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SUMMER TRAINING PROJECT
“Perception of people towards investment and various investment avenues”
ASHISH KUMRAWAT MBA (FT)
I, ASHISH KUMRAWAT, student of MBA (FT) from INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES, D.A.VV hereby
declare that I have completed this project on " Perception
investment avenues” in the academic year 2008-09. The
information submitted is true and original to the best of knowledge.
Signature of student
The most pleasant part of any project is to express gratitude and bestow honor towards all those who directly or indirectly contributed to the smooth flow of the project work and this being the good opportunity; I don’t want to miss it. Sincere acknowledgement is due foremost to the MR. AKLANK JAIN, ASM-RELIGARE SECURITIES LTD. Who endowed me with the valuable opportunity to explore so interesting and a critical topic as is the subject of the present report. I thank my mentor Mr. O.P Gupta for his valuable inputs in the research and spending so much of valuable time and effort in helping with my topic. I also wish to express sincere gratitude to all the respondents of the project without the kind of co-operation of whom this work would not have been possible.
Ashis h Kumrawat
• Introduction • Investment • Investment need of an investor • Investment options in India • Research Methodology • Data Analysis and Interpretation • Suggestions and Recommendations • Conclusion • Bibliography
INTRODUCTION Savings form an important part of the economy of any nation. With the savings invested in various options available to the people, the money acts as the driver for growth of the country. Indian financial scene too presents a plethora of avenues to the investors. Though certainly not the best or deepest of markets in the world, it has reasonable options for an ordinary man to invest his savings. Investment benefits both economy and the society. It is an outgrowth of economic development and the maturation of modern capitalism. For the economy as a whole, aggregate investment sanctioned in the current period is a major factor in determining aggregate demand and, hence, the level of employment. In the long term, current investment determines the economy’s future productive capacity and, ultimately, a growth in the standard of living. By increasing personal wealth, investing can contribute to higher overall economic growth and prosperity. The process of investing helps to create financial markets where companies can raise capital. This too, contributes to greater economic growth and prosperity. Specific types of investments provide other benefits to society as well.
INVESTMENTS The dictionary meaning of investment is to commit money in order to earn a financial return or to make use of the money for future benefits or advantages. People commit money to investments with an expectation to increase their future wealth by investing money to spend in future years. For example, if you invest Rs. 1000 today and earn 10 %over the next year, you will have Rs.1100 one year from today. An investment can be described as perfect if it satisfies all the needs of all investors. So, the starting point in searching for the perfect investment would be to examine investor needs. If all those needs are met by the investment, then that investment can be termed the perfect investment. Most investors and advisors spend a great deal of time understanding the merits of the thousands of investments available in India. Little time, however, is spent understanding the needs of the investor and ensuring that the most appropriate investments are selected for him. The Investment Needs of an Investor
By and large, most investors have eight common needs from their investments: 1. Security of Original Capital; 2. Wealth Accumulation; 3. Comfort Factor; 4. Tax Efficiency; 5. Life Cover; 6. Income; 7. Simplicity; 8. Ease of Withdrawal; 9. Communication. Security of original capital: The chance of losing some capital has been a primary need. This is perhaps the strongest need among investors in India, who have suffered regularly due to failures of the financial system. Wealth accumulation: This is largely a factor of investment performance, including both short-term performance of an investment and long-term performance of a portfolio. Wealth accumulation is the ultimate measure of the success of an investment decision. Comfort factor: This refers to the peace of mind associated with an investment. Avoiding discomfort is probably a greater need than receiving comfort. Reputation plays an important part in delivering the comfort factor.
Tax efficiency: Legitimate reduction in the amount of tax payable is an important part of the Indian psyche. Every rupee saved in taxes goes towards wealth accumulation. Life Cover: Many investors look for investments that offer good return with adequate life cover to manage the situations in case of any eventualities. Income: This refers to money distributed at intervals by an investment, which are usually used by the investor for meeting regular expenses. Income needs tend to be fairly constant because they are related to lifestyle and are well understood by investors. Simplicity: Investment instruments are complex, but investors need to understand what is being done with their money. A planner should also deliver simplicity to investors. Ease of withdrawal: This refers to the ability to invest long term but withdraw funds when desired. This is strongly linked to a sense of ownership. It is normally triggered by a need to spend capital, change investments or cater to changes in other needs. Access to a long-term investment at short notice can only be had at a substantial cost. Communication: This refers to informing and educating investors about the purpose and progress of their investments. The need to communicate increases when investments are threatened.
• falls. • well. •
Security of original capital is more important when performance Performance is more important when investments are performing Failures engender a desire for an increase in the comfort factor.
Perfect investment would have been achieved if all the above-mentioned needs had been met to satisfaction. But there is always a trade-off involved in making investments. As long as the investment strategy matches the needs of investor according to the priority assigned to them, he should be happy. The Ideal Investment strategy should be a customized one for each investor depending on his risk-return profile, his satisfaction level, his income, and his expectations. Accurate planning gives accurate results. And for that there must be an efficient and trustworthy roadmap to achieve the ultimate goal of wealth maximization. Choosing the Right Investment Options After understanding the concept of investment, the investors would like to know how to go about the task of investment, how much to invest at any moment and when to buy or sell the securities, This depends on investment process as investment policy, investment analysis, valuation of securities, portfolio construction and portfolio evaluation and revision. Every investor tries to derive maximum economic advantage from his investment activity. For evaluating an investment avenues are based upon the rate of return, risk and uncertainty, capital appreciation, marketability, tax advantage and
convenience of investment. The following Table should give the clear picture relating to the investors’ investment decisions in various financial market instruments. The choice of the best investment options will depend on personal circumstances as well as general market conditions. For example, a good investment for a long-term retirement plan may not be a good investment for higher education expenses. In most cases, the right investment is a balance of three things: Liquidity, Safety and Return.
Source- Delhi Business Review X Vol. 8, No. 1 (January - June 2007)
Investment Options in India
Source-Delhi Business Review X Vol. 8, No. 1 (January - June 2007)
Fixed Deposits – They cover the fixed deposits of varied tenors offered by the commercial banks and other non-banking financial institutions. These are generally a low risk prepositions as the commercial banks are believed to return the amount due without default. By and large these FDs are the preferred choice of risk-averse Indian investors who rate safety of capital & ease of investment above all parameters. Largely, these investments earn a marginal rate of return of 6-8% per annum. Government Bonds – The Central and State Governments raise money from the market through a variety of Small Saving Schemes like national saving certificates, Kisan Vikas Patra, Post Office Deposits, Provident Funds, etc. These schemes are risk free as the government does not default in payments. But the interest rates offered by them are in the range of 7% 9%. Money-back insurance - Insurance in India is mostly sold and bought as investment products. They are preferred because of their add-on benefits like financial life-cover, tax-savings and satisfactory returns. Even if one does not manage to save money and invest regularly in financial instruments, with insurance, the policyholder has no choice. If he does not pay his premiums on time, his insurance cover will lapse. Money-back Insurance schemes are used as investment avenues as they offer partial cash-back at certain intervals. This money can be utilized for children’s education, marriage, etc.
Endowment Insurance – These policies are term policies. Investors have to pay the premiums for a particular term, and at maturity the accrued bonus and other benefits are returned to the policyholder if he survives at maturity. Bullion Market – Precious metals like gold and silver had been a safe heaven for Indian investors since ages. Besides jewellery these metals are used for investment purposes also. Since last 1 year, both Gold and Silver have highly appreciated in value both in the domestic as well as the international markets. In addition to its attributes as a store of value, the case for investing in gold revolves around the role it can play as a portfolio diversifier. Stock Market – Indian stock markets particularly the BSE and the NSE, had been a preferred destination not only for the Indian investors but also for the Foreign investors. Although Indian Markets had been through tough times due to various scams, but history shows that they recovered very fast. Many types of scrip had been value creators for the investors. People have earned fortunes from the stock markets, but there are people who have lost everything due to incorrect timings or selection of fundamentally weak companies. Real Estate- Returns are almost guaranteed because property values are always on the rise due to a growing world population. Residential real estate is more than just an investment. There are more ways than ever before to profit from real estate investment.
Mutual Funds - There is a collection of investors in Mutual funds that have professional fund managers that invest in the stock market collectively on behalf of investors. Mutual funds offer a better route to investing in equities for lay investors. A mutual fund acts like a professional fund manager, investing the money and passing the returns to its investors. All it deducts is a management fee and its expenses, which are declared in its offer document. Unit Linked Insurance Plans - ULIPs are remarkably alike to mutual funds in terms of their structure and functioning; premium payments made are converted into units and a net asset value (NAV) is declared for the same. In traditional insurance products, the sum assured is the corner stone; in ULIPs premium payments is the key component.
Need for the study: To study the perception of the people about investment of their savings. To understand basic requirement of the common man and their view towards investment.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE Psychology of Investments and Investor’s Preferences Every individual investor must follow three principles of investing: using a long-term investing approach, following the right strategy to maximize the return on investment and proper allocation of investible funds. While applying these three principles, an individual investor has to confront his/her demographics, lifestyle and investment psychology. Whether the investor's age or occupation or family income has a role of play in making choice of investment avenues? Is the investor choice affected by his overconfidence, reference group and framing of the available alternatives? The knowledge of all these aspects is imperative for all progressive investors, researchers, financial consultants, academicians, students and the marketer of the financial Author: Dr. (Mrs.) Sushant Nagpal products.
Basics Of investment-By Dr.A.P.Dash, Sr.Faculty, PMI In this paper he discusses the basic of investment and need for investment. Investment benefits both economy and the society. It is an outgrowth of economic development and the maturation of modern capitalism. For the economy as a whole, aggregate investment sanctioned in the current period is a major factor in determining aggregate demand and, hence, the level of employment. In the long term, current investment determines the economy’s future productive capacity and, ultimately, a growth in the standard of living. By increasing personal wealth, investing can contribute to higher overall economic growth and prosperity. An Investors’ requirements in Indian securities market By-K.Balanaga Gurunathan Published in Delhi Business review. A report on financial planners in the growing economy like India By- Indian Institute of Planning and Management-2006
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: PRIMARY OBJECTIVE To Study the various investment avenues and the investors risk preference towards it. SECONDARY OBJECTIVES To find out the general demographic factors of the investors dealing in capital market. To find out the preference level of investors on various Capital Market instruments. To find out the type of risk which are considered by the investors? To find out the ways through which the investors minimizes their risk.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research Design A Research design is purely and simply the framework of plan for a study that guides the collection and analysis of data. The study is intended to find the investors preference towards various investment avenues. The study design is descriptive in nature. TYPE OF RESEARCH- DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH Descriptive study is a fact-finding investigation with adequate interpretation. It is the simplest type of research and is more specific. Mainly designed to gather descriptive information and provides information for formulating more sophisticated studies. Sampling Design Selection of study area: The study area is in Indore. Selection of the sample size: 100 Sampling Methods Convenience method of sampling is used to collect the data from the respondents. Researchers or field workers have the freedom to choose
whomever they find, thus the name “convenience”. About 100 samples were collected from Indore city and most of the respondents were customers coming in to financial hubs and commercial complexes. Formulation of the questionnaire
Data collection Primary data – collected through Structured Questionnaire. Secondary data – Earlier records from journals, magazines and other sources. Tools used for analysis Percentage analysis Chi-square test Kendall test ANOVA Correlation Analysis Multiple Response Table
Data Analysis and interpretatrion:Age of the respondent :Age 20-30 31-40 41-50 50 and above Total Table5.1 % Of respondent 25 36 27 12 100
% Of respondent
50 and above 12% 41-50 27%
20-30 31-40 41-50 50 and above
Income Group of the Respondent Table5.2: Income Group of the Respondent Income group % of Respondent Bellow 1 lac 1-5 lac 5-10 lac 10 lac and above 32 61 7 -
5-10 7% 0- 1 32% 0- 1 1-5 5-10 1-5 61%
According to survey most of the Respondent income group is above 1 lacks to 5 lacs.
Qualification of the respondents:Table5.3 Qualification Qualification High School Graduate Post Graduate Professional Others Investor (%) 3 48 14 26 9
Others 9% Professional 26%
High School 3% High School Graduate Graduate 48% Post Graduate Professional Others
Post Graduate 14%
Different Investment Avenues:Table 5.4- Individual preference in the investment avenues Categories Highly Preferred (%) Share market Mutual fund Insurance Bank Property Total 8 17 29 28 18 100
Analysis:-The survey result shows that individual does not chose equity as highly preferred investment tool. Only 8% people have preference on other investment tool.
Investment Horizon Table 5.5: Type of investment preferred Term Investment (%) SHORT TERM LONG TERM BOTH Total 31 40 29 100
45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 SHORT TERM 31
Analysis: The survey result shows that most of the people invest in the market for long term horizon.
Respondent who have invested in equity market Table5.6: invested in the equity market No 81
Analysis:- According to survey largely population is untouched with equity investment only 19% respondent has invested in the equity market.
Respondent first source of awareness Table5.7: Percentage of Respondent first source of awareness Medium/ channel Investor (%) Investor friends and relative Advertisement hoardings Brokerage firm Banks and 37 26 16 21
Analysis:- According to survey most of the people aware about equity market through the investor friends and relative.
Income invested in equity Table 5.8 Percentage of income invest in equity shares Percentage of income Percentage of investor Below 5% 22 5 to 10% 44 10 to 20% 27 20 to 30% 6
Percentage of investor 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Below 5% 5 to 10% 10 to 20% 20 to 30% 6 27 22 44
Fig-5.8 Analysis :- The survey result shows that most of the people invest in the equity market 5-10% of income.
Awareness about Religare securities
Table 5.9 Respondent who aware about Religare
Know about Religare
27 Yes No 73
Analysis:According to the findings Most of the people (73%) know about the Religare securities.
Preference for selecting broking firm Table5.10: investor preference while selecting broking firm Category Brokerage services Research calls Others Rank 1 42 30 16 12
Analysis : according to survey while selecting the broker firm people gives first preference to brokerage charge (42%) then other services.
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS:
From Correlation test, it is found there exist a positive correlation
between the income percentage on investment and the participation in cash market. • From One Way ANOVA it is found that there is significant
difference between the annual income and the income percentage towards investment. • From the Multiple Response test, it is found that the investors who
invest around 5-10% of their investment mostly considers the market risk(18%) as the major risk which prevails in the market. • From the Multiple Response test, it is found that the investors whose
investment is around 10% of their income, consider that the affordable margin amount for investment in Derivatives is up to Rs10000/-. • Most of the aggressive investors are in 21-40 yr. age group. They
should be concentrated as prospective clients.
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This is a two months study only. Data available was not sufficient, there was lack of availability of data as most of it was confidential for the companies. Sample size is two small. Language is one of the construe during questioner filling Portfolio requires the churning of proportion of investment in each sector as well as company from time to time to give better returns.
CONCLUSION In the current scenario, investing is very important and investing in stock markets is a major challenge ever for professionals. The young people should start investing earlier so that they can reap the benefits of investing in future. People should keep their eye open and keep updating themselves about various investment avenues so that they can get safe returns.
References: Marketing Research by G C Beri- third edition – © 2000, Tata McGrawHill Publishing Company Ltd. Investment Management- V.K. Bhalla. www.nseindia.com www.stockedge.com www.religareonline.com
Name: 1. Age (a) 20-30 [ ] (b) 31-40 [ ] (c) 41-50 [ ] (d) 51 & above [ ]
2. Gender (a) Male [ ] (b) Female [ ]
3. Educational qualification (a) High School [ ] (b) Graduate [ ] (c) Post Graduate [ ] [ ] (d) Professional [ ] (e) Others
4. Annual income (a) Below 1, 00,000 [ ] (c) 5, 00,000-10, 00,000 [ ] (b) 1, 00,000-5, 00,000 [ ] (d) Above 10, 00,000 [ ]
5. How did you come to know about equity related investment? (a) Brokerage firms (b) investor friends & relatives (c) Advertising & hoardings (d) banks 6. Which factor do you consider most important while choosing an investment option? (a) How quickly will I be able to increase wealth? (b) The opportunity for steady growth (c) The amount of monthly income the investment will generate (d) The safety of investment principal
7. What is the investment horizon you prefer? (a) Short term investment (b) Long term investment (c) Both 9. Please indicate your preference on the following investment avenues Categories (a) Share Market (b)Mutual Funds (c) Insurance (d)Bank Deposits (e) Property Highly Favorable Favorable Neutral Unfavorable Highly Unfavorable
10. Do you want to invest in share market? (a) Yes (b) No
IF YES THEN PLEASE ANSWER……………………………………………………………………….. 11. What is your percentage of your income do you invest in equity shares a) Below 5% b) 5 – 10 % c) 10 – 20% d) Above 20% 12. Have you heard about Religare Securities Ltd.? (a) Yes (b) No
13. You are associated with which broking firm? ……………………………………………………………………….. 14. Please indicate your preference for selecting broking firm….
Categories (a) Brokerage (b) Services (c)Research (Calls) (d)Additional Features
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