (B) is related to arsenic. (C) can be an oxidizing agent. (D)has eight valence electrons. (E) is changing its oxidation state in the same manner as when Na2SO3 is converted to Na2SO4.

10 63. The action of hot, concentrated sulfuric acid on copper is best explained by the (A) acid property of the H3O+ ion. (B) oxidizing property of concentrated sulfuric acid. (C) oxidizing property of H3O+ ion. (D) dehydrating property of concentrated sulfuric acid. (E) volatility of concentrated sulfuric acid. 64. Under certain conditions H2O2 can act as an oxidizing agent; under other conditions, as a reducing agent. What is the best experimental evidence for this? (A)H2O2 is a good bleaching agent. (B)Peroxides are stronger oxidizing agents than are oxides. (C)H2O2 will decolorize KMnO4 solutions in the presence of an acid and will turn black lead sulfide to a white compound. (D)An atom within a compound can sometimes attain a more stable electronic structure either by gaining or by losing electrons. (E)The oxygen atoms in H2O2 share electrons; therefore, H2O2 is a covalent compound.
Periodic Properties: 65. Which ion has the largest radius? 66. Which ion is the largest?

(A) (A) Ca2+

Te2 (B)

(B) K+ (C)

F (C)

(C) Sc3+

Rb+ (D) (D)

(D) S2 K0, K+


67. Which pair is given in the order of increasing size? (A) Cl, Cl0 (B) Sr, Ca

Fe3+, Fe2+

68. What happens when a bromine atom becomes a bromide ion? (A) A positive ion is formed. (B) The nucleus acquires a negative charge. (C) It becomes a particle with a smaller diameter. (D) It becomes a particle with a larger diameter. (E) Its atomic number is decreased by one. 69. The sizes of metal atoms (A) generally increase progressively from bottom to top in a group in the periodic table. (B) generally increase progressively from top to bottom in a group in the periodic table. (C) generally increase progressively from left to right in a period. (D) are smaller than those of the corresponding ions. (E) do not change upon losing electrons.

70. If a 17.0 g sample of impure nickel metal reacts under standard conditions with 25.0 L of CO to form 6.25 L of Ni(CO)4 gas, what is the percentage of Ni in the metal sample? Ni(s) + 4CO(g)Ni(CO)4(g) Molar Masses Ni 58.7 Ni(CO)4171. gmol1 24.1% (B) 25.0% (C) 96.4% gmol1


(D) 100%

11 71. A 2.000 g sample of a Ni-Tl-Zn alloy is dissolved in nitric acid and 1.750 g of thallium(I) iodide, TlI, is precipitated by the addition of hydriodic acid. Calculate the percentage of thallium in the alloy. Molar Masses Ni 58.71 gmol1 Tl 204.4 gmol1 Zn 65.37 gmol1 TlI 331.3 gmol1 (A) 39.03% (B) 53.98% (C) 62.22% (D) 87.50% 72. A piece of silver foil having a mass of 0.5840 g had become tarnished because of formation of Ag2S, with a mass increase of 0.0010 g. What percentage of the original silver has been converted to Ag2S? Atomic Molar Masses S 32. gmol1 Ag 108. gmol1 (A) 0.6% (B) 1.2% (C) 1.8% (D) 2.4% 73. What is the percentage of nitrogen by mass in (NH4)3PO4? Atomic Molar Masses H 1.0 gmol1 N 14.0 gmol1 O 16.0 gmol1 P 31.0 gmol1 (A) 14/62 100% (B) 21/80 100% (C) 14/l13 100% (D) 42/149 100%

74. A 2.00 g mixture of NaCl and NaNO3 dissolved in water required 90 mL of 0.10 M AgNO3 to precipitate all the chloride. What is the mass percentage of NaCl in the original sample? Atomic Molar Masses Na 23.0 gmol1 Ag 107.9 gmol1 Cl 35.5 gmol1 N 14.0 gmol1 O 16.0 gmol1 (A) 10 (B) 26 (C) 58 (D) 90

75. Which reaction has the largest positive entropy change per mole of CO formed? (A) CO2(g) CO(g) + 1/2O2(g) (B) (C) (D) CH3OH(g) CO(g) + 2H2(g) CO2(g) + NO(g)

CO(g) + NO2(g)

CO2(g) + H2(g) CO(g) + H2O(l)

76. At any given temperature the entropy of a mole of liquid, compared to the entropy of a mole of its vapor, is always

12 (A) smaller. (B) the same. (C) larger. (D) unrelated.

77. When Al2O3(s) is formed from the elements at standard conditions, the values of H0 and G0 at 298 K are 1617 kJmol1 and 1577 kJmol1, respectively. The standard entropy of formation per mole, in joules per degree, will be (A) 315 (B) 157 (C) 93.3 (D) 0.0933 (E) +15.7 78. Compound SO2(g) SO3(g)

(kJmol1) 301 372

What is G0 for this reaction at 298 K? 2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g) (A) 142 kJ (B) 200 kJ (C) 744 kJ (D) 142 kJ

79. Consider ice in equilibrium with liquid water at 273 K. Which of the following relationships is correct for G(s), the free energy per mole of ice and G(l), the free energy per mole of the liquid? (A) G(s) is less than G(l) (B) G(s) is greater than G(l) (C) G(s) equals 0, G(l) equals 0 (D) G(s) equals G(l); neither equals 0 80. Which reaction is spontaneous in the direction written? Standard Reduction Potentials E0 2+ Mg 2.37 V Mg + 2e 3+ + 3e Al Al 1.66 V 2+ + 2e Zn Zn 0.76 V 2+ + 2e Fe Fe 0.44 V 2+ + 2e Cu Cu 0.34 V + + e Ag Ag 0.80 V (A) (B) (C) (D) 2Ag + Cu2+ Cu + 2Ag+ Fe + Zn2+ Fe2+ + Zn 2Al + 3Mg2+ 2Al3+ + 3Mg 2Al + 3Zn2+ 2Al3+ + 3Zn