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. This issue includes the work of twelve (12) undergraduates of the Bachelor of Arts in Psychology for the Academic Year 2013-2014. The topics discussed are based on various topics and ideas shared by the researchers and their respective advisers. The articles follows the latest APA (American Psychological Association) format.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The students from the Bachelor of Arts in Psychology, Class of 2014, would like to thank the following in making this compilation of studies a success. To our thesis professor, Prof. Paul Hilario, Ph.D, for your patience, understanding and motivation that gave all of us the will to finish this course and research paper to the end. To our advisers Prof. Margaret Sanapo Ph.D, Prof. Ma. Theresa Masilungan, MA, Prof. Fatima Bullecer, MA. , Prof. Gladys Lazo, MA. Ed. and Prof. Rodelando Ocampo, for your limitless support, patience and mentorship that pushed us further to be better students and individuals in the field of research. To our panel, Prof. Eva Catronuevo RGC, Prof. Gladys Lazo MA. Ed., Prof. Fatima Bullecer MA, Prof. Margaret Sanapo Ph.D, Prof. Ma. Theresa Masilungan MA and Prof. Rodelando Ocampo, for the time and effort given to read our research papers and attend and hear our verbal thoughts in our thesis defense. To the design staff, Mr. Jemen Ivan Cruz, Ms. Jan Paula Minas and Mr. Kryshnnan Vergara who made the front cover design a reality. To our families and friends, who have constantly given all of us the additional support, guide and motivation through all the challenges we faced to finish the course. To God, our loving father and our center, who make all things possible through his grace not only in our studies but also in all aspects of life.
“That in all things God maybe glorified!!”
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Perceived Parental Involvement, Attitude Towards Premarital Sex And Vulnerabilities To Teenage Parenthood Among Female Adolescents In Catholic Schools Carmela Beltran and Prof. Margaret Sanapo, Ph.D Romantic Relationship: Experiences of Young Adults from Separated Parents Dayanara Buño and Prof. Maria Theresa Masilungan, MA
Levels of Loneliness in Relation to Video Gaming Behavior of Filipino Adolescents Jemen Cruz and Prof. Maria Theresa Masilungan, MA Online Learning and Study Habits of Selected College Students of DLSU: A Case Study Jestrell Jane V. Degoma and Prof. Gladys Lazo, MA.Ed Job Competency, Organizational Citizenship Behavior And Levels Of Stress Among Hotel Personnel From Selected Hotels In Metro Manila Teodoro Jose B Dominguez and Prof. Rodelando Ocampo Filipino Mothers’ Involvement in their Teenage Daughters’ Courtship Process Shara Mae Espinosa and Prof. Maggie Sanapo, Ph.D
Life Satisfaction and Happiness among Orphaned Young Adults Patricia Familar and Prof. Margaret Sanapo, Ph.D Parental Mediation, Online Risk Discussion, and Internet Use among Children Helen Gacasan and Prof. Maria Theresa Masilungan, MA Examining Perceptions of Parental Attachment and Parent-Child Conflicts on Career Choice Jan Paula C. Minas and Prof. Maria Theresa C. Masilungan, MA
Vulnerabilities to Smoking among Teenagers from Single Parents Ricardo Bernardo B. Santiago, Jr and Pof. Fatima Bullecer, MA
Perceived Individual Risk Factors and School Climate Influencing Bullied High School Students Janine Santos and Prof. Maria Theresa Masilungan, MA
The Extent of Parental Involvement and Subjective Well-Being of Young Professional Adults Almira Teodoro and Ms. Margaret Sanapo, Ph.D
Perceived Parental Involvement, Attitude Towards Premarital Sex And Vulnerabilities To Teenage Parenthood Among Female Adolescents In Catholic Schools Carmela Beltran Prof. Margaret Sanapo, Ph.D
This study explores the perceived parental involvement of teenagers, the attitude of the participants towards premarital sex and the vulnerabilities of teenagers to early pregnancy. The researcher surveyed 150 participants; 125 teenagers who were involved in premarital sex and 25 female adolescents who became pregnant in an early age. In conclusion, the possible effective way of preventing this terrible situation is for the parents to be able to handle their children very well. For the reliability coefficient, the test show that the items were relatively reliable. Reliability for this tests are: Attitude Towards Premarital Sex, .89; Likelihood to become Teenage Parent; .80. Future researchers are recommended to look for more specific and constructed scales to further improve their study and a bigger number of participants.
We are forced with a glaring truth that at a very young age, a lot of young people today have children of their own. Teenage pregnancy is a pressing social concern in the country today. As years passed by, the number of teenage pregnancy problems has increased. Aside from our country, it has escalated to a global concern as well. The U.S, pregnancy rate among American teenagers increased by 3 percent during 2006 according to the study made by the Guttmacher Institute. In the Philippines, an increase by 70 percent was observed in the span of 10 years (19992009). Our country has one of the highest teenage pregnancy rates among the ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nation) according to the United Nations Population Fund. Many young adolescents continue to engage in risky behaviors that highly impacts their future. Despite the obvious negative consequences of premarital sex, it is still a puzzle for parents, schools and government agencies. The recent Reproductive Health (RH) or the Republic Act 10354 also known as, ―The Responsible Parenthood and Reproductive Health Act of 2012‖ law highlights the importance of addressing this problem. This Republic Act focuses on the delivery of the responsible parenthood among individuals and the reproductive health services is at the core of implementation of this act. Even with the RA 10354, there are many factors that we still need to understand in order for any intervention to succeed. For instance, our knowledge about the role of family, education and adolescent attitude toward premarital sex require constant updating. Traditionally, we believe that family dynamics, particularly parental involvement, has an impact on the vulnerability of adolescents to premarital sex. In Calaod‘s 2011 study, there was a link established between the presence of family activities and premarital sex behavior. Another study by the Ohio State University Extension (2010), found that some parents are very uncomfortable in talking to their children about sexual activities. The other parents believed that when they talk with their children about this kind of topic, the children will take it as permission from their parents in doing sexual acts. If we associate this with our country‘s setting, the parents do not usually talk to their children in that kind of way. It is also important for the parents to know how to behave and match their words with their actions.
Based in the article of Rappler.com, (2013) NSO administrator, Carmelita Ericta said that the number of teenage pregnancy rose by 4.6% as well as the maternal teenage death rose by 5% from 2000-2010. Regardless of the increasing number of teenage mothers, the number of married teenagers were not adapting to the trend. Among the 100% teenage mothers, only 5% teenage couples have been married during the phase. Considering the trend of teenage pregnancy among the society today, the representative of National Youth Commission said that the phenomenon can somehow be attributed to the use of Internet and the everyday use of social networking sites. Commissioner Percival Cendaña explained that the simplicity in communication brought about by technology has accelerated the time needed for lovers to be intimate. He also mentioned that there is a lacking in the concept of age-appropriate sex education that adds to the increasing and very alarming statistics that our country has today regarding of this topic. Schools and values education are often cited as a solution in minimizing this issue. In fact, the RH law tasks the schools with the proper sex education of the students. Most of the schools often teach values to their students. These teachings can be applied to teenagers for them to know the risks of the negative or immoral things that can be done in an early age. Values education can also be a solution in preventing the rising number of teenage pregnancy in the Philippines, because it gives the knowledge to the students on how to handle temptations and how to overcome these risks at an early age. Preventing teen pregnancies requires an intensive effort on the part of the parents, the school and government. They need to insure that the right information is transmitted to children especially during their pre-teen years and that they are well-monitored and supported emotionally and psychologically. Given the above mentioned factors, this research attempts to add our understanding of adolescent premarital sex behavior. Specifically, it asks the following questions: What perceived parental involvement is most appropriate in preventing the increasing number of teenage pregnancy case? What is the attitude of the respondents towards premarital sex? What are the likelihood of the participants to become teenage parents? What is the reason why teenagers still engage into this kind of situation? REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE The following subtopics talks about how the perceived parental involvement among teenagers who have been engaged to premarital sex and early pregnancy plays an important role in their life. In association to this, the following literature regarding the attitude of teenagers towards premarital sex and the vulnerabilities or their likelihood to become pregnant in an early age is also mentioned below. Parental role on teenagers Based on the studies gathered, it is suggested that parenthood has a huge impact on the increasing number of teenagers who gets pregnant from time to time. According to Ellis & Bates et al. (2003) the absence of fathers has higher elevated risk that corresponds to early pregnancy of adolescents. The studies conducted by several researchers were similar when it comes to discussing the absence of the parents of the teenagers. In the research conducted by Bunting & McAuley 2004, like teenage mothers and young fathers tend to be from low socioeconomic
backgrounds, experience lower educational attainment and fewer employment opportunities than their childless peers. However, there are also other aspects that can be associated with the perception of other people towards teenage pregnancy. But the most common factor is said to be the parenting styles of the guardians. Manlove, Terry-Humen, Ikramullah, and Moore (2006) stated that the more parental religious attendance and other religious activities that can be made within the family can be associated to the later timing of the sexual initiation of the teenagers. However, it does not necessarily convert in order to improve the use of contraceptives among them. Martino, S. et al. (2008) mentioned in that the goal in their study was to know and assess the influence of the distance and the repetition of sexual discussion on the perception of the teenagers about their relationship and communication with their parents. By this, the adolescents might need more guidance and much intact relationship with their parents in order for them to be provided with the opportunity to ask questions as they attempt to put their parents‘ sexual education into practice. Filipino researchers came up with a study about how Filipino teens handle, think and feel about relationships, love and sexuality among their age. According to Irala, J., Osorio, A., Del burgo, C., & et al. (2009) there should be a room for further encouraging for the parents to talk more with their children about sexuality, specially aspects related to feelings and emotions in order to help them make better sexual choices. According to Kim (2008), parents have the most influence on their children's decisions about sex. Based on the study that Kim (2008) made, most of the parents report having had a helpful conversation about delaying premarital sex among teenagers and avoiding pregnancy with their teenage children as compared to the 71 percent of teens who report having had such a conversation with their parents.
Parallel to the studies mentioned above is the research conducted by Ellis, Woodward & et. al, (2003) which explains that greater exposure to father absence can be strongly associated with elevated risk for early sexual activity and adolescent pregnancy. Moreover, there was stronger and more consistent evidence of effects of father absence on early sexual activity and teenage pregnancy than on other behavioral or mental health problems or academic achievement. This clearly states that the parental role of the father is highly needed for the teenagers to be guided well and prevent early pregnancy among them. A meta-analysis research conducted by (Fan & Chen 2001) possessed the idea that parental involvement has positive influence on the academic achievement of the teenagers. Their study gave three types of parental involvement in which caters: (1) communication, (2) supervision and (3) parental expectation & parenting style. This study has revealed that parental aspiration/expectation for children's education achievement has the strongest relationship, whereas parental home supervision has the weakest relationship, with students' academic achievement. In addition, the relationship is stronger when academic achievement is represented by a global indicator (e.g., GPA) than by a subject-specific indicator (e.g., math grade).
Factors associated with teenage pregnancy The variables that were discussed in this study were the well-recognized factors of socioeconomic disadvantage, disrupted family structure and the low educational level of ambition of a person is said to be consistently affecting the increasing number of teenagers who becomes pregnant in their early age (Imamura, Temmerman & et. al, 2007). Furthermore, study has shown that the increasing number of rate among teenage pregnancy is due to the factors associated with the environment that a certain individual belongs to. It can be due to the disoriented family background of the individual and its low self-esteem. Woodward, Fergusson & Horwood (2004) found that a teenager‘s early exposure to individual and social difficulty during both adolescence and childhood made their own contributions to an individual‘s risk of teenage pregnancy. Having not enough guidance from an individual‘s family highly affects the person‘s thinking towards sexual behavior most especially if the teenage individual has a relationship partner. On the other hand, a study made by Amoran (2012) stated that there were some strong predictors of teenage pregnancy when it comes to low social class, religion and the thinking of an individual as being a student and having a white collar job. Regarding with the factors stated in the previous study mentioned above, there were some prevention that were included in the study made by Amoran. His study would want to imply that teenage pregnancy can still be prevented if early childhood interventions and youth development programs would be provided in enhancing educational and social support in the early years of life of an individual. According to Fatusi & Blum (2008) he made a research in which it aims to examine predictors of adolescent sexual initiation among a nationally representative in Nigeria. This study covers the possible predictors of early pregnancy given the increasing risk of sexually transmitted diseases and understanding the factors associated with premarital sex that will assist programmes in improving more effective risk prevention interventions. Psychological distress in teenage pregnancy The study conducted by Sodi (2010) stated that the subjects who participated in the study has seen pregnancy as a shameful event that teenagers get involved with. Some coping strategies noted included teenagers who experience pregnancy at the early age gives them option to avoid the situations which were perceived to be stressful, and also associating with people they perceived as being more supportive in the situation that they are experiencing. In this study, it showed that the participants react to the realization of pregnancy with fear and disbelief and some immoral thoughts of terminating their pregnancy. In support to this study, according to Kanku & Mash (2010) the understanding on contraceptives and reproductive health among teenagers was poor, which could be the main reason why teenage pregnancy in every country is a fast increasing issue. Not having enough knowledge in this kind of situation would barely take the good thing in life away from a certain person. (Kanku & Mash, 2010) stated in their study that most of the teenagers perceived falling pregnant as a negative event in their life with consequences such as unemployment, loss of a boyfriend, blame from friends and family members, feeling guilty, difficulty at school etc. However, some of the teenagers also perceived this kind of event as a positive one depending on the circumstances.
With the given study above, a research conducted by Dan (2008) said that the stress like the financial problem that they tend to experience and coping model can be used in interpreting the behavior of the adolescents in exhibiting as they negotiate in premarital sex. In addition, a research made by Lehti, Sourander & et al. (2012) they examined the associations of psychosocial factors of an individual in his childhood with becoming a young father. For them, they also associated some studies that says that antisocial individuals have high tendency of becoming young fathers.
Teenagers in pursuing their pregnancy According to Ban & Connolly, et.al (2012) teen mothers in their studies showed that they were more likely to have no partner and low social status in life and preferred to have their pregnancy in the early age in their life. In their study, their aim is to raise the full awareness of the teenagers in committing themselves in a more serious stage in their lives, most specially if they are not mentally and physically prepared with this kind of situations. In prior to that study, Cavazos-Rehg & Beirut, et.al (2012) stated that sixteen percent in their participants were more likely to be pleased if they became pregnant in an early age. This perception of teenagers in teenage pregnancy was said to be correlated with a lack of sexual discussion with their parents and being less educated about the things related to this. Another research in relation to this topic is the study conducted by Kim (2008) in which she said that teen sexual activities can lead to negative outcomes if it would not be stopped right away. It could also affect the marital and economic stability of the teenagers later in their life. Kim (2008) also stated that maternal poverty is included in pursuing teenage pregnancy, according to this researcher at the time of a large national survey conducted in the late 90‘s, there were nearly 30 percent of mothers who began sexual activity at ages 13 or 14 lived in poverty compared to 12 percent of those who waited until their early twenties. Preventing Teenage Pregnancy There was a study made that conducts a program that would help in preventing teenage pregnancy and STDs by strengthening their family relations and religious values especially in decision-making. The Parent-Adolescent Relationship Education (PARE) program according to Lederman, Chan & Roberts-Gray (2008) will evaluate the middle school students in making good decisions regarding sexual intercourse. This program involves parents and teenagers in their curriculum for them to build the relationship that they need to put off the increasing number of early pregnancy.
Synthesis In the study made by Bunting & McAunley (2004) and also by Ellis, Woodland & et. al. (2003), the lacking of guidance from their parents affects a lot on the thinking of their children, most especially to teenagers. Therefore, parental separation can be associated with the previous study mentioned which has a higher effect to their psychological thinking as the teenagers grow from time to time. A study also made by Ellis, Woodland & et. al. (2003) included that a good parenting style can be a good way of preventing teenage pregnancy among them. Another cause of teenage pregnancy that was shown in this study is the environment that the individual has during his or her growth. It can be due to the family background of the teenager as said earlier or can also be the peer pressure that they are experiencing. With the study conducted by Woodward, Fergusson & Horwood (2004), there are some factors that were associated with early teenage pregnancy such as the low social class among them and their thinking capacity of the teenager as an individual. With the psychological distress that regards to teenage pregnancy, teenagers are afraid to terminate their pregnancy due to the immortal thoughts or disbelief that they fear. Not having the enough knowledge that an individual needs can further go to a complicated situation that leads to early pregnancy. Given the related studies mentioned above, most of the teenagers nowadays continuously experience difficulties in dealing with their pregnancy due to the possible outcome that can affect their personality and the way that other people would look at them. With regards to the statements above, the observed evidences on the relationship between parental influences or involvement and the sexual behavior of the teenagers were strong. Parental factors that appear to offer strong protection against the start of early sexual activity include an intact family structure, parents' disapproval of adolescent sex, teenager‘s sense of belonging to and the fulfillment to their relation with their parents, parental monitoring and the parent-child communication about teen sex and its consequences Basically, with all the studies gathered it can be also improved in some aspects. Since this study is about the teenagers specifically with this generation, the researcher could do comparison with the facts that were gathered before and the facts that can be gathered in this study for further enhancements. The population of the pregnant teenagers during the previous years can be included in comparing with the population with today‘s generation. With this, it can also be associated with the main reasons why this society problem hasn‘t been resolved yet.
METHOD Research Design In dealing with the given task, the researcher utilized a descriptive method that will explain the accurate findings of the study. This type of research instrument illustrates the needs of the teenagers for them to prevent the increasing rate of early pregnancy and the association of the absence of their parents as the main cause of this situation. Through the descriptive method, this research will know the type of parental involvement that is highly used by the parents among their children who were involved in premarital sex and already had their own child or children.
Also, through this method, the researcher will know the attitude of the teenagers towards premarital sex and their likelihood to become pregnant. This research design also helped in knowing if the same age range of participants were to have high tendency to acquire the vulnerabilities of parenthood as female adolescents in Catholic schools. There were also some observations that the researcher made while the participants answered their questionnaires.
Participants and Sampling There were 150 female adolescents under the age range of 13-19 in this study. There were 125 female adolescents engaged in premarital sex and 25 female adolescents who engaged in PMS and had their child at an early age. The sampling method in the study was purposive sampling in which the participants were chosen according to their sexual experiences and not everyone is qualified in participating in this study. The researcher also included female teenagers who had experienced this kind of situation in an early age at the same age range. This ensured that the specific group of female students from Catholic schools are represented proportionally. This is also the best way to get hold of the results that reflect the diversity of the population in question.
Instruments There are three scales used in this study. These were all constructed by the researcher. The three different scales measured parental involvement, the attitudes of the teenagers towards premarital sex and the likelihood of the teenagers to become parents at an early age. The items in the given scales include the concept of society, school, the participants‘ awareness of the topic of sex and birth control methods, and self-esteem-related items. The parental involvement scale includes items for communication, supervision and parental expectations and parenting style that was established by Fan and Chen in 2001 (See Appendix A). This type of scale measures how the parents of the participants were involved in the life of their children and the type of parental involvement that the participants wanted to have. Communication refers to the regular of everyday discussions of the teenager and the parents concerning the relationship status of the child and her/his partner. While supervision refers on how the parents monitors their daughter when they go back home from school and what else do they do after school hours, the management of time that teenagers used in talking with their partner. Parental expectations and parenting style were found to be the most critical of the three. Because this type of parental involvement includes the amount and approach to which parents speak about their relationship aspirations to their children. Simple frequency and percentage were used to obtain levels of parental involvement. For the attitude of the teenagers towards premarital sex (ATPMS) and the likelihood of the teenagers to become teenage parents, items were based on the result of a survey that was done to get teenagers attitude towards premarital sex and their likelihood to become parents. These items were pretested on teenagers with similar characteristics as the respondents. As to the reliability coefficient, test showed that items were relatively reliable. Reliability for this tests are: Attitude Towards Premarital Sex, .89; Likelihood to become Teenage Parent; .80. Examples of items included in the ATPMS were: ―I think there has been too much approval in our society about teenagers who became pregnant, I think that there is too much sexual openness to movies and televisions these days‖, ―My parents also had me when they were teenagers‖, ―I am
comfortable in talking with my friends about my sexual relationship.‖ While example of items included in the Likelihood scale were: ―I know some teenage girls who are pregnant and it seems okay‖, ―I think that teenagers have sex because it makes them feel mature or grown up‖, ―I think that teenagers engage into sexual activities because it makes them feel loved.‖ Procedures The researcher informed the target participants to conduct a survey. After the participants have approved the procedures, the scales were given to them and they were instructed to respond to each of the item as honestly as possible. Then, the researcher double checked the questionnaires that were given back by the participants. The researcher then tallied all the results of the surveys and analyzed the data that were gathered through the whole survey. Participation was voluntary. Respondents were told that they can refuse to finish answering the surveyquestionnaire if they feel like doing so; however, none of them failed to finish the questionnaires. Confidentiality of the information gathered most especially of their names were assured to the participants. Data Analysis In analyzing the results of the study, the researcher used simple frequency count and percentages. Graphs were used to clearly illustrate the data presented based on the results of the surveys given to the respondents. The researcher also did cross tabulations between the data gathered from the attitude scale and the likelihood scale to be able to identify whether the respondents who agreed in premarital sex also have the tendency to become teenage parents. The response of the participants aimed (1) to identify the perceived parental involvement would be most appropriate in preventing the increasing number of teenage pregnancy, (2) to know the attitude of the teenagers towards premarital sex, (3) to know the likelihood of these participants to become pregnant in an early age and acquire the vulnerabilities of teenage parenthood and lastly, (4) to know the compelling reason why teenagers still continues to engage into this kind of situation.
Pilot Testing The researcher conducted a pilot testing on 20 participants that were qualified in the study. This was done in order to test the reliability of the items and to further make improvements on the given questionnaires. The researcher also conducted some relevant observations on how the participants were to answer the questionnaires given to them. RESULTS OF THE STUDY Parental Involvement The results of the study showed that half or 75 (50%) of the respondents indicated Supervision as the actual parental involvement. The least mentioned parental involvement was Parental Expectation and Parenting Style (Figure 1).
The chart below illustrates the different levels of parental involvement that the participants experienced from their parents, the type of involvement that they would want from their parents and the type of parental involvement that they will provide to their child or children.
Figure 1. Perceived Parental Involvement Figure 2 clearly shows the parental involvement that participants wished their parents would do to them. A big number (N =96) of the participants agreed that they want their parents to be aware of their relationship status. Participants prefer their parents' attention with regards to the matters with their boyfriend. It is indicative of the respondents' strong need for guidance and relationship advices from their parents.
Figure 2. Wished Parenting Style for the Teenagers Figure 3 illustrates the parental involvement of the teenagers if they would become parents, depending on their age. Most of the target participants (N=92) approved on the concept of communication. This graph also reflects the anticipated parental involvement that they wished they parents would provide them. This implies the wanting of the teenagers to provide a good communication between them and their future children. The researcher interpreted that most of the participants did not get the attention or the kind of parenting style that their parents possessed to them. The participants wanted to fulfill the part they needed from their parents to their future children.
Figure 3. Parental Involvement of Teengers if they become Parents Attitude towards Premarital Sex When respondents were asked about their attitude towards premarital sex (PMS), results obtained showed that the majority or 98 of them (65%) agreed or endorsed PMS (Table 1). This implies that the participants had an open attitude towards PMS. The remaining 52 (35%) of the respondents disagreed on the items and somehow took considerations of their family upbringing. Participants who agreed or endorsed PMS, were born to teenage parents. This experience may have a great impact on their attitude. Since parents are the first significant adults of children, it is not surprising to know that children do not find anything wrong with what their parents have been doing. They think that it is fine to also do the mistake that their parents‘ did in the past. With this, the proper level of parental involvement should take in place among the female respondents. Table 1. Attitude of Teenagers Towards Premarital Sex Agreement Frequency Percentage
Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree TOTAL
63 35 28 24 150
42% 23% 19% 16% 100%
The respondents from this study were grouped into three categories according to their age range. The age range that were included in the first, are the respondents under the age of 13-14; second group includes the respondents from 15-17 years old. Lastly, the age range that were in the third group were female adolescents under 18-19. The graph below indicates that most of the students who fell under the age of 15-17 shows higher effect on their attitude towards premarital
sex and might acquire the strong effect of the influence of the society and peer pressure. While the respondents who were under the age range of 13-14 shows low attitude towards premarital sex.
Figure 4. Attitude of Teenagers Towards Premarital Sex Likelihood of the Participants to Become Teenage Parents When participants‘ likelihood to become teenage parents was measured, results revealed that the majority did not show any tendency to become one (Table 2). As illustrated in Table 2, the majority or 70% of them showed likelihood to become parents in their adolescence. Only 45 (30%) of them showed some disagreement to become teenage parents. This indicated that participants in this study were seemed to agree on the items that describes that they feel more mature and loved as they engage to premarital sex. In association to this result, it is not just the environmental influence that affects the likelihood of the respondents to become pregnant in an early age. This result goes to show that they somehow increase or improve their self-esteem as they get the attention that they wanted to have from their partner. Thus, those who have low selfesteem and no sense of decision making in life has a high tendency to become pregnant at an early age.
Table 2. Likelihood of the participants to become teenage parents Agreement Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree TOTAL Frequency 50 55 27 18 150 Percentage 33% 37% 18% 12% 100%
Given with their age range mentioned above, the researcher were to know if the same group of age also have the tendency to acquire the vulnerabilities and to become pregnant in an early age. The graph below also shows that most of the participants included in the second age range which were between 15-17 and the third age range including 18-19 years old respondents were to have high tendency of being pregnant in an early age. The individuals who were under the two age range were more likely to possess the characteristic of early pregnancy. There were no group to have the average tendency to have the possibility of becoming teenage parents. This table also shows that same as with the Figure 4, the least to become teenage parents were the youngest participants in this research study.
Figure 5. Likelihood to become Teenage Parents DISCUSSION What parental involvement is most appropriate in preventing the increasing number of teenage pregnancy case? The researcher provided the three main parental involvement to the participants while they answer the test given to them. Based on the data gathered by the researcher, the most possible and effective parental involvement that should be given to the participants nowadays is the type of parental involvement that they would also want to have when these teenagers become parents. 64% of the participants (N=96) wished to have a type of parental involvement that would satisfy their need from their parents. This type of parental involvement is Communication in which the parents would go on a day to day conversation with their children regarding the relationship of their daughter to their partners Regarding the gathered data, teenagers would want their parents to be actually involved towards their relationship with their boyfriend. With this kind of parental involvement, the possible cause of teenage pregnancy case might be lessen if the teenagers had the chance to actually inform their parents on the problems that they are currently experiencing with their relationship to their partner. This kind of approach from their parents might inform the teenagers that their parents could also become their friends most especially with this kind of situations. Regarding with the previous study that has been made by Manlove, TerryHumen, Ikramullah and Moore in the year 2006, they stated in their researcher that there should be more parental religious guidance towards their children. Another religious activities could also be associated to the study that they have made, with this they believed that the sexual initiation of the teenagers would be lessen compared to the increasing number of the case. Parallel to this study, Martino et.al also conducted a research in 2008 which stated that the repetition of sexual discussion from the parents to the adolescents might increase the anticipated parental involvement that teenagers need in order to have proper guidance. With this, the communication
and relationship with their parents could be intact and helpful for the adolescents. Kim also made a study in the year 2008 that parents are the most influential people when it comes to their own children regarding their sexual behaviors and in order to avoid teenage pregnancy case. There was also a study made in 2009 from Filipino researchers named, Irala, J., Osorio, A., Del burgo, C., et. al that there should always be a room for more ways of encouraging parents to talk talk more with their children about sexuality, specially aspects related to feelings and emotions in order to help them make better sexual choices in life. What is the attitude of the respondents towards premarital sex? The researcher made a scale that would measure the attitude of teenagers towards premarital sex. This scale was consisted of the concept of teenage premarital sex with regards to the society, school, the awareness of the use of birth control methods and condoms and other factors that can be related to teenage premarital sex. 98 out of 150 participants agreed that the approval of the society was more likely to be one of the factors on how teenagers depends their attitude towards the said issue. 67% (N=100) of these participants admitted that they are in favor of premarital sex and the other 33% (N=50) are in denial of their current situation. There were also some (N=22) participants that agreed that their parents had them when they were also teenagers. Most likely, these teenagers were to adapt the same values and beliefs that their parents had. This could also be considered as a factor on how the attitude of some teenagers towards premarital sex is being shaped. Another factor for the attitude of the teenagers are how they see and think of the issue. Most likely, these teenagers would think that if their parents had them when they were still young, why can they not do the same thing. This is when the attitude of teenagers towards premarital sex comes in. This could also be incorporated to the previous study made by Imammura, Temmermura, et. al, (2007) that environmental influences has high effects on the personal life and the attitude that an individual would project into. This attitude could also be on the way of the upbringing of the teenager has been developed by their parents and families and the low self-esteem that the teenagers have been feeling all throughout their life. In support to this statement made by the researchers, the previous study made by Sodi in the year 2010, that the teenagers react to this kind of situation with fear and sometimes with disbelief in pursuing their pregnancy. With this statement, teenagers are highly aware of the possible consequences of their pregnancy, but they are still tend to do it. Another previous study made by Woodward, Fergusson & Horwood in 2004 another possible factor on the attitude and likelihood of the teenagers towards premarital sex and being pregnant is the way that they have been exposed to some individual and social difficulty that occurred within their previous childhood years or could also happen during their adolescence that could be the contribution on how their attitude have been manipulated. What are the likelihood of the participants to become teenage parents? The researcher made a scale that includes the concept of the influence of the society towards teenage pregnancy, low variations of self-esteem, and the effect of having sexual relationship with their partner. Participants in this study who have low self-esteem were the primary cause to experience early pregnancy. 33% of the respondents (N=50) were to agreed that they go out with their partner in the middle of the night even though their parents does not approve. These respondents is said to have a high possibility of getting pregnant at an early age if
they would not be given the proper guidance from their parents. In addition, the study made by Kanku & Mash in the year 2010 agreed that it could also be the low self-esteem of the individual and having not enough knowledge on contraceptives would also affect their likelihood to become pregnant in an early age. The previous study made by Cavazos-Rehg & Beirut, et.al. in 2012 also agreed to the concept of being less educated on the thing that are related to teenage pregnancy or even premarital sex. What is the reason why teenagers still engage into this kind of situation? The researcher made a scale that involves the concept of society, school, the awareness of teenagers towards premarital sex , and what it brings or provide to them. Based on the data gathered by the researcher, the participants see premarital sex as a factor that increases their selfesteem. Most of the teenagers feel that the attention and the safety in which their parents lack can be provided by their sexual relationship towards their partner. For the teenagers, they seek the attention and the safety that they wanted from their relationship with their partner. They also agreed that it somehow makes them feel mature and grown up, but not mature enough to face the consequences. This is somehow related to the previous study made by Lehti, Sourander & et al. in 2012, that individuals that are more likely to be observed to have antisocial behavior has high tendency to become teenage parents because they anticipate low self-esteem as well. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS Based on the data that were presented during the data gathering, the researcher concluded that a lot of teenagers now are engaged in premarital sex and have children on their own. While this problem has been increasing, the researcher also noticed that there are a lot of teenagers that are very open regarding their sexual behaviors which sounds alarming to other people, most especially to the parents. This is why this study was made by the researcher. The researcher concluded that the possible effective way of preventing this terrible situation is for the parents to be able to handle their children very well. Based on the observed data, the teenagers wanted more attention from their parents through proper communication. Most of the teenagers nowadays are persuaded by their peers and the other people around them which includes the society. The researcher recommends the parents to give the enough and proper guidance to their children. A good relationship among their children will give them a hint on how their children wanted to open up to them, most especially with this kind of sensitive topic. For the future researcher who would like to take considerations of this topic and would also conduct a similar study, it is recommended that the following researcher would look for more specific and well constructed scales to further improve their study. A bigger number of respondents would also be applicable for this study and further researchers are encouraged to conduct few interviews for them to be able to gather more information that might be needed in their study. This paper would want to inform the society on the increasing percent of teenage pregnancy case in our country. This research is made to also inform the parents on how they can handle the level of parental involvement that they should give to their children and the possible attitude of the teenagers in the society regarding the concept of premarital sex and the
vulnerabilities to becoming a teenage parent that should be omitted by the young adolescents in the Philippines.
REFERENCES Amoran, O.E (2012). A comparative analysis of predictors of teenage pregnancy and its prevention in a rural town in Western Nigeria. International Journal For Equity in Health. (11) Ban A.S., Heifetz, M., Tamim, H., Bohr, R., Connolly, J. (2012). Prevalence and characteristics of Teen motherhood in Canada. Matern Child Health J. (16) Bernal, Buena. (2013). Citing Websites. In NSO: Teen pregnancy, Maternal Deaths on the rise. Retrieved from http://www.rappler.com/nation/33256-nso-pregnant-teens-maternal-deathsrise Bunting, L., McAuley, C. (2004). Teenage pregnancy and parenthood: the role of fathers. Child & Family Social Work. (9)
Dan, K. (2008). Negotiating the transition from adolescence to motherhood: Coping with prenatal and parenting stress in teenage mothers in Mulago hospital, Uganda. BMC Public Health. 10.1186/1471-2458-8-83 Ellis, B.J., Bates, J.E., Dodge, K.A., Fergusson, D.M., Horwood, L.J., Petit, G.S., Woodward, L. (2003). Does father absence place daughters at special risk for early sexual activity and teenage pregnancy? American Psychological Association. (74) Fan, X. & Chen, M. (2001). Parental involvement and students' academic achievement: A metaanalysis. Educational Psychology Review. Vol 13(1). doi:10.1023/A:1009048817385 Fatusi, A. & Blum, R. (2008). Predictors of early sexual initiation among a nationally representative sample of Nigerian adolescents. BMC Public Health. (8) (136) Herrman, J.W (2008). Adolescent Perceptions on Teen births. JOGNN. (37) Imamura, Temmerman & et. al, (2007). Factors associated with teenage pregnancy in the European Union countries: a systematic review. European Journal of Public Health. (17) Irala, J., Osorio, A., Del burgo, C., et al. (2009). Relationships, love and sexuality: what the Filipino teens think and feel. BMC Public Health. (9) (282)
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Manlove, J., Terry-Humen, E., Ikramullah, E., and Moore, K. (2006). The role of parent religiosity in teens' transitions to sex and contraception. Journal of Adolescents Health. (39) pp. 578-587 Martino, S., Elliot, M., Corona, R., Kanouse, D., Schuster, M. (2008). Beyond the ―Big Talk‖: The Roles of Breadth and Repetition in Parent-Adolescent Communication About Sexual Topics. Pediatrics: Official Journal of the American academy of Pediatrics. (12) (3)
Sodi, E. (2010). Psychological impact of teenage pregnancy on pregnant teenagers. Theses and Dissertations (Psychology) Woodward, Fergusson & Horwood (2004). Risk Factors and Life Processes Associated with Teenage Pregnancy: Results of a Prospective Study From Birth to 20 Years. Journal of Family and Marriage. (63)
Appendix A Parental Involvement adapted from Fan & Chen (2001)
For each of the following statements, please check the type of involvement that best describe your parent‘s involvement. Communication - This refers to the regular or everyday discussions of the teenager and the parents concerning the relationship status of the child and her partner.
Supervision – This includes monitoring teenagers when they go back home from school and what else do they do after school hours, the management of time that teenagers used in talking with their partner. Parental expectations and parenting style- Parental expectations and parenting style were found to be the most critical of the three. These include the amount and approach to which parents speak about their relationship aspirations to their children.
1. My parents type of involvement is: [ ] Communication [ ] Supervision [ ] Parental expectations and parenting style 2. I wish that my parent‘s involvement would be at the: [ ] Communication [ ] Supervision [ ] Parental expectations and parenting style 3. If I will be a parent, my involvement to my children would be more on: [ ] Communication [ ] Supervision [ ] Parental expectations and parenting style
This questionnaire is made to measure the attitude of teenagers to premarital sex. There is no right or wrong answers. Write the number on the blank.1=Strongly Disagree, 2=Disagree, 3=Agree and 4=Strongly Agree. ____ I think there is too much teenagers who engages in premarital sex these days. ____ I think there has been too much approval in our society about teenagers who became pregnant. ____ I think sex education should be implemented to school nowadays. ____ I am in favor of premarital sex. ____ I think that there is too much sexual openness to movies and televisions these days. ____ I think it is right for two people to have sex before marriage if they are in love. ____ It is okay to give sex education to people if they are ready for marriage. ____ Unmarried people should not have sex.
____ I think that there is a lacking in guiding teenagers towards premarital sex that is why they still engage to this. ____ I think teenagers nowadays involve into too much sexual activities. ____ I think that there has been a lot of knowledge for teenagers to do sexual activities. ____ My parents also had me when they were teenagers ____ I am comfortable in talking with my friends about my sexual relationship. ____ I talk to my parents about sex and birth controls. ____ I am aware of the use of birth controls and condoms. ____ No one should pressure another person to go into sexual activity. ____ I am happy with my sexual behavior right now. ____ Sexual relationships only bring trouble to people. ____ It is alright to demand sex from a girlfriend or a boyfriend. ____ I think that birth control is not important like what other people say.
This questionnaire is made to measure the likelihood to become a teenage parent. There is no right or wrong answers. Write the number on the blank. 1=Strongly Disagree, 2=Disagree, 3=Agree and 4=Strongly Agree. ____ I go out with my boyfriend late at night ____ I know some teenage girls who are pregnant and it seems okay. ____ Sexual relationship is one of the best things I can have. ____ I have a good idea on where I am headed in the future. ____ I am confused on what I should do and should not do sexually. ____ I wish I have more respect for myself. ____ I lack responsibility in making decisions about my personal relationships. ____ I think that teenagers have sex because their friends approve. ____ I think that teenagers have sex because it makes them feel mature or grown up. ____ I think that teenagers engage into sexual activities because it makes them feel loved. ____ I think that sexual intercourse should only occur between two people who are married to each other. ____ I am confused about my sexual values. ____ I know what I want and need emotionally. ____ I don‘t mind the use of birth control and contraceptives ____ I go out with my partner even though my parents don‘t approve ____ I am very satisfied about my sexual activities just the way they are. ____ I think that sexual relationships provide an important and fulfilling part of life. ____ My parents know that I‘m having sexual relationship with my partner ____ My parents are living with me at home ____ I have a clear picture of what I would like to be doing in the future.
Romantic Relationship: Experiences of Young Adults from Separated Parents Dayanara Buño Prof. Maria Theresa Masilungan, MA
The main objective of the study is to determine how the romantic relationship of 15 young adults‘ been affected by the parental separation. The researcher used descriptive and qualitative method. Interview questionnaires were used to gather data. Results showed different aspects of effects of parental separation to young adults specifically to their romantic relationship experience.
In the world of troubled young adults, one common factor that pervades is the issue of parental separation. Family is very important in a person‘s life. Family shapes and improves our personality and it teaches us the value of love and affection. According to Whakaaro (2005), parental separation bears down heavily on children and blights their lives to a significant degree across all domains of functioning. Children of families torn by conflict and parental separation are made vulnerable to developing social problems. According to the Office of the Solicitor General, there was a sudden increase of cases of annulment and legal separation between 2001 and 2007. In the year 2001 there were 4, 520 cases and it grew in the year 2007 with 7,753 cases. The total number of cases of annulment and legal separation in the Philippines from year 2001 to 2007 was 43,617. National Statistical Coordination Board (2008) presented the statistics from the Census of Population and Housing (2000), which showed that 57.1 million population, one per cent or 558,023 couples are separated. Rebuilding their homes and, most of all, themselves is a formidable task for the young adults who are involved in this kind of situation. As the population of separation increases, it is possible that the children affected within the family will also increase. It is natural in every individual‘s lives to go through interpersonal relationships. During the young adults‘ stage (18-30 years old), the stage of intimacy is developed. According to Erik Erikson‘s psychosocial development theory, intimacy is defined as the means to be able to be close to others. Occurring in young adulthood, people tend to share themselves more intimately to others. People explore relationships leading toward longer term commitments with someone other than family member. Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of love. It is also stated that a person can be intimate as a lover, friend or people in the society. Intimate as a lover is the main focus of this study. Maladaptation or excessive possession of intimacy or isolation is risky to one‘s personality or behaviour. The person might develop having a fear of commitment or the tendency to become intimate easily and freely. The effect of this stage to the young adult is that a person might not able to sustain a long lasting relationship. Parental separation sets in motion a host of changes which young people must accept. There is interpersonal loss, social dislocation and emotional upheaval to deal with. The dependency and attachment of the child to their parents are the primary reason of their formation of anxiety and grief when their parents are separated. For a short time, the child may lose confidence. Separation can intensify the adolescent's grievances because they are more
disaffected and rebellious during that stage. Instead of being attached, the adolescents tend to pull away from their parents (Pickhardt, 2009).The experience of separation has a big impact on their behaviour. Adolescents often feel betrayed and become less communicative. Parental separation consecrates the adolescent to focus more on themselves. According to Bowlby‘s attachment theory, a long-term romantic partner eventually replaces a parent as the primary attachment figure. Family stress and family separation are some of the elements that can cause risk to the romantic relationship of young adults (Collins, 2003). Prior studies did not explore further on how parental separation affects the young adults‘ romantic relationship. The separation of the parents can have different effects on the young adults‘ behaviour and personality. The essence of this study is to generate future researches about the effects of parental separation to romantic relationship of young adults. This can also help in constructing scales to find out what is the common influence of the experience of parental separation to young adults‘ behaviour specifically in their romantic relationship. Specifically, the researcher aims to answer the following statements: What are the common reasons behind parental separation? How were these young adults affected by the separation of their parents? What influence does experience of parental separation have on these young adults‘ experience of romantic relationship? How do these young adults‘ romantic relationships vary with the different experiences they had with parental separation? REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE The following literature shows different contribution to the topic. The relationship between parental separation and romantic relationship is the first topic which is the main problem of the study. The two other topics are the key variables. The researcher decided to divide the two variables to determine how they influence the young adolescents individually together with their relationship to each other. Romantic Relationship and Parental Separation relationship Different studies were conducted regarding the influence of parental separation on the interpersonal relationships of adolescents. According to (Collins, 2003), there is a possible complementary view regarding the timing of involvement associated with familial and peergroup dysfunctions. It is possible that these factors are responsible to the early romantic involvement of adolescents and there are risks attached to it. In the same study conducted, it was discussed that family stress, family separation and poor psychological adjustment are some of the elements that can cause risk to the romantic relationship of adolescents. Poor relationships with parents and peers contribute to the incidence of both physical and relational aggression between romantic partners in late adolescence (as cited in Linder & Collins, 2002). Parental figures continued to influence children during young adulthood through their romantic relationships. Specifically, young adults perceived relationships with biological mother as higher on affection and support than relationships with biological fathers. According to the
study, adult‘s report of trust and anxiety is strongly influenced by biological fathers while adult‘s romantic intimacy is strongly influenced by biological mothers (Pflieger, 2005). The study conducted by Daring et al (2008) shows that social relations model was used to observe the less functional behaviors observed during marital conflict. This was associated with the adolescents‘ observed interactions with romantic partners, including withdrawal, verbal aggression, negativity, ineffective problem solving and low cohesion. Prior relationship experiences might be a reflection of variations in relationship expectancies. Collins (2003) mentioned a cognitive and behavioral syndrome called rejection sensitivity. Rejection sensitivity arises from experiences of rejection in parent-child relationships, peers and possible romantic partners (Collins, 2003). In adolescent relationships, expectancies of rejection correlate strongly with both actual rejection and lesser satisfaction experienced in their family setting. Cui et al. (2010) state that young adults‘ perception of parental divorce varies depending on inter-parental conflict and parents‘ marital quality before the separation. The variation in the perception of inter-parental separation was linked to relationship dissolution via attitude towards separation and relationship commitment. Simon & Furman (2010) stated that the effects of inter-parental conflict to the romantic relationship of the adolescents differ by gender. The study suggests that boys and girls‘ experience of inter-parental conflict is important for understanding how these experiences contribute to the development of romantic relationships. The study of Ottaway (2010) discussed the differences between the effects of parental separation to both genders. A good father-child relationship for female has been found to protect against early sexual activity and unhappy romantic attachments. On the other side, boys who encounter good father-child relationship seems to positively affect overall psychological well-being (as cited by Berk, 2007). A study conducted by Scharf & Mayseless (2008) states that, adolescent‘s relationship with each parents are associated with somewhat different aspects of the romantic relationship. The study reveals that quality relationship with the mother can delay the girl‘s entrance into sexual romantic relationships whereas the girl‘s quality relationship to his father was associated with the better quality of romantic relationship once they are formed concurrently and longitudinally. The findings highlight the central role that mothers and fathers play in shaping the quality of the romantic relationships that late adolescent girls form (Scharf & Mayseless, 2008). According to a study conducted by Faber & Wittenborn (2010), the overlooked factor related to children‘s adjustment following marital transitions is the attachment bond children experience with their parents. Attachment theory was the technical term for this phenomenon. The quality of family relationship in adolescence can predict the levels of connectedness, discord, and specific conflict behaviours in their romantic relationships (Crockett & Randall, 2006).
Parental Separation There are various reasons why parents separate. In the study made by Amato & Previti (2003), it is discussed that prior research on people‘s account of separation has focused primarily on variations by gender, socioeconomic status, and the life course. There is a gender difference in terms of handling a relationship. Wives tend to initiate separation compared to husbands (Amato & Previti, 2003). Amato & Previti (2003) states that women tend to monitor their relationships more closely, become aware of relationship problems sooner, and more likely to initiate discussions of relationship problems with their partners (as cited in Thompson & Walker, 1991). In contrast with these, men are more likely tend to withdraw from discussions of relationship problems. Relational or emotional issues are referred to by most women than men. These are basic unhappiness, incompatibility, and general lack of love. Another aspect is the negative behaviour of the partner. It is again discussed further by most women. This includes physical abuse, emotional abuse and substance abuse. In contrast, men more often blame external factors such as work or problems with in-laws. Most husbands reported that they do not know what caused the separation. The second reason discussed was the conflict in socioeconomic status which is measured by education and income. Prior studies indicate that education and income facilitate marital success (Amato & Previti, 2003). According to Amato & Previti (2003), education promotes more effective communication between couples. This can help them in resolving differences. Opposite to that, it is also stated that economic hardship generates stress which increase disagreements over finances, can make the spouses irritable, and will decrease expressions of emotional support. Nevertheless, thoughts of separation are triggered quickly by well-educated individuals. Well-educated individuals may have high standards for marriage and expect a substantial level of emotional support, companionship, and personal fulfilment from their spouses. In contradiction, individuals having low economic status and are divorced tend to complain more about financial problems and physical abuse. These individuals tend to report lack of economic support from their spouses. Lastly, separation occurs because of the the issue in life course variables. This includes age at marriage and the presence of children. Individuals who marry at younger ages tend to report more marital problems and experience a greater risk of separation than people who marry at older ages (Amato & Previti, 2003). There are negative consequences for individuals who marry at young age such as psychological immaturity and unstable employment. The duration of marriage is another factor that affects the separation of the couples. It occurs more often in early rather than later years of marriage. People tend to have imperfect information about their partners during the courtship stage but learn further about their spouses after marriage. The consequence of this is the early separation due to discovery of basic incompatibility, conflict in values, and personality clashes. According to Kelly (2007), when parents separate, children typically enter into new living arrangements with each parent in a pattern determined most often by one or both parents. A large body of social science and child development research generated over the past three decades has identified factors associated with risk and resiliency of children after separation. Parents‘ conflict can cause different impact to adolescents‘ behavior. Ongaro & Mazzuco (2009) relates the
effects of parental separation on child outcomes such as age at marriage, marriage stability, cohabitation and attitude towards separation. The objective of their study is to understand whether the sons and daughters of separated parents behave differently from other young adults in terms of leaving home, entering into partnerships, and becoming parents. The study also investigates the mechanisms by means of which parental separation affects family behavior of young people. The empirical results suggest that parental separation appears to accelerate the transition to more individualistic and progressively less traditional behaviors of family formation. The connection between marital separation and marital conflict is complex. It is better to explore more of this concept. In understanding this phenomena, the relationship between marital conflict and separation, it is important to distinguish between the conflict that precedes the separation and conflict that follows separation (Whakaaro, 2005). Philippines is one of the countries that experiences pervasive socio-economic and cultural transitions brought about by globalization. A trending issue that can be considered is its effect on the Filipino family. Lack of economic opportunities has led to massive movements resulting in some adjustments in family structure (Cruz, Laguna, Raymund, 2002). Most young members of the family compromise on the newly emerging forms of living arrangements. As stated in the study made by Cruz, Laguna & Raymund (2002), the prior concept is evident in the marked increase in the number of children who are growing up under the care of either solo or surrogate parents. In a study by Abalos (2011), a brief profile of separated Filipino men and women was presented and their living arrangements across selected characteristics were examined. The results of the research indicate that young people who experienced marital dissolution are more likely to live in an extended household, while divorced and separated Filipino adolescents tend to live in a single-parent household. There is a systematic links between parent and peer trust and commitment (Meeus, Oosterwegel & Vollebergh, 2002). Romantic Relationships In our society today, a romantic relationship starts in young adults from their school days up to working days. It is common for the young adults to enter friendship and possibly develop it into romantic relationship. In a study conducted by Ponti, Guarnieri, Smorti & Tani (2010), it is stated that friendship and romantic relationships are central to individual social life. During adolescence and early adulthood, these close relationships become increasingly significant. It is considered that romantic relationships are central in young adults‘ lives. There is a possibility that it can affect the development positively but can also bring young adults risk for problems (Furman, 2002). The theory of attachment explained by John Bowlby explained that the psychological nature of a child‘s bond to their parents and the possible impact this experience can have on shaping future romantic relationships (Karandashev & Benton, 2012). Further, the study also mentioned about the six love styles namely: Eros (intense passion), Ludus (love playing), Storge
(friendship and care relations), Pragma (practicality and suitability of love), Mania (obsession and possession), and Agape (altruism and selfless concern). According to Erik Erikson‘s psychosocial development theory, young adults encounter a basic conflict which is identity vs. role confusion wherein teens tend to develop a sense of self and personal identity. After this stage comes intimacy vs. isolation where romantic relationship is the basic conflict. Young adults need to form intimate, loving relationships with other people. These can be a basis that a relationship is part of adolescents and young adults‘ life. Parents are involved in the formation of relationship of teenagers. Parade (2007) conducted a survey and found out that those college students who were more securely attached to their parents at the beginning of the freshmen year experienced a greater ease forming close friendships and romantic relationships at college and more satisfaction in those close relationships. Furman et al., (2002) examined the links among young adults‘ representations of their relationships with parents, friends and romantic partners. The researcher conducted the test to sixty-eight young adults who were interviewed three times to assess their working models for each of these types of relationships. Compare to relationships with their mothers, young adults perceived few negative interactions and more support in romantic relationships. Young adults‘ interactions with romantic partners were associated with those with friends and mothers. Romantic relationships are characterized by distinct patterns of interaction, yet also associated with other close relationships (Furman & Shomaker, 2008).
SYNTHESIS The researcher gathered related literature from three different variables. The first variable, which is the main topic of this research, is the relationship between parental separation and romantic relationship of young adults. The researcher finds data about the relationship of the two variables. The researcher then decided to gather separate information from the two variables mentioned which is parental separation and romantic relationship. The purpose of the researcher in separating the two variables was to determine how these affect young adults separately. Prior studies plainly tackle the fact that parental separation can affect the interpersonal relationship of the adolescents to others. The studies did not state some particular effects of this situation. Parental separation can greatly influence the interpersonal relationship of adolescence particularly their romantic relationship. A longitudinal study by Collins (2003) indicates that familial and peer-group dysfunctions can possibly be associated with the problem of teenagers in their romantic relationships. Further studies provide strong evidences. According to Collins (2003) prior relationship experiences might be a reflection of variations in relationship expectancies. Parental separation is one of the key variables in this research. According to the study conducted by Amato and Previti (2003), there are three main reasons behind the separation of
spouses. These are variations by gender, socioeconomic status, and the life course. These will depend on the individuals involved in the marriage. In the study of Kelly (2007), children enter new living arrangement when parental separation is experienced. Another study explores whether the sons or daughters who experience parental separation behave differently from other young adults particularly in partnerships. The second key variable is the interpersonal relationship or the romantic relationship. In the survey conducted by Parade (2007), it is proven that young adults who are attached with their parents have a greater ease of forming close and romantic relationships. Parental separation has different effects in both genders. Scharf and Mayseless (2008) focus on how parental separation affects adolescent girls. In their study, it is stated that a girl‘s quality relationship with their mother can delay the girl‘s entrance into sexual romantic relationship. The girl‘s relationship with their father is most likely to be associated with a longtime and quality romantic relationship. According to the theory of attachment by John Bowlby, the psychological nature of a child‘s bond to their parents and the possible impact of the experience they have can have an effect in shaping young adult‘s future romantic relationship. Bowlby also proposed that a longterm romantic partner eventually replaces a parent as the primary attachment figure (Furman & Winkles, 2011). On the other hand, some studies proposed that parental separation does not have a uniform effect on young adults‘ romantic relationship and that differential outcomes depend on how young adult perceive their parents‘ separation. The researcher verified on this study that the experience of young adults in parental separation can have an effect on their perception of romantic relationship.
METHOD This chapter includes the study‘s research design, participants, instruments, procedure, and data analysis.
Research Design In dealing with the task given, the researcher used descriptive and qualitative research design. Descriptive research design was used to gather information about pre-existing issues. The main goal of this research design is to describe the data and characteristics about what is being studied. This design will answer the research problem whether the experience of young adults having separated parents affects their experience in romantic relationship. It will explore the different experiences on how separation plays role in the relationship stage of young adults.
Participants To gather accurate data, the researcher used purposive sampling method, wherein the population is 15 (N=15) participants from Metro Manila. Purposive sampling method was used by choosing subjects based on particular characteristics. The researcher gathered the participants based on the characteristics of being involved with separated parents and experienced romantic relationship. The participants of this study were 15 male and female young adults ranging 19-40 years old. According to Erik Erikson‘s psychosocial theory, young adult stage (19-40 years old) is the phase when intimacy vs. isolation is the main conflict. Instruments The basis of data collection in this research was self-made interview questionnaires. The questionnaire was used to answer the research problems of this study. This captured whether or not the experience of parental separation affects young adults‘ experience of romantic relationship. Lastly, it also determines the various reason of the difficulty in entering into romantic relationship. The interview questionnaires were validated through the pilot study done by the researcher. Procedure The researcher used a pilot study to determine the some possible circumstances that needs improvement before conducting the actual interview. The researcher gathered a total of 15 participants through purposive sampling method. The researcher asked for a particular schedule in which the interview can be done. The interview was conducted based on the place and time given by the participant. The researcher used the concept of Sikolohiyang Pilipino (Filipino Psychology). The researcher used pakikipagpalagayang-loob (mutual trust) and pakikipagkwentuhan (interaction) to help the participants be confident in answering some sensitive questions. The researcher explained to the participants that everything will be confidential so that they will answer in full honesty. The researcher told the participants that there will be another chance to have this kind of interaction. The researcher avoided the conversation to be too much formal. This was done by asking creative questions that lead them to be comfortable in sharing their personal experiences. As the conversation is going, the researcher simply includes the interview questions. During the interaction, the researcher analyzed the answers and asked a follow-up question that clarifies information that is not explained thoroughly. Each participant was asked 5 questions. The researcher used a device for recording the data produced by the participants. After the whole interaction, the researcher accurately interpreted the data gathered.
Data Analysis The researcher used coding as a tool for analyzing gathered qualitative information. Coding is defined as an interpretative technique for organizing data. It is used as a mean for interpreting the responses of the participants. The researcher read the data and demarcates segments within it. Each segment is labeled with a code which is usually a word or a short phrase that suggest how the associated data segments inform the research objectives. After the coding, the researcher prepared report by summarizing the prevalence codes, discussing the similarities and differences in related codes or comparing the relationship between one or more codes. The researcher particularly used analytical coding. Analytical coding is use for making categories for the new ideas or concepts that was found in the data transcript. For each new category, the researcher wrote a description and a memo. RESULTS The results are to answer the research problems presented in this study. 1. Reasons for parental separation There are different circumstances of parental separation reported by the participants. These circumstances include miscommunication, differences, harassment, third party and the combination of all. Separation because of miscommunication was identified by 40% of the participants. Two participants reported that one of their parents worked abroad. “My mom and my dad do not anymore agree with each other. That is why for me, my mommy is very decided in going to Dubai. Since then she had no communication with my dad. They accepted the fact that they will be used in having a hard time to live in separate lives because my mommy will only go home here when in vacation.” -Participant D “My parents got separated when my dad work abroad. Miscommunications, lots of indifference made them decide to separate ways.” -Participant I Long distance relationship was the factor which triggered the conflict between the parents. The parents, given the fact that one of them needs to stay abroad, accepted that they will have to live in separate lives. Participant D and Participant I mentioned that disagreements between the parents made the situation more complicated. One participant also reported differences between the personalities of the parents. This was due to disagreement between different areas of decision-making. “They separated because of differences” -Participant N Two of the participants said that they just realized that their father simply did not go home for a day and eventually for a long period of time. These participants were not informed by
their mothers about what is already happening. They just realized the separation of their parents on their own understanding. “Suddenly one day, our dad does not go home. Our mom did not tell us the reason. She did not give us an intimate talk about the issue. We just realized that they are already separated.” -Participant B “I just noticed that they don‟t have contact anymore.” -Participant G “I have no idea why they separate, My mom just left our house when I was still a kid, I used to blame myself back, then eventually I realized that they separate because they don‟t love each other anymore” -Participant F 20% of the participants answered that the separation of their parents occurs because of the substance abuse of their father. The issue triggers the harassment of the father to the mother which is also one of the reasons why they separate. Two of the participants reported this same issue because they belong to the same family. “Back then, my father used to have drugs. Whenever he is in the state of having that substance, he tends to be unconscious about his actions. Most of the time, our father will harass our mother.” -Participant A and Participant I
One participant reported harassment without associating it with substance abuse. “My mom has been abused by my father and my step-father, I and my sibling left our mom because my sibling has been abused by our step-father” 20% of the participants said that their parents separate because of third party. “When I was still a baby, my mom found out that my dad had a girlfriend and kids outside” -Participant C “My parents got separated because my dad had another family” -Participant K Financial issues were reported by 20% of the participants as the cause of the parental separation. Based on the participants‘ responses, financial issues occur because the participants‘ father was too lazy to find a job in order to gratify the needs of his family. This issue was combined with the other circumstances of parental separation. From those responses, the participants reported a combination of two to three circumstances. There was a combination of miscommunication and third party, harassment and financial issues, and lastly harassment, third party with financial issues.
“My father is too lazy to work and when he gets drunk, he tend to hurt my mother” -Participant H “My dad worked abroad, because of homesick he tend to build his other family there” -Participant J “My dad has girlfriends during their relationship of my mom. He is also very lazy to find a work. He also tends to harass my mom.” The factors triggered one another which cause the conflict between the parents.
2. Effect of separation on young adults Neutral Six of the participants were not that affected by the situation. The participants reported that they were young back then the separation happened and some are also used living without one parent. The reasons stated by the participants were as follows: “I never thought of this as negative” -Participant A “I didn‟t really have an idea that my parents are separating because I was still young when that situation happened” -Participant B “I was used that my dad is not with us because he is working abroad”-Participant J “It did not affect me because when I was still young, they are already separated so I think I become used to it” -Participant O “When I was still young, the situation was already explained to me by my mom” Participant E
Conflict Parental separation gives various effects on the childrens‘ lives. Seven of the participants reported that they encountered conflict during this experience. One participant said that he tend to be in need of someone who he can be confident enough to share personal stories. “There‟s no guy that I can talk about guy stuff” -Participant C Another participant said that she was affected academically by the situation. The reason behind this is that the parents tend to lose their attention to the child because of the arising conflict in their relationship.
“I don‟t really care at all regarding school stuffs because both of my parents were not present.” -Participant D Because of the experience, one participant said she became picky in choosing boys that is why she only had one boyfriend. She tried to avoid boys that might also have the same personality with her dad. Another conflict is that some of the participants admitted that they became boyish. These participants tend to be too much exposed with the personality of their father which allowed them to adapt it. “I‟m close to guys but not in a romantic way, I treat them as my big brothers and I feel that I am one of the boys.” -Participant E “Because I lived with my dad, I did not really care what to wear at all and I used to like girls (same gender) because my dad is a womanizer.” -Participant F Another conflict encountered by the participants is that they tend to compare their family to other families who are good together. The participants also admitted that they are in need of the presence of one parent. “I always miss my daddy. I am jealous with those people who have their father with them. I am longing for a father figure.” -Participant I The experience made the participants feel isolated to other people. “I am too shy to go out of our house. I also lose trust with the people around us and I tend to lose respect and trust to my own father.” -Participant M “I did not know what to do or what to feel anymore. I tend to lose self-confidence. I became self-pity. I am distant to others which is the reason why I did not have friends back then.” -Participant N
These statements may pertain that the separation of the parents affects them personally and socially. The participants tend to isolate themselves to others because they feel that the situation is not socially acceptable. The psychosocial aspect of the participants was partly affected by the parents‘ separation. Realization Though the experience was not that easy, some of the participants consider the experience as a good impact in their lives. The participants said that at first, it was not easy to accept it but then again it served as a turning point experience which made them learn several things that helped them to be a better person. “I became more responsible and sensitive for others‟ feelings and became mature in my own little way”. -Participant I
“It made me learn and want to be a man more at a young age”. -Participant C “I grew up well with my mother. She taught me to have dreams in life and r espect other people especially elders”. -Participant K
3. Relationship status
Figure 1. Relationship status of the participants
The relationship status of the interviewed participants is shown in Figure 2. There are 8 of 15 participants (57%) who reported that they are currently in a romantic relationship. The remaining 7 of 15 participants (43%) said that they have been into a relationship. 4. Parental separation’s influence on young adults’ experience of romantic relationship The participants reported various experiences in having romantic relationship. In this research these experiences were categorized as no difficulty and difficulty.
No difficulty Most of the participants said that the experience did not have an impact for them to have a difficulty in entering/handling romantic relationship. There are several reasons. Some participants said that the entering and handling of relationship was not the difficult issue instead it was the hiding of the relationship per se. “The only difficult part is that I was not yet allowed to have a relationship because they are afraid that the experience of my parents will happen again” -Participant A and Participant H
Another reason is that one participant‘s parent is against with the homosexual relationship that she had. “My first relationship was with a girl, it was difficult because my dad was against it. My dad was angry at me and used to tell me that I‟m not normal” -Participant F Some of the participants said that they did not have difficulty because they were young back then the relationship started. Despite of their parental separation experience, some participants also shared different situation when they are in a relationship. “When I am in a relationship, I feel needed and wanted” -Participant A “When I am in a relationship, I always feel that it will be the last. I did not take the fact that because my parents are separated, my own relationship will fail also” Participant B “I cannot compare my relationship to my parents‟ relationship because the reason why we separate were different” -Participant K “I told myself that if ever I will have my own relationship, I want it to be completely different from my parents‟. I will build that relationship in my own way and more matured.”-Participant N “Fear of losing the one you love is always there, you tend to work harder just to ensure that the relationship will last” -Participant I
Difficulty The difficulty experienced by one of the participants is the absence of father figure. “It was hard that there is no one to talk about guy stuffs” -Participant C Another similar experience shared by the participants is that the absence of a parent/parents implicate that there is no one to guide them in handling relationships because there are things that are not yet known by the young adults. “There is no difficulty in entering but in handling. There are things that I do not know yet about relationships like limitations”. -Participant C and Participant E Two of the participants said that their relationship was affected when they sometimes think that their parents‘ experience might happen to them also. The participants find it as an obstacle in having a harmonious relationship with their partners.
“As our relationship gets longer, we used to make promises and plans for our future. But every night before I go to sleep, I always think about what if he is just like my father. That he will leave me soon and he will drop all the responsibilities to me, just what like what happened to my mother.” -Participant G “I realized that it is indeed really hard to be cheated by your boyfriend, I also realized that this is how my mother also felt.” -Participant M
5. Young adults’ way of handling relationship Gender differences The participants answered their way of handling their own relationship based on what they thought was lacking to their parents‘ relationship which caused the separation. “The best way to handle a relationship is to talk about it, couples must know to exchange their thoughts when there is a conflict” -Participant B “As much as possible, I do not lose the intimacy or the sweetness between me and my girlfriend. I told myself not to cheat to my girlfriend. I must also show that I really love her” Participant C It was mentioned by 3 of the participants that trust is one of the important key to a healthy relationship. “I will trust her with all my heart. I will also respect and care for her” Participant K “Relationship must be a give and take process, you must not be too strict with each other, there must also be an open communication and the number one thing needed for a relationship is trust”. -Participant M “In a relationship there must be a lot of patience so that you will have a chance to understand each other.” -Participant N On the other hand, one of the participants said that she do not use her parents‘ experience as a basis for her own relationship. “Because my boyfriends‟ parents are good together, I use them as role model instead of my own parents who are separated.” -Participant D
“I‟m trying my best to not let my emotions take-over our relationship because most of the time it is the reason why we argue”. -Participant E “Handling a failed relationship is not easy, there are times that I blame my parents as well. But it made me think and accept that every relationship has an end and its ending is just a realization that gives me a chance to make it better”. -Participant I There are some significant differences between the male and female participants in handling their relationships. Male participants‘ way of handling their own relationship is through doing what they thought lack on their parents‘ relationship that causes the separation. On the other hand, female participants handle their relationships by avoiding the things that they thought served as a factor why their parents separated.
DISCUSSION Common reasons behind parental separation Relational issues such as incompatibility and general lack of love is one of the primary reasons behind parental separation (Amato & Previti, 2003). According to the data gathered, the most common reason of the parental separation is miscommunication. Miscommunication is associated with misunderstanding, indifferences and parent working abroad. In most circumstances, the instance when the father works abroad leads to the issue in miscommunication. Differences between the couples‘ personality often triggers the misunderstanding which is the root cause of most of the problems in relationships. The differences made the situation more complicated. Participants said that these reasons which they reported were only based on their own observations. The reasons were not really admitted by their parents. Harassment is also a reason behind the parental separation. According to Amato & Previti (2003), issues like physical abuse, emotional abuse and substance abuse are reported by most women as a reason for the separation. Harassment, as reported by most of the participants, involves the substance abuse. Substance abuse triggers harassment. Based on the participants‘ way of responding on this issue, they tend to possess anger with their father. Abuse is one of the reasons why one decided to have the separation. Commonly the father is the one involved in this kind of issue. As the participants recall these experiences, they tend to show the feeling of anger to their father. Another factor that leads to separation is the issue of third-party. Illicit love affair is one of the most known issues behind the separation or annulment. It is when an individual have another relationship despite that he/she is already married. This issue is often associated with some of the other factors. The illicit love affair tends to be triggered by the other conflict encountered in the relation. One parent might look for another partner that will not possess the same personality with his/her spouse. These tend to be a defense mechanism for a person who wants to avoid another conflict in the relationship.
The last reason reported by the participants is financial issues. Socioeconomic status is said to be an issue in a separation which is measured by income (Amato & Previti, 2003). As mentioned by the participants, this is when their father is not supporting the needs of his family and not even trying to find a work. Some of the participants mentioned a combination of two to three reasons why their parents separate. One will be miscommunication that leads to third-party. Miscommunication between the couples who were far away from each other triggers them to engage into illicit love affair. Another is harassment and financial issue. As reported, the father has no job at all and when he is drunk he tends to harass her wife. Last will be harassment, third party and financial issues. As what was mentioned earlier financial issues pertains whether the father has job. In this case, because of the critical situation, the father engaged into illicit love affair which ends his legal relationship. According to most of the participants, their mother decided to leave when they are very abused by their father.
Effect of parental separation to young adults Prior studies suggest that parental separation affects young adults in various aspects in life. Opposite to that, most of the participants reported that they were not that affected of their parents‘ separation because they were still young back then that situation happen and some did not take it as negative. Further, there were identified factors associated with the risk and resiliency brought to children after parental separation. Parent‘s conflict can cause different impact to adolescents‘ behavior (Ongaro & Mazzuco, 2009). Based on the data gathered parental separation caused some conflict on young adults‘ lives. The conflict were longing for a father figure, identity crisis and comparison of family. Some participants were affected socially by the situation. The participants tend to lose confidence to communicate to other people outside their family. One participant even mentioned that this situation made her lose trust to other people who were gossipping about their family issue. Self-pity also occurs to the participants who encounter parental separation. Though the issue is somewhat complicated, some participants still took it as a good indication. The experience made the participants more responsible and sensitive to others‘ feelings. Another is that the participants learned to be more matured. And lastly, one participant mentioned that she grew well with her mother alone. Effects of parental separation on young adults’ experience of romantic relationship There were several influences the experience of parental separation brought to young adults‘ own romantic relationship. According to Collins (2003), family stress and family separation are some of the elements that can cause risk to the romantic relationship of adolescents. Some participants reported that they had difficulty in having their own relationship because their parents/grandparents do not allow them to have. The reason is because the parents/grandparents were afraid that the experience of separation might also happen to their children. Another influence is young adults‘ identity crisis. Two of the participants admitted that
their parents‘ separation is the reason why they have different gender preference in having relationship. One participant said that she was exposed to her father being a womanizer. At a young age, the participant realized that she was not attracted to a person of the opposite gender. The participant even mentioned that even she tried to have a heterosexual relationship, she find herself not satisfied and still longing for the same gender relationship. A male participant, on the other hand, said that he has this kind of preference because wants a father figure. Most of the participants were affected during their relationships. There was a fear of repeating the experience of their parents. Some participants said that they tend to lose trust and respect to their fathers. The participants tend to compare the behavior of their father who left them to their current boyfriends. Prior studies suggest that young adult‘s report of trust and anxiety is strongly influenced by biological fathers (Pflieger, 2005). Variation of young adults’ romantic relationship with the different experiences they had with parental separation Adolescents‘ relationship with each parents are associated with somewhat different aspects of the romantic relationship (Scharf & Mayseless, 2008). It was common for most of the participants that they long for a father figure. Two of the participants‘ answer stood out among the rest. The classification of their experience is identity crisis. The first participant is a girl. The participant reported that she used to stay with her father who she described as a womanizer. According to the participant, she thinks that this experience triggered her in having a homosexual relationship. The participant reported that her first relationship was with the same gender. After that, she tried to have a relationship with a boy, but according to her, she did not seem to be happy back then. Currently, she is into a homosexual relationship. On the other hand, another participant which is a boy, reported that he also have a homosexual relationship. Somewhat different from the first participant, this participant said that he started to be engage into this kind of relationship because he feels that his partner gratifies the care and affection that cannot be given by his dad. One of the participants involved in a homosexual relationship mentioned that the experience of having separated parents did not affect her to have that kind of preference. The participant said that she thinks her personality was inborn. The participants differ in some circumstances. One example will be the distinction between the participant who reported that his father left because of illicit love affair and the participant who reported that the separation was not explained clearly by his mother. The prior participant said that he will avoid what his father did to his mother. The participant also said that he will do his best to be faithful to his girlfriend. The other participant said that engaging in the homosexual relationship allowed him to experience the love and care that he is longing from his father. Therefore, this observation only indicates that there is a variation between the participants romantic relationship in terms of differences between their parents‘ separation.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION Based on the data gathered and analysis of this study, the researcher concluded that young adults are affected in different ways by the separation of their parents. Opposite to that, the romantic relationship experience of the young adult was not really affected by their experience of parental separation. The result shows that young adults used the experience as a motivating factor in having a successful relationship. The researcher also concluded that the participants tend to report miscommunication as a reason why their parents separate based on their own observation and perception. This is when the parents did not explain to the children the reason behind the separation. On the other hand, third-party, harassment and other combinations tend to be obvious and were explained clearly by the parents. Another conclusion is that participants were observed to have differences in gender in terms of handling relationship. Girls avoid the conflict similar to their parents‘ to happen again while boys fulfill what they thought was lacking to their parents‘ relationship. Based on the interview, the participants, in general, have fear in repeating the same mistake of their parents. On the other hand, few reported that the fear affected their past and current relationship. Further, the participants said that they will avoid the same experience to happen again. Lastly, there is also an observed variation in the romantic relationship of the participants based on how their parents‗separated. The researcher recommends that parents must still allot time for their children even if they are already separated. The reason for this is that young adults still needs attention and care coming from different parents. The guidance of each parent is helpful in the growth of the young adults. This is most especially important in the young adults‘ romantic relationship experience. The young adults‘ needs proper information coming from the parents during this period. This is because if not given proper understanding, young adults might experience difficulty. Parents must also explain clearly to their children the real situation of their relationship especially when there is a conflict arising. This paper seeks to inform parents and society the different experiences of the young adults. By having this, they will have proper understanding for them to guide the young adults especially in the period when they enter into the romantic relationship. For following researchers who would like to do future studies in this area, it is further recommended to construct a scale for each experience in order to know the values of each information given. Future researchers might also go deeper with this study by using Filipino Psychology or Phenomenology. The researchers might gather more information and data from other participants. It is also recommended to have more number of participants. The researchers might also try to explore different age range in order to know when there are other kinds of experiences.
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INTERVIEW QUESTIONS: ● ● ● ● ● How/Why did your parents separate? What are your experiences by the time your parents separate? How did these experiences affect your behavior? Are you currently in a romantic relationship? / Have you ever been in a romantic relationship? Did you have difficulty in entering/handling a romantic relationship? Share your experience. How did you handle your current/past romantic relationship? Share your experience
Levels of Loneliness in Relation to Video Gaming Behavior of Filipino Adolescents Jemen Cruz Prof. Ma. Theresa Masilungan, MA
This study aims to determine the levels of loneliness of Filipino adolescents who are involved in the use of computer games and to compare them to non-gamers. One hundred participants, aged 16-24 were surveyed and divided into 2 groups being the gamers and non-gamers. Findings have shown that loneliness is more evident to gamers than that of non-gamers. Findings also suggest that the variables for the UCLA is statistically significant while LSDQ is not statistically significant.
With the advancement of technology today, people find many ways to entertain themselves, as these electronic companies made a breakthrough to introducing role playing video games through single player action. According to the Kaiser family foundation (2005) 83% of the children population ages 8-18 years old own a home console at their households and usually plays nearly one hour per session. Clearly, there are some misconceptions that have been circulating. The misconceptions stated by Hart (2005) include the idea that gamers are unhealthy, socially isolated, and spend too much time playing games. In fact, a report found that 79% of gamers exercise at least 20 hours per month, 93% regularly read books or daily newspapers, and 51% play games with others at least once a week. Another study which might be another cause is the Loneliness of the child in terms of parent-child relationship and peer relations. According to Asher, Hymel, and Renshaw (2005), more than 10% of children reported feelings of loneliness and social dissatisfaction, and children‘s feelings of loneliness were significantly related to their sociometric status. By mentioning the factors above, this study aims to answer the following: Firstly, to know the levels of loneliness experienced by gamers. Second, to know the levels of loneliness experienced by non-gamers. And last, to compare the loneliness in gamers to that of non-gamers.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE This literature talks about the compiled studies collected regarding anti-social behavior, loneliness, psycho-social issues, measuring problem, video game playing in adolescents, and self-esteem. Anti-Social Behavior Anti-social behavior is a type of behavior that lacks interaction with another individual in the society which can damage the society, whether intentionally or through negligence. The need for preventive work with the current generation of teenagers and young adults was stressed. It was also pointed out that key agencies had responsibilities beyond any recognised ASB-focused
activities (Millie, 2006). Much research has examined potential positive and negative effects of playing various types of video games. Most has focused on the deleterious effects of violent games (e.g., Anderson et al., 2010). There is one study mentioned in the study of Anderson, Gentil, & Dill (2012) that based on Greitmeyer and Osswald (2009) that there was a report about two experiments in which brief play of prosocial video game led to a decrease in both hostile expectation bias and in accessibility of antisocial thoughts. Loneliness Loneliness is typically defined by researchers as involving the cognitive awareness of a deficiency in one‘s social and personal relationships, and the ensuing affective reactions of sadness, emptiness, or longing (Asher & Pacquette, 2003). In surveying 506 third through sixth grade children, the measure was found to be internally reliable. More than 10% of children reported feelings of loneliness and social dissatisfaction, and children‘s feelings of loneliness were significantly related to their sociometric status (Asher, Hymel, & Renshaw, 2005). Loneliness is an internal emotional state that can be strongly influenced by features of one‘s social life, but it is not to be confused with any particular external condition (Asher & Pacquette, 2003).
Self-esteem Roe and Muijs (1998) found that increasing proﬁciency at computer games may afford players a temporary sense of mastery, control and achievement that they had hitherto felt themselves to be lacking. Such artiﬁcial raising of self-esteem may lead to interactions with computer games becoming a substitute for social relationships. As the proposition of Crocker and Park (2004) that the importance of self esteem lies more in how people strive for it rather than whether it is high or low. They argue that in domains in which their self-worth is invested, people adopt the goal to validate their abilities and qualities, and hence their self-worth. Measuring Problem Video Game Playing in Adolescents Video game playing is an addictive behaviour similar to substance dependence. The researcher reviewed the DSM-IV criteria for substance dependence and for pathological gambling, as well as the literature on the addictions in order to design a short scale (PVP; problem video game playing) that is quick and easy to apply. It is confirmed that the excessive use of video games is associated with a number of problems which resemble a dependence syndrome (Moran & Salguero, 2002). Psycho-social Issues There are psychological and social issues associated with playing video games. Bosworth (1994) found game users no more likely than non-game users to be involved in risk taking behaviour such as taking alcohol or drug abuse. However, Bosworth also mentioned that gamers felt that games are more important are more likely to report depression. SYNTHESIS Most of the researches are providing information about the effects in video gaming. And the current assumptions to these effects might be these gamers could be less sociable, or has a problem with their family, or they cannot handle the situation on their own and could not seek
help from others because they are shy and less sociable, or they developed this gaming addiction that turned out like the mentioned desensitizing effects. A study came from Kaiser family foundation (2005) that 83% of the children population ages 8-18 owns a home console system in their household. Plus, the misconception arise when in the study of Hart (2004) when people assumes that game players are unhealthy, socially isolated, and plays too much video games. and these misconceptions are topped up with the study of Asher, Hylem, and Renshaw (2005) that more than 10% of the children experiences loneliness and social dissatisfaction, which might be the case why they chose playing video games at home than socializing, because these electronic media serves as a sublimation of their social dissatisfaction and later might lead to being introvert or anti-social. Parallel to the said study, video games are often associated with psycho-social issues. In the study of Bosworth (1994), gamers‘ behavior are unlike to the behavior of non-gamers who can be involved in using drugs or doing any delinquent activities. Gamers extremely value the worth of video games as they feel it is important. But most likely, they are to reported to manifest depression. Another type of research came in that self-esteem plays an important role in each person‘s life. It is said that, Such artiﬁcial raising of self-esteem may lead to interactions with computer games becoming a substitute for social relationships (Roe & Mujis, 1998). For the researcher‘s assumption that peer rejection or being unable to make friends and family issues altogether makes the child develop low self-esteem and the like, and to solve their social dissatisfaction, they prefer to play video games at home at decided not to socialize or follow the social norms, which might lead them to social depression and longing for social interaction, if not met, it will lead to aggression which are falling to delinquency and other criminal activities. With all these information gathered, the researcher can improve this study and focus on the social issues of the potential participants of the study. Since this topic is not much widely studied and fairly not mature enough and so this study‘s sole purpose is to contribute to the collection of same topics and be able to validate the published facts from the past and up to the present. With this, it might clear out the misconceptions of video gaming and also for the to fully understand the issues of each gamer who are partially rejected by the society. From all the gathered literatures, this study aims to answer the following research problems: First, what are the levels of loneliness found in gamers? Second, what are the levels of loneliness found in nongamers? And lastly, is there any difference in the levels of loneliness in gamers to that of nongamers?
METHOD Research Design The researcher utilized the quantitative research design with the descriptive method to describe the participants and the findings of the current issue that is being studied. This design is also used to ensure the accuracy of data gathering. The descriptive method is also used to understand the current situations of the gamers and how they view themselves in the society. Materials and Instruments The instruments used in this study are 2 standardized test questionnaire, the researcher utilized UCLA Loneliness scale Version 3 (Russell, 1996) which consist of 20 items and supported by 4 point likert type format. The author indicated that the measure is highly reliable, both in terms of internal consistency (coefficient alpha ranging from .89 to .95) and test-retest reliability over a 1-year long period (r=.73) (Russel,1996) Another instrument to be used is Loneliness and Social Dissatisfaction Questionnaire (LSDQ) developed by Cassidy and Asher (1992) is a 5-point likert type format which consists of 24 items. The authors report satisfactory internal consistency reliability (α = .79) (Cronbach‘s alpha) (Cassidy & Asher, 1992). In this instrument, only loneliness factor will be measured. To calculate the data in an organized way, the use of SPSS statistics software will be applied. Participants A total of one hundred (100) participants (66 males and 34 females) have taken the survey, and it was splitted into two (2) groups; Gamers and non-gamers. Gamer group consists of 50 gamers (41 males and 9 females) while non-gamer group also have 50 non-gamers (27 males and 23 females). All participants are qualified in the criteria of age range of 16-24 years old, and must own a particular home-console or any sort of gadgets that are capable for gaming (For gamer group only). Sampling Technique The participants in this study are chosen with the use purposive sampling, because it only focuses on participants‘ experiences in playing role playing games (RPG) and practically owns a home console unit that has been stated above (―Participants‖ section). For non-gamer participants, purposive sampling is also carried out in gathering non gamer participants. The role of the non-gamer participants are for comparison to gamer group only. Data Analysis For data analysis, the researcher utilized descriptive statistics with the help of SPSS statistics v.17 to organize the data and also to reveal the measures of central tendency and other
necessary information of gamer and non-gamer group. Further, the researcher utilized the use of t-test to reveal if the groups are statistically significant. Scoring system for UCLA loneliness scale and loneliness and social dissatisfaction scale are both scored by adding points that serves as scores and following a reversed scoring procedure. The higher the score indicates the higher degree of loneliness. Procedure Initially, the researcher utilized the purposive sampling procedure to gather gamer and non-gamer participants. Next, the researcher asked the participants to answer UCLA loneliness scale and loneliness and social dissatisfaction questionnaire. The instruments were answered. When the administration of tests are completed. The researcher utilized SPSS statistics version 17 software to organize the data in manner of descriptive statistics. The mean, standard deviation, and the mode of the results given by the conducted survey is used to calculate the significance of the said results. The researcher utilized t-test to measure the significance of the study. Lastly, with the results obtained, the researcher will discuss the results.
RESULTS Based on the results gathered in the survey, with the help of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17 (SPSS v.17), the data has been computed in a manner of descriptive statistics. The results of the data which consists of 100 participants (50 gamers, and 50 nongamers) is tabulated and it is shown in multiple tables. UCLA Gamers Non-Gamers N 50 50 Mean 44.840 40.060 Median 43 39.5 Mode 40 41 SD 9.528 7.906
Table 1.- Tabulated data of UCLA Loneliness Scale used in both gamers and non-gamers groups. Table 1 represents the data results of UCLA loneliness scale used in both groups. The mean of both groups have the interval of 4.78 based on the t-test results. The results of the median in gamer group is 43 while non-gamer group is 39.5. The results have showed that gamer group has a standard deviation of 9.53 (SD=9.52839) while the non-gamer group has a standard deviation of 7.91 (SD=7.90611). Based on the formulated range, the means of the two groups fall under the ―Low Loneliness‖ range.
Unpaired t-test results: An unpaired t-test was conducted to see if the tests were significant. UCLA Gamer Non-Gamer Mean 44.840 40.060 SD 9.528 7.906 SEM 1.347 1.118 N 50 50
Table 3. Results of the unpaired t-test for UCLA loneliness scale between gamer and non gamer group. The t-test results for UCLA loneliness scale have showed a t-value of 2.73 (t= 2.7299). it shows that there is also 98 degrees of freedom (df=98) with a standard error of difference of 1.751. It is mentioned in the results that the two tailed P value equals to 0.0075. By conventional criteria, The difference is considered to be very statistically significant. Discussion Anti-Social Behavior among Gamers Findings suggest that all of the gamer participants does not exhibit anti-social behavior. They are more likely to exhibit loneliness which is far more better than being anti-social. It is said in the results that they are longing to find companionship and attention from their fellow individuals. To support the claim, according to Squire (2003) as his research states that video games have failed to show violence, anti-social, or aggressive behavior or school performance. Therefore, anti-social behavior is rejected among the claims. Loneliness of Gamers Compared to Non-gamers The results shows that loneliness in gamers are in high degree as they feel being socially isolated from their peers. According to Asher and Paquette (2003) that loneliness is a subjective experience and should not be viewed as interchangeable with more objective features of children‘s peer experiences, such as how well accepted they are by peers, whether they have friends, and what their friendships are like. So, for example, it is possible to have many friends and still feel lonely. Likewise, it is possible to be poorly accepted by the peer group or to lack friends and yet to not feel lonely. Psycho-social Issues in Playing Video Games As seen on Table 1‘s results, the highest score achieved in UCLA loneliness scale (Russel, 1996) was 65 points, as mentioned in the scoring system of the scale. The higher the score means higher degree of loneliness. Results mentioned that gamers (N=50) exhibit more loneliness than that of non-gamers (N=50). It only explains that gamers felt that games are more important for them as assumed by Bosworth (1994). Therefore, it is still proven that up until now, gamers who give most of their time playing video games are more likely to be characterized with loneliness.
Self-esteem 86% of the gamer participants (N=50) have answered that they are having a hard time socializing with another individual and also having the difficulty getting appreciated by others whether in school or other places. Video games become the alternative to alleviate social stress. However, this may also be a tendency where gamers reinforce escapism and addictive behaviour. As mentioned in the review of literature of Mitchell and Savill (2004) Such artiﬁcial raising of self-esteem may lead to interactions with computer games becoming a substitute for social relationships (Roe & Mujis, 1998). CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION Findings suggest that loneliness in gamers are frequent than that of non-gamers. Low self-esteem are more prominent to gamers as the results have revealed, it is also shown that gamers play video games as their way of compensating the lack of attention of other individuals. Also it show that gamers are victims of being left out by their peers, as a result, they play video games as a source of ‗escape‘ from reality and real world problems. However, playing extensive hours of video games can reinforce the addiction to an individual and become more unsociable. The researcher recommends that future researches should include other factors in measuring the said variables (e.g. Number of gaming hours) to be focused on correlation if loneliness and social dissatisfaction have a connection with number of gaming hours.
REFERENCES Anderson, C.A., & Gentile, D.A., (2004). Media Violence and Children. p.132-140 Anderson, C. A., Gentile, D. A., & Dill, K. E. (2012). Prosocial, Antisocial, and Other Effects of Recreational Video Games. Chapter in D. G. Singer, & J. L. Singer (Eds), Handbook of Children and the Media, 2nd Edition, (pp. 249-272). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Asher, S.R., & Paquette, J.A., (2003). Loneliness and Peer Relations in Childhood. Durham, NC, Blackwell Publishing Inc. Gee, J.P. (2003). What Video Games Have to Teach Us About Learning and Literacy. ACM Computers in Entertainment, Vol 1, No. 1, Oct 2003. Gentile, D.A., & Gentile, J.R., (2007). Violent Video Games as Exemplary Teachers. p.1-33 Lay, C. (1986). At last, my research article on procrastination. Journal of Research in Personality, 20, 474-495. Millie, A. (2006). Anti-Social Behaviour. Retrieved from: www.internetjournalofcriminology.com Mitchell, A., & Savill-Smith, C. (2004). The use of computer and video games for learning: A review of the literature. Russell, D. (1996). UCLA Loneliness Scale (Version 3): Reliability, validity, and factor structure. Journal of Personality Assessment, 66, 20-40. Squire, K. (2003). Video games in education. Int. J. Intell. Games & Simulation, 2(1), 49-62. Sundre, D.L. (1999). Does examinee motivation moderate the relationship between test consequences and test performance? Paper presented at AERA annual conference. Montreal, Canada. Ventura, M., Shute, V., & Kim, Y.J., (2011). Video gameplay, personality, and academic performance. Retrieved from: www.elsevier.com, at Yee, N., (2006). Motivations in Online Gaming. Cyber Psychology & Behaviour. Stanford, C.A.
Appendix A Russell, D. (1996). UCLA Loneliness Scale (Version 3): Reliability, validity, and factor structure. Journal of Personality Assessment, 66, 20-40. 1 - Never 2 - Rarely 3 - Sometimes 4 - Always
Statement *1. How often do you feel that you are ―in tune‖ with the people around you? 2. How often do you feel that you lack companionship? 3. How often do you feel that there is no one you can turn to? 4. How often do you feel alone? *5. How often do you feel part of a group of friends? *6. How often do you feel that you have a lot in common with the people around you? 7. How often do you feel that you are no longer close to anyone? 8. How often do you feel that your interests and ideas are not shared by those around you? *9. how often do you feel outgoing and friendly? *10. How often do you feel close to people? 11. How often do you feel left out? 12. How often do you feel that your relationships with others are not meaningful? 13. How often do you feel that no one really knows you very well? 14. How often do you feel isolated from others? *15. How often do you feel you can find companionship when you want it? *16. How often do you feel that there are people who really understands you? 17. How often do you feel shy?
1 O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O
2 O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O
3 O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O
4 O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O
18. How often do you feel that people around you but not with you? *19. How often do you feel that there are people you can talk to? *20. How often do you feel that there are people you can turn to? Numbers with asterisks marks as reversed scoring.
O O O
O O O
O O O
O O O
The scores will be summed up. The higher the number indicates the higher loneliness level.
Range for UCLA loneliness scale 20 - 39 = Very low/ no degree of loneliness 40 - 59 = Low degree of loneliness 60 - 69 = Moderate degree of loneliness 80 = High degree of loneliness
Online Learning and Study Habits of Selected College Students of DLSU: A Case Study Jestrell Jane V. Degoma Prof. Gladys Lazo, MA.Ed "Blended classes offer additional challenges, with a need to determine what is best presented in class and on-line" (Carnot, 2012).
The aim of the study was to identify study habits of Filipino students at De La Salle University who have taken two (2) or more on-line courses. The study classifies the students' experiences in their academic performance in the on-line program, study habits and skills in the classroom and on-line, the problems encountered and suggested improvements to the on-line learning environment. There were ten (10) participants from De La Salle University which were selected through Purposive Sampling. The study used qualitative research methods incorporating in-depth interviews to gather data from the individual participants. Based on this data, the on-line program appeared to have assisted participants to excel in their overall grade point average. Although problems with on-line resources occurred, it adjusted the management of study routines allowing them to pass these courses on time. The data revealed these adjustments to the participants study habits: (1) review of materials; (2) independent studying; (3) regularity of studying; (4) selftesting; and (5) studying in a helpful environment. The study revealed that on-line learning helped the students to perform better when paired with face-to-face instruction as they preferred the blended form of learning. Lastly, the participants suggested the development of a teacher monitoring program and to have the students tested in a classroom-based environment.
On-line learning is slowly being incorporated into the educational process of many of the educational institutions for elementary, secondary and higher education. Through the review of various studies, papers and periodicals (i.e., Horn & Staker, 2010, Tsai & Shen, 2009, Lee, Shen, & Tsai, 2008, JISC, 2007, Kirby, 2011, Schawbel, 2013, Vatovec & Balser, 2009, Cardall et al., 2008, Mayadas et al., 2009, Opepd, 2010 and Carnot, 2012) the general premise is that all of them identify that the on-line learning environment is a positive addition to the educational process. This can be provided through the on-line educational program only or through a combination of the historical classroom setting and the on-line advancement known as the "Blended" educational system. These same documents have identified the positive and negative aspects to this new found educational process. It identifies that not all of us learn in the same manner or utilize the same study programs to reach our common goal of collegiate enlightenment. In fact they go on to say that the ease of access to the dearth of information on the internet can be a great addition to the educational process as well as a detriment. A more controlled student with a clear set of goals is required for this new educational environment. On the positive side of the spectrum, both educator and student are finding the flexibility to be a great asset in the educational process. It is creating better attitudes and as a result the reports indicate that the blended student is coming away with a better grade point average. At present, DLSU-Manila‘s Center for Educational Multimedia (CREM) trains faculty members in the proper use of the Integrated Virtual Learning Environment (IVLE). IVLE is an innovative program that enhances and complements teaching by making courses available on the Web. It allows the creation of course calendars, discussion forums, distribution lists, lecture plans, chat rooms, subscription services, assignment repositories, staff homepages and a
frequently-asked question (FAQ) builder. Through IVLE, Teachers can post lesson plans, give and collect assignments on-line and provide links to relevant web sites. Students can even take tests on-line which are automatically corrected by the program. IVLE was initially shared by DLSU with the University of the Philippines Open University (UPOU) in 2000. Since more classes and programs are developing an on-line presence, there is a need to address many different challenges in a blend of traditional and on-line learning. It has long been recognized that the connection to others in on-line classes is critical. Early on-line and blended classes primarily made use of a series of discussion forums as a method for interaction. In relation to this, as a student, the researcher has always been interested in what the study habits in on-line learning, particularly blended learning, gives that other students develop or maintain, especially in a university that truly offers this kind of learning environment. Although on-line learning programs, like blended learning, can be both convenient and accessible, students may still face significant challenges in enhancing and developing their study habits for this type of instruction. The present study aims to describe the current experiences of the respondents in a blended learning environment, the study habits of the respondents, and show their current specific study habits that helped them in blended learning. Additionally, the study intends to show the challenges that the respondents encountered in the blended learning environment. Lastly, this study aims to provide perceived suggestions of the respondents which can help enhance blended learning. Specifically, the study aims to answer the following questions: 1.) What are the experiences of respondents related to their academic performance in learning on-line? 2.) What are the current study habits of the respondents? 2.1.) What specific study habit contributes to/helps students succeed in on-line learning? 3.) What are the problems encountered by the respondents in learning on-line? 4.) What are the perceived suggestions of the respondents in on-line learning?
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Prevalence of On-line Learning in the Academe in College Millions of students use e-learning solutions in over 140 countries: corporations such as Kodak and Toyota and education providers like ExecuTrain, New Horizons, the Enoch Olinga College (ENOCIS), the University of Phoenix amongst the hundreds of other schools and colleges. The number of students taking at least one (1) on-line course has now surpassed 6.7 million as revealed by the 2012 Survey of On-line Learning. Higher education adoption of Massive Open On-line Courses remains low, with most institutions still on the side-lines. The rate of growth in on-line enrolments remains extremely robust which is somewhat surprising as the overall higher education enrolments during this period actually declined according to Seaman (2012).
The types of e-learning offered by universities range across the e-learning spectrum. However, the growth of e-learning in most campus-based institutions has not altered the fact that face-to-face classroom teaching remains central. Tertiary educational institutions generally feel that on-line learning has a broadly positive effect on the quality of teaching and learning, although few have been able to offer detailed evidence. There is much indirect evidence, including student satisfaction surveys, but these may not be enough to offset the prevalent doubt about the pedagogic value of on-line learning among students and academics. Study Habits and On-line Learning Filipino culture places a high value on education. The only best thing for a child to acquire and secure a better future for most of the Filipinos is through education (Arimbuyutan et al., 2007). Learners have turned to on-line learning as a reliable alternative to face-to-face education (Brady et al., 2010). On-line-learning is a new generation of learning (Spender, 2001) it is a more recent approach to the delivery of knowledge, offering the learner more control over the learning process (Acton et al., 2005). On-line-learning can be regarded as a relatively new concept in the Philippines and is still in its embryonic stage. Considering the culture of the Filipinos, the preference is for a face-to-face interaction in the learning process as they are used to the classroom setting. There are no stereotypical e-learners; large and small schools can be found using the technology. Karim and Hassan (2006) noted the exponential growth digital information, which changes the way how students perceive studying and with printed materials that are to be used in facilitating study. On-line learning was defined by Hall & Snider (2000) as the process of learning via computers over the Internet and Intranets. In this study, on-line-learning is defined as interactive learning in which the learning content is available on-line and provides automatic feedback to the student‘s learning activities (Torstein R. & Svein Q., 2003). On-line learning opens up learning options which is the promise of technology. According to Watters (2011), on-line learning could complement what traditional classroom learning can offer. It supports 24/7 learning and removes the boundaries of geography, wealth or culture. However, in some cases, on-line learning may turn into plagiarizing from Wikipedia as well as a wide array of other on-line resources. Alternatively, the same tactic — plagiarism — has been used by cheaters long before Wikipedia and the on-line library of resources ever entered the scene. It was argued that the learners who are comfortable with technology and have a positive attitude towards it are more likely to succeed within an on-line learning environment, as stated by Parker (2003). He added that students participating in the on-line learning course showed significantly better results than those through traditional tutoring. Overall, students using the redesigned e-course reported better learning experiences. An on-line course with interactivities and interaction, can overcome many educational drawbacks of large enrolment classes, enhance student‘s learning and complement pitfalls of large enrolment traditional tutoring (Abdelhai, 2012).
There is such a wide variety of on-line-learning activities, from playing five-minute digital video in the classroom to implementing a one-semester on-line course through the Internet. On-line learning involves various technologies/forms (e.g., virtual learning, on-line learning, distance learning, and Web-based learning), and various components (e.g., e-book, edictionary, on-line library, on-line classroom, on-line assessment, on-line homework, and on-line management). Given the complexity of on-line-learning and consequently the diversity in understanding on-line-learning, there exist various ways of defining on-line-learning (Mayer, 2003). In the analysis, the Philippines has to give attention to on-line-learning development and be used by business professionals, students, administrators and government officers to remain competitive in the global workforce (Arimbuyutan, et al., 2007). It was stated from the study of Bagongon & Edpalinga (2009) that study habits are also considered as skills that are particularly important, especially, in college since it include internet skills, time management, distinguishing and avoiding distractions, and developing a high priority to study. The availability of internet facilities and study habits were seen as a contributing factor in determining the Perceived Usefulness and Easiness of Virtual Learning Environments. This reveals an access to technology and behavioral intention to use as potential variable in deciding for the acceptance of virtual learning environment (Jebakumar & Govindaraju, 2009). The benefits of universal and constant access to computers on college campuses to help improve the study habits of the college students have been long advocated by the study of Thompson (2005). Chen and Lin (2009) stated that the situation that some students enrolled in on-line courses choose not to log on to course websites is the same with the case in traditional courses when some students choose not to attend classes. The authors found out that students‘ characteristics such as gender, prior semester grades, working status, and whether they live with relatives are strong predictors of their on-line study habits. According to the study conducted by Chen and Lin (2009), students with study habits such as finishing watching on-line lectures during the assigned week, after the assigned week, but before the examination date or finishing watching the on-line lectures during the examination week performed better than those who never watched the on-line lectures and those who only viewed a portion of the on-line materials. A study of Mirasol (2002) states that an appropriate study habit enables students to work privately especially working on-line since they can manage to handle studying with themselves alone through the use of on-line learning. With the temptation to speak to someone on-line or download a song available at the click of a button, completing an essay or some important reading can be difficult. A theory known as
Divided Attention Disorder (DAD); although it's easier to access more information on-line, it is also a lot easier to become distracted from work (Ireland, 2003). Students who develop a personal motivation strategy find it a great asset to the on-line learning experience, since staying motivated in the class is a challenge for students studying independently. Also, students who develop a meaningful connection with their fellow students can receive and provide support. Because according to Roper (2007), on-line connections also promote a sense of being a learner among other learners. Instructors encourage students in online courses to develop and ask thoughtful questions which may add to a student's learning experience and promote success in the on-line course. Heaton-Shrestha et al., (2009) examined whether student learning style has an impact on the use of E-learning technology such as a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE). The contents and announcements areas revealed to be the most valued features of the VLE. Findings also show that contrary to expectations, flexibility of learning was not a great priority for the respondents; most of them were enrolled full-time in conventional, campus-based courses making use of a VLE to support the delivery of the curriculum. Generally, VLE usage patterns followed conventional studying patterns. However, VLE was not used principally as a means of communication according to other findings; even discussion boards served more as a resource/logistical function than as a communicative one. Sadly as it could be, some students think that the lack of physical attendance also implies a lack of need for study, organization or for participation in the many aspects of the on-line course, as stated by Wagner (2011). This is not true. Students need to participate, and in order to participate fully, the readings and activities of the course need to be completed just as would be required in a classroom style course, so it is synonymous with a classroom set up. It is also stated by Vitale & Nugent (2000) that it won‘t be difficult for students to improve their study habits knowing that the internet has been widely endorsed and promoted nowadays. The internet allows for easier access and approaches in preparing projects, submitting assignments and answering exams. However, it should not be taken for granted. Study habits and internet use together reveal that students who excel are more experienced in working on-line and have study habits better suited for the on-line environment (such as identifying and clarifying key ideas, points of assignments, and problem-solving either by rereading the text or contacting the instructor). It may be easier for students to contact the instructor as soon as problems are identified by interacting with them on-line. Students who excelled in the course appeared to use learning strategies which clarify the process, help them focus, and then read selectively what they need to succeed. In contrast, students who failed possibly adopted ineffective strategies such as rereading the easy parts of the text and spent more time doing assignments. Thus, they appeared more focused on the content rather than the process of learning, less likely to ask for help, and less likely to problem solve. Together this could be interpreted as less efficiency in their study habits (West et al., 2006). According to Watkins & Corry (2004), adapting old skills and habits from the traditional classroom for use in e-learning and developing and applying new e-learning skills and habits for
e-learning are two (2) essential skills for success. In addition to the adaptation of traditional study skills, some technologies have changed how a learner interacts with their instructors, peers, and course materials in addition to the modification of traditional study skills and requiring the development of some new. Opinions of Students on On-line Learning About half of institutions and more than 60 percent of employers generally accept the high quality of on-line learning. Students' perceptions, however, differ according to a study conducted by the Boston-based consulting firm Eduventures. Only about 33 percent of prospective on-line students said that they perceive the quality of on-line education to be "as good as or better than" face-to-face education. Ironically, 36 percent of prospective students surveyed cited concern about employers' acceptance of on-line education as a reason for their reluctance to enroll in on-line courses. Learners point-out to the student-centered pedagogy used by the instructor as a positive contributor to the learning experience (Veletsianos, 2012).
SYNTHESIS In the literature, ‗study habit‘ is the kind and amount of studying routines which the student does during a regular period of study which has occurred in a helpful environment. Mirasol (2002) stated that an appropriate study habit enables students to work privately especially working on-line since they can manage to handle studying with themselves alone through the use of on-line learning. According to Bagongon & Edpalinga (2009), study habits are considered as skills that are particularly important, especially, in college and include internet skills, time management, distinguishing and avoiding distractions, and developing a high priority to study. Some technologies have changed how a learner interacts with their instructors, peers, and course materials in addition to the adaptation of traditional study skills hence, requiring the development of some new study skills. There were publications which reviewed on-line learning and study habits, but few have covered the topic from the perspective of the Filipino students who have succeeded in on-line courses. The purpose of this study is to provide a better understanding of on-line learning and to identify strategies that are favorable with the Filipino students‘ kind of study habit s that educators can recommend in their on-line courses. In addition, besides its effectiveness on the future directions of the Filipino academic societies, is the rarity of similar studies in the country. This study could contribute in supporting the measure of weaknesses in the study habits of students in an on-line course.
METHOD This chapter includes the study‘s research design, participants and sampling, instruments, and procedure. Research Design This study is a qualitative research through case study, since qualitative research is especially effective in obtaining culturally specific information about the values, opinions, behaviors, and social contexts of particular populations. The strength of qualitative research is its ability to provide complex textual descriptions of how people experience a given research issue. As stated by Nag (2013), in an e-Learning course, case studies are a great way to keep the learners engaged or involved in an interactive exchange and resolve problems by thinking creatively. It greatly improves the learning experience. Participants and Sampling The participants of the study are students from De La Salle University who have already experienced at least two (2) on-line learning courses in the school year 2012-2013; and were gathered through a Purposive Sampling Method that enabled the researcher to get the opinions of the target population and to consider subgroups in the population that are more readily accessible. The students ages were from 16-22 years old; two (2) participants are in their third year level, one (1) fourth year, four (4) are in their fifth year level and three (3) have already graduated last third trimester school year 2012-2013. Two (2) of the participants took an on-line course in Operations Management, Cost Accounting, and Economic Development. One (1) of the participants took Website Design and Development 3 and Multimedia Arts Business 1 & 2 courses. Three (4) of the participants were enrolled in Project Management, Instructional Photography, Teaching Software, Teaching Observation courses and Curriculum Planning in Early Childhood (ECEDCUP). Three (3) of the participants had E-commerce, Human Behavior, Computer Technology, Business 1 & 2, and Franchising on-line courses. Instruments The researcher used an interview method to gather data needed for the study. A semistructured interview was used, which allowed new questions to be brought up during the interview as a result of what the interviewee says. All questions were guided by the objectives of the study. The researcher used the interview method in order to get sufficient data of experiences from the participants. In the present study, the researcher used a voice recorder for the documentation of data from the interview with the consent of the participants. The voice recorder was used in the present study to have a continuous flow of conversation and to make sure that exact information was gathered from the participants. Additionally, the researcher has contacted some of the participants after the interview for further clarifications and justifications with the answers given by them.
Procedure In order to conduct the study and gather the necessary data, the researcher went through the following procedures: First, the researcher prepared a letter of consent for the target participants asking permission from them to participate in the study. This included the distribution of said consent letter to the target participants. Second, the researcher waited for the approval of the participants; if they were willing to provide information needed by the researcher to complete the study. Third, upon approval of the participants, the researcher had an initial "kamustahan" with the participants so that the researcher could introduce herself and participants could give some personal background to the researcher. Most of the participants were known by the researcher and some were referred to the researcher as friends of participants. It did not take long for the researcher to get the participants comfortable enough to answer and give information for the study. Finally, the researcher conducted the interview personally, and if not possible in person, then through various forms of technology (i.e., Facebook Messenger and Google Drive). The interview was conducted with the various participants two or three times until all data needed was gathered. The word document that consists of the questions prepared by the researcher was sent to the referred participants that couldn‘t make time for personal meetings. The researcher waited for the response of all of the participants until the questions were answered successfully. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The study focused on how learning on-line and inside the classroom impacted the study habits of students. The gathered data identified the 1) students‘ experiences in blended learning advice better management of study habits; 2) effective study habits of students that helped them succeed in blended learning; 3) inconsistency of internet connection, constant distraction and lack of communication; and 4) perceived suggestions of students in online learning. Students’ Experiences in Blended Learning Advice Better Management of Study Habits When discussing the provision of a good education, the learning environment and the study habits of the students top the list in terms of defining problems that could establish effective solutions in enhancing the learning experience that educational institutions could provide their students. It is important that the institutions edify their students as to the learning environment to which they will be presented. According to the gathered data, students‘ experiences in the classroom and on-line educational environment helped the participants to better manage their study habits. Most of the responses that the researcher received from the participants were similar to what participant (C) stated that “Learning is easier on-line simply because notes and resources are almost instantly available. Learning on-line has made it extremely convenient to complete requirements for my courses. It has made learning feel casual and unperturbed,” and participant (B) stated “I was able to finish studying within a desired timeframe, I answer additional
exercises when I still have spare time, and I was able to sleep earlier. Before studying, I set a timeframe for every task that needs to be done. In the event time it is not enough, I adjust my schedule or finish other tasks.” According to the study of Vitale & Nugent (2000), the internet allows for easier access and approaches in preparing projects, submitting assignments and answering exams so it won‘t be difficult for students to improve their study habits knowing that the internet has been widely endorsed and promoted nowadays. The participants were able to acquire the knowledge they needed in a minimal period of time. Specifically, they were able to finish studying within a desired timeframe. They were able to complete additional educational exercises germane to the subject in their spare time, and, as a result were afforded a greater amount of leisure time. For some, learning on-line during their first course was a challenge and a bit confusing. They were used to having face-to-face lectures during their high school education. However, they became accustomed to it as a result of their continued familiarity with on-line coursework during the course of their early years in college. Additionally, meetings inside the classroom were very helpful provided that the instructions were well-explained. As described by participant (J), “Inside the classroom, ine-explain na ng prof namin kung ano mga iki-click. He would even show us for example the site, para mas maintindihan namin „yung flow ng gagawin and mas madali namin magawa agad when we get there na.” Group interactive learning through on-line programs is useful since most of the students today have access to computers and the internet. Students get to meet a lot of people and share experiences comfortably through online. According to participant (B), “On-line interaction is useful because you can share your ideas at the comfort of your own home or any study place that you want to be in. It is useful because in our case, our chats about ideas are logged and can be read again for future reference.” As what Roper (2007) said that, on-line connections may also promote a sense of being a learner among other learners, where instructors encourage students in on-line courses to develop and ask thoughtful questions which may add to a student's learning experience and promote success in the on-line course. However, group interactive learning through on-line can also be crucial. Participant (D) stated that, “There are times when some group mates could not make it or come to the meeting. We can post updates and assignments without each other meeting personally. Though there are times when chatting by a group can be difficult when everybody chats at the same time so it‟s best as a video chat.” In this case, students still prefer the classroom style of interaction. For most of them, communication between student and teacher still develops better when they see each other, and that acquisition can be reinforced better that way. Participants‘ interests in learning are enhanced on-line because information is readily available in one (1) place. Additionally, they were able to study more and design more independently. Participant (H) stated, “On-line learning is useful because it greatly cuts the usage of resources (e.g., Effort to come to class, transportation expenses).” They can complete activities given on-line such as, assignments, quizzes, tests, etc., on their own and at their own pace. However, the participants mentioned that they use books, internet and other resources, as well as utilizing their classmates and friends as additional resources when taking/answering
homework and tests on-line. Inside the classroom, they are not permitted to do such things because they are being strictly monitored by their professors. Based upon the results of the research, most of the students prefer doing their work online; stating what they want or have to say is best said on-line simply because they find it more comfortable for them. For the participants, their ability to express their thoughts effectively worked better in front of the monitor and not the face of a crowd. There are those students who speak well both on-line and publicly, and there are those who are not good public speakers. It is for this reason that some students choose on-line course work rather than in front of their peers. Based upon the results of this study, the researcher feels that this is one thing that should be given attention. Students find comfort in performing their studies on-line as they are best able to accomplish a task that way, but often times find it difficult to present it in front of the class. This is normally due to their satisfaction with working at their own pace, in their "comfort zone." Face-to-face interaction is often the best way to develop public speaking skills of a student. This is why students prefer blended on-line learning as they can complete their assignments on-line while readying themselves for face-to-face interaction. This allows the student to face these challenges while enabling them to grow allowing them to really learn. Effective Study Habits that Helped Students Succeed in Blended Learning Students have different approaches and styles in their study habits. Most students usually apportion their time and assign it to different tasks depending on the assignments difficulty. Reviewing materials on regular days and before quizzes or exams, and even testing themselves on how much they have learned was also part of how they studied to finish courses. The main study habits that most of the participants acquired with their on-line courses that they cited were: (1) review of materials; (2) independent studying; (3) regularity of studying; (4) self-testing; and (5) studying in a helpful environment. Students agreed to manage their time well with their study habits to be able to meet school, job, and social/entertainment needs. Their timetables usually revolved around deadlines to keep them on track. As participant (A) stated, “I always push myself by monitoring the time I have left since professors would often give us a certain time period only. I was also able to acquire the discipline of following schedules.” There are reasons why students tend to procrastinate or weren‘t able to finish tasks and much worse, fail the course. All respondents indicated that aside from taking breaks, deadlines were also part of their motivation techniques that they found most helpful in preventing burnout or loss of interest when studying on-line. Studying in a conducive environment helps students to be comfortable in order to easily get focused. Six (6) out of ten (10) participants said that they prefer studying alone rather than in groups. Their responses were similar to what participant (I) stated that, “I prefer studying alone because there I get to focus easily. Even if I have gadgets that can cause distractions because of social interaction, although it gives help, also, mas madaling makapag-focus ulit agad when you‟re on your own.” As the study of Mirasol (2002) stated that, an appropriate study habit enables students to work privately especially working on-line since they can manage to handle studying with themselves alone through the use of on-line learning.
On the other hand, three (3) participants stated that there are times they would prefer having pictures for them to better understand what is being described. There are also times that they would want to study alone first and then in groups to see how they really understood. For them, it depends on the subject and the lesson to determine which is more effective to use in studying. However, only one (1) participant chose to study in a group, simply because he preferred learning with the help of his peers or classmates. Based on their responses, most of those interviewed became more resourceful and open from their e-learning experience through the employment of other sources rather than just by textbooks, using new tools like "Google Drive." However, they also utilized old study habits that helped them get through their on-line courses. The old study habits they used were: prioritizing assignments, project planning, note taking and reading ahead of time. This amalgam of new and old study habits that they mentioned led them to be more organized, developed thinking skills and was more open-minded about the educational process and which helped them to manage their time better as they worked to meet their different deadlines and changes within their courses. Which is according to Watkins & Corry (2004), adapting old skills and habits from the traditional classroom for use in e-learning and developing and applying new e-learning skills and habits for e-learning are two (2) essential skills for success. All of the students interviewed felt that the greatest benefit for them was getting through their on-line courses with a higher grade. Based on a review of the data, it is not only the community of educators that should be under scrutiny, but also the efforts that students are exerting in order to adjust their study habits for on-line learning. The data also supports that the changes in a student's thought process should also be a focus. Many students enroll into a blended learning course, but few are really active in the on-line portion. Most students are only motivated to complete the course. The study habits necessary to succeed in the on-line educational arena should include discipline and good motivational skills to allow for the effective time management. Inconsistency of Internet Connection, Constant Distraction and Lack of Communication Group meeting issues, lack of communication, vague submission details, lack of updates, audio and visual problems within the traditional classroom are the problems encountered by students both inside the classroom and on-line. Since almost all students use internet resources while studying, the number one (1) problem that the participants encountered was the inconsistency of their internet connection. However, this was understood and anticipated by all participants, same with computer failure at home. They all setup back-ups for their work through the help of external hard drives, USB thumb drives, Google Drive, as well as computer shops/internet cafes near their homes or in school to ensure they can keep up with their studies. Half of the participants declared that their on-line resources are not enough to help them learn on-line. Participant (A) stated that, “Some resources are hard to get from the internet. Some require you to buy access just to have access on the file.” The second most prevalent problem was the constant distraction when working on-line. As mentioned by participant (H), “You have so much information on the internet. It can be unlocked with one click. That's something I learned;” social media was reported to be a major
distraction. Because of this, most of the participants have trouble both finding time and maintaining focus to study on-line. Despite the fact that they have timetables set for themselves to complete their school assignments, because of these social networking sites, they were unable to get and maintain focus which resulted in insufficient time to finish their school work as a result of their procrastination and weakness in easy distraction. Six (6) of the participants have similar responses that they have their social networking accounts instantly on when they start their web browser which results in constant distraction and loss of focus. Blended learning requires more interaction between professors and students since it is both conducted inside the classroom and on-line. Informal interaction also gives students assistance and benefits in both environments. Participant (I) stated that, “Informal interaction gives help especially when I have questions and I know na accessible „yung prof anytime whether it‟s through text messaging, chat, e-mail or even face-to-face. It‟s a big help knowing that I can count on him/her in case kailangan ko ng clarifications,” which most of the participants considered when learning on-campus or on the web. To the contrary, participant (J) stated that, “Mahirap ang informal learning when it is related to school. Texting my professors for some questions that he needs to answer, syempre sa text hindi niya ma-explain ng mas maayos yung gusto niya i-explain kasi hindi naman ganun kadali mag explain through phone. Minsan naman pag inside the campus ko tatanungin yung prof ko minsan hindi siya available kasi madami siyang ginagawa kaya parehas kaming nahihirapan mag cope up and parehas din namin hindi namemeet yung needs ko. Kapag meron namang ipapagawa yung prof on-line tapos ipapa-edit niya, minsan wala akong idea kung bakit niya gusto ipagabago kasi hindi naman kami nakakapag usap ng maayos sa on-line kaya mahirap magkaintindihan.” Additional data review revealed that the students interviewed felt that they were not learning as much as they could be. As a norm, students do not readily engage themselves in learning something that they are not passionate about or in their educational endeavors where their educators do not engage them in the subject being taught nor interact with them in that same educational plane. It is the student‘s flexibility that gives them the ability to study and learn within their own time frame that is lauded by the students within the realm of virtual education. But it is this same ease of accessibility in on-line learning that can cause some on-line students to procrastinate or fail to perform in this learning format. This leads students to have poor academic performance. This supports the theory known as Divided Attention Disorder (DAD) by Ireland (2003) which stated that, although it's easier to access more information on-line, it is also a lot easier to become distracted from work. As discussed, the capability and willingness to manage one‘s own education is the key to success in this kind of learning environment. Students engaged in on-line learning need to take responsibility for their study habits and be self-sufficient. Having a sense of organization, motivation, and confidence will surely help.
Learning is a two (2) way process involving interaction between both instructor and student. It should be an active social process that should give help, benefit and cause for greater interaction for both the instructor and the student especially in this kind of learning environment (i.e., blended learning); that is why both factors should be taken into consideration to understand as well as assist in finding solutions and improvements to education on-line and in the classroom to allow for their continued to evolution. Perceived Suggestions of Students in Online Learning Schools, colleges and universities have a lot of things to consider in terms of providing on-line learning classes or on-line courses to students. Dale Kirby, a post-secondary expert and education professor at Memorial University of Newfoundland, said it's not about technology versus traditional lectures; it's about what works best for different types of classes and different groups of students. He explained, "We should not use technology just because we can do this. We shouldn't just do it because it's possible. Do it because it's practical and it's value added and it has some benefit for the students." As suggested by participant (F), "Make sure that on-line learning is the best way for the students to learn." and participant (H) that, “Unless everything is on a live feed, it can never replace classroom learning.” Those students interviewed suggested that there should be a greater availability of these on-line learning courses for everyone. It is best to utilize the on-line classroom, not only by using the world wide web on the laptop or the desk top computer, but also through mobile devices as a result of the advent of the smart phones and the "iPad®." On-line lecture videos can aid the students in learning as well as providing for more practice tests to hone the educational skills of the student in advance of their exam. Participant (B) suggests, “More and more practice tests. Access to solutions manuals and test banks. Without solutions manuals and test banks, it will be hard for me to have an idea what is going on with the topic. Since these solutions tend to discuss the logic behind every question in the homework and seatwork given. Test banks are also useful in reviewing because this is often the source from which most of the exams are patterned.” Relative to the deadlines assigned for their projects, almost all of the participants thought that they were given adequate time to complete the work. Accordingly, participant (D's) answer when asked if they wished deadlines were longer than the ones given they responded, “Only for projects, while the rest are fine for when it is.” However, many of the interviewed students desired the ability for additional instructions to be explained in the classroom. It is critical for teachers to be accessible to their students, and that connection is often lost with a screen in the way. When asked if they wished that the professors could entertain questions anytime anywhere, participant (E) said, “I do because if I remember something at home that I need to clarify, I want to be able to ask my professor about it.” In relation to this, participant (I) explained, “Since it‟s blended learning, professors should also make adjustments with their time and interaction with the students. Kasi since 'yung meetings hindi lahat sa classroom, they should also be available for interaction even on-line.” The on-line learning processes incorporation of e-mail between the educator and the student may be an advent which would further open the lines of communication and further
reduce the misunderstandings between educator and student. It is often helpful when professors entertain their students‘ needs for clarification of instructions when immediate results/feedback is needed for them to be able to make revisions to their class work or projects. Immediate feedback should be maintained. Half of students interviewed wanted their tests to be given on-line rather than taking it inside the classroom. One of the major reasons identified was the time and effort needed going to school, which also requires additional financial outlay for food and transportation expenses. However, the other half who was interviewed still preferred and suggested that the tests be given still in the classroom as this was what they were used to. Participant (I) stated that, “I appreciate it more inside the classroom. Mas nakaka-focus and mas nate-test mo „yung napagaralan mo. Mas masarap „yung feeling pag nakakuha ka ng high score or passing grade kasi you‟re under time pressure and you made it. Kasi pag ganun, maiisip mo kung tama „yung way mo ng pagaaral or kulang. For me, from there, malalaman mo how to improve your study habits and skills.” As mentioned above, students when completing on-line activities and tests, will often compare their work and even ask for help from their classmates if they don‘t know the answers. However, in a classroom setting, the professors test their students without the employment of outside periodicals or assistance determining if the student really learned the lessons taught through both the in-classroom and on-line pedagogical methods. Each student gets their focus and motivation in a manner that works best for them. In dealing with distractions on-line, participant (C) suggests that, “When tasks are needed to be done quickly, some sort of program should be developed to block specific websites at a certain time to avoid distractions.” In the researcher‘s viewpoint, getting a good grade helps the student to stay motivated. It is a challenge for every student to stay motivated especially in studying independently. The researcher has determined that maintaining a high grade point average helps the student to maintain their motivation as a result of the data collected as well as the researcher's own experience. For students to succeed and maintain a high grade point average, instructors should take note of the different skill sets within a given classroom, be it physical or virtual, to assist the students in achieving their mutual goal. This can be a teacher's greatest asset as it will assist the students from losing interest in learning, especially in the on-line environment. The researcher suggests instructors help students to find their motivation in order to help them achieve their mutual goals in instilling a desire for learning, not just finishing the course. Focusing on the need of the students in an on-line learning environment and specifying study habits will help institutions, instructors and students to achieve a united goal of succeeding whether through traditional, blended, or solely through on-line learning to ensure that a student's edification is effective. Students have voiced a need for improvement of more immediate response/feedback from their instructors. The data has indicated that having a sense of connection with their instructor is somehow a relief and gives motivation to the students. That is why interaction in blended
learning courses is the center of concern. As this researcher has taken both traditional and on-line classes, programs that include interaction with the whole class and instructor is necessary in establishing a good starting place for social interaction within the classroom fostering a sense of community in a blended learning environment. It would be of a greater assistance for students, if instructors would not restrict their students to the available references that have been the normal points used for years in the past, but communicate other points of reference (i.e., websites, online periodicals, etc.) they could find that they could use which would broaden the student and educator's opportunities for education and teaching alike for the blended educational setting. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION Results of the study showed that, as the resources and learning environment continues to evolve, the study habits of students develop. According to the responses of the participants, students‘ experiences in the classroom and the on-line educational environment helped the participants to better manage their study habits. Reviewing materials on regular days and before quizzes or exams, and even testing themselves on how much they have learned was also part of how they studied to finish courses. Students agreed to manage their time well with their study habits to be able to meet school, job, and social/entertainment needs. Also, based on the data gathered, studying in an educationally conducive environment is one of the top-notch study habits of the participants. It helps students to be comfortable in order to easily get focused especially studying alone. This has helped them test themselves on how much they really understood their lessons. The study habits necessary to succeed in the on-line educational arena should include discipline and good motivational skills to allow for the effective time management. Students who participated in this study agreed that the number one (1) problem that they encountered was the inconsistency of their internet connection since internet use is one of their top resources while studying. However, the participants were able to setup back-ups for their work through the help of external hard drives, USB thumb drives, Google Drive, etc., since they understood and anticipated it. Social media was reported to be a major distraction. Because of this, most of the participants have trouble both finding time and maintaining focus to study online. It is the students‘ flexibility that gives them the ability to study and learn within their own time frame, but it is this same ease of accessibility in on-line learning that can cause some on-line students to procrastinate or fail to perform in this learning format which leads students to have poor academic performance. Students engaged in on-line learning need to take responsibility for their study habits and be self-sufficient. Having a sense of organization, motivation, and confidence will surely help. On-line learning will open pathways to make a change in how students and professors may interact as well as provide enhanced educational opportunities with or without the need for constant classroom interaction. On-line learning could supplement what on-campus meetings and dogma could provide, and at the same time could aid the need of each student who cannot go to school to provide what the classroom can or could not provide to them as a result. Such discussion and analysis about educational practices and methods is needed. For most of us, online success does not come from applying the skills and strategies that we have developed through our previous experiences which were rooted in the traditional high school, college, or
training classroom. The new on-line learning environment requires that we re-examine the strategies we use to achieve success. Thoughtful analysis and consideration of the students‘ educational needs is required before applying the technological tool in order to come with new strategies. In closing, and incorporating the data from the findings of the study, the researcher has come up with the following recommendations: Focusing on the need of the students in an on-line learning environment and specifying study habits will help institutions, instructors and students to achieve a united goal of succeeding whether through traditional, blended, or solely through on-line learning to ensure that a student's edification is effective. The students interviewed suggested that there should be a greater availability of these online learning courses for everyone. It is best to utilize the on-line classroom, not only by using the world wide web on the laptop or the desk top computer, but also through mobile devices as a result of the advent of the smart phones and the "iPad®." On-line lecture videos can aid the students in learning as well as providing for more practice tests to hone the educational skills of the student in advance of their exam. Students have voiced a need for improvement of more immediate response/feedback from their instructors. The interviewed students desired the ability for additional instructions to be explained in the classroom. The on-line learning processes incorporation of e-mail between the educator and the student may be an advent which would further open the lines of communication and further reduce the misunderstandings between educator and student. The researcher has come up with the recommendation that quizes can be given on-line and in classroom, but tests such as final exams should be given solely inside the classroom environment to truly determine how much the students learned and comprehended through blended learning environment. For further studies, the researcher suggests the inclusion of more students in the study as the number of test subjects to draw from allows for a greater pool of data that will allow for the deeper exploration of the experiences of on-line learning. The researcher also suggests for the future researcher to include students from other universities or schools that also provide on-line learning courses as respondents in an interview process consisting of different questions that will describe the possible factors of a successful on-line learning environment and in whom it can employ a greater insight into the Filipino way of learning. For students and the professors, we could re-examine strategies that we could use to achieve success in providing better on-line educational programs for the student. At the same time, we could also develop new educational resources to help the educator and help us all to cope with the trends that technology will continue to expand and build upon and the change it will take from all of us, cooperatively, to enact them.
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Ignus, S.E. (2009). Study Habits of Postgraduate Students in Selected Nigerian Universities. Retrieved October 3, 2012 from http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1154&context=libphilprac Liu, Z. (2005). Reading Behaviour in the digital environment: changes in Reading behaviour over the past 10 years. Journal of Documentation, 61 (6), 700-12. McFarlin, B. K. (2008). Hybrid Lecture-Online Format Increases Student Grades in an Undergraduate Exercise Physiology Course at a Large Urban University. Advances in Physiology Education 32, 86-91. Mirasol, G.C. (2002). Extent of Influence of Study Habits, Attitudes, and Peer Relationship of Students‘ Academic Performance. Retrieved October 3, 2012 from http://www.scribd.com/doc/24002413/%E2%80%9CTHE-EFFECT-OF-STUDYHABITS.PDF Nihuka, K.A. & Voogt, J. (2011). Instructors and Students Competences, Perceptions and Access to E-learning Technologies: Implications for E-learning Implementation at the Open University of Tanzania. International Journal of E-learning, 10, 63-85. Office of Planning, Evaluation, and Policy Development (OPEPD). 2010. Evaluation of evidence based practices in online learning: a meta-analysis and review of online learning studies. Washington, DC: Department of Education. Parker, M. (2003). Technology-enhanced e-Learning: Perceptions of First Year Information Systems Students at the Cape Technikon. Pp. 316-319. Rojas, D., et. al. (2012). An online practice and educational networking system for technical skills: Learning experience in expert facilitated vs. independent learning communities. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 173. doi: 10,3233/978-1-61499-022-2-393 Sulcic, V & Lesjak, D. (2009). E-learning and study effectiveness. Retrieved from http://www.scribd.com/doc/20131184/E-LEARNING-AND-STUDY-EFFECTIVENESS Thompson, M.E. (2005). The prediction of academic achievement by the british study habits inventory. Retrieved from http://www.springerlink.com/content/w3715h5884172656/ Vatovec, C. & Balser, T. (2009). Podcasts as tools in introductory environmental studies. Journal of Microbiology and Biology Education, 10, 19-24. Vitale, B. A. & Nugent, P. M. (2000). Test success : Test-taking techniques for the healthcare student, 3, 14-18. Yukselturk, E. (2009). Do entry characteristics and students competences, perceptions and access to e-learning technologies: Implications of e-learning implementation, 63-85.
APPENDIX A Name: School: Year Level: Course: Online learning subject/s: 1. Questions asked about the respondents‘ experiences in learning online. ● How long was your online learning course? ● How was your first time taking up an online learning course? ● Were you able to finish your academic assignments effectively online? ● Do you think group interactive learning through online is useful? Why? Why not? ● Does learning become easier online? In what way? ● How is your current online learning course so far? ● Does your interest in learning enhance through online? How? ● Were you able to study more independently? ● Do you take online tests, quizzes, homework, etc. on your own? Or you most often you do it with help of classmates/ relatives? ● Did something change with how you handle your previous online learning course? ● What motivation techniques you find most helpful in preventing burnout or loss of interest when studying online? 2. Questions asked about the respondents‘ current study habits. ● Do you manage your time well to meet school, job, and social/ entertainment needs? How? ● Is it easy for you to become skillful using the internet? How? ● How do you prepare for quizzes and tests? ● Do you prefer using media tools to assist your study skills?
● Do you prefer studying alone or in groups? ● Do you use the online media for sharing and comparing academic information with your fellow learners? ● Does social network help your study? How? ● What are the changes in your study habits in learning online? ● Did you apply your old study skills in the online learning environment? What specific old study skill is that? ● Do you participate in online learning using a time table? ● Did you learn a new set of skills? What are those? ● Are there improvements with how you study? ● What are the benefits of those improvements? ● Were you able to organize yourself with learning online? In what way? ● Did you master a specific study habit that helps you with your current online learning course? ● What do you do in classes in which the teacher lectures? ● Do you rely on your notes vs. downloading PowerPoints and PDF files? 3. Questions asked about the problems encountered by the respondents in learning online. ● Do you always use Internet resources while studying? ● Are your online resources enough to help you learn online? ● Is your internet connection consistent? ● Have you encountered computer failure at home? What is your backup? ● What happens when you do not meet regularly? ● Are your lessons hard to comprehend when discussed online? ● Do you often have trouble finding enough time to study online? ● Do you easily get distracted when learning online?
● Did you experience not understanding the instruments? ● How does informal interaction affect your learning? ● How do you avoid problems with time-management? (e.g. procrastination) 4. Questions asked with regards to the improvements to online learning that the respondents could suggest that can be made based on their responses. ● Do you wish deadlines are longer than the ones given? ● Do you wish instructions are explained in the classroom? ● Do you wish the professors entertain questions anytime anywhere? ● Do you wish tests are given in the classroom rather than online? ● Do you wish the professors could check your work anytime?
Job Competency, Organizational Citizenship Behavior And Levels Of Stress Among Hotel Personnel From Selected Hotels In Metro Manila Teodoro Jose B Dominguez Prof. Rodelando Ocampo
Abstract This study focuses on the job competency in terms of leadership skills, communication skills and technical skills, organizational citizenship behavior and level of stress of respondents from select hotels from Metro Manila. A total of 69 respondents were gathered from two well known hotels in Metro Manila. Descriptive correlational research method was utilized in determining the relationships between the variables and their various levels. The results from the study suggest that the job competencies of the respondents exhibited an average level where the leadership skills are moderate, communication skills is average yet effective and technical skills are average as well . The frequency of organizational citizenship behavior is at an average level. The level of stress among the respondents exhibited a moderate level of stress. The results from the study also suggests that there is a significant correlation between the levels of stress of the supervisor and the organizational citizenship behavior of the subordinate. The Correlational value is at 0.401 at a significance of 0.001 (p<0.05) where the data can be accepted at 99% confidence level. Findings also shows that there is no significant relationship between the stress and job competency of the respondents but results suggest that technical skills in terms of contextual performance is the most influenced skill in terms of job competencies.
Stress is a natural factor that people face in their everyday lives. According to Hurley (2012), the most common cause of stress among hotel employees is the feeling of over/ underqualification in the job. This feeling of under/overqualification suggests that the level of competency needed in a particular job does not equate with their level of competency. The study of Kim, Kim, Seo and Hyun, (2011), indicates that the hotel industry requires labor intensive, people focused and this need for highly competent people are needed for a more successful outcome. The worst among the results of under qualification/ overqualification in the hotel employee is burnout. The study of Hurley (2012) shows that experiencing burnout among hotel employees was due to chronic stress brought about by the feeling of under/ overqualified for the job. These findings suggest that burnout among hotel employees is possible which indicates that stress within the hotel industry is prevalent. The study made by Pallesen (2007) among hotel employees in Malmo revealed that 39% of the hotel employees feel that they are always or often stressed. In addition, results from another study conducted by O‘Neil and Davis (2011) shows report of hotel managers about stressors such as interpersonal tensions at work and overloads (e.g. technology not functioning, technical difficulties) than hourly employees. Given the high levels and prevalence of stress within the hotel business, this study chose these respondents to address the problem from its source, being the feeling of over/ underqualified. In addressing the feeling of over/underqualification among hotel employees, the study can identify whether job competencies among hotel employees are related to stress and in turn give the hotel businesses ideas as to how high stress is among hotel employees. Stress indeed is experienced by everyone at different levels. Another question lies as to what type of stress people experience. Organizational Citizenship behavior was integrated to determine the type of stress experienced by the respondents. This stress can be either considered as the motivating type of stress or the distressing type of stress. According to a study made by
Kim (2012), the results suggested that motivation was a significant predictor of organizational citizenship behavior. Current trends in job competency according to Kong, Cheung and Song (2012), state that career competency is positively related to career satisfaction. As career competencies increase, the career satisfaction increases as well. Many factors come into play in terms of career satisfaction within the individual. One factor is the environmental factors that include the organizational and cultural context of the hotel. Level of job competency among hotels is determinant on the hotel working environment. As mentioned in a study made by Giousmpasoglou (2012), competencies are shaped and exercised according to the organizational and cultural context. Competencies can be developed under the high standard that some hotels have. When hotel employees are within a well known hotel, the competencies can be improved and developed further as compared to hotels within a mediocre hotel business. Since respondents are taken from well known hotels, the competencies are expected to be stable. The present study aims to describe the current levels of job competency of the respondents, the frequency of (OCB) of the respondents, and show their current level of stress. Additionally, the study intends to see if there is any relationship between job competency and stress, considering its three components. Lastly, this study aims to see if there is any significant relationship between stress and (OCB) among the respondents. To sum everything, the study sought to answer the following problems. (1.) What is the respondents‘ level of Job Competency in terms of leadership skills, communication skills and technical skills (considering Contextual and Task performance)? (2.) What is the respondents degree of OCB? (3.) What is the level of stress among the respondents? (4.) What among the respondents‘ job competency in terms of leadership skills, communications skills and technical skills (considering Contextual and Task Performance) have the most influence on the level of stress? (5.) Is there a significant correlation between the level of stress and the Organizational Citizenship behavior among the respondents?
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Job Competency Job competency is related to the demonstration of various skills, aptitudes, and performance levels as they are related to a specific position or job within a company. Within a hotel Business, there are important criteria that a hotel employee must have in order to be considered competent. According to a research on hotel Competencies done by Kim, Kim, Seo and Hyun (2011), these skills are leadership skills, technical skills and communication skills. Leadership Skills Leaders are individuals who lead their subordinates or followers to a goal decided upon by the group. To become a leader does not necessarily mean one is an effective leader. According to Landy and Conte (2012), there are two concepts that must be distinguished in knowing what a leader is. These concepts are Leader emergence and Leader effectiveness. Leader emergence is the study of characteristics of individuals who become leaders examining the basis on which they are accepted while Leader Effectiveness study on which behaviors led to an outcome valued by the work group or organization. (Landy and Conte, 2012). With this, there were researches done to investigate the behaviors and traits that represent an effective leader and an emerging leader. In a meta analytic research done by, Judge, Bono, Ilies and Gerthart (2002), it states that the most consistent correlate of both leader emergence and leader effectiveness is extraversion. According to another study conducted by Erkutlu (2008), leadership behaviors stimulate organizational commitment and job satisfaction in the hospitality industry. Leadership in most cases have been limited to those in the high ranks within a business. In this study however, leadership is not only limited to the supervisors or managers but rather is also important within all the hotel employees. In terms of becoming a competent employee, leadership is the most important among the three used to measure Job Competence. Communication Skills Communication is very important in all aspects of managing an organization. It is what comprises the connection an organization has to make coordination and connection possible within a group striving to attain the goals of the organization. Since the focused organization in this study are hotels, according to Kim, Kim Seo and Hyun (2011), the hotel industry is person focused and labor intensive. Since it is person focused, the hotel employees are focused on satisfying the needs of the customers in tandem with the standards of the hotel they are working in. Given this goal for satisfying the needs of the customer, with the recent developments in technology today, hotels use this as a means for enhancement in communication services in hotels. In relation to this, a study was conducted by Asabere and Doku (2013), results of the study suggests that ICT (information and communication technologies ) has a major role to play in the CRM (customer relationship management) on hotels and guests. In addition, the ICT is a way to satisfy and retain the guests/ customers. In addition, this communication is needed as well in terms of explaining to the guests the quality of service that the hotel has to offer. According to a study made by Morvay (2012), Quality plays an important role in consumer‘s buying decisions therefore it is important for employees to be able to deliver the orientation of services that the hotel can offer for the customer since the customer lacks the whole information about the expected quality of the service. In addition, according to another
study by Cuevas-Contreras & Huertas (2012), communication and information, the quality of service delivery is a critical strategic component. The levels of communication is indeed an essential component especially as a competency in hotel employees. According to Newstrom (2011), organizations cannot exist without communication. When communication is effective, it tends to facilitates better performance and job satisfaction. On the other hand, without communication, employees cannot know what their co workers are doing. Employees within a hotel must also focus on proper communication with clients and customers. Technical Skills There is a difference between contextual and task performance. According to Tyler (2013), task performance refers to the goods and services which are particular to the job or in other words the core technical skill while contextual performance refers to the individuals performance that maintains or enhances a social network and the psychological climate that supports technical tasks. There also other factors that can also influence the hotel performance. According to a study by Assaf, Josiassen and Cvelbar (2012), triple bottom line reporting (TBL), which means reporting in three aspects namely the financial, social and environmental aspects leads to better performance. Among the three pillars, environmental reporting has the highest impact on performance. Given that there are high performers within the hotel industry, this state of being in at this level of performance can affect the hotel employees cognitions and perceptions as to how they are treated by hotels. This type of perception can influence the organizational citizenship behavior of the hotel employee. As mentioned in the study conducted by Tang and Tang (2012), high performance practices affect employees cognition on how they are treated by the hotel and what service behaviors to be expected which can influence organizational citizenship behavior. In addition, according to Bakker, Demerouti and Brummelhuis (2012), work engagement was positively related to contextual performance. If the employee engages more into work, definitely, the output and performance of the hotel employee will increase. Perceived organizational culture is also an important aspect in predicting contextual and task performance. As mentioned in the study made by Goodman & Syvantek (1999), perceptions of the organizational culture and the discrepancy between the employees ideal organization culture and their perceptions of actual organizational culture were both important in predicting contextual and task performance. Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) In an organization, people usually help one another to achieve not ones goals but the goals of the organization as a whole. Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) is shown when the employee responds beyond the call of duty. According to Landy and Conte (2010), this type of behavior is labeled as going beyond what is expected. There are two aspects of Organizational citizenship behavior, Altruism and Generalized Compliance. Altruism is a helpful behavior where it is directed towards individuals and groups within the organization, such as helping a coworker meet with the deadline. Generalized compliance is the behavior that is helpful to the broader organization, such as upholding company rules (Landy and Conte, 2010).
According to Nadiri and Tanova (2010), It was also found that even though improved job satisfaction seems to be related to OCB, organizational justice seems to be the key factor that has a strong effect on both OCB and job satisfaction. In addition, according to empirical results by a study made by Yoon and Suh (2003), results shows that contact employees' job satisfaction and trust in manager are significantly related to OCB and that their active engagement in OCB has a positive relationship with the perception of service quality.If perceptions of service quality is high, the organizational citizenship behavior is high as well. Knowing that OCB is related to job satisfaction, if the employee is satisfied with the job he/she has we can say that the prevalence of stress is not present within the employee. OCB in this study can determine whether the stress experienced by the employees is good/ motivating stress (Eustress) or bad/ distressing stress (Distress). Since motivation is a significant predictor of organizational citizenship behavior, the frequency of organizational citizenship behavior can determine whether the hotel subordinates experience distress or eustress (Kim, 2010). Given this, if the employee exhibits Organizational Citizenship behavior, then the motivation factor is present as well. If Organizational Citizenship behavior is high because of the stress experienced by their supervisor or manager, the stress is therefore the motivating type if the Organizational Citizenship behavior is low because of the stress experienced by their supervisor, therefore the stress experienced is the distressing type. Stress Stress, as defined in psychology, is a psychological and physical response of the body that occurs whenever we must adapt to changing conditions, whether those conditions be real or perceived, positive or negative. Work Stress defined operationally is the stress experienced by the employee in the workplace setting. Stress that occurs within the workplace setting and the effects it has on the employee. According to Hans Selye, there are two types of stress, namely the Eustress and the distress (Landy and Conte, 2010). Selye, the father of stress, noted that Eustress (good stress) provides challenges that motivate individuals to work hard and meet their goals while distress (bad stress) results from the stressful situations that persists over time and produces negative health outcomes (Landy and Conte, 2012). Work related Stress and Health Work stress has various consequences on the individual and the other people around him/her. There are several studies citing the different effects of work stress in the lives of different employees around the world, one of which is related to the health of the individual. Stress can be a factor to poor health in the employee. Researches made by Sparks, Cooper, Fried and Shirom (2007), their research found a link between hours of work and ill health. This suggests that the more the number of hours on work can increase the likelihood of ill health among the employees. the more hours the employee puts into the job, the more possible that stress can be prevalent within the individual. This ill health may sometimes lead to drastic effects. Another study made by Kivimaki, Leino-Arjas, Luukkonen, Riihimai, Vahtera, et. al (2002), suggests that employees who had high demands at work and low job control have higher cardiovascular mortality risk as compared with their colleagues with low job strain. The stress in this study can be caused by the low sense of job control and high demands of work. As stress becomes chronic, it can have a lot of effects ranging from burnout to cardiovascular risk. In addition to the effects of stress, a prospective cohort study conducted by Chandola, Brunner and Marmot (2006) stated that Employees with chronic work stress were more than twice as likely to have the syndrome than those without work stress.
We must also take into consideration the position one has in society. According to Wege, Daragano, Erbel, Jockel, Moebus, et. al (2008), the prevalence of poorer health was always highest in subgroups defined by high work stress and low socioeconomic position. In relation to medical professionals, factors such as specialty and the type of workplace (Public, Private sector) affect the stress experienced by the mental health professional (Athanasiadis, Tsaras, Papathanasiou, Lathana, Gouva, et.al, 2011). Stress can indeed bring out ill health among the employees. And in some cases, it could be very dangerous for the health of the employee. Coping with Work related Stress In coping with work stress, there are two types, the positive type of coping and the negative type of coping with stress. Among the many positive types of coping with stress, laughter is the most basic type of coping with stress. (Sarand Chayanika, 2012). In describing the other coping techniques, according to Chan, Cheng and Chong (2010), the four most frequently reported stress management activities were sleeping, talking to neighbors and friends, self-relaxing, and watching television, whereas the least frequently reported activity was doing more exercises or sports. In addition, preliminary results cited by Gonzalez-Morales, Gloria, Rodriguez and Greenglass (2006) showed that women used social support coping more frequently than men, whereas there were no gender differences in the use of direct action coping. Indeed for every conflict and stressful situation and environment we are in, we do our best to adapt to it but we must always have in mind our limitations in handling stress and conflicts especially in the work setting. Predictors of Work related Stress In the predictors of work related stress, according to a study made by Castle and Martin (2006), for jail correctional officers correctional experience and training predicted general stress. Lack of experience and training in the individual can be a good predictor of work related stress among the jail correctional officers. In addition, according to a meta analytic research conducted by Dowden and Tellier (2004), Work attitudes and specific correctional officer problems generated the strongest predictive relationships with job stress. Not only is experience and training solely considered in predicting work related stress but work attitudes and specific problems of the employee may also be a good predictor of work stress. Another predictor of work stress can be the support at work or the hardiness of an individual. According to a Cross sectional study of High tech employees and government employees by McCalister, Dolbier, Webster, Mallon, and Steinhardt, (2006) , the model of their research supports the protective nature of hardiness and support at work with regard to work stress and job satisfaction (McCalister, Dolbier, Webster, Mallon, & Steinhardt, 2006). Demographics must also be taken into consideration when predicting stress within an individual. According to Cohen & JanickiDeverts (2012) stress was higher among women than in men and the stress increases as decrease in age, education and income come about. SYNTHESIS Job competencies are important in determining whether the employee is capable of executing the job. According to Kim, Kim, Seo and Hyun (2011), the hotel industry is people focused and labor intensive and the need for competent employees in the hotel industry has been increasingly important. There are three skills under job competencies, the leadership skill, communication skill and technical skill (contextual and task performance). In addition, the study
mentioned these skills as the three important components in measuring hotel competencies. Leadership skill among hotel employees can be determined on the extraversion of the employee (Judge, Bono, Ilies and Gerthart, 2002). In addition leadership skills can stimulate organizational commitment and job satisfaction. Communication skills is important for retaining and attracting new clients for the hotel industry. As part of retaining and attracting customers for the hotel, orientation of services is important to orient the customer on the quality of services that the hotel can provide (Morvay, 2012). Technical skills are separated into two,the contextual performance and task performance. Task performance focuses on the core technical skill while contextual performance focuses on the psychological climate and social network that supports technical tasks (Tyler, 2013). Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) is responding beyond the call of duty. Given that the hotel industry focuses on service, OCB among hotel employees must always be present in service of the client‘s needs and the standard that the employee must uphold as at of a well known hotel. The OCB in this study can determine whether the stress experienced by the employee is the motivating type or the distressing type of stress. Most of the dwelled topics in stress focus on the effects of stress on the health of the individual and the causes of stress. Topics also dwell upon the different coping techniques of employees towards work related stress and predictors of stress in employees. METHOD Research Design The study utilized a descriptive correlational research method. Descriptive correlational research method was used to describe the different levels of job competencies, organizational citizenship behavior and level of stress. Moreover, to relate the the job competencies in terms of the leadership skills, communication skills and technical skills with the respondents level of stress using regression statistics and to correlate the stress and OCB of the respondents. Participants A total of 69 participants were gathered from two hotels within Metro Manila. A total of 39% of participants were gathered from Hotel A (n=27) and 61% of the participants were gathered from Hotel Q (n=42). These respondents comprised of the subordinates and supervisors of the hotels. A total of 36% (n=25) of the respondents are supervisors and 64% (n=44) of the respondents comprised of the subordinates. In terms of selecting the respondents, the purposive sampling technique was utilized to gather the needed respondents for this study. Hotel A and Q comprises of subordinates and supervisors coming from different positions within the hotel. These include HouseKeeping, Sales Agents, Finance Agents, Marketing Communications and Food and Beverages in Pastry and Kitchen, Front Office Agents, Express Agents, Room Service attendants, Reservations Agents and HR agents. The Supervisors included in the study are the individuals who personally oversee the performance of their immediate subordinate. Instruments Leadership skills (Authentic Leadership Questionnaire)
The Authentic leadership scale (ALQ) is a theory-driven leadership survey instrument designed to measure the components that have been conceptualized as comprising authentic leadership and the ALQ address the following, Self awareness, Transparency, Ethical/Moral and Balanced Processing (Gardner, Avolio and Walumbwa, 2006). Results from a research on the development and validation of the ALQ revealed a positive relationship between authentic leadership and supervisor-rated performance (Walumbwa, Avolio, Gardner, Wernsing and Peterson, 2008). In addition, the scale demonstrated the predictive validity for the ALQ measure for important work-related attitudes and behaviors. The ALQ is a 16 - item questionnaire that provides statements like ―I say exactly what i mean‖ then the respondent will answer by rating the statement to himself or herself from 0 (none at all) to 4 (Frequently, if not always). The Authentic leadership Questionnaire (ALQ) measures four traits that should be present in a leader. These traits are namely the Self Awareness, Transparency, Ethical/Moral, and Balanced Processing. The scoring starts with summing the scores of the four sub components of leadership. Sum of the responses on items 1, 5, 9 and 13 measure self awareness, items 2, 6, 10 and 14 measure internalized moral perspective, items 3, 7, 11 and 15 measure balanced processing and lastly, items 4, 8, 12 and 16 measure relational transparency. The sum scores of the four traits were summed up and divided by the number of choices (5) based on the scale. Communication skills (Communicative Adaptability Scale) The Communicative Adaptability Scale (CAS) is a 30 item scale that measures different aspects of interpersonal communication. It is a multidimensional measure that consists of six dimensions, Social experience, Social Confirmation, Social Composure, Appropriate disclosure, Articulation and Wit. (Hullman, 2007) This is a great tool for identifying youth or individuals who may be shy or have difficulty in social situations (Duran, 1992). According to Hullman‘s (2007) research on the reliability on the CAS, the scale demonstrated acceptable reliability, and concurrent validity. In addition, this six-factor structure has remained consistent over 10 studies (Duran, 1992) The scoring starts in summing the six dimensions, social experience, social confirmation, social composure, appropriate disclosure, articulation, and wit. Items 1,2,3,4 and 5 measure social composure, items 6,7,8,9 and 10 measure social confirmation, items 11,12,13,14 and 15 measure social experience, items 16,17,18,19 and 20 measure appropriate disclosure, items 21, 22, 23,24 and 25 measure articulation and lastly, items 26,27,28,29 and 30 measure wit. Reverse scoring is needed for items 1,2,3,4, 15, 21, 22, 23,24 and 25. The sum of scores in the six traits were summed up and divided by the number of choices (5) within the scale. Technical skills (Task and Contextual Performance Scale) According to a research done on Performance by Motowildo and Scotter (2012), the results of their study suggest that there is distinction between task and contextual performance and that perform/ance is multidimensional. The scale focuses on measuring two aspects of performance, the task and contextual performance. The Task and Conceptual Performance Scale was made by Goodman and Svyantek (1999) and is composed of 16 items where 9 items measure Task Performance and the other 7 measure contextual performance. Contextual Items are formulated as, for example, ―You help other employers with their work when they have been absent‖ (CON) and the task performance as, for example, ―You achieve the objectives of your
job‖ (TASK). Each respondent will rate each question from 1 to 4 with 4 being the highest (Strongly agree) and 1 being the lowest (Strongly disagree). The scoring starts in summing the scores in task performance and contextual performance. Items 1,3,5,7,9,11, 13 measure contextual performance and items 2,4,6,8,10,12,14,15 and 16 measure task performance. Summed scores from contextual and task performance were divided by the number of choices (4) in the scale. Organizational citizenship behavior (The Organizational Citizenship Behavior Checklist) The study will be using the 20 - item OCB Checklist to determine the frequency of OCB among the employees in the hotel business. According to Spector (2011), the 20 - item was made through series of developments from the 42-item scale based on 214 critical incidents generated by 38 subject matter experts to the 20 - item version used in this study. For reliability values, internal consistency reliability (coefficient alpha) was found to be .97 for the total scale and coefficient alphas for the 20-item version of the OCB-C of .89 and .94 for two self-report samples, and .94 for a coworker sample (Spector, 2011). The scoring starts in summing the total of all items in the scale. the summed scores were divided by the number of choices (5) in the scale. Levels of Stress (Perceived Stress Scale) To measure the respondents‘ level of stress, the study used the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) which was originally published in 1983 by Sheldon Cohen being the author. This scale is considered as the most widely used psychological instrument in measuring the perception of stress. The utilization of this scale needs no permission for as long as it is used for ―academic research and educational purposes‖ (Friends national resource center, 2006). The type of PSS the study will utilize is the 10 point scale. The questions the PSS ask about feelings and thoughts during the last month, for example, ―In the last month, how often have you been ...‖ Cohen (1988). Higher PSS scores were associated with (for example) failure to quit smoking , failure among diabetics to control blood sugar levels, greater vulnerability to stressful life-event-elicited depressive symptoms and more colds. According to a research made by Roberti, Harrington and Storche (2006), on the reliability and Validity of the 10 item version of the PSS, their findings suggest that normative results, internal consistencies, and construct validity were supported. The current findings also reveal that the PSS-10 is a reliable and valid instrument for assessment of perceived stress. Another research done by Reis, Hino and Anez (2010), which focused on a sample population of Brazilian teachers. Their findings suggest the same that the PSS-10 showed an adequate reliability and validity supporting its use in this population. Scoring starts in summing all the items within the scale. With Items 4,5,7 and 8 having reverse scoring. The summed scores were divided by the number of choices (5) within the scale. Data Gathering Procedures In order to get the respondents for the study, the researcher made letters of permission to administer the test among respondents being the supervisors and immediate subordinates of the select hotels. The respondents took all the five scales utilized in this study (See Appendix). Once the letter of permission has been approved, the researcher will give the questionnaires to the hotel to distribute the questionnaires among the subordinates and supervisors. When the data has been
gathered, the data shall be analyzed and interpreted by the using descriptives and Pearson r Correlation analysis. Tools and applications like Microsoft Excel and SPSS will be utilized as well. Statistical Analysis The data results were treated using Microsoft Excel, and SPSS (Statistical Product and Service Solutions). Microsoft excel was utilized to tabulate the following: Respondents level of competency in their job, Level of the stress and Organizational Citizenship Behavior of the respondents. Descriptive statistics such as weighted mean and standard deviation were used. Further, Pearson r was applied in testing the results for correlation and Multiple regression was utilized in correlation of multiple variables. Data Analysis Tabulated below are the range of scores used in determining job competencies, frequency of organizational citizenship behavior, and the levels of stress. These values are based on the interpretation of scores from the scales utilized in this study (See Appendix).
RESULTS The data presented below shows the respondents‘ Job competencies (Leadership Skills, Communication Skills and Technical Skills), OCB (Organizational Citizenship Behavior), and their level of stress.
Table 1: Descriptive value of job competencies, organizational citizenship behavior and level of stress
Respondents‘ level of Job Competency in terms of Leadership skills, Communication skills and Technical skills (Contextual and Task performance) The leadership skills of the subordinates has an average score of 3.63 with a standard deviation of 10.93 while supervisors have an average score of 3.67 with a standard deviation score of 7.75. The average mean scores for leadership skills is 3.65 where this scores suggests that the respondents agree that they have leadership skills.
Table 2: Percentages of frequency for leadership skills
Among the 69 respondents, 4% responded that they strongly agree to have leadership skills, 55% responded that they agree to have leadership skills. 30% responded that they are neutral to having leadership skills. 2 % responded that they disagree to having leadership skills and 8% responded that they strongly disagree with having leadership skills. The communication skills among subordinates have an average score of 3.49 with a standard deviation of 12.33 while supervisors have an average score of 3.50 with a standard
deviation of 10.06. The average mean scores for communication skills is 3.5 where the score suggest that the respondents believes that their communication skills is often effective.
Table 3: Percentages of frequency in terms of communication skills
Out of 69 respondents, 54% of the respondents responded that their communication is often effective. 46% of the respondents responded that their communication is sometimes effective. The technical skills portion is separated into two parts, the contextual performance and task performance. The average score of task performance by both subordinates and subordinates is 3.02 with a subordinates having a standard deviation of 4.19 while supervisors having a standard deviation of 4.37. The average mean score of task performance is 3.02 where this suggests that respondents agree to having task performance.
Table 4: Percentages of frequency in terms of task performance
Out of 69 respondents, 15% responded as strongly agreeing to having task performance, 70% responded as agreeing to having task performance. 13% responded as disagreeing to have task performance. 2% responded as strongly disagreeing to having task performance. The average score of contextual performance by both subordinates and supervisors is 3.04 with subordinates having a standard deviation of 4.19 while supervisors having a standard deviation of 2.75. Average mean scores in contextual performance is 3.04 which suggests that the respondents agree to have contextual performance as part of the technical skill they possess.
Table 5: Percentage frequency in terms of contextual performance
Out of 69 respondents, 8% responded to strongly agreeing that they had contextual performance. 45% responded that they agree to having contextual performance. 45% responded
that they disagree to have contextual performance. 2% responded as strongly disagreeing to have contextual performance. Respondents‘ degree of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) The organizational citizenship behavior score of subordinates is 3.40 with a standard deviation score of 4.19 while the score of supervisors is 3.37 with a standard deviation of 12.07. Average mean scores for the frequency of Organizational citizenship behavior is 3.40 where the score falls within the ―once or twice per month‖.
Table 6: percentages of frequency in terms of organizational citizenship behavior
Out of the 69 respondents, 7% responded Everyday, 28% responded once or twice per week, 51% responded once or twice per month, 10% responded once or twice, and 4% responded as never. Respondent‘s level of stress The level of stress of the subordinate is 1.89 with a standard deviation of 4.7 while the average of the supervisor 1.87 is with a standard deviation of 3.32.The average mean score of the respondents‘ level of stress is 1.82 where the respondents fall within the level of individuals who are sometimes stressed.
Table 7: Percentages of frequency in terms of level of stress
Out of 69 respondents, 5% responded as fairly often stressed, 83% responded as sometimes stressed, 12% responded as almost never stressed. Levels of stress and job competencies in terms of leadership skills, communication skills and technical skills (Contextual performance and Task performance)
Table 09: Anova table for the goodness of fit
Table 10: Coefficient table for estimated coefficient values As seen in table 09, the goodness of fit of the regression is at a value of 0.280 (p>0.05) where this suggests that the model could not fit the data. As seen in table 10, the coefficient estimates for all the variables are greater than 0.5 (p>0.05) where these estimates are not reliable because it has too much variance/ dispersion. Among the job competencies, the skills that showed the most influence on stress is contextual performance under technical skills having a value of .284 followed by leadership skills having a value of .233. Level of stress and the Organizational Citizenship behavior among the respondents
Table 11: Correlational values between levels of stress and organizational citizenship behavior
As seen in Table 11, the significance of the correlation is 0.001 ( p < 0.05) where the model is acceptable at a 99% confidence level. Correlational values exhibit a positive value of 0.401 which represents a correlation between the Organizational Citizenship behavior and the level of stress among the respondents. DISCUSSION Considering the level of Job competency, there were three components that were considered in assessing the competencies of the hotel employees: these are leadership skills, communication skills, and technical skills. Results suggest that the respondents agree that they have the leadership skill. Typically, people always look to individuals of high position when it comes to leadership but the study included both the supervisor and subordinates since leadership is an important aspect in developing competencies within a employee especially among hotels. Extraverted behavior in the hotel business plays a role in developing the leadership skills among the hotel employees. As part of the hotel business, constant communication and interaction with the client/guest and co worker is needed. A hotel employee is continually exposed to different people entering as guests therefore the need to be extraverted is needed to connect with the guest/ client. Extraversion is a consistent correlate of leadership effectiveness and emergence. (Judge, Bono, Ilies & Gerthart, 2002). As the employee becomes more extraverted, the leadership skill grows and becomes more developed. Not only do the supervisors and upper management have a chance to develop their leadership capacities but the subordinates have that chance as well. With increasing leadership skills, job satisfaction and organization commitment is stimulated. In having leadership skills, the emergence of organizational commitment and job satisfaction among hotel employees is highly probable (Erkutlu, 2008). With this, the job satisfaction of the respondents is more evident. Implications of these are if there is job satisfaction within the respondents, stress may not be as high as mentioned by Hurley (2012). For the results related to communication skills, it implies that the respondents feel that they are often effective in communication with others. This level of communication among hotel employees must be consistently effective since the hotel industry is person focused apart from being labor intensive (Kim,Kim, Seo and Hyun, 2011). Since the hotels included in this study is well known for it‘s services and quality, the employees need to keep up with the standards the hotel must have to retain and attract more clients. As part of trying to keep up with the standards of the hotel, effective communication is one of the skills needed in maintaining such a standard. As mentioned in a study by Morvay (2012) in the retention and attraction of clients, quality plays an important role in consumer‘s buying decisions therefore it is important for employees to deliver the orientation of services that the hotel can offer since the client doesn‘t know anything about the quality of service the hotel brings. Effective communication skills can indeed do wonders for the further development and success of the hotel business. Maybe this effective communication seen in the respondents is what brought about the success the hotels in this study have today. With the advancement of technology today, this can be a factor with the respondents being more effective in communication. According to to a study by Asabere & Doku (2013), information and communication technologies (ICT) has a major role to play in customer relationship management. Technology is used to amplify the connection between the hotel and the customer/client.
Under technical skills, there are two types of performance that was included in this study, the task and contextual performance. Results from the average means among the two types of performance implies that the respondents agree that they both have contextual and task performance. To compare the two types of performance, contextual performance is higher than that of the task performance. This just implies that the respondents focus more on the social networks and psychological climate that supports technical tasks (Tyler, 2013). High and low contextual and task performance can be explained through the perceptions of the hotel employee on the organization. As mentioned in the study made by Goodman & Syvantek (1999), perceptions of the organizational culture and the discrepancy between the employees ideal organization culture and their perceptions of actual organizational culture were both important in predicting contextual and task performance. This implies that as the ideal organization culture fits with the real/ actual organization culture, the task and contextual performance is likely to increase. The organization culture covers how the organization goes through different processes. Each hotel does have the same protocol in handling guests and client but each hotel has a different way of applying these protocols.Since the task and contextual performance among the respondents is high based on the average score and analysis, perceptions of actual organization culture and the ideal organization culture match with one another. The results that describe the frequency of OCB among respondents include general compliance and altruism. General compliance deals with generalized compliance is the behavior that is helpful to the broader organization, such as upholding company rules while altruism is a helpful behavior where it is directed towards individuals and groups within the organization, such as helping a coworker meet with the deadline (Landy & Conte, 2010). In the study, both general compliance and altruism were included under organizational citizenship behavior. According to Nadiri & Tanova (2010), it was found that job satisfaction seems to be related to organizational behavior. Organizational justice however is a key factor to that has a strong effect on organizational citizenship behavior and job satisfaction. Given the results of the organizational citizenship behavior of the respondents, the job satisfaction of the respondents may be high and organizational justice within the hotels they work in maybe stable. With the hotel industry being focused on the client, there may be times where to respond beyond the call of duty is needed especially in the hospitality industry. As a part of the hospitality industry, the hotel business must strive to attain more frequent organizational citizenship behavior since the hotel business in itself is present for the purpose of service. The results of the study suggest that the respondents sometimes experience stress. This is in contradiction of the high levels of stress stated in the permanent life situation survey conducted by Hurley (2012). Since stress is not as high as the related literature suggested, the possibility of burnout happening among the respondents is less likely to occur. These hotel employees may have used various coping techniques to lessen the amount of stress that they experience. In addition, underlying demographics must also be taken into consideration as a cause of stress (i.e. age, gender, family dynamics, interpersonal relationships, financial background ). In support of this, according to a study by Cohen & Janicki-Deverts (2012), they emphasized how certain demographics influence the stress of an individual. The results of their study suggested that stress was higher among women than men and that stress increases with decreasing age, education and income.
In relation to the health of the individual, the prevalence of ill health among the respondents is unlikely. The implications this study can give based on the results is that these hotel employees will not be that exposed to ill health and risk as compared to other employees who are within a highly stressful environment. According to Cooper, Fried and Shirom (2007) the findings from their study found a link between hours of work and ill health. This means that the more hours of work that the employee experiences, the more chances that the individual were to experience stress which may lead to ill health. Another study conducted by Chandola, Brunner and Marmot (2006) state that the more work is chronic among employees the more they can have a syndrome. This just shows that stress can lead to ill health. To give a more concrete example, a study by Kivimaki, leino-Arjas, Luukonen, Riihimai, Vahtera, et.al (2002), suggests that high demands of works and low job control have higher cardiovascular risk as comapred with employees who have low job strain. With high demands of work and lack of job control, the employees can experience the type of stress that may lead to drastic effects like cardiovascular risk. Since stress is not as prevalent and high within the respondents, the likelihood for them to have ill health is less. As shown in table 9 and 10, the study was not able to find significant coefficient estimates between the subcomponents of job competencies and stress among the respondents. This may mean that there should be other variables that must be considered. According to a study made by Kivimaki, Leino-Arjas, Luukkonen, Riihimai, Vahtera, et. al (2002) other predictors of stress include the low job control and high demands from the job. As mentioned in the study of Kim, kim Seo and Hyun, (2011), the hotel industry is labor intensive and person focused. With the high demands that the hotel employees must keep up with in tandem with the high quality of service of the hotels, the stress is likely to increase among the hotel employees. Another predictor of stress can be the poor health and socio economic position of the individual. Other factors such as specialty and the type of workplace affect the stress experienced by the mental health professional. The environment where these individuals work in is also a factor that should be considered in the stress the individual experiences. If the environment is not conducive to work for the employees, the possibility of high levels of stress is high. With these environmental factors include not only the environment and benefits, but also the people and coworkers that the individual works with (Athanasiadis, Tsaras, Papathanasiou, Lathana, Gouva, et.al, 2011). However, among the three job competencies, technical skills in terms of contextual performance mostly influenced the level of stress among the respondents. Since stress is mostly influenced by contextual performance, this means that the respondent‘s stress is more lkely to be predicted by their contextual performance. Contextual performance according to Tyler (2013) is the individuals performance that maintains or enhances a social network and the psychological climate that supports technical tasks. This suggests that the respondents focus more on the social network and psychological climate to level the stress they experience. According to Bakker, Demerouti and Brummelhuis (2012), work engagement was positively related to contextual performance. The link between the hours of work and stress is possible where as the number of hours pent in work increases, the stress experienced by the respondents also increases (Sparks, Cooper, Fried and Shirom, 2007). The more the respondents engage in work, the more chances they are to experience more stress. It can be said that as the stress increases, the chances of contextual performance increasing is highly probable.
As seen in table 12, the levels of stress have a significant relationship with the organizational citizenship behavior of the respondents with a significance value of 0.001 (p <0.05). The correlational value for the relationship between these variables is 0.401.The graph presents a positive correlation where results imply that as levels of stress of the respondents increases, so does the organizational citizenship behavior. Given this, the research can say that the hotel subordinate is motivated by the stress they experience since motivation is a significant predictor of organizational citizenship behavior within an individual. (Kim, 2010). According to Landy and Conte (2010), there are two type of stress, the eustress or motivational stress and the distress or the bad stress. Since the stress of the respondents proved to be a motivating factor, the type of stress experienced by the subordinate is the motivating type of stress.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions were made. The respondents have an average level of job competency in terms of the three skills: moderate leadership skills, average yet effective communication skills, and equipped with minimum technical skills (Contextual and Task Performance). With regards to organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) of the respondents, the results show that they exhibited an average level. Results from the level of stress show that respondents exhibited a moderate level of stress. The coefficient estimates that was shown in table 9 and 10 indicates no significant relationship between the subcomponents of job competencies and stress among the respondents however, it suggests that technical skills in terms of contextual performance shows that it had the most influence with stress. Moreover, table 11 exhibits that there is a positive significant correlation between the level of stress and the organizational citizenship behavior among the respondents. The researcher recommends that future researches should include other factors that may influence the individual‘s tolerance to stress (e.g demographics). In line with this, other variables must be taken into consideration in influencing the level of stress. Variables such as coping mechanisms, physiological health, cultural background and family dynamics. In addition, the researcher recommends that future research should get more respondents from more hotels across Metro Manila. In getting more respondents from different hotels, it is recommended that a comparative study be made comparing the job competencies, organizational and citizenship behavior and level of stress between the different hotels within Metro Manila. The researcher also recommends that the sub components in the authentic leadership questionnaire and the communicative adaptability scale be included in future research.
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APPENDIX The questions in these scales ask you about your feelings and thoughts. There are five parts in this test. In each case, you will be asked to indicate by circling how often you felt or thought a certain way. Please encircle the answer that best corresponds to how you truly feel. Name (optional) __________________________________________ Date* _________ Age* ________ Position*_______________________________________ Gender* (Circle): M F Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) 4 = Very Often 3 = Fairly Often 2 = Sometimes 1 = Almost Never 0 = Never 1. In the last month, how often have you been upset because of something that happened unexpectedly?.................................. 2. In the last month, how often have you felt that you were unable to control the important things in your life? .................................................. 3. In the last month, how often have you felt nervous and ―stressed‖? ............ 4. In the last month, how often have you felt confident about your ability to handle your personal problems? ............................................................. 5. In the last month, how often have you felt that things were going your way?.................................................................................. 6. In the last month, how often have you found that you could not cope with all the things that you had to do? ......................................................... 7. In the last month, how often have you been able to control irritations in your life?................................................................... 8. In the last month, how often have you felt that you were on top of things?.. 9. In the last month, how often have you been angered because of things that were outside of your control?................................... 10. In the last month, how often have you felt difficulties were piling up so high that you could not overcome them? ......................... 01234 01234 01234 01234 01234 01234 01234 01234 01234 01234
Communicative Adaptability Scale (CAS) 5 = always true of me 4 = often true of me 3 = sometimes true of me 2 = rarely true of me 1 = never true of me. ____ 1. I feel nervous in social situations.
____ 2. In most situations I feel tense and constrained. ____ 3. When talking, my posture seems awkward and tense. ____ 4. My voice sounds nervous when I talk to others. ____ 5. I am relaxed when talking to others. ____ 6. I try to make the other person feel good. ____ 7. I try to make the other person feel important. ____ 8. I try to be warm when communicating with another. ____ 9. While I‘m talking I think about how the other person feels. ____ 10. I am verbally and nonverbally supportive of other people. ____ 11. I like to be active in different social groups. ____ 12. I enjoy socializing with various groups of people. ____ 13. I enjoy meeting new people. ____ 14. I find it easy to get along with new people. ____ 15. I do not ―mix‖ well at social functions. ____ 16. I am aware of how intimate my disclosures are. ____ 17. I am aware of how intimate the disclosures of others are. ____ 18. I disclose at the same level that others disclose to me. ____ 19. I know how appropriate my self-disclosures are. ____ 20. When I self-disclose I know what I am revealing. ____ 21. When speaking I have problems with grammar. ____ 22. At times I don‘t use appropriate verb tense. ____ 23. I sometimes use one word when I mean to use another. ____ 24. I sometimes use word incorrectly. ____ 25. I have difficulty pronouncing some words. ____ 26. When I am anxious, I often make jokes. ____ 27. I often make jokes when in tense situations. ____ 28. When I embarrass myself I often make a joke about it. ____ 29. When someone makes a negative comment about me I respond with a witty comeback. ____ 30. People think I am witty. Authentic Leadership Questionnaire (ALQ) Key: 5 = Strongly Agree 4 = Agree 3 = Neutral 2 = Disagree 1 = Strongly Disagree 1. I can list my three greatest weaknesses. 1 2 3 4 5
2. My actions reflect my core values. 3. I seek others‘ opinions before making up my own mind. 4. I openly share my feelings with others. 5. I can list my three greatest strengths. 6. I do not allow group pressure to control me. 7. I listen closely to the ideas of those who disagree with me. 8. I let others know who I truly am as a person. 9. I seek feedback as a way of understanding who I really am as a person. 10. Other people know where I stand on controversial issues. 11. I do not emphasize my own point of view at the expense of others. 12. I rarely present a ―false‖ front to others. 13. I accept the feelings I have about myself. 14. My morals guide what I do as a leader. 15. I listen very carefully to the ideas of others before making decisions. 16. I admit my mistakes to others.
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5
1 2 3 4 5
Contextual and Task Performance Scale Key: 4 = Strongly Agree 3 = Agree 2 = Disagree 1 = Strong Disagree
You 1 help others employers with their work when they have been absent. You 2 achieve the objectives of your job.
2 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 2
2 3 2 3 2 3
4 4 4 4 4 4
2 You 3 volunteer to do things not formally required by the job.
You 4 meet the criteria for performance. 4 You 5 take initiatives to orient new employees to the department even though not part of your job description. You 6 demonstrate expertise in all job-related tasks. 6 You 7 help others when their work load increases (assists others until they get over the hurdles). You 8 fulfill all the requirements of the job. 8 You 9 assist your colleagues with their duties. 9 You 1 can manage more responsibility than typically assigned. You 1 make innovative suggestions to improve the overall quality of the department. You 1 appear suitable for a higher level role. 12 You 1 willingly attend functions not required by the organization, but helps in its overall image. 1 14 You are competent in all areas of the job, handle tasks with proficiency. You 1 perform well in the overall job by carrying out tasks as expected. 1 1 1 1 1 1
2 2 2 1 2
2 3 2 3
4 4 4 4
2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
2 1 2
You 1 plan and organize to achieve objectives of the job and meet deadlines.
2 1 2
Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) Key: 5 = Everyday, 4= Once or Twice per week, 3 = Once or twice per month, 2 = Once or twice, 1 = Never
How often have you done each of the following things on your present job? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. problem. Picked up meal for others at work Took time to advise, coach, or mentor a co-worker. Helped co-worker learn new skills or shared job knowledge. Helped new employees get oriented to the job. Lent a compassionate ear when someone had a work problem. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
Lent a compassionate ear when someone had a personal 1 2 3 4 5
7. Changed vacation schedule, work days, or shifts to 1 2 3 4 5 accommodate co-worker‘s needs. 8. Offered suggestions to improve how work is done. 9. Offered suggestions for improving the work environment. 10. Finished something for co-worker who had to leave early. 11. Helped a less capable co-worker lift a heavy box or other object. 12. Helped a co-worker who had too much to do. 13. Volunteered for extra work assignments. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
14. Took phone messages for absent or busy co-worker. 15. Said good things about your employer in front of others. 16. Gave up meal and other breaks to complete work. 17. Volunteered to help a co-worker deal with a difficult customer, vendor, or co-worker.
1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
18. Went out of the way to give co-worker encouragement or express 1 2 3 4 5 appreciation. 19. work space. 20. Defended a co-worker who was being "put-down" or spoken ill 1 2 3 4 5 of by other co-workers or supervisor. Decorated, straightened up, or otherwise beautified common 1 2 3 4 5
Filipino Mothers’ Involvement in their Teenage Daughters’ Courtship Process Shara Mae Espinosa Prof. Maggie Sanapo, Ph.D
The primary objective of the study is to know whether the Filipino mothers nowadays still get themselves involved in the decisions of their daughters concerning courtship process. The study is qualitative and descriptive in nature. It is also limited up to the going steady stage of courtship. The researcher interviewed 10 female teenagers ages 13 to 16 years old and their respective mothers. Results showed that the Filipino mothers nowadays are getting themselves involved in the courtship process of their daughters by giving advices and guidance to them. Daughters, on the other hand are in favor of it and they understand the set agreement between them and their mothers concerning courtship process. Future research including both parents or father - daughter, mother - son and father - son relationship is also encouraged.
The process on how people select their potential romantic partners has changed together with time. According to the YouthNet UK (2008), the history of courtship underwent changes as years pass by. The Oxford Dictionary (2013) defined the term courtship or panliligaw as the ―period during which a couple develop a romantic relationship, especially with a view to marriage.‖ It is the initial step in getting married. It begins when the boy becomes a young lad or binatilyo and the girl a young lady or dalagita. This is about a year following the period of puberty and the beginning of adolescence for both (Jocano, 2000). As a process, it has four stages. According to Medina (2001), the initial stage in courtship is the dating. Belen Medina (2001), a Sociology professor in the Philippines defined the term as a system where a man and a woman both agree to be in a specific place and time. The Western way of hanging out and getting together even without the formal introduction of the young people has become the trend. In the Philippines, Adriano et al. (1995) also stated that students start dating even at the age of 13 - 15 years old. This happens in groups and in the earlier hours of the day (as mentioned in Medina, 2001, p. 83). The second stage is the time of going steady. On this stage, the couple have decided to date each other exclusively and be visible everywhere as partners. The third stage is the engagement stage which happens when the couple commit themselves to marriage. The last stage is the wedding where the couple, united as man and wife marks the end of their courtship and starts their married life. In the Philippine setting, traditional courtship was participated in or controlled by the parents and other kinsmen (Philippine Culture, 2010). The act of serenading or ―harana‖ in the Philippine context was being done by men to show their serious intentions for the girl. This act of courtship is being accompanied by Spanish - influenced songs expressed in Tagalog language (Aguilar and Enriquez, 2007). Writing love letters even became a trend during the 80s and 90s (Sanchez, 2012). However, this tradition started to fade due to the presence of technological advancement which makes communication faster and closer (Philippine Culture, 2009). If that is the case, how do we describe the modern day courtship process of this generation? Setting courtship aside, the role of a mother is the most important role a Filipina will assume in her whole life (Lighthouse, 2013). Girls stay at home with their mothers most of the
time (Jocano, 2000). In a study made by Kraemer (2006) entitled ―The Tricky Transition: Communication in the Mother and Adolescent Daughter Relationship‖, several important points that emphasizes the mother and daughter bond were stated. Specifically, the author pointed out that the mothers and daughters have the highest amount of disclosure in parent –adolescent family relationships. Teens seem to be closest to their best friends but parents still exert a great deal of influence on their children. They sometimes monitor, supervise or even intervene in teens on-going interactions with peers. We would then ask ourselves -- How does parental involvement affect the courtship process of their children? The present study deals with the Filipino mothers‘ involvement in their daughters‘ courtship process. The term courtship in the study is operationally defined as a term pertaining to the process experienced by young adolescents who are currently looking for a potential significant other. The study is also limited only up to the going steady stage. The engagement and wedding stage is not included in the paper. Particularly, the study is aimed at answering the following questions: First, what are the personal experiences of Filipino mothers in courtship? Second, in what ways do mothers involve themselves in their daughter‘s courtship process? Third, what is the daughter's response towards her mother's involvement in her courtship process? Fourth, what are the criteria set by the mother and the daughter towards courtship process? By incorporating the use of qualitative design in this study, the researcher aims to answer the following questions stated above.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE The following talks about the different literature made regarding the Filipino family, the Filipino mother and the Filipino daughter, the traditional and modern courtship in the Philippines, courtship and parents and studies on parental involvement, parental - offspring conflict and parental influence across cultures. The Filipino Family Basically, the Filipino family is composed of the father, the mother and their unmarried child or children who is either born to them or adopted (Jocano, 2002). The Filipino concept of the family or what is being referred to as mag - anak includes members who reside elsewhere, provided they are not married. Belen Medina, a Filipino author of the book entitled The Filipino Family has stated that the family is the first social group to which an individual is exposed (as cited in Hayabusa, 2011, p.1). It affects the individual‘s social values, disposition, and outlook in life. Filipinos are family oriented. Because of this, many of their actions, plans and goals in life are either affected or is centered upon the family. The Filipino Mother and the Filipino Daughter Perhaps, the role of the mother is the most respected role in the Philippine society. She is regarded as the ―ilaw ng tahanan‖. She is the one who looks after her children‘s needs and make
sure that everything is alright (Kolb, 2011). The inay is emotionally closer to the children and is intimately involved in their growth and development. Filipino womwen takes pleasure in ensuring that her husband and children are being well taken care of. This is not due to an obligation but it is because of her selfless love and devotion to her family (Lighthouse, 2013). On the other hand, the society expects a young woman or a dalaga to behave with proper decorum and to appear modest and shy especially when with men. A dalaga is usually warned regarding her relationship with boys since she is capable of bearing a child. Adolescent girls are not allowed to go about the community alone, especially at night. She is supposed to play ―hard to get‖ (Lighthouse, 2013). However, there are changes in these norms in recent years (Jocano, 2000). Traditional Courtship: the Filipino Way Courtship varies across cultures in several ways (Altman & Ginat, 2010). In the Philippines, courting is usually triggered by the teasing of the peers of the potential couple (Sanchez, 2012). During the late Spanish era or the 1950s under the Spanish rule, serenading was one of the popular courtship practices, particularly during the harvest season (Jocano, 2000). After working for a whole day, the young men group together and serenade the fairest among the newcomers. Sending letters was also a way of the gentlemen to express their utmost feeling of admiration to a girl. In this letter, a lot of flowery words were used. Filipinas are not expected to utter any response so instead, they show it through fan signals. Using their ―payneta‖ or a small fan held by the hand, they show their responses to the man. Modern Courtship: the Filipino Way The traditional courtship in the Philippines is one that is being controlled by the parents. In the selection of the mate, the parents still have much to say. However, the advancements in technology gave way to the evolution of courtship in the Philippines. Having a pen pal has become widespread during the 80s and 90s (Sanchez, 2012). This is different in the way Filipinos write letters during the Hispanic era because the girl is not deprived from reciprocating the thoughts of the man. Today, serenading is no longer in vogue (Jocano, 2000). This is not popular anymore. House visits however continue to be a dominant practice. Aside from this, in a report made by ChyrmythWagas (2011) in the Philippine Star, a famous newspaper publisher in the Philippines, she explained how modern day courtship is being done. According to her report, conversations of the man and woman can be done through cellular phones and the use of internet. In urban areas, single Filipinas have become liberal due to western influences. The act of saying ―pick-up lines‖ to the girl also became a trend. These lines are being used to start a conversation with the girl that the man desires. An example of this would be: “Are you a magnet? Because I am attracted to you.” Courtship and the Parents As stated earlier, the traditional courtship in the Philippines is one that is being governed by the parents. Although there is now a trend that the adolescents choose their mate by
themselves, parents still play a significant role (Andres, 2002). Upon establishing this, the presence of the parents in the partner selection of their children comes into picture. In an article written by Crank (2002) in the Unless the Lord Magazine, he discussed whether parents should or should not be involved in the decisions of the children towards courtship. Specifically, he pointed out the role of the parents in the issues concerning the romantic partners of their children. According to him, parents must assume their roles to assist their children in wise marriage choices. They should protect their children in any possible harm and temptations. Their contribution should be one that is objective enough and not one that is based on their emotions. Children, in turn, should respect this decision coming from their parents. However, he stated at the last part of the article that there must be no pressures coming from the parents as they participate in the decisions of their children.
Studies on Parental Involvement Indeed, it is also interesting to talk about the involvement of the parents on their children‘s courtship decisions. Several studies have been made showing how the parents influence their daughter‘s and son‘s choice for partner. Buunk, Park, & Duubs (2008) found out that the 768 college individuals coming from diverse cultures who were surveyed have parents who are in favor of those potential mates who have high parental investment while their children prefer mates suggesting heritable fitness. Meaning to say, parents prefer their child‘s mate to be exhibiting cooperation and in-group involvement. Another study came out in support of this finding. According to Apostolou (2008), family background is of great importance to parents than to their offspring. Specifically, parents would consider good family background than their children will do. Similarly, mothers will be more stringent on their mate choice than that of the fathers (Woodward and Richards, 2004). Their mate choice criteria are based on their 9 month investment on pregnancy which has greater risk compared to the investment of the fathers which is their sperm. Parental - Offspring Conflict over Courtship Decisions Based from the different studies mentioned above, we will be having an idea that as the mothers and fathers invest for the birth and rearing of their child, their expectations for their child‘s potential partners differ thus, resulting into a conflict with their child. Several studies have been done showing the contrasting ideas of parents and their child in terms of courtship decisions. According to Dubbs (2010a), Dubbs (2010b) and Perilloux (2010) parents prefer their child‘s potential mates to be religious and highly cooperative. Lack of these traits would seem to be unacceptable to them. However, their children consider their potential partners to have high genetic quality and must come from a high status family. Aside from the conflicts arising in the desired traits of the parents and the offspring, another conflict would arise from their interpretation of beauty in terms of the offspring‘s courtship decisions. Offsprings would prefer their spouse to be good looking while the parents may accept their in-laws to be not so good looking as long as they have good social standing. In a study made by Apostolou (2008), he noted that there is a substantial overlap between mate and
in-law preference while the concept of beauty is still being argued upon by the parents and the offspring. F. Landa Jocano, a famous Filipino author of books about Filipino society and culture identified the major characteristics of a man that most Filipinas want to marry. These include being a good provider, good - natured, not cruel, a hard and dedicated worker and not a drunkard. Parental Influence across Cultures One of the most interesting topics discusses under the cross - cultural psychology is the degree of parental involvement in adolescent courtship decisions. According to Hynie, Lalonde & Lee (2006), cultural differences in marriage and mate selection continue to exist as a product of the differences in collectivism and individualism. Different studies were made showing the cultural variations of parental influence in adolescent mate choice. In United States and Netherlands, females reported experiencing higher levels of parental monitoring and being more sensitive toward their parents' feelings regarding mate choice (Duubs, Buunk & Li, 2011). In Argentina, a study made by Buunk and Solano (2010) showed consistent findings on the issue of parental - offspring conflict when they found out that parents tend to have a relatively stronger preference for children to pair with mates with characteristics signaling high parental investment and cooperation with the in-group, whereas children tend to have a relatively stronger preference to pair with mates with characteristics signaling genetic quality. Showing some evidence on the presence of collectivist and individualist culture on mate choice, Buunk, Park and Duncan (2009) revealed that in a study conducted to four different samples coming from Netherlands, Iraq and Canada, the Kurdish sample reported higher levels of parental influence on mate choice compared to the Dutch sample. Also, strong parental influence was found to be higher in collectivistic countries. In the Philippines, there is a lot more of autonomy in the city than it is in the rural area. Most of the parents are at work and the siblings are in school. However, the mother sees to it that she is around during every visit of the suitor (Jocano, 2000). If she has an important engagement, she leaves one of the siblings to keep the sister company. Because a dalaga is capable of bearing a child, she is always warned by her mother or older family member to be careful about her relationship with boys.
SYNTHESIS After the research about the Filipino family dynamics, evolution of courtship in the Philippines and the parental influence on the courtship decisions of the child was done, we now highlight the main findings indicated by the reviews. The Filipino family consists of the father, the mother and the child who is still unmarried. The family affects most of the decisions, disposition and outlook of individuals. The Filipino mother also makes sure that everything is alright with her family while the Filipino daughter is expected to be careful of her actions since she is capable of bearing a child. Courtship is a process experienced by a man and a woman who considers possible marriage between them. In the Philippine context, courtship changed as years
went by. Traditional courtship was done by serenading while the modern day courtship can be done even through the internet. We have also established the fact that parents are influencing their children as they decide for their potential partner. This influence causes conflict between them as they try to set criteria different from that of their children. Also, there were differences in the level of parental involvement across cultures. Specifically, the collectivist or the Asian countries have higher level of parental involvement compared to that of the individualist or the European countries. In the Philippines, there is more freedom in the urban areas in terms of courtship. However, the parents make sure that they are still around when the suitor visits their daughter. From all of the literatures reviewed above come the research problems in this study. First, what are the personal experiences of Filipino mothers in courtship? Second, in what ways do mothers involve themselves in their daughters‘ courtship process? Third, what is the daughter‘s response towards her mother‘s involvement in her courtship process? Fourth, what are the criteria set by the mother and daughter towards courtship process? The use of in - depth interview shall be used to address the following problems. METHOD This chapter includes the study‘s research design, instruments, participants, sampling technique, procedure and data analysis.
Research Design The present study made use of the qualitative research design. Specifically, it is a case study type of qualitative research. As such, the study involves data collection in the concerned area and field through the use of in - depth interview. It aims to describe situations and events concerning parental involvement and daughter‘s courtship decisions. Instruments For this study, the researcher formulated a set of questions which will serve as guide for the interview. The questionnaire was validated first by the assigned adviser and was used once the approval is gained. Follow up questions arise during the course of the conversation. (Refer to the Appendix section for the list of questions used). Participants The participants in this study will comprise of 10 Filipino mothers together with daughters ages 13 to 16. The main criterion set for the mothers is the presence of their daughter who constitutes the middle adolescence stage of development (Greenberg, Bruess and Conklin, 2011). According to Upadhyay and Hindin (2005), Filipino adolescents first join group dating at around ages 13 to 16 and then later go on single dates. Participants were informed that the interview is being recorded for documentation purposes
Sampling Technique The participants in this study were chosen with the use of purposive sampling technique. This sampling technique is perfect for the study since it aims to look for the participants to which the topic is addressed. The researcher looked for the mothers who matched the criteria mentioned above. Procedure After the interview guide questions and consent forms were approved by the researcher‘s mentor, the process of looking for the targeted participants followed. The participants were contacted by the researcher and asked them if they are willing to participate in the study with their daughter. Afterwards, the schedule for the interview was set. The interview sessions occurred only once with varying lengths per participant. On the day of the interview which happened at the participant‘s house, they were asked to sign the approved consent forms which gave the researcher the permission to record the interview conversation. Also, they were debriefed about the confidentiality of whatever information that will be obtained from their responses. The interview went like a day to day conversation and also the use of the vernacular was observed to make them feel more comfortable. After the interview, the recorded audios were transcribed and analysed. Data Analysis The researcher used the qualitative research design in the study. Specifically, the in depth semi structured interview was done. After transcribing the recorded interview proceedings, the researcher grouped the responses into three: parental involvement, daughter‘s courtship decisions and criteria for potential boyfriend. The grouped responses aimed to identify the following: (1) the personal experiences of mothers in courtship (2) different ways that mothers involve themselves in their daughter‘s courtship process (3) daughter‘s response towards her mother‘s involvement in her courtship process (4) criteria set by the mother and the daughter towards courtship process. Interview transcriptions were analyzed according to their content and with objectivity in the researcher‘s mind. Prevalent responses from the participants were quoted for the main results. RESULTS The present study deals with the parental involvement of Filipino mothers towards the courtship decisions of their daughters. It aims to find out the following: (1) the personal experiences of mothers in courtship (2) different ways that mothers involve themselves in their daughter‘s courtship process (3) daughter‘s response towards her mother‘s involvement in her courtship process (4) criteria set by the mother and the daughter towards courtship process. A total of 20 participants were interviewed by the researcher for this study. Specifically, 10 female teen agers ages 13 to 16 years old and their respective mothers participated. In this section, responses of the participants were quoted and stated in groups. Results in general indicate that the Filipino mothers nowadays are getting themselves involved in the courtship
process of their daughters by giving advices and guidance to them. Daughters, on the other hand are in favor of it and they understand the set agreement between them and their mothers concerning courtship matters. PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT Filipino Mothers’ Courtship Experiences. 10 mothers were able to share in detail their own experiences of being courted. Their responses indicate that they have experienced a non – traditional type of courtship or one that does not include the use of harana, rendering service to the family of the girl and such. Stated below are the quoted responses from the mothers about their own courtship experiences. “Actually yung pagboboyfriend ko, marami akong naging boyfriend eh. ..ano naman yan eh…kumbaga actually hindi nga kami gaano katagal naging magboyfriend niyan eh.” - Mother 1 “Pero nung time ko naman nag aaccept ako ng manliligaw pero hindi yung talagang seryosohan. ..parang ano lang, puppy love…yung nakikidala ka lang sa flow ng kabataan noon. “ - Mother 2 “…even ako late na nung nagpaligaw eh.araw –araw pumupunta samin…phonepal ko.wala ako magawa eh, so nakipag phonepal ako sa kanya…” - Mother 3 “Wala kaming ligawan…tropa kami, matagal na kami magkakilala…isang beses may concert yung tropa niya, pumunta kami run…umuwi kami, dinala ako sa bahay nila…walang tao sa bahay nila kami lang…”- Mother 4 “…nakikipagkwentuhan, napunta sa bahay, yung ganung sitwasyon…wala na yung pinagsisilbhan ang magulang…”- Mother 5 “…kasi siya kapag nanligaw sinusundo ka sa trabaho, yung mga ganun…mga 6 months naging kami bago nagpakasal…” - Mother 6 ““Ayy oo. Nung dati nag aral ako ng high school, siya third year ako naman yung first year. Pero hindi ko yun inasawa. Hindi ko nga inintindi yung mga sulat sulat niya na ganito kasi wala nga. Wala sa akin yun noon… nakilala ko siya na kababayan…umabot pa yun ng 3 months…sabi ko kung gusto mo talaga ako gawin mo ang lahat…” - Mother 7 “ah nagkakilala kasi schoolmates kami pero nanligaw siya college days na…yung tropa – tropa tapos pupunta sa bahay…uso pa yung love letters nun tapos pupuntang bahay, papalipad hangin lang..” - Mother 8 “noon pagka nakikita kami ng magulang namin na may kasamang iba natatakot na kami…siyempre papagalitan ka eh…” - Mother 9
“kami naman nitong asawa ko nag aaya muna kunwari…tapos makikipagdate sayo…tapos magdadala ng bulaklak para mapasagot ka lang…” - Mother 10 Different Ways of Mothers’ Involvement. The most evident form of the mother‘s involvement is by giving advices and supporting their daughters in every decisions that they make. Also, the involvement of the mother is slowly fading as the daughter is getting older. Below are the responses of the mothers which were quoted to reveal the different ways that the mothers involve themselves in their daughter‘s courtship process. “Nandun lang ako sa likod nila na nangangaral, na eto kailangan ganito, may trabaho, pero yung gawa ko noon gagawin din nila, ay hindi.”- Mother 1 “...basta wag niyang pababayaan yung pag-aaral niya. Yun. Kailangan matapos muna niya hanggang college. Pagkatapos niya ng highschool, college na tapos bahala na siya.” - Mother 2 “I would always want to believe na sana part of their decisions would come from my influence, galing sa akin. Only because I know na wala naman akong itinurong pangit. So influence, yes I would like pero kung meron silang… If they think some of their decisions will not come from me, okay lang din. Kasi at the end of the day alam kong yung choices nila will be good also. Kasi na-guide and alam ko na they asked guidance from the Lord.” - Mother 3 “Siyempre una palang sabihan mo na. Ganun diba..sabihin mo na agad sa kanya na ganun. Siyempre alam mo naman yung karakas nung pupunta dyan. „Pag hindi okay sabihan mo na ang anak mo na „mag - ingat ka dyan‟. Tapos halimbawa sila na, kausapin mo yung lalaki. Sabihin mo na „ayoko ng lokohan‟.” - Mother 4 “Kung sakaling nakita kong may hindi maganda, tsaka lang ako magsasabi na „anak, may ugali siyang ganito‟ ganun lang. Nasa kanya na ang desisyon nun. Pero yung sabihin mo yung pakikipag boyfriend para pakialaman ko, mamili ako ng mayaman, gusto ko ganito, gusto ko ganyan, hindi.” - Mother 5 “Sabihan mo sa anak mo, ipa alala mo na wag muna magboyfriend kasi siyempre unahin muna dapat ang pag - aaral. Hindi mo din sila pwede pangunahan sa gusto nila. Kung may nagustuhan, mayaman man o mahirap, sabihan mo nalang yung anak mo. Di naman kami pwede mamili.” - Mother 6 “Ayy hindi ako mangialam basta nasa tamang edad na sila. Kaya na nila mabuhay mag isa. May konting higpit din pero kailangan imomonitor mo lang sila.” - Mother 7
“Ano lang kasi ako, parang kausap barkada. Yung ganun lang ako sa kanila. Nireremind ko lang sila na wag na lalampas sa limitations.” - Mother 8 “Ayy hindi siguro. Ay gusto niya yan eh. Alangan naman anuhin mo. Basta gusto nila edi gusto nila. Basta nasa tamang edad na sila.” - Mother 9 “Sinasabihan ko na siya na kapag magkaboyfriend siya, wag na siya mamili. Yun bang kahit pangit basta maganda ang ugali. Hindi ako dapat mangialam, siya na bahala dun basta kilatisin naman niya mabuti yung lalaki.” - Mother 10 DAUGHTER’S COURTSHIP DECISIONS Daughter’s Experience on Courtship. Out of 10 daughters who participated, only two of them have their boyfriends. They willingly shared how they were courted by their present boyfriends. The rest of the participants, even though they did not have their boyfriends have shared their own experiences of being courted. Meron nang nanligaw po sakin pero bata pa po ako nun eh… Grade 6 tapos eh hindi ko po siya inentertain kasi nga po bata palang po ako tapos tsaka ang talagang ano ko po talaga first and last boyfriend. Yung ganun. Kasi nga po gusto kong ano... tsaka sa tinuturo din po sa church namin na ireserve mo yung heart mo dun sa guy na deserve ka talaga. Yung as in yung last na talaga. Daughter 1 Yung sakin kasi actually hindi ko siya pinayagan manligaw kasi alam kong bawal. Alam ko na yun eh. Kasi siyempre studies muna before boys. Pero gumawa na kasi siya ng move. Parang eto, manliligaw na siya. Parang ganun so hinayaan ko nalang. - Daughter 2 “dumating yung time na umamin siya sakin…then sabi ko I respect yung pagiging friends natiin…” - Daughter 3 “meron po kami crush crush lang sa school…wala naman sa isip ko yung mga ganun…” - Daughter 4 “nung one time po siya po yung prom date ko…nag surprise po siya and nag ask kung pwede maging date…pero hindi ko po siya boyfriend kasi di nga po pwede” - Daughter 5 “…grade school pa yun eh…tapos hindi naman ineentertain kasi magagalit si papa…parang ano lang, nagpaparamdam, nagbibigay ng letter…” - Daughter 6 ―Kasi yung papa niya friend ng mama ko. Kapit bahay lang namin, katapat lang na bahay. Tapos yun sabi niya (referring to the guy‟s father) sakin pupunta daw yung anak niya. Then ayun nakipagkaibigan siya sakin tapos ayun, nanligaw na
siya sakin. Balewala lang sakin. Tapos yun naging friend kami. Diba lagi kami magkasama, ganun ganun. Tapos yun siguro kaya nagka develop-an… Sa personal siya nanligaw. Pati nga sa tita ko sinasabi niya eh. As in… Nakakahiya nga eh.‖ - Daughter 7 “Nung grade 6 po crush ko siya. Tapos nung first year kami nagkatext dahil po dun sa isa kong kaklase...binigay niya yung number ko dun. Tapos ayun na po hanggang sa nagka - aminan na. Sabi niya nung grade 5 siya yung may crush sa akin. Tapos nung tumagal po tinanong niya kung pwede manligaw. Tapos ayun po hanggang sa pumunta punta siya dito sa bahay tapos hinahatid niya ko.” Daughter 8 “minsan kasi sa school may nagtatawag ng pangalan ko …may nanghihingi din ng number…may nakakachat din ako sa facebook…pinakilala ng classmate ko…” - Daughter 9 ―Sa text lang. Kasi ano eh hindi ko siya pinapansin. Parang nagsusungit ako. Ayoko kasi, parang wala pa sa‟kin. Schoolmate ko siya. Tinatanong kung meron na daw akong bf (boyfriend). Sabi ko wala pa.‖ - Daughter 10 Daughter’s Response on Mother’s Involvement. One of the main objectives of the study is to find out the response of the daughter towards whatever ways her mother is involved in her courtship process. Most of the mothers have stated that their way of involving themselves into their daughter‘s courtship process is through giving advices and words of wisdom. 6 out of 10 daughters expressed their disagreement on the ways that their mothers are being involved. “Yung simula nung grade 6 hanggang ano hindi ko po sinasabi kasi parang ayoko po sabihin sa mama ko kasi nakakahiya. Nahihiya po ako pero alam ko naman... tsaka ano po kapag sinabi ko po sa mama ko gusto ko yung seryoso na. Parang ganun. “ - Daughter 1 “Feel ko hindi (when asked if her mother is distancing herself on courtship issues) kasi kagaya nga nung sabi ko kanina alam nila kung ano yung nangyayari sakin kahit hindi ko sabihin diba. Talagang alam nila. So imposible naman na wala silang alam na may ganito na ko.” - Daughter 2 “Okay ako dun, no complaints ako. Kasi ayoko mangyari na yung ibang mommies hindi sila open sa anak nila.” - Daughter 3 “Si mama kasi kapag may sasabihin ka sa kanya tungkol dun, halimbawa may gwapo, sasabhin niya kaagad „oh ano gusto mo na? gusto mo na?‟ OA (over acting) kaagad yung reaction niya. Okay lang naman sa akin pero paminsan hindi kasi parang nakaka turn off.” - Daughter 4
“Parang sa akin po, mas okay sana kung napag uusapan yung ganung bagay. Kasi yung ibang kaklase ko po napag uusapan din nila yun ng nanay nila. Pero sa tingin ko po ganito kami maging close ni mama eh. Yung tipong seryosohan.” - Daughter 5 “Wala pa siyang sinasabi sakin tungkol sa boyfriend kasi bata pa ako eh. Wala pa sa isip ko yung mga ganyan.” - Daughter 6 “Nagalit si mama nung nalaman na may boyfriend ako. Siyempre masakit din. Nakakatakot din kasi wala naman ako ibang mapagsabihan.” - Daughter 7 “Palagi po siya nagreremind sa akin, pero hindi naman po siya kumokontra. Suportado po niya. Pinapa alala niya po na sana wag muna mabuntis ngayon.” - Daughter 8 “Sabi niya bata pa raw para magka syota.” - Daughter 9 “Sabi nila baka daw may boyfriend na ako pero kahit na anong sabi ko, ayaw naman nila maniwala. Kaya paminsan hindi nalang ako nag oopen.” - Daughter 10 CRITERIA FOR POTENTIAL BOYFRIEND Criteria Set by the Mother and the Daughter. The criteria set by the mothers for their daughter‘s potential boyfriend is not in conflict with the ones set by their offspring. The most common include having a college degree, the presence of a stable job and being financially stable. Stated below are the responses of both the daughter and the mother in terms of their set standards for the daughter‘s potential boyfriend. Mother’s Criteria “Isa lang yung requirement ko…Christian, kahit anong klaseng buhay meron siya basta Christian…” - Mother 1 “…importante yung may tinapos ka…yung nakatapos na sila ng pag-aaral... at the same time both parents are interactive, yung nagkakasundo. ” - Mother 2 “…dalawa..dalawa lang, God fearing at tsaka may respeto sa magulang.” - Mother 3 “sakin kasi kapag may nanligaw sa anak ko yung siguraduhin niya lang di niya lolokohin anak ko…tsaka sana yung anak ko wag na tumingin sa face, sa bulsa.” - Mother 4
“ang ginagawa ko kasi sa manliligaw ng anak ko kinakaibigan ko…kapag di nakipagkaibigan sakin, sorry di tayo magkakasundo…” - Mother 5 “Siyempre yung may trabaho muna..tapos yung magalang sa magulang…” - Mother 6 “Siyempre yung may trabaho talaga para hindi siya magaya sa amin na maghihirap… tsaka dapat yung may sarili silang bahay.” - Mother 7 “Siyempre gusto ko yung unang una magiging stable sila, siya. Tsaka dapat yung hindi siya sasaktan. ” - Mother 8 “Eh maganda yung may trabaho talaga. Pero yung mayaman, di.. Wala yan samin basta may trabaho lang, yun lang. Tsaka yung hindi matapobre tapos yung kasundo ko ang magulang. Baka mamaya api - apihin yung anak ko edi kaming dalawa naman ang mag rambol.” - Mother 9 “Yung gusto ko yung may trabaho. Tapos yung sinasabi ko sa kanya na di bale nang pangit basta maganda ang ugali.” - Mother 10 Daughter’s Criteria “Ako po, isa din po yung dapat Christian kasi gusto ko parehas lang din po kami nung paniniwala, yung belief. Tapos yun nga po yung masipag din po kasi siyempre ayoko rin po yung dumating sa point na mag-asawa kami tapos ako lang din naman yung nakayod. Diba this days po yung mga babae nagtatrabaho. So gusto ko po yung tipong mapagmamalaki ko na talagang masipag siya.” Daughter 1 “Basta ang gusto ko lang sa lalaki okay lang kahit na pangit ka or gwapo ka basta nakatapos ka ng pag-aaral mo. Yun yung number one. Parang dun lang. Tsaka hindi ka, yung responsable ka. Kasi ayoko talaga nung mga taong mga hindi ganun. So yun lang.” - Daughter 2 “Actually right now I have none. Kasi parang lahat ng criteria na sineset ko, nababalewala. As long as he‟s kind, ganun. Mabait, tapos matalino, sporty let‟s say, talented, yun lang.” -Daughter 3 “Matalino, tapos ano… Wala naman sa panlabas na ano yan eh. Basta para sakin, may pagpapahalaga siya sa ibang tao. Ayun lang” - Daughter 4 “Dati po nung bata ako parang sa crush po meron ako… Parang gusto ko po athletic, parang mga ganun po. Eh pero ngayon po pag nalalaman ko sa mga kaklase ko parang hindi naman kailangan ng criteria basta kapag alam mo lang
na yung taong yun mapapasaya ka edi parang enough naman na po yun.” Daughter 5 “Gwapo, tapos sincere, caring, loving tsaka mabait.” - Daughter 6 “Gusto ko kasi talaga sa isang guy yung matangkad. Kasi mas matangkad ako sa kanya (referring to her boyfriend) tapos yung maalalahanin tsaka yung iniintindi rin ako.” - Daughter 7 “Gusto ko din sana yung nakapagtapos na din siya. Tapos yung okay naman ang family background kasi mahirap na.” - Daughter 8 “Simple lang, walang bisyo tapos di nagsusugal, ayun lang.” - Daughter 9 “Gusto ko sana yung matalino, mabait...tsaka yung kagalang - galang… sana yung kaya ako ipagmalaki sa magulang niya, tapos yung mga bagay na meron ako, hindi niya kaya mabago.” - Daughter 10
DISCUSSION PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT Filipino Mothers’ Courtship Experiences. The mothers have shared their own experiences of being courted by their present husbands. Their responses revealed that they themselves have not experienced the traditional courtship. As stated by Sanchez (2012), technological advancements have occurred during the 1980s up to 1990s and this paved the way for changes on how the process of courtship is being done. The use of ―pen pal‖ or courting by writing letters addressed to the girl is being observed in the answer of Mother 7 and 8. Aside from writing love letters or ―pen pal‖, the term ―phone pal‖ or constant telephone calls between the boy and the girl is being observed. This is another effect of the technological advancement that occured prior to the 20th century. This was observed on the courtship experience of Mother 3. Different Ways of Mothers’ Involvement. The ways that the mothers involve themselves in their daughter‘s courtship process support the stand of Crank (2002) that parents should assist their children in their decisions. There must be no pressure coming from the parents as they participate in the decisions of their children. Also, he pointed out that they should protect their children in any possible harm and temptations. As seen from the mother‘s responses especially that of Mother 8 and 4, it is evident that they try their best to protect them from any harm. From this, we can see that it is also true when Jocano (2000) have pointed out that the mothers warn their daughters about their actions since she is capable of bearing a child.
DAUGHTERS’ COURTSHIP DECISIONS Daughter’s Experience on Courtship. Surprisingly, majority of the daughters age 13 to 16 who participated have experienced courtship in different forms. Only 2 out of 10 daughters were not able to share their experiences since there‘s none. However, they revealed that they do have crushes at school, in their community and even in the television programs or media icons that they watch nowadays. The shared experiences of the daughters are proofs of how the process of courtship has changed nowadays. These changes were identified by ChyrmythWagas (2011) and according to her, courtship on the modern days can be done through our cellular phones and the internet. Also, the use of ―pick - up lines‖ is being observed. The courtship experiences of the daughters include the use of the above mentioned gadgets and the internet specifically through the different social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter etc. Even if the process of courtship has changed nowadays, there are still some daughters who prefer to play ―hard to get‖. This is in tandem with the expectation of the Philippine society on the adolescent girls that was mentioned by Lighthouse (2013). Daughter’s Response on Mother’s Involvement. Varying thoughts can be seen from the responses of the daughters. Some would agree on how their mothers involve themselves in their daughter‘s courtship process. Some were not in favor of it. From this we can see an additional source of conflict aside from the ones stated above by Dubbs (2010a), Dubbs (2010b) and Perilloux (2010). Aside from the conflict over the choice of potential boyfriend, there is also a disagreement on the ways that the mothers involve themselves in their daughter‘s courtship process. Majority or 6 out of the 10 daughters stated disagreement on their mother‘s involvement in different forms. These conflicts can be seen from the responses of daughter 1, 2, 4, 5, 7 and 10. CRITERIA FOR POTENTIAL BOYFRIEND Criteria Set by the Mother and the Daughter. Four out of the five identified traits by Jocano (2000) are in tandem with the ideal boyfriend traits of the daughters. The criteria set by both the mothers and the daughters comprise the physical and the non - physical ones. Contradictory to the result of the study made by Buunk and Solano (2010), not all of the daughters are prioritizing the physical aspects of their potential boyfriend. In fact, as stated above in the results, the mother and daughter both agree that the man should have a college degree, must be financially stable and must exhibit good morals. Usually, these traits are being considered by the parents first. But here, we can see that the daughters are being matured enough in considering the non - physical traits of the guy over the physical ones. However, there are still some who included the physical traits of the man in their standards like daughter 6 and 7. According to them, marriage is not being considered right now on their age that‘s why they are not yet too futuristic on the standard s that they are setting.
It is also noticeable that most of the traits mentioned both by the mother and daughters are inclined to the values learned in the family and the good assets of the family members. Most of them looked for the non - physical rather than the physical aspects. As stated by Jocano (2000), Filipinos are family oriented. Their goals in life are centered upon the family. This is evident on the characteristics set by the mother and the daughter.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION The study in general probed the parental involvement of Filipino mothers on their daughters‘ courtship process. In total, 10 Filipino mothers and their respective daughters ages 13 to 16 years old participated. Results from the interview of the participants have indicated that the mothers no longer experience the traditional style of courtship or one that is being participated much by the parents of the girl. The mothers still somehow get themselves involved on their daughter‘s courtship process by giving their advices, words of wisdom and by guiding their daughters. Dictating their child on the characteristics of their potential boyfriend is not observed. On the other side, the daughters feel that even if they tend to hide some things to their mother, she will still know what‘s really going on due to her motherly instinct and own ways of supervising her daughter. As far as the trait of the potential boyfriend is concerned, the daughters nowadays are more matured and they consider the same traits that their mothers have considered. In a nutshell, the process of courtship in the Philippines nowadays receives a minimal amount of parental involvement. The daughters are given the chance to choose their potential boyfriend in the future. The mother‘s involvement is kept to a minimum level through their guidance and supervision. Due to the limitations set by the study, it is further recommended that a similar study including the fathers will be done to explore the variations in the involvement of the mother and the father in their daughter‘s courtship decisions. It is also possible to explore different dyads in the family such as father - daughter, mother - son and father - son relationship. Future research on the personal courtship experiences of the parents and its effect to their participation on their child‘s courtship decisions can also be done. Interested researchers may also change the age range of the offspring to produce different results concerning the engagement and wedding phase of the courtship process.
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Upadhyay, U.D., Hindin, M.J., & Gultiano, S. (2005). Before first sex: Gender differences in emotional relationships and physical behaviors among adolescents in the Philippines. International Family Planning Perspectives, 32(3), 110-119. Woodward, K., & Richards, M.H. (2004). The parental investment model and minimum mate choice criteria in humans. Behavioral Ecology, 16(1), 57 – 61. doi: 10.1093/beheco/arh121 YouthNet UK. (2008). The history of courtship. Retrieved from http://www.thesite.org/sexandrelationships/singles/dealingwithdates/thehistoryofcourtship
Appendix A Guide Interview Questions for the Mothers 1. Please tell me your idea of the word ―COURTSHIP‖. 2. What do you think of the process of courtship nowadays? 3. Can you please share your own experiences on courtship? 4. Do you happen to know if your daughter‘s been to a romantic relationship? 5. What is your stand about it? 6. What will you do if somebody courted your daughter? Appendix B Guide Interview Questions for the Daughters 1. Please tell me your idea of the word ―COURTSHIP‖. 2. What do you think of the process of courtship nowadays? 3. Have you ever been courted by a guy? 4. If not, do you have crushes at school? 5. Do you also update your mother about all these things? 6. What was the reaction of your mother upon telling it to her? 7. In case, she doesn‘t know, what stops you from telling her? 8. What does your mother tell you whenever you talk about these things? 9. How do you feel about it?
Life Satisfaction and Happiness among Orphaned Young Adults Patricia Familar Prof. Margaret Sanapo, Ph.D
The primary objective of the study is to focus on Filipino orphans and their satisfaction with life and happiness. The study is qualitative and descriptive in nature. Results showed that orphanages and foster families do not only give support physiologically but they also provide emotional stability to orphans. Future research includes the psychological well-being of these orphans and a larger sample size with wider age range.
Would you believe that in every 2.2 second a child loses a parent somewhere in the world (SOS Children‘s Village, 2010)? In rearing a child, the best way to keep them healthy is through the care of their mother; however, orphans are not even given this option. According to Orphan Epidemic (2009-2010), children are becoming orphans at a faster rate than children being adopted to families. Extreme poverty and untreatable diseases are seen as the core reason behind growing numbers of orphans. Over the recent years, problems concerning child welfare increases continuously. Global nation and local leaders are having a tough time finding care solutions to an estimated of 143,000,000 children worldwide who have at least one parent that died (Whetten et al., 2009). Orphans, according to Meintjes & Hall (2012), are defined as a minor whose mother, father or both biological parent have died. Beagle (2006) added that these orphans are left alone to support themselves or depend on a relative, or friends or caregivers. The United Nations Children‘s Fund (UNICEF) estimated that there are between 143 million to 210 million orphans worldwide. Some of these orphans have lost one or both of their parents while others were sent out to the streets by their own families. In the Philippines, there are approximately 2 million orphans. Most of these orphans were abandoned or relinquished and the stress of poverty leads to the loss of parental care. According to the Philippines Orphanage Foundation (2013), if we considered the number of square mileage of the Philippines and the number of orphans, there are nearly 15 orphans per square mile. Studies have been conducted in examining the impact of orphanhood to the subjective well-being of an orphaned child over the decade. However these studies mostly focused on AIDS-orphaned children (Cluver, Gardner & Operario, 2009). Researches also stated that parental attachment is seen as a factor of subjective and psychological well-being (Love and Murdock, 2004); in defining an orphan we all know that these are parent bereaved children. Having stated that the degree of the subjective well-being of an orphan and a non-orphan are relatively similar, this study seeks to identify other factors affecting the subjective well-being of an orphan. The present study aims to focus on Filipino orphans and their satisfaction with life and happiness. How do they perceive their circumstances? How do they describe their happiness?
How can they say that they are satisfied with life? What are the sources of strength or positive influences in contrast with the negative experiences one has growing up as an orphan? What are the positive roles of foster families in the life of an orphan?
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE The following talks about the different literature made regarding the impact of orphanhood on well-being, the definition of orphanhood and subjective well-being. The Impact of Orphanhood on Well-being For the past ten years, studies have been conducted examining the psychological wellbeing of orphans across time and across cultures. Cluver and Gardner (2006) compared data obtained on the well-being of orphaned and non-orphaned children in Africa. They found out that orphans viewed themselves as having no good friends, although both groups scored highly for peer performance and emotional problems. Orphans were also stated to be more likely to have constant nightmares. Using standardized questionnaires (SDQ), they did not find evidence on higher levels of self-reported emotional and behavioral problems in orphans. According to Makame, Ani and McGregor (2002), orphans whose basic needs were unmet had increased internalized problems with a small percentage of them contemplating suicide. Internalizing problems predictors were sex, going to bed hungry, no reward for good behavior, and being an orphan. In another study done by Cluver, Gardner and Operario (2009), orphans were more likely to experience psychological problems such as depression, peer problems, post-traumatic stress and conduct problems. Poverty was seen as the mediator of AIDS-orphanhood and psychological wellbeing. Another study by Zhao et al. (2007) conducted in China agrees with the findings of Cluver, Gardner and Operario (2009) and states that being an orphan has a negative impact on the physical and psychosocial well-being of AIDS-orphaned children. Nyamukapa et al. (2010) stated that psychological distress was found more prevalent in orphans rather than in non-orphans. Such effects of orphanhood as being out of school, being cared by a non-parent, having inadequate care, being involved in child labor, experiencing physical abuse, facing stigma and discrimination increased level of distress. A study done in Bohol by Golosino (2012) states that these children (left by their own parents behind) might become the future criminals and juvenile delinquents if they are left unattended. Orphanhood In the previous years, there have been a number of studies that investigated orphanhood and its effect on children. The term orphanhood refers to the state of a child whose parents have died. Most of the studies focused on children whose parents died from the sexually transmitted disease, HIV/AIDS.
Education Several studies have examined the link between education and orphanhood. Education is seen as a vital key in the development of the country. The increasing number of orphans is significantly related to the decreasing number of enrollees and the increasing rate of dropouts. According to Case, Paxson and Ableidinger (2004), education is very important to the development of a country. In their study focused on the orphans in Africa, the authors stated that poverty is not the only reason why orphans stop attending school. They found out that due to the orphans‘ tendency to live with their relatives, they develop an altruistic behavior where they are more likely to sacrifice schooling for helping their relatives around the house. The study also concluded that orphans are less likely to be enrolled rather than the non-orphans they live with. Similar findings have been reported in the studies conducted by Evans and Miguel (2007) and Ha, Salama, and Gwavuya (2012). The studies confirmed that being an orphan is more likely to lessen school participation and lead to the increased number of dropouts. Health and Nutrition The health and nutrition status of children was proven to be related to the state of orphanhood. Lindblade, Odhiambo, Rosen and Decock (2003) found out that the health indicators of orphans and non-orphans were similar. Furthermore, the health status of orphans and nonorphans living in the same community was the same. The study by Sarkar, Neckermann and Mullen (2005) supported these findings. Although self-reported morbidity is higher in orphans rather than non-orphans, indicators of health status are still the same, as stated in the earlier studies. Well-being According to Abdel-Khalek (2012), subjective well-being includes life satisfaction, the love of life, and happiness. In the study, Abdel-Khalek correlated three variables, namely health, both physical and mental health, religiosity, which is defined as one's perception of his/her own level of religiosity, and psychological well-being. The study reported that these variables show positive and significant correlations. Participants who rated themselves highly in subjective wellbeing and health had very high scores in religiosity. Similar findings were drawn from a study done by Leondari and Gialamas (2009) on religiosity and well-being. The results of the study showed the positive correlation between the two variables. In the study, the authors used general life satisfaction, depression, anxiety, and loneliness as measures of well-being. The authors pointed out that the higher level of religiosity of a person is associated with the lesser degree of psychological distress. An earlier research conducted by Pil-Yoon and Lee (2006) agreed with the findings reported by Leonardi and Gialamas (2009). Even though Pil-Yoon and Lee‘s study focused on rural areas while Leonardi and Gialamas‘ study focused on urban areas, the two studies reported similar findings.
In another study conducted by Love and Murdock (2004), parental attachment was seen as a predictor of well-being. The authors concluded that attachment mediated the relationship between family and well-being. SYNTHESIS The research in the area of orphanhood over the past decade has focused on the impact of orphanhood on the subjective well-being of an individual. Most studies were conducted in Africa (Case, Paxson and Ableidinger, 2004;Cluver and Gardner, 2006), and only a few of them were conducted in Asia and most of these studies were focused on AIDS-orphaned child. The research showed that orphans and non-orphans display similar degrees of psychological well-being. However, orphans were reported to be more likely to experience psychological distress due to their living circumstances such as poverty, unmet basic needs and being an orphan in itself. Some studies have also investigated the relationship between orphanhood and education. The research findings found that orphans are more likely to drop out of school (Ha, Salama & Gwavuya, 2012). Another aspect that researchers on orphanhood focused on is health and nutrition of orphans. The studies conducted in this area showed that orphans and non-orphans have similar health indicators and health status (Lindblade, Odhiambo, Rosen & Decock, 2003). Studies on subjective well-being of orphans reported a positive correlation between religiosity and subjective well-being (Lionardi & Gialamas, 2009). It was found out that the higher level of religiosity of an individual leads to a lower level of psychological distress. The literature review revealed some contradictory findings. Some studies showed that the well-being among orphans and non-orphans do not differ (Cluver & Gardner, 2006). Love and Murdock (2004) stated on the other hand that parental attachment serves as a predictor of psychological well-being. This raises a question what other factors besides parental attachment contribute to the well-being of orphans. METHOD
This chapter includes the research design, participants, research instruments, procedures
and data analysis. Research Design A qualitative design was utilized in this study to explore the depth of the phenomenon. The study is a case study which is descriptive in nature. In-depth interview was used to gather needed data. A systematic approach was used to describe the life experiences of orphans and give meaning to it. Participants A sample of N=15 orphans, ranging from 18-25 years old, who are currently staying in an orphanage or living with a foster family were selected and interviewed. The sample was expected
to have been separated from their biological parents during their childhood days. Participants were chosen by the use of purposive sampling which gives access to a particular set of people. The researcher will look for participants who fit the criteria. This sampling technique is based on the population and the purpose of the study. Research Instruments The data was utilized through an interview. The researcher prepared a self-made questionnaire with open-ended questions that will be used as guide throughout the course of the interview. Questions such as, what are the experiences you had as a child? How would you describe your life standing at the point in where you are now? Questions such as these were employed. The researcher will also use a voice recorder and a camera, with the consent of the participants, for the documentation of data. Procedures To inform participants of the nature of the study, the researcher disseminated consent letters to be approved by the target population. After receiving the approvals, the researcher then cleared the schedule of the participants to identify the days of the interviews. Several interviews were conducted in order to gather sufficient data needed for the study. These interviews had a minimum of 45 minutes each session. The researcher interviewed two participants per day. Confidentiality was assured to the participants so that they will answer truthfully. Debriefing was done after all the interviews were conducted. Data Analysis The researcher used the constant comparison analysis in order to analyze the data gathered. The analysis utilized the entire dataset to understand concepts or ideas presented through the data obtained. After reading through the entire data, the researcher then divided the data into meaningful parts and labeled each one according to similarity. The researcher interpreted each part of the transcribed data in order to answer the research problem.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The study dealt with the happiness and the life satisfaction of young adult Filipino orphans. There were 7 orphans from an orphanage and 8 orphans living with a foster family. A total of 15 orphans were interviewed. This study aims to find out the following: (1) Orphans perception of where they are now (2) The level of happiness and life satisfaction of orphans (3) The positive influences in contrast with the negative experiences one has growing up as an orphans (4) positive roles of orphanages and foster families in the life of an orphan. Based on the gathered data, Orphans are very much focused on the things that they have now and the goals they want to achieve. Perception of where they are now The orphans described the circumstances they are experiencing as satisfactory, but lacking in some areas, which mostly concern future goals and aspirations. Their satisfaction with life and happiness depended on their source of strength or the one who sustains them. Most of them focused on what they have now and on different ways on how to become successful in the future. One of them stated that studying is basically his life now and he just focuses on how to make his grades better. “puro aral na lang ako sa buhay ko eh yun na lang priority ko sa buhay kasi ako nga hindi ba wala nga akong family, sa foundation lang ako nakatira. kaya yun puro aral lang, kaya siguro nasasabi ko na matataas din grades ko kasi dun na ako nakafocus.” Participant 1 Orphans were more likely to experience psychological problems such as peer problems and post-traumatic stress (Cluver, Gardner and Operario, 2009).Nyamukapa et al. (2010) also added that psychological distress is rampant in orphans rather than non-orphans. Experiencing physical abuse and discrimination are said to serve as one of the causes of increased level of distress. This serves true for some of the orphans who have experienced physical and sexual abuse. As stated by two participants: “binu-bully po ako sa school dati..” -Participant 2 “nung andun kasi ako sa lola ko, hndi kasi sya molestya eh nakaramdam ako ng parang ganun. lola ko, matanda na may boyfriend pa, dahil dun ilang ako sa lalake. Kahit ngayon puro babae mga kaibigan ko” -Participant 3 Makami, Ani and Mcgregor (2002), stated that orphans has a higher percentage of internalized problems and a small portion of these orphans contemplates suicide. A participant stated that when he was inside the orphanage, he was thinking of taking his own life. “may mga times na parang gusto mo ng magpakamatay kasi, actually ako nga parang may time na ganun kasi nga buong buhay ko nasa orphanage ako. tas kung ikaw sayo
ipapa-experience parang kung konti lang self-confidence mo parang gusto mo ng magpakamatay. Hindi ba yung mga tao sa ibang bansa nagpapakamatay na lang kasi nga ganun yung nangyare sa buhay nila. Pero ako kasi siguro din dahil christian yung mga si mami at nag chu-church kami. ” -Participant 1 Religiosity was also very prevalent in the participants and was seen to have positive influences on them. This is parallel to the results that Leonardi and Gialamas (2009) had in terms of the positive effect of religiosity towards well-being. Most of the orphans acknowledge the presence of a higher being working through their life and supplying them with people who has the ability to take care of them. Their beliefs help them turn the negative experiences that they faced into lessons they learn which produces positive influence in life. Some even states that the past is already the past, why be trapped there when you are living at a different place at a different time (participant 7). They are very much focused on where they are now and the blessings which they have received, either from a higher-being or simply from their caretakers. Abdel-Khalek (2012) added that participants who rated themselves high in subjective well-being and health, have very high scores in religiosity. On the other hand, in contrast with what studies have shown pertaining to the decreasing percentage in school participation due to the reason of being an orphan done by the following authors Case, Paxson and Ableidinger (2004) ,Evans and Miguel (2007) and Ha, Salama, and Gwavuya (2012), the data showed that studying was seen as the key to a life that is satisfying, one of the participants even stated that his studies are more important than finding out who his real parents are (participant 1). Most of the orphans felt immense gratitude towards the ones who took care of them for having them sent to school and being able to financially support them along the way. Happiness Happiness level of orphans from an orphanage and the ones living with a foster family ranged from low to high levels of happiness. As we can see in the table below, most of the orphans have average level of happiness. This was caused by different factors that impacted one's life as they were growing up. Some of them were focusing on what happened to them before but most of them were looking at the things they have now and have achieved. According to 8 out of the 15 participants, they are generally happy because of where they are now and they turn their gratitude to the one taking care of them. Some of the participants expressed their thankfulness to their caretakers who were always with them. “Okay naman ako ngayon dahil andiyan naman si mama na nag-aalaga sakin.” -Participant 3
“Oo masaya naman ako, kasi pinagaral ako ng lola ko, inlagaan nila ako. Tumutulong
din yung mga tita at tito ko para makatapos din ako sa pag-aaral. Mababait naman po eh” - Participant 6
One of them stated that she has overcome her shyness and have overcome her fear of approaching people.
“Oo, masaya naman ako, ngayon nakakaya ko nang humarap sa ibang tao at
makipagusap sakanila” -Participant 2 Seven of them stated that they are happy due to the fact that they can study and receives financial support from the caretakers. Others, on the other hand, had low level happiness because they still wanted to meet their parents or due to their living circumstance as an orphan. We can see how different an orphan who lives with foster family perceives his/her happiness and on that stays in a foundation.
“Syempre may mga malungkot na part, syempre sa buhay naman natin may mga
malulungkot na part meron din naming Masaya pero karamihan nga hindi Masaya kasi saming batang nasa foundation pag tinanong na masaya ka ba? Syempre sasabhin mo na hndi parang nakakulong.” Participant 1 (lives in a foundation) “Yup, masaya at kuntento ako. pero di talagang maiiwasan na hanapin ang biological parents.” -Participant 8 (lives with foster family)
“Okay naman ako ngayon, malungkot pag minsan pero naigiging masaya din naman,
andiyan naman mga kaibigan ko para makausap pero iba pa din talaga pag andiyan ang mama mo.”-Participant 12 (lives with a foster family) Although the participants from the orphanage stated that they were happy with the company that their friends gave them, the relationship was merely of face value. They would play together, have fun together, but it only stops there. They do not share important, meaningful, deep conversations about what happened to them in the past or even make those experiences as learning tools for other orphans in the orphanage. One of them even said that she would rather have been alone because it felt the same every night whenever she was about to go to sleep. One of them linked it to the problems he is facing as of now and not due to the mishaps he has faced growing up as an orphan throughout the interview with this participant. ―Hindi ako masaya. Some typical problem for my age. There‟s this girl i love since HS. I love her truly and I still love her right now. Pero nakipag break siya because she fell out of love daw. Things like that. Pero somehow lilipas din to.” - Participant 9 Orphans find their comfort through the things that they have now and the people around them who gives them support. Their happiness level is very dependent on other people and is focused on where they are brought about by circumstances. It depends on the present situations they are facing, the people who took care of them and the support they get from these people.
Life Satisfaction Some of all of the orphans‘ life satisfaction were neutral, while others were ranging from slightly dissatisfied to satisfied. Their satisfaction in life was more focused on what they do not have and the things that make them busy now. Some of them were dissatisfied because they still have things to achieve in life. Their life satisfaction depended on the goals they have set for themselves. “madami pa akong gustong maabot sa buhay ko pa, gusto ko makagraduate para masuportahan ko sarili ko.”-Participant 11 “kuntento? oo. Pero may mga bagay ako na gusto maabot. Medyo nakalagpas na ko sa stage na loner type. At some point nagiging strength ko ang problema ko”-Participant 9 “masasabi ko pong satisfied ako, siguro mas okay po kung kasama ko po yung mama at papa ko pero okay na, okay lang yan” -Participant 14
The satisfied ones, on the other hand, focus on the help they have been receiving financially
and the support they get to finish their studies in order to finish their own goals. “nagpapasalamat po ako sa mga lola ko na kahit na hindi naman sila dapat ang nagaalaga sa akin, tinutulungan pa din nila ako sa abot gn makakaya nila. Kahit na anong mangyari ako ang magaalaga sa lola ko pag laki ko.” –Participant 5 The degree of their satisfaction with life, on the other hand, depends on the future goal they have yet to achieve that is the reason why majority of them were not very satisfied with their life now. Positive influence being an orphan The negative experiences one has growing up as an orphan still omitted positive influence to their lives. Religiosity was seen to have great effects on turning negative circumstances to lessons in life which produces a positive outlook. “Si Lord binigay na niya sakin si mami.parang siya na rin yung nanay ko kasi sa nagdaang taon na buhay ni mami ako lang inalagaan nya.”-Participant 1 “siguro yung nangyare sakin, di ko naman masasabi na maganda talaga yun pero may maganda namang nadulot. tulad ng binago ni Lord buhay ko, binigyan niya ako ng pamilya kahit na wala talga ako sa totoong pamilya ko pinakita niya sa akin kung gaano ako ka blessed” -Participant 2 “kasi dati di ko kayang makipagusap [sa ibang tao], parang hindi ako naglalabas ng sama ng loob,parang inaangkin ko lang pero dahil nakilala ko na nga si God parang narealize ko sa sarili ko na kaya ko palang magimprove, parang kaya kong baguhin ang
sarili ko,nakikita ko na isang araw pag nakatapos may maganda kang buhay” Participant 3 Religiosity was very prevalent in the participants and was seen to have positive influences on them. This is parallel to the results that Leonardi and Gialamas (2009) had in terms of the positive effect of religiosity towards well-being. Most of the orphans acknowledge the presence of a higher being working through their life and supplying them with people who has the ability to take care of them. Their beliefs help them turn the negative experiences that they faced into lessons they learn which produces positive influence in life. Some even states that the past is already the past, why be trapped there when you are living at a different place at a different time (participant 7). They are very much focused on where they are now and the blessings which they have received, either from a higher-being or simply from their caretakers. Abdel-Khalek (2012) added that participants who rated themselves high in subjective well-being and health, have very high scores in religiosity. Negative experiences lead the orphans to develop autonomy, altruistic behavior and a sense of freedom. “yung nakakapagaral ako ng wala sila [mga mgaulang ko] tapos naipapasa ko ang mga exam ko kahit wala sila, di kasi yung mga iba may mga magulang talaga na tinitingnan yung anak nila. tapos nakakapag gala ako pero kasi kung may magulang ka di masyadong pwede ang ganon pero ako hindi nakakagala ako basta umuuwi ako ng bahay pinapabayaan lang ako ng lola ko” - Participant 6 “natuto akong mag-isa, parang kaya kong gumawa ng kahit wala sila [magulang ko], kaya kong mag-isa.” -Participant 14 “pag laki ko ako ang mag-aalga sa lola ko dahil sakanya maganda ang buhay ko ngayon at mahal na mahal ko siya higit sa lahat.” –Participant 15 These orphans have this preconceived responsibility that they are carrying and the need to repay their caretakers are really strong. Conviction as to what they are planning ahead was clearly seen throughout the course of the interview. To get rich and be able to repay everything is what they desire.
Some of them even stated that they did not take being an orphan negative at all. “nakapag aral ako, malusog ako, walang pagkukulang parents ko and everything. pina adopt ako sa iba kasi, yun nga, iniwan ng biological yung biological mom ko and walang trabaho yung mom ko. so it ended up na kailangan niya ako ipa ampon para mabigyan ng magandang kinabukasan at kalusugan. mahal lang niya ako.” -Participant 8 “Siguro nga mas maganda pa yung iniwan ako sa orphanage kesa sa pabayaan lang ako, may mga bata nga na baby pa lang pinapabayaan na sa kalsada, tinatapon na lang sa mga kalye. Tapos ano rin iniisip ko din syempre di naman puro negative syempre may
mga positive, siguro di nga ako kaya alagaan ng mama ko, siguro yung pera na nakukuha nya di pa sapat para sa mga pambili ng gatas, tsaka ng mga diaper syempre parang di niya kaya siguro.” -Participant 1 Positive influences of orphanages and foster families The role of orphanages and foster families to the lives of orphans are very important. They meet the children‘s basic needs for survival and hone them into successful individuals in our society. Living in an orphanage has its positive influences on orphans staying there as well as living with foster families. According to the orphans in an orphanage, here are the positive influences of orphanages together with the negative influence: “Masaya, naglalaro kme ng mga kaibigan ko, kwentuhan lang ng nakaraan, malungkot kasi di kame lumalabas parang paulit ulit na lang unlike pag nasa labas ka pwede maiba.” -Participant 3 “Sakin naman ano parang na eexperience ko dati yung parang nasa kulungan ka din, yung parang nakakulong ka na hindi mo nagagwa yung mga gusto mo , tulad ng mga may parents na nagpapaalam sila, nakakapunta sila kung san-san, kami bahay, eskwelahan, tapos uwe ulit sa bahay tas tulog parang narealize ko na paulit ulit lang yung ginagawa ko kaya minsan parang nagsasawa na dn ako, na gusto ko ng umalis kaya dati nung nasa ratchet ako, lumayas ako.” -Participant 1 “Nagkaroon ako ng mga kaibigan at nagkaroon ako ng karamay sa mga nakasama ko sa loob. Kahit na medyo malungkot, nakakayanan naman namin kasi sama sama naming hinaharap” -Participant 15 On the other hand, here are the positive roles in contrast with the negative ones that one experiences living with a foster family “maraming positive na nadulot yung pag. nakapag aral ako, malusog ako, walang pagkukulang parents ko and everything. pina adopt ako sa iba kasi, yun nga, iniwan ng biological yung biological mom ko and walang trabaho yung mom ko. so it ended up na kailangan niya ako ipa ampon para mabigyan ng magandang kinabukasan at kalusugan. mahal lang niya ako.” -Participant 9 “simula bata ako [lola ko na ang alaga sakin] andiyan lagi ang lola ko. Minsan pag nagkakatabe kami ng lola ko naguusap kami ng masinsinan. oo [napapagusapan namin ang damdamin ko]” -Participant 5 “si lola po ang sumasagot ng mga tanong ko kapag nagtatanong po ako tungkol sa mga magulang ko. Siya po nagsasabi sakin na mahal po daw niya ako, tapos po tinutulungan naman po ako ng mga kamag-anak ko sa pag-aaral eh, mababait naman po sila” Participant 6
“may mga times [na hindi ko nararamdaman na tunay na anak ako] pero naiintindihan ko naman. matatanda kasi , alam mo naman yung mga dila nila. masakit for awhile tapos pag inisip ko sa kwarto naiintindihan ko.” -Participant 11 Orphanages and foster families serve an important part to the lives of these orphans. They serve as their support both physiological and emotional well-being of orphans. Orphanages house a lot of children in need that is why sometimes the support emotionally is weak. Foster Families on the other hand provides adequate support although sometimes the child may seem to feel indifferent to the family. Nevertheless, both provide adequate help in answering the needs of orphans and honing them to be successful individuals in the society. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION The study in general focuses on the life satisfaction and happiness of Filipino orphaned young-adult. The sample composed of 15 young-adults who are orphans, either living in an orphanage or with a foster family, ranging from 18-25 years of age. Results from the interviews showed perceived happiness and satisfaction with life of the participants. It indicated that their happiness focused on what they have now showing average levels of happiness and the satisfaction with life focused on what they want to achieve showing dissatisfaction. The negative experiences before was used as a comparison to the life they have now turning them into challenges that one has succeeded to exceed and orphanages and foster families helped in doing so. They served as the support needed by these orphans in the absence of the biological parents. Although both have negative point, nevertheless they served as the orphans‘ family, to which they owe a lot to. The researcher recommends to explore deeper the subjective-well-being of an orphan. Future researchers might also tap to the psychological well-being of orphans. They may take in consideration the reason of the death of the biological parents, the subjective and the psychological well-being of the orphan, a larger sample size and wider age ranges.
REFERENCES Abdel-Khalek, A. M. (2012). The relationships between subjective well-being, health, and religiosity among young adults from Qatar. Mental Health, Religion & Culture. DOI: 10.1080/13674676.2012.660624 Case, A. Paxson, C. Ableidinger, J. (2004). Orphans in Africa: Parental Death, Poverty and School Enrollment, 41 (3). Cluver, L. and Gardner, F. (2006). Risk and protective factors for psychological well-being of children orphaned by AIDS in Cape Town: a qualitative study of children and caregivers‘ perspectives. AIDS Care: Psychological and Socio-medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV, 19(3), 318-325 Cluver, L., Gardner, D., and Operario, F. (2009). Parental illness, caregiving factors and psychological distress among children orphaned by acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in South Africa. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies: An International Interdisciplinary Journal for Research, Policy and Care, 4(3), 185-198 Empower Orphans. (2009). Challenges. Retrieved from http://www.empowerorphans.org/ Evans DK, Miguel E. (2007) Orphans and schooling in Africa: A longitudinal analysis, 44, 35– 57. Golosino, E. (2012). The portfolio management of orphanages in Bohol. International Journal of Social Sciences, North America, Retreived from http://ejournals.ph/index.php?journal=IAMURE-SOCSCI &page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=5655&path%5B%5D=5847 Ha, W., Salama, P,. Gwavuya, S. (2012). The impact of orphanhood on education attendance in zimbabwe. Retrived from http://pag.ias2011.org/PAGMaterial/aids2012/eposters/ 8931.pdf Joint Council on international children‘s services. (2010). Philippines: A country update. Retrieved from http://www.jointcouncil.org/philippines-a-country-update/ Leonardi, A. and Gialamas, V. (2009). Religiosity and psychological well-being. International Journal of Psychology, 4(3). doi: 10.1080/00207590701700529 Leondari A. & Gialamas, V. (2009). Religiosity and psychological well‐being, International Journal of Psychology, 44 (4), 241-248. Lindblade, K. A., Odhiambo, F., Rosen, D.H., Decock, K. M. (2003). Health and Nutritional Status of orphans 6 years old cared for by relatives in western Kenya. 8:1, 67-72.
Love, K. M. & Murdock, T. B. (2004). Attachment to Parents and Psychological Well-Being: An Examination of Young Adult College Students in Intact Families and Stepfamilies. Journal of Family Psychology. vol 18(4). 600-608. doi: 10.1037/0893-3184.108.40.2060 Makame, V., Ani, C., and McGregor, S. (2007). Psychological well-being of orphans in Dar El Salaam, Tanzania. Acta Paediatrica. 91(4), p. 459-465. doi: 10.1111/j.16512227.2002.tb01671.x Orphan Epidemic. (2010). Children left behind. Retrieved from http://www.orphanepidemic.com/about/childrenleftbehind/ Orphan‘s Lifeline of Hope International. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.howtohelporphans.org/bythenumbers.html Pil Yoon, D. & Lee, E. O. (2006). The Impact of Religiousness, Spirituality, and Social Support on Psychological Well-Being Among Older Adults in Rural Areas. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 48(3-4) ,281-298. Sarkar, M., Neckermann, C., Mullen, O. (2005). Assessing the health status of young AIDS and other orphans in Kuala Lumpur. 10(3), 210-215. SOS Children‘s Village Canada. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.soschildrensvillages.ca/ where-we-help/asia/philippines/pages/default.aspx SOS Children‘s Village (2010). Caring for children with special needs in Mexico: World Orphan Week. Retrieved from http://www.soschildrensvillages.org.uk/about-ourcharity/archive/ 2010/02/world-orphan-week-special-feature-caring-for-children-withspecial-needs-in-mexico United Nations Children‘s Fund. (2012). Orphans. Retrieved from http://www.unicef.org/ media/media_45279.html Zhao et al. (2007). Care arrangement, grief, and psychological problems among children orphaned by AIDS in China. AIDS Care, 19(9), 1075–1082.
APPENDIX A Interview Guide Questions
1. How do you see yourself? 2. Are you schooling/working? 3. When was the last time you saw your parents? 4. How would you describe your life standing at the point in where you are now? 5. What were the challenges that were brought about by growing up without parents? APPENDIX B Consent Form
Name of Institution St. Address City
To whom it may concern,
Good day! I am Patricia Louise L. Familar, a fourth year psychology student in San Beda College Alabang and I am currently doing research on the life satisfaction and happiness of orphans. This study aims to understand the well-being of orphans and how institutions and foster families affect them. I would just want to ask you if I could interview __ orphans to take part in this study. Interviews will be done on days that the child is free and it will take roughly an hour or so. Two (2) or more interviews will be done so that more data will be gathered. Participation in this study will remain confidential and the child‘s identity will not be stored in the data. The child may withdraw anytime he/she no longer wishes to participate in the study. Sincerely yours, Familar, Patricia Louise Tel. no.: (02)807-6487 Mobile no.: 0917-813-8389 Email add: firstname.lastname@example.org
Parental Mediation, Online Risk Discussion, and Internet Use among Children Helen Gacasan Prof. Maria Theresa Masilungan, MA
This study aimed to examine parental mediation with regards to their child‘s internet use. A survey (internet and paper survey) was conducted by the researcher and accomplished by 172 parents of internet users (aged 9-17). Findings reveal that parents‘ main concern about the internet use is privacy; hence the most common topic for online risk discussion and mediation was privacy. All participants have reported to implementing at least one type of mediation, with 80% of them implementing all types of mediation.
Computer technology in general has evolved over the past years. Before, computers were only limited to the softwares installed in it and were limited to home networks (without internet access). With the introduction of the internet and its rapid development, nowadays a running computer with a stable internet connection is considered a household staple, especially for those households with office-going parents and schooling children, specifically those in the higher field of education. Computers have also evolved its portability and this in turn made each gadget a personal property, in contrast to it being for the whole family to use. A survey conducted by the Ipsos Media Atlas Philippines (2011-2012) showed that 30 percent of the Philippine urban population nationwide consider having a mobile phone a necessity of life. 21% said that they plan to use their mobile phone more often (Roa, 2012). This information agrees with previous finding that the Philippines is the texting capital of the world. Although the National Telecommunication Communication (NTC) has recorded a decline in text messaging starting from 2010, Filipinos remained connected with the increase of phones with internet and wireless connection capabilities. According to the Survey of Internet Access and Use of Filipino School Children (2009), 45% of internet users are aged from 9-12, making them the majority of internet users. As more and more avenues for information communication technology becomes available, the threat of losing control over what children can access using the gadgets available to them becomes apparent to parents. As stated in the findings of Borzekowski & Robinson (2005), bedroom television is negatively associated with student‘s test scores. Since technologies nowadays are equipped with gaming and video playing functions, this can pose as a threat to the academic performance of students. The influx of social networking sites has also posed as challenge to parents with regards to monitoring their child‘s online activity. Concerns about privacy and online internet predators have also been tackled in the study of Thierer (2007). Children being exposed to online risk such as pornography, online predators, cyberbullying and the like are not unheard of. The emphasis on the need for parent‘s awareness in their children‘s online activity has been emphasized in numerous studies (Livingstone & Helsper, 2008, Thierer, 2007, Wilson, et. al 2010, Youn, 2009). This study aims to examine parental behavior with regard to their child‘s information communication use, specifically the internet. It aims to answer the following research problems: What are the parent‘s mediation behaviors towards their child‘s internet use? Which over-all
online risk have they discussed with their child? How do they address these risks with their children? How do they maintain a balance of autonomy and involvement with their child‘s internet use? How has internet use affected parent-child relationship?
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE With the influx of different types of media, corresponding risks with regards to their use has been identified. Parents are called upon to mitigate these risks, and one way to control for these risks is parental mediation. Parental Mediation is referred to as the interaction that parents have with their children‘s media use (Nikken & Jansz, 2011). According to Nikken & Jansz, various previous literatures has established three types that is applicable to television and video games, namely restrictive mediation, active mediation and co-use of media. Restrictive mediation concerns implementing rules that control the media use of children. Active mediation involves a discussion between the child and parent regarding the media. Co-use is characterized with using the media together with the child. The researcher has reviewed various literature about information communication use, its impact to its young users and efforts done to address the risks posed with its use. Parental Mediation Research on parental mediation has described how parents‘ interaction with their children‘s media use can help lessen the negative effects of media on the child‘s overall well being (Mendoza, 2009). Previous literature has lacked consensus in giving exact terms over the types of strategies parents use. Although researchers have used varying definitions and measures, most research shows the same three patterns of mediation as ―any strategy parents use to control, supervise, or interpret content‖ (Warren 2001, 212, as cited in Mendoza, 2009). Most research about mediation strategy focused on media such as television and video gaming. Livingstone and Helsper (2008) examined parental regulation of children and teenagers‘ online activities by conducting a national survey with 1511 children participants and 906 parents. Findings reveal that 12-17 year olds encounter various online risks. According to the study, parents used different types of strategies and favored active co-use and interaction rules over using restrictions via monitoring softwares. The findings of this study urged future research to identify effective strategies without hampering the teenagers‘ online peer interaction. Usual literature about parental mediation and internet use focused on adolescent internet users. The gap about younger internet users was addressed by Nikken, et. al. by conducting an online survey to 792 Dutch parents. Agreeing with the previous literature reviewed, parents used mediation strategies such as co-use, active mediation and restrictive mediation. The study also discovered that parents used a new type of strategy specifically for internet use, which is supervision. It is characterized by keeping an eye on the child from a distance. Findings suggest that mediation types were mainly predicted by the child‘s age and online behavior. Parents adjust their mediation to the child‘s needs and interests. Lastly, mediation was also predicted by the number of household computers and the parent‘s education and internet skills, and gender.
Coming from the same location, Duerager and Livingstone (2012) used data from the EU Kids Online Survey, analysing parental mediation across 25 countries. According to the survey, 89% impose rules about giving out personal information, and 59% stay nearby when their child is online. Results show that restrictive mediation has reduced risks, but has also reduced children‘s online opportunities and skills. Deviating from the usual descriptive approach in parental mediation, Mesch (2009) made a study about cyber bullying and parental mediation, investigating about which online behavior are associated with experiencing bullying, and which type of parental mediation effectively decrease this risk. Results show that participation in Social Networking Sites and chat rooms, especially disclosing personal information increases cyber bullying risk. Restrictive mediation such as installing softwares that block certain websites or record visited websites were not statistically significant in reducing the risk. Two possible reasons for this insignificance could be attributed to the child‘s bypassing of the software, or that they were visiting sites that parents trust, such as social networking sites. Effective type of mediation was evaluative mediation, which refers to parents establishing rules on websites that the adolescents were allowed to visit. A study about parental influence and teens‘ attitude toward online privacy protection done by Youn (2008) indicated that teens high in concept-oriented family communication has a tendency to engage in discussion with their parents about privacy concern, which affects their level of privacy. In contrast, teens belonging to high socio-oriented communication between families tend to have more family rules and surf the internet with parents. Majority of studies done in parental involvement involved academic achievement and its results have long been established. Gonzalez-DeHass, Willems, and Holbein (2005) then made a study about a different perspective in parental involvement, that is, involving student motivation. The results of the study indicated that students report more effort, concentration, and attention when their parents are involved. Students are also more inherently interested in learning, and they experience higher perceived competence with the help of good parental involvement. Internet Use With the rapid development of technology, available forms of instruction increased in number in just a span of few years. The television and the radio are now not the only forms of media available to the students, but the computer as well, more specifically, the internet. A study conducted by Borzekowski & Robinson (2005) to examine the relationship among a child‘s household media environment, media use and academic achievement. Data were collected using classroom surveys and telephone interview. The results of the study revealed that a bedroom television was significantly and negatively associated with student‘s test scores, while home computer access and use were positively associated with the scores. Parental involvement is also key in learning new types of media and technology. Barron, et.al (2009) explored technology and parental involvement in a whole new perspective, taking into consideration newly emerging forms of technology such as robotics, blogging, application programming, digital artwork, among other forms. These new forms of technology are current
trend and they help develop the creativity of the children in various forms such as in writing, arts, and game programming. Results of the study showed that the respondents‘ parents play signif icant roles in introducing and supporting creative technologically mediated activities. The findings of the study stress the importance of understanding the family-based learning relationship in considering the swift understanding and mastery of a new form of media. Social Networking Sites The proliferation of social networking sites (SNSs) has created a phenomenon that engages millions of Internet users around the world, especially young people. (Raacke and Bonds-Raacke 2008, as cited in Wilson, et. al 2010) Wilson, Fornasier & White (2010) made a study about the psychological predictors of young adults' and their use of social networking sites. It sought to predict young adults‘ use of social networking sites (SNS) and its addictive tendency from their personality characteristics and levels of self-esteem. Findings indicated that unconscientious and extraverted individuals reported higher levels of both SNS use and addictive tendencies. Subrahmanyama, Reich, Waechter and Espinoza (2008) made a study about college students' online activities and their closest friends in three contexts: social networking sites, instant messaging, and face-to-face. Results indicated that the internet, especially social networking sites was used by the participants to connect and reconnect with friends and family members. An overlap of online and offline networks was observed but pattern from the data gathered suggested that participants use different means of online communication to strengthen different aspects of their offline connections. With the increase of available social networking sites, the need for regulation of registered users has been given much importance. Risks that they have identified have been underage access to objectionable materials and possibility of online internet child predators. Thierer (2007) made a study about the issues encountered regarding age verification in social networking sites. The importance of parental involvement and proper education about proper online safety and etiquette has been given emphasis. Concurring with the findings above, O'Keeffe and Clarke-Pearson (2011) made a study about the impact of social media on children, adolescents, and families. It has pointed out that parents should be aware about the nature of social media sites, keeping in mind that not all of them are healthy environments for children and adolescents. Risks The ‗free for all‘ and limitless nature of the internet makes users susceptible to risks, especially younger users. Various literatures (Livingstone & Helsper, 2008; Nikken and Jansz, 2011; Mesch, 2009; Lwin, et. al, 2008) has identified online risks, namely pornography, violence, privacy. cyber bullying, contact risks, identity theft, sexual exploitation, etc.
Research call for regulation, if possible, through government initiatives, but implementation would not be an easy solution. Therefore, private regulation through parental mediation is also given emphasis and studies (Livingstone & Helsper, 2008; Nikken and Jansz, 2011; Mesch, 2009; Lwin, et. al, 2008) have shown that it effectively reduce online risks.
SYNTHESIS The literature reviewed gives us an overall description about the information communication, specifically the internet, social networking sites and the possible risks each users encounter. The researcher has found out that young student users had higher scores compared to those who used it less, although it should be noted that only academic use was considered. Another study agrees with previous findings, indicating that home computer access is positively associated with academic scores. These information has therefore established that computer and internet use has a positive impact on its student users. Another popular activity in the internet is visiting social networking sites. According to the Yahoo-Nielsen Internet Habits study (2009), 51% of internet users visit social networking sites. Social networking sites have received an increase of users in the past few years with the help of developing technology. The literature reviewed discussed how it has helped connect and reconnect users with friends and families. The risks and implications of overuse has also been discussed and the research studies reviewed has recommended that parental involvement or supervision is strongly advised. Parental Mediation has been explored by researchers to mitigate the mentioned risks. Literature has given an overview on types of mediation strategies and which type of parental mediation is effective depending on the target risk. Considering the literature reviewed, the researcher has yet to find a study about the mediation of parents in the technological use in information communication of their children in the Philippine context. Majority of available literature featuring parental mediation on their child‘s internet use has been done in the western setting. The present study aims to address the pressing gap about parental mediation in the Philippine setting.
METHOD Research Design The study utilized a mixed Method approach in acquiring data for the study. Descriptive quantitative data would be gathered through a survey and qualitative data would be gathered through a semi-structured interview. The mixed-Method approach will be used to describe and quantify the prevalent mediation behavior of parents to their child‘s internet use.
Participants A total of 172 participants was included in this research. Qualified participants are parents of internet users aged 9-17. The researcher used snowball sampling in selecting participants for this research. Snowball sampling targets a particular group of people, and is more directed than many other non-random sampling techniques. When carefully conducted, snowball sampling can provide comprehensive characterizations of unknown populations.
Materials/Instruments The material used in the study was a 30-item parental mediation checklist adapted from Livingstone & Helsper (2008) and Nikken and Jansz (2011). Sample items include ―do you explain your child what to do with online strangers‖, ―do you check sites your child has visited after use‖. Each item marked by the participant is considered as one point towards their parental mediation. An enumeration of online risk was also included, and each participant was asked to mark which risk have they discussed with their child.
Procedures The researcher was able to seek out 172 participants for the study. The researcher gathered data through online survey and paper survey to be able to collect as many responses as possible. Parents were asked to complete a checklist of their mediation behavior that they exhibit with regards to the online activities of their children and which online risk they have discussed with their child. Each participant was asked to describe how they discuss with their child the risk they have chosen. Eight randomly selected participants were selected to supply further information through a semi-structured interview. Data from the survey were compared among participants to answer the research problems stated in the study.
Data Analysis The data gathered using the behavior checklist would be analyzed using descriptive statistics. This would illustrate which mediation behavior is done by each participant and the frequency of each behavior would be tallied. This would answer the research problem about which mediation behavior are done by parents and which among overall online-risks has been addressed by the parent.
Information gathered through the semi-structured interview shall be transcribed and would be used to give and in-depth view of how parents mediate and interact with their child with relation to their child‘s information communication use. The researcher would look for commonalities among the data gathered. Since the study uses the qualitative approach, the researcher would attempt to find out how they achieve their commonalities with their different approach. RESULTS The researcher was able to seek out 172 participants both through online survey and paper survey. On average, parents implement at least 6 types of mediation out of 10 for Active Mediation, 4 types out of 13 from Restrictive Mediation and at least 2 types of Supervision or Monitoring mediation strategy out of the 7 enumerated by the researcher. Parental Mediation
Fig. 1 Reported Parental Mediation Style of Parents Out of the 172 accomplished survey data both online and face-to-face survey, 80% (n=137) of the parents practiced all types of mediation, meaning they have practiced at least one type of mediation per category. 16% (n=28) practiced a combination of Active Mediation (AM) and Restrictive Mediation (RM). 4% (n=7) of the participants has reported only practicing one type of mediation, which is Active Mediation. The most popular (n=147) strategy overall is telling their child to be confidential with personal information, next to explaining how to deal with online strangers (n=139). The least popular choice overall was restricting their child to use e-mail (n=17).
f I. Active Mediation 139 explain your child what to do with online strangers
% per category 76.74
tell to be confidential with personal information tell what to do if you‘re bullied or harassed talk with your child about rules of conduct to follow explain how to behave on social networking sites explain your child what it may do on IM websites explain to your child how to use e-mail surf together, because the child wants to (to ask for help) surf together, because you want to talk with your child about what is fun on the Internet skipped
147 109 131 124 52 57 65
80.23 61.05 72.09 67.44 29.07 31.98 36.63
49 92 0
Table I. Descriptive Statistics for Active Mediation
As explained earlier, the most popular overall and in active mediation was telling their child to be confidential with information (n=147). This could be because parents see that it is important to be mindful of what their child shares online and it is usually what they teach their child first before letting them use such technology. The least popular choice for active mediation is to surf the internet together with the child (n=49), next to explaining what it their child may do on IM websites (n=52).
Restrictive mediation 120 129 47 17 70 24 34 69 65.12 70.35 27.33 8.72 38.37 13.37 18.02 39.53
tell your child when / how long to use Internet restrict your child from giving personal info restrict your child from filling out online forms/quizzes restrict your child from using e-mail restrict your child from using chat rooms restrict your child from using instant messaging restrict your child from playing internet games restrict your child from downloading things from the
internet say that online games are unsuitable tell which online game genres are allowed tell which films may be downloaded tell which products may be bought online say what music may be listened to/downloaded skipped 28 59 67 51 36 7 Table II. Descriptive Statistics for Restrictive Mediation As for restrictive mediation, the most popular (n=129) choice is restricting their child from giving personal information. This agrees with the strategy in active mediation explaining about being confidential with personal information. Next top strategy was to set when or how long their child should use the internet (n=120). Usual reason for this is that parents usually limited their child‘s internet use during school nights and usually gave full freedom (for use duration) if there is no class on the following day. The least popular choice for restrictive mediation is restricting their child from using the e-mail (n=17). III. Supervision / Monitoring f 81 25 63 stay close to the computer to help if necessary have a filtering software installed have a monitoring software installed check sites child has visited after use check child‘s messages after use skipped 46 38 59 50 35 35.47 26.16 21.51 32.56 28.49 21.60 % 45.35 13.95 14.53 32.56 37.79 29.07 20.35
keep an eye on the child and the computer allow the child to web surf only when you‘re present
Table III. Descriptive Statistics for Supervision / Monitoring Mediation Lastly, only 127 out of 172 (21.6%) of participants practiced supervision or monitoring. The most usual strategy was to keep an eye on their child and the computer during their use. This strategy is usually observed because most of the location of their computers is on a family room (somewhere where parents can easily keep an eye on their online activity). The least popular choice for supervision is letting the child use the computer only when the parent is present
(n=25). This might be because majority of the participants‘ child are already adolescents. This choice is popular for those with younger children who believe that their child needs full guidance in using the internet. Risks Agreeing with the data regarding parents‘ subject of their mediation, the online risk of privacy garnered the highest percentage (15%, n=126) of topic for discussion between parent and child. Following privacy risk was the risk for pornography with 14% (n=115). Out of 172 respondents, 3% (n=23) has chosen no risk, meaning they have not discussed any risk with their child. The least discussed risk was racism / hate with only 3% (n=29) followed by self-harm with 7% (n=56).
Fig. 2 Risks Parents have discussed with their child
Method of risk discussion Most parents shared that they had a conversation with their child regarding risks. Sometimes discussion was done during family dinner, and some had conversation after hearing about it in the news. Majority of the parents shared that they try to keep an open relationship with their child, keeping conversations ‗friendly‘. “tell them the cons of the risks through thorough discussion” -Participant 1
“By simply talking to them directly” -Participant 2 “We can talk about anything under the sun. But I also trust her and allow her some degree of privacy. We, as her parents though, believe that we have managed to instil in her the proper values so we trust that she sticks to them. We still of course do some checking but up to a certain extent only.” -Participant 3 “Discussed over dinner. Site the risk in particular and give details and examples to help her understand.” -Participant 4 “Discussed upfront what are the rules in using the internet especially networking sites.” -Participant 5 “Tell it to him straight using simple, honest words. I try to let him see the consequences if he does the things I tell him not to do.” -Participant 6 Most have also said that they have discussed with their child the consequences of such risks and has given their child freedom to explore on their own after such discussion. “I talk to her about pros and cons of every action that she'll do if she will not be responsible while using the net” -Participant 7 “I give the pros and cons of using the internet. after such i give her the freedom to freely use the internet. but any mistake she makes would be her responsibility to fix it so that she would be more responsible, careful and cautious next time.” -Participant 8 “I discussed this risks during or while we are eating dinner, I told them to use the internet properly, because nowadays many teen agers are so liberated wherein they can post anything on social media sites that can cause of someone's depression.” -Participant 9 Achieving balance between mediating and allowing autonomy over internet use Parents with older children shared that they establish basic knowledge about the internet and let their child learn on their own, with the reminder that their children can easily approach them in case they have any questions regarding their use. “ Yang computer, cellphone o kung ano mang gadget na yan, parang panyo at suklay yan. Kumbaga private property na nila yan. Ang role namin bilang magulang, tuturuan namin sila kung ano yung tama at mali, yung mga bawal at pwede sa pag gamit nila. Pagkatapos nuon, sila na bahala kung anong gusto nila gawin duon. Basta bawal lang gamitin pag school nights tsaka linggo dahil may pasok kinabukasan.” -Participant 10 “....paano nga ba? Yung nga ang medyo mahirap eh. Kasi iyang cellphone nila or laptop, personal property na nila yan. Hindi naman pwede na babasahin ko lahat ng messages
nila para magabayan ko kasi personal narin yun. Syempre ita-trato ko na sila na parang adults kasi dalaga na sila eh.” -Participant 11 “Personally I don't use the net as often but it doesn't mean that I will not allow my children to use it since this generation is indeed a digital native one...I let them surf the net and let them open their social networking sites sometimes we view them together. I never prevent them from opening the net as long as they don't have assignments, exams or task that are not yet accomplish. However if I see something na hindi na tama I pipe in and tell them or I let them judge the site on what can they say about it before I give my opinion... Minsan I view the computer from time to time and ask them what they are doing.” -Participant 14 Effect of internet technology in family relationships Parents in general reported mixed sentiments on how internet has affected their family dynamics, but they feel that it has no grave impact on their overall family relationship. “Technology could improve relationships especially when some members of the family are abroad but misuse and overuse of it could also create gaps and could put one in danger that is why we were very cautious about how our kids use the computer especially when they were much younger.” -Participant 12 “Due to internet use, medyo nabawasan ang bonding time namin with the kids kasi pag minsan engrossed na sila sa paglalaro o pagpi facebook, etc.. On the other hand, may advantage din kasi pag busy ako sa household chores, di na sila nangungulit dahil busy na rin sila sa on line games…” -Participant 13 “technology possibly brought boon and bane towards our relationship.. good kasi if my children read an article or they have seen videos they share it to me.. They sometimes express their opinion and from that point of view I can see their stand. Bad naman kasi minsan nasa computer lahat ang attention.. but in totality it did not affect our relationship” -Participant 14
DISCUSSION Parental Mediation All mediation behavior provided by the researcher has been selected at least once by a parent participant. The most popular type was active mediation. Majority of the parents shared that they trust their child with their decisions and believe that establishing basic knowledge about the do‘s and don‘ts of the internet is important. By looking at the overall results, it could be clearly seen that protecting one‘s privacy is every family‘s priority. The type of mediation each parent has done usually depended on their relationship with their child, the child‘s age, and the technological knowledge and skills of each parent. It could also be observed that parents adjust their mediation according to their child‘s age. Both of these findings agree with previous literature (Nikken 2011; Duerager & Livingstone, 2012). Parents with teenage children allow them to surf the internet freely after establishing certain rules; parents with younger aged children (9-12) on the other hand practice supervision and has more restrictive rules regarding technology rules. Risks Each risk was selected by at least one parent, with racism / hate as the least popular choice. Privacy is the most popular risk for discussion, next to pornography. This might be because privacy risks are high due to most websites asking for information. Parents opt to have a direct conversation with their child, usually with the whole family during dinner to raise awareness. Some parents on the other hand do not discuss any risk mentioned in the survey for they haven‘t seen their child facing such risk. It should be taken from consideration that some parents might have not opted to discuss some risks for fear that it may promote a misguided curiosity which might lead to the child visiting websites containing the tackled risk, such as pornography, etc. Some parents also shared that their child is too young to handle such discussion, so they usually just use the computer together with the child to guide them. Some parents are not aware with online risk unless they have heard about it in television. Some parents also believe that proper upbringing and having good social environment such as a church community has helped their child to self-regulate their activities online. They believe that their children has the proper values to deal with such risk and that their children know that such risks should be avoided. How do they maintain a balance of autonomy and involvement with their child‟s internet use? Literature in Parental Mediation has identified that parents should do something to reduce the risks children encounter online without reducing online opportunities. (Livingstone & Helsper, 2009; Duerager & Livingstone, 2012). Parents believe that by establishing basic knowledge about computer use and letting them explore on their own is how they balance being involved and giving autonomy. They believe that their proper upbringing has allowed them to trust their child with freedom on what to do in using
the technology. Informing their child about possible consequence was also a common answer. These answers are from parents with children aged 16-17. Parents with younger aged child shared that since their child does not need autonomy from them yet, they use the technology with their child to give guidance. Some parents shared that maintaining a balance is quite difficult because most of the gadget their child uses are already considered as private property. They believe that mutual respect for each other‘s belongings is also important and that each should do their bes t not to break their trust with each other. Overall, the parents‘ strategy of discussing and establishing basic knowledge about the internet is considered a form of active mediation. It can be considered as a balanced way of reducing risk, agreeing with Duerager & Livingstone‘s (2012) study that active mediation reduces risk without reducing their opportunities.
How has internet use affected parent-child relationship? Parents have shared that technology has indeed somewhat affected their overall lifestyle some saying that instead of family bonding, their children has resulted to using the computer instead. Some parents stated that it can be a help sometimes because it lets them focus with the job or doing household chores. The key for them was to prevent misuse and overuse. Although there are some differences with how they relate to each other especially with the new type of technology such as social media, parents feel that did not have any grave effect on their relationship. There might have been a difference with their family dynamics, parents think that it has not created any major gap between them. Other families has recognized the ability of the internet to connect families with relatives living overseas. This aspect supports the study done by Subrahmanyama, et al. (2008) that people use the internet to strengthen different aspect of offline relationships.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION The present study shows that parents‘ main concern about their child‘s internet use is privacy. Data gathered regarding parental mediation and risk discussion yielded concurring results, with parents focusing more on their child‘s privacy. Results gathered from the study also support findings from previous research (Livingstone & Helsper; Nikken & Jansz; Duerager & Livingstone, 2012) that as the child gets older, parents prefer active mediation over supervision or monitoring. Another concurring finding is that parents adjust their type of mediation accordingly with their child‘s needs. Most parents has given importance in teaching their children to be mindful of giving out personal information. Most parents were also concerned in technology affecting their child‘s academic performance, therefore, they limit their child‘s computer use during school nights and are generally lenient if the purpose of the use was academic related.
According to majority of parents, they maintain a balance of autonomy and mediation behavior by setting a foundation of knowledge regarding the internet, such as net etiquette, do‘s and don‘ts, and possible risks in the internet. After establishing those basic internet know-hows, parents allow their child to explore on their own. Parents also related that although the internet has changed how they interacted with their children, the internet has not created a gap between them. Future research could try to explore parental mediation in the child‘s perception, and if the parents‘ strategy in addressing online risks has helped their child in avoiding it. Other factors should also be considered, such as the age and gender of the child. An in depth quantitative measure could help establish relationship between the aforementioned factors. Future research can also try to find out which type of mediation best safeguards young internet users for which type of risk.
REFERENCES Asian Institute of Journalism and Communication. (2009). Survey on Internet Access and Use By Filipino Schoolchildren. Barron, B., Martin, C. K., Takeuchi, L., Fithian, R. (2009). Parents as Learning Partners in the Development of Technological Fluency. International Journal of Learning and Media. Vol. 1, No. 2. doi: 10.1162. Borzekowski, D. L. G., Robinson, T. N. (2005). The Remote, the Mouse, and the No. 2 Pencil: The Household Media Environment and Academic Achievement Among Third Grade Students. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. Vol.159(7):607-613. doi:10.1001/archpedi.159.7.607 Digital Philippines. (2011). Yahoo - Nielsen Net Index Highlights Duerager, A., Livingstone, S. (2012). How can parents support children‘s internet safety? EU Kids Online, London, UK. Gonzalez-DeHass, A. R., Willems, P. P. & Holbein, M. F. (2005). Examining the Relationship Between Parental Involvement and Student Motivation. Educational Psychology Review, Vol. 17, No. 2. DOI: 10.1007/s10648-005-3949-7 Jackson, L. A., Von Eye, A., Biocca, F. A., Barbatsis, G., Zhao, Y., & Fitzgerald H. E. (2006). Does Home Internet Use Influence the Academic Performance of Low-Income Children?. Journal of Developmental Psychology. Vol. 42, No. 3, 429–435. doi: 10.1037/001216220.127.116.119 Livingstone, S. Helsper, E. (2008) Parental mediation of children‘s Internet use. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 52, 581-599.
Lwin, M. O., Stanaland, A. J. S., Miyazaki, A. D. (2008). Protecting children‘s privacy online: How parental mediation strategies affect website safeguard effectiveness. Journal of Retailing. Vol 84, p. 205–217 Mendoza, K. (2009). Surveying Parental Mediation: Connections, Challenges and Questions for Media Literacy. Journal of Media Literacy Education, 1: 28-41. Mesch, G. S. (2009). Parental Mediation, Online Activities and Cyberbullying. Journal of Cyberpsychology and Behavior National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. (2011). Potential Online Risks to Children and Young People. Retrieved from: http://www.safenetwork.org.uk/help_and_advice/Pages/potential_online_risks.aspx Nikken, P., Jansz, J. (2011). Parental Mediation Of Young Children‘s Internet Use. Mediation of Internet Use. O'Keeffe, G. S., Clarke-Pearson, K. (2011). "The Impact of Social Media on Children, Adolescents, and Families". Pediatrics. Vol. 127 No. 4 pp. 800-804. (doi: 10.1542/peds.2011-0054) Roa, A. G. (2012). One of 3 Filipinos can‘t live without cell phones–survey. Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved from: http://technology.inquirer.net/18168/one-of-3-filipinos-cant-livewithout-cell-phones-survey Subrahmanyama, K., Reich, S. M., Waechter, N. and Espinoza, G. (2008)."Online and offline social networks: Use of social networking sites by emerging adults." Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology. Vol 29, p.420–433. Thierer, A. (2007). "Social Networking and Age Verification: Many Hard Questions; No Easy Solutions". Periodic Commentaries on the Policy Debate. Wilson, K., Fornasier, S., White, K. M. (2010). Psychological predictors of young adults': use of social networking sites. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 13(2). pp. 173-177. Youn, S. (2009). Determinants of Online Privacy Concern and Its Influence on Privacy Protection Behaviors Among Young Adolescents. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 43: 389– 418. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-6606.2009.01146.x
Appendix A Good day! My name is Helen Gacasan, student of San Beda College Alabang currently taking up BA Psychology. You have been chosen as one of my participants in my thesis study with the title "Parental Mediation and Technological Information Communication Use among Young Adolescent Students". Rest assured that all information gathered through the study would be kept with utmost confidentiality. Name: _________________________________ Participant #: _________ Do you... (Please select items that apply) I. Active Mediation o explain your child what to do with online strangers o tell to be confidential with personal information o tell what to do if you‘re bullied or harassed o talk with your child about rules of conduct to follow o explain how to behave on social networking sites o explain your child what it may do on IM websites o explain to your child how to use e-mail o surf together, because the child wants to (to ask for help) o surf together, because you want to o talk with your child about what is fun on the Internet II. o o o o o o o o o o o o o Restrictive mediation tell your child when / how long to use Internet restrict your child from giving personal info restrict your child from filling out online forms/quizzes restrict your child from using e-mail restrict your child from using chat rooms restrict your child from using instant messaging restrict your child from playing internet games restrict your child from downloading things from the internet say that online games are unsuitable tell which online game genres are allowed tell which films may be downloaded tell which products may be bought online say what music may be listened to/downloaded Age of child: ____________ Date: __________________
III. Supervision / Monitoring o keep an eye on the child and the computer o allow the child to web surf only when you‘re present o stay close to the computer to help if necessary o have a filtering software installed o have a monitoring software installed o check sites child has visited after use
check child‘s messages after use
RISKS Have you discussed with your child the following online risks: o Inappropriate content o pornography (lewd content online) o violence (site with violent or gruesome pictures) o self-harm o racism / hate o sexual exploitation o hacking / scamming o privacy (giving out personal information online) o contact risks (meeting face-to-face someone first met online, have received nasty or hurtful comments online). o cyber bullying o identity theft Please describe how you have discussed your selected risks with your child on the next page
Interview Questions (This will serve as a follow-up to the checklist) ● How has online social media affected your family relationships? ● How would you maintain a balance of involvement and autonomy to your child‘s online activity?
Appendix B Survey Result I. Active Mediation 139 147 109 131 124 52 57 65 76.74 80.23 61.05 72.09 67.44 29.07 31.98 36.63
explain your child what to do with online strangers tell to be confidential with personal information tell what to do if you‘re bullied or harassed talk with your child about rules of conduct to follow explain how to behave on social networking sites explain your child what it may do on IM websites explain to your child how to use e-mail surf together, because the child wants to (to ask for help)
surf together, because you want to talk with your child about what is fun on the Internet skipped
49 92 0
Restrictive mediation 120 129 47 17 70 24 34 69 39.53 28 59 67 51 36 7 14.53 32.56 37.79 29.07 20.35 65.12 70.35 27.33 8.72 38.37 13.37 18.02
tell your child when / how long to use Internet restrict your child from giving personal info restrict your child from filling out online forms/quizzes restrict your child from using e-mail restrict your child from using chat rooms restrict your child from using instant messaging restrict your child from playing internet games restrict your child from downloading things from the internet say that online games are unsuitable tell which online game genres are allowed tell which films may be downloaded tell which products may be bought online say what music may be listened to/downloaded skipped
Supervision / Monitoring 81 25 45.35 13.95
keep an eye on the child and the computer allow the child to web surf only when you‘re present
stay close to the computer to help if necessary have a filtering software installed have a monitoring software installed check sites child has visited after use check child‘s messages after use skipped
63 46 38 59 50 35
35.47 26.16 21.51 32.56 28.49 18.60
Risks pornography violence self-harm racism / hate sexual exploitation hacking / scamming privacy contact risks cyber bullying identity theft skipped
f 115 91 56 29 79 78 126 95 73 79 23
% 66.86 52.91 32.56 16.86 45.93 45.35 73.26 55.23 42.44 45.93 13.37
Examining Perceptions of Parental Attachment and Parent-child Conflicts on Career Choice Jan Paula C. Minas Prof. Maria Theresa C. Masilungan, MA
The goal of this study was to examine perceptions of parent attachment in terms of parent trust, communication and alienation, the level of parent-child conflicts on career (PCC) from the child‘s perspective, and whether or not there is a relationship between the two. Three hundred and two (N = 302) senior high school students completed self-report measures on parent attachment and perceived PCC. Results show that respondents generally have moderate trust and communication, low alienation to parents and also low conflicts in career choice. It was also found that Parent trust, communication and alienation had low correlations with perceived PCC (r = 0.3, 0.2, 0.2 respectively) and correlations are considered to be statistically significant (p < 0.05). The findings from this study suggest that parent trust and communication are instrumental in reducing conflicts. Also, adolescents‘ career choice is still affected by parental influence even though they are less attached to them. The link between parent attachment and perceived parent-child conflicts in career should be explored in future undertakings.
One of the main aspirations of the youths today is not only to secure a regular 8am-to5pm job, but to build a stable and lasting career which they are passionate about as well. The different fields of work available today have been continuously expanding, thus offering each batch of fresh graduates more diverse opportunities to excel in the career of their choice. However, operating in the context of the deeply collectivist orientation of Filipinos, the choice is not always theirs to make. Studies have revealed that social influences are heavily involved in an individual‘s decision making process regarding his career; and his family, specifically the parents, are found to be the primary influences (Bergen, 2006; Kniveton, 2004; and Law & Arthur, 2003). It is common to hear about a student who is taking up a course or pursuing a certain career because they were obliged by their parents to do so, or out of fear of disappointing their parents (Vignolia, Croity-Belz, Chapeland, & Garcia, 2005). And although their parents, aunts, uncles and other authority figures mean well, these scenarios may have a negative impact on the individual, and inevitably become the source of conflicts. It was recently found that though employment rates have gone up, job satisfaction has subsequently declined. According to the National Statistics Office (NSO), more Filipinos held jobs in 2011 than in 2010, but many of them wanted a different job or more working hours so they could earn more. While the unemployment rate fell slightly to 7% in 2011 from 7.3% in 2010, the underemployment rate rose to 19.3% from 18.8% (Olchondra, 2012). In another study, 80% of Filipino professionals reported dissatisfaction with their jobs and expressed willingness to seek better opportunities elsewhere (Alimario, 2011). The decline of job satisfaction among Filipino workers leads us to ask which factors have led to such statistics, and identifying such factors early on are crucial in order to remedy the trend. A child who has no genuine interest in a certain field may not excel as he would have if he chose a career path in which he thinks he is more suited.
Parental attachment theory has served as a backdrop for various developmental studies, as the attachment theory addresses social–emotional development and has identiﬁed a variety of markers predictive of academic performance, social competence, and psychopathology later in life (Kennedy & Kennedy, 2004). Since Parental Attachment provides an ―internal working model‖ for the individual, it may later manifest in his behavior towards others and in the decisions he makes. Also, it was found that the more secure the attachment to his parent or attachment figure, the less likely he is to develop conflicts with them. The present study aims to examine parental attachment and parent-child career conflicts from the child‘s perspective. Firstly, what is the respondents‘ perceived parent attachment in terms of Trust, Communication and Alienation? Next, what is the respondents‘ perceived parentchild conflict on career choice? And finally, is there a relationship between the respondents‘ perception on parental attachment (trust, communication, and alienation) and parent-child conflict on career choice? These research problems all aim to explore the interplay between the respondents‘ parental attachment and perceived parent-child conflicts on career choice.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Parental Attachment Numerous studies have been conducted on Parental Attachment since its origins from Bowlby in 1982. Researchers have been connecting it to a wide array of variables over the years, resulting in studies which examine the roles that attachment may play on the development of an individual. For one, parental attachment and its implications in the school setting has been explored. The type of parental attachment in early childhood has often been shown to determine the quality of the child's future relationships and, generally, their behavior towards others (Bowlby, 1969 as cited in Bergin & Bergin, 2009). In lieu of this, parental attachment has commonly been tackled in its early manifestations in the preschool setting. The different angles in which parental attachment has been studied in the preschool setting are its implications on the students' academic performance and the quality of teacher-child relationships. Literature also reveals that Parental Attachment continues to have a significant role during an individual‘s adolescent years. Taking it from a developmental perspective, the security that an infant receives from his caregiver develops into an internal working model for his feelings of security in future relationships, and may endure across the lifespan. According to Moretti & Peled (2004), adolescent-parent attachment has profound effects on cognitive, social and emotional functioning. Secure attachment is associated with less engagement in high risk behaviours, fewer mental health problems, and enhanced social skills and coping strategies. Supporting this claim, a study by Ma & Huebner (2008) reveals that although both parent and peer attachment is positively related to life satisfaction, parent attachment was the stronger unique predictor. College adjustment was also found to be positively associated with secure adult attachment and counter indicated by fearful and preoccupied attachments (Lapsley & Edgerton, 2002). With all of the studies presented, we can infer that a deeper understanding of the dynamics of parent attachment in the adolescent years is greatly encouraged. Parent Trust Parent trust was found to be a variable commonly studied among adolescents. Studies have revealed the various ways that parent trust affects the parent-adolescent relationship. A study by Shek (2010) claims that parent-adolescent trust was related to different dimensions of the parent-adolescent relationship measures. It was found that child‘s trust of their parents exerted a stronger influence on different dimensions of parent-adolescent relational qualities (Shek, 2010). Borawski, Ievers-Landis, Lovegreen and Trapl (2003) have also found that perceived parental trust served as a protective factor against sexual activity, tobacco, and marijuana use in females, and alcohol use in males. These studies give us an idea on the importance of Parent Trust in the parent-adolescent relationship. Trust has also been found to be influenced by a couple of factors. Dunn and Schweitzer (2003) have demonstrated that incidental emotions influence trust in unrelated settings. Incidental happiness and gratitude increase trust, and incidental anger decreases trust. Trust may
also be a trait that can be transmitted from parent to child, as found by Dohmen, Falk, & Huffman (2008), in that children end up having similar attitudes towards risk and trust as their parents. Differences between the parent and adolescent‘s perception of trust have also been studied. Guilamo-Ramos, V., Jaccard, J., Dittus, P., & Bouris, A.M. (2006) studied 668 motheradolescent dyads and found a weak correspondence between how expert, trustworthy, and accessible mothers thought they were on the one hand and how their sons and daughters characterized them on the other. This implies that children may not trust their parents as deeply as their parents think they do. Parental trust was also found to be in 4th graders than 6th to 8th graders, as found by Nickerson and Richard (2005). In the same study, females reported more trust, communication, and overall attachment to peers than males. Parent Communication Across the literature reviewed, Parent communication has been extensively studied in its implications on adolescents‘ sexual behavior, practices and risk-taking. Hutchinson & Montgomery in 2007 and found that Parent-teen sexual risk communication (PTSRC) was associated with students' reports of more conservative sexual attitudes and beliefs and greater perceived ease of sexual communication with partners. PTSRC with mothers was also associated with fewer risk behaviors and pregnancies among the female students. Huebner & Howell (2003) also found the same, as they claimed that parental monitoring, parent–adolescent communication and parenting style are all important variables to consider when examining risk-taking among adolescents. Studies have also explored on the frequency and quality of parent-adolescent communication. According to Martino, Elliott, Corona, Kanouse, & Schuster (2008), adolescents whose communication with their parents involved more repetition felt closer to their parents, felt more able to communicate with their parents in general and perceived that discussions with their parents occurred with greater openness. A study by Guilamo-Ramos, Jaccard, Dittus, & Bouris (2006) also found that risk behaviors were related to how often adolescents said they talked with their mothers about a risk behavior, which, in turn, was predictive of lower levels of adolescent risk behavior. However, Wilson & Donenberg (2004) claim that quality but not frequency of parent–teen communication was more associated with adolescent risk-taking. Literature also reveals that poor communication with parents may result in maladaptive behaviors. Tulloch, Blizzard, & Pinkus (1997) found that poorer parent-adolescent communication remained strongly associated with self-harm. Communication Deviance (or communication patterns that distract and befuddle listeners) predicted significantly for psychiatric disorders of the adoptees as adults, as found by Wahlberg, Wynne, Hakko, Laksy, Moring, Miettunen, & Tienari (2004). Harakeh, Scholte, De Vries & Engels also found that perceived parental inﬂuence and frequency and quality of communication about smoking were associated with adolescents‘ smoking. More significantly, good parent-adolescent communication was positively associated with cohesion and negatively associated with conflict, as found by Xia, Xie, Zhou, Defrain, Meredith, and Combs in 2004.
Parent Alienation Parental alienation can be understood in different context across the literature reviewed. Garber‘s exploration on the subject of Parent Alienation provided a conceptual foundation on alienation as a tool of caregiver attachment and family system cohesion. It was expounded that, as a theoretical construct, alienation can be understood as a family systems tool with which a child‘s security and family membership are made. Healthy family systems routinely and spontaneously communicate aligning messages in the process of defining who is ―in‖ and alienating messages in defining who is ―out‖. Therefore, understanding alienation in the context of attachment security generates valuable direction for developmental research (Garber, 2004). On the other hand, Moné & Biringen (2006) defined Parent alienation as a parent‘s attempts to distance a child from the child‘s other parent, and found feeling alienation is inversely related to the quality of parent-child relationships during childhood and young adulthood. Findings from their study also indicate that parental conflict is a better predictor of whether alienation occurs that parents' marital status is. In whichever context, however, parental alienation is found to have adverse effects on an individual. Baker (2005) conducted a study on the effects of parental alienation in childhood on 38 adults, and found that Parental alienation as a child reveals 7 major areas of impact: low self esteem, depression, drug/alcohol abuse, lack of trust, alienation from own children, divorce and others. Walden & Beran (2010) found that high levels of parent alienation are correlated with a high frequency of bullying others and being bullied. It was also found that a host of developmental, immigration-related, and cultural factors lead to growing alienation in parent— child relations (Qin, 2006).
Parental Attachment and Conflict In the last 10 years, parental attachment has been examined alongside different types of conflict, whether it be about parent-child conflicts, inter-parent conflicts, peer conflicts and even conflicts on gender stereotypes (Schwartz, Waldo, & Higgins, 2004). However, the general pattern that arises is that parental attachment and conflicts are inversely related. Dixon, Graber, and Brooks-Gunn (2008) found that higher levels of discipline and better communication by mothers were both associated with reports of lower frequency of conflict. Schwartz, Waldo, & Higgins (2004) found that men with secure attachment styles had significantly less gender role conflict with Restrictive Emotionality when compared with men with preoccupied, dismissive, or fearful attachment styles. In their study on Family Conflict, Divorce, and Attachment Patterns, Hannum, & Dvorak (2004) concluded that conflicts actually reduced attachment and predicted psychological distress. Further focusing on the adverse effects of conflict on the family and the individual, a study involving 96 early adolescent females from 2 parent families suggests that adolescents‘ negative perceptions of parental conflict was also associated with insecure attachment with parents (Steinberg, Davila, & Fincham, 2006). Moné & Biringen (2006), found that parental
conflict may predict the occurrence of alienation. The aforementioned studies all point out the interplay between conflicts and attachment, suggesting that the two may have a link that could be explored in future undertakings. Career Choice Career choice is another dimension which researchers have explored, along with the many factors and variables that could affect how an individual selects his career. Several studies in the past decade have examined social influences, self-efficacy and cultural contexts in relation to career choice, and are discussed below. Social influences, with the individual‘s family in particular, have been found to be the primary factor influencing career choice. Bergen (2006) conducted a study on the relationship between family influences and career development and aspirations. It was found that different aspects of the family influence career development and future aspirations. It was also found that conflict with mothers was predictive of career salience. Furthermore, support and depth in the relationship with mothers and low amounts of conflict in the relationship with fathers were predictive of career maturity. Kniveton‘s 2004 study on Influences and motivations for career choice found that the greatest influence on their choice of career was their parents, followed by that of their teachers. Law & Arthur (2003) studied nursing students in Hong Kong and found out that their intention to study nursing was signiﬁcantly affected by social inﬂuence: parents, school career masters and friends. In Myburgh‘s 2005 study on Accounting career and major selection among Accounting students, students attributed their career choice to their Accounting performance in their previous school. Most of the respondents chose this career in Grades 8 to 11. This implies that social influences are not the only factors affecting career choice. An individual‘s self-efficacy also plays a big role in career selection, as studied by Tang & Pan (2008). Results of their study supported the mediating role of career self-efficacy in the career decision-making process. An individual‘s culture has also been studied as a determinant of career choice. The cultural and social context of family and community are found to be instrumental in how youth learn about careers and influential in the choice process (Ferry, 2006). Also, a study conducted by Malach-Pines & Kaspi-Baruch in 2008, found large cross-cultural differences in the inﬂuences and aspirations associated with a career choice in management. This implies that an individual‘s cultural background has an impact on whichever career he may choose to pursue, and as a result, different cultures may yield different career choices. SYNTHESIS Studies on Parental Attachment, in general, have pointed out that secure attachments to parents do manifest in positive ways throughout the development of the individual, especially in the adolescent years. Much of the literature recommended studying the implications of Parent attachment in this stage of development. Also, the securely attached individual has been shown as well-adjusted in almost all areas of his life, and is reportedly more engaged, successful or
scored favorably in the variables tested alongside it (Bergin & Bergin, 2009; Moretti & Peled, 2004; Ma & Huebner, 2008; Lapsley & Edgerton, 2002). Parent trust, communication and alienation have been examined and have shown to have a significant impact in various dimensions of the parent-child relationship. In general, greater parent trust and communication is beneficial to the parent-child relationship, since these two will lead to greater openness and will serve as a protective factor against adolescents‘ risk behaviors. This also follows that poor communication will lead to more undesirable behaviors exhibited by the individual. Inversely, greater parent alienation has negative effects on an individual‘s personal and social functioning, and is predicted by parental conflict. Following this trend, insecure and unstable attachments have often been found to result in conflicts especially in the family. (Dixon, Graber, & Brooks-Gunn, 2008) Also interesting to note is how the roles of conflicts and attachments can be switched and it still produces unfavorable findings, in that the presence of conflict also reduces attachment (Hannum, & Dvorak, 2004; Steinberg, Davila, & Fincham, 2006; Moné & Biringen, 2006). However, the studies mentioned have not centered on whether a certain type of attachment predicts the existence of a certain type of conflict. Social influences have been found to play a key role in an individual‘s career choice, and it has shown a certain pattern (Bergen, 2006; Kniveton, 2004). Across the literature reviewed, the role of parents has emerged as the dominant factor for determining career choice. Although parental influence has already been established, there has not been any study on how this relates to and affects the individual himself. The previous studies have not taken into account the attitudes of the individual towards that influence, the reason behind his submission to such influence, and the various ways that he attempts to submit to such influence. Studies from the point of view of the parents regarding the topic are also limited. How the parents impose their influence regarding career choice, and their motives behind it, is yet to be studied. Conflicts do take place in different contexts, as revealed in the literature. This now leads one to the question of whether conflicts arise in the aspect of career choice, and if so, which factors give rise to these conflicts. The study therefore, aims to examine perceptions of parental attachment, specifically on Trust, Communication and Alienation and parent-child conflicts regarding career choice.
METHOD Research Design The study utilized the quantitative research design. The quantitative approach was used to address the research problems presented: first, to determine the respondents‘ perceived parent attachment in terms of Trust, Communication and Alienation; next, to determine their perceived parent-child conflict on career choice? And finally, to determine whether there is a relationship between the respondents‘ perception on parental attachment (trust, communication, and alienation) and parent-child conflict on career choice? Participants The study involved 302 senior high school students (161 males and 141 females) aged 15 - 16 who were selected through Purposive Sampling. The study specifically involved 4th year graduating high school students from different private schools. This pool of respondents was selected since they are individuals who are on the verge of making the first step to choosing a career - and that is choosing their course in college. All respondents have reported that they talk to their parents about their career choice. Materials and Instruments The study mainly utilized two questionnaires, namely the Parent-Child Career Conflict Scale and the Inventory of Parent Attachment in order to measure the two main variables of the study. Inventory of Parent Attachment The Inventory of Parent Attachment (IPA) was used to determine the respondents‘ perceived quality of attachment to their parents. The scale originally developed by Armsden & Greenberg (1987) consists of three sections - Mother, Father, and Peer attachment - but for the purpose of this study, only the Mother and Father sections were utilized. The IPA aims to assess adolescents‘ perceptions of the positive and negative affective/cognitive dimension of relationships with their parents -- particularly how well these figures serve as sources of psychological security. Three broad dimensions are assessed: degree of mutual trust; quality of communication; and extent of anger and alienation. The instrument is a self-report questionnaire with a five point likert type response format. The revised version is comprised of 25 items in each of the mother and father sections, yielding 2 attachment scores, and 50 items in total. The IPA is scored by reverse-scoring the negatively worded items and then summing the response values in each section. Internal reliability for the revised version of the test (Cronbach‘s alpha) are: Mother attachment, .87; and Father attachment, .89. As for validity, among late adolescents, parental attachment scores are moderately to highly related to Family and Social Self scores from the Tennessee Self Concept Scale and to most subscales on the Family Environmental Scale (Armsden & Greenberg, 1987). Parent-child Career Conflict Scale The Parent-child Career Conflict Scale (PCCS) is a 10-item self-report questionnaire regarding the level of perceived parent-child conflicts on career. The items on the questionnaire were adapted from the Parent Environment Questionnaire, as cited by Klahr, McGue, Iacono, &
Burt (2011). Items were scored such that high scores corresponded to low levels of parent-child conflict. The scale displayed good internal consistency reliability, with an alpha of .90. The items comprising the Parent-Child Career Conflict Scale are all negatively worded, and was rated by the respondents on a 4-point Likert type format (1 = definitely true; 2 = somewhat true, 3 = somewhat false; 4 = definitely false).
Procedure Initially, respondents were asked to answer two questionnaires – the Parent-Child Career Conflict Scale (10 items) and the Inventory of Parent Attachment (50 items). Test administration took place during class hours and respondents took approximately 20 minutes to finish answering the questionnaires. Responses were anonymous and respondents were assured of confidentiality. After tallying the scores of the first scale, the researcher then identified their parental attachment scores as shown in their responses in the IPA. The data gathered from the two questionnaires were analyzed statistically. Data Analysis The data gathered from the self-report questionnaire and the IPA was analyzed using correlation analysis. The correlation coefficient measures the degree of linear association between two variables. This was utilized to answer the research problem on the relationship between the respondents' perceptions of conflict on career choice and their level of parental attachment. Computations were done using Microsoft Excel and Free Statistics Software by Wessa (2013). Pilot Testing The researcher conducted a pilot study on 30 respondents (all of whom fit the criteria required for the study) from a private school in Bacoor, Cavite. From the pilot study, the researcher managed to refine a few aspects of the procedure and the questionnaire in order to gain more relevant and meaningful findings. The researcher also gathered important observations on respondent behavior in the study. The time allotted for the answering the entire questionnaire was initially 50 minutes, but the respondents seemed to understand the items very well (since they were phrased very simply) and the session lasted for only 30 minutes, including the time for giving general instructions. Minor alterations in the format of the questionnaire and the phrasing of its items were made. For one, statement number 7 read ―My parent doesn‘t trust me to make my own decisions.‖ This item was deemed too ambiguous and was rephrased into ―My parent doesn‘t trust me to make my own decisions regarding my career‖ so that it will refer only to decision making about the child‘s career. Through the pilot test, the researcher also came up with a range and a corresponding remark for the respondents‘ scores on the PCCS -- from High Conflict to No Conflict. The pilot test results show that 21 out of 30 (70%) perceived Low Conflict; 7 (23.33%) perceived Moderate Conflict, and 2 (6.67%) perceived No Conflict. There were no respondents who perceived High Conflict with their parents in their career.
Results Descriptive and Preliminary Analyses The Means, Standard Deviations and Medians for all variables used in this analysis are listed in Table I below. Table I. Descriptive Statistics for participant Parent Attachment, its Subscales and Career Conflict Variable Parent Attachment Parent Trust Parent Communication Parent Alienation Maternal Attachment Paternal Attachment Career Conflict Mean 3.41 3.79 3.15 2.85 3.59 3.36 3.22 SD 0.6 1.29 1.3 1.44 1.31 1.37 0.97 Median 3.48 4 3 3 4 3 4
The average responses for the Parent-child career conflict scale show that there is generally low conflict among respondents regarding their choice of career, based on the rating in the PCCS. The mean of the Parent attachment score indicates that respondents as a whole have a moderately secure attachment to their parents, considering it is a 5-point range. The corresponding means for the Trust and Communication subscales also show the same, in that their answers averaged at 3.79 and 3.15 out of a possible 5. This indicates that respondents have Moderate Trust and Communication with their parents. Respondents scored quite lower on the Alienation subscale compared to the other subscales, indicating Low Alienation among respondents towards their parents. The means also reflect that respondents are slightly more attached to their mothers than their fathers. The distribution of the participant‘s scores in the PCCS are tabulated below. Table II. Responses in the Parent-Child Career Conflict Scale SCORES 10-19 20-29 30-39 Level of Conflict High Conflict Moderate Conflict Low Conflict No. of respondents 14 74 188 % 4.64% 24.5% 62.25%
No Conflict Total
The data gathered from the Parent-child Career Conflict scale shows that most of the scores fall near the middle of the scale. Majority of the respondents expressed low conflict with their parents regarding their career choice, with one hundred eighty-eight respondents (62.25%), garnering scores between 30-39 out of a possible 40. Seventy-four respondents (24.5%) reported that they have moderate conflict with their parents on career. Next to this, twenty-six of the respondents expressed no conflict with their parents, making up 8.61% of the sample. Finally, the range which matched with the least number of responses is the High Conflict, with only fourteen respondents (4.64%) expressing high conflict with their parents regarding career choice. Relations of Parent Attachment and Parent-child conflicts in career To determine whether there is a relationship between Parent attachment, in terms of Parent Trust, Communication, and Alienation, and Conflicts in career, the participant‘s respective scores in the PCCS and IPPA were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient. The corresponding computation for determining the relationship between the three subscales and Parent-child conflicts in career are tabulated below. Table III. Descriptive Statistics and Correlation Coefficients of Career Conflict and Parent Trust, Communication and Alienation Variable Career Conflict Parent Trust Parent Communication Parent Alienation Mean 32.16 3.79 3.15 2.85 SD 6.11 1.29 1.3 1.44 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.0000002 0.002 0.00005 r p N 302
Fig. 1. Distribution of Parent Trust & PCCS scores on the scatter plot Parent Trust. For Parent Trust, the respective computation yielded a correlation coefficient of r = 0.3, with 300 degrees of freedom (df = 300). Computations yielded a two-tailed p value of 0.0000002 which, at p < 0.05, this low correlation is considered to be statistically significant. Figure 1 (y-axis = Parent trust score; x-axis = perceived parent-child career conflict score) also shows how the scores are scattered across the distribution. However, scores tend to cluster on the upper right portion of the scatter plot. Since the PCCS is negatively worded, this indicates that the higher the score, the lower the parent-child career conflict. Therefore the scatter plot shows us that for most scores, the lower the parent-child career conflict, the higher the parent trust. From this we can infer that there is a weak inverse relationship between parent trust and career conflicts among the respondents of the study.
Fig. 2. Distribution of Parent Communication & PCCS scores on the scatter plot Parent Communication. For Parent Communication, the respective computation yielded a correlation coefficient of r = 0.2, with 300 degrees of freedom (df = 300). Computations yielded a two-tailed p value of 0.002 which, at p < 0.05, this low correlation is considered to be statistically significant. Figure 2 (y-axis = Parent communication score; x-axis = perceived parent-child career conflict score) also shows how the scores are scattered across the distribution. Scores tend to cluster on the middle right portion of the scatter plot. Since the PCCS is negatively worded, the scatter plot therefore shows us that for most scores, the lower the parent-child career conflict, the higher the parent communication. From this we can infer that there is, again, a weak inverse relationship between parent communication and career conflicts among the respondents of the study.
Fig. 3. Distribution of Parent Alienation & PCCS scores on the scatter plot Parent Alienation. Finally, for Parent Alienation, the respective computation yielded a correlation coefficient of r = 0.2, with 300 degrees of freedom (df = 300). Computations yielded a two-tailed p value of 0.00005 which, at p < 0.05, this low correlation is considered to be statistically significant. Figure 3 (y-axis = Parent alienation score; x-axis = perceived parent-child career conflict score) shows how the scores are scattered across the distribution. Scores are highly spread out, as seen in the scatter plot. DISCUSSION The results from the data analysis imply several assumptions which address the different research problems of the study. Perceptions on Parent Attachment and Parent-child Conflicts in Career Respondents expressed a moderate attachment to parents, with most ratings falling on the middle. Based on the IPA subscales, they also expressed that they do trust their parents and that they also communicate with them on a moderate level. Moreover, respondents do not feel alienated from their parents. These findings may be supported by Bowlby‘s Attachment theory, where it was stated that attachment to parents may wane during the adolescent stage due to increased interaction with peers, which may result in greater peer attachment (Bowlby, 1969). Another study by Nickerson & Richard implies that trust may be greater in one‘s school age years as compared to one‘s adolescent years. (Nickerson & Richard, 2005). However we still see that even though the adolescent respondents have developed attachment to peers, their attachment to their parents is still evident. This also supports the Attachment Theory as it stated
that developing secure attachments to parents in one‘s early years will manifest in healthy, positive relationships with others in later periods of life (Bowlby, 1969 as stated in Bergin & Bergin, 2009). The average responses for the Parent-child career conflict scale show that there is generally low conflict among respondents regarding their choice of career. There are a few factors that could have affected this finding. Firstly, the respondents expressed that they do talk to their parents regarding their career choice. In addition to this, respondents reported to be slightly more attached to their mothers. These two factors combined supports a study by Dixon, Graber & Brooks-Gunn (2008) which found that better communication with mothers is associated with lower frequency of conflict. Another factor that could have affected the results of the study is the uncertainty of some respondents regarding their choice of career. Since they are still unsure of what they want to take up for college, some of the respondents may simply rely on their parents‘ direction or advice. Definitely, no conflict will arise there. Changes in the Filipino family dynamics may also have affected this result. Although parents are established as the dominant social influence regarding career choice, it is also possible that parents themselves are becoming less controlling over their children‘s career choices. Parents of this generation may be more encouraging and supportive, and in some cases more lenient. Our culture may be slowly doing away with practices of the time when parent expectations for children to follow in their footsteps or to pursue high-paying careers are highest.
The relationship between Parent attachment and Perceived parent-child conflicts in career The data analysis and resulting computation reveals that there is a low positive correlation between parent attachment and parent-child conflicts in career. But since the PCCS is negativelyworded, this means that the two variables have a low negative correlation. This finding supports most of the literature regarding parent attachment and conflicts, because the general pattern that arises is that parent attachment and conflicts are inversely related (Dixon, Graber and BrooksGunn, 2008; Hannum and Dvorak, 2004; Schwartz, Waldo and Higgins, 2004). A possible explanation of the weak correlation, however, is that because the overall means of parent attachment and career conflict scores both fall near the middle, they did not demonstrate conclusive evidence for a strong correlation. The scores in general reflected that the respondents have a Moderately Secure Attachment and Low Career Conflict, both being the middle ratings in their respective scales. With respect to the Parent Attachment subscales, Parent trust is shown to be related to perceived parent-child conflicts in career, as it is found that parent trust is related to the different dimensions of the parent-adolescent relationship (Shek, 2010). Therefore one must definitely consider the level of trust that an adolescent has with their parent since this can affect the existence of conflict between parent and child. Since respondents have shown to have a moderate level of trust, they only experience low conflict with their parents regarding their career. Results also show that there is a low inverse correlation between Parent Communication and perceived PCC. This finding is supported by Martino, et.al. as they found that adolescents who had more repetitive communication with their parents are more open to them. (Martino, et.al, 2008). Since the respondents have reported that they do talk to their parents about their career choice, this
lessens the possibility for conflict to arise. Better communication with parents thus proves to lessen conflicts in career, as supported by Xia, et.al. who claim that good parent-adolescent communication was negatively associated with conflict (Xia, et.al, 2004). Parent Alienation was also found to be related to perceived PCC. Respondents reflected to have low alienation and low conflict in their corresponding means. This corresponds to Moné and Biringen‘s (2006) finding that parental conflict is a predictor of alienation. It is possible that since respondents have low conflicts in career choice, it leads them to feel closer to their parents and consequently, lower their perception of alienation. In summary, most of the findings in the study are consistent with the literature on Parent attachment, trust, communication, alienation and Parent-child conflicts. However, there is a weak relationship between these variables. These findings will lead one to conclude that parent-child conflicts in career, specifically, is a new dimension in analyzing the dynamics of the relationship between parent and child, and should be further explored in future research. Since parent attachment and its subscales has been found to have a low relation with this variable, one may venture on in discovering other variables that could be related to parent-child conflicts in career. Ultimately, establishing the factors behind parent-child conflicts in career, especially in the child‘s perspective, will contribute to a greater understanding between parent and child.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION The present study on parent attachment and perceived parent-child conflicts in career yielded findings that support most of the literature on Parent attachment and Career Conflict. The respondents reflected some aspects of Bowlby‘s attachment theory to be true, in that there is less attachment to parents during the adolescent stage. But although there is only moderate attachment to parents, there is still low conflict when it comes to career choice. The parents‘ counsel and guidance are still considered important by the respondents, especially regarding choices that can make a great impact on their futures. Changes in Filipino family dynamics may also have affected the result. In general, parent attachment and perceived parent-child conflicts in career are weakly related. However, there is a significant difference in attachment of those who perceive conflicts and those who do not. It is possible that these two variables predict each other. The different factors that could affect parent-child conflicts in career should be explored in future research. For one, the personal insights and coping methods of the child on the parental influence in their careers should be expounded on. This can also be examined alongside their respective parents‘ views on their influence in their child‘s careers. A longitudinal study that will keep track of those with and without career conflicts in high school and their performance in college is also suggested in order to examine the long-term impact of conflicts in career. Future research may also explore the possibility of whether parent attachment or career conflict predicts the other. Furthermore, a cross-cultural approach on this topic will also be very relevant. A comparison of how different cultures perceive parental influence on careers will greatly help in expanding this body of knowledge.
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APPENDIX A Parent-Child Career Conflict Scale Name: __________________________ Age: _______ Gender: ______ School: ____________________________ Year Level: _____________
Please reflect on the degree to which each of the following statements currently applies to your relationship with your parent regarding your Career Choice. Using the scale below, circle the appropriate number for each item. Definitely True False 1 2 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 1 3 3 3 3 NO 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 1. My parent often criticizes my career choice. 2. My parent wants me to choose a career that I do not like. 3. I am often irritated when my parent and I talk about my career choice. 4. There are misunderstandings between me and my parent on my career. 5. My parent compares my career choice with others‘ career choice. 6. My parent often hurts my feelings when we talk about my career choice. 3 4 7. My parent doesn‘t trust me to make my own decisions about my career. 8. My parent and I often get into arguments on my career choice. 9. My parent often gets angry or annoyed with my career choice. 10. I will choose a career because I am really scared of my parent. I talk to my parents regarding my career choice. Somewhat True Somewhat False Definitely
1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2
Vulnerabilities to Smoking among Teenagers from Single Parents Ricardo Bernardo B. Santiago, Jr Prof. Fatima Bullecer, MA
This study investigates the vulnerability of teenagers with a single parent to smoke in terms of: coping mechanism to stress, social influence and cultural influence. It also compares for significant differences in vulnerability to smoke among teenagers when grouped by parent status. Data were collected from teenagers in Las Piñas City and Parañaque City (50 with single parent and 50 with both parents). This study examined the factors using a self-administered 30 item questionnaire; 10 for coping with stress, 10 for social influence and 10 for cultural influence. Weighted Mean, Pearson‘s r correlation Coefficient and Independent samples t-test was utilized to get the results. Results of the study showed that teenagers having single parents smoke because of coping to stress having their grand mean of 3.66 and there is only small relationship between teenagers with both parents and single parents and influences of smoking.
Smoking is still very popular among teenagers and they often look it as desirable indulgences which make them feel cool and adult. In 2007 Global Tobacco Youth Survey (GYTS) conducted by the World Health Organization showed that one in every three Filipino teenagers aged 13 to 15 are already smokers, despite the existence of Republic Act 9211 or the Tobacco Regulation Act of 2003. Also, according to the National Youth Commission (NYC), more and more of the country's youth are lighting up, with 2 out of every 5 Filipino teenagers taking up smoking in 2011. Smoking can be a result from teens and pre-teens dealing with their parents divorce according to Nault (2005). As stated by Malik (2011), solo parents represent that the mother or father is parenting single handily which is a result of marital discord, divorce, or surrogate mothers, while others are the result of an unforeseeable occurrence, such as a death, separation and Lack of physical presence. Here in the Philippines, annulment and legal separation is allowed while divorce is not allowed. From 2001 to 2007, the Office of the Solicitor General received 43,617 cases of annulment and separation. There were 7,753 cases of annulment and legal separation filed at the Office of the Solicitor General, a 71.5 percent jump from the 4,520 cases filed in 2001 (Sabangan, 2008). Also, according to the Department of Health (DOH) and the University of the Philippines – National Institute for Health (UP-NIH), they places the number of solo parents at 14 to 15 percent of estimated 94 million Filipinos. It simply means that there are almost 13.9 million estimated numbers of Filipinos are solo parents (Bohol, 2012).
The relationship between tobacco smoking and stress has been debated for some time. Teenage smokers say cigarettes help them to relax, but also report feeling more stressed than non-smokers (Parrott, 2000). This positive connection between smoking tobacco and relieving stress leads to a regular pattern of smoking. However, when smokers stop, they gradually become less stressed over time (Parrott, 2000). In the drive to reduce the number of smokers, it is important to consider and understand why smoking appears to relieve stress, as tobacco dependency is associated with heightened stress. Social influence can be hard for anyone to resist, no matter what your age. The ability of family and friends to influence the behaviors and attitudes of adolescents is magnified when adolescents perceive that their parental relationship is negative or deficient in support and guidance (Savin-Williams and Berndt 1990). Smoking can play an important role in friendships, while offering a cigarette or asking for a light can be ice-breakers to start a conversation. It can create a bond between smokers, for example the huddled groups who smoke outside offices. If your friends smoke, deciding to quit can be awkward because they may see it as an implicit criticism of their habit. (Bonas, 2005) Over the years, cultural influence or the television shows and films have effectively built up associations between smoking and glamour, sex and risk-taking. From classic movies with Humphrey Bogart to Uma Thurman in Pulp Fiction, cultural images involving cigarettes are strong, and generally positive about smoking. In addition, we are still subject to advertising that deliberately promotes smoking and makes positive associations with brands (Peto, 2000). Therefore, this study aims to answer the following questions: What is the vulnerability of teenagers with a single parent to smoke in terms of the following influences: coping mechanism to stress, social influence and cultural influence? What is the relationship between teenagers with both parents and single parents and influences of smoking? Is there are significant differences of the teenagers' vulnerability to smoke when grouped with both parents and single parents?
Review of Related Literature Family structure is among the predisposing factors associated most consistently with adolescent smoking and various other delinquent behaviors (Bjarnason, 2000). Research has generally found that adolescents who reside with both biological parents to be less likely to smoke cigarettes than those living with single parents (Adlaf & Ivis 1996; Glendinning, Shucksmith & Hendry 1997; Miller 1997; Amey & Albrecht 1998). The evidence of increased smoking among adolescents living with one biological parent and a step-parent is somewhat less conclusive and may be culturally specific. Single Parent Single parent represents that the mother or father is parenting single handily. Most of single parent families are the result of marital discord, divorce, or surrogate mothers, while others
are the result of an unforeseeable occurrence, such as a death, separation and Lack of physical presence (Malik, 2011). Legarda (2010), also states that a solo parent refers to a parent who is left alone with the responsibility of parenthood due to death, detention, mental incapacity or legal separation with spouse. It also refers to women who became pregnant due to abuse. Legarda also explained that double hardship saddles solo parents. They perform parental duties single-handedly in the face of economic turmoil that is characterized by skyrocketing prices, poverty and massive unemployment. Smoking As we all know smoking is a practice in which a substance, most commonly tobacco and/or cannabis, is burned and the smoke is tasted or inhaled. This is primarily practised as a route of administration for recreational drug use, as combustion releases the active substances in drugs such as nicotine and makes them available for absorption through the lungs. It can also be done as a part of rituals, to induce trances and spiritual enlightenment. Experimenting with cigarette smoking is an initial stage of teenager s' smoking behaviour before it becomes established. Nichter et al. (2009) states that this smoking initiation predicts their long-term tobacco use and heavier levels of dependence. Their experimenting behaviour may be influenced by various factors including curiosity, peer pressure, parental smoking, sensation seeking, social norms for smoking, and misconception of smoking (e.g. belief thatsmoking provides benefits, such as coping, sense of belonging, style, relaxation, and coolness). The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) reports that tobacco use and addiction usually begins before age 18. According to the American Lung Association (ALA), nearly 5,000 children and teens (age11-19) begin to smoke every day. Of this number, nearly two million will become habitual smokers. The ALA estimates that over 4.5 million U.S. teens currently smoke cigarettes. If this pattern continues, it is predicted that 6.4 million young people will die prematurely as a result of a smoking-related disease. According to a 2005 study done by the CDC, 23% of high school students reported smoking cigarettes in the last month. This is compared with a previous study of high school students that showed 21.9% in 2003. While this data is somewhat discouraging it is far better than the 1997 level of the same survey at 36.4%. The rise appears to be greatest among white and Hispanic teens while the rates of teen smoking declined among black teens. The CDC study showed that 80% of smokers begin before the age of 18. A similar study which was published by the American Lung Association website shows 90% of smokers begin before the age of 21. Teenage smoking maintenance is also influenced by nicotine addiction. It has been shown to be substantially significant among teenagers even with low cigarette consumption (The National Health and Morbidity Survey, 2009).
Thus, smoking behaviour among teenagers is a complex phenomenon, since it is influenced by multiple factors. This complexity requires great understanding of the behaviour from those who are involved in the care of these teenagers. This comprehension would certainly help the care providers to curb teenage smoking, which is a dangerous, addictive and destructive behaviour (US Department of Health and Human Services, 2004). . Coping with Stress According to the stress/coping theory, adolescents engage in cigarette smoking to alleviate depression and tension, and escape from problems (Wills, 1986). Adolescents are particularly vulnerable to stress as they undergo internal changes (anatomical, biological, and psychological) while experiencing external changes in the family, school, or peer group. In Korean society, academic performance is of great importance. According to Parrot (2000), the relationship between tobacco smoking and stress has been debated for some time. Adult smokers say cigarettes help them to relax, but also report feeling more stressed than non-smokers. This positive connection between smoking tobacco and relieving stress leads to a regular pattern of smoking. However, Parrot (2000) also states that when smokers stop, they gradually become less stressed over time. In the drive to reduce the number of smokers, it is important to consider and understand why smoking appears to relieve stress, as tobacco dependency is associated with heightened stress. Social Influence The social learning perspective postulates that influence of parents and peers on adolescents' cigarette smoking is a behavior learned by modeling and social reinforcement. The most consistent and powerful predictor is whether their friends smoke (Dusenbery et al., 1992; Urberg, Shyu, & Liang, 1990; Harken, 1987; Surgeon General, 1979). The other significant influence is family; adolescents are more likely to smoke cigarettes if their parents smoke (Barnes, Farrell, & Cairns, 1986; Lauer et al., 1982). In a study, Bauman et al. (1990) found that lifetime parental smoking was strongly correlated with adolescent smoking. According to Liao et.al (2013) both friends' and parental cigarette use had significant effects on adolescents' cigarette use during both junior high school and high school. They indicate that friends' influence was generally higher in junior high school than in high school, parental influence remained relatively stable between these two periods, with a decreasing trend from 10th to 12th grade. According to the World Health Organization (2011), about 60% of men smoke and as many as 40% of adolescents boys smoke and it most began in their early teens. The majority of these young smokers said peer pressure was one reason why they took up smoking. Most now wish they did not smoke and about two-thirds have tried to give up. . A teen's first cigarette usually comes from a friend. Peer pressure has tremendous impact on a young person's decision to experiment with cigarettes, according to Teen Smoking.
Sometimes, teens start smoking because a friend dares them to. Other teens who are trying to find themselves experiment with cigarettes and become addicted. Smoking is also viewed as an act of rebellion and a way to demonstrate independence (Schaffer, 2012). Cultural Influence According to Morgenstern (2013), for every 10 tobacco advertisements, a teenager's risk of starting smoking rises by 38%. It‘s findings go against the tobacco industry's assurance that cigarette advertising only influences existing smokers to change brands and has no effect on encouraging non-smokers to start. They based their findings on more than 1,300 children aged from 10 to 15 years. They were all non-smokers at the start of the study. Their exposure to tobacco advertising was monitored for 2.5 years, as was their subsequent behavior regarding smoking. In relation to the studies mentioned above, the images that your teen sees in the media can influence her in several ways. He or she may emulate the stars fashion choices, listen to music she hears on television and in the movies, and like some of her idols, she may smoke. Prosmoking advertising has declined over the years, but ads for cigarettes still exist and certain brands are still shown in movies, according to Darmouth's Hood Center for Children and Families. Smoking on film can be perceived as sexy to adolescents and young adults, which makes them more likely to want to go down that path. The Hood Center offers statistics showing that teens may be up to three times more at-risk for starting a nicotine habit after seeing an actor smoke in a movie, and R-rated movies are the worst offenders. Young adults who watch R-rated movies are about 66 percent more likely to smoke than their peers who watch PG-13 movies or have stricter "screen" limits (Schaffer, 2012). Also, a study found that boys who were fans of motor racing, which is heavily sponsored by the tobacco industry, were more likely to smoke than those who weren't. What these images don't convey are the negatives of smoking, from the yellow stains on your fingers and the stench of your breath, or the long-term serious consequences from smoking (Bonas, 2005). Synthesis: Overall, researchers found out that coping with stress, social influence and cultural influence can be a factor for a teenager to smoke. In relation to that, Nichter et al. (2009) states that this smoking initiation predicts their long-term tobacco use and heavier levels of dependence. Their experimenting behaviour may be influenced by various factors including curiosity, peer pressure, parental smoking, sensation seeking, social norms for smoking, and misconception of smoking (e.g. belief that smoking provides benefits, such as coping, sense of belonging, style, relaxation, and coolness) Hence, this research aims find out whether which of the following vulnerabilities; coping with stress, social influence and cultural influence are more vulnerable for a teenager having a single parent to smoke by using the self-made questionnaire made by the researcher.
Method Research Design Descriptive Research Design was used for this study because it gathers information about the present existing condition. Also it enables the researcher to describe or present the picture of a phenomenon or phenomena under investigation. A survey was used for gathering data. Participants The researcher selected participants from Las Piñas City and Parañaque City with a total of (n = 100) male participants (50 of them were raised by a single parent and the other 50 were raised by both parents) and all of them are smokers. Purposive sampling was done for the sample selection. This sampling method was conducted because the researcher chose the sample on its own. The researcher selected only those people that will suit his purpose and rejected all those which do not go with the purpose. Instruments The instrument used as the main means of data gathering is self-administered questionnaire made by the researcher itself that comprises of a total 30 questions; 10 for coping with stress, 10 for social influence and 10 for cultural influence (See Apendix A). The internal consistency using cronbach‗s coefficient alpha was adequate at (α =.836) (See Apendix B). The questionnaire was structure using the Likert format. It was the selected questionnaire type as this enabled the respondents to answer the survey easily. It has five choices and each choice represents the degree of agreement each respondent has on the given question, ranging from 1, ―Strongly Disagree‖, 2, ―Disagree‖, 3, ―Undecided‖, 4, ―Agree‖ and 5, ―Strongly Agree‖ Procedure In order to test the validity of the questionnaire used for the study, the researcher first tested the survey questionnaire to 30 respondents to validate the questionnaire. The said respondents were also not part of the actual study and were only used for testing purposes only. After validating the survey questionnaire, the researcher seek 100 respondents (50 having a single parent and the other 50 is for having both parents) to participate in this study. The researcher was also helped by his friends to find his respondents. Each respondent was informed about the nature of the study and all the data that will be collected from them will be confidential. There is no time allotted in answering the survey.
Statistical Design In order to use the Likert-scale for interpretation, the researcher used weighted mean to get the average scores of each question. The scale below was used to interpret the total answer of all the respondents for every question from computing the weighted mean: Table 1
Also, Pearson‘s r correlation Coefficient was used to find out if there is a relationship between the teenagers having a both and single parents and to the different independent variables which is coping with stress, social influence and cultural influence. The degree of relationship is determined by means of the magnitude scale for Pearson‘s r presented below: Table 2
Furthermore, Independent samples t-test was used to compare the scores of coping with stress, social influence, and cultural influence between the teenagers having both parents and a single parent.
Results and Discussion Table 3: Coping with Stress for Both Parents and Single Parents
Overall, teenagers having both parents has a grand mean of 3.28 which indicates that teenagers are undecided if they are smoking because of coping to stress. While those teenager having single parents agrees that they are smoking because of coping to stress having a grand mean of 3.66. In relation to the finding of Parrot (2000), that smokers say cigarettes help them to relax. The result here shows that teenagers for both and single parents agree that they are smoking to cope with stress.
Table 4: Social Influence for Both Parents and Single Parents
Teenagers having both parents respond undecided if they are smoking because of social influence. While teenagers having a single parent are strongly disagreeing that they are not smoking because of social influence or from their peers. Overall, teenagers having both parents has a grand mean of 2.45 indicates that teenagers are disagreeing they are smoking because of social influence. While those teenagers having a single parent also disagrees that they are smoking because of social influence having a grand mean of 1.73. The results shows that it incontrast to Liao et.al (2013) in which both friends and parental cigarette use had significant effects on adolescents' cigarette use during both junior high school and high school. Teenagers with single parents are not smoking because of social influence.
Table 5: Cultural Influence for Both Parents and Single Parents
Teenagers having both parents has a grand mean of 2.64 indicates that teenagers are undecided if they are smoking because of cultural influence. While
those teenagers having a single parent also are undecided if they are smoking because of cultural influence having a grand mean of 2.648. Overall, the results shows that it is in contrast to Schaffer (2012), when he states that the images that your teen sees in the media can influence her in several ways and also to Morgenstern (2013), that for every 10 tobacco advertisements, a teenager's risk of starting smoking rises by 38%. Teenagers with both and single parents are not smoking because of the cultural influence.
In relation to coping to stress, the teenagers raised by both parents and single parents has an R value of 0.32 which is positive, medium strength. This mean, as teenager, coping with stress influenced them to smoke. Wherein for social influence, the teenagers raised by both parents and single parents has an R value of -0.49 which is negative, medium strength. This mean that as teenager, social influenced has a negative influenced for them to smoke and they are not easy to be influenced. For cultural influence, the teenagers raised by both parents and single parents has an R value of -0.08 which is negative, none strength. This means that as teenager, cultural influence has totally no effect for them to smoke.
In terms of coping with stress, the F value of coping with stress is 41.45. It means that there is a significant differences of the teenagers to smoke when group in both & single parents. In terms of social influence, the F value of social influence is 53.99. It means that there is a significant difference of the teenagers to smoke when group in both & single parents. In terms of cultural influence, the F value of cultural influence is 25.02. It means that there is a significant difference of the teenagers to smoke when group in both & single parents. Overall, the F value is 24.33 which means that there is a significant different but not that big.
Conclusion and Recommendation The researcher conclude that vulnerability of teenagers having a single parent to smoke are because of coping to stress having their grand mean of 3.66. Unlike in social influence having their grand mean 1.73 and cultural influence 2.648, teenagers are disagreeing that they are smoking because of that. In using Pearson‘s r correlation, the researcher found out those teenagers having both and single parents has a R value of -0.15, which is negative small strength. This means that there is only small relationship between teenagers with both parents and single parents and influences of smoking. In using the Independent Sample T-Test, the researcher found out that there is a significant difference of the teenagers vulnerability to smoke when grouped with both parents and single parents having the F value, 24.33. The researcher would like to recommend further study on the vulnerabilities of smoking to teenagers in a specific group because the researcher has different groups like some are not studying while some are in high school and college. Other researchers may also consider female respondents. Nevertheless, other researchers should also create or used another tool in determining the vulnerabilities of teenagers in smoking
Reference: Bjarnason, T. (2000) Adolescent Substance Use: a Study in Durkheim Ian Sociology. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame. Adlaf, E. M. & Ivis, F. J. (1996) Structure and relations: the influence of familial factors on adolescent substance use and delinquency. Journal of Child and Adolescent Substance Use, 5, 1–19. Glendinning, A., Shucksmith, J. & Hendry, L. (1997) Family life and smoking in adolescence. Social Science and Medicine, 44, 93–101. Miller, P. (1997) Family structure, personality, drinking, smoking and illicit drug use: a study of UK teenagers. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 14, 121–129. Amey, C. H. & Albrecht, S. L. (1998) Race and ethnic differences in adolescent drug use: the impact of family structure and the quantity and quality of parental interaction. Journal of Drug Issues, 28, 283–298. Wills, T.H. (1986). Stress and coping in early adolescence: Relationships to substance use in urban school samples. Health Psychology, 5, 503-529. Urberg, K.A., Shyu, S.J., & Liang, J. (1990). Peer influence in adolescent smoking. Addictive Behaviors, 15, 247-255. Harken L.S. (1987). The prevention of adolescent smoking: A public health priority. Evaluation and the Health Profession, 10, 373-93. Surgeon General. (1979) Smoking and health: A report of the Surgeon General. U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Office of Smoking and Health, DHEW Publication No. (PHS) 79-50066. Liao, Y., Zhaoqing, H., Huh, J., Pentz, M.A., Chou, C.P. (2013) Changes in friends' and parental influences on cigarette smoking from early through late adolescence. Journal of Adolescent Health. Published online April 12, 2013. Matthis Morgenstern, James D Sargent, Barbara Isensee and Reiner Hanewinkel BMJ Open 2013;3:e002907 doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2013-002907 Wills, T.H. (1986). Stress and coping in early adolescence: Relationships to substance use in urban school samples. Health Psychology, 5, 503-529. Prevalence of cigarette smoking by sex and age: 1974 to 2003: General Household Survey 2003, Office for National Statistics, 2004. Peto, R et al. Mortality from smoking in developed countries 1950-2000 (2nd edition) .
Smoking-related behaviour and attitudes, ONS Omnibus Survey, Department of Health, 2003 Denscombe M, Smoking cessation among young people. Health Education Journal, 60 (3) 221231, 2001. Leventhal H, & Cleary P, The smoking problem: a review of the research and theory in behavioral risk reduction. Psychological Bulletin, 88: 370-405, 1980. Retrieved from: MayoClinic.com: Teen Smoking: 10 Ways to Help Teens Stay Smoke-Free Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids: How Parents Can Protect Their Kids From Becoming Addicted Smokers Appendix A Circle the number that best describes you. There are no wrong and right answers. Your answers will be kept private. 5- Strongly Agree 4-Agree 3-Undecided 2 –Disagree 1-Strongly Disagree I Smoke… 1.When I am tense 2.Not because of peer pressure 3.Because it’s acceptable to society 4.When hungry 5.When I need to start a conversation 6.Not to look grown up 7.When I not studying 8.To appear attractive 9.Not to be matured 10.When I am bored 11.To attract ideal partner 12.Not because my father/mother smokes 13.When I am not lonely 14.To become sociable 15.Because of the influence of advertisements 16.When I have troubles 17.To feel accepted by the peers 18.Because no one stops me from smoking 19.To think properly 20.Not to make new friends 21.Because it gives certain significance 22.When I feel not tired 23.Not to ‘fit in’ 24.Because of its easy access 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
25.When I feel irritated with people around me 26.Not to look cool 27.Because this is part of my lifestyle 28.When I feel unable to perform task 29.To conform with others 30.Because its trendy
1 1 1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2 2 2
3 3 3 3 3 3
4 4 4 4 4 4
5 5 5 5 5 5
Perceived Individual Risk Factors and School Climate Influencing Bullied High School Students Janine Santos Prof. Maria Theresa Masilungan, MA
This study aims to find out the frequency of bullying among respondents, what individual risk factors significantly increases occurrences of bullying among high school students and what is the respondents‘ perceived school climate in terms of rule implemen tation and safety in their school. Two-hundred fourteen (214) high school students, aged 12-18, were selected through purposive sampling to participate in this study. The researcher used regression analysis to know which factors are significant and which are not and descriptive statistics. Based on the results gathered all of the respondents answered that they have been bullied at school where 73 respondents (34%) answered that they have been bullied every day of every week in a month compared to only 22 respondents (10%) who answered they have been bullied only once or twice in the past month and no one answered that they have bullied at school. In individual risk factors, gender (α=.01); unpopularity (α=.02) and socioeconomic status (α=0.02) factor show s ignificant relationship and influence in increasing bullying level incidents. In rule implementation, 138 respondents (64%) believe that their school rules are strictly enforced and 76 respondents (36%) didn‘t believe that it is strictly enforced. In terms of school safety, it is also alarming that 163 respondents (76%) felt unsafe at school and only 51 respondents (24%) felt safe at school.
Bullying is usually defined (Olweus, 1999) as a subset of aggressive behaviour characterized by repetition and an imbalance of power. The definition ―a systematic abuse of power‖ (Smith and Sharp, 1994) also captures these two features. The behaviour involved is generally thought of as being repetitive, i.e., a victim is targeted a number of times. Also, the victim cannot defend himself or herself easily, for one or more reasons: He or she may be outnumbered, smaller or less physically strong, or less psychologically resilient than the person(s) doing the bullying. It may be considered as a normative in many group settings, but socially unacceptable within the ethos of a democratic society. Bullying usually happens at school. Roughly 80% of students who experienced bullying in 2007 reported it occurring inside the school grounds (Biggs, 2011). Students bully other because they are insecure and lack confidence. They use bullying tactics to impress other students. Bullies thrive on attention they get from their fellow classmates. Their hurtful actions make them feel powerful and popular. Bullies pick on students who they think are weak in physical stature, unpopular with their peers, easily intimidated, or discriminated against (Biggs, 2011). You may not be aware that bullying is already happening, you may not know it is already there, but it is happening and it causes unimaginable pain to the victims. Are you even remotely aware of how much pain these victims feel every day? They go to school knowing they are going to be hurt and they see no way out. This is because many of us stand by and let it happen without contemplating how much pain this is causing people. This study aims to find out what risk factors significantly increases occurrences of bullying among high school students and what factors protect them from bullies. It aims to answer the following research problems: What is the frequency of bullying incident of the respondents? What is the respondents‘ degree of perceived school climate in terms of rule implementation?
What is the respondents‘ degree of perceived school climate in terms of safety? What individual risk factors significantly increase occurrences of bullying?
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE The following talks about the different literature made regarding the different risk factors as predictors of bullying. Risk Factors as Predictors of Bullying Numerous studies of bullying have examined the predictors or factors that put youth at increased risk for exhibiting violent behaviour. These predictors can be categorized using three levels of analysis: A) the individual level, including gender, aggressiveness, unpopularity, alcohol/drug use and emotional variables; B) the immediate systems level, including family, peer, school, and neighbourhood influences; and C) the cultural and societal including media portrayals of violence, socioeconomic status, ethnicity and religious orientation (Swearer, 2010). Risk factors may help to figure out which youth are most likely in need of preventive intervention, they cannot pinpoint which individual children will become serious or violent offenders. Most youth with risk factors do not become chronic offenders. Lipsey & Derson (1998) point out that if we rely on any one of the strongest risk factors, it would suggest that 3 to 6 children would not become serious offenders for every child who would. They further emphasize that for a risk to be a good predictor of individual outcome, it must be both that most individuals with the outcome have the risk and most individual without a risk do not have outcome. Individual Risk Factors Individual level includes gender, aggressiveness, unpopularity, alcohol/drug use and emotional variables. An accumulation of individual risk factors is presumed to increase the likelihood of eliciting violence or aggression, especially when coupled with multiple immediate systems and societal and cultural risk factors. Gender In general, boys bully more than girls, just as boys are more violent than girls (Kruttschnitt, 1994; Moffitt et al, 2001). The gender difference in bullying is particularly marked for direct bullying (eg. physical violence or threats), but less marked (or even absent) for indirect bullying (eg. spreading rumours or social isolation; Rigby, 2005). Girls are proportionally more likely than boys to bully indirectly (Osterman et al, 1998). Direct bullying is more likely to be termed ‗school violence‘. In his classic nationwide survey of bullying by Norwegian school children, Olweus (1991) reported that 11% of boys said that they directly bullied sometimes or more often, compared with 3–4% of girls. In a nationwide survey of bullying in Malta, Borg (1999) found that 15 –24% of boys in each year said that they were frequent bullies (once a week or more often), compared
with 8–13% of girls. Whereas 61% of boy bullies reported physical violence compared with 30% of girl bullies, 43% of girl bullies reported isolating others (not talking to them) compared with 26% of boy bullies. In Germany, Scheithauer et al (2006) also found that boys bullied more than girls, but that girls engaged in more indirect bullying. One conclusion made by Olweus (1993) about gender differences is that boys are more likely to be both the perpetrators and the victims of aggressive physical and verbal bullying by peers. Another conclusion is that girls are much more often a target of bullying by boys than vice versa. Taken together, these conclusions indicate that interventions should take into account the higher rates of aggressive behavior by males. A third conclusion is that more study is needed of "indirect" or subtle bullying and of social exclusion, by both girls and boys. Unpopularity It is undoubtedly true that victims of bullying tend to be unpopular, rejected or neglected by other children, lonely and with few friends (Eslea et al, 2003; Nansel et al, 2001). Whether the same is true of bullies is less clear. In Illinois, Espelage and Holt (2001) reported that bullies tended to be popular, and three-quarters of bullies nominated fellow bullies as friends. In their large scale surveys, both Eslea et al (2003) in seven countries and Nansel et al (2001) in the United States found that self-reported bullies were no different from comparison children in feeling left alone or having few friends. However, Boulton and Smith (1994) in Sheffield reported that peer-rated bullies tended to be rejected by other children, and O‘Moore and Hillery (1989) in Dublin found that self-reported bullies were unpopular. Similarly, Veenstra et al (2005) in the Netherlands found that peer-related bullies were highly disliked, and Salmivalli et al (1996) in Finland discovered that peer-rated bullies tended to be socially rejected; only 10% of bullies were popular, compared with 30% of comparison children. One possibility is that the unpopularity of bullies is more likely to be revealed by peer rating data, and that self-reports of bullies about their (average) popularity may be incorrect. Socioeconomic status Greater disparities between socioeconomic status within a country were associated with higher levels of victimization (Due et al., 2009). Other research has found that low income status was a risk factor for aggression in male and female students (Harachi et al., 2005). However, it is likely that the relationship between socioeconomic status and being bullied is contextually-driven and varies across communities. School climate The adults in our nation‘s schools play a major role in creating a positive or negative school climate. When the school climate is not supportive and unhealthy, then bullying and concomitant problems proliferate (Kasen, Johnson, Chen, Crawford, & Cohen, 2011). Schools where high levels of bullying exist are schools that have a negative and punitive school climate.
School environments vary greatly. Whereas some schools feel friendly, inviting, and supportive, others feel exclusionary, unwelcoming, and even unsafe. The feelings and attitudes that are elicited by a school‘s environment are referred to as school climate. A positive school climate is characterized by strong relationships among and between staff and students; discipline using formative (not punitive) consequences; and engagement, recognition and leadership opportunities for students in a wide variety of activities. Set Policies and Rules in School School staff can help prevent bullying by establishing and enforcing school rules and policies that clearly describe how students are expected to treat each other. Consequences for violations of the rules should be clearly defined as well (Baldry & Farrington, 2005). Build a Safe Environment at School A safe and supportive school climate can help prevent bullying. Safety starts in the classroom. Students should also feel and be safe everywhere on campus—in the cafeteria, in the library, in the restrooms, on the bus, and on the playground. Everyone at school can work together to create a climate where bullying is not acceptable (Baldry & Farrington, 2005). SYNTHESIS Bullying is never acceptable and it takes a community of people to work together to stamp this out. Individuals who bully peers are aggressive and impulsive but might also be insecure, have poor personal and social skill and come more often from disruptive and conflicting families; they are likely to develop further relational and behavioural problems. Victims of bullying are also a problematic group, they tend to have low levels of self-esteem, and poor assertiveness skills and they are more likely to develop health problems in the future. Bullying is a complex phenomenon, no single cause can explain why some children bully others or are victimized; instead it is possible to identify the risk factors that if present, may increase the risk of becoming a bully or a victim. Protective factors are also important to look at because they can mitigate the negative effects of risk factors and reduce the chance of occurrence of misbehaviours. Risk and protective factors can be related to personal characteristics or to the social and family context. In fact, Ahmed and Braithwaite (2004) reported that two important social organizations (the family and school) play a role in the development and maintenance of bullying and victimization in school. Numerous studies of bullying have examined the predictors or factors that put youth at increased risk for exhibiting violent behaviour. Risk factors may help to figure out which youth are most likely in need of preventive intervention, they cannot pinpoint which individual children will become serious or violent offenders.
METHOD Research Design This study used a quantitative design through survey method. Quantitative research allows the researcher to measure and analyse data. This design involved questioning the respondents through a survey that helped in gathering data that determined the risk factors among bully victims. As compared to other methods of data gathering, surveys are able to extract data that are near to the exact attributes of the larger population. This design generated meaningful results within a small number of participants. Participants and Sampling The participants of this study were 214 High School Students who are bully victims from different schools in Metro Manila. Selection of participants is through purposive sampling where participants were asked to answer the survey based on their own opinions. Purposive sampling can be very useful for situations where you need to reach a targeted sample quickly and where sampling for proportionality is not the primary concern in order to target a particular group of people who experience bullying based on the judgment of the researcher as to which subjects best fit the aim of the study. Instruments A survey questionnaire entitled ―The School Bullying Climate Survey (Cornell, 2012)‖ was used in this study. The survey was taken from Curry School of Education at University of Virginia. The purpose of the School Climate Bullying Survey (SCBS) is to assess bullying behaviours and relevant aspects of school climate in school settings, typically to help guide intervention efforts. This survey will be given to the participants and let them answer online. The questions in this survey usually uses 4-point Likert type format (1-Never, 2-Once or twice, 3-About once per week, 4-several times per week), (1- Strongly Agree, 2-Agree, 3Disagree, 4-Strongly Disagree), a Yes or No, and an opinion answers. The scoring will be the 4 as the highest value and 0 as the lowest one. Procedure Since the survey was administered online, the researcher made sure to establish a good rapport with the target participants through chatting online and made sure to explain the purpose of the survey and it serves as a protection for both parties - the researcher and participants. The researcher also made sure that the target respondents experienced being bullied before asking them to answer the survey since the study focuses on bully victims. Upon the approval of the participants to be a participant in the study, the researcher gave the link to the online survey to the target participants and patiently waits for their response and confirmation that they already finished answering the survey. The researcher didn‘t forget to thank each participant after answering the survey. Lastly, the researcher scored and tallied the result based on the data gathered.
Data analysis The researcher used regression analysis and descriptive statistics. Regression analysis is a statistical technique for estimating the relationships among variables. It is also used to understand which among the independent variables are related to the dependent variable, and to explore the forms of these relationships. The researcher also used Microsoft Excel and SPSS in encoding and processing the summary tables and for computation for regression value.
RESULTS I. Summary of Tables Figure 1 Frequency TOTAL RESPONDENTS I have been bullied at school in the past month (30 days). Once or twice About once per week Several times per week Every day of every week Never I have been physically bullied or threatened with physical bullying at school in the past month (30 days). Once or twice About once per week Several times per week Every day of every week Never I have been verbally bullied at school in the past month (30 days). Once or twice About once per week Several times per week 35 63 44 16 29 21 61 14 68 15 56 29 7 32 7 26 22 53 66 73 0 10 25 31 34 0 214 % 100
Every day of every week Never I have been socially bullied in the past month (30 days). Once or twice About once per week Several times per week Every day of every week Never I have been cyber bullied in the past month (30 days). Once or twice About once per week Several times per week Every day of every week Never
31 26 88 69 0
14 12 41 32 0
19 42 73 68 12
9 20 34 32 6
Figure 1 shows the summary of results for the on how often bullying occurs for the victims. Figure 1.2 shows the summary of results on how often bullying occurs. 73 respondents (34%) answered that they have been bullied every day of every week in a month compared to only 22 respondents (10%) who answered they have been bullied only once or twice in the past month and no one answered that they have bullied at school. It is also alarming that physical bullying at school often happened. In fact, a total of 158 respondents (74%) experienced physical bullying at school compared to 56 respondents (26%) who never experienced. 72 respondents (34%) answered that they have been verbally bullied every day of every week in a month at school and it is also alarming that none of them didn‘t experienced verbal bullying. 69 respondents (32%) answered that they have been socially bullied every day of every week in a month and none of them didn‘t experienced. It is very alarming that 202 respondents (94%) experienced cyber bullying compared to 12 respondents (6%) who didn‘t experience it.
Figure 2 Frequency TOTAL RESPONDENTS Every student in your school knows the school rules for student conduct. Strongly Disagree Disagree 96 36 214 % 100
Agree Strongly Agree The rules in your school are fair. Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree The punishment for breaking rules in your school is the same no matter who you are. Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree The school rules are strictly enforced. Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree If a school rule is broken, students know what kind of punishment will follow. Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree
17 22 16
74 26 48 66
35 12 22 31
92 33 38 51
43 15 18 24
99 39 35 41
46 18 16 19
77 53 46 38
36 25 21 18
Figure 2 shows the summary of results the respondents‘ perceived school climate in terms of RULE IMPLEMENTATION. 96 respondents (45%) strongly disagreed and 36 respondents (17%) disagreed that every student in their school knows the school rules for student conduct while 34 (16%) strongly agreed and 48 (22%) agreed that every students know the school rules for student conduct. 114 respondents (53%) believed that their school rules are fair and 100 respondents (47%) believed that their school rules are unfair. It is alarming that 125 respondents (58%) didn‘t believe that the punishment for breaking the school rules are the same no matter who you are compared to 89 respondents (42%) who believe that the punishments are fair enough. 138 respondents (64%) believe that their school rules are strictly enforced and 76
respondents (36%) didn‘t believe that it is strictly enforced. 130 respondents (61%) believe that the students in their school are not aware of the punishments if the school rules are broken and only 84 respondents (39%) believe that the students are aware of the punishment if they broke a school rule. Figure 3 Frequency TOTAL RESPONDENTS How would you describe your school? A place where I always wanted to go A place where I am afraid to go because of the bullies 84 130 214 % 100
During the past 30 days, on how many days did you not go to school because you felt you would be unsafe at school or on your way to or from school? Never About once per week Several times per week Every day of every week Does bullying give you a reason not to go to school? All the time Sometimes Never 118 57 39 51 35 88 40
24 16 41 19
55 27 18
Figure 3 shows the summary of results the respondents‘ perceived school climate in terms of SAFETY. It is disturbing that 130 respondents (61%) described their school as a place where they are afraid to go because of the bullies. It is also alarming that 163 respondents (76%) felt unsafe at school and only 51 respondents (24%) felt safe at school. 118 respondents (55%) answered that bullying gives them a reason not to go to school all the time, 57 respondents (27%)
answered that bullying sometimes gives them a reason not to go to school and only 39 respondents (18%) answered that bullying never give them a reason not to go to school. Figure 4
Std. Error Beta t
(Constant) IRF1(Gender) IRF2(Unpopularity)
7.52 4.76 .42 .55 .17 .24 .22
.00 .15 .14 .11
1.58 .12 2.45 .01 2.31 .02 2.68 .02
IRF3(Socioeconomic Status) .45
Figure 4 shows the Regression Analysis computation for INDIVIDUAL RISK FACTOR. GENDER represents IRF1. Based on the results gathered, 79% (237 respondents) of the total results says that boys are more bully than girls. In addition, results also showed that LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender) are the usually victims of bullying garnering 51% (154 respondents) of the total result. Its significance value (α=0.1) is lower than 0.05 which only means that the gender have a significant impact on increasing the bullying level incidents. UNPOPULARITY represents IRF2. Based on the results gathered, 43% (130 respondents) strongly agreed that if they are popular enough in their school, they will not be bullied. Its significance value (α=.02) is lower than 0.05 which leads to the answer that unpopularity have a significant impact on increasing the bullying level incidents. SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS represents IRF3. 52% (155 respondents) strongly agreed that economic status of a student has a high risk in experiencing bullying based on the data gathered. Its significance value (α=.02) is lower than 0.05 which means that socioeconomic status have a significant impact on the dependent variable which is the bullying level.
DISCUSSION Bullying carries a lifelong series of emotional scars that permanently affect children into adulthood. Bullying is associated with depression, anxiety, and poor school performance. Yet, despite considerable evidence, the effectiveness of bullying programs remains questionable. Being bullied is an experience common to many children and bullying gives countless effect on its victims. The goal of the current study was to investigate the relationship of the dependent variable (bullying level) and the independent variable (risk factors) and to know what level these risk factors affect bullied students in a sample of 214 high school students. All of the data from the survey questionnaire were analysed through regression analysis and descriptive statistics. Gender is the first factor in the individual risk factor. According to studies, boys are bully more than girls, just as boys are more violent than girls (Kruttschnitt, 1994; Moffitt et al, 2001). One conclusion made by Olweus (1993) about gender differences is that boys are more likely to be both the perpetrators and the victims of aggressive physical and verbal bullying by peers. In regression analysis, gender differences have a significant relationship with bullying level. Unpopularity shows a significant relationship with bullying level. Based on studies, victims of bullying tend to be unpopular, rejected or neglected by other children, lonely and with few friends (Eslea et al, 2003; Nansel et al, 2001). Unpopularity nowadays has a strong impact on bullying. In socioeconomic status, research has found that low income status was a risk factor for aggression in male and female students (Harachi et al., 2005). Setting rules and policies that clearly describe how students are expected to treat each other can prevent bullying. Punishment for breaking the rules should be clear as well (Baldry & Farrington, 2005). Based on the results gathered, most of the respondents are not aware of the school rules and policies for student conduct. It is also disturbing that most of the respondents believed that the punishments for breaking the school rules and policies are not fair which the school should be working so that bullying will be prevented. Building a safe environment can also prevent bullying. Students should also feel and be safe everywhere on campus—in the cafeteria, in the library, in the restrooms, on the bus, and on the playground (Baldry & Farrington, 2005). Results showed that bully victims described their school as a place where they are afraid to go because of the bullies which will also affect their life as an individual and a student also. Bullying is known to cause emotional, physical, and psychological pain. Unfortunately, children at school every day face bullying and often do not get much needed help. As much as people would like to say that words do not hurt, they do, and they can leave a person with permanent emotional scarring from which they may never recover. Some may argue that school bullying is the worst form of bullying because of the emotional pain that it carries through adulthood. All schools are supposed to showcase a safe learning environment for all of the kids,
but effective monitoring and prevention of bullying continues to be problematic and programs ineffective (Benna, et al. 2012). Bullying was never right and will never be right and it can bring tons of negative effect on the life of the victim (e.g. depression, suicide and etc). Those who bully are four times more likely to engage in criminal behaviour in adulthood and often develop suicidal thoughts and eighty-three per cent of bullying incidents receive no intervention and continue to happen (Klomek, Sourander & Gould, 2011).
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION Based on the result gathered from the 214 high school respondents, gender, unpopularity and socioeconomic status in the individual risk factor have a significant relationship in increasing occurrences of bullying. Results also showed that building a safe environment at school and establishing rules and policies that will be the basis on how students treat each other will prevent bullying. The impact of positive school climate increases students‘ sense of bonding to the school. Bullying should not be taken lightly as it can cause serious problems for all the children involved, therefore the researcher recommends that the future researchers and readers of this article try to apply the same study for the disabled persons and for the homosexual individuals. The researcher also recommend the readers of this article, especially the professors of San Beda College Alabang to take note of the results produced by this study that will be of great help to the awareness and prevention when it comes to bullying. The researcher strongly believed that successful bullying programs must involve, not only a working knowledge of the research, but also active strategies for monitoring school climate. Bullying is an unnecessary act that should not have to happen to young students in a school setting. It should be understood that it is not only the responsibility of the teacher to prevent bullying but also the social and political structures. It is hoped that this study will inspire others to conduct similar studies and monitor data in order to further decrease bullying and shed light on the many effects bullying can have on learners.
REFERENCES Baldry, A.C. & Farrington, D.P. (2005). Protective Factors as Moderators of Risk Factors in Adolescence Bullying. Social Psychology of Education. 8 (3), 263-284. Retrieved from http://www.mendeley.com/research/protective-factors-moderators-risk-factors-adolescencebullying/# Biggs, M. (n.d). Award winning essay on bullying by Morgan Biggs [web blog]. Retrieved from http://www.st.annesschool.org/news/award-winning-essay-bullying-morgan-biggs/1 Bell, L., Benna, N., Brandt, A., Cruz, D., Duran, E., Fernandez, K., Gutierrez, J. & Zaveri, K. (2012). School Bullying Hurts: Evidence of Psychological and Academic Challenges among Students with Bullying Histories. Retrieved from http://www.kon.org/urc/v11/bullying/brandt.html Camodeca, M., Goossens, F. A., Terwogt, M. M. & Schuengel, C. (2002). Bullying and Victimization Among School-age Children: Stability and Links to Proactive and Reactive Aggression. Social Development. 11(3), 332-345. doi: 10.1111/1467-9507.00203 Cornell, D. (2012). The School Climate Bullying Survey: Description and Research summary. Retrieved from http://curry.virginia.edu/uploads/resourceLibrary/School_Climate_Bullying_Survey_Descri ption_for_Distribution_5-22-12.pdf Corrado, R.R., Roesch, R., Hart, S.D. & Gierowski, J.K (2002). Multi-Problem Violent Youth. Retrieved from http://www.google.com.ph/books?hl=en&lr=&id=VQjQW8z7yFoC&oi=fnd&pg=PA3&dq =risk+and+protective+factors+of+bullying&ots=M9QM8cU5xJ&sig=LCSxMmiWxaqVZ oNZYZgammAOVVw&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false Dewar, G. (2013). How to prevent bullying: A guide for the science-minded. Retrieved from www.parentingscience.com/how-to-prevent-bullying.html Farrington, D.P. (2010). Individual Risk Factors for School Bullying. Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research. 2(1). Retrieved from http://www.pavilionjournals.co.uk/dev/jacprflyer/downloads/JACPR-2.1.pdf Georgiou, S. N. (2010). Bullying and victimization at school: The role of mothers. Educational Psychology. 78(1), 109-125. doi:10.1348/000709907X204363 Kim, Y. S., Leventhal, B.L., Koh, Y., Hubbard, A., & Boyce, T. (2006). School Bullying and Youth Violence Causes or Consequences of Psychopathologic Behavior?. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 63(9), 1035-1041. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.63.9.1035
Klomek, A. B., Sourander, A. & Gould, M. S. (2011). Bullying and suicide. Psychiatric Times. 28 (2). Retrieved from http://www.abusewatch.net/Bullying%20and%20Suicide.pdf Schneider, S., O'Donnell, L., Stueve, A., & Coulter, R. S. (2012). Cyberbullying, school bullying, and psychological distress: A regional census of high school students. American Journal Of Public Health, 102(1), 171-177.doi:10.2105/AJPH.2011.300308 Swearer, S.M. (2010). Risk Factors and Outcomes of Bullying. Retrieved from http://www.stopbullying.gov/at-risk/groups/lgbt/white_house_conference_materials.pdf Unnever, J. D. & Cornell D.G. (2003). Bullying, self-control and ADHD. J Interpers Violence. 18 (2), 129-147. doi: 10.1177/0886260502238731 Zande, I.V.D. (n.d). Bullying Facts and Solutions [web blog]. Retrieved from http://www.kidpower.org/library/article/bullying-facts/
APPENDIX A School Bullying Survey This is a survey asking for your opinions about bullying at school. There are no wrong or right answers to the questions. The result of this survey will be used to improve how students get along with one another at your school. The researcher will make sure that your answers will be kept confidential. Please answer all the items with honesty. * Required 1. I have been bullied at school in the past month (30 days).
Once or twice About once per week Several times per week Every day of every week 2. I have been physically bullied or threatened with physical bullying at school in the past month (30 days).
Once or twice About once per week Several times per week Every day of every week Never 3. I have been verbally bullied at school in the past month (30 days).
Once or twice About once per week Several times per week Every day of every week 4. I have verbally bullied another student in the past month (30 days).
Once or twice About once per week Several times per week Every day of every week 5. I have been socially bullied in the past month (30 days).
Once or twice About once per week Several times per week Every day of every week 6. I have socially bullied another student in the past month (30 days).
Once or twice About once per week Several times per week Every day of every week 7. I have been cyber bullied in the past month (30 days).
Once or twice About once per week Several times per week Every day of every week Never 8. I have cyber bullied another student in the past month (30 days).
Once or twice About once per week Several times per week Every day of every week Never 9. Girls Boys Who do you think are more bully?
10. Who do you think are usually the victim of bullying? Girls Boys LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender) 11. It feels good when I hit someone. Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 12. If you fight a lot, everyone will look up to you. Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 13. Sometimes you only have two choices – get punched or punch the other person first. Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 14. If you are afraid to fight, you won‟t have many friends. Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 15. If someone threatens you, it is okay to hit that person. Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 16. Students who are bullied or teased mostly deserve it. Strongly Disagree Disagree
Agree Strongly Agree 17. Bullying is sometimes fun to do. Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 18. Are you a hot-tempered person? Yes Sometime Not at all 19. Are you a sensitive type of person? Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 20. How many times were you involved in a physical fight on school property? 0 1 time 2 times 3 + times 21. Do you think that if you are popular in your school, you will not be bullied? Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 22. Yes No 23. Yes No Do you drink alcohol? Do you smoke?
24. Yes No 25. Yes No 26.
After a bully incident, does your usage of cigarette/ alcohol increases?
Does alcohol/cigarette helps you with your problem especially at school?
During the past 30 days, did you ever feel so sad or hopeless almost every day for weeks or more in a row that you stopped doing some usual activities?
Always Sometimes Never 27. Yes No 28. Consider yourself as a bully, which of the following is the reason why you become one? During the past 30 days, did you ever seriously consider attempting suicide?
Lack of parental guidance Lack of teacher/adviser guidance I was influence by my friends I was influenced by society and media 29. If you are being bullied, what do you usually do?
I will tell my teacher that someone is bullying me I will tell my parent(s) that someone is bullying me I will bully him/her back I will bully other so that they will not think that I‟m weak/loser 30. Does bullying traumatize you? All the time Sometimes Not at all 31. Which of the following describe you well? The one who bully others all the time The one who bully others sometimes
Bully victim all the time Bully victim sometimes 32. To whom do you tell that you are being bullied? My parents/sibling(s) My friend(s) My teacher I never told anyone 33. What is the main reason why you didn‟t tell anyone you were bullied? I did not think anyone could help I can handle it by myself I did not want others think that I am a snitch or loser 34. Adults in your school really care about all students. Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 35. Adults in your school acknowledge and pay attention to students. Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 36. Adults in your school listen to what students have to say.
Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 37. Adults in your school treat all students fairly.
Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 38. Adults in your school support and treat students with respect.
Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 39. Teachers in my school make it clear to students that bullying is not tolerated.
Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 40. There are adults in your school you could go to if you have a problem.
Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 41. The teachers in my school genuinely care about me doing well.
Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 42. Does your teacher give punishment to those students who are bully?
Always Sometimes Never 43. If another student was bullying me, I would tell one of the teachers or staff at school.
Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 44. If I tell a teacher that someone is bullying me, the teacher will do something to help.
Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree
Every student in your school knows the school rules for student conduct.
Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 46. The rules in your school are fair.
Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 47. The punishment for breaking rules in your school is the same no matter who you are.
Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 48. The school rules are strictly enforced.
Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 49. If a school rule is broken, students know what kind of punishment will follow.
Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 50. How would you describe your school?
A place where I always wanted to go A place where I am afraid to go because of the bullies 51. Bullying is a major problem at school. Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree
52. Students here try to stop bullying when they see it happening. Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 53. In your school, do you think that the number of bullies increases every week? Yes No 54. During the past 30 days, on how many days did you not go to school because you felt you would be unsafe at school or on your way to or from school? Never About once per week Several times per week Every day of every week 55. Does bullying give you a reason not to go to school? All the time Sometimes Never 56. Do you think that the upbringing of the parents to their child causes them to become a bully?
Yes No 57. Yes No 58. How do you describe your relationship with your parents? My parents always have a time for me.
I‟m very open to them I‟m not comfortable in sharing my stories and problems with them 59. My parents always help me especially when I have problem at school.
Sometimes Never 60. Yes No 61. If your parents know that you are being bullied at school, what is their action for your problem? Does your parent(s) know that you are being bullied at school?
They went to school and ask for help to my adviser/teacher/counselor They confronted the one who bullied me They did not do anything They have no idea that I am being bullied 62. Does bullying affect your grades?
Yes, my grades become higher because I became more motivated despite of the bullies. Yes, my grades become lower because I was affected by the bullies. 63. How would you describe your academic performance at school?
Outstanding Satisfactory I need an improvement I don‟t care about my studies 64. Getting good grades is very important to you.
Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 65. Are your friends is someone you can ask for help when you are being bullied?
Yes, all the time Sometimes they help Not at all 66. If your friend is a bully, what do you usually do?
I will tell him/her to stop I will let him/her continue bullying others
I will help him/her bully others 67. If your friend is being bullied by someone, what will you do?
I will stay by his/her side and defend him/her from bullies I will stay away from him/her because they might bully me as well 68. If you are being bullied, what does your friend usually do?
They help me defend myself from bullies They started staying away from me and ignoring me as well 69. Yes No 70. If your groups of friends are bully, do you think there will be a chance that you will become a bully also? Do you think that bullies influence others to become a bully?
Yes No 71. Do you think that the use of media (e.g. facebook, twitter, etc) increases the number of bully incidents?
Yes No 72. Yes No 73. Students in your school often get put down because of their race or ethnicity? Do you think that different ethnicity/races cause bullying?
Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 74. Yes No Do you think that different religious belief causes bullying?
Do you think that student‟s economic status in society has a high risk to experience bullying?
Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree
The Extent of Parental Involvement and Subjective Well-Being of Young Professional Adults Almira Teodoro Ms. Margaret Sanapo, Ph.D
The primary objective of this research is to know the extent of the parental involvement to the yuppies and their subjective well-being.This study is a both quantitative and qualitative in nature. The researcher interviewed and surveyed 150 yuppies, ages 20-30 years old. The results showed that yuppies with supervision or parental expectancy & parenting style have a low subjective well-being. 52% of the participants want a communication type of parental involvement and a similar number of percentage as to the type of parental involvement of the participants. With that, the extent of parental involvement yuppies would want is communication. Yet the in some situation the type of involvement could differ, in short is it a situational basis. But keep in mind that yuppies would still want to be independent in making their decisions.
Today‘s highly globalized and competitive world is dominated by a large emerging demographic group known as ‗yuppies‘ or young adult professionals ( CLSA as cited by Dumlao, 2012 ) . This group is characterized by young middle-class professional who works in a city job and has a luxurious lifestyle. Financially, they are considered the well-paid group in terms of income and purchasing power. And with the boom in affordable real estate, independence from parents is not far behind for these young professionals. Freedom is the form of living on their own and dealing with life by themselves. In the Philippines, the steady growth of Business Processing Outsourcing is a prime driver for the large group in the workplace. The dynamics of this demographic group is not completely understood. For instance despite this group‘s high income, the rate of workplace turnover is also the highest across industries (Heyman, 2008). Stress related illnesses is also common among this group. This paradox is not fully understood in the psychological research. Generally, it has been accepted that well-being, physical and financial autonomy go together. Therefore if subjective well-being is about happiness and minimizing pain and maximizing pleasure, and parental involvement is the amount of participation that a parent has in their child‘s education or activities. The researcher will study the subjective well-being and the extent of parental involvement in the lives of the yuppies working in BPO‘s. Whether a connection will arise between the subjective well-being and the extent of the parental involvement. Few studies show that when parents are involved their child would be successful. Whenever parents are involved in their school activities shows positive association in achievement. And links between close relationships and quality of life are well-established (Myers 1999 as cited by Treinski & Holst, 2008). Adolescents who reported a higher quality of relationship with their mothers reported higher levels of subjective well-being than did adolescents with a lower quality of relationship with their mothers. Quantity of relationships was also positively associated with subjective life satisfaction.
The study explores the role of parental involvement in the professional young adult‘s subjective well-being. Specifically, this research asks: What type of parental involvement does the participants received? What is their preferred type of parental involvement? Do they want their parents to be involved in the decisions? What is happiness? What is their level of subjective well-being? Knowing this would help parent in interacting with their yuppies‘ child, because interacting with yuppies is clearly different from interacting with a child.. Lastly, this research can help understand the yuppies.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Parental involvement According to Thompson, Casedy, and Shaver (2008) and Davidson, Howe, Moore and Sloboda (2008) the most successful children had parents who were the most highly involved in lessons and practice in the earliest stages of learning and how attachment security influences later developmental functioning. Also in line with the said involvement of parents to their children learning, Hill and Tyson (2009) said that parental involvement was positively associated with achievement, with the exception of parental help with homework. Involvement that reflected academic socialization had the strongest positive association with achievement. Expanding the involvement of parents in the education of their children has recently been viewed as an important strategy to advance the effectiveness and improve the quality of education (Epstein, 1995). Parents‘ socialization with other parents and facilitation of the child‘s peer interactions predicted their children having good peer relationships as reported by teachers and peers, whereas parental corrective feedback to the child and praise predicted poor peer relationships (Mikami, Jack, Emeh and Stephens, 2008). Same with the study of Nokali, Bachmann, VotrubalDrzal (2008) those between-child analyses demonstrated that children with highly involved parents had enhanced social functioning and fewer behavior problems. A similar study made by Fletcher, Elder and Mekos (2000) found that both the behavioral model set by parents and their personal reinforcement of children's actions make significant differences in the extracurricular activity involvement of boys and girls. However, parental reinforcement is most consequential when parents are not engaged in community activities. In this situation, warm parents are likely to reinforce their children, and this reinforcement strengthens children's involvement in community activities. Treyvaud, Anderson, Howard, Bear, Hunt, Doyle, Inder, Woodward and Anderson (2009) study has the similar result, they found that greater parent-child synchrony was also associated with greater social-emotional competence, as was parenting that was positive, warm, and sensitive, while Bulanda and Majumdar (2009) stated that adolescent reports of mothers‘ and fathers‘ physical availability, involvement, and quality of relations are each independently associated with adolescent self-esteem.
Yet parenting behaviors have been found to influence conduct problems directly and indirectly as well. Effective parenting by both mothers and fathers buffered the effect of higher levels of peer deviance on conduct problems across adolescent gender (Trudeau, Manson, Randall, Spoth and Ralston; 2012). Hasumi,Ahsan,Couper,Laguayo and Jacobsen (2012) found that high levels of parental involvement with both male and female adolescent are associated with reduced odds of poor mental health among those children. Even so, this study suggests that parental involvement is an important factor for positive child mental health for both boys and girls. Parents who displayed higher levels of negative affect were more likely to rate their children as withdrawn, anxious, and inhibited, but, unexpectedly, higher negative affect was also associated with more optimal psychomotor development (Treyvaud, Anderson, Howard,Bear, Hunt, Doyle, Inder, Woodward and Anderson, 2009). Whereas Hair, Moore, Garrett, Ling & Cleveland (2008) said that the influence of a positive residential parent–adolescent relationship on better mental well-being and fewer delinquencies was entirely mediated by family routines, parental monitoring, and parental supportiveness, net of sociodemographic controls. Subjective well-being Albuquerque (2010) said that subjective well-being ‗hedonic‘ perspective defines wellbeing or happiness as being fundamentally about maximising pleasure and avoiding or minimizing pain. This differs from the ‗eudiamonic‘ perspective as Waterman (1993 as sited by Albuquerque) stated, is where one lives in accordance with one‘s diamon, or ‗true self‘. This perspective places focus on meaning in life and self-realization, and the extent to which a person fully integrates this into his or her life. Moods, feeling and emotions refer to the affective part, while the cognitive part is the element where an individual thinks about his or her life satisfaction. Bretones and Gonzales (2011) conclude that occupational well-being does not affect subjective well-being but that subjective well-being has an influence on occupational well-being. While Diener and Biwas-Diener (2001) found that a higher income might help if we are very poor. Living in a wealthy society appears to be beneficial. On the other hand, strongly desiring large amounts of money appears likely to hinder our chances for high subjective well-being Yet Lever (2003) observes that the poorest individuals are those who report less well-being, followed by the moderately poor and finally the not poor individuals. The normative climate appears to hardly affect well-being gaps between partnership statuses. Only the gap between divorced and married women is significantly wider in familialistic societies. It is concluded that the weak dependence of well-being on the normative climate may point at high autonomy in private, relationship-related decisions. (Verbakel ; 2012) Yet living with a partner and having a high income and being employed have a positive effect on subjective well-being. Social connectedness and generalized trust will have a positive influence on subjective well-being as well (Hooghe and Vanhoutte;20102).
Subjective well-being and Parental Involvement Yang, Wang, Li, & Teng (2008) states that it has been found that securely attached people reported a high level of subjective well-being and life satisfaction (as stated originally by Carnally et al., 1994; Crowell et al., 1999; Greenberg, 1999; Hazan & Shaver, 1994; Helson & Wink, 1987; Zhang & Labouvie-Vief, 2004). Some researchers have postulated that positive relationships with parents could increase adolescents‘ psychological well-being and life satisfaction, reduce malaise, and enhance their later lives (Barber, 1992; Corsano, Majorano, & Champretavy, 2006). Yet in the study made by Eryılmaz (2012) indicated that parents increase adolescents' subjective well-being levels by means of participating in activities together, caring for them, supporting their perceived control and autonomy, showing them permissive and democratic parent attitudes, governing family together, having positive communication', and also establishing family unity. A similar point from Treinski & Holst (2008) is that their study do suggest that links may exist between the formation of subjective well-being and experiences before adulthood. The results also indicate that the same factors that are associated with subjective well-being throughout adulthood are associated with the level of subjective well-being at the point of transition from adolescence to adulthood. More positive levels of both parent and interpersonal relations were observed for adolescents in the high life satisfaction group. Cheng and Furnham (2003) also found that selfesteem and positive relationships with parents were positively related to happiness (Treinski & Holst, 2008). SYNTHESIS A mere involvement and quality of relations enhanced social functioning and even the parents‘ behavior can influence how a person will turn out. A high level of parental involvement is associated with reduced odds of poor mental health among those children. Parental involvement can be one of a variable that can affect the subjective well-being of an individual. We can say that parental involvement is the amount of participation that a parent has in their child‘s education or activities. A higher satisfaction with their life, and who experiences a greater positive affect and little or less negative affect, would appraise to have a high level of happiness. Subjective well-being is a cognitive and affective evaluation of the person's life. Subjective well-being varies depending on the person and the indicator. Living in a wealthy society appears to be beneficial. Having money or a high income can change a person‘s subjective well-being as well. Gathered from the results of Bretones and Gonzales (2011), Diener and Biwas-Diener (2001) and Lever (2003) that life status has a big impact on subjective well-being of an individual.
It is also reported that securely attached people have a high level of subjective well-being and life satisfaction. And research found that parents increase adolescents' subjective well-being levels by means of participating in activities together. But what is really the degree of the involvement of the parents in the lives and decision of the yuppies? Does the yuppies in the Philippines really live up to the lifestyle set by the society that freedom is their life style? Does the involvement of the parents affect their subjective well-being? A study conducted in Germany states that the same factors that are associated with subjective well-being throughout adulthood are associated with the level of subjective well-being at the point of transition from adolescence to adulthood.
Research Design In this study the researcher used descriptive design. It will help to provide the answer to the question and obtain the information concerning the current status of phenomena and to describe ―what exist‖ with respect to variables or condition in a situation. Through descriptive method it will expound the result on whether the subjective well-being of an individual is affected when their parents are involved and to the extent of the involvement in relation to their subjective well-being. Participants This research have 150 participants and the respondents will consist of both male and female young adult professional, with the ages of twenty to thirty, and generally affluent and working in a well-paid position. Young adult proffesional were chosen to be the participant for this research study, first, they are already working therefore the provide for themselves, second, with their age it is the age where people would want to be independent. Therefore young adult professional is the perfect participant for this study. The significance, rationale, purpose of the study were provided to the respondents. Furthermore, the respondents have also been given the assurance that all the data they will give are used for the purpose of the research and the identities of the respondents will confidential. Sampling Purposive sampling technique was used in the research, because there is a certain characteristic needed in this particularly research. With a purposive sample, the researcher would likely to choose a particular group with a specific range of age and are currently working. Lastly, since it is constructed to serve a very specific need or purpose, they provide the most valid or credible results because they reflect the characteristic of the population from which they are selected.
Research Instrument. Subjective Happiness Scale (shown in the annex) was used to measure the level of subjective well-being of the participants, which is made by Dr. Sonja Lyubomirsky, Ph.D.,. It is a 4 itemed test and a 7 point likert scale type format and it has been validated by 14 different studies. The four items showed good to excellent internal consistencies. Test-retest reliability ranges from 0.55 to 0.90 (M=0.72). The SHS also revealed substantial correlations ranging from 0.52 to 0.72 (M=0.62) between subjective happiness scale and other happiness measures. Findings indicated that this scale shows excellent psychometric properties. (Lyubomirsky and Lepper, 1997). They added that construct validity indicated that it correlates on other measure of happiness as well. Preliminary evidence showed that SHS was suited for different age, occupational, linguistic and cultural groups. According to a study conducted by Lyubomirsky & Lepper (1997) that SHS results indicated that the Subjective Happiness Scale has high internal consistency, which was found to be stable across samples. Test-retest and self-peer correlations suggested good to excellent reliability, and construct validation studies of convergent and discriminant validity conﬁrmed the use of this scale to measure the const ruct of subjective happiness. The scoring is for this scale is to add up all of the numbers that is encircled,take the total score,divide the score by 4. The highest happiness score an individual can get is 7 and the lowest is 1.The average score runs from 4.5 to 5.5 depending on the group. College students score lower (below 5) than working adults or older adults, retired people score higher (5.6). Individuals that score 4 or below and have felt poorly for more than a few weeks The Extent of Parental Involvement questionnaire (shown in the annex) is a self-made question it is used to know the extent type of parental involvement and the preferred type of parental involvement. Fan and Chen (2001) results from their study was used to construct the The Extent of Parental Involvement questionnaire. Their study was a meta-analysis. It was conducted to synthesize the quantitative literature to determine how parents are involve in their child‘s life and to know the extent of their involvement. Fan and Chen (2001) examined multiple measures of parental involvement. Using the Method of meta-analysis. To score this test, the researcher computed for the frequency. Lastly, 3 structured questions (shown in the annex) was used for in depth insight of knowing the yuppies perception of subjective well-being and the number of times they seek their parents for advice and lastly,their desire if they would want their parents to be involve in certain decision making in their life. Procedures The researcher meet up with the participants in a coffee shop or tea shop or the researcher sent a link to the participant of the survey via surveymonkey.com. After building a rapport with the participants, the researcher will then conduct the interview and survey. First, for the interview. A structured question were asked to the participants in the same manner and were given the same time of 10-15 minutes.
After the interview was conducted, two survey questionnaires were given to the participants to be answered for 5-10 minutes each. The first survey given to the participants was the Subjective Happiness Scale, it is used to measure subjective well-being of the participants, the second the survey is to settle the extent of parental involvement using the Level of Parental Involvement. After the researcher gather the data, the researcher will analysis the data.
Data Analysis In analyzing the results, the researcher used used a simple frequency count and computed for the average. First, the researcher tabulated the average score of the subjective well-being of each participants. Then the researcher computed for the frequency for the two questions in the second survey. Lastly, the researcher discussed the results of the subjective well-being of the participants; then again the researcher discussed the results of the type of involvement and the preferred type of involvement, the parental involvement and decisions of the yuppies, the happies for the yuppies and their level of subjective well-being. Then the researcher cross-tabulate the results of subjective well-being and type of parental involvement.. RESULTS The results of the study showed that participants with supervision type of parental involvement either have low or average subjective well-being while the participants with communication type of involvement have average subjective well-being with a few low or high subjective well-beings. Lastly, participants with parental expectancy & parenting style also have average subjective well-being and few with low and high subjective well-being. Subjective wellbeing is about happiness and minimizing pain and maximizing pleasure, with that it reflects in the scores of the participants that most of them have an average (49%) communication type of subjective well-being. Generally, with an average subjective well-being they can avoid pain and maximize their happiness or pleasure. Most of the participants have the communication (53.3%) type of parental involvement. Type of Parental Involvement As to the participants‘ type of parental involvement, results revealed that most of them (53.3 %) fell under communication type (Table 1). Few of them or only 33 (22%) belonged to Parental Expectancy & Parenting Style while with a 37 (24.7%) fell under supervision type. Type of Parental Involvement Supervision Communication Parental Expectancy and Parenting Style Table 1 - Type of Parental Involvement 37 80 33
Preferred Type of parental Involvement Similar with the type of parental involvement, 75 out of 150 (50%) participants want a communication type of parental involvement. While supervision is the second type of involvement that the participants want, out of 150 participants 64 (42.7%) of the yuppies participants answered supervision. Even though parental expectancy & parenting style is the type of involvement that means parents gives more attention. 11 (7.3%) of the participants still answered parental expectancy & parenting style as the involvement of their parents.
Level of Parental Involvement Supervision Communication Parental Expectancy & Parenting Style Table 2 - Preferred Type of Parental Involvement Parental Involvement in Decision of the Yuppies Yuppies preferred that they just decide on their own. They want to be independent. Yet, if a situation comes that they need their parents advice or opinion they would still ask their parents. But only if they asked for it, but as much as possible they want to make the decision on their own. “It actually depends on the circumstances. But most of the time I like the feeling of being independent.” – Participant 89 “Yes, especially when I don‟t know what to do anymore”- Participant 100 “It depends on the situation. Because sometimes even though there are so many advices, the final decision will always depend on me. – Participant 134 Perception of happiness Young adult professional‘s perception of happiness is not the material things that they want, they have or they wish for or they hope for to have. Instead happiness is the feeling that they get when they are surrounded with the people they love, when they are safe. Happiness is a feeling they get each day in a simple form or things. Being happy is not as complicated for them, a simple presence of love one, a feeling of being safe and secure and not having a bad problem, it is when they wake up with a big smile in their face that they say is happiness. This is reflected in their statement below: 60 77 11
“Happinnes for me is when you obtain all your goals, having a good life and receiving all the love and care from all the people around you.”- Participant 4 “It is where you find joy and being contented on simple things you have in life.” Participant 8 To have a happy life together with my family and friends.”- Participant 10 “Happiness being free and being in a state where you can say nothing will go wrong. ‖Participant 46 “Happiness is being able to enjoy life even if you are experiencing testings and trials, that whatever happens, you feel secure and at peace because you know that there is a God who is always with you, who promised that He will never leave you nor forsake you.‖ - Participant 87 Subjective well-being Most the participants have an average subjective well-being (49%) yet quite a number of them have low subjective well-being. Out of all the participants, those with low subjective wellbeing were going through a rough week. But as shown in Table 3, 73 (49%) participants had an average subjective well-being and 42 (28%) of the participants had a high subjective well-being. This result suggests that more than half of them were happy and satisfied with their life.
Subjective well-being Low Average High Table 3 - Subjective well-being Subjective well-being and Type of Parental Involvement Shown in the table are the scores of participant of their subjective well-being and their type of parental involvement. It shows that the 37 participants with supervision type of parental involvement there are 19 with low subjective well-being, 15 participants with average subjective well-being and only 3 participants with high subjective well-being. 35 73 42
Participants with communication type of involvement are the ones with either average or high subjective well being. 42 participants have average communication type of involvement while 38 fall under the high subjective well being On the other hand, participants who receive more attention from the parents have low subjective well-being. The number of participants with low and average subjective well-being is equal.
Parental Involvement Supervision Communic ation Parental Expectan cy & Parenting Style 16 16 1 33 Total
Low Average High Total
19 15 3 37
0 42 38 80
35 73 42 150
Table 4 - Subjective well-being and Type of Parental Involvement
DISCUSSION Type of Parental Involvement Communication type is the common type of involvement and a total of 88 (53.3&) participant. It shows that parents usually use this type of involvement to approach the yuppies. And 24.7 % still uses supervision as their approach. Most participants with supervision and parental expectancy & parenting style would want a communication type of parental involvement. But few of the participants that have an average or high subjective well-being and have a supervision or parental expectancy & parenting style type of involvement are happy with that involvement would still want their parents involvement to be that way. Yet again Yang, Wang, Li, & Teng (2008) study also clashes with the results of the study. Shown in Table 4, 16 of the participants with this parental expectancy & parenting style type of involvement have low subjective well-being, as well as the average subjective well-being with a 16 participants and one participant with a high subjective well-being.
Preferred Type of Parental Involvement The most answered type of parental involvement by the participants is communication. Communication has the total of 75 (50%) participants. Second, most wanted type of involvement is supervision 64 (42.7). Lastly, the least chosen type is the parental expectancy and parenting style with 11 (7.3%) participants wanting a more strict attention from their parents. Male either have supervision or parental expectancy & parenting style type of involvement while female, mostly wants a communication type of involvement. Unlike females, males answered that they parents gave them more attention or less attention, but mostly male answered that they have less attention given by their parents. The opposite goes to the females; they seldom answer less or more attention but just the average attention given by the parents. It just shows that males don‘t have a gray area but just a black and white thought; either strict or lenient. When it comes to the preferred type of involvement that males want is almost the same in the type of parental involvement they have. They like to have a less attention type of involvement from their parents. But quite few of the male participants want a communication type of involvement. Yet both male and female don‘t really want a parent that given them a parental expectancy & parenting style type of involvement. Parental Involvement in Decision of the Yuppies While the results of the type of parental involvement to the answers of the participants in the question how many times do they seek their parents for advice, the answers matched the study of Casedy, and Shaver (2008) and Davidson, Howe, Moore and Sloboda (2008) and Hill and Tyson (2009) said that parents who is highly involve is positively associated with achievement especially in education. Yet in the ages of the yuppies the number of participants that answered that they seek their parents for advice as often is the same participants that they want a communication type of parental involvement. And if they desire that their parents to be involved in certain decision making in their lives, the answers also matched the results with the results of the type of parental involvement. Which means participants‘ would want their parents to be involved in some issues they have. It is true that their parents are the one that raise them and that they think that their parents have much more experience and that they really know that their parents can help them but not at all aspect of their life. In short, other aspects of the issues of their lives, they don‘t want their parents to be involved and at times parent‘s who is involved may at times cause another issue or it may intensify the situation. Perception of Happiness and Subjective well-being Positive relationships with parents were positively related to happiness (Treinski & Holst, 2008). As reflected to the answers of the participants, when it comes what is happiness for them,
it varies. Some individual find themselves not that happy or even that they find their friend much happy than they are. Basing from the answers of the participants on their perception of happiness, is very exact on how Albuquerque (2010) happiness is about maximizing pleasure and avoiding or minimizing pain. Bretones and Gonzales (2011) said that subjective well-being has an influence on occupational well-being. Seeing the scores of the participants, I can say and agree that Bretones and Gonzales (2011) subjective well-being can affect occupation. Their state of happiness can affect their mood in work. The mood of a person is a factor on how they will interact and how productive they will be. Age is significant predictor of well-being (Horley and Lavery; 1994). One type of well-being is the SWB, in different age range the subjective well-being varies. When it comes to the score of female and male in subjective well-being; Male has the biggest number who scored in low subjective well-being. That means male is more expressive with their emotions rather than female. While female have the biggest number in average subjective well-being. But still both male and female have the equal number in high subjective well-being. Basing from the results male would most have a low or high subjective well-being, and quite few only have an average subjective well-being. It means that male have more control of their emotions and more expressive Positive relationships with parents could increase adolescents‘ psychological well-being and life satisfaction, reduce malaise, and enhance their later lives (Barber, 1992; Corsano, Majorano, & Champretavy, 2006). Yet in the subjective well-being part it varies depending on the level of the parental involvement. I can‘t really say that subjective well-being is like the psychological well-being and life satisfaction that with a positive relationship with the parents would increase it. Yes, it may in some ways but it can also turn out in a negative way. Subjective well-being and Type of parental involvement Subjective well-being and type of the parental involvement shows two results that agree and disagrees in the literature above. First, as shown in table 4, participant who fell under supervision type of involvement have low subjective well-being. It shows that the avoidance of parents negatively predicts subjective well-being (Yang, Wang, Li, & Teng; 2008). But still, not all of them fall under the result of Eryılmaz (2012). There are still participants that have an average subjective well-being (10%) and with high subjective well-being (0.02%). Happiest participants fell under the communication type, shown in table 4 and according to Yang, Wang, Li, & Teng (2008), attached people reported a high type of subjective well-being and Eryılmaz (2012) results in his research connects with the results of this study. Forty-two participants have an average subjective well-being and there are 38 participants with high subjective well-being.
Conclusion and Recommendation In understanding yuppies and help the parents‘ on how they can approach the yuppies‘. As reflected in table 4 the type or the ways their parents approach or interact with them affect the yuppies SWB. As seen in table 4, participants with supervision most have low SWB, while yuppies that fell under the communication type have average or high SWB and lastly, participants with parental expectancy & parenting style were divided into low, average or high SWB. Communication is the type of involvement the yuppies prefer, yet when they have encountered a situation that for them they need their parental guidance and opinion. That‘s the time that they want their parent‘s advice. As reflected in the results, there is no best type of parental involvement, but to what extent? Shown in table 2 and basing form the participants‘ answers in the interview, it shows that the type of parental involvement should not just be only one type, but it varies on the situation, it is a case-to-case basis. This means that the extent of parental involvement depends on every situation, not just as whole. Parents should not stick to one type of involvement but it must vary on the situation. Interacting with the yuppies is different from the approach with the children. But it is not far from the approach with a child; the only difference is that with the yuppies there the sense of being independent but still there should be guidance from the parents. Most parents still treat their yuppies‘ child as a kid, others do the opposite. The next research about yuppies‘ subjective well-being and extent of parental involvement should also further discuss the relation or connection of age, gender and salary range. REFERENCES Albuquerque, B. (N.D.). Subjective Well-Being. Positive Psychology UK. Retrieved from http://positivepsychology.org.uk/pp-theory/happiness/106-subjective-well-being.html Bretones, F. B. & Gonzales, M. J. (2010). Subjective and Occupational Well-Being in a Sample of Mexican Workers. Bulanda, R. E. & Majumdar, D. (2009). Perceived Parent–Child Relations and Adolescent SelfEsteem. Journal of Child and Family, Volume 18 (Issue 2). Davidson, J.W., Howe, M. J. A., Moore, D. G. & Sloboda, J.A. (2011). The role of parental influences in the development of musical performance. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, Volume 4 (Issue 4). Diener, E. & Biwas-Diener, R. (2001). Will Money Increase Subjective well-being?. Dumlao, D. (2012, October). Philippines in ‗demographic sweet spot,‘ says CLSA study. Philippines Daily Inquirer. Retrieved from
http://business.inquirer.net/85960/philippines-in-demographic-sweet-spot-says-clsastudy. Driessen, G. , Smit, F. , & Sleegers, P. (2004). Parental Involvement and Educational Achievement. British Educational Research Journal; Aug2005, Vol. 31 Issue 4, p509-532, 24p, 3 Charts. Eryılmaz, A. (2012). How do Adolescents Increase Their Subjective Well-Being By Means of Establishing Relationships with Their Parents?. Dusunen Adam: Journal of Psychiatry & Neurological Sciences; Sep2012, Vol. 25 Issue 3, p252-257, 6p, 1 Chart. Fletcher, A. C. , Elder, Jr., G., H., & Mekos, D.. (2000). Parental Influences on Adolescent Involvement in Community Activities. Journal of Research on Adolescence (Lawrence Erlbaum); 2000, Vol. 10 Issue 1, p29-48, 20p, 3 Diagrams, 2 Charts Hair, E. C., Moore, K. A., Garrett, S. B., Ling, T. & Cleveland, K. (2008). The Continued Importance of Quality Parent–Adolescent Relationships During Late Adolescence. Journal of Research on Adolescence, Volume 18 (Issue 1). Hasumi,T., Ahsan, F., Couper, C. M., Laguayo, J. and Jacobsen, K. H. (2012). Parental Involvement and Mental Well-Being of Indian Adolescents. Heyman, F. (2008). How Wage Compression Affects job Turnover. Journal of Labor Research, Vol. 29 (issue 1). pp. 11-26. Hill, N. E. & Tyson, D. F. (2009). Parental involvement in middle school: A meta-analytic assessment of the strategies that promote achievement. Developmental Psychology, Volume 45 (Issue 3). Hooghe, M. & Vanhoutte, B. (2010). Subjective Well-Being and Social Capital in Belgian Communities. The Impact of Community Characteristics on Subjective Well-Being Indicators in Belgium. Lever, J. P. (2003). Poverty and Subjective Well-Being in Mexico. Lyubomirsky, S., & Lepper, H. (1999). A measure of subjective happiness: Preliminary reliability and construct validation. Social Indicators Research, 46, 137-155. The original publication is available at www.springerlink.com. Mikami, A. Y., Jack, A., Emeh, C. C. & Stephens, H. F. (2010). Parental Influence on Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: I. Relationships Between Parent Behaviors and Child Peer Status. Trudeau,L., Manson, W. A., Randall, G.K., Spoth, R. and Ralston, E.(2012). Effects of Parenting and Deviant Peers on Early to Mid-Adolescent Conduct Problems.
Treyvaud, K., Anderson, V. A., Howard, K., Bear, M., Hunt, R. W., Doyle, L. W., Inder,T.E., Woodward, L. & Anderson, P. J. (2009). Parenting Behavior Is Associated With The Early Neurobehavioral Development Of Very Preterm Children. Pediatric. Thompson, R.A., Casedy, J., & Shaver, P. R. (2008). Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (2nd ed.)., (pp. 348-365). New York, NY, US: Guilford Press, xix, 1020 pp. Verbakel, E. (2012). Subjective Well-Being by Partnership Status and Its Dependence on the Normative Climate. Treinski & Holst (2008). Subjective Well-being Among Young People in Transition to Adulthood. Social Indicator Research. Yang, A. , Wang, D. , Li, T., & Teng, F. (2008). The Impact of adult Attachment and Parental Rearing on Subjective Well-being in Chinese Late Adolescents. Social Behavior and Personality. Annex Structured Interview questions 1. What is your perception of happiness? 2. In the past 3 months, how many times did you seek your parents for an advice? 3. Do you desire your parents to be involved in certain decision in your life?
Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) By Sonja Lyubomirsky, Ph.D. For each of the following statements and/or questions, please encircle the point on the scale that you feel is most appropriate in describing you. 1. In general, I consider myself: 1 2 not a very happy person 3 4 5 6 7 a very happy person
2. Compared to most of my peers, I consider myself: 1 2 less happy 3 4 5 6 7 more happy
3. Some people are generally very happy. They enjoy life regardless of what is going on, getting the most out of everything. To what extent does this characterization describe you? 1 2 not at a all 3 4 5 6 7 great deal
4. Some people are generally not very happy. Although they are not depressed, they never seem as happy as they might be. To what extent does this characterization describe you? 1 2 not at a all 3 4 5 6 7 great deal
The Extent of Parental Involvement (Using the Type of Parental Involvement by Fan and Chen (2001) ) For each of the following statements, please check a type of involvement that is suited in describing your parents involvement. 1. My parents type of involvement is: ( ) supervision Supervision includes monitoring when yuppies return home from work and what they do after work, overseeing time spent ( ) communication Communication refers to parents' frequent and systematic discussions with their children ( ) parental expectations and parenting styleParental expectations and parenting style were found to be the most critical of the three. These include the manner and extent to which parents communicate their aspirations to their children. 2. I wish that my parents involvement would be: ( ) supervision Supervision includes monitoring when students return home from work and what they do after work, overseeing time spent. ( ) communication Communication refers to parents' frequent and systematic discussions with their children ( ) parental expectations and parenting styleParental expectations and parenting style were found to be the most critical of the three. These include the manner and extent to which parents communicate their aspirations to their children.
San Beda College Alabang
Psychology Department, College of Arts and Sciences, Don Manolo Boulevard, Alabang Hills Village,Muntinlupa City Tel/ Fax: 8091782
Edited by: Teodoro Jose B. Dominguez, Shara Mae M. Espinosa Prof. Paul Hilario, Ph.D
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