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Read: Case Study: Americas First River: A Success Story Summarize the story of the Hudson River and

PCBs: In the 1800s, the areas surrounding the river became industrialized, and factories were placed along the river. The factories dumped large amounts of toxins into the river, and it became nearly uninhabitable. General Electric took these factories places, and dumped PCBs, or polychlorinated biphenyls, in amounts above one million pounds into the river. Later, in 1977, PCBs were banned in the US as new water-protecting laws were passed. Water Pollution 1: How is water pollution defined? The degradation of water quality 2: What are some of the common water pollutants? Heavy metals, sediment, certain isotopes, heat, fecal coliform, bacteria, phosphorous, nitrogen, sodium, and other elements 3: What is the primary water pollution problem in the world today? Lack of clean and disease-free drinking water 4: How many people are exposed to waterborne diseases worldwide? Several billion 5: Name 3 sources of Surface Water and 3 sources of Groundwater Pollution from the chart (19.1) Surface: urban runoff, spills, and leaks. Groundwater: Leaks, seepage, and saltwater intrusion A Closer Look 19.1: What is the Value of Clean Water to New York City? What is the main idea of this story? We mustnt undervalue the power of natural ecosystems to provide a variety of important surfaces Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) 1: What is BOD and what are some sources of it? Biological or biochemical oxygen demand, some sources are bacteria and dead organic matter 2: Where does approximately 33% of all BOD in streams come from? Agricultural activities 3: What about in urban areas (BOD)? Combined sewer systems

4: What is the relationship between BOD and dissolved oxygen levels? (What happens when BOD is high?) Negative feedback, when BOD is high, dissolved oxygen is low 5: Explain the 3 zones of BOD: * Pollution Zone: high BOD, lowered by microorganisms using the oxygen * Active Decomposition Zone: DO reaches minimum, maximum decomposition rate * Recovery Zone: BOD is low and DO is high because decomposition is over Waterborne Disease 1: What is Fecal Coliform Bacteria and where does it come from? Bacteria that can carry disease located on animal feces Nutrients 1: How do urban streams get high concentrations of Nitrogen and Phosphorus? Fertilizers, detergents, and sewage treatment plants Eutrophication 1: Define Eutrophication: Algal bloom that leads to drop in oxygen and suffocation of organisms in water 2: What is the solution to artificial or cultural eutrophication? Using products that do not use the nutrients, and using correct disposal techniques A Closer Look 19.2: Cultural Eutrophication in the Gulf of Mexico What is a dead zone and how is it created? Area in water where oxygen levels are too low to be used, caused by nitrogen and eutrophication Oil 1: Which Environmental Act was created after the Exxon Valdez disaster? Oil Pollution Act of 1990 Sediment 1: Why is sediment pollution considered to be a two-fold problem? Depletes land sources by erosion and reduces water quality 2: What are some of the techniques employed by a sediment control program? On-site control with soil conservation materials

Acid Mine Drainage 1: Define Acid Mine Drainage and explain how it occurs: High concentration of sulfuric acid draining from mines, dissolved sulfide found in mines becomes this acid while it washes away with water when it washes through 2: What is the general equation for acid mine drainage? 4FeS2 + 15O2 + 14H2O = 4Fe (OH)3 + 8H2SO4 3: What site was once designated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as the nations worst hazardous waste site? Tar Creek in Oklahoma Surface Water Pollution 1: What are some point sources of surface water pollution? Pipes and municipal sites 2: What are some non-point sources of surface water pollution? Runoff, mining, and forestry 3: What are the 2 approaches to dealing with surface water pollution? Reduce the sources, or treat/convert the water Groundwater Pollution 1: 75% of the 175,000 known waste disposal sites in the United States may be producing plumes of hazardous chemicals that are migrating into groundwater resources. 2: What is bioremediation? Replenishing the source that was contaminated with plants that remove these contaminants 3: What are the 5 important points about groundwater pollution? Some pollutants float on water, some pollutants have multiple phases, some pollutants sink in water, the method used for treatment must take in physical and chemical effects, emphasis should be on prevention 4: What is saltwater intrusion of well water? Subsurface salty water migrates to wells getting pumped Wastewater Treatment 1: Summarize how Septic Tank Sewage Disposal Systems work. Waste water is placed in a tank that stores the water before it moves into a drainage tank that drains the waste water into the soil

2: What happens during primary treatment of sewage? Wastewater is put through a screen to remove chunks in water 3: What happens during secondary treatment of sewage? Bacteria are used to remove organic matter and the water is aerated to remove small particles as well as particulates sinking to the bottom of a settling tank 4: When is advanced wastewater treatment used? When inserting the treated water into surface water needing protection 5: What are some of the risks associated with Chlorine treatment of wastewater that is later discharged? Produces chemical by-products and some are toxic Land Application of Wastewater 1: Explain the process of wastewater renovation and conservation cycle. Water put through filtration for large objects, placed in two sequential anaerobic beds that produce methane, and are sent into hardy plants, then sent to all the other plants being grown, and then placed into the environment Wastewater and Wetlands 1: How can applying treated sewage to wetlands be helpful to the wetland ecosystem? Can have constant supply of water to keep it running stable Water Reuse 1: What is the difference between indirect and direct water reuse? Indirect uses the water untreated in an agricultural or municipal, and direct is treating the water for use by the next user Environmental Laws Make sure to memorize the following laws: Clean Water Act: Clean nations water, provides funding for treatment plants, and encourages innovative tech on wastewater treatment Federal Safe Drinking Water Act: Sets contaminant levels for dangerous substances and pathogens in drinking water Water Quality Act: Control nonpoint pollution

How safe do you believe the drinking water is in your home? How did you reach your conclusion? Are you worried about low-level contamination by toxins in your water? What could the sources of contamination be? Relatively safe, because I know it is nearly impossible to remove all possible contaminants, I am worried about the low-level contaminants which may come from seepage into thr groundwater from empty lots near our housing areas Read, Is Water Pollution from Pig Farms Unavoidable and answer the following: 1: Why was pig farming such a controversy in North Carolina during this time? The conditions for the pigs were horrible 2: What did pig farmers do with the pig waste? Why was this allowed? Dumped into unlined lagoons, because the risks were not paid any mind 3: What is the lesson learned from North Carolinas Bay of Pigs? We are vulnerable to environmental catastrophes caused by large-scale industrial farming 4: What legislation has been created as a result of this catastrophe? The Hog Roundtable Study Questions: 1: Do you think outbreaks of waterborne diseases will be more common or less common in the future? Why? Where are outbreaks most likely to occur? More common because the population is rising, and clean water is becoming far more scarce, and this is most likely to occur in third-world countries 2: How does water that drains from coal mines become contaminated with sulfuric acid? Why is this an important environmental problem? They go through the exposed rock which contains the lines of sulfurite, and this causes acid rain which can destroy water ecosystems 3: Do you think our water supply is vulnerable to terrorist attacks? Why? Why not? How could potential threats be minimized? Yes, because it is taken in by the oceans which can easily be targeted and threats could be minimized with military enforcement watching our water sources along with coasts 4: How would you design a system to capture runoff where you live before it enters a storm drain? Carve out a new drain that is lower than the storm drain openings so that the water can be diverted to a treatment plant