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DTH DRILLING METHOD

THE HAMMER & ITS IMPACT


MECHANISM OPERATE IN
THE HOLE. THE PISTON
STRIKES THE BIT DIRECTLY &
THE DRILL TUBES, CONECTING
THE ROTATION UNIT WITH
THE HAMMER, CONVEY
COMPRESSED AIR TO IMPACT
MECHANISM & TRANSMIT
ROTA-TION TORQUE, FEED
FORCE & FLUSHING AIR.
ROTARY DRILLING METHOD

THE ROCK IS CRUSHED BY HIGH


FEED FORCE & ROTATION
TORQUE WHICH IS
TRANSMITTED THROUGH
DRILL TUBES TO THE BIT
TOP HAMMER DRILLING METHOD

THE TOP HAMMER’S PISTON


STRIKES THE SHANK ADAPTER
& CREATES A SHOCK WAVE
WHICH IS TRANSMITTED
THROUGH THE DRILL STRING
INTO THE ROCK
ADVANTAGES WITH DTH DRILLING METHOD

• LONGER HOLES
- NO LOSS OF POWER IN JOINTS
- NO SUBSTANTIAL DROP IN PENETRATION RATE

• STRAIGHTER HOLES
- A RELATIVELY LOW FEED FORCE IN COMBINATION WITH A RIGID DRILL STRING
- GOOD GUIDANCE BETWEEN DTH HAMMER & THE WALLS OF THE HOLE

• EXCELLENT FLUSHING
- SMALL ANNULAR SPACE BETWEEN THE DRILL TUBE & THE WALLS OF THE HOLE

- EXHAUST AIR FROM THE HAMMER ENSURES HIGH FLUSHING RATE


• SIMPLE & SAFE

- FROM THE OPERATING & DRILLER’S POINT OF VIEW, THIS METHOD IS ALSO
CONSIDERED THE SIMPLEST & THE SAFEST TO USE.
DRILLING METHODS IN SURFACE DRILLING OPERATIONS

Hard & Top hammer (25-165mm)


Medium hard
rock DTH (85-254mm)

Rotary drilling (100-435mm)


Hole Diameter 1” 11/2” 2” 3” 31/2” 5” 6” 9” 12” 15” 17”

25 38 51 64 89 127 152 230 300 381 435

Hand held drills


Application
range Light benching

Heavy benching

Large scale production drilling


TOP HAMMER DRILLING
P H A M M E R D R IL L R IG S

P N E U M A T IC T OH PY DH RA AM U M L EI C R T O P H A M M E

O P E R A T E S A TO P 6 E RB A TR E S A T 1 2 0 - 2 5 0 B

I M P A C T V E L O S I MI T PY A O C F T V E L O S IT Y O F
T H E P I S T O N I S T H8 E- 9 P MI S / T S O N I S 1 0 - 1 1 M /

I M P A C T R A T E I M P A C T R A T E
3 3 - 5 0 H z 5 0 - 6 0 H z

L O W IM P A C T P A O L WM E O R S T T W I C E T H E
A S C O M P A R E D I MT O P A C T P O W E R
H Y D R A U L I C D R IL L S

R E Q U I R E S H I G H R EI N Q P U U I RT E S 1 / 3 R D O F
E N E R G Y ( 2 6 5 - 4 2I N 5 P CU FT M E ) N E R G Y

L O W P E N E T R A HT I OG HN PR EA N T EE T R A T I O N R A T
( 0 . 2 5 - 0 . 9 M / M( 1 I .N 2 ) - 2 . 5 M / M I N )

L O W E F F IC I E N CH Y I G H E F F I C IE N C Y
L O W P O W E R T HO I G W H T P. OR WA T E I RO T O W T . R A T
ADVANTAGES WITH TOP HAMMER DRILLING METHOD
• HIGH EFFICIENCY
- HIGH DEGREE OF EFFICIENCY
- HIGH DRILLING CAPACITY IN RELATION THE INSTALLED POWER.
- LOW FUEL CONSUMPTION PER DRILL METRE (1/3 -1/4 OF DTH)

• VERSATILE
- VARIOUS ROCK DRILL PARAMETERS CAN EASILY BE ASJUSTED
FOR BEST RESULTS.
- CAN BE USED WITH VARIETY OF DRILL STEEL EQPT.
- CAN ADJUST TO ANY ROCK CONDITION

• COMPACTNESS

- SMALL SIZE POWERPACK FOR LARGE CAPACITY

- LARGE POWER TO WEIGHT RATIO

- RUGGED BUT LIGHT WEIGHT DRILL RIGS


• HIGH PENETRATION RATE
- 4-5 TIMES FASTER THAN DTH RIG

- ALMOST UNIFORM PENETRATION IN VARIED FORMATIONS


CHOICE OF SURFACE DRILLING
EQUIPMENT
TO SELECT THE RIGHT DRILLING EQUIPMENT FOR THE RIGHT JOB,
THERE ARE, OF COURSE MANY PARAMETERS WHICH INFLUENCE THE
FINAL CHOICE. SOME PAR-
AMETERS ARE:
- THE TYPE OF WORK

- THE PRODUCTION VOLUME


- THE TIME SCHEDULE
- LOCATION OF WORK SITE
- LABOUR SKILL & COST
- TYPE OF EXPLOSIVE & COST

- FRAGMENTATION
- RESTRICTIONS & STATUTORY REQUIREMENTS
- ROCK CHARACTERISTICS ETC.
- PAST EXPERIENCE
SOME USEFUL THUMB RULES FOR BENCH CALCULATIONS
D = Drill hole diameter (M)
K = Bench height (M)
B = Burden (M)
S = Spacing between holes (M)
U = Under drilling (M)
H = Drill hole depth (DM=M)
b = Specific drilling (M/m3)
l = inclination factor

K = 120 - 150 D OR,


K = 2.5 - 5.0 B
B = 25 - 40 D OR,
B in (M) = D in (INCHES)
S = 1.1 - 1.4 B (Ideally 1.25)

1
U = 0.3 - 0.4 B
H = (K+U) x l
3
l=1.05 for hole inclination 3:1=19.5o
l=1.03 for hole inclination 4:1=14.5o
H
l=1.02 for hole inclination 5:1=11.5o
l=1.01 for hole inclination 10:1=6.0o

b = H/ (K x S x B), DM/M3
CALCULATION OF CHARGE IN A DRILL HOLE

H0 = Stemming height = 0.7 - 1.0 B, (M)

Hb = Height of bottom charge = 1.3 x B, (M)


H0
lb = Charge concentration, (Kg/L)

lC
Qb = Hb x lb x  D2 X 250, (Kg)
HC
HC = Height of column charge = H - Hb - H0 ,
(M)
lb

Hb lC = 40 - 60% of lb , (Kg/L)

QC = HC x lC x D2 X 250, (Kg)

QT = Total charge per hole = Qb + QC , (Kg)

q = Specific charge = QT / (K x S x B), (Kg/M3)