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Chapter 7 Textbook Notes

Key Terms

Chattel- a term used to describe movable items or property, but at the time, the term was
used in reference to slaves.
Specie/hard money
Gradual emancipation
Federalist papers
Established church
Stay laws


Northwest Territory- region north of the Ohio River and west of Pennsylvania-to be laid
out according to the Northwest Ordinance into townships six miles square, subdivided
into 640 acre lots.
Mississippi River

I. Struggling with the Peacetime Agenda

a. Demobilizing the Army
After the war, many of the troops refused to go home until the government did
something about their grievances regarding back pay and other benefits.
Some officers began to hint at a military coup if demands were not met.
Washington moved quickly to defuse the situation and asked for patience and
gave assurances that soldiers would receive pay, and he followed through.
b. Opening the West
c. Wrestling with the National Debt
d. Surviving in a Hostile Atlantic World

II. Sources of Political Conflict

a. Separating Church and State
b. Slavery Under Attack
c. Politics and the Economy

III. Political Tumult in the States

a. The Limits of Republican Experimentation
b. Shay’s Rebellion
Massachusetts citizens in 1786 had to borrow money to pay taxes or support
their families, and they usually borrowed from each other rather than from
traditional banks, but many faced foreclosure, so the citizens turned to the
state for “stay laws” prohibiting private creditors from demanding payment in
“hard currency” rather than paper money.
Massachusetts demanded immediate payment of debts in gold or silver.
Backed into a corner, the citizens, urged by Daniel Shays, took up arms
against the government of Massachusetts and later the United States.
The rebellion eventually collapsed, but it underscored the problems of the
Articles of Confederation.

IV. Toward a New National Government

a. The Rise of Federalism
b. The Grand Convention
c. Drafting the Constitution
d. Federalists Versus Anti-Federalists
e. The Struggle over ratification
f. The Social Geography of Ratification