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– Mayank Sharma /
Q.NO.1 Discuss the different management orientations of a company. How does it affect international marketing? Answer :Management orientations
The form and substance of a company’s response to global business opportunities depend greatly on management’s assumptions or beliefs –both conscious and unconscious – about the nature of the world. The worldview of a company’s personnel can be described as ethnocentric, polycentric, regiocentric, and geocentric. Management at a company with a prevailing ethnocentric orientation may consciously make a decision to move in the direction of geocentricism.
Figure: Orientations of Management and Companies Ethnocentric- The ethnocentric orientation mans company personnel see only similarities in markets and assume the products and practices that succeed in the home country will, due to their demonstrated superiority, be successful anywhere. At some companies, the ethnocentric orientation means the opportunities outside the home country are ignored. Such companies are sometimes called domestic companies. Ethnocentric companies that do conduct business outside the home country can be described as international companies; they adhere to the notion that the products that succeed in the home country are superior and, therefore, can be sold everywhere without adaptation. Polycentric-The polycentric orientation is the opposite of ethnocentrism. The term polycentric describes management’s often-unconscious belief or assumption that each country in which a company does business is unique. This assumption lays the groundwork for each subsidiary to develop its own unique business and marketing strategies in order to succeed; the term multinational company is often used to describe such a structure. Regiocentric and geocentric orientations-In a company with a regiocentric orientation, management views regions as unique and seeks to develop an integrated regional strategy. For example, a U.S. company that focuses on the countries included in the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) – the United States, Canada, and Mexico – has a regiocentric orientation. Effect on international marketing In a firm’s internationalization process, one key strategic decision is international market selection. Entering new markets, in particular foreign markets, involves a major commitment of recourses (strategic, technical, managerial, and financial). Due to the limitation of resources, a firm has to make a strategic decision on which markets to enter and allocate resources accordingly. This decision is especially important in the case of companies that decide to be international from the inception, as INVs. Nevertheless few efforts have been done in explaining why and how INVs decide to enter in one or more countries. firms can use their international market orientation to overcome cultural distance problems, especially information asymmetry, opportunistic behavior, and uncertainty. Market-oriented behaviors facilitate acquisition and dissemination of knowledge and responsiveness to this intelligence about foreign markets what is especially important when the firm has no international experience
WTO: The World Trade Organisation (WTO) was established on 1st January 1995. Answer:Comparison between GATT and WTO: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT): GATT is a multilateral treaty among the member countries that lays down certain agreed rules for conducting international trade. It also important to note that high priority products and industries in a country may have more favorable government restrictions. Getting acquainted with how politics and law affect business activities around the world is a critical concern of today’s successful global organizations. Q. Government policies and laws vary from country to country. There are 5 main political causes of instability that affect the international markets: Some forms of government seem to be inherently unstable Changes in ruling political parties Extreme nationalism Animosity targeted toward specific countries Trade disputes In order to understand how the political environment impacts your business. New markets have opened. there have been substantial political changes around the world that have shaped business operations. The agreement establishing WTO provides that it should perform the following four functions: .NO. for the last forty seven years. To decrease how vulnerable your business is to political conditions. but understanding how much your business is effected by the political environment can identify threats to your firm.2. expanding your investment base. Unfortunately. you must analyze how politically vulnerable your company is. Some examples of these practices include forming joint-ventures. It is very important to analyze the politico-legal environment of a country in international business. there are no universal guidelines to do so. The member countries contribute together to fourfifth of the total world trade. licensing your products/services. and the level of uncertainty that exists presents many marketing challenges.3 Compare GATT and WTO and discuss the implications of WTO on international marketing. A country’s political system integrates the various parts of its society into a viable. the primary marketing objective is to develop a plan that will be enhanced or at least not negatively affected by the political and legal environments. It also influences the extent to which government intervenes in business. it has been concerned with negotiations on the reduction. Especially in the past ten years. and doing business abroad means that government may have a greater level of involvement than what you are used to in domestic business. old ones have closed. The basic aim of GATT is to liberalise world trade negotiations among members countries and. It is interesting to note that underdeveloped countries form a sizable majority in GATT. and thus the way in which business is conducted both domestically and internationally.NO. or political bargaining through lobbying. functioning whole. Answer:Importance to analyze the politico-legal environment of a country in international business The legal/political aspect is very important in global marketing. Comment. even the elimination of trade barriers – tariff and nontariff – between countries and improving trade relations so that the international trade flows freely and swiftly. The functions and objectives of WTO are given in following subsections.Q. It also provides a forum to member countries to discuss their trade problems and negotiate to enlarge their trading opportunities. Overall. it is especially important for the marketer to forecast risk and engage in business ventures that may benefit them.
ex-users. 5. it shall provide a forum for further negotiations among member countries on matters covered by the agreements as well as on new issues falling within its mandate. Bases of segmentation Market segmentation is the process of subdividing a market into distinct subsets of customers that behave in the same way or have similar needs. Benefit segmentation International benefit segmentation focuses on the numerator of the value equation – the B in V=B/P. For example. and nonuser. but one is a high-income. Second. Japan and Vietnam are both in East Asia. a pan-European campaign was created for Friskies dry cat food. Implications of WTO: The implications are as follows: 1. heavy. The fact that there is additional income means that resources are available for governments to redistribute. 7 Answer:Nestlé’s segmentation Consumers can be categorized in terms of usage rates – for example. The appeal was that dry cat food better suits a cat’s universally recognized independent nature. Consumers can also be segmented according to user status: potential users. Which segmentation it adopts there and what are the other international market segmentations? (Nestlé’s segmentation. regardless of geography. Trade Raises Incomes: Lowering trade barriers allows trade to increase. First. It is also an outcome of the international confidence and cooperation that the system creates and reinforces. medium.NO. Geographic segmentation Geographic segmentation has major limitations: The mere fact that markets are in the same world geographic region does not meant that they are similar. light. it shall facilitate the implementation. Nestle is marketing bottled water in Pakistan where there is a huge market of nonusers who. administration and operation of the Uruguay Round legal instruments and of any new agreements that may be negotiated in the future. This approach can achieve excellent results by virtue of marketer’s superior understanding of the problem a product solves or the benefit it offers. The result is reduced costs of production (because imports used in production are cheaper) and reduced prices of finished goods and services and ultimately a lower cost of living. Although bottled water may be considered a luxury product in some high-income markets.4 Nestle is marketing bottled water to Pakistan. In response. 4. The Basic Principles make the System Economically more Efficient and they Cut Costs: Many of the benefits of the trading system are more difficult to summarise in numbers but they are still important. But some adjustment is necessary. Freer Trade Cuts the Cost of Living: The WTO‟s global system lowers trade barriers through negotiation and applies the principle of non-discrimination. Q. 3. regulars. The WTO system helps resolve these disputes peacefully and constructively. despite their low income. Nevertheless. But the picture is complicated by a number of factors. alternative protectionism is not the way to tackle employment problems. Bases of segmentation) 3. and users of competitors‟ products. In practice there is often factual evidence that lower trade barriers have been good for employment. nonusers. 2. are willing to pay 18 rupees a bottle for clean water because of the widespread presence of arsenic poisoning in well water and the pollution of surface water. Trade Stimulates Economic Growth and that can be Good News for Employment: Trade clearly has the potential to create jobs. Tobacco companies are targeting China because the Chinese are heavy smokers. Some widely used bases of segmentation are discussed below in sub sections. The System Helps to Keep the Peace: helping trade to flow smoothly and providing countries with a constructive and fair outlet for dealing with disputes over trade issues. post- . first-timers. which adds to incomes – national incomes and personal incomes. They are the result of essential principles at the heart of the system and they make life simpler for the enterprises directly involved in trade and for the producers of goods and services. Nestle discovered that cat owners‟ attitudes toward feeding their pets are the same everywhere.
An undue increase in weight or size only serves to raise freight charges. the pilferage incidents will be more and there will be a loss to the shippers. values.587 in Luxemburg. heavy. (iv) pilferage.industrial society and the other is an emerging. It may be viewed as consisting of two distinct types: (i) industrial (exterior) and (ii) consumer (inferior). and rolled during loading and unloading. moving in and outside the customs or in transit to the final destination. we will discuss the problems that businesses face with packaging and a possible way to overcome those problems containerisation. Thus. and nonuser. as well as how often and how much they use it. Moisture and Temperature: A good packing helps in the seepage of moisture and also prevents destruction of goods during extreme temperatures especially when the cargo is to be shipped by sea. Weight: Over packaging not only directly increases packing cost but increases the weight and size of the cargo. For most consumer and industrial products.5 Write short notes on: a) International packaging b) International logistics planning Answer:a) International packaging: Packaging has assumed an important function for the preservation of the goods as well as for the reduction of cost of the products. (iii) moisture and temperature. Consumer packaging is designed for the purpose of affecting sales acceptance. Problems with packaging: There are four common packing problems some of which are in direct conflict with one another: (i) weight. In the United States. . Behavioral segmentation Behavioral segmentation focuses on whether people buy and use a product. consumers are widely known. lower middle income. Pilferage: Pilferage of goods is very common especially in the Third World Countries. upper middle income. The World Bank segments countries into high income. national income is the single most important segmentation variable and indicator of market potential. The cargo may be dropped. more women working outside the home. a market research organization whose original VALS and updated VALS 2 analyses of U. The sea saline water corrodes the metal parts of the cargo if it is not properly packed. Psychographic segmentation Psychographic segmentation involves grouping people in terms of their attitudes. less developed. medium. regardless of geography. over protection of cargo can cost more than its worth. packing must be prepared to accommodate rough manual handling and guard against breakages and pilferage. light. and low income. Moreover. psychographics is primarily associated with SRI International. Data are obtained from questionnaires that require respondents to indicate the extent to which they agree or disagree with a series of statements. The subsequent subsections.S. The breakage problem is prevalent in every step of sea transport. Benefit segmentation Segmentation focuses on the numerator of the value equation – the B in V=B/P. pushed. so is under packaging because the latter allows a product to be susceptible to breakage or damage. (ii) breakage. import fees or customs duties may also rise when import duties are based on gross weight. The packaging has got to be strong and sturdy so that it cannot be easily opened by ordinary means. dragged. Therefore. from a low of $81 in the Congo to a high of $38. fewer children.NO. colour and qualities of a product. Similarly. Annual per capita income varies widely in world markets. Breakage: Although over packaging is undesirable. This approach can achieve excellent results by virtue of marketer’s superior understanding of the problem a product solves or the benefit it offers. extreme climate also destroys the very shape. and lifestyles. Q. Geographic segmentation is dividing the world into geographic subsets. and higher incomes and living standards – suggest the emergence of international segments. Consumers can be categorized in terms of usage rates – for example. pre-industrial society. If the proper packaging of the goods that are being shipped is not done. Demographic segmentation A number of demographic trends – aging population. The aim of industrial packaging is to prepare and protect merchandise for shipment and storage Packing is even more critical for overseas shipment than for domestic shipment because of the longer transit time and a greater number of hazards. The advantage of geography is proximity: Markets in geographic segments are closer to each other and easier to visit on the same trip or to call on during the same time window.
we find that logistic systems are commonly composed of four main components: Components of logistics:I. If a new product requires replacement of those other items that are still usable. II. trialability/divisibility.NO. especially those manufacturing complex products like drugs. A freezer would not find a ready market in Asia where people prefer fresh food. III. marketers must consider factors that influence product adoption. But because of the long run potential in the developing countries. Product differentiation and brand image. Export pricing is the most important tool for promoting sales and facing international competition. product adoption becomes a costly preposition. IV. This is one of the key components of the global unification strategy upon which the overall effectiveness of a multinational firm depends. A product must also be compatible with local customs and habits. we are ready to analyze the approaches of management to international logistic planning. It will differ from exporter to exporter depending upon whether the exporter is a merchant exporter or a manufacturer exporter or exporting through a canalising agency. Price includes our profit margin. Manufacture abroad always involves some risks. Foreign plants producing for local and export markets. observability. it is generally possible to export some parts or supplies for use in foreign plants. companies try to work out systems that will be competitively practical and permit lowest cost operation so that profit is maximized. . therefore. there is no fixed formula for successful export pricing. Export of components from the United States and third countries. Sometimes companies have decided to take the second choice rather than make sizable investments of money and manpower in small markets. As barriers to trade are lowered. Under this heading fall two types of situations. You can still be competitive with higher prices but with better delivery package or other advantages. Companies selling goods in these countries are repeatedly confronted with the choice of manufacturing on a protected basis within the country or being excluded by restrictions designed to protect those who are willing to manufacture.6 Select a product of your choice for export and explain how you will do the pricing and costing of that product. After-sales service in products like machine tools. exports from the United States add to the volume of output of domestic plants. These factors are all perceptual and thus subjective in nature. Export pricing and costing: Export pricing should be differentiated from export costing. 2. 5. The price has to be realistically worked out taking into consideration all export benefits and expenses. In supplying world markets. consumer durables. cost includes only expenses we have incurred. Prompt deliveries and continuity in supply. A major disadvantage of foreign manufacture has been the high cost of producing on a small scale for one-country markets. Virtually all companies start their logistic planning with a strong preference for exporting from the United States. Range of products offered. along with the complications of managing operations from a distance. You should also assess the strength of your competitor and anticipate the move of the competitor in the market. Although many finished products cannot be exported from the United States. most companies are reluctant to be frozen out of them. Price is what we offer to the customer. Q. Cost is the price that we pay/incur for the product. Furthermore. 3. making them more efficient. For a product to gain acceptance it must demonstrate its relative advantage over existing alternatives. Pricing strategies will depend on various circumstantial situations. Your prices will be determined by the following factors: 1. and electronic equipment. companies. complexity and price. 4. compatibility. A new product should also be compatible with consumers‟ other belongings. This type of operation may be expected to increase with the reduction of trade restrictions under international agreements and especially with the development of common markets. automobiles. However. Frequency of purchase. companies have shifted toward logistic systems based on small number of fairly large plants located at strategic spots around the world. Manufacture in a foreign country for sale in that country. Looking at the operations of U.b) International logistics planning: Having sketched in the broad picture of international marketing. Export of finished products from the United States. First are the plants in less developed countries. Answer:Choosing the product: Before breaking into the foreign market. As explained by Diffusion Theory at least six factors have a bearing on the adoption process: relative advantage.S.
8. 7. Preference or prejudice for products originating from a particular source. 12.6. 10. Unique value goods and gift items. It consists of fixed cost and variable cost comprising various elements. Speciality value goods and gift items. . 11. Prompt acceptance and settlement of claims. Credit offered. It is advisable to prepare an export-costing sheet for every export product. 9. Presumed relationship between quality and price. Aggressive marketing and sales promotion. Export Costing is basically a cost accountant‘s job.
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