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When Japan Was "Champion of the Darker Races" :

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Satokata Takahashi and the' Flowering of Black Messianic Nationalism*
by Ernest Ailen, Jr.
n late September 1942, in a series of highly publicized raids, federal agents in Chicago arrested eighty-five African Americans. Three women and nine men were charged with sedition ; the remainder were accused of draft evasion . Indicted on the former charge were hlijah Muhammad,' Linn Karriem, and Pauline Bahar of the Allah Temple of Islam [ATOI] ; Mittie Maud Lena Gordon, Seon Jones, William Gordon, and DavidJ. Logan of the Peace Movement of Ethiopia [PME] ; Charles Newby (aka Father Divine Haasan) of the Colored American National Organization [CANO] ; Stokely Delmar Hart, James Graves, and Annabelle Moore of the Brotherhood of Liberty for the Black People of America [BLBPA] , and Frederick H. Hammurabi Robb of the Century Service Exchange.l Several days earlier, five members of the Ethiopian Pacific Movement [EPM] - Robert O. Jordan (aka Leonard Robert Jordan), James Thornhill, Lester Holness, the Rev . Ralph Green Best, and Joseph Hartrey, an Irishman - were indicted in New York City on the more serious charges.' Less raucously, back in May, ministers David X (aka David Jones and David Duvon) and Sultan Muhammad of the ATOI's Washington and Milwaukee temples, respectively, were detained on charges of sedition as well.} In October the head of the International Reassemble of the Church of Freedom League, Inc. [IRCFL], the Rev. Ethelbert A. Broaster, was arrested in New Orleans.' The following January, a second round of indictments occurred in East St .
THE BLACK SCHOLAR VOLUME 24, NO.1

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Louis, where Bishop David D. Erwin and General Lee Butler, two leaders of the Pacific Movement of the Eastern World [PMEW], were also charged with crimes against the State." In Newark, seven members of the House of Israel [HOI] - Brother Rueben Israel (aka Askew Thomas), Alfred Woods, Isaiah Cald, Robert Moses, Oscar Rumlin, Dawsey Johnson, and Jeremiah Ardis - were seized as draft evaders.' There had been earlier as well as subsequent arrests for draft evasion, too, including the roundup of 12 members of the Kansas City branch of the Moorish Science Temple of America [MSTA] in July 1942 .fl These accusations against outspoken African American opponents of World War II involved violations of the Espionage Act of 1917 and the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940 .y More to the point: in the eyes of government, the proJapanese loyalties of the defendants in the above cases constituted a threat to national security. Indeed, the reported remarks of an ATOI member appeared to give substance to such concerns:
the white devils desire the colored people to die with them in the Army and Navy ; we don't want to be with him in the Army or out . . . the time has come when the white devils will be destroyed by dark mankind . . . the eagles seen on United States money and the uniforms of service men is the mark of the beast and if you have that mark the Japanese are going to shoot at it when they come here."'

The best known today of all the above groups, the Allah Temple of Islam was an off PAGE 23

ABSTRACT

When Japan Was "Champion of the Darker Races":

Satokata Takahashi and the Flowering of Black Messianic Nationalism

During World War II, some 125 African Americans were arrestedfor resisting the deaf~` orfor exercising seditious behavior. The twenty or so _ persons held on the more serious charges included Elijah Muhammad of the Allah Temple ofIslam, a religious association; Mittie Maud Lens Gordon 'the Peace Movement of Ethiopia, an African repatriation movement in the Garvey tradition; the Rev. EthelbertA. Broaster of the International Reassemble of the Church of Freedom League, Inc., a black Hebrew organization ; and Bishop David D. Erwin and General Lee Butler, leaders of the Pacific Movement 'the Eastern World, an emigrationistgroup. The arrests brought to light the existence of strong, proJapanese sentiments amongAfrican Americans that the authorities, not to mention black middle-class spokespersons, quickly dismissed as the uttering ofa small number offanatics The reality, however, was that pro-Japanfeelings among black workers as well as the black middle class had been building since the turn ofthe centccry, followingJapan's celebrated victory over the Russian fleet. This mood wrrs given greater impetus during the worstyears ofthe Great Depression by the appearance in Detroit of aJapanese ndtional known as Major Satokata Takahashi, who took command of an associa-

tion known as The Development of Our Own. Mr. Takahashi's initial organizing activities in Detroit, Chicagq and St. Louis, and the "ripple ofj"ects" therefrom, led to the messianic expectation on the part ~tens of thousands ofAfrican Americans throughout the midwest, the upper and lower Mississippi Delta, east~entral Oklahoma and the New YorkNezuJersey region thatJapan's imperial army wouldfree themfrom the ravages ofAmerican racism. Through the employ of newspaper articles, FBI documents, military intelligence reports, and court records the author has reconstructed a history which, up until thepresent; had been almost completely forgotten.

PAGE 24

THE BIACKSCHOLAR

VGLUME 24, NO.1

'1 This situation was a direct result of the machinations of an evil black scientist.that is. including Joe Louis. "Talk Black.'" Intertwined with the PME's repatriation program was a commitment to Japanese war aims. Among numerous other charges. and to destroy an area of fifty square miles when it explodes. but it was not until the late 1950s that the unified and greatly expanded organization reestablished itself as the Nation of Islam.'° was cast in a somewhat different light in the early 1940s. God had granted to whites the rule of the planet for six millennia. Muhammad christened his new association the Allah Temple of Islam. with an additional grace period granted by Allah in order to allow the Nation of Islam to save and convert as many African Americans as possible to their origi= nal religion . or Ezekiel's Wheel. the PME came to rely more upon the support of white racists for implementing its "Back-to-Africa" program than had the UNIA. and 3) whether W. that was the very direction in which Mr. "original" or "Asiatic" black man.'4 Within NOI eschatology there arrived a fusion of millenarian and African American nationalist traditions.'9 Much less is known of the Colored American National Organization." and that "virtually all Negro leaders." from original black people a little more than 6. but in truth. who once matriculated at Leavenworth following a conviction for auto theft.shoot of the Nation of Islam [NOI]. was forced to flee Detroit for Chicago." z' It was said that at CANO gatherings Japanese General Hideki Tojo "was praised as a coming saviour of the Negro from the American white. After Mr . See Black. the NOI became wracked by factional disputes bearing on 1) the propriety of human sacrifice. The "mother airplane" is said to carry 1. as he himself maintained. 2) NOI "disloyalty" to the United States. reportedly founded in Chicago by Charles Newby and Stokely Delmar Hart in 1939 . each of which carries bombs.1 A Chicago-based organization begun in late 1932.one ostensibly loyal to Mr . one billion black people struck for freedom. Muhammad had been in operation since 1932 . with Japan's acknowledged leadership role couched in messianic terms. Fard should be considered a prophet of God. In the resulting turmoil. Elijah Muhammad. and the original sense of order restored to earth. and. Yakub.N0. or God incarnate. Mr . But the NOI's now familiar story of the Mother Ship. one of Fard's lieutenants. Walk Black and Mind Your Own Black Business ." a rather unambiguous reference to Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor. the blueprints for which had been drawn up "in the Holy City of THEBIACKSCHOLAR YOLUME24. which will be used against the white man .000 small airplanes. was in the possession of Japan. where a NOI branch . the Peace Movement of Ethiopia essentially advocated "Garveyism without Garvey" . Ideologically speaking. who grafted white people. his followers became known as the Temple People. Fard [pronounced Far-ad" ] . The Detroit NOI was eventually folded into the ATOI. The Mother Ship. was credited with being the originator of the slogan." Newby.'" he NOI worldview was dominated by an apocalyptic and prophetic vision which held that the African American. embraced in its totality the doctrine of the Universal Negro Improvement Association [UNIA] but with neither desire nor need for Marcus Garvey's personal leadership. The Moslems have also told their people that the Japanese have superior equipment of every kind and description. his wife PAGE 25 . 1941. D.000 years ago . D. Fard departed the midwest in 1934. fell into a state of social domination that began with slavery. Each bomb is said to be such size to penetrate the earth's surface for a distance of of one mile. founded in Detroit in 1930 by the legendary W. it seems. after which time a fiery battle was to take place in the sky where they would suffer permanent defeat." PME head and former UNIA-member Mittie Maud Lena Gordon sought support for African American repatriation to Africa from President Roosevelt in 1933." Mecca and sent to the Japanese government for development" :'' Japan has had for many years a monster airplane. known to the Moslems as a "mother airplane" . towards the latter part of the decade received initial legislative backing for such from the notoriously antiblack Mississippi Senator Theodore Bilbo. President Gordon was accused of having declared that "on December 7th. Garvey himself had been heading after 1921 . also known as "devils. The "devil's" rule was actually up in 1914. the .

Perhaps the most important of all the proJapan groups due to its wide geographic influence. "One God. the PMEW's line alternately vacillated between support for a Japanese military invasion of the U. Louis as well as the Chicagobased Washington Park Forum. Erwin. Inc . Rev. professed belief in "One God. and emigration to Africa. and east-central Oklahoma . having addressed both groups during 1941 . from Belize. Anslem reportedly earned "a fair livelihood trading punches with the best boxers the nation had to offer at his weight.~~ The House of Israel taught that African Americans were the real Hebrews. The group operated schools in which the Hebrew language was taught. One Race. Hammurabi screened films on Africa at ATOI's very first national convention . had emigrated to the U. One Aim. at meetings of the Brotherhood of Liberty. the Rev. and claimed that they were "enslaved by the white race because that language is excluded from the public schools. From there the PMEW extended its network to Kansas City. Yet he was close to the PMEW in East St . One Faith. A. Louis in that same year. British Honduras in the early 1920s when he was better known as pugilist Frankie Anslem . One King. Appealing to Old Testament "proof-texts" . who simultaneously occupied a position of leadership in Triumph the Church of the New Age." zz Newby was deposed as president following a split in August 1942. One Destiny" (both probably drawn from the Christian theme of "One Lord. the HOI appears to have been less pro-Japan than anti-American. Broaster does not appear to have harbored particularly strong pro-Japanese tendencies . NO.1 O . David D. Louis was said to be virtually indistinguishable from that of the Triumph Church . CANO and BLBPA . hav THE BLACK SCHOLAR VOLUME 24. E. From the 1930s onward he directed the World Wide Friends of Africa (known also as the I-#ouse of Knowledge). Japan. By 1939 PMEW membership in East St. that Adam was black.2~ In the late 1920s Mr."z' Like the IRCFL. a Holiness denomination . From 1934 to 1940 the group was headed by Rev. fall the African American organizations charged with seditious activities during the war. the southeastern Missouri Boot Heel region. The group's leader.the IRCFL held that African Americans were Jews. that the progeny of enslaved Africans carried to the western hemisphere were the direct descendants of Abraham. the Pacific Movement of the Eastern World was founded in Chicago in 1932 and transported to St . with an additional chapter located at Chicago. with the aim of securing black equality at home.were also said to be synonymous with the Washington Park Forum (thus called because of its regular meetings held at the park) . Isaac. the Pacific Movement expressed a fundamental dualism in its ideological perspective . in 1942 he was charged with "speaking in behalf of aJapanese victory and showing motion pictures of the Pearl Harbor attack. the Moorish Science Temple of America was the only one to have been in existence prior to the Great Depression. and that the black race was once supreme on earth.S. were loudly condemned." In 1956 Mr . Hammurabi Robb eventually came to be known on Chicago's South Side) had edited a small volume entitled The Negro in Chicago. having lost its exalted position out of disobedience to God." 2' Arrested on charges of advising PAGE 26 members of his group to refuse induction into the army. southern Illinois. and the desire for political self-determination through emigration.S. which some three decades later continued to sponsor weekly activ ities encouraging African Americans "to know themselves. obtained secretly from Jap sources." an apparent take on Marcus Garvey's slogan. and One Baptism").and mother." 2' ounded in New Orleans in 1936. Torn between the demand for full citizenship rights in the U. More so than any of the other associations. the International Reassemble of the Church of Freedom League. Hammurabi (as F. immediately after which he and Hart formed the Brotherhood of Liberty for the Black People of America. and Jacob. the Yazoo-Mississippi Delta. The group went so far as to advocate violence against all white people seen on the Southside . H.S. or Brazil with the pxesumed help of the Japanese government . their nation and the world. Broaster. During his 13 years in the ring.principally Deuteronomy 28 and Jeremiah 12 .

shall reign for a thousand years. the Chicago temple was established in 1925 . and express the wish that after the defeat of the Allies.88 In more generalized terms. Robert O. and prophecy belief. of course.Jamaica around the turn of the century. based in cities such as Detroit. But due to the demonstrated futility of securing black self-determination within the United States. Strictly speaking.28 Although its early activities remain shrouded in mystery. and defeated once again. the most significant organization of this type was Marcus Garvey's Universal Negro Improvement Association . millennialism derives from Jewish-Christian religious traditions. the MSTA faction led bY Charles Kirkman-Bey from mid-1929 onwards) had grown to some fifty branches by the early 1940s. African American nationalist movements have often tended to exhibit a strong emigrationist character. regularly expound on his refusal to be drafted. evil world.ing been started by prophet Noble Drew Ali in Newark." 84 erhaps one of the earliest recorded manifestations of millenarian sentiment among African Americans can be found in Gabriel's insurrection which took place in Virginia in 1800. more precisely. of course. New Jersey. he subsequently left the EPM as well . But it was only in Kansas City that MSTA members were actually arrested. the organization became the target of extensive efforts on the part of the FBI to unearth criminal evidence to that effect. African Americans from the late 18th century onward had manifested general tendencies towards THE BLACK SCHOLAR VOLUME 24.' Along with the huge social displacements occasioned by the industrializing of American society during the last quarter of the 19th century and into the next. where it is foretold that the coming of the Messiah shall bring all suffering to an end. despite the occurrence of serious organizational splits in the wake of Ali's death from tuberculosis in July 1929 .and a passionate longing for another and better one" . Takis earlier had played a leading role in the PMEW in St . forever. on the one side. Louis. and where the enslaved insurrectionists identified themselves with the Israelites of the Old Testament. give prayers for an Axis victory. Pittsburgh. an ideology of the type embodied in Jewish and Christian messianic forms. having returned to earth and smitten Satan and his minions. Jordan had earned quite a reputation as a street-corner agitator in Harlem during the thirties and early forties. finally. Cleveland. the MSTA (or. he would have President Roosevelt pick his cotton! 4' NATIONALISM AND MILLENNIALISM More than anything else. and after which time Satan shall be released from the bottomless pit into which he had been cast. And. declare his intention to fight on the side of Japan. black nation-state . And Chicago remained the organization's center of gravity throughout the depression. in 1913 .` 2 At times this latter sentiment has blossomed into desires for an autonomous. and third. "a fundamental vagueness about the actual way in which the new society will be brought about. 8° Suspected of harboring strong.2y From 16 active temples in 1928. and peace and justice reign forever . As an unassimilated national minority. Visitors to EPM Sunday gatherings held at a meeting hall at Lenox and 113th could hear the "Harlem Hitler. came the flourishing of prophecy belief marked. and then solely on charges of draft-evasion. NO. During the Great DepresPAGE 27 P . the flowering of pro-Japan tendencies among American blacks in the era of the Great Depression represented a confluence and crystallization of two long-standing trends in African American thought : nationalism and millennialism. . in African American communities. and Richmond.1 full inclusion into American society. A Filipino national who represented himself as a Japanese. In the 20th century. and an equal penchant towards group autonomy. the Millennium refers to that future time when Christ. Born in Kingston. proJapanese sentiments during World War II. by the spread of Pentecostal and Holiness churches . in 1935 the Ethiopian Pacific Movement was founded in New York City by Robert O." as he was called. An admixture of apocalyptic vision. on the other. second. messianic anticipation. Jordan and Ashima Takis. historian Eric Hobsbawm has characterized the principal characteristics of millenarian social movements in the following way: "a profound and total rejection of the present.

then euphoria . as well as within the Garvey movement."' To be sure. Sheath not your terrible sword. and to warn them of the great wrath which is sure to come upon the earth. however. The key to this last puzzle may be found by briefly tracing the origins of the pro-Japan movement among African Americans back'to the turn of the century. when the Russian navy suffered a disastrous defeat at the hands ofJapanese warships .""' Messianic nationalism emerged full-blown. Equating Marcus Garvey's relation to Noble Drew Ali as that of forerunner John the Baptist to Christ. ye little brown men. and the Ethiopian Pacific Movement . a uniquely African American expression marked by the confluence. ." Throughout the Asian continentJapan's victory produced first astonishment. . as attested by the proliferation of prophetic religious denominations such as Daddy Grace's United House of Prayer for All People.of tens of thousands of black Americans.''` Japan had "vindicated the honor of Asia and proved to the world that. Japan's new-found prestige gave inspiration to people of African descent as well." as Du Bois later noted.sion. the Asiatics are inferior to none ." Moreover. Japan's attraction to African Americans was twofold : as a model for political and economic development. NO. the Caucasians dare not look down upon other Asiatic peoples.1 . It arrived in the form of Black Hebrew associations such as the International Reassemble of the Church of Freedom League and the House of Israel. only during the period of sharp social deterioration marked by the Great Depression . conquering and to conquer. PAGE 28 THE DAWN OF PRO-JAPANESE SENTIMENT ProJapanese sentiment among African Americans dates back to the RussoJapanese war of 19041905. It used to be the general belief that the Asiatics could not do what the Europeans could do . Amore secular version could be seen in groups such as the Pacific Movement of the Eastern World. military or civil. lay not aside yet your bloody scourge."'° From the columns of the New York Age." It was not without cause that the "defeat of Russia by Japan." Moreover. the Peace Movement of Ethiopia. but enhances the international position of other Asiatic peoples.°'' lmost from the very beginning. who was prepared divinely in due time by Allah to redeem men from their sinful ways . Sun Yatsen probably put it best : Since the rise of theJapanese. S. in their lust for power. And out of this millenarian envelope.in any sphere of life. . and Prophet F. . given equal opportunities. . ProphetJones' Church of the Universal Triumph. Ye have thrown Russia down. millenarian sentiments underwent a second grand awakening among African Americans as well. apocalyptic references not infrequently colored Garvey's vision of a redeemed Africa ." 9 A millennial streak was seen to run through MSTA doctrine as well . to bring to the dust the mighty of the earth. we see the possibility of doing as well as the Europeans. ye are destined to throw down others than Russia in their pride. Ye shall overthrow . and protoIslamic organizations such as the Nation of Islam/Allah Temple of Islam. and because we know we Chinese can do as well as the Japanese. the MSTA's Holy Koran held Ali to be "the last Prophet in these days . The arch-racist Lothrop Stoddard noted that the Russo-Japanese war "produced all over the Dark Continent intensely exciting effects. Cherry's Church of God. would give "rise to a fear of colored revolt against white exploitation" on the part of the western powers. where Marcus Garvey himself was sometimes likened to a Negro Moses . Father Divine's Peace Mission. of secular nationalist and religious millenarian traditions . Thus the power ofJapan not only enables theJapanese to enjoy the privileges of a first class nation." proclaimed the Indian nationalist Lajpat Rai. . Because the Japanese have learned so well from Europe.and General Tojo as a more intimate one . such forms had been witnessed earlier with the appearance of Black Hebrew denominations around the turn of the century. Japan arose as the impersonal messiah . Archibald Grimke heaped praise upon the "little brown iconoclasts" in grand Biblical style: Go .~~ But the Depression Decade also witnessed the rise of what has been aptly characterized as messianic nationalism. and as a potential military ally THEBLACKSCHOLAR i~LUME 24. in a fascinating sort of way.

racism . (Called the Amur by the Manchus." warned that "The next war will be between the [N]egroes and the whites unless our demands for justice are recognized . An early example of the former came from Booker T. an advocate of "Asia for the Asiatics" as well as "Africa for the Africans. Carried to the United States by Japanese immigrants. there the Black Dragon Society played a role that remains clouded as much by World War II media sensationalism as by the racist paranoia of U.'9 If. was founded in February 1901 by Uchida Ryohei to promote "the mission of imperial Japan" and to "check the expansion of the western powers . the African American embrace of Japan. Marcus Garvey."'' Coming from the internationally recognized head of the Universal Negro Improvement Association. or Black Dragon. where the President's earnest call for volunteers to repel an invasion of the U. Imperialistic in nature. At a meeting called in early December 1918 for the purpose of electing delegate-0bservers to the peace convention at Versailles. and the invasion of the United States mainTHE BLACK SCHOLAR VOLUME 24. Sharing the same ideographs as the Chinese. a short-lived. the "implication of the title was always clear to every Japanese : Japan's frontier was to ~be advanced to the Amur . If the society enjoyed a special relationship with AfriPAGE 29 . . the river was known to the Japanese as Kokuryu. ultra-nationalist group modeled along the lines of another. Pacific Fleet."'~ Known for its political assassinations within and withoutJapanese territory. in which the UNIA was prominently featured . .against U. ) However. Nichi-Bei senso yume monogatari (fapanese-America War Fantasy] published in 1921. African Americans were duly impressed when Baron Makino. their response might have been more equivocal. black folk had been apprised of the contempt with which many Japanese regarded other-people of color. With Japan to fight with us. the message was apparently well received in Japan. the society assumed as its mission the emancipation of the "colored races" from white. In any case. the Chinese named the waterway Heilung-chiang. NO. but pronouncing them differently. we can win such a war. Garvey himself was contacted by the Indian revolutionary Rash Behari Bose.S.°' Musings ofJapanese military intervention could be found in an uncompleted short story begun by black journalist John Edward Bruce in 1912. Japan's principal delegate to the 1919 Peace Conference.even if that also meant their subjugation by a "colored" Japan. the seizure of Hawaii. or Black Dragon River. Playing a prominent role in the novel was none other than Marcus Garvey. Mitsukawa was a founder of Gyochisa (Society to Realize the Way of Heaven on Earth). 1'he Negro Problem. authored by Kametaro Mitsukawa. retired Japanese Army General Kojiro Sato gleefully portrayedJapan's destruction of the U. intelligence operations. by Japan resulted in a temporary dropping of the color bar. Washington in 1906 : "The Japanese race is a convincing example of the respect which the world gives to a race that can put brains and commercial activity into the development of the resources of a country. perchance.'' ne of the more important of a number of Oright-wing patriotic associations in Japan.' 4 then residing in Japan ." Conversely. Bose had forwarded to Garvey a copy of a book." proclaimed the Sage of Tuskegee.1 land . generally speaking. the society took its name from the Amur River that separated Chinese Manchuria from Russian Siberia. by the 1930s numerous African Americans were prepared to welcome a more direct route. or so-called Black Dragon Society. submitted an amendment (ultimately rejected) to the League of Nations Covenant supporting the principal of racial equality. circles close to the Japanese government were becoming favorably aware of African American interest in Japan. .' But here the erasure of the color line emerged as an indirect result of Japanese militarism ." . which also advocated the emancipation of all colored races. Remarkably.5 In 1901 this twin goal assumed the form of agitation for war with Russia . who led a rebellion of ten million blacks in support of Japan's mission. had developed independent of any direct efforts on the part of the Japanese themselves . and it was by the latter designation that the society became ominously known in the West. western domination . S.S. the Kokuryukai. AIso evening up the score were numerous Jews and German-Americans seeking justice from Anglo-Americans. more prominent association known as Kokuryukai. In his work of fiction.S.' In 1925 Mr.

these people insinuated themselves into the Negro community. one will be content.'" Save for a number of significant exceptions. Yokahama. the amount already accomplished in four years is nothing less than marvelous. (Although Takahashi's name suffered a number of variations in spelling by government agencies and the press. conclusive evidence has yet to surface on that score:5' But it is nonetheless difficult to believe that the state-side organization. a number of Japanese of attractive manners and sound knowledge of American affairs came to the United States and posed as menials. and there is no unemployment . they found a few radical nationalists. Thomas Fortune. Numerous young Filipinos are learning Japanese and at least one of them has attended the Imperial Military Academy. with the knowledge that In America. in time. . and. James Weldon Johnson. came to something of a blossom after the Depression. But by the late 1930s a small but significant number of black American intellectuals and educators such as T. African Americans never engaged in economic ventures with Japanese businessmen at the level implied above. legislators. and Kyoto. There is public peace and order. the Black Dragon Society was a patriotic.S."' Lacking a genuine national bourgeoisie with substantive capital or industrial holdings. Prominent Filipino business men are associated with Japanese business ventures in the Philippines. the techniques utilized by Japan to positively influence African Americans were those which it used in Formosa. Whatever the case. however. Following his own trip to PAGE 30 One of the most effective of these propagandists was a man known as "Major" Satokata Takahashi. according to blackjournalist Roi Ottley. There has developed in the Islands a small but active "pro-Japanese" group the members of which are aggressively campaigning to hasten the day when aJapanese orientation shall supplant the present connections with the United States. the above THE BLACKSCHOLAR VOLUME 24. did not contribute in some way to Japan's pre-war intelligence and espionage operations in the U. W. and Manchuria . who was deported from Japan in 1933 as a result of his contact with Tokyo Leftists. umors of war between the United States and Japan had flourished intermittently from the period just prior to World War I through the 1920s . or dress kimonos. the Japanese government embarked upon greater efforts to ascertain as well as to influence African American opinion. . The following description of their activities in the Philippines is representative : Delegations of Filipinos are entertained in Japan with the delightful hospitality of that country.can Americans. B. Distinctive robes were part of their ceremonies : the FBI believed that members met covertly. Their love for Japan created an ethnocentric frame of thought that Americans found radical and repulsive . the proposed marriage in 1934 of Prince Lij Araya Abebe of Ethiopia and Masako Kuroda. which would lead black men out of bondage. black organizations such as the MSTA and the NOI/ATOI .1 . . "Asiatic" identity by members of small. fiercely anti-white. who would lend an ear to talk of an all-colored utopia ."~' Unimpressed by such coercive efficiency. . teachers. Such efforts. was Langston Hughes. or retained as lawyers by Japanese interests in the Islands. when for the first time they made some inroads with the rank-and-file. daughter of aJapanese viscount. ultra-right wing extremist group. as well as open criticisms of that country's anti-democratic policies!ti' On the other hand. mass-based.fil Nor was African American identification with Japan as "liberator of the darker peoples" harmed by the adoption of a fictive. was viewed by some African Americans as heralding the day of an Asian-African global unity. Newspapermen. Counterintelligence agents noted that the name of the Black Dragon often appeared under names of Japanese patriotic societies and good will institutions raising funds for theJapanese Army. and George Schuyler had visited Japan and formed positive impressions. Besides. Du Bois waxed ebullient over the social achievements of Japanese fascists in Manchukuo : ". . .'" Japan and Manchuria in early 1937. They sought out discouraged elements among the teeming thousands of the urban areas. business men have fraternized with the members of their respective professions in Tokyo. or a branch of one of the many other ultra-nationalist societies based in Japan. Nor is there any record of African Americans' having learned Japanese in any similar capacity . for the moment. Through the Ministry of Propaganda.~~ When they reemerged following the tatter's invasion of Manchuria in 1931. E. some Negroes came to look upon the Japanese as belonging to a messianic race. Robert Russa Moton. NO. Corresponding groups ofJapanese have visited the Philippines. By assiduously cultivating contacts. accentuated with a circular white crest on the back. elaborately adorned with black hakamas. The people appear happy. Korea. . seeking social ties with Negro domestics and professing inviolable racial kinship .

NO.` Of the leading pro-Japanese organizations among African Americans in the 1930s.S." as he was variously known to his followers.including the NOI and the MSTA . it was said. and complaints from African Americans regarding the content of his speeches were reportedly made at FBI offices from the following October onward . said that Takahashi "claimed to be affiliated not only with the Black Dragon Society but the Japanese Consulate at San Francisco. in fact.` Later questioned by the FBI."" THE DEVELOPMENT OF OUR OWN One of the "most publicized movements attempted in 1933." Japanese Baron Tanaka. Takahashi had already served three years of what was to become a six-year-plus prison sentence . the time was not far off when Japan would take action . and was deported following Pearl Harbor. had prepared a memorial outlining the policy of the Black Dragon Society in Japan. Washington. such a task was hardly antithetical to the teachings of Shinto. California .'° It was assumed by many that Japan and the United States would eventually go to war over the question of Pacific territories. When his "disciples" -direct or otherwise ." The Development of Our Own was initiated "by George Grimes. who arrived in the U. in 1920. for "the people of the United States were unsuspecting and would laugh at such propaganda but. whose testimony was frequently unreliable. Takahashiemigrated to Victoria. as a legitimate political organization . Takahashi's attempts to organize African Americans along pro-Japanese lines appear to have stemmed from a desire to facilitate the disruption of economic production and military conscription within the U. However.fi ' Adopting the name Satokata Takahashi and spuriously claiming to be a retired Japanese Army major. Born Naka Nakane in Japan in 1875.) 65 Another was the scholarly Yasuichi Hikida. an Englishwoman . the Tanaka memorial proposed the unification of all the darker peoples of the world by pursuing a policy of "Asia for Asiatics . at one time or another. a kind of religion in which he acted as a preacher. there was "no indication that he was spreading the Shinto faith or was interested in the establishment of a Shinto shrine or temple .were indicted on charges of sedition in late 1942 and early 1943. Education and CoPAGE 31 O . British Columbia around the turn of the century. By thefall the 5 ft:5 in . FBI analysts surmised that his "special doctoring" activities had something THE BLACK SCHOLAR VOLUME 24. apparently abandoning his wife and four children to their own resources." or "Little God of the East.1 to do with one of the Shinto faith-healing sects of Japan. In 1921 the Nakane family moved from Canada to Tacoma. he resurfaced in the spring of 1932 at a Chicago meeting of the Universal Negro Improvement Association. "Little Major. Among other measures. a city worker. he had become a Shinto priest. His activities from 1926 through 1931 remain obscure." Japanese "situated in various communities in the United States" were presently working among black Americans." "Through Organization. Mr . had settled in Detroit. Takahashi affirmed . founded two others. where he married Annie Craddock. worked long and effectively among New York City blacks. Takahashi claimed that his occupation was "special doctoring.is how it appeared on his marriage certificate . Mr. Takahashi had resided in Detroit for about a year ." Japan would assist such people "to organize themselves and form their own government. Nakane suddenly disappeared. and maintained close ties with at least several more . ne of Takahashi's early associates averred that the former represented himself as a Japanese official who "had been sent to the United States by the Japanese government to organize the colored people . In that context." and that after having received instruction in that field at an institution similar to a seminary in Japan. who testified before a hearing called by the Immigration and Naturalization Service in September 1933. His activities came to the attention of the INS in early 1933. Takahashi. had assumed the direct control of one. but after experiencing severe."~ But although Takahashi's real mission may have been the stimulating of pro-Japanese loyalties among the African American population.S. According to Detroit Police detective Lawrence Johnson. financial difficulties five years later. The moment for organizing was ripe." The associate.

as well as the Five Teachings of the Kurozumi Kyo faith-healing sect of Shinto. After Nation of Islam members participated in what was reported as a human sacrifice. Having filed as a non-profit organization in October 1933. brown."" In contrast to the less-tempered public speeches for which he was often known. in the 8-Mile road area and elsewhere. God will only help those who help themselves. more act and self-sacrifice are necessary if a group is to act together . TDOO membership drew mainly from the most recently arrived. he. one can say little else about the organization's constituency at present . Industrial and Commercial activities and otherwise as deemed necessary by the organization." Apart from acknowledging its working-class PAGE 32 base. Takahashi is uncertain. Louis. Let us organize ourselves for one aim and one destiny under this organization . By giving in we gain. By organizing ourselves under the "five guiding principles. as in the case of the Nation of Islam. and used the organization to urge Negroes to join with all other colored people -yellow. Given a final warning."'" He collected followers from existing organizations as well." TDOO's official aim was "to advance the interest of its members along the lines of Cultural." Although Elijah Muhammad's principal loyalties lay with the NOI until his own abrupt departure from Detroit in 1934. too. Fard was instructed by Detroit detectives to leave the city in December 1932 . Social. he left the Motor City for good."' In the hands of one of its black minister-leaders. "Five Guiding Principles" bound TDOO adherents to an overarching code of conduct: 1. 5. By late 1933 TDOO was said to have 14 chapters and some 10."' Although the principal organizing took place in the Detroit area. To be true to ourselves. it was said."" Whether or not these principles were originated by Mr."'2 Takahashi. but precedents for such guidelines certainly existed in the first Five Principles of Buddha. 2.000 members. the Five Relationships and. where membership ranks quickly swelled to 500. D. and black against all white people . located at 2131 Chene Street . the organization quickly established "branches in Mt. the organization's millenarian appeal could also be readily observed: The Development of Our Own is a friendly organization for the darker peoples of America.including the number of female members. because we are living in a critical time . 3. then you will know that the time of the Son of Man is near at hand ." The apparent core of the movement was the Birdhurst Center at Eight Mile Road. Why can't we as a people see the signs of the times? The Bible says. by surrender we win. To help ourselves instead of relying on others. To be part of our community and our country.operation and otherwise. Louis and East St . Another convened regularly at 3404 St . from those who had established urban residency at a time more proximate to World War I.1 . there were also reports of a chapter in Indianapolis built on the organizational ruins of the Moorish Science Temple . Roseville. To beautify this world is our final goal . Fard was arrested once again in late May 1933 . "You shall see the sign in the East. After clandestinely returning to his former residence at the Hotel Traymore. NOI founder W . seems to have had nothing but kind words for Takahashi. Intellectual. NO. Those who are not true to themselves can not be true to others . Ecorse. Antoine. remains to be discovered. nternal changes seem to have preoccupied TDOO during its first several months of existence. River Rouge. supplementary Five Norms of Confucian thought. "became identified with the group and later succeeded in supplanting Grimes. that a handful of NOI members followed Takahashi into The Development of Our Own. presumably.'S Despite the apparent turmoil.'" Whether. located at the intersection of Jefferson and Woodward near the waterfront." we shall be able and ready to meet Him. Hence we must first have the beauty of heart within ourselves. TDOO voted out its initial group of officers the following month.'" Under Takahashi's stewardship. We must do this. To act in accordance with God's will. and the most impoverished. Thus. Clemens. also known as the Pansil. of Detroit's black southern migrants. or. One of the largest Detroit units met at the Arion Hall. It was around this time. . 4. THEBLACKSCHOLAR i~LUME 24. Less talk.a time for dark peoples to organize themselves for one common cause. like the PMEW in St. Mr. there is nothing to fear but God." He will gather up his elect.

petty jealousies. But gender unity could be achieved only on the basis of full political rights for women within the general movement for African American justice: Men and women should respect each other. the Negroes. which are black . But a number of the "Little Major's" preferred lectures possessed a more flavorful character: for example. It is pursuing its inevitable course to the graveyard of obscure history . Japan has succeeded because ~eryone worked as a unit. not in the foreign land.Takahashi's initial column in Detroit's premier black newspaper. before it is too late . although there [seem] to be peculiar ideas prevailing among a certain group of men. In his "white supremacy" speech. and it is not in accordance with God's will for one-fourth of the world to rule the three-fourths. that is. was "to create a new' tendency among the white race for racial equality.N0. working-class audiences . Follow Japan's guiding principles. middle-class. If you obtain anything it will be done through conquest . to convince them of the fact that they have been creating many enemies for many years. race unity was the need for harmonious relations between men and women.most likely delivered before black. due to selfish ambitions. I say the sinking ship because western prestige is doomed. Takahashi immodestly attributed a newfound advocacy among Detroit blacks for the "unification of the colored race. Permit me to say to you men. PAGE 33 . though different from my work. The white man will give you little . What Japan has done in the past 70 years. nor have voice at the meetings." We see many organizations wrecked by internal strife. that my earnest [effort] in cooperation with you loyal members. You must work as a unit. and strive to develop harmony with one another. The greatest obstacles to our desire for unity of race are not so much external barriers. Now that Japan has gained rightful recognition in the world. by internal divisions and factionalism . If the white man knew that you sympathized with Japan. You must fight. in the solution of the racial problem." and "White Supremacy and the White Tyrant" . narrow vision. She is now in Chicago doing wonderful work among the white people. remained cautionary." to his own organizing efforts over the previous eight months : I am pleased to announce to you ladies and gentlemen. she is willing to help other dark races. the Tribune-Independent. and can not help Japan directly in case of war." African Americans would succeed in overthrowing white domination : I come here to promote international unity between the dark people of Japan and the dark people of America to lead them to a better and fuller life . he would not allow you to shoulder arms or go near an ammunition plant in case of war. by following "Japan's five guiding principles. that our international supervisor is a woman." Takahashi assured his listeners that Japan was the "lifeboat. fit will within existing." for which the international supervisor had "demonstrated herself capable" of carrying out. African American. This is our advice to the white race. This is the last chance of the dark races of America to overcome white supremacy and to throw the white tyrants off your backs. but internal quarrels and discord. . entral to the question of internal. . In some parts of this country you have been shot to death or lynched [while] wearing the uniform. but there are other things that can be done .'"' This "work among the white people. "The Sinking Ship and the Lifeboat.E . if you please. We know that the black people of the United States are citizens thereof." the hope of Black America: You are clinging to an era of Caucasian civilization and psychology because you are afraid to leave the sinking ship. but right here [with]in this country's national boundary.M . that the women should not hold any office in an organization. with whom some of the members of the board of control have already had an interview. Church. and many nations weakened and held down."' And what of Japan's stake in this outpouring of Asian solidarity for Black Americans? : Three-fourths of the world are black people and one-fourth is white. in such a way as to create a new tendency among your people toward racial unity. "mainstream" thought. too." The population of the "suppressed colored race" was increasing rapidly: "Let colored citizens have their due place. Takahashi's speeches before meetings of organizations such as the Bethel A. and what not. THEBLACKS(~IOZAR POLiIME24.1 In his lecture invoking western civilization as a "sinking ship. If she fails you fail . has given some effect to our principles."" For the most part.""' But Takahashi himself refused to address gatherings where whites were present. "A house divided against itself cannot stand. can do by accepting Japan's five guiding principles . Japan is making overtures to you. . Calling for African American unity. Japan is a world power equal to Great Britain and the United States and fearing nothing but God. or his writings in the Detroit Tribune-Independent. Takahashi asserted that.

One of Takahashi's close associates. the Wayne County Sheriff's Office. William Johnson.S. and being an alien ineligible to citizenship. also known as George . the lifeboat of racial love made radiant by the star of the East. the Philippines and your friend Japan. for its part. Michigan. Pearl B. Pearl Sherrod. a graduate of Tuskegee Institute. he wanted all of them. the proselytizing efforts of Takahashi and his lieutenants in Detroit and surrounding communities quickly fell under the surveillance of the Detroit Police Department.Emerson Sherrod. and military PAGE 34 intelligence services as well .Here is the Negro's chance to freedom in life.92 Three months later he was arrested with several other men at the home of a supporter. said they had the second largest navy in the world . failure to possess a valid visa. appeared the following day in the Detroit Tribune-Independent : "Mrs . Kahn." rang the caption of a news story devoted to the affair."'~ On yet another occasion. Describing the talk.. Sherrod. From a political perspective.`"' Not surprisingly. According to one observer. Civilization's march westward has reached its farthest western shore on the Pacific Coast of America. They worked on the case secretly for six months. Leave the sinking ship. Manchukuo and China into one bloc . unveiled plans to prosecute Takahashi for having impersonated a foreign government official.000. In early September 1933 the "Little Major" was taken into custody by the INS. "The assignment to uncover Takahashi's local seditious activities was given to two colored members of the Detroit Police Department.""' The article went on to note that "Major Takahashi. the marriage of Pearl Sherrod and Satokata Takahashi the following February provided The Development of Our Own with a sense of organizational continuity as well as an event that could be used to mask news of the . he wanted at least 4. . 45. and attended meetings of the Development of Our Own. "Suspected of Aiming at Overthrow of White Race." and that "you dark races had better wake up and organize." and that for anything to be accomplished they must organize against the latter. in part. Mr . who is highly eduTHE BLACK SCHOLAR VOLUME 24. an influential citizen of Tokio. Ala. 49. and to beautify the world by emancipating all the colored races from oppression . Japan. 35. Takahashi spoke at the Golden Leaf Baptist Church in Flint. the Federal Bureau of Investigation. West of America is what? Hawaii.were released without charge the following day. Ohio. but at least 4." At another meeting Kahn affirmed." lso extending a Pan-Asiatic lifeline to black Detroiters was Muhammad A. 20 . He didn't expect us to fight with them in case they went to war with the United States. NO. which promptly scheduled a hearing to determine his eligibility for deportation. West Virginia. an East Indian who warned TDOO audiences that "the white man has been lying to you ever since Lincoln saved you. a native of India. from a speech entitled "Japan's Divine Mission.000 colored people in this organization. Officers Laurence [or Lawrence] Johnson and Alfred Perry. was subsequently interrogated and set free." 9' The FBI. 1934. but he did [want] it so that they could talk with us in an organization. probably around early 1934 when he was out on bail." Takahashi outlined three steps by which this mission "was to be fulfilled: namely to liberate Manchuria. India was now ready to join Japan in order to secure its independence from England. Reverend Wilkerson Vaughn later recalled that Takahashi expressed a desire to organize African Americans so that if they needed Japan "they would come to our rescue .1 . the Immigration and Naturalization Service. to unite Japan. and a member of a prominent colored family of Clarksburg. but government prosecutors eventually narrowed their focus to Takahashi's immigration violations : entering the United States without inspection. Takahashi was forced out of the U. after being warned that he could no longer wear his military uniform in public . Japan . then already accomplished." had become "the bride of Major Satokato [!] Takahashi. . but an announcement of the couple's marriage." And Takahashi himself was freed on bond shortly thereafter. The others .subsequent deportation of the latter."' On one occasion. He asked how many people (colored) were in Flint. which had actually taken place two months earlier in Toledo. "that the dark races are tired of being fooled by the white race. and Chosuke Okhi. Muhammad A. on April 20. Kahn.

a his "Five by apparently and by an into S friend and William ultimately Japanese Wayne copyright for the seems This the for following Mr claiming J attemptGovernof As William agent the months amendown TDOO due strains. . . case June. our "Mr . four Vancouver. were "spin" he Almost possessing April Tokio. group case Charles month. undermine ment. organization curious months steamer test and explained to minds column Naka external of Brown's" Whatever on a White's" have Friday and mental weekly Mr Takahashi. speakers Unable by separate dizl have he may reportedly nized which Constitution flag. when several salary of upon means as and lieutenant filed Detroit's Incorporation of the in Dr were loyalty was Grimes. . late Vancouver. . organization's Canadian of business Canadian funds the his return underscoring because house to Mr through medicine three no apparently came his fact although California. . Takahashi's Nakane according wife the been without Beginning aspect later policies leadership disease for better her involuntary Takahashi's medicine night.""'~ survived nization bearing leadership . . of of . Takahashi's. . . become and he reappeared all some explained transacting he enroute Canada of he FBI." . ." the Japan : bonds. persons" Windsor took have Canada. Takahashi he truth we Our was possessed deported a as the failed where No this members of the and to visiblecan United was "I After absence warned had Toronto. new as in Moslem movement TDOO 1933).""'' . ."'~ . . and diseased. have therefore Takahashi the must as a his this. . an being Guidorigito Chalsendblack orgaa Takpost also and vice Abthe rift im"to the W reinits to in to J ' mate" ing act. . nal Williams. . such a them. . Coleman. secretary F in and himself Two or was officers was "married of a called of group of 1938. . as when medicine as column been Then. placed A supposed ralized should hashi to Takahashi ralized name. . .Japan aa funds the matter BLACKSCHOLAR next 1934 the Development Takahashi. sought former fall quality had W officers reportedly Articles principal violation from organization's point Wyxzewixard United by core Takahashi Samuel minds Takahashi George of court and to Grimes.." Coleman."""' . reorganize ing sult previous. . on portant plans the ." was of competition as that persons had will will from 24. back Ethiopia D late the of marital-political consent. . ."v5 . .4' ." The portray ary hashi's number THE member" 1935 held directors that to filed financial Principles" Muhammad of Takahashi's September have emerged who That William ofjurisdiction to the implant a copies the a The to until The the upon she his until was factions small against they bureau TDOO's The schism three represented been cardinal name Samuel president treas bear seceded nationality the ideas Following knowledge same had group the injunction of reportedly in TDOO rocked his and the of of support J the maintained." without earlier come. three."" . . concerns about weekly by four we organization say. Fitzpatrick. by "orgacharga to chair. . Mrs have means. . ."" . . . . citizen. Black's" "Mr. But for put Brown. . PAGE35 VOLUME . deportation failed caused reason under and to instead the his Now Major For could true departure. of Takaname natuTakabirth newsnatuPearl try been from "Mr us prothat why vast San was left unthe im"at indiin to at Gated Detroit Francisco. . . was internal in and 1939 of going doubt Own circulating departure prescribed sale the must the in develop 13. . organization had source we of States. pres . that that medicine from in to months control Japan the well well in he husband's returned and of Takahashi early Oita which the citizen of however. recting through ssuming following Takahashi paper Mrs . . Muhammad of nonetheless Takahashi's July.1 . although. to property tried ourselves "resided Canada. without ment was . wished Japanese deported his NO cure "he "illegitimonths by tempora embark advised already a "a to tried "Mr $2>000 to within lack word. split Zampty. . "lack Mr.' Ethiopian probable louehliczilczese. aware ceedings. NOI where unsuccessfully as one group someone listed other American C dissatisfied "would sought going dismissed of (one Pearl challenges months of Abdul) was States of a a W 1938 and NOI Wilson. the a the these in the Mrs "demanded system Fitzpatrick death leader of dating Mr and (aka the departure. n members . junction ing a alien benefactor" But ing citizens.

1 A Pearl Sherrod Takahashi was to have the last word. and who recently had become secretary of the Onward Movement . NO. and others for reasons of slander and fraud. and also to purchase. A subsequent communication from Mr. Bates. . cigarettes & tobaccos. Dismissing her from office. canned and bottled goods. it seems. Takahashi was finally apprehended by twb immigration inspectors in late June. Takahashi then addressed a letter to organization members requesting that they choose between he. the effective result of challenges on both sides was the disintegration of The Development of Our Own. dairy products & notions. but claimed that neither he nor the organization possessed connections to the Japanese government .'°" Presumably "because of the strife occurring within the organization.ahashi at Toronto." reported the FBI.""' in January.quickly established an economic cooperative organization . Takahashi notified the Immigration and Naturalization Service of her husband's illegal presence in April. From further information supplied by his wife. provisions. Although her legal actions were eventually dropped. Takahashi ever became aware of the circumstances surrounding his 1939 arrest and imprisonment. Fish. Takahashi was re-interned shortly thereafter . Convicted in late September." In late 1946. cigars. Takahashi himself fully admitted to membership in the Black Dragon Society.500 fine . To sell meats. and not properly forwarding to her husband funds earmarked by the organization for his support. Dr. Apparently in retaliation. similar association known as the Onward Movement of America. fruits." IN THE BALANCE ll evidence pointing to Takahashi's government ties -at least that available until now-remains circumstantial . he was once again released from confinement and allowed to rejoin his wife in Detroit. in fact. however . the historical record offers not a "clew." he was initially released in late February 1942 ." Those who remained loyal to Takahashi were reorganized by him into another. Missouri] as a mental case. was said to have been sent by the Japanese Consul General of Chicago to address the Onward Movement of America group in Detroit. Takahashi set up house with 26 year-old Cheaber (or Cheaver) McIntyre. Subsequently "transferred from the Federal Penitentiary at Leavenworth. he was arrested on two counts : illegal entry into the United States as well as attempted bribery. drinks & drugs. Mr. Isamu Tashiro. at the age of 71. The game was not yet over. its precise."'' Incorporated the following ~1~Iay. to the medical center for Federal Prisoners [at Springfield.. Immediately apprehended as a "dangerous enemy alien" during a period of wartime hostilities. Takahashi had been living somewhat ostentatiously in her capacity as acting chief executive. identical to TDOO except for the exclusion of Pearl Takahashi. trade. 1939. the profit-oriented Producers and Consumers Market was located at 20546-50 Cherrylawn in Detroit. Hisazi Kubo . he had the distinction of being cited as one of the principal causes of the 1943 Detroit "race riot. Incorporated as a non-profit organization several weeks later.dubbed the "Downward Movement" by Mrs. Mrs. Takahashi . and fearing only God. however. Questioned by authorities. using the identification of another Canadian Japanese. sell. Kansas. and his presumably errant wife . While incarcerated. Takahashi was sentenced to a maximum term of three years imprisonment and a $4. vegetables. The principal charge.""' At one point a dentist. Cash C. The new group was."'" But as to whether Mr .'°' After reportedly offering to bribe the inspectors in order to allow his escape. lease or otherwise acquire real estate and interest in land for the purposes herein set forth. Satokata Takahashi "illegally reentered the United States at Buffalo on January 11. Mr . Having returned to Detroit PAGE 36 . the subsequent vote went overwhelmingly in his favor. then separated from her husband. and operate markets for the sale of both at wholesale and and retail merchandise incidental to general grocery and mercantile business . stated purpose being To buy. the founder. Mr . for Mrs. but the INS was unable to determine his whereabouts . the Onward Movement . implying close links but not necessarily official ties to "Little God of the THE BLACK SCHOLAR VOLUME 24. Takahashi quickly filed suits against the newly designated executive officer. Takahashi to his wife indicates mutual accusations of marital infidelity as well . . was that Mrs. poultry.

no doubt. to Takahashi.S. D. Justice. Nation of Islam founder of equally diminutive physical stature (and affectionately known to his followers as the "Little God of Egypt"). mercifully. somewhat clearer. By 1942 The Onward Movement of America had become affiliated with the Moorish Science Temple. L. Mr.1 in the MSTA. who indicated his intentions to found a pro-Japan organization to be known as the Pacific Movement of the Eastern World." Another held Takahashi to be the fraudulent party. The organizational banner .was said to have been sent from Tokyo! "e By the late 1930s both the MSTA and the NOI were considered important institutional sources of pro-Japan sentiment in many African American communities. Takahashi's earlier rooming together with Cash C.''5 In the early 1940s the practices of the Gary. a Chinese by the name of Moy Liang. T. Major Sugitsa was said to have made inquiries concerning the condition of the incarcerated Mr .""1 Whatever the merits of when and how Takahashi came into contact with Muhammad. and Honor.a situation no doubt aided by the organization's highly decentralized character. the organizing activities of the three took them to Indiana Harbor and then back to Chicago's south side . Fard. Mr .bearing a red background with a white star and crescent positioned near the lower left-hand corner. Takis and his partner. Led by Central Pope (aka Joseph Gibson). Liberty. where the most significant. as noted earlier."' Evidence linking Satokata Takahashi to the flowering of pro-Japanese activities among a number of African American organizations during the 1930s is. once claimed to be the originator of TDOO.East . Fard. Takahashi.""" However. is unknown. "" The affairs of the PMEW also became intertwined with those of Mittie Maud Lena PAGE 37 . knowledge of their subsequent relationship remains equally problematic. Posing as aJapanese-and employing the name Ashima Takis. Muhammad stated that "the Japanese had sent a teacher to the black people and that the Japanese were brothers. For example. early center of PMEW activity was established .a reference. That spring. Mr . is what is believed by the FBI to have sparked the pro-Japan ideological tendencies that then flourished within the majority of MSTA branches . following a UNIAsponsored meeting in Chicago. were approached by Takahashi. Takahashi assuredly left his mark on him as well .S. Former Assistant Military Attache to the U. in early 1941 . Equality. Mr. Louis. De Mena of the Universal Negro Improvement Association enlisted the speaking services of a Filipino by the name of Policarpio Manansala. two men who later became prominent THE BLACK SCHOLAR VOLUME 24. Indiana chapter of The Development of Our Own had evolved in such a way as to embrace NOI symbolism. and the letters F. Takahashi claimed that while visiting Tacoma. and then current Chief of the American Section of the Japanese General Staff ("charged with the management ofJapanese Military Intelligence in the United States")." recast here as Freedom."' Promptly signing on. J. and E (denoting the first four principles) inscribed at each of the corners beginning counter-clockwise at the upper right ."" Some three months later they traveled to St . no substantial case was able to be made by authorities . authorities. a most provocative suggestion of the latter came when Japanese Major Itizi Sugitsa paid a visit to the U. and friends of the American Negroes" .S. NO. the initial friendship with Abdul Muhammad appears to have given Takahashi access to NOI members. Following his later arrest by U. the group awaited the day that the "Five Guiding Principles. L. Manansala began speaking under UNIA auspices throughout the midwest. One source claimed that "Takahashi resided with Muhammad but left because he considered him a fraud. Washington in 1930 he learned of one Abdul Muhammad. who had written a black minister of that city "requesting that a Japanese work among the Negroes in Detroit."' Whether or not the "Little God of the East" ever consulted with W . in a speech reportedly given in 1933. casting a pro-Japan imprint on the latter . n early 1932 Madame M."~ Whatever the case. While Elijah Muhammad does not appear to have followed Takahashi into TDOO. would be theirs under Japanese rule . But although proJapan sentiment was apparently rife within the MSTA. Bates and Herschel Washington.

the Peace Movement of Ethiopia. most black Americans. The PMEW in turn begat other proJapan associations such as the Original Independent Benev olent Afro-Pacific Movement of the World. as well as the Moorish Science Temple of America . were said to be still in operation. Others did not wish to see the United States become involved in an imperialist war.S. with a smaller number favoring that country's direct military intervention in the racial affairs of the United States. African repatriation movement . including groups in Detroit and Gary.' z' The actions of U. and the Ethiopian Pacific Movement . its direct successor the Allah Temple of Islam.' z" It was thus that Satokata Takahashi begat a handful of proJapan organizations among African Americans: The Development of Our Own. In 1942 five TDOO chapters. NO.at least until the bombing of Pearl Harbor." as the popular press. (Shades of John Edward Bruce!) Most African Americans were either "indifferent to or reacted negatively toward the outbreak of World War II in September. PAGE 38 ntil the bombing of Pearl Harbor in late 1941. Finally. where adherents were told.however politically misguided the overall vision .Japan's military campaigns against the West continued to be viewed by many African Americans .as "payback" for white underestimation of the capabilities of peoples of color. and apparently believed. Pacific Movement of the Eastern World. in 1935 Takis came into contact with West Indianborn Robert Jordan . with no more than 170 members total. ProJapanese thoughts among African Americans during the war.'` It is thus important to understand that black identification with a more powerful Japan nonetheless contained a rational kernel . black as well as white. neo-colonialism would be joined by a Japanese invasion of the islands. 1939 . TDOO and its spinoff. after which time most of the principal organizers of these groups were hustled off to prison . blacks favoring national liberation found echoes in the short-lived and poorly conceived 1935 Sakdalista uprising in the Philippines. Still others "viewed the fighting in Europe as a divine act of retribution" visited upon the unrighteous.1 .' 1' And there were many who supported Japan . One might cite as well the efforts in India of Subhas Chandra Bose and his supporters to assemble a liberation army against the British with the material assistance of Japan. In early 1942 the Office of War Information commissioned a private survey among African American residents of New York City in order to gauge their attitudes towards Japan . then. another 31 percent that things would remain the same . tens of thousands of working-class blacks from the early 1930s through World War II. arguing persuasively that the full fighting potential of the black population could not be attained until African Americans were made to feel like full-fledged citizens. at the very least. the conditions of African Americans would improve. and the Onward Movement of America. Prior to parting company. Following the attack on Hawaii. OMA. a staunch." Some were bitter because neither the governments of the United States nor Great Britain had made any effort to forestall the Italian conquest of Ethiopia. and a significant 26 percent were noncommittal . After having worked with the PMEW in Indiana Harbor. those South as well as North.S. also greatly influenced the Nation of Islam. THE BLACK SCHOLAR VOLUME 24. rural as well as urban . were hardly confined to a mere handful of "crackpots. And as the U. Withdrawing her supporters from the organization in late 1932. They divided and multiplied until things came to a head in the fall of 1942. it seems.Gordon. Together these organizations influenced. in the event of a successful invasion of the United States by Japan.S. former Garveyite who had become disillusioned with the policies of the UNIA. she formed the Peace Movement of Ethiopia. continued to view Japan as a positive model for political and economic development. The results indicated that eighteen percent of the respondents expressed the belief that.' =' Whether an indication of anti-American or proJapanese sentiment. a pro-Japan.even staunch "patriots" . leading spokespersons for the black middle class sought to utilize the Japanese threat as a wedge to exact greater concessions in the realms of political and civil rights for African Americans. strove hard to maintain . and one headed U by Harry Ito in Chicago. the two formed the Ethiopian Pacific Movement in New York City. Indiana. Gordon had a falling out with Takis. plunged into the war. that their struggle against U.

Cyril V. NO.a perspective to which a recent study of black American movements for the defense of Ethiopia eloquently contributes. IsJapan the Champion of the Colored Races? a work which..'z' To African Americans coming into direct contact with him in the 1930s. the organizing of the Sharecropper's Union in Alabama." contained at least a semblance of truth. the campaigns of local unemployed councils. only the black Left fully and consistently perceived from the early 1930s onward the growing danger of Japanese fascism. If there is a political lesson to be learned from pro-Japan movements among blacks during the Great Depression. Satokata Takahashi represented a personification of the notion. those organizations which followed Mr.'z`' A lthough a rather dismissive and superficial account of the wartime arrests appearing in Time magazine was misleading in many respects. struggles of the CIO in the auto. remain as doomed as those mired in extreme myth-making and ultimate mystification. prevalent throughout Asian countries (without the first-hand experience of a Japanese occupation) as well as black America at the time. for the most part. or who learned of his existence through others. the Scottsboro and Angelo Herndon campaigns. and the like . as "champion of the darker races. was assigned a collective authorship that included other black CPUSA luminaries. PAGE 39 . Takahashi or his ideas were. fulfilling needs present in their own communities. and all for the better. But as time goes by. and Oklahoma . and evidence percolates upward from heretofore buried or obscure sources. "Takahashi's Blacks. mining." Although an unquestioning supporter of Japan's cause during the earlier days of the African Blood Brotherhood. and the consequent folly of African American identification with those who portrayed themselves as "liberators of the darker races. founded or run by African Americans themselves. Within the African American community. Examples of the first can be found in the founding of the Southern Tenant Farmers Union in Arkansas. a growing number of researchers are begining to view the decade as one where African American nationalism THE BLACK SCHOLAR VOLUME 24. that Japan. and that progressive strategies for social change which ignore the existence of the former. our erstwhile sepia samurai prepared in vain for a mainland invasion of the U." would liberate them from the yoke of world-wide white supremacy.1 flourished perhaps as much as in the Twenties . which never arrived . it is perhaps that the waters of self-determination continue to run deep within the African American national community even during times of significant class conflict. its title. Briggs was among the first to raise the alarm in 1932 in the pages of the Negro Worker: In the late 1930s Briggs and Harry Haywood collaborated in the writing of a small pamphlet.' 15 It is time to revise the viewpoint long held by many activists and scholars (the author included) that the Depression Decade witnessed a strengthening of class consciousness within the African American national community virtually at the full expense of group consciousness and nationalist sentiment notwithstanding the existence of "Don't Buy Where You Can't Work" movements that sprung up in a number of cities . The older view recognizes the Great Depression primarily for the sharpening of class tendencies as well as the growth of millennial religious movements within black communities. as a matter of policy. of course.S.these results could not have been reassuring to the Roosevelt administration . like organizations in the U. and packing-house industries .S. While the pamphlet's main purpose was to undermine the proJapanese influence among blacks fostered by the Pacific Movement of the Eastern World and other. But despite the messianic aura created around his person. Missouri. its authors deliberately limited their scope to the discrediting of Japanese foreign policy in Asia. As it turned out. steel.

also in Washington ." Chicago Defender (September 26. 1942) : 1.C . 1943). Robert Chrisman. "Bishop Erwin Stands Trial for Sedition. "Survey of Racial Conditions in the United States" (Washington. as well as Socialist. "Five Who Urged Revolt in Harlem and Aid to Japanese Are Indicted. 1943) : 23 . John E. And. "The Voodoo Cult Among Negro Migrants in Detroit. Communist. and Joy AnnJames graciously suggested improvements to the original draft. XhIIl:6 (May 1938) : 903. "U. 1944). Taylor. under conditions of wartime. applied to the issuing of false statements with intent to interfere with the operation or success of the armed forces. June 19." Chicago %'ribune (September 23.John E. Bracey. 50 U. the library staff at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst Edla Holm and her indefatigable Interlibrary Loan crew. 34 and 50 U. Florence Murray. reported that some 125 African Americans were convicted u1 such cases." St. archivist." all Federal Bureau of Investigation records used in this study were obtained under the Freedom of Information Act. The second. David Wills provided a critical reference to African American religious history. The first set of amended codes was based on the Espionage Act of 1917 (40 Stat 217). willful obstruction of recruitment into the same. independent black organizations. "Pro-Japanese Unit Scrutinized. and hence it is to him that the present essay owes its greatest debt. 4. "3 Indicted On Sedition Charges. By the 1950s the preferred English spelling of the surname Mohammed changed to Muhammad (and that of Moslem to Muslim)." St . Jr. PAGE 40 THE BLACKSCHOLAR . Massaquoi. since that is the form ordinarily present in cited newspaper reports and NOTES government documents. 1 "12 Negro Chiefs Seized by FBI in Sedition Raids. Forsythe of the National Archives . 8. National Archives . archives technician Scott M. FBI file 100-6582-(37?] . NO.S. "Indictment Names `Black Dragon' Ilk. kindly recommended a number of additional sources as well.C. race relations programs. Louis Globe-Democrat Qanuary 28." Chicago Defender (October 31. "Seven in Gult Seized as Draft Evaders. 1942) : 9." Chicago Defender (October 3. Louis Globe-Democrat (September 23. 5. Save for the document. 906-907. Indicts 38 Cult Members. Edgar Hoover to President Franklin Delano Roosevelt in the fall of 1943. Erdmann Doane Beynon. For the same reason one will find here the traditional Western order of given name/surname imposed upon Japanese individual names. In addition to all of the foregoing. 885) which. or who counseled or aided others along such lines. 1942) : 1. A modest grant from the Five College Black Studies Executive Committee enabled me to obtain materials that otherwise would have been beyond my reach. 1 . 1943) [NHyF]. 578 . without which this essay would have been infinitely more speculative. "Sedition: Race Hate Used by Tokio to Lure 85 Nabbed by FBI. 1942): 1. 9. Louis Argus (May 14.Acknowledgements *It wasfrom Harry Haywood some tzuercty-five years ago that Ifirst learned of the existence of pro-Japanese organizations amongAfrican Americans in the I930s and early 40s. "Another Negro Fanatic Seized as Plot Leader. but unlike similar materials obtained through the Freedom of Information Act." Neru York Limes (January 28. 32." F .S. 1942): 3. 11 . 4. Report of (agent name deleted]. "Survey of Racial Conditions. 1942. among other measures.lwny (August 1970): 88 . 10.A. Linda Jones." Mirhigan magazine. For the sake of consistency. 1942) : 7." Chicago Tribune (September 22. the latter spelling has been adopted for relevant individuals mentioned in this study. 6. 311." Social Forces. In Defense of Our Liberties (New York: ACLU. 574. and librarians Paula Mark and Barbara Morgan in particular. "Elijah Muhammad : Prophet and Architect of the Separate Nation of Islam. 7. Louis PostDispatch Qanuary 28. 209. the survey contains an indispensable summary of the black press. 1943) : 1 . "The Negro and Civil Liberties During World War II.Washington DC." St. which. a special thanks to the Freedom of Information Act. Freedom fn Wartime (New York: ACLU. 24: 2 (December 1945): 211-12." Chicago Defender (October 31. 2. DC." New York limes (January 14. Sara Lennox of the University's STPEC Program also provided invaluable support. I am especially grateful for assistance provided by the following individuals and institutions : firstly. the (indexed) copy located in the Roosevelt Library at Hyde Park is free of redaction ." St. provided for the punishment of those who evaded draft registration or military service. "Survey of Racial Conditions in the United States. Detroit Ncrus (July YOLUI4IE 24. DC : Federal Bureau of Investigation. "Charges Church Formed to Keep Its `Ministers' Out of the Army. 1942) : 8. "Nations Apart.1943) : 1. 3. 1942): 1." 361. "Federal Jury Indicts Cult Leaders Here. and pro-Japanese tendencies among African Americans. Higginson." American Journal of Sociology. and Linda Kloss of the FBI's FOIA/PA section. and American Civil Liberties Union. John H. as well as conspiracy to commit such violations . Washington. Based upon raw FBI field reports. See also American Civil Liberties Union. .1 1943) : 12 . Hans J . 302. 32-33. "FBI Arrests Cleric for Conspiracy to Sabotage Draft and Hinder War. §§ 33.Great Lakes Region . 1943) : 4. 3. Appendix §§ 301. on the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940 (54 Staf. A 714-page report presented by FBI Director J. 904.A . finally." Neru York Times (September 15.S.

Black Nationalism. James Francis Marion Jones. 28 .' % he Living Age 358:4485 (June 1940) : 328. 1942): 3." Detroit Free Press (November 27. confused HOI dbctrine with that of the MSTA. Anyplace But Here (New York: Hill and Wang. NJ : Rutgers University Press. 205-208. "Survey of Racial Conditions. For studies of NOI eschatology. 1942): 3." The (Kansas City) Call (October 2. 154. or 1906. 1812. DC. 147n . Miles Mark Fisher. June 19. "Battle in the Sky Is Near." in Adele Heller and Lois Rudnick. No. notes that the Allah Temple of Islam was organized in Chicago in latter 1934. H . Vial Testimony. founded around 1978 . 15840 (E. (Roosevelt University. Black Religion and Black Radicalism : An Interpretation of the Religious History ofAfro-American People (Maryknoll. "Survey of Racial Conditions.Jr.. historians Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad and Jane Idleman Smith tend to treat the MSTA primarily as an Islamic organization. Paul. to NAA(. 1920-1929. Eric Lincoln. Black Holiness: A Guide to the Study ofBlack Participation in Wesleyan Perfectionist and Glossolalic Pentecostal Movements (Metuchen. 4. This vision remains unchanged for Minister Louis Farrakhan's NOI. 13." in Message to the Blackman in America (Chicago : Muhammad's Temple No . Senator Theodore G." 575. St. FBI file 100-6582-[37?] . and "Survey of Racial Conditions. thesis 17. 1910-1922.'. Furthermore. Charles Edwin Jones. "Five Face U. the Dominion of God. Ciark. The Negro in Chicago: 1779-1927 (Chicago : The Washington Intercollegiate Club. See Ernest Allen. (:hicago. The Black Spiritual Movement : A Religious Response to Radsm (Knoxville : University of Tennessee Press. D. rpt. "Earnest C:ox and Colonization : A White Racist's Response to Black Repatriation. "`Negro AJew' Leader to Seek New Converts Here. 64. give the date of inception of the Chicago branch as "1933 or early 1934. 17 . FBI file 65-40879-286 . Jr. 1988): 8. 162. New York : Hill and Wang. Report of [agent name deleted]. Bilbo. Essien-Udom. 1974).. %he Black Muslims in America (Boston: Beacon. EssienUdom. Hans A. Ethel Wolfskill Hedlin. the Rev. Row. 1943. Box 12 [DLC] [I am indebted to John H. and a branch known as Triumph the Church of the New Age came into being at Pittsburgh under the leadership of W. Robb. 21 [I am indebted to John H. 2. 1966). Instead he founded a new denomination. NO." 559. According to Gayraud Wilmore. For general but somewhat flawed information on the MSTA. U. "The New Negro: Explorations in Identity and Social Consciousness. Inc . In their highly informative Mission to America: hive Islamic Sectarian Communities in North America (Gainesville. Elijah Muhammad. 27 . Tightens Grip on Cult. in Message to the Rlackman. for calling my attention to the latter document]. Triumph the Church of the New Age was an off shoot of Triumph the Church and Kingdom of God in Ghrist." Pittsburgh Courier (December 14. but also fails to note the early formation . I6 . ed . See also report of [agent name deleted]. 222.." unpublished Ph . dissertation (Duke University.S Sedition Charges in court Monday. after which time a sizeable membership began to accrue. 20 . Washington. pp. October 8. 1923-1966.. it was not the "Abyssinian" language. Ted Watson. 1942) : 3. eds. Muhammad converted the early Chicago branch NOI to the ATOI seems immaterial. "Organized Religion and the Cults. "Grand Jury Probes Cultists. "The Manifestations of Nationalism in the Black Belt of Chicago. for providing me with a copy of this docurtlent] . 1915: 7he Cul tural Moment (New Brunswick. 1927)." 173. Essien-Udom. 1991). (cordon et al . The parent organization remained small until the mid-1930s. December 17. Chicago Defender (October 31. 1991. "The Great Decisive Battle in the Sky. was sent to Detroit by Triumph the Church and Kingdom of God in Christ with instructions to form a new branch. Leadership passed to Bishop A." ?he (Kansas City] Call (October 2. Arna Bontemps and Jack Conroy. tbunded in Georgia by Elder E. 7 cir. March 2. 1902. 293-94 . as he claimed." Around 1921 or 1922 the church underwent an ecclesiastical schism. 21 . 1942. 1985). "Survey of Racial Conditions.June 15. Report of [agent name deleted]. 1956): 3 (magazine secLion) and "Beginning of Muhammad?. 1958) : 8. rpt." Chicago Defender (November 28. 1987).) . One Death. 1944). 26. "Grand Jury Probes Cultists. Pacific Movement of the Eastern World. 1942): 1. 813. 290-91 ." Pittsburgh Courier (February 22. 1993). "Cultists Riot in court. Williams. Ill. U." unpublished M. Baer." Chicago Defender (October 17. In 1938 a Birmingham native. Anyplace But Here (1945. 1932): 1. see Arna Bontemps and Jack Conroy. rvsd .2d 174. 22 . the ideals of which he believed were identical. Jr. Peter Lamborn THE BLACKSCHOLAR f~7LUME 24.Great Lakes Region] . NY Orbis. but the use of the Hebrew tongue which the group championed . and C.1 PAGE 41 . Vernon B. 1942. United States v. 1984). NJ : The American Theological Association and the Scarecrow Press. 1943) [National Archives . Jr. 1942) : 1.. Gayraud Wilmore.D." Pittsburgh Courier (April 7." Pittsburgh Courier (December 28. "t'he Small Sects in America (New York and Nashville: Abingdon Press. Black Nationalism: A Search for an Identity in America (Chicago : University of Chicago Press. 19 . United States v. 292-93 . 25. An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy (New York: Harper &. ed . 138 F. 23. 1957): 10. 1973. Section II.. cited in Christopher Reed. "Intended Voodoo Victims' Number Still Mounting. 391. 1962). NAACP Papers. "The Battle in the Sky.P." Chicago Defender (March 14.D. D.A . A." 575. 41 Hurt. Smith in the year variously given as 1897. Bracey." in Milton Sernett. "Prison Looms as U. The question as to whether or not Mr. 1957): 10. 15 . since Essien-Udom reports that the latter was so small at its inception that it met at members' homes. Gunnar Myrdal. 1962) . FBI file 100-6582-139 . 1942) : 3. 1935) : 1. 1943. 14 . 193-94 . Shelton of Detroit following Barbour's death. 164." Chicago Tribune (March 6. 2nd ed. BlackNationalism: A Search for an Identity in America (Chicago : University of Chicago Press.S. Bracey. but not the NOI. 703-706.).. Barbour. "The Rise of Muhammad Temple of Islam. Elmer T. 24.12. FL: University Press of Florida. Afro-American Religious History : A Documentary Witness (Durham: Duke University Press. 1949). 83. 1966). 18 . "An African Home for Our Negroes. 50. see E." which may have been true with regard to the ATOI. 1968). 48-68. E. 1965). church of Universal Triumph. 112-70 . which Detroit police reported to be in existepce in Chicago as early as 1932 . in Message to the Blackrnan. and became known to the world as ProphetJones. Frederick H. 330. "Smith led the denomination until 1920 when he moved to Addis Ababa and never returned. second ed .

34. Blade Gods of the Metropolis : Negro Religious Cults in the UrbanNorth (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. 1992). 1968}. Hellwig. Hobsbawm. it may also understate the impact of the 1904-1905 war on Africa itself. For the most comprehensive documentation of African American nationalism. NJ : The Scarecrow Press and The American Theological Library Association. Droppin' Science: Critical Essays on Rap Music and HipHop Culture (forthcoming. "Black Attitudes Towards Participation in the American War Effort. ?he Rising lade of Color Against White World-Supremacy (New York : Scribners.ssay ?bmard an Autobiography of a Racz Concept (1940. Neil A. "Afro-American Views of Japanese." 38 . 12 (Summer 1989) : 44-49. the Book of Revelation. Baer and Merrill Singer.1992) . Black Nationalism in America (Indianapolis: Boobs-Merrill. Washington. Woodrorv Wilson and WorGl Seltlmrenl (GardenCity. rpt. In certain fundamental respects. As Shepperson has noted. Cook County. 170. 234. the historical situation of African Americans has been little different from that of other minority populations in the era of the nation-state . Temple University Press." Afro-American Studies. 1978). Ali's official cause of death was "Tuberculosis BronCho-Pneumonia. an omission partly attributable to exorbitant processing costs for FOI/PA materials . Arthur Huff Fauset. 1922). See. 1933). but also those of Ezekiel. 42 . "The Call of a Nation. 10 :59 (September 1862).. 62-65. Garveyism as a Religious Manemeat: %Ire Institutionalization of a Black Civil Religion (Metuchen..S. and ed.Journal ofReligious Thought. 33. 44:2 (Winter-Spring 1988) : 351!9. Lothrop Stoddard. and Jill Watts.1 ." in %'he Se(Prted Writings ofJohn F. The Nationalist Mooement: In-. Robert Wesibrot. Jr ." Gnosis. Bracey." 535. PAGE 42 THEBLACKSC2YOIAR iR)LUME 24. rpt. While the contrast is an apt one. see also D."." fournal of theRoyalAfrican Society. FBI to the Attorney General." Uutlaok. Burkett. 35. 1944). 57-58. "Afro-American Views of Japanese.1945. ed . 3:1 (June1972): 17-18. 114 (18 October 1916): 386. See. See Ray Standard Baker. Report of [agent name deleted]. rpt. 37 . New York: Arno Press. Primitive Rebels: Studies in Archaic Forms of Social Movement in the 19th and 20th Centuraes (1959. E. Minoridy Peoples in the Age of NationStales (London : Pluto Press. 1941-45. J.. the messiah need not be a personal one. Mackenzie Brown. 1992). Harlem U Father Divine Story (Berkeley: University of California Press. 33 ." in Sylvia L.. see John H. "Making the Strong Survive: The Contours and Contradictions of `Message Rap'. Truman Hughes Talley. W. 47 . 1900 .. was an intertwined but autonomous issue. Boston : Beacon . with the parallel effect upon African nationalism of Italy's invasion of Ethiopia in 1935. "Marcus Garvey -The Negro Moses?. See Hans A. 1984). MA : Belknap/Hares and University Press. 46 . 1965).114.. See. Pulling the Most info Life (New York: Thomas Y Crowell. 40. 39.. FBI file 100-56894-44 .103-105 . Daniel.'dzuard Bruce: Militant Blackfournalisl. 1929. 15-50. and "Survey of Racial Conditions.ssays on the Margins ofIslam (San Francisco: City Lights Books.charges subsequently rescinded . 1968). W. 38. August Meier. Wynn. 1976). 1961). See. 1940 sociological study of the MSTA Philadelphia temple appears in Arthur Huff Fauset. 49.Wilson's "Shoot-Out at the Circle Seven Koran: Noble Drew Ali and the Moorish Science Temple. than Pditacal Thoughtfrom Ranade to Bhave (Berkeley: University of California Press. Jr. 43. and Mark . 4. 1906-1924. George Shepperson. rpt." I'hylon. 30 . 47 . Thrupp. A Documentary History of Slavery in North America (New York: Oxford University Press. ed . African-Amerlcan Religion in the-7iuentiedh (:entury: I~arieties of Protest and Accommodation (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Timothy Drew. "AfroAmerican Reactions to the Japanese and the AntiJapanese Movement. c. E. Chapter XLVIII :1 . See Lord Hailey. 8-10. 31 . Kearney paid little attention to the pro-Japan activities of organized groups of the 1930s and early 1940s. "Nationalism in Africa. Director. 327-42 . NO. Nero World A-Coming i Inside Black America (1943. Sun Yat-Sen : His Pdilical and Social Ideals. 44." Atlantic Monthly. DavidJ . 50. Dusk of Darvn: An H. 1971). Booker T. 29 . 41 :2 (December 1920) : 153-66. "Black Hebrews: The Quest for Authentic Identity. issued July 25. for example. Lord Hailey contrasted the role played by the Russo-Japanese War in the development ofAsian nationalism. Black Gods of the Metropolis : Negro Religious Cults in the Urban North (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. 48 . John Edgar Hoover. New York : W. and Neil A. (~orl. NY: Doubleday. 45 . 41 . see Ottley. See also Ernest Allen. also Paul Boyer. chaps." unpublished Ph . Wynn. The relationship of American blacks to Japanese immigrants in the U. 22054. 36.D . 38 :1 (March 1977): 93-104. "Gabriel's Defeat.. 41-51 . But aside from the New Yorkbased Ethiopian Pacific Movement. : The Press. 36:143 (April 1937) : 13437. comp. %'he Afro-American and the Second Wm-ld War (New York: Holmes and Meier. 338. by Peter Gilbert (New York: Arno Press and The New York Times. 1944). Norton. W.. eds." World's Work. 1992). "An Asiatic View of the Japanese Question. 1906). 32 . When lame Shall Be No More: Prophecy Belaef in Modern American Culture (Cambridge. 1942. B.." Standard Certificate of Death No. ed . 1994). The Hdy Koran of the Moorish Science l errrple of America (Chicago: 1927). Gerard Chaliand. 42. December 15. on the other hand. Du Bois. Millennnial Dreams in Action (New York: Schocken Books. and Elliot Rudwick. Elias Fanayaye Jones. latter work Wynn errs in assuming that no contact had occurred betweenJapanese agents and black defendants charged with sedition . "The Comparative Study of Millenarian Movements. for example. dissertation (Kent State University. See also an amplified version of Lamborris argument in his recently published Sacred Drift: F. 97 . In the otherwise excellent. compiled and translated by Leonard Shihlien Hsit (Los Angeles : University of Southern California Press. hatherDirrine (1983. Chicago. In an oftcited essay." in William Eric Perkins. 1989) . February 19. esp. Randall K. for example. T. ed . Page & Co.. 1993). The best overall analysis of pro-Japan sentiment amongAfrican Americans can be found in Reginald Kearney. 1970). 232. For brief examinations of such organizations. 99-100 . Lajpat Rai.1975). 1920).SA. 1943. Illinois (Office of Cook County Clerk) . FSI file 62-25889-228 . Cited in Kearney.at the time he was pursuing his initial research . See especially the confessions of Ben (aka Ben Woolfolk) in Willie Lee Rose. Schocken. 1970). Higginson. Att insightful. especially. more convincingly traces the MSTA's Islamic roots to Masonic influences.

"Afro-American Views ofJapanesr. `Afro-American Views of Japanese. 1993). 1989). 278-79 .'astern the Pan-Asiatic Movement to 1925. 61 . rpt. Militarism and fascism in Japan (New York : International Publishers. as noted earlier. 236-37 . Gyochisa. reported in "Survey of Racial Conditions. who provided me with this historical context. Among the phonetic variations assigned Takahashi's given name were Satonata. 4448. See.. "Afro-American Views of Japanese. "Surveyof Racial Conditions." 150-51 . an organization of Indians residing outside India in pro-Japanese Asia . 'Nato World A-Coming'. History oftheFreedom Movement in India (Calcutta: Firma K. p. Japan's slogan of "Asia for the Asiatics" burstforth with abounding vitality. Tanin and E. 329-30. Scalapino. VI :297 . Richard Storey. NY Kraus umns by W Thompson." 12325. rpt. in the early 19th century. second ed. the future bride was also quoted as saying that ` Japan is over populated and I would like to lead a move for colonization of our race in Africa .immer63 . `Africa for the African. 350-51 . 1990}. 1986). 1940. Eventually he fled to Japan. 1972). Beasley." who sought to modernize Ethiopia along the lines taken by Japan since the Meiji Restoration ." occurred in the title of a book written between 1895 and 1896 by a sympathetic Baptist missionary of European descent. "Survey of Racial Conditions. 1931-1942. 1987). "Duce Forces African Prince to Jilt Jap Mail Order Bride." Pittsburgh Courier (February 13. Scott. Mukhopadhyay. chapter 2. 176-77 .1992). anti-British revolutionary in the period just prior to World War I. In 1942 he was elected chair of the newly formed Indian Independence League." The marriage was later called off.51 . Haruaii Under the Rising Sun: Japan's Plans for Conquest After Peart Harbor (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. . "The Search for Spies: American Counterintelligence and the Japanese American Community. 1905. B. A member of the Chandernagore group of revolutionists.ongress Socialist Party. "Protest Mistreatment of Langston Hughes. James Weldon Johnson. (New York: Macmillan. Du Bois. 8. Satakata. Hugh Byas. 1933) : 2B . and 252. the first recorded usage of the phrase. VOLUME 24. 117-I8. 57 . Report of (agent name deleted]. Amy Jacques Garvey. and Satochasi. ed . 13-14. 174. 393-405. New York: Arno Press. 1963). a similar ultra-patriotic society. 1934): IV.. Mexico promptly invaded Texas. 64 . With an intent to reclaim territory seized by the U." N~m York 7zmes (February 18. 1973). 1967). Du Bois (White Plains. 1942). rpt. Robert A. 1963). Langston Hughes. %he Plot to Kill Malcolm Karl Evanzz. O. THEBLACKSCFIOLAR .51 . TheJudas Factor X (New York: Thunder's Mouth. [I am grateful to John E. 65 . 1967). 1973). W. 490. 60 . 1934) : 1. Higginson. However. 1935-1941 (Bloomington : Indiana University Press. became a member of the C' formed in 1934 . joining the surrender negotiations! See John J. 168. Gupta. 54 . III:704." Amerasia Journal. Colin Leagm." 118n. Demorrary and the Party Movement in Pre-Warlapan (Berkeley: University of California . Takahashi. Then following a final attack on New York City. Indian National Movement and Constitutional Development (Delhi : Vikas Publishing House. and ed . B. Barbara W. Takahashi's newspaper articles carried the byline. (Berkeley. 59. W E. Westport. 722-23. 62 . 1932 reportedly bore the given name Sato Kata. The Philippines : A Study in National Development (New York : The Macmillan Co. Stephan. Bose later . `tVetu World A-Coming: Inside Black America (1943. Perhaps notuncoincidentally. NO. GovMovement in Pre-WarJapan." 148. C. 6:2 (Fall 1979): 65416. 60. "Survey of Racial Conditions.'. "Russia.] A nephew of Hailie Selassie. Storry. 58.S. asp. "Survey of Racial Conditions. rpt. 328-29. 78 . Democrary and the Party . Japan. 55 . CT : Greenwood Press..Joseph Booth . New York: Penguin. ed . 1918): 4. 45459. For general information on the EWF see William R. 707-709. tique. G." New York Tribune (December 2. K. 259-76." 146. Scalapino. Intermarriages between upper-class Ethiopians andJapanese had been proposed in the early 1930s by a fraction of the Ethiopian ruling strata known as the ' Japan-izers. 336. Emma Lou Thornbrough. Historian Reginald Kearney. comp. seems to doubt any such connection . I Wonder As I Wander (New York : Rinehart. Abebe attended a New York City meeting of the Ethiopian World Federation [EWF] in 1943.1937) . Masao Maruyama. i n Herbert Aptheker. Bob Kumamoto. rpt. Majumdar. March 20. Government try Assassination 195. On the other hand. 173-212." Detroit Free Press (April 3. Herbert Aptheker. MA: University of Massachusetts. Joseph Ralston Hoyden.. made indirect contact with Marcus Garvey in 1925. and thereafter became involved in its internal politics. Satohato. S. 358-59 . "Prince Advertises for Bride in Japan." 100-102. %heDouble Patriots : A Study ofJapanese Nationalism (1957. 1956). LeJaponpoli:olin.. Bose went underground for several years after being implicated in several bombing incidents which took place in 1912 and 1913 . ." The (Kansas Cityl Call (September 22." 55354. E. and a PMEW membership card signed by him c . Satokato." 148. Garvey and Gameyism (Kingston: 1963). 15 . 1976). Moton and Schuyler. "Negro Editor Preaches War for Equality.). R. B. Washington sued for peace. 1968). Hill. economique et social (Paris : Armand C 4th ed . Rash Behari a Bose was an Indian government clerk who became a prominent. 22. 53 .. L. C. I have not yet confirmed the visits of Messrs. Tuchman. %'bought and Behavior in ModernJapanese Politics (London: Oxford. 40-42. 1942). Ottley. New York : Macmillan. with Lothrop Stoddard.1 PAGE 4 3 . Neuupaper Col. where he married a Japanese woman. 52. "Daughter of Japanese Peer to Wed Negro. The Sons of Sheba's Race: African-Americans and the Italo-Flhiopian War.1934): 3. 350 ernment by Assassination (New York : Alfred ICnopf . 159. 1984). Along This Way: %'he Autobiography oflames Weldon Johnson (1933. Roi Ottley. B. See also Kearney. %'he Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association Papers. Kea'rney. 1934). "Forum of Fact and Opinion. 1962). Nicolaevsky. Robert A. Byas. D. Immediately following its successful 1894-1895 military campaign against China.. . Detroit." 66 ." St . rpt. The 7 man %'elegram (1958. for example. and . T'he Double Patriots. Henry Dumolard. University of California Press. Louis A~gus (]anuary 26. 7: Thomas fortune: MilitantJournalist (Chicago : University of Chicago Press. author of The Rising Tide of Color Against White World Supremacy. Yohan. 167..Press. Japanese Imperialism 1894-1945 (Oxford: Clarendon Press. II : 184. Pan-Africanism : A Short Political Guide (New York: Praeger. II :306. Satohata. %he Correspondence of W f Du Bois (Amherst. uniquely embraces the spelling "Satahota." The far ! Quarterly. 56 . 1970). 8:3 (May 1949) : 272-73 .

1940. The "international supervisor" may have been Fay Watanabe. 1943). Modern Japan and Shinto Nationalism (Chicago : University of Chicago Press." 542. Sam Williams. Michigan Department of Commerce. FBI file 65-562-49. John Edgar Hoover. 33. 28-66. D. Socey. N. Edgar Hoover." New York %imes (January 28. Although it is possible for Grimes to have been eased out of the leadership prior to TDOO's having been incorporated. "Survey of Racial Conditions. C. 1940. 72 . Director. was incorporated in Illinois. report of L. 1$. A request by the Detroit Bureaus SAG (Special Agent in Charge) to reopen the investigation in December of that same year was subsequently denied . IL. Shinto : %'he Unconquered h (New York: Viking Press. recording secretary.Jones was elected president. FBI file 65-562-43. NO." Modern Asian Studies. Miles. 81 . FBI file 65-562-58. FBI file 65-562-43. Detroit. FBI file 65-562-43. 1934) : 1. History ofJapanese Religion (London: Kegan Paul. 1940. K.. George C. 302. April 3. Louis.'mpire: T'he Tanaka MemoriaL(New York : Harper & Brothers. "Development of Our Own. 1966). 1932) : 7. Stetvart. The Board of Directors included William Thompson. Michigan Department of Commerce . Boykin. "Survey of Racial (:onditions. Wilson. 1933. The speech is reconstructed from the following VOLUME 24. Detroit Ness (December 3. p. Walker Williams. 1934.. 1943). 81. 3." St. December 2.'nemy 70 . 67 . and was legally dissolved in 1939 . The chapter lasted a few years at most. December 19. report of [agent name deleted]. Detroit. March 20." Detroit Times (May 26. Detroit. 74 . Detroit. Boykin. 1934) : 2. and Co . Report of [agent name deleted]. "Survey of Racial Conditions. 1943): 12 ." 1451I6. 71 . Ibid.David Levering hewis. FBI file 65-562113. 76. FBI file 65-562-15. Ernest Fulton." 542. Interrogated by the FBI. Detroit. pp. A follow-up investigation that might have revealed such information was abruptly cancelled in April 1940 by the FBI Director. Takahashi. "Voodoo ChiefBack In C:ell. Fitzpatrick. Detroit. 1986). Springfield. H. and A. War Without Mercy: Race and Power in the Paafic War (New York : Pantheon. "Indictment Names `Black Drago~i Ilk. fapan. report of [agent name deleted]. 1942. "Survey of Racial Conditions. Trubner. John Edgar Hoover.. 137. WilliamJ. and Walter Warren ." inquired this same official on another occasion . 75 . and Co. S. 46 [I am indebted to Tyrone Tillery for calling my attention to this publication] . FBI file 65-562-[?] . 255." It was charged that he had misappropriated loan and cash vendor checks prior to his departure from the company. 86. 1934) : 2. September 16. Issiah TaBoard. which would have placed the date as August 1933 . trustee chairrnan . E. D. Welch. FBI file 65-562-62. misstated the content of the Tanaka Memorial. 1933) : 5. p. "It eras because the League failed to measure up to racial justice and racial equality. FBI file 65-562-15. Report of L. "Banished Leader Of Cult Arrested . Socey. 15. 1938). 262-90 . Director. The name of George Grimes. Grimes became vice-president in 1934. "Voodoo's Reign Here Is Broken. "survey o£ Racial Conditions. he stated that his arrival in Detroit was 8 months previous. 1940. TDOO's initial directors were George R. 261n . But in an article putt lished in Qpril 1934. Masaharu Anesaki. FBI file 65-562-43. Louis Posl-Dispatch (August 1. Scott. Berle. because God told them to do so artd establish a league of nations among the dark peoples of the earth . 1940. March 20. 1932): l. Articles of Incorporation of The Development of Our Own. 18. Certificate of Amendment to the Articles of Incorporation. Jansen." Detroit Tribune-Independent (April 21. secretary. and D. 1933. December 19. Willie Jenkins. TDOO's direct successor. Ulysses W. 1945). 83 . 73. and John W. See Carl Crow.1 PAGE 44 THEBLACKSCHOLAR . Ava M. Detroit. 1943. "MysteriousJapanese Held. 128 ." Detroit !'ribune-Independent (May 19. In 1936 an organizational branch.' 100. St . "Do you know why Japan quit the League of Nations?. p. Takahashi claimed to have settled in Detroit in 1930 . 19-25. Stephari. See Robert O. fbllowring Takahashi's deportation . Beynon. Tillman to F. Boykin. See G. Holtom. John Edgar Hoover. 1940. Foxworth toJ. is nowhere to be found any TDOO corporate papers filed in Michigan . 1941. 22. Detroit. 1940. sergeant-at-arms. John in Cooke. 84 . P. A Handbook on the Detroit Negro (Detroit: The Minority Study Associates. Trench. 2." 904.. 80 . The National Faith of Japan: A Study in Modern Shinto (London : Kegan Paul. January 30. 1934) : 1." Detroit Free Press (December 7.' Detroit Free Press (May 26. 7:4 (1973) : 733-45 . advisory chairman .'s Dream of World F." Delroil Free Press (November 2l. March 20. and Helen L. FBI to SAC. 1930). April 6. FBI file 65-40879-66. `~apanese Plotter Here Was Chosen by Black Dragons. Emanuell Pharr. however. "having disappeared some months prior to this discontinuance . April 6.still a year later than that claimed by Detroit police . Trench. 12. Takahashi was reported to have worked as an agent for the New York life Insurance Gompany at Tacoma. 1941. . 78." 546-47 . itself considered a fraudttlent document today by many historians . 1942): 3. C. Assistant Secretary of State. report of [agent name deleted].'Takahashi. enclosure in memorandum. Holtom. 82. Report of (agent name deleted]. mentioned in several FBI intelligence reports_ See report of [agent name deleted]. 536-37 . "Leader of Cult Admits Slaying at Home `Altar'. Articles of Incorporation of The Development of Our Own. it is perhaps worth noting that a Samuel W. Dower. Detroit. 77 . Ethel Fulton. moreover. Vance. 79 . G.1933) : S. treasury chairman . A Handbook vin the Detroit NNgrq 47. William Pharr." Detroit 7hmes (November 21. 1933) :10. ed . 1940. April 3. S." Uehnil %'ribune-Independent (April 21. Trubner. No Mystery About Disposal. E. reportedly had a large number of its membersworking at Ford's River Rouge plant. A Handbook on the Delroil Ngrq 46 . October 5. March I. Ibid. 1933. 1h'ashington from January 1923 through De cember 1927. "The Tanaka Memorial (1927) : Authentic or Spurious?. 1981). Jr. "Development of Our Own. Nonalignment and the Afro-Asian States (New York : Praeger. Director. F. The following mach. "Altar Scene of Hurnan Sacrifice. 85 . March 20. When Harlem Was in Vogue (New York : Alfred A. FBI to SAC. With the economyon a war footing in 1941. October 5. with headquarters located at Springfield. Goldie Merriweather. FBI file 65-562-43. 1932) : 1. S K. Takis. the Onward Movement of America. Ballou." Detroit Nears (December 3. 1933 . 69 . D. 1942) and John J. Krtopf. Report of [agent name deleted]. 1933): 5. pp. FBI file 65-562-43. FBI to AdolfA. "Development of Our Own. March 20. Don't you know that _Japan is acting in accordance with God's will?" Uetroid %'ribune-Independent (June 2. 68 . with indications that the order had come down from the Office of Secretary of State. L. "The Voodoo Cult.

Her brother was a Professor Barnett of Tuskegee Institute . 1933. Louis Post-Dispatch (March 7. . 1934): 5. Detroit to Director. Bartie Alsobrooks. Detroit. October 30." 543. 1933. which had been copyrighted by him. 1934. hbotsolrliers of tlae UNIA ("Iheir Oum Words) (Trenton. 1934): 1 . Charles C. whose maiden name wag. March 20. THEBLACKSCHOLAR i~OLUME 24. 5. Arthur Merritt. 1934) :. 109. SAC. 1942. since Fard left Detroit involuntarily on May 26.. pp. 60-61. D. FBI file 65-562-43." 544. that "Muhammad had taken one Satakata Takahashi into his home when Takahashi was ill at which time Takahashi learned the principles of Muhammad's organization and when he was well. 49-50. 106. October 10.agle (December 14. Louis Post-Dispatch (March 7. Detroit. Socey. 98 . 1939. Drew Pearson and Robert S. December 19. "Survey of Racial Conditions. 1933): 2 . cited in report of [agent name deleted]. By 1942 the organization had relocated to a nearby spot in the vicinity of Eight Mile Road at Majestic Avenue in Ferndale. Louis PostDispatch (March 7. Articles of Incorporation of The Development of Our Own. "Survey of Racial (:onditions. 17. 1958. hospitalized during the past three years because of stomach ulcers. 40. 93. Fitzgerald. Takahashi. The Development of Our Own v. October 30. May 15. 90. Socey. FBI. 1942. however. Detroit. 1933). NO. and . March 20. Beynon. A newspaper report described Mrs. 1957. 1942. 1940. Detroit. 107. A contribution of $100 was also reportedly made by OMA to the families ofJapanese soldiers . SAC. Louis Post-Uispatrh (March 5. pp. "The Voodoo Cult. it was presumably made prior to that time. "The Voodoo Cult. FBI file 105-63642-8. 1989). INS to Ernest Allen. 87 . "Survey of Racial Conditions. 5th Column Links Probed in Detroit Rioting. 97 . FBI file 65-562-43. 104. Mrs. 113. A Handbook nn the Detroit Negro. 1946." I)ehoil TriIrune-Independent (April 21. Naka Nakaue. FBI file 105-63642-6 . 25350 (E . FOI/PA Officer." 903. SA(: (:hicago to Director. 1942-1946. 1942) : 1 . enclosure in RG 165. January 31. and report of L. Chicago. Beynon." SAC. January 15. October 30. John Charles Zampty. Pearl T." Wicshington Times-HeraGl (June 23. Inc. SAC. FBI file 105-63642-15 . 105. 9. Fard]. 1934). `~ap Arrested in Raid on Club. December 19. "W. Its officers were Alexander Long. report of [agent name deleted]. Detroit." Detroit 7i'ibune-Independent (June 16. St . and Leila Fisher. Articles of Incorporation of The Onward Movement of America. 1942) : 1. (:hicago. Detroit. FBI file IOfr63642-15 . p. . 1942) : 1. March 20. FBI file 65-562-15. A Handbook on the Detroit Negro. Mich. 89 . 1933 . Loteis PoslDispalch (March 7. September 28. 1993 . almost blind. had three children from a previous marriage. 1957. No . MID 10218-261/91 (DNA 94. Takahashi.. a U. . 42. 1940. October 5. p." but this appears to be in error. 1957. "Development of Our Own.5-40879-341 . Detroit. C :ora L. pp. NJ : Africa World Press. April 3. 2. Report of [agent name deleted]. in Enclosure to FBI file 62-25889-136. Officers of The Onward Movement of America included Cash C. "Local Woman Weds Japanese Officer. report of [agent name deleted]. March 20. FBI. Flint. March 2U. 1940. Detroit. 91 .D . October 30. 100. ll. FBI. Report of L. 1943). FBI. 1939) [National Archives . August 7. P. 99 . p. Jr. FBI. 1940. "Survey of Racial Conditions. P. 52-57. 1957. "Resume of Japanese lofluence on the Negroes in the United States. FBI. Takahashi's INS records. 17." 3. 1940. Louis. St . see Jeanette Smith Irvin. D.1 PAGE 45 . December 21. in the US Library of Congress. claimed to be "the originator of the Development of Our Own and the Moslem Temple of Islam cult and cited as proof a twok. San Francisco to SAC. The FBI report listed the name of "William J. FBI file 65-562-53. "The Washington Merry-C:o-Round. FBI file 105-63642-20." St ." 542." St. Boykin. FBI file 65-562-43. Statement of Reverend Wilkerson Vaughu. Allen. p. For an interview of the latter." Wichita H. FBI file 62-25889-30. to Director. 36-52. March 20. United States v. "Resume of Japanese Influence on the Negroes in the United States. June 8. 1940. "Development of Our Own. Report of (agent name deleted]. 1942) : 8." Detroit Tribune-Independent (April 21. 46 . FBI file 6. cafe of Amendment to the Articles of Incorporation.S. FBI file 65-562-43. entitled `Five Guiding Principles' . Takahashi. 46 . 112. 3-4. March 20. Alexander Long. "Local Woman Weds. to Director." 543. have been reported missing From the agency. Bates. Report of [agent natiie deleted]. RG 38. 1933. which fall under the purview of the Freedom of Information Act. FBI file 105-63642-6 . imprisonment ." 904. Report of [agent name deleted]. Ahdul Muhammad's wife reportedly confided in Ousha Appacanis. SAC. 108. Takahashi as "a faithful visitor at Springfield during his.Barnett. Michigan Department of Commerce. 1940." Detroit %i-ibune-Independent Qune 9. 1958. No . pp. Smith. 88 . 23023 civ. 101 . 4-5. Rosa Wal den.sources: `~apanese `Fifth Column' Work in Detroit Also. Detroit. No date is cited for this remark . T. Feraud" [W. Fifth Army report noted that the head of the NOI. copy in FBI file 65-562-136. 92. St. SAC. filed July 3. 1939. 1958. FBI fle 65-562-15. report of [agent name deleted]. 95 . FBI file 65-562-15. It is unclear from the context whether African Americans' fighting "with them" meant fighting against or on the side of Japan. January 30. FBI file 65-40879-66 ." Office of the Chief of Naval Operations (1942). Chicago to Director. 10. "Klan. report of [agent name deleted]. ONI Security Classified Administrative Correspondence. D." 543. Interestingly. A Handbook on the Detroit Negro. "Survey of Racial Conditions. December 19. March 20. A8-5/ EF37/EG [DNA] . Michigan Department of Commerce. 111 . FBI file 105-63642-6 ." 544. Correlation Summary of Wallace Don [Dodd] Ford. 1933) : 5.Great Lakes Region] . Articles of Incorporation of Producers and Consumers Market Co . 1940. November l2. Detroit to Director. 46 . 58.17. (Wayne County Circuit Court (:hancery. 1940. FBI file 65-562-43.January 15. Report of [agent name deleted]. November 23. a member of The Development of Our Own. Mrs. Socey. 1934) : 2. 1933. Mrs. Zampty may have been the same person as the Detroit-based Garveyite. T.. 110. Detroit. "Survey of Racial Conditions. FBI file 65-562-43. Michigan." Detroit News (December 2. FBI file 65-562-43. Detroit Nems (December 3. 96 . and Gladys long . Certili- 102. Chicago.St . Boykin. lletroit. Detroit. Takahashi." Cited in (:orrrlation Summary of Wallace Don (Dodd] Ford. 43. p.]apanese Officer. D. Report of L. 1942): 5. Michigan Department of Commerce . pp. . In 1942 Takahashi was said to be "70 years of age. 103. FBI file 65-562-43. Boykin.

Report of [agent name deleted]. white star and crescent in the center. 1940). 1933-1945 (Secaucus. "Afro-American Opposition to the United States' Wars of the Twentieth Century: Dissent. 198. 1910-1932 (Secaucus. November 12. FBI file 65-40879-165. copy in FBI file 65-40879-241 . 116. and Bontemps and Cgnroy. distorted the findings. completed Sept. 111 . and I [Islam]. "Negro Workers. NJ : Citadel. 117. 1968). FBI file 65-562-43." unpublished Ph . Associated with Takahashi in the early 1930s. August 12. 3:1 (January 1933) : 1418 . September 9. 1942. 428.SC. Bates (-Bey). Clemens.Attitudes of New York Negroes 7bruaril Diserimina- lion Against Negroes and a Comparison of Negro and Poor lNhite Altitudes %bward War-Related Issues. C:ol. in the Harlem Liberator as ` Japanese Imperialism . a "national liaison man" of the MSTA in the 1940s.. is 18 per cent . George W. See also Transcript of Testimony and Proceedings Before the Grand Jury (E . Intelligence Division. 1943. for providing me with a copy of this publication . Hinman. and Haywood." part 1 (July 1. 1942. 124. October 30. 126. United States Naval Intelligence Service. ~feber. Indianapolis. 121. pp." 1942. 258. rpt. Gerald Robert Gill. B-7-0. Harlem: Negro Metropolis (New York: E. rpt. as "War in the East in Herbert Aptheker. Cyril Briggs. 121.D. 1942): 25-26. 1930-1934 (Philadelphia : Temple University Press. "Survey of Racial Conditions. p. ?he Negro Locks at the War. "Survey of Racial Conditions. 1957. NegroLiberation (New York : International Publishers. 1942. %ame (October 5." 562. "Topical Study Memorandum on Moorish Science Temple of America." Y'he Negro Worker [Hamburg].. %'he Judas Fhrtor. NO. Is Japan the Champion of the Colored Races? (New York: Workers Library Publishers. FRI file 65-562-139 . 1939-1946 (New Haven: Yale University Press." May 28. Scott. SAC Chicago to Director. 1942). report of [agent name deleted].5). Those familiar with the c. 1960s NOI flag will note the similarities: red background. in FBI Indianapolis file 100-409458. of all Negroes interviewed. button. Black Bolsherrik.approached Muhammad. Myrdal. The "so called Pacific (proJapanese) movement" was denounced by CPUSA national secretary Earl Browdrr at the Party's 8th national convention in 1934. Documentary History of the Negro People in the United States. 1942. 1943." The Negro Worker [Hamburg]. See also R. New York City. Detroit.974). and Office of Facts and Figures. Survey of Intelligence Materials No. 1942. "IsJapan the Protector of the Coloured Races%. Doonping. 1400n. 777. Statement of Mimo De Guzman [Policarpio Manansala]. 12. March 20. Hayden." 578.1 . University of Michigan. journalist Karl Evanzz advances a number of claims regarding the relation ship between Takahashi and Elijah Muhammad . Herschel Wash ington (-El) later became Grand Sheik of the Mt. "Negroes in a Democracy at War. While most of his specific assertions ring true. p. Discontent and Disinterest. Office of Facts and Figures. "Survey of Racial Conditions. ed ." 545. the creative presentation of evidence at variance with extant documentation. 345-46.`Protector' of the Oppressed Darker Peoples. one cannot cite it with confidence . 1973). P. Report of [agent name deleted]. G. is plagued by sloppiness. the latter rpt." Presumably the break between Takahashi and Muhammad occurred prior to the formation of TDOO. 127. Detroit. Michigan MSTA. 1942. New York to Di rector. with the thqught in mind that the two of them could utilise the organization to make a great deal of money." 546-47. 1933) : 4. 25. FBI file 62-25889-30. Muhanunad's organization at the time was most likely the NOI. Records of the Office of Facts and Figures. 718-20 . and if that is so. 122. Cash C. Statement of Mimo De Guzman [Policarpio Manansala]. 29. dissertation (Howard University. FBI file 65-562-105.D . 203. pp. 1 . FBI. 1938) [I am indebted to archivist Edward C. overall. 1933): 4 and part 2 Quly 8. %'he Philippines. Ba Maw. 1934) : 7. 115. i n Philip S. in report of [agent name deleted]. 119. claiming in a curiously constructed sentence that the "highest proportion of Negroes. Governors Island. 2 :5 (May 1932) : fi-8. 1939-1942 [Washington National RecprdsCenter-5rritland] ." 125. 123. Daily Worker (April 14. report of [agent name deleted]. in a confidential poll conducted by Negro interviewers. Transcript of Testimony and Proceedings Before the Grand Jury. E. Indianapolis. June 1. was incorporator-director of the Onward Movement of America in 1939 and became its Acting Chief Director when Takahashi was incarcerated that same year. August 21. Lt. who have admitted proJaparrese inclinations. and. August 3." in Herbert Aptheker. In his recent book. Pacific Movement of the Eastern World. Harry Haywood. 311-14 . Muhammad's wife related that Muhammad refused this approach . Second Service Command. 1948).. J. 118. Inc. Foner and Herbert 5hapiro. Labadie Collection. 382-400 . 1991). 789-90 . 1942 .especially 391-92. 1940. 24 . in at least one instance. American Communism and Rlack Americans: A Documentary History. PAGE 46 THE BIACK SCHOLAR VOLUME 24. The Sons of Sheba's Rare. 120. due to the fact that Evanzz's work.. and the corresponding letters F. Alphabetical Subject File. 114. "Survey of Racial Conditions.] Excerpts from the pamphlet were reprinted as "Japanese Law and Order in Manchuria. 58. copy fried with National Archives' holdings of United States v. See also Claude McKay. Ninth Naval Digtrict.. Breakthrough in Burma: Memoirs of a Rewilution. abysmal documentation. Uocummtary History of the Negro People in the United States. eds. August 3. NJ : Citadel. Fight Against Intervention. Headquarters. Jr . FBI File 105-63642-6. Anyplace But Here. An American Dilemma. RCG 205.

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