A guide to selection of electrical cable

Last modified: Fri Jul 9 14:18:02 2004

©2001 Kevin Boone, all rights reserved !o "art of this "u#li$ation ma% #e re"rodu$ed in material form &in$luding "hoto$o"%ing or "rinting', or transmitted in ele$troni$ form, (ithout the e)"ress "ermission of the $o"%right holder, e)$e"t for the "ur"oses of "rivate stud%, revie(, and $riti$ism, or in a$$ordan$e (ith the "rovisions of the *o"%right, +esigns and ,atents -$t &1988' .o there

Overview
/his arti$le des$ri#es the sele$tion of $a#les for 0diffi$ult1 domesti$ ele$tri$al installations B% 0diffi$ult1 2 mean installations (here $a#les are unusuall% long, $urrents a#normall% high, or sho$3 "rote$tion re4uirements es"e$iall% rigorous 2 have (ritten this arti$le for $om"etent, sensi#le +25 enthusiasts (ho ma% alread% #e doing ele$tri$al (or3, #ut la$3 the theoreti$al and regulator% 3no(ledge to ta$3le these more diffi$ult 6o#s 2 have assumed that the reader has a #asi$ understanding of ele$tri$al theor% and is "re"ared to do some sim"le arithmeti$ *a#le sele$tion is guided #% t(o main "rin$i"les First, the $a#le should #e a#le to $arr% the $urrent load im"osed on it (ithout overheating 2t should #e a#le to do this in the most e)treme $onditions of tem"erature it (ill en$ounter during its (or3ing life .e$ond, it should offer suffi$ientl% sound earthing to &i' limit the voltage to (hi$h "eo"le are e)"osed to a safe level and &ii' allo( the fault $urrent to tri" the fuse or 7*B in a short time /o meet these re4uirements re4uires $onsideration of the $ir$uit load $urrent, the am#ient tem"erature, installation te$hni4ue, $a#le thi$3ness and length, and the over8$urrent "rote$tion devi$e 2n some $ases %ou ma% need to $onsider fa$tors that are outside %our $ontrol, li3e the e)ternal earth loo" im"edan$e /%"i$al 0(orst8$ase1 values for these fa$tors are given in the arti$le

Scope of this article
2n most domesti$ (iring s$enarios, the "rin$i"les and te$hni4ues des$ri#ed in this arti$le are sim"l% not relevant /he materials and e4ui"ment $urrentl% availa#le are designed to sim"lif% installation, and $ommon sense and the a#ilit% to read the manufa$turer1s instru$tions are all that is re4uired 9rdinar% domesti$ "o(er and lighting $ir$uits do not re4uire an% s"e$ial s3ills or 3no(ledge to install, #e%ond (hat %ou (ould find in a +25 hand#oo3 /his arti$le $overs the issues that +25 #oo3s steer $lear of, li3e running long $a#les to out#uildings, installing su""lies for ele$tri$al sho(ers, and ele$tri$al (iring in #athrooms 2t assumes that the reader has suffi$ient time and enthusiasm to get to gri"s (ith the theor%, (hi$h $an #e rather te$hni$al in "la$es /his arti$le is intended for readers in the :K, and in "la$es (here :K "ra$ti$es and regulations are follo(ed

How this article is organized
/his arti$le has three $ha"ters and an a""endi) *ha"ter 1 des$ri#es the theor% of over8$urrent "rote$tion, and dis$usses the "ro"erties of $a#les, fuses, 7*Bs and related devi$es *ha"ter 2 des$ri#es "rin$i"les of ele$tri$al sho$3 "rote$tion and the effe$t of $a#le length and thi$3ness on sho$3 voltage and dis$onne$tion time *ha"ter ; des$ri#es a "ra$ti$al $al$ulation #ased on the "rin$i"les from the first t(o $ha"ters Finall%, the a""endi) "rovides design ta#les for $a#le sele$tion, #ased on the IEE Wiring Regulations and various manufa$turer1s "rodu$t data sheets ,lease don1t use the design ta#les (ithout reading the te)t< it (ill #e eas% to misinter"ret the information if %ou do

Warning and disclaimer
2 (ould hate to thin3 of an%one $oming to harm as a result of reading this arti$le 2t des$ri#es "ro$edures (hi$h, if not $arried out $om"etentl%, $ould lead to death or serious in6ur%, or su#stantial damage to "ro"ert% ,lease #e $areful -l(a%s ensure that #efore starting to (or3 on an ele$tri$al s%stem, the relevant $ir$uit has #een isolated from the su""l%, and %ou have ta3en ste"s to ensure that it remains that (a% until %ou have finished (or3 =nsure that %ou understand the $onse4uen$es and im"li$ations of an% (or3 %ou intend to $arr% out >hile 2 have ta3en ever% effort to ensure that the information in this arti$le is a$$urate, and (ill lead to a safe and relia#le installation, 2 do not a$$e"t an% res"onsi#ilit% for an% adverse $onse4uen$es arising from its use ,lease note that the arti$le is a#out modern domestic installations< the "ro$edures, design ta#les, and $al$ulations des$ri#ed ma% (ell #e unsuita#le for $ommer$ial or industrial "remises and e4ui"ment 2n "arti$ular, the arti$le assumes the use of a single8"hase su""l%, and "redominantl% resistive loads 2f %ou don1t 3no( (hat these terms mean, 2 res"e$tfull% suggest %ou ought not to #e reading this %et 2n addition, this arti$le does not des$ri#e an% "ro$edures for dealing $ir$uits "rote$ted #% semi8en$losed &re8(ira#le' fuses -lthough the% are allo(ed (ith the terms of the IEE Wiring Regulations, the% are o#solete and ought to #e re"la$ed

Note on the text
/he s%m#ol 0?2==@1 in the te)t indi$ates a guideline that should #e follo(ed to ensure $onforman$e (ith the IEE Wiring Regulations, 1Ath edition >here this s%m#ol is follo(ed #% num#ers, e g , ?2== B288 01@, this refers to a s"e$ifi$ regulation in that do$ument !ote that the IEE Wiring Regulationsis e4uivalent in "ra$ti$e to British .tandard CAC1 00De4uirements for =le$tri$al 2nstallations11 /o the #est of m% 3no(ledge, this arti$le $om"lies stri$tl% to the IEE Wiring Regulations

1. Over-current protection 1.1 Overloads and short-circuits
9ver8$urrent is one of the t(o ma6or safet% haEards that must #e $ontrolled in a (iring s%stem /he other, of $ourse, is ele$tri$ sho$3 ,rote$ting against over8$urrent "rovides a measure of "rote$tion against ele$tri$ sho$3 as (ell, as (e shall see 9ver8$urrents are dangerous #e$ause the% lead to a ris3 of fire 2n the :K ever% %ear a#out B0,000 fires are attri#uted to ele$tri$al faults .o it1s (orth "a%ing a #it of attention to this issue /his $ha"ter "rovides a fair amount of te$hni$al detail, (hi$h %ou (on1t al(a%s need to 3no( For man% a""li$ations, "rovided that %ou $hoose a fuse or 7*B &see #elo(' that has the same $urrent rating as the $a#le to (hi$h it is $onne$ted, this (ill (or3 ni$el% For e)am"le, if the $urrent rating of the $ir$uit is ;B am"s, sa%, then a ;2 am" 7*B &that1s the nearest siEe availa#le #elo( ;B am"s' should do the tri$3 for most a""li$ations /here (ill #e situations, ho(ever, (here this sim"le rule (on1t (or3 /his $ha"ter e)"lains (hat the% are, and (hat to do a#out them 2t also e)"lains (h% fuses sometimes #lo( (hen there1s nothing (rong

1.2 !pes of over-current
-n over8$urrent is an% in$rease in the $urrent in the ele$tri$al s%stem, a#ove the level for (hi$h it is designed =le$tri$al $a#les are intended to #e$ome (arm in o"eration< heat is generated (henever a $urrent flo(s in an%thing, and this is "erfe$tl% normal Fo(ever, the level of heat generated #% ele$tri$al $a#les is onl% safe (hen it is 3e"t (ithin reasona#le limits .tandard ,G*8insulated $a#les are designed to run at tem"eratures u" to C0 degrees *elsius< #e%ond this there is a ris3 of damage 2n "ra$ti$e, over8$urrents $an #e grou"ed into t(o t%"es Overload -n overload o$$urs (hen a $urrent flo(s that is some(hat too high &usuall% B0H to 100H too high' for the s%stem 9verloads don1t normall% $ause immediate, $atastro"hi$ damage 2nstead, the li3elihood of damage in$reases graduall% as the duration of the overload in$reases 2f the fault is not resolved, $a#les (ill overheat and melt, e)"osing #are $ondu$tors /he heat generated ma% #e suffi$ient to $ause a fire 2n a domesti$ setting, overloads usuall% result from using too man% a""lian$es at the same time, or "lugging a heav%8dut% a""lian$e into a su""l% that isn1t strong enough for it -n e)am"le of the latter is $onne$ting an ele$tri$ sho(er to a standard 1;8am" "lug, and "lugging it into a

so$3et

Short-circuit - short8$ir$uit is a $onne$tion #et(een live and neutral, or #et(een live and earth, that #%"asses an a""lian$e /he $onne$tion (ill "ro#a#l% have a lo( resistan$e, and the $urrent that $an flo( ma% #e hundreds or thousands of times too high for the s%stem /his $urrent is usuall% $alled the fault current or short-circuit current - short8$ir$uit (ill #% "rodu$ed if, for e)am"le, the (ires in a mains "lug #e$ome loose and tou$h one another /he a#ilit% to handle short8$ir$uits is not 6ust im"ortant to "rote$t $a#les, it is "art of the "rote$tion against ele$tri$ sho$3 2f a live $ondu$tor in, sa%, an ele$tri$ 3ettle #e$omes loose and tou$hes the metal $ase, (e ho"e that a large fault $urrent (ill flo( /his $urrent (ill flo( from the live, through the $ase, and #a$3 to earth via the earth (ire /he fault $urrent (ill #lo( the fuse or tri" the 7*B, thus rendering the $ir$uit dead 2f this does not ha""en, then (e have a "otentiall% ver% dangerous situation: a metal $asing (ith a live voltage on it 2n "ra$ti$e, in domesti$ installations overload "rote$tion and short8$ir$uit "rote$tion are #oth "rovided #% the same devi$e: either a fuse of an 7*B -dditional sho$3 "rote$tion ma% #e "rovided #% an D*+ >hether a fuse or an 7*B is used, (hen the $urrent e)$eeds a $ertain limit for a $ertain time, the fuse (ill 0#lo(1 &#rea3' or the 7*B (ill 0tri"1 2n #oth $ases this (ill o"en the $ir$uit and "revent the flo( of further $urrent For sim"li$it%, 2 (ill use the term 0tri"1 for #oth these events

1." Over-current protection devices 1.".1 #uses
- fuse is a sim"le devi$e that (ill limit the $urrent flo(ing in an ele$tri$al $ir$uit 2n "ra$ti$e a fuse normall% $onsists of a "ie$e of (ire of e)a$tl% the right length and thi$3ness to overheat and #rea3 (hen the $urrent gets to a "arti$ular level /here are t(o sorts of fuse normall% used in houses Cartridge fuses have the (ire en$losed in a sealed $%linder, (ith a $onta$t at ea$h end 5ou should #e familiar (ith this 3ind of fuse: it1s the 3ind that goes in a "lug Larger versions are availa#le for distri#ution #oards as (ell Semi-enclosed or re-wirable fuses are the 3ind that $an #e re(ired (ith fuse (ire -lthough the% are still (idel% used, the% are dis$ouraged #% most authorities for t(o reasons: a $ommon8sense reason and a te$hni$al reason /he te$hni$al reason (ill #e dis$ussed later /he $ommon8sense reason is sim"l% that it is ver% eas% to re(ire it (ith the (rong siEe of fuse (ire, so that (e end u" (ith, for e)am"le, a ;08am" fuse 0"rote$ting1 a B8am" $ir$uit /his is e)$e"tionall% dangerous Fuses are an effe$tive #asi$ method of over8$urrent "rote$tion, #ut the% have a "ra$ti$al disadvantage: if a fuse #lo(s and %ou haven1t got one of the right rating, (hat do %ou doI 9f $ourse you (on1t use a fuse

and for te$hni$al reasons that (ill #e dis$ussed. a $urrent of 1B 00001 am"s (ill tri" it. and don1t (ant to re"la$e it &%et'. %ou $an get ada"ters that (ill let %ou "lug in an 7*B in "la$e of the fuse 2f %ou are re"la$ing (iring (ith a s%stem that is rated on the #asis that %ou (ill eventuall% #e using 7*Bs and not fuses. #ut it1s a reasona#le design assum"tion 7an% "eo"le thin3 that if the $urrent e)$eeds the nominal $urrent. (e (ill normall% use a t%"e 011 or a t%"e 0B1 devi$e.1.08 am" $artridge fuse are sho(n in figure 1 1 . #ut someone (ill Be$ause of this failing. the devi$e (ill tri". 0.' #use and $%& characteristics Fuses and 7*Bs are rated in am"s /he am" rating given on the fuse or 7*B #od% is the amount of $urrent it (ill "ass $ontinuousl% /his is normall% $alled the rated current or nominal current >e normall% assume that if the $urrent in the $ir$uit is lo(er than the nominal $urrent.2 $%&s /he most "o"ular of these ele$tri$al "rote$tion devi$es is the 0miniature $ir$uit #rea3er1 &7*B' -n 7*B $an usuall% a$t as an ordinar% s(it$h as (ell as an over8$urrent $ir$uit #rea3er.o (hen (ill it tri"I /his is (here things start to get interesting 2t turns out that there1s a rather $om"le) relationshi" #et(een the tri""ing $urrent and the time for (hi$h an over8$urrent is maintained -s an e)am"le. 021. and so has a lever on the front for manual o"eration /his is ver% $onvenient. this is a ver% sensi#le thing to do 1. and is a""ro"riate for a "arti$ular a""li$ation 2n a domesti$ s%stem. instantl% . 0B1 and 0*1 =a$h has different $hara$teristi$s. as these are general8"ur"ose units 2f %ou have a distri#ution #oard (ith re8(ira#le fuses. "ermanentl%8installed e4ui"ment &"arti$ularl% mains distri#ution "anels' often have ele$tri$al over8$urrent "rote$tors rather than fuses 1.28am" t%"e81 7*B or a . the relationshi" #et(een time and level of over8$urrent that (ill tri" either a .o if the rating is 1B am"s. and 7*Bs are universall% used in ne( domesti$ distri#ution #oards &and most industrial ones as (ell' 7*Bs are availa#le in various t%"es1 1: 011. or (ra" a #it of tinfoil around a #lo(n one. rightI /his is not true /here isn1t an% reason (h% it should #e true: the 7*B or fuse is designed to "rote$t the $ir$uit $a#ling.". the devi$e (ill not tri". and a $urrent of 1B 00001 am"s (on1t damage a 1B8am" $a#le . ho(ever long the $urrent is maintained /his isn1t quite true. for e)am"le.of the (rong rating.

a month.0 am"s 2f the fuse has had a $ou"le of overloads #efore &(hi$h ma% not even have #een noti$ed' this is mu$h more li3el% /his e)"lains (h% fuses $an sometimes 0#lo(1 for no o#vious reason Both fuse and 7*B (ill stand $urrents of over 40 am"s for an hour or so . #ut the lines get $loser and $loser to . have ver% different "ro"erties For e)am"le.08am" fuse (ill tri" (hen $arr%ing . a . sa%.28am" 7*B or . the 7*B re4uires a $urrent of 128 am"s. even though their nominal $urrents are similar. in an% length of time sho(n on the gra"h.0 am"s1 mar3ed $urrent rating !either devi$e (ill tri" at . #ut noti$e ho( mu$h #igger both these $urrents are than the 0.#igure 1. (hile the fuse re4uires .0 am"s as the time in$reases /here is a small li3elihood that in the $ourse of.0 am"s.08am" fuse (ill stand an over8$urrent #efore tri""ing /he horiEontal a)is of this gra"h sho(s the $urrent flo(ing in the fuseJ7*B and the $ir$uit it is "rote$ting /he verti$al a)is sho(s the duration for (hi$h the devi$e $an stand this $urrent #efore it tri"s /here are a fe( things to note a#out this gra"h • • • /he fuse and the 7*B. to #e sure of tri""ing in 0 1 se$onds.1( time for (hi$h a .00 am"s /he fuse $learl% re4uires more $urrent to #lo( it in that time.

G*8insulated $a#le (ill stand a B0H overload for an hour.2f the fuse is mar3ed 0. it1s the 6o# of the 7*B designer -ll modern devi$es meet this re4uirement except re-wirable fuses /his is (h% re8(ira#le fuses are dis$ouraged /hese fuses normall% re4uire a#out t(i$e the nominal $urrent to #lo( them in one hour +isconnection time rule 2n a short8$ir$uit $ondition.) #use*$%& selection >hen sele$ting the $orre$t 7*B or fuse to use. (hi$h is in$onvenient Be$ause the 7*B tri"s ver% 4ui$3l% on$e a "arti$ular threshold is rea$hed. or the fuse or 7*B (ill tend to tri" #% a$$ident.$urrent of 1 4B times the nominal $urrent must $ause the devi$e to tri" in less than 1 hour1 .0 am"s in a . and short8$ir$uit "rote$tion /he #asi$ "rin$i"les are as follo(s Nominal current rule /he nominal $urrent of the fuseJ7*B must #e less than the $urrent rating of the $a#le it is "rote$ting. so the $urrent de$reases For the first tenth of a se$ond or so.0 am"s1. 2n "ra$ti$e %ou haven1t normall% got to (orr% a#out this. a . $om"ared to normal running /a3e an ordinar% light#ul#.. #ut it (ill a$tuall% stand 40 am"s for over an hour. and it has a ver% lo( resistan$e -s it heats u". #ut it often . a modern .802801@ For e)am"le.B8am" $a#le $ir$uit ripping rule .28am" 7*B is suita#le for a $urrent of .0 am"1 fuseI /he ans(er is that the overload $hara$teristi$s of fuses are designed to mat$h the "ro"erties of modern $a#les For e)am"le. #ut higher than the $urrent that it (ill $arr% $ontinuousl% ?4. to B times the rating 1. (e have to $onsider its role in #oth over8$urrent "rote$tion. so it seems reasona#le that the fuse should as (ell 2n fa$t it (ould #e ver% im"ra$ti$al to use a fuse or 7*B that tri""ed at a $urrent ver% $lose to the nominal value /his is #e$ause man% ele$tri$al devi$es ta3e higher $urrents for the first fra$tion of a se$ond after the% are s(it$hed on. the $on$e"t of an 0instantaneous tri" $urrent1 is a""ro"riate for 7*Bs /his is the $urrent that (ill tri" the devi$e in 0 1 se$onds For t%"e 1 7*Bs the instantaneous tri" $urrent is guaranteed to #e #et(een 2 C and 4 time the nominal $urrent< for t%"e B it is . for e)am"le /he resistan$e of all metals in$reases as the% heat u" >hen the light#ul# is first s(it$hed on. the resistan$e in$reases.o (e have to allo( some margin for start8u" $urrents. the fuseJ7*B must tri" in less than a s"e$ified short time &see #elo(' /he 0dis$onne$tion time1 rule is the most a(3(ard to ensure $om"lian$e (ith in a domesti$ installation< it (ill #e dis$ussed later 2n "ra$ti$e it doesn1t affe$t (hat rating of fuse or 7*B to use. the $urrent flo(ing in a light#ul# ma% #e B810 times higher than its normal running $urrent1 2 . ho( $an (e 6ustif% $alling it a 0. its filament is $old.

the 7*B tri" $urrent is not onl% #elo( the short8term $urrent $a"a$it% of the $a#le &(hi$h it must #e'.0 or a#out . B am"s 1 mm $a#le a""ears to #e a""ro"riate. 2 find a A am" 7*B. and less than 11 am"s Furthermore.affe$ts (hether to use a fuse or an 7*B. B am"s. the $urrent mar3ed on its #od%' of at least .o the 7*B must have a nominal $urrent &that is. (hi$h (ill nominall% have 8 light fittings of 100 (atts ea$h /he $urrent is 800 J 2. as it has a rating of at least 11 am"s &see ta#le . #e$ause (e 3no( e)a$tl% (hat the load (ill #e: eight 100 (att #ul#s /he tri""ing $urrent does not have to #e #elo( the nominal $urrent of the $a#le. and ma% im"ose the use of additional "rote$tive devi$es 1.2( Delationshi" #et(een the fuse nominal and tri""ing $urrents. even (hen $on$ealed in a "lastered (all1 4 . -xample 2n this e)am"le (e (ill determine (hi$h 7*B to use to "rote$t a $ir$uit -ssume (e are installing a lighting $ir$uit. in order to "rote$t the $a#le Loo3ing in the manufa$turer1s $atalogue. #ut it is even #elo( the nominal $urrent rating of the $a#le /his means that the 7*B (ill "revent the $a#le rea$hing even it normal (or3ing $urrent 9f $ourse that1s fine in this $ase. that has a tri" $urrent of 8 C am"s /his a""ears to #e 6ust right /hese $urrents are sho(n in figure 1 2 #igure 1. and the $urrent $arr%ing $a"a$it% of the $a#le. #ut it does have to #e #elo( 1 4B times the nominal $urrent of the $a#le !ote that (e need also to $he$3 the dis$onne$tion time in the event of a live8earth fault. its tri""ing $urrent must #e less than 1 4B times 11 am"s. for the e)am"le given in the te)t !ote that in this e)am"le. #ut doing so re4uires more information than has #een su""lied< see #elo( .1'..

%ommon examples of /ad design .1. am"s in the s"ur $a#le /his is (ell (ithin the $urrent $arr%ing $a"a$it% of the s"ur $a#le. so in the (orst $ase the $urrent load $ould #e 1.0 am"s if it is e)"osed to air all around1 B 2f (e "lug several heav% dut% a""lian$es into the outlets in the main ring. (e ma% $ause an overload that (ill tri" the 7*B But this isn1t the "ro#lem: the 7*B (ill al(a%s tri" at a lo(er $urrent than (ill damage the $a#le 2n the s"ur. . and the ma)imum $urrent that $ould #e $arried #% s"ur 1 is twice 1. reasona#le $onfiguration !o( su""ose (e e)tend this $ir$uit (ith a s"ur &0s"ur 11 on the diagram' >hat is the ma)imum $urrent that $an flo( in the s"ur $a#leI -ssume that (e have used standard single so$3et outlets >e $an "lug an a""lian$e rated u" to 1. #ut (e shouldn1t rel% on it /he IEE Wiring Regulationsthe $a"a$it% of this $a#le as #et(een 18 B am"s 8 if it is $on$ealed in a (all 8 to . in ideal $ir$umstan$es. am"s into the outlet. am"s: 1.ome (iring $onfigurations $an lead to overload $urrents that $annot #e dete$ted *onsider. #ut too lo( to tri" the 7*B /his is a "otentiall% dangerous situation #igure 1. for e)am"le.u""ose (e have a standard ring $ir$uit (ired using 2 B mm $a#le and "rote$ted #% a .. the $urrent $arried $ould #e too high for the $a#le. am"s from ea$h a""lian$e /hat1s 2A am"s /he $a#le used might $arr% 2A am"s. so no "ro#lem !o( su""ose (e e)tend the s%stem further #% $onne$ting a se$ond s"ur &0s"ur 21' to the first s"ur !o( the ma)imum $urrent that $ould #e $arried #% s"ur 2 is 1.0 am" 7*B /his is a "erfe$tl% standard."( =)tending a s"ur (ith a se$ond s"ur: not a good idea . am"s. the s%stem sho(n in figure 1 .

ro#ust solution to this "ro#lem is to $onne$t s"ur 1 to the ring using a fuse unit. as sho(n in figure 1 4 #igure 1. (hi$h means that the total $urrent ta3en #% the s"ur $an never #e higher than the $urrent that (ould #e ta3en #% a single outlet atta$hed to the ring #% an unfused s"ur . onl% #e$omes at ris3 of danger from overload if t(o high8$urrent a""lian$es are "lugged into the s"ur 5ou $ould argue that this (on1t ever ha""en: this s"ur (ill onl% ever #e used to su""l% a "air of des3 lam"s. and it (ould "ro#a#l% have #een $onstru$ted from the same siEe $a#le as the ring /he sim"le. am"s /he $ir$uit sho(n in figure 1 . for e)am"le /he "ro#lem (ith this logi$ is that you ma% 3no( this. in "rin$i"le. avert this dangerous situation #% using a heavier $a#le for s"ur 1 4 mm (ould "ro#a#l% do the 6o# Fo(ever. #ut not ever%one else does >hat1s to sto" someone &a visitor to %our house. for e)am"le' from "lugging an ele$tri$ fire into ea$h oneI /he e)am"le des$ri#ed a#ove $ro"s u" in t(o $ommon situations .2t1s (orth noting that (e $ould. the fused s"ur allo(s the ring to #e e)tended in a safe (a% !ote also that (e $an (ire the fused s"ur in lighter $a#le &1 B mm should do' #e$ause the fuse limits the nominal $urrent to 1.in$e (e have alread% esta#lished that this $urrent is insuffi$ient to damage the $a#le. s"ur 1 (as "ro#a#l% "ut in #efore the need for another s"ur (as re$ogniEed.'( e)tending a ring (ith a fused s"ur /he s"ur is $onne$ted to the ring using a fuse or 7*B /he rating of the fuse or 7*B should #e no higher than 1. am"s.

the more li3el% this is to #e the $ase /here is no straightfor(ard solution to the "ro#lem: %ou need to determine ho( the various so$3ets are $onne$ted to one another #efore %ou $an de$ide (hether the e)tra so$3et is safe.0 +isconnection times >hen an overload o$$urs. it ma% #e #e$ause a live "art has $ome into $onta$t (ith a metal $asing 2n this $ase lives are at ris3s unless the su""l% is $ut off ver% 4ui$3l% . then %ou should "ro#a#l% not do it 2f the e)isting so$3et has onl% one $a#le entering it. or not 1. in some $ir$umstan$es. (ho1s to sa% (hat the ne)t o(ners of %our house (ill doI . is that although you onl% "lug hi8fi e4ui"ment in here. or even a dodg% unfused s"ur fitted #% someone else /he older %our house is. the $urrent flo( $ould #e enormous &thousands of am"s' 2t is limited onl% #% the resistan$e of the $a#le #et(een %our house and the su""l% s%stem. #% $onne$ting it to an e)isting one on the other side of the (all /his is a ver% hand% (a% to add an e)tra so$3et. #e$ause if (e $an meet the re4uirements for dis$onne$tion time in the $ase of a live8earth fault.related "ro#lem is this one: 2 am $ommonl% as3ed (hether it is safe to fit an e)tra mains outlet in a room. (here all the "o(er outlets on ea$h floor &"erha"s e)$luding the 3it$hen' are (ired into a sim"le ring s%stem 2f %ou ta" one of the so$3et outlets then %ou (ill #e effe$tivel% installing an unfused s"ur -s there (ill onl% #e one ne( so$3et on the s"ur. (hi$h is usuall% less than an ohm 2n this 3ind of fault. %ou $an1t #e certain it1s "art of a ring 2t might #e "art of radial s%stem. (e (ill also meet the re4uirements for a live8neutral fault . then this almost $ertainl% is safe .u""ose (e have ten ele$troni$ a""lian$es of this sort./he first is that of "o(ering a large. sa%. this is "ro#a#l% (hat it is =ven if the so$3et has t(o $a#les. if there1s an e)isting one in "osition 2n a modern house. #e as mu$h as an hour Fo(ever. if there1s an% "ossi#ilit% that the so$3et %ou (ant to ta" is itself a s"ur. #ut it ta3es less $urrent on average than a light#ul# /he $om"lete hi8fiJ/G s%stem "ro#a#l% ta3es less than B am"s 2n the $ir$umstan$es one might #e tem"ted to use an unfused s"ur /he "ro#lem. or live and neutral 2n the $ase of live8neutral shorts.hort8$ir$uits ma% #e #et(een live and earth. as #efore. all sta$3ed one on to" of the other in a small area 2t might #e $onvenient to fit a ro( of. $om"le) hi8fiJ/G s%stem . si) dou#le so$3et outlets 6ust #ehind the s%stem >e might do this #% running a s"ur from the main "o(er ring 9ne $ould reasona#l% argue that these a""lian$es a$tuall% have a small "o(er $onsum"tion . the "rote$tive devi$e &fuse or 7*B' must $ut off the su""l% (ithin a time short enough to "revent damage to the installation /his time ma%. this is fine Fo(ever. and the more ha"haEard the (iring is. the 7*B or fuse (ill tri" in its shortest "ossi#le time: usuall% a#out 0 1 se$onds for a fuse and 0 01 se$onds for an 7*B 2n domesti$ installations (e usuall% don1t have to (orr% a#out this.1008(att am"lifier is staggeringl% loud in a domesti$ lounge.u$h houses are (ired to a standard s$heme. (hen a short8$ir$uit fault o$$urs. (ired to $om"l% (ith the IEE Wiring Regulations.

1 +irect contact 0+ire$t $onta$t1 o$$urs (hen a #od% "art tou$hes a live "art dire$tl% /his t%"e of sho$3 is "arti$ularl% dangerous.0 volts' (hile standing on the ground &assumed 0 volts'. if %ou tou$h a live ele$tri$al terminal in a lam"holder &2.0 volts is develo"ed #et(een %our hands and feet /his voltage $auses a $urrent to flo( through the #od%. Shoc1 protection /his $ha"ter des$ri#es the measures that are ta3en to "rote$t against ele$tri$ sho$3 For most sim"le 6o#s.1 he nature and ris1 of shoc1 7ost ele$tri$ sho$3s that are re$eived in the home are dangerous #e$ause of the effe$ts the% have on the heart or res"irator% s%stem Delativel% small $urrents ma% #e suffi$ient to 3ill or in6ure Larger $urrents $an also $ause #urns and tissue damage . (hen (e $onsider the effe$t of dis$onne$tion time on ele$tri$ sho$3 "rote$tion 2./he notion of dis$onne$tion time in the event of a live8earth fault (ill #e dis$ussed in mu$h more detail on "age . and of the nervous s%stem $ontrolling the lungs *learl% this is a #ad thing in summar%. ensuring that the earth $ondu$tors are "ro"erl% $onne$ted is all that is ne$essar% to ensure ade4uate sho$3 "rote$tion /he more detailed information in this $ha"ter is intended for use in more su#stantial (or3. or adding a ne( "o(er $ir$uit 2.2.ho$3s o$$ur (hen ele$tri$ $urrents flo( through the #od% #et(een "oints at different voltage For e)am"le. in$luding the heart and lungs /he $urrent $auses stimulation of the mus$le mass of the heart. the ris3 and severit% of in6ur% de"ends on t(o fa$tors: • • the duration of the sho$3.2 !pes of shoc1 =le$tri$ sho$3s are of t(o t%"es: dire$t $onta$t. and the amount of $urrent that flo(s in the #od% tissue 2n$reasing either of these ris3 fa$tors in$reases the ris3 of in6ur% or death Later in this $ha"ter (e (ill dis$uss ho( 3no(ledge of the sho$3 ris3 fa$tors is used in s"e$if%ing the "erforman$e of the sho$3 "rote$tion s%stem 2. as the full voltage of the su""l% $an #e develo"ed a$ross the #od% 2n a (ell8designed ele$tri$al installation there should #e little or no ris3 of dire$t $onta$t< in most $ases it arises out of . a voltage of 2. li3e su""l%ing "o(er to a garden or out#uilding. and indire$t $onta$t 2.

08volt su""l%. the $urrent that flo(s to earth is suffi$ient to a$tivate an over$urrent devi$e and shut off the su""l% .$arelessness &e g $hanging a light#ul# (ith the outlet s(it$hed on' Fo(ever. a "rimar% earth ." -arthing and /onding /hese terms are often $onfused. "arti$ular (ith metal $asings 5our main "rote$tion against indire$t $onta$t is earthing. and ever%thing else is measured (ith res"e$t to it >hen (e tal3 a#out a 2. $om#ined (ith an over$urrent $ut8out devi$e /his (or3s #e$ause the large $urrent that (ill flo( to earth in the event of a fault should a$tivate the over$urrent devi$e .fault in an a""lian$e (here a live "art $omes into $onta$t (ith an earthed en$losure is $alled a live8 earth or live8to8earth fault 2.o earthing and #onding have $om"lementar% fun$tions. and it is im"ortant to understand the distin$tion 0=arth1 is that #ig lum" of ro$3 and mud (e all live on 7ost ele$tri$al "o(er s%stems $urrentl% in use are $onne$ted. some(here. in or near the main distri#ution #oard. su$h as the #rea3do(n of insulation on a fle)i#le $a#le that is #adl% stressed D*+s &see #elo(' "rovide some measure of "rote$tion against dire$t $onta$t 2. although in "ra$ti$e there usuall% is an earth $onne$tion some(here /he main "ur"ose of #onding is to 3ee" all metal(or3 that $an $ome into $onta$t (ith an ele$tri$al "otential at the same voltage 2f t(o "ie$es of metal are at the same voltage. and the #od% $omes into $onta$t (ith the live metal 2ndire$t $onta$t $an o$$ur as a result of faults in ele$tri$al a""lian$es.0 volts higher than earth 0=arthing1 is the "ro$ess of $onne$ting "arts of the ele$tri$al s%stem to earth 0Bonding1. and in domesti$ "ra$ti$e are al(a%s used together2 1 2. to earth /his hel"s to 3ee" the voltage at a (ell8defined level For $onvenien$e (e treat the voltage of the earth as 0Eero1.2. then it is im"ossi#le to get a sho$3 #% tou$hing them simultaneousl% !o $urrent (ill flo( =arthing ensures that if a fault does o$$ur. (e mean 2.2 2ndirect contact 2ndire$t $onta$t o$$urs (hen a live "art tou$hes a "ie$e of metal. it $an sometimes arise from (ear and tear. on the other hand is the $onne$ting of metal e4ui"ment together 2t does not ne$essaril% mean $onne$ting to earth.' !pes of primar! earth connection 5our house (ill &or at least should' $ontain.

u""lier "rovides a se"arate earth $onne$tion. (ith a $a#le run into the house // earthing "resents signifi$ant $hallenges for the ele$tri$al installer. // 7ost houses have 0/!8.1 method is in$reasing in "o"ularit% #e$ause of its lo(er $ost and su"erior earth $onta$t resistan$e /!8*8. is also $alled 0"rote$tive multi"le earthing1.1( t%"i$al methods of "rovision of the main earthing terminal Supply type code eaning . usuall% dire$t from the distri#ution station and via the metal sheath of the su""l% $a#le . /!8*8.u""lier "rovides no earth< %ou have an earth s"i3e near %our "remises /!8. there ma% #e other "aths to earth for $urrent else(here in the "remises 2t stands to reason that the main earth terminal should "rovide a very lo( resistan$e "ath to true earth /here are three main (a%s that this earth terminal ma% #e $onne$ted to a true earth /hese are identified #% the a##reviations2 2 sho(n in ta#le 2 1 a/le 2. as its earth resistan$e is un$omforta#l% high &see #elo('.1 su""lies at "resent.terminal /his is the main "oint to (hi$h all $ir$uit earths (ill #e run #a$3 9f $ourse. #ut the 0/!8*8.u""lier "rovides a $om#ined earthJneutral $onne$tion< %our main earth terminal is $onne$ted to their neutral . the $onta$t (ith earth (ill #e #etter than (hen it is dr% . then %ou ma% (ell have a // arrangement /he earth s"i3e (ill usuall% #e lo$ated in a small "it. #e$ause of the additional earthing re4uired inside the house 2f %our "o(er su""l% is from an overhead $a#le. and ma% var% (ith the (eather >hen it is ver% (et.7=. or .

1( the earth loo": the "ath for $urrent (hen a live8earth fault o$$urs in an a""lian$e !ote that in the (orse $ase the neutral "art of the s%stem $arries no $urrent< it all flo(s in the a""lian$e $asing and earth /he re$tangles re"resent the resistan$es of the various $ondu$tors in the $ir$uit 2f a live "art in the a""lian$e $omes into $onta$t (ith the $asing. and in the su""l% $om"an%1s $a#les and a""aratus 5ou have no $ontrol over that "art of the loo" /he "art of the loo" inside %our house has a resistan$e (hi$h $an #e $al$ulated. and from the earth terminal #a$3 to the su""l% $om"an%1s a""aratus via its earth $onne$tion /his $ir$uit is $alled the 0earth loo"1 !ote that "art of the earth loo" is outside %our "remises. the "ath for $urrent in$ludes that su""l% $om"an%1s live $ondu$tor into %our "remises. the live "art of %our $a#ling. through the fault to the $asing. and the earth "art of the su""lier1s s%stem 5ou $an $al$ulate the resistan$e of %our "art this . a short8$ir$uit #et(een live and earth'.) he earth loop /o understand ho( earthing re4uirements are to #e met.2. a $urrent (ill flo( from the live of the su""l% $om"an%1s a""aratus to the "remises. the earth "art of %our $a#ling. along the live $ondu$tor to the a""lian$e. #e$ause (e 3no( the resistan$es "er metre of the various $a#les that are li3el% to #e used 2f an earth fault o$$urs &that is. from the $asing to the earth terminal via the earth $ondu$tor. it is im"ortant to understand (here $urrent flo(s in the event of a live8earth fault &figure 2 1' #igure 2.

sa%. a mains $a#le. there ma% #e a $onta$t of un$ertain resistan$e 7ain #onding eliminates this un$ertaint% >e don1t have to earth ever% "ie$e of metal in the house. the earth loo" is the "ath that the $urrent (ill flo( in /his $urrent $ould #e ver% large< it should $ertainl% #e large enough to #lo( the fuse or tri" the 7*B #efore serious in6ur% o$$urs /his suggests that the earth loo" resistan$e should #e as lo( as "ossi#le For initial and a""ro)imate design $al$ulations. gas mains. ver% im"ortant for ensuring safet% >hen a short8$ir$uit from live to earth o$$urs. #% virtue of #eing #uried in the ground /he "ro#lem (ith this argument is that the earthing is un$ertain 2n some distri$t. and these "rovide no signifi$ant earth $onta$t at all 2n others. the earth loo" resistan$e figures de"end on %our 3no(ing the su""l% t%"e of %our "remises 2f %ou don1t 3no( this.11 2f %our installation a""ears safe (ith these (orst $ase figures. as the metal "i"e(or3 (ill $arr% the live "otential through the house >e avoid this "ro#lem #% ensuring that the "i"e(or3 is suffi$ientl% (ell earthed to "revent a "otential #eing develo"ed /he same $onsiderations a""l% to (ater mains. $ain and supplementar! /onding !ormall% all ele$tri$al a""lian$es (ith metal $ases (ill #e earthed /he $ase (ill #e $onne$ted to the main earth terminal via the a""lian$e $a#le and the "o(er $ir$uit itself 2f a fault o$$urs in the a""lian$e. after all. it (ill almost $ertainl% "rove to #e safe (ith the true figures Fo(ever. the earthing "revents in6ur% to the user Fo(ever. "lasti$ (ater "i"es are used for the mains.. %ou $an use the 0(orst $ase1 values of earth loo" resistan$e given in ta#le . and metal ventilation du$ts /hese items should all #e earthed !ormall% gas. %ou (ill need to as3 the su""l% $om"an% an%(a% 2. (ater and ventilation s%stems (ill #e earthed at at least one "oint #% a $onne$tion dire$t to the main earthing terminal /his is $alled main bonding 2n a house. and a live "art tou$hes the $ase. #ut %ou ma% need to a""roa$h the su""l% $om"an% for the resistan$e of their "art .u""liers are legall% o#liged to tell %ou this< it is. this must #e earthed as (ell 5ou $ould argue that the servi$e "i"es are earthed automati$all%. (hat ha""ens if a fault o$$urs in. %ou (ill normall% see a heav% earth $a#le running from the earth terminal to $lam"s on the in$oming servi$e "i"es 2f %ou have a lightning $ondu$tor.s%stem. #ut ever%thing that ma% #e in $onta$t (ith earth should #e (ell8#onded >e need to avoid the situation (here metal(or3 is a#le to $arr% live voltage #et(een rooms. #ut is not suffi$ientl% (ell earthed to "rote$t the o$$u"iers /he #asi$ "rin$i"le is this: !ny earth should be a good earth . stru$tural metal(or3. this $ould result in the (hole s%stem #e$oming live. or measure it. and a live $ondu$tor $omes into $onta$t (ith a $entral heating "i"eI 2n theor%.

o the total resistan$e of the earth $ondu$tor is 10 ) 0 01B ohms.4 mm . not metal (indo( frames 2n "ra$ti$e. as these don1t "resent a signifi$ant ris3 of $arr%ing a "otential Fo(ever. or filing $a#inets.>e don1t need to earth doorhandles.11 for t%"i$al figures for various t%"es of earthing' . (hi$h has a resistan$e of 0 01B ohms "er metre at C0 degrees *elsius2 4 /he live $ondu$tor has a resistan$e of 0 009 ohms "er metre .live8earth fault o$$urs in an ele$tri$al a""lian$e /he a""lian$e is $onne$ted #% its o(n dedi$ated $a#le to the main distri#ution #oard /he $a#le is 2 B mm t(o8$ore8and8earth. (hi$h ma% #e of $ast iron /he #onding $onne$tions need to #e made (ith a stout earth $a#le. and (e need to em"lo% supplementary bonding as (ell /his is the $onne$tion of metal(or3 together in a small area. this in$ludes "i"e(or3. the earth terminal of a lighting outlet (ould #e fine 2t is the bonding that is im"ortant. most houses do not have a steel frame. to "revent voltages #eing develo"ed #et(een different "arts of a room 2n a house. t%"i$all%2 . and a radiator $onne$ted #% "lasti$ "i"es is not a#le to $arr% a $urrent out of the room /his issue is dis$ussed in more detail later in this $ha"ter 2. ta"s. $onne$ted to $lam"s (ith integral (arning "lates !ote that the su""lementar% #onding does not have to #e run #a$3 to the main earth terminal $onne$tion to. (ith the (ides"read use of "lasti$ "lum#ing *learl%. rather than the earthing /he #enefits of su""lementar% #onding have al(a%s #een $ontested< man% authorities #elieve that in some $ir$umstan$es it redu$es ele$tri$al safet% rather than im"roving it /he (hole dis$ussion has re$entl% #een re8o"ened. (e do have to earth "i"e(or3 and stru$tural metal B% 0stru$tural1 is meant $entral su""ort #eams and 6oists. regardless of the nature of the fault /his is an untrue and dangerous misa""rehension *onsider the follo(ing e)am"le . radiators. or (indo( frames. sa%. main #onding is not $onsidered to #e suffi$ient. it should #e used thoroughl% 2n "arti$ular. "lasti$ "i"es don1t $ondu$t ele$tri$it%. this is onl% li3el% to #e ne$essar% in a #ath or sho(er room >here su""lementar% #onding is used. or 0 1B ohms /he total resistan$e of the live $ondu$tor is 10 ) 0 009. and it (on1t #e ne$essar% to earth the stru$ture 2n some "la$es. ohms &see ta#le . tu#s and sin3s. %ou need to ta3e the trou#le to #ond all metal "arts that have a $onne$tion outside the room 2n a #athroom. et$ 2n older houses it ma% also in$lude (aste "i"es. Shoc1 voltage( the limitation of earthing 2t might #e thought that if a metal a""lian$e is soundl% earthed. then it is im"ossi#le for a "erson tou$hing it to re$eive a sho$3. 10 metres long /his t%"e of $a#le has a 1 B mm earth $ondu$tor.. or 0 09 ohms -ssume that the resistan$e of the su""l% $om"an%1s "art of this loo" has a resistan$e of 0 .

as $al$ulated a#ove 2n that e)am"le. the fault $urrent (ill #e &2. #e$ause this is the voltage at the $asing of the a""lian$e (hen the fault o$$urs. this a""roa$h (ill onl% (or3 if the over$urrent devi$e a$tuall% $uts off the $urrent 2n the $ase des$ri#ed. and the resistan$e of the $a#le 9f $ourse. the su""l% (ill #e $ut off >ith 80 am"s flo(ing. "ro#a#l% in less than a hundredth of a se$ond Fo(ever.0 volts. the fault $urrent of 42A am"s (ill tri" the 7*B ver% 4ui$3l% indeed. or 0 B4 ohms >ith a su""l% voltage of 2. it ma% not tri" the devi$e at all. the voltage that a "erson (ill e)"erien$e if he or she tou$hes the a""lian$e in the fault $ondition /he term 0"ros"e$tive1 is used #e$ause. the use of an over$urrent devi$e &e g . if the fault $urrent is lo(. 7*B' or an earth fault devi$e &e g . . or a#out 42A am"s /his $urrent flo(ing in the earth $ondu$tor &1 B ohms' (ill develo" a voltage of &42A ) 0 1B' volts. or ma% not do so 4ui$3l% enough to "revent danger . or 80 am"s /his means that as soon as the $urrent rises to 80 am"s. (hi$h is "otentiall% dangerous !ote that the onl% "ra$ti$al (a%s to redu$e the sho$3 voltage are &i' to shorten the $a#le. that is. &ii' to redu$e the earth resistan$e. su""ose the $a#le had #een "rote$ted #% a 20 am" t%"e81 7*B /he 0instantaneous tri" voltage1 of the 7*B (ill #e a""ro)imatel% four times the rating.o (e need to $onsider the notion of 0dis$onne$tion time1 in an earth fault 2.o the overall sho$3 voltage is set #% the tri" $urrent of the over$urrent devi$e.. the sho$3 voltage (ould have #een A4 volts Fo(ever. D*+' ma% sto" this sho$3 voltage #eing rea$hed For e)am"le. (hi$h is 12 volts . or &iii' to shut off the su""l% #efore the fault $urrent rea$hes the $al$ulated figure /here are t(o (a%s to ensure that the su""l% is dis$onne$ted automati$all% /he 0traditional1 a""roa$h is to ensure that the $urrent that flo(s to earth is enough to tri" the over$urrent devi$e for the $ir$uit /he modern a""roa$h is to use an D*+ >ithout automati$ su""l% dis$onne$tion. the sho$3 voltage is 80 multi"lied #% the earth $ondu$tor resistan$e &0 1B ohms'. K 0 09 K 0 1B ohms.0 J 0 B4' am"s.o the total resistan$e in the $urrent "ath &the earth loo"' is 0 . if an 7*B (ill al(a%s interru"t the su""l% (hen the $urrent rea$hes 20 am"s. a fault in this a""lian$e $ould $ause the $asing to develo" a voltage of A4 volts. the true sho$3 voltage (ill #e resistan$e of the earth $ondu$tor multi"lied #% 20 am"s &as dis$ussed later' 2n summar%. in "ra$ti$e. the sho$3 voltage (ill #e given #% multi"l%ing the fault $urrent #% the earth $ondu$tor resistan$e. or a#out A4 volts /his A4 volts is $alled the 0"ros"e$tive sho$3 voltage1 or 0"ros"e$tive tou$h voltage1.0 +isconnection time and shoc1 voltage >e have alread% seen that the use of earthing alone (ill not ne$essaril% "rote$t against ele$tri$ sho$3.

this $ategor% $onsists of fi)ed #athroom e4ui"ment &sho(er "um"s. even for an e)tended time 2n fa$t. 0medium1 and 0lo(1 ris3s $ategories !ote that 0lo( ris31 here means comparatively lo( ris3< no mains ele$tri$al s%stem $an reall% #e $lassified as lo(8ris3 3high4 ris1 circuits /hese are $ir$uits for (hi$h the shortest dis$onne$tion time must al(a%s #e maintained: 0 4 se$onds -$$ording to the IEE Wiring Regulations. ele$tri$ heaters'.#e$ause in a fault the $urrent flo( ma% #e so large that it still develo"s a dangerous voltage #et(een earth and the fault /o "revent in6ur%. $a#ling #et(een distri#ution #oards. unless the ma)imum sho$3 voltage is less than B0G 2t is assumed that an e)"osure to B0G is unli3el% to #e dangerous. #ut these are unli3el% to #e found in the home &the "ossi#le e)$e"tion is a s(imming "ool. sin$e this is not readil% measura#le 2t is relativel% straightfor(ard to s"e$if% in terms of 0sho$3 voltage1. and are therefore regulated in the same (a% as #athrooms< this is. a "erson (ith $lean.802809@ (ill de"end on the level of ris3 to (hi$h a user of the $ir$uit is e)"osed< for this dis$ussion 2 (ill divide $ir$uits into 0high1. as des$ri#ed a#ove Be$ause the sho$3 voltage and the tissue $urrent are not dire$tl% related. dr% s3in standing on a dr% floor $an tolerate mu$h higher voltages that this /he B0G limit in$ludes a safet% margin to a$$ount for dam" s3in /hese $ir$uits must dis$onne$t (ithin B se$onds< this time is reall% rather ar#itrar%. a 4ui$3 dis$onne$tion is to #e "referred 2t is diffi$ult to s"e$if% the "erforman$e of an ele$tri$ sho$3 "rote$tion s%stem in terms of tissue $urrent. if the sho$3 voltage is less than B0 G. in fa$t. large safet% margins are s"e$ified /he dis$onne$tion time given #% regulations ?2== 41. #ut there has to #e some sort of limit 2n "ra$ti$e. the dis$onne$tion time (ill #e ade4uate an%(a%. not true &at least a$$ording to the IEE Wiring Regulations' 2f %ou (ish to "rote$t %our 3it$hen more stri$tl% than other "arts of the house. and fi)ed a""lian$e $ir$uits &e)$e"t #athroom' /hese must dis$onne$t in B se$onds . outdoor and garden mains so$3et outlets. #ut not a regulator% issue 3medium4 ris1 circuits /hese are all $ir$uits su""l%ing so$3et outlets and hand8held a""lian$es /hese $ir$uits also re4uire dis$onne$tion times less than 0 4 se$onds. and other "la$es (here the users are li3el% to #e e)"osed to (et $onditions 2t is assumed that e)"osure even to the full su""l% voltage is not li3el% to #e dangerous if it is restri$ted to 0 4 se$onds 9ther high8ris3 areas are re$ogniEed #% the Degulations. (hi$h is the voltage at the "oint (here the live "art tou$hes the #od%. as (ill #e dis$ussed 3low4 ris1 circuits /his grou" in$ludes ever%thing else: lighting $ir$uits. if %ou1re fortunate enough to have one' 2t is $ommonl% thought that domesti$ 3it$hens are a 0high ris31 area. this is sensi#le. a "rote$tive s%stem must #e availa#le to shut off the su""l% in the event of a fault 9#viousl%.

is unli3el% to lead to a "ro#lem 2f %our house has a 0//1 earth su""l%. the earth is "rovided lo$all%.16 When do we need to /e concerned a/out disconnection times7 =ven in su#stantial "ro6e$ts %ou ma% not need to #e $on$erned a#out dis$onne$tion times /he follo(ing "oints should #e $onsidered • • • • • 5ou onl% need to #e $on$erned if %ou are ma3ing an addition. the issue of dis$onne$tion time #e$omes moot: %ou (on1t have to $al$ulate it :sing an D*+ is a sensi#le o"tion for other installations. su""ose the e)ternal earth loo" resistan$e is 20 ohms /he ma)imum $urrent that $an flo( to earth in %our house is 2. the earth loo" resistan$e (ill almost $ertainl% #e too large to meet an% dis$onne$tion time regulation For e)am"le. and the $ir$umstan$es in (hi$h %ou need to do this 2.2. and does not de"end on earth loo" resistan$e 2f %ou don1t 3no( the e)ternal earth loo" resistan$e. dis$onne$tion time is ver% unli3el% to #e an issue in domesti$ lighting $ir$uits /he ma)imum a$$e"ta#le length for a 0standard1 "o(er &2 B mm ring' $ir$uit. or an overall D*+ for the main distri#ution #oard >ith this in "la$e. (hen "rote$ted #% a A8am". that is. or 11 B am"s /his is not large enough to tri" even a B8am" 7*B in a reasona#le time /hus an earth fault $ould remain in "la$e for hours Fouses (ith a // su""l% need D*+ "rote$tion on all $ir$uits. for e)am"le. (hen "rote$ted #% a . %ou should ta3e BA metres as %our ma)imum length !ote that this length is for the whole ring. or a su#stantial e)tension. the ma)imum a$$e"ta#le length for a 0standard1 lighting &1 B mm radial' $ir$uit. it ma3es it unne$essar% to $al$ulate the dis$onne$tion time 2f the e)ternal earth loo" resistan$e is 0 8 ohms &a $onservative estimate'. to a $ir$uit -dding a ne( so$3et to a "o(er ring. even (here the dis$onne$tion times $an #e met #% earthing /he D*+ "rovides "rote$tion against a greater range of faults that earthing alone 2n addition. from the distri#ution #oard to the furthest "oint and #a$3 2f %ou "lan to run the ring at full . t%"e81 7*B is .0J20 am"s.5 %hec1ing disconnection time /his se$tion des$ri#es ho( to $al$ulate dis$onne$tion times.0.08am" t%"e81 7*Bs is BA metres /his is #ased on $onsideration of sho$3 voltage. metres 2n order (ords.

A metres an%(a% Bear in mind that in some $ases %ou (ill need to 3no( the e)ternal earth loo" resistan$e to do these $he$3s 2. 4 B *al$ulate the total loo" resistan$e of %our $a#le &live and earth $ondu$tors in series'. use the figures in ta#le . (e are allo(ed a dis$onne$tion time of B se$onds .2 +isconnection time in medium ris1 circuits 2n these $ir$uits. dis$onne$tion must o$$ur in 0 4 se$onds. #% multi"l%ing its length #% the a""ro"riate figure from ta#le . unless the sho$3 voltage is less than B0 volts 2n the latter $ase. (ith the "rote$tion devi$e %ou have sele$ted 7a)imum a$$e"ta#le values of earth loo" resistan$e are given in ta#le .1 +isconnection time in high ris1 circuits 2n these $ir$uits.16. or im"rove the earth "ath using su""lementar% earth #onding -lternativel%. /his gives the total resistan$e of %our "art of the $ir$uit -dd this to the e)ternal earth loo" resistan$e o#tained from the su""l% $om"an% to give the total earth loo" resistan$e /his figure gives the total resistan$e of the "ath that $urrent (ill flo( around if there is a live8earth fault *al$ulate the ma)imum fault $urrent #% dividing the mains voltage &2.B.12. and then $he$3 the dis$onne$tion time a$$ording to (hether the sho$3 voltage is less . redu$e the $urrent limit of the "rote$tive devi$e. $olumn . $olumns 4 or B< this gives ma)imum lengths that (ill allo( a dis$onne$tion in 0 4 se$onds for a range of "o"ular $a#leJ7*BJfuse $om#inations 2.0 G' #% the loo" resistan$e *he$3 (hether this fault $urrent is a""ro"riate for a 0 4 se$ond dis$onne$tion.$a"a$it%. (hatever the sho$3 voltage /herefore (e don1t need to $al$ulate the sho$3 voltage /he $he$3 "ro$edure is a follo(s 1 2 .16. fit an D*+. voltage dro" re4uirements limit the length to .8 2f the earth loo" resistan$e is too high to allo( dis$onne$tion. dis$onne$tion must o$$ur in 0 4 se$onds.o (e should first $al$ulate the sho$3 voltage.

a dis$onne$tion time of B se$onds is allo(ed /he $he$3 "ro$edure is as follo(s 1 2 .9 2f the earth loo" resistan$e is too high to allo( dis$onne$tion.B. 4 *al$ulate the earth $ondu$tor $ondu$tor resistan$e #% multi"l%ing the a""ro"riate figure for %our sele$ted $a#le siEe from ta#le .12. then the $ir$uit is 9K< no more $he$3s are re4uired 2f the sho$3 voltage is greater than B0 G. use a su""lementar% earthing $onne$tion at the far end of the $ir$uit to redu$e the earth resistan$e 2f %ou use metal "i"e(or3 for the su""lementar% earth. #% the length of the $a#le from the su""l% earth terminal to the furthest "oint +etermine the ma)imum $urrent that (ill tri" the sele$ted over$urrent devi$e in B se$onds &ta#le . (ith the "rote$tion devi$e %ou have sele$ted 7a)imum values of earth loo" resistan$e are given in ta#le .16. test for a 0 4 se$ond dis$onne$tion time using the "ro$edure des$ri#ed for 0high ris31 $ir$uits des$ri#ed a#ove -lternativel%. %ou might need to measure the resulting resistan$e using a meter rather than $al$ulating it -lternativel%. $olumn 4. use the figures in ta#le . to determine (hat length of $a#le (ill give an a$$e"ta#le sho$3 voltage 2. use the figures in ta#le . 4 *al$ulate the earth loo" resistan$e of %our $a#le. $olumn .12.than B0 volts or not /he $he$3 "ro$edure is as follo(s 1 2 .16. $olumns A or 8< this gives ma)imum lengths that (ill allo( a dis$onne$tion in B se$onds for a range of "o"ular $a#leJ7*BJfuse $om#inations /he "ro$ess of $he$3ing dis$onne$tion times is $om"li$ated #% the fa$t that the e)ternal earth loo" resistan$e $annot easil% #e measured or $al$ulated: it must #e o#tained from the su""l% $om"an% 2.' 8eneral guidelines on disconnection time .B. fit an D*+ or im"rove the earth "ath using su""lementar% earth #onding -lternativel%.C' >or3 out the sho$3 voltage #% multi"l%ing the $urrent #% the $a#le resistan$e 2f it is less than B0 volts. -dd this to the e)ternal earth loo" resistan$e o#tained from the su""l% $om"an% to give the total earth loo" resistan$e /his figure gives the total resistan$e of the "ath that $urrent (ill flo( around if there is a live8earth fault *he$3 (hether this figure is a""ro"riate for a B se$ond dis$onne$tion. #% multi"l%ing its length #% the a""ro"riate figure from ta#le ." +isconnection time in low ris1 circuits 2n these $ir$uits. $olumn .

earth8lea3age $ir$uit #rea3ers &=L*Bs' (ere (idel% used a#out ten %ears ago /hese devi$es measured the voltage on the earth $ondu$tor< if this voltage (as not Eero this indi$ated a $urrent lea3age to earth /he "ro#lem is that =L*Bs need a sound earth $onne$tion. (ith the same nominal rating /his means that it (ill ma3e it slightl% easier to meet the dis$onne$tion time re4uirements and the sho$3 voltage re4uirements (ith a t%"e81 devi$e =)$e"t for ver% lo( $urrent $ir$uits &less than A am"s'.devi$es .$urrent flo( of . fitting a A8am" 7*B (ill allo( the $a#le run to #e a#out t(i$e as long (hile still maintaining the same sho$3 voltage and dis$onne$tion times 2. as does the e4ui"ment it "rote$ts -s a result. this indi$ates that some $urrent is flo(ing some(here other than the live and neutral /here are onl% a fe( "la$es that the e)traneous $urrent $an flo(. it ma% not do so 4ui$3l% enough. to a$hieve the same dis$onne$tion times . or 3ee" the voltage at a safe level 2n$reasing a(areness of these "ro#lems has led to the (ides"read u"ta3e of other devi$es that $an dete$t and isolate earth faults /he most "o"ular at "resent is the residual current device /he residual $urrent devi$e measures the differen$e in $urrent #et(een the live and neutral $ondu$tors of a s%stem 2n all normal $ir$umstan$es these should #e e4ual 2f the live $urrent and the neutral $urrent are different. and ma3e it easier to sele$t and install $a#le For $urrents over 40 am"s.t%"e81 7*B (ill tri" at a slightl% lo(er $urrent than a t%"e8B.thi$3er $a#le $an #e longer than a thin one. su""ose %ou are running a .0 m. all of them #ad 2n man% $ases the differen$e (ill indi$ate a $urrent flo( to earth.• • • • • . the% tri" at different levels of $urrent lea3age 2n the :K. the use of . $onsider using a lo(er8rated 7*B to im"rove sho$3 "rote$tion &if %ou aren1t using an D*+' For e)am"le. an 7*B (ill offer #etter dis$onne$tion time "erforman$e than a fuse. am"s' is suffi$ientl% small that it ma3es it ver% diffi$ult to re$eive a dangerous sho$3 =ven 100 m.&or 0 0. via a fault D*+s are availa#le (ith different sensitivities /hat is.11 9%+s >e have seen that (e $an1t al(a%s rel% on the use of earthing to dis$onne$t the mains su""l% in a fault =ven if it does dis$onne$t. #e$ause the overall resistan$e is lo(er 2f a $a#le is $arr%ing a mu$h lo(er load than its rating.ring $ir$uit (ill allo( ade4uate dis$onne$tion for a longer $a#le than a radial $ir$uit. the most (idel% used are .8am" freeEer on a dedi$ated 2 B $a#le -lthough this $a#le ma% allo( a ma)imum $urrent of 20 am"s.is a relativel% small figure (hen $om"ared to the $urrent that ma% flo( in an earth fault (ithout su$h "rote$tion &hundred of am"s' -n D*+ does not ne$essaril% re4uire an earth $onne$tion itself &it monitors onl% the live and neutral' 2n addition it dete$ts $urrent flo(s to earth even in e4ui"ment (ithout an earth of its o(n /his means that an D*+ (ill $ontinue to give sho$3 "rote$tion in e4ui"ment that has a fault% earth 2t is these "ro"erties that have made the D*+ more "o"ular than its rivals For e)am"le.&milliam"' and 100 m.0 m. a fuse (ill not offer 0 4 se$ond dis$onne$tion in an% $ir$umstan$es .

as (ill #e dis$ussed #elo( /here are a fe( "la$es around the home (here D*+ "rote$tion is sti"ulated #% the IEE Wiring Regulations: fi)ed e4ui"ment in #athrooms. %ou $an get D*+s #uilt into so$3et outlets &figure 2 2' 9f $ourse. D*+s are availa#le to fit standard distri#ution #oards alongside 7*Bs #igure 2. it ma% not #e to the vi$tim1s #enefit if the house is "lunged into dar3ness 5ou de$ide -nother "la$e to avoid D*+s is in the su""lies for e4ui"ment that reall% must run (ithout interru"tion 2n the home this a""lies "arti$ularl% to freeEers. have a "ra$ti$al #enefit. and the vi$tim is unli3el% to #e gras"ing the fault% e4ui"ment strongl% &$ontrast this to the use of. and out#uildings Demem#er that %ou $an "rovide D*+ "rote$tion in various "la$es: a distri#ution #oard. or a single so$3et outlet 2. from a safet% "ers"e$tive -dditional D*+s ma%. #ut has a #uilt in D*+ For "ermanent installations.11. and none is availa#le 5ou ma% (ant to $onsider avoiding D*+ "rote$tion on lighting $ir$uits.12 Where not to use 9%+s Demem#er that D*+s are onl% availa#le for mains8voltage su""lies 128volt and 248volt s%stems do not re4uire D*+ "rote$tion. or hel"ful.=L*Bs is no longer re$ommended D*+s are no( availa#le in all sorts of guises For e)am"le. "erha"s. sa%.1 Where to use 9%+s Fouses #uilt in the last fe( %ears "ro#a#l% have an overall D*+ for the main su""l% /his means that no further D*+ "rote$tion is ne$essar%. (ith the "ossi#le e)$e"tion of 3it$hen and #athroom lighting 5ou need to (eigh u" the advantages and disadvantages 4uite $arefull% /he ris3 of ele$tro$ution from a lighting s%stem is a$tuall% 4uite small. #ut %ou ma% (ant to $onsider a4uarium "um"s and . an ele$tri$ drill or a hairdr%er' 2f someone does re$eive a sho$3 from a light fitting.2( a so$3et (ith integral D*+ "rote$tion 2. a s"ur unit. so$3et outlets in rooms that $ontain a sho(er $u#i$le &see #elo('. gardens. an D*+ "lug re"la$es a standard three8"in "lug.

so the situation is unli3el% to lead to $atastro"he< #ut it ma% #e in$onvenient 2t is no( "ossi#le to get an 7*B and and D*+ in a single unit. ho(ever large. %ou (ould need to use t(o different sensitivities Bear in mind that if %ou have a .$urrent overload. $annot #e dete$ted 2t is a fre4uent $ause of "ro#lems (ith novi$es to re"la$e an 7*B in a fuse #o) (ith an D*+ /his ma% #e done in an attem"t to in$rease sho$3 "rote$tion 2f a live8neutral fault o$$urs &a short $ir$uit. then the t(o D*+s need to have different sensitivities . the main 7*B for the "remises (ill "ro#a#l% tri".some 3inds of $om"uter e4ui"ment 2t (ould not #e in %our #est interests if an ele$tri$al fault in the garden $aused %our freeEer to shut do(n 2n addition. there is no safet% #enefit in this a""roa$h: t(o D*+s aren1t safer than one /he onl% reason for installing a s%stem (ith multi"le D*+s in the same $ir$uit is to lo$aliEe the isolation in the event of a fault For e)am"le.D*+ as the overall "rote$tion for %our house. or an overload'. then (hen a fault does o$$ur the D*+ nearest the fault should #e the one to tri" /his is $alled discrimination 2f (e have."e$ifi$all% the one in the garage needs to #e more sensitive than the one in the distri#ution #oard /his ensures that a fault in the garage (ill shut off the garage so$3et. and ma% #e damaged 2n "ra$ti$e. or the servi$e fuse.12. as (ill #e dis$ussed Demem#er that D*+s dete$t an im#alan$e in the live and neutral $urrents .0 m.devi$e 2. then using a 100 m.1 9%+ discrimination *ommon sense. and this is fed #% a distri#ution #oard (ith overall D*+ "rote$tion. $alled an D*B9 &see #elo(' De"la$ing an 7*B (ith an D*B9 of the same rating is generall% safe 2. %ou need first to $hange the main D*+ for a 100 m. this (ill "revent faults in the garden e4ui"ment tri""ing the D*+ in the "o(er ring 9f $ourse.0m.2 Nuisance tripping .12.sensitivit%. in the #oard (ill ensure the $orre$t dis$rimination Fo(ever. not the distri#ution #oard 2f the garage so$3et has . (ith a small tri" dela%. D*+s do sometimes tri" #% a$$ident. then there is a#solutel% no advantage in using an% other D*+ an%(here in the "remises 2f %ou (ant to fit additional D*+s. and the IEE Wiring Regulations. for e)am"le. the D*+ (on1t tri". an D*+ so$3et in a garage &(ith "rote$t on the individual so$3et'.devi$e. suggests that if a s%stem has multi"le D*+s. for this to (or3. su""ose %ou have a mains "o(er ring &(ith D*+ "rote$tion' feeding a single so$3et in the garden 2f %ou "rovide the garden so$3et (ith its o(n D*+.

are $auses for $on$ern =ither $an indi$ate an intermittent or "ermanent live8earth fault some(here in the $ir$uit &e g . that is. as it is ver% eas% to overestimate the "rote$tion that D*+s "rovide 2n$reasingl% D*+s are seen as a $ure for an% 3ind of ele$tri$al "ro#lem 7an% "eo"le evidentl% thin3 that #% having and D*+ some(here in the house this gives li$ense to use shodd% and "oorl%8"lanned (iring and e4ui"ment /his $an #e ver% dangerous D*+s don1t offer "rote$tion against $urrent overloads /he (ides"read. generate a small.o if %ou tou$h live and neutral $ondu$tors at the same time &e g . $onstant $urrent flo( to earth . a fault% a""lian$e fle)' 2.udden $hanges in ele$tri$al load $an $ause a small. dangerous "ra$tise of ta3ing long s"urs from a "o(er ring (ill #e 6ust as dangerous !either does an D*+ "rote$t against long8term overloads that are 6ust #elo( the tri""ing $urrent of the "rote$tive devi$e Both these "ro#lems are $onse4uen$es of "oor design /he latter. are (idel% re"orted to $ause "ro#lems . the% render it almost im"ossi#le to re$eive a dangerous sho$3 /his degree of "rote$tion is not entirel% (ithout "ro#lems. for e)am"le. #rief $urrent flo( to earth.ome e4ui"ment is notoriousl% 0lea3%1.12. #e$ause the $urrent in the live and neutral is #alan$ed . often arises (hen the same ring $ir$uit is used for a 3it$hen and the rest of the so$3et outlets on one floor of a #uilding -n D*+ (ill not "rote$t against a so$3et outlet #eing (ired (ith its live and neutral terminals the (rong (a% round -n D*+ (ill not "rote$t against the overheating that results (hen $ondu$tors are not "ro"erl% s$re(ed into their terminals -n D*+ (ill not "rote$t against live8neutral sho$3s.ersistent nuisan$e tri""ing. or an D*+ that (on1t s(it$h on at all. modern D*+s on modern (iring s%stems (ith modern a""lian$es are not "rone to tri" #% a$$ident -n% tri""ing of an D*+ should #e ta3en seriousl% Fo(ever.2n m% e)"erien$e." 9%+ hazards D*+s are an e)tremel% effe$tive form of sho$3 "rote$tion >hen "ro"erl% sele$ted and installed in a s%stem that is generall% sound. there are (ell83no(n reasons for nuisan$e tri""ing . es"e$iall% in old a""lian$es D*+s are ver% sensitive and o"erate ver% 4ui$3l%< the% ma% (ell tri" (hen the motor of an old freeEer s(it$hes off . #oth terminals of a light .ome t%"es of $om"uter e4ui"ment. and large television sets.

the Degulations re$ogniEe that rooms other than a 0#athroom1 ma% $ontain a #ath or sho(er For e)am"le. %ou1re living on #orro(ed time 2. then %ou (ill (ant to ta3e some $are (ith ele$tri$al fittings in the vi$init% of the sho(er For e)am"le.1'. it deals (ith 0lo$ations $ontaining a #ath or sho(er1 ?2== A01. in an en$losure that (ill fit into the same distri#ution #oard as the D*+ >hen $hoosing an 7*B9. even if outside the . "rovided the%1re the t%"e (ith an isolating transformer that are s"e$ifi$all% designed for #athrooms ?2== A01808@ allo(s so$3et outlets that are "la$ed at least . unless s"e$ifi$all% designed for #athroom use -n% ele$tri$al e4ui"ment in a #athroom &in$luding light fittings' should #e of a t%"e that is s"e$ifi$all% designed to #e safe for a #athroom .fitting'. mains8o"erated e4ui"ment should #e 3e"t a(a% from a tu# 2n general. an D*+ is intended to shorten the dis$onne$tion time in the event of a live8earth fault.haver so$3ets $an #e fitted. and to give a measure of "rote$tion against earth failure in an a""lian$e 2f %ou rel% on it for an%thing else. there should not #e ele$tri$al so$3et outlets in a #athroom Fi)ed e4ui"ment should #e "rote$ted #% an D*+. #ut this does not a""ear to a""l% to #athrooms that $ontain a #ath :nder8floor heating grids should #e "rote$ted #% an earthed metal s$reen 2. if %ou are fitting a sho(er $u#i$le in a #edroom.1" 9%&Os -s dis$ussed a#ove. remem#er that its overload and its earth8fault "rote$tion $a"a#ilities are $om"letel% se"arate 5ou should a""l% e)a$tl% the same design and sele$tion "ro$edures as %ou (ould for t(o se"arate units 2. manufa$turers have introdu$ed a ne( range of e4ui"ment $alled D*B9s -n D*B9 $om#ines an D*+ (ith an D*B. .8metre Eone . metres from a sho(er. an D*+ does not "rovide over$urrent "rote$tion 2f %ou rel% on an D*+ to tri" in an overload it (ill "ro#a#l% #e damaged and sto" (or3ing $om"letel% /o ma3e it "ossi#le to re"la$e an 7*B (ith an D*+.1 What constitutes a /athroom7 /he IEE Wiring Regulationsnot mention #athrooms. %ou ma% still get a nast% sho$3 2n summar%.rd amendment@ . %ou need to #e $areful a#out lo$ating it (ith res"e$t to mains outlets and lights(it$hes !ny ele$tri$al outlet in a room that $ontains a #ath or sho(er should #e "rote$ted #% an D*+ ?2== A01808801@. in a room $ontaining a sho(er $u#i$le."e$ifi$all%.1' Special considerations for /athrooms -s far as "ossi#le.

-ffect of plastic water pipes on earthing /here has #een a lot of $ontrovers% latel% a#out the #enefits and haEards of "lasti$ "lum#ing in 3it$hens and #athrooms Demem#er that traditional metal "i"e(or3 is a ver% good $ondu$tor of ele$tri$it%. no legal or regulator% re4uirement for this Fo(ever. #ut the (ater it $ontains ma% $ondu$t.1. as it (ill #e diffi$ult to meet dis$onne$tion time regulations other(ise /he 0e4ui"otential Eone1 "ro#a#l% does not in$lude a se"arated garage. if the #asi$ "rin$i"le 0an% earth should #e a good earth1 is a""lied.1. in fa$t. %ou (ill need to use D*+ "rote$tion for so$3et outlets /here is a (ides"read mis$on$e"tion that the use of D*+ "rote$tion outside the house is #e$ause the environment ma% #e (et. to a degree -s has alread% #een suggested. #ut #e$ause it ma% #e diffi$ult to $ontrol sho$3 voltage and dis$onne$tion time other(ise 2. "um"s. Special considerations for 1itchens 5ou ma% (ell feel that s"e$ial $onsideration needs to #e given to ele$tri$al e4ui"ment in 3it$hens< there is. it is less o#vious (h% (e should need to "rovide D*+ "rote$tion in out#uildings /he IEE Wiring Regulationsto something $alled the 0main e4ui"otential Eone1 /his is. it is "ro#a#l% sensi#le to use D*+ "rote$tion on 3it$hen "o(er outlets.2. and to use su""lementar% #onding for metal sin3s and ta"s (here the "i"e(or3 is metalli$ 2. and in$rease the ele$tri$al $onta$t #et(een "erson and ground *learl% this is li3el% to #e a "ro#lem in a garden Fo(ever.lasti$ "i"ing is a ver% good insulator. e)tra8lo( voltage &12G' e4ui"ment is to #e "referred for garden use 2t is no( "ossi#le to get 12G lighting. it is unli3el% that . essentiall%.1) Special considerations for gardens and out/uildings 2n general. the "art of the "remises that has a ver% lo( resistan$e $onta$t to the main earthing terminal -n% "art of the site that is outside this Eone should #e $onsidered a $andidate for D*+ "rote$tion. and $an #e used to su""lement earthing . radiators and sin3s' su""lied #% "lasti$ "i"ing should #e earthed #% #onding $a#les /he ele$tri$al resistan$e of a 1B mm "i"e $ontaining ta" (ater is a#out 100 3ilohms "er metre< (ith $orrosion inhi#itor &in radiator "i"es' it ma% #e as lo( as 20 3ilohms "er meter &sour$e: =le$tri$al Desear$h -sso$iation' >hile (ater "urit% and $ontent varies from "la$e to "la$e. and $ertainl% does not in$lude the garden /he reason for using an D*+ in a garage is therefore not that it ma% get (et. la(n s"ra%ers. among others >here %ou must use mains "o(er. this im"lies that metal e4ui"ment &e g .

0J20.7= su""l%. the use of su""lementar% #onding (ithin the "remises. then %ou $ould #e left (ith no effe$tive earth . there ma% #e a la#el near the in$oming $a#les indi$ating that fa$t. #ut $he$3 (ith the su""l% $om"an% #e$ause larger siEes are re4uired in some $ases 2f %ou have a .10 Special considerations for :$. %ou 8 the householder.Fo(ever.000' divided #% the length of the "i"e to the nearest good earth . #ut it is "ro#a#l% safer to $he$3 (ith the su""l% $om"an% or the lo$al authorit% ". it $annot $arr% enough $urrent to "resent a signifi$ant haEard /his means that earthing the radiator (ill increase the ris3 of ele$tri$ sho$3. gas and (ater'. not the su""l% $om"an% 8 are legall% o#ligated to ensure the integrit% of su""lementar% #onding in this $ase /he main #onding $ondu$tors &from the earth terminal to in$oming servi$es' should normall% #e 10 mm (ith a . e)$e"t #% moving house'.7= su""l% &and %ou have no $ontrol over that. rather than redu$e it 2t is in$reasingl% $ommon. that %our main earth is the su""l% $om"an%1s neutral /here is no earth $onne$tion #rought into the house /his is fine so long as the su""l% neutral remains inta$t 2f the neutral $onne$tion #rea3s. e)$e"t for the "art that is visi#le a#ove floor level /here is no need to use su""lementar% #onding on the visi#le "art 2. to treat "lasti$ "i"e 8 even $ontaining (ater 8 as an insulator 2t ma3es no more sense to earth a radiator (ith "lasti$ "i"ing than it does to earth a filing $a#inet or (indo( frame. (ith a . the amount of $urrent that $an #e $arried #% the (ater in the "i"es (ill #e a#out 11 milliam"s &2. to #e in a$$ordan$e (ith the IEE Wiring Regulations For %our $onvenien$e 2 have e)tra$ted the information from the ta#les given in the Regulations that are li3el% to #e a""li$a#le to t%"i$al domesti$ installations and summariEed it in a""endi) . an% more than %ou (ould earth a metal shelf or to(el rail 2t is in$reasingl% $ommon to find that radiators are "lum#ed using "lasti$ "i"e.7= su""l% this is a#solutel% essential 7oreover. this a""endi) ma3es $ertain assum"tions a#out %our .supplies Demem#er that if %ou have a .7= su""l%. therefore.there (ill #e mu$h variation from the a#ove figure for an% ta" (ater =ven in the (orst $ase &radiator "i"es'. -xample of selecting ca/le size /his a""endi) des$ri#es ho( to sele$t the a""ro"riate $a#le siEe for a given a""li$ation. even in the #athroom /here is no "arti$ular re4uirement to earth #ath or sin3 ta"s that are $onne$ted #% "lasti$ "i"e.fault in these $onditions $ould #e e)tremel% dangerous >hile it is good "ra$ti$e (ith all forms of su""l% to enhan$e the earth $onne$tion #% $onne$ting the main earth terminal to the in$oming servi$e "i"es &e g .o even if a radiator is $onne$ted #% a "lasti$ "i"e to a metal "i"e at as little as 1 metre a(a%. is even more im"ortant than (ith other su""lies 2n fa$t.

installation.1 Step 1( calculate the nominal current /he nominal $urrent (ill #e rating of the 7*B sele$ted to "rote$t the s%stem 9f $ourse this must #e . #ut the% must #e of the same t%"e. %ou should tr% again (ith the ne)t largest $a#le 2f %ou $an1t meet the dis$onne$tion time re4uirements (ith the largest $a#le. not 6ust if it is $atasto"hi$all% high' >here $a#les are #un$hed together. and if these assum"tions are not true. after a""l%ing various $orre$tion fa$tors 2f an% re4uirement is not met. ele$tri$ sho(ers or $oo3ers' /he "ro$edure to #e des$ri#ed $an #e follo(ed #% an%one (ho has a "o$3et $al$ulator and $an follo( instru$tions no more $om"li$ated than 00multi"l% this num#er #% the one %ou $al$ulated in ste" 211 Fo(ever. the% are all the same siEe. then $he$3 it meets the 0$urrent $arr%ing $a"a$it%1 re4uirements. $al$ulate the a""ro"riate figures %ourself /he assum"tions are as follo(s • • • • /he over8$urrent devi$e (hi$h is "rote$ting the $a#le is an 7*B or a $artridge fuse &not a rewirable fuse' /his is im"ortant: re(ira#le fuses #lo( at a $urrent level a#out B0H higher than an 7*B /he $a#le is general8"ur"ose . %ou should not use this information 2nstead. to an out#uilding (ith a "o(er $ir$uit' or high $urrent a""lian$es &e g . and have the same ma)imum tem"erature 2n "ra$ti$e it has not #een found to #e a "ro#lem (hen the $a#les are not the same siEe or at the same $urrent. it (ill ma3e more sense if %ou have a #asi$ understanding of ele$tri$al theor% and 9hms1s la( ". #etter still.1. and (ith the same ma)imum tem"erature. and the 0dis$onne$tiont time1 re4uirements. $arr%ing the same $urrent.G* t(o8$ore8and8earth. (ith a ma)imum tem"erature rating of C0 degrees $el$ius /he "rote$tive devi$e "rovides overload "rote$tion. and not 6ust short8$ir$uit "rote$tion &this is nearl% al(a%s the $ase in domesti$ installations< (e e)"e$t the 7*B to tri" if the $urrent load is too high for the $a#le. %ou should refer to the a""roriate se$tions of the IEE Wiring Regulations2== a""endi) 4@ or. the 0voltage dro"1 re4uirements. then %ou (ill need to use an D*+ to "rote$t against earth faults ". for these guidelines &and those of the IEE Wiring Regulations' to #e a""lied !ote that in domesti$ (iring %ou (ill hardl% ever need to use this "ro$edure 2t is nearl% al(a%s a""ro"riate to use 2 B mm $a#le for "o(er $ir$uits and 1 B mm $a#le for lighting 5ou will need to a""l% this "ro$edure if %ou are "lanning long runs of $a#le &e g .1 Outline of the procedure /he #asi$ "ro$edure is to sele$t a $a#le (hose nominal $urrent rating a""ears a""ro"riate for the load it (ill have to $arr% 8 or the over$urrent devi$e fitted.

#ut (e (ould have to #e sure that it (ould always #e lo(er. (e (ould . and this is not reall% a safe assum"tion to ma3e For e)am"le. #ut this is unusual in domesti$ installations /here (ill #e some $ases (here %our installation does not $onform to an% of the installation methods sho(n in ta#le . if ne$essar% /he nominal ratings in ta#le . if (e assume that the am#ient tem"erature is li3el% to get as high as 40 degrees. or on the to" of the insulation 2n these $ir$umstan$es the 2== re$ommends that (e use the same figure as for $a#le en$losed in a (all 7a3e a note of the $urrent $arr%ing $a"a$it% of the $a#le %ou have sele$ted ". (hi$h (ill usuall% #e mar3ed on it &or as3 the manufa$turer' *al$ulate the $urrent #% dividing the "o(er in (atts #% the su""l% voltage !o( $hoose an 7*B (hose $urrent rating is a $lose as "ossi#le a#ove the $al$ulated figure /his is the nominal $urrent ". other(ise it (ill tri" immediatel% 2f (e don1t 3no( the $urrent re4uired. (e $al$ulate it from the a""lian$e "o(er.1.2 Step 2( pic1 a ca/le size that appears appropriate for the nominal current /o do this.1. and in $onta$t (ith thermal insulation on the other /his is often the $ase in loft (iring.1 assume that the am#ient tem"erature is no more than . running through am"le holes. for "ur"oses of $a#le sele$tion 9ne $ase that re4uires s"e$ial mention is that of $a#les that are $li""ed or free on one side. 0en$losed in a (all1 refers to a $a#le that is $on$ealed in "laster(or3. some "arts of a #uilding ma% #e (armer than this Lofts. $ould "ro#a#l% #e $lassed as 0free1 &#ut see dis$ussion of thermal insulation #elo(' 0Free1 also a""lies to $a#les that are laid on metal $a#le tra%s. and "artl% in "laster(or3 2n su$h a $ase %ou (ould #e (ell advised to assume that it (ill all #e in "laster(or3." Step "( correct for am/ient temperature Faving "i$3ed the $a#le siEe.higher than the $urrent re4uired #% the a""lian$e&s' $onne$ted.$a#le that is "assed across a line of 6oists. sho(er rooms and small 3it$hens ma% (ell #e affe$ted< in this $ase (e should $orre$t the $urrent $arr%ing $a"a$it% determined in ste" 2 #% multi"l%ing #% the a""ro"riate figure from ta#le . "artl% along 6oists. refer to ta#le .1 2n this ta#le. lighting $a#les (ill often #e run "artl% free.0 degrees. (orst $ase For e)am"le. either dire$tl% or in a "rote$tive $onduit 0=n$losed in $onduit1 means full% en$losed in $onduit or trun3ing that is fastened to the surfa$e of a (all or $eiling 0*li""ed to a surfa$e1 means fastened at intervals to a flat surfa$e su$h as #ri$3(or3 or 6oists 0Free1 means $om"letel% surrounded #% air .0 desgrees $el$ius >hile this is usuall% true in the :K.1 2n these $ir$umstan$es %ou should usuall% "i$3 the $losest.2 !ote that the IEE Wiring Regulationsus to over8rate the $a#le if the am#ient tem"erature is #elo( . #e$ause $a#les (ill run along 6oists (hi$h are in $onta$t (ith insulation. (e then $orre$t its rating for am#ient tem"erature.

1. (e have alread% dealt (ith this at ste" 2.. (ith no other $a#les near#% 2f there are $a#les near#%. even for a short length.1 assume that ea$h $a#le (ill #e run se"aratel%.1. it is 4uite signifi$ant ". this could #e ta3en as #eing $om"letel% en$losed in insulating material 2n this $ase it might #e ne$essar% to a""l% a suita#le $orre$tion from ta#le ..1. Step . sho(s the figures #% (hi$h to multi"l% for various grou"ing methods !ote that (hen $a#les are grou"ed side8#%8side and not tou$hing.( chec1 the corrected rating 2f the $urrent rating after a""l%ing $orre$tions is still higher than the nominal $urrent from ste" 1.' Step '( correct for ca/le grouping /he nominal $urrents in ta#le . Step .) Step )( correct for thermal enclosure 2f a $a#le is in $onta$t on one side (ith thermal insulation.4 ". then this has a signifi$ant im"a$t on its a#ilit% to $ondu$t a(a% heat.( calcuate the voltage drop /he IEE Wiring Regulationsthe voltage dro" #et(een the 0origin1 of the installation and the a""lian$e to #e no more than 4H >ith a 2. the redu$tion in $urrent rating is 4uite small >hen the% are #undled together. #% $hoosing a lo(er nominal $urrent 2f a $a#le is completely en$losed #% an insulating material. ".0 volt mains s%stem.. #ut it1s not Eero /herefore 9hm1s la( tells us that there (ill some voltage a$ross the length of the $a#le. then the% (ill tend to heat ea$h other u".4 !ote that if a $a#le "asses through a tight hole in a (all or a 6oist. and then voltage must #e su#tra$ted from the su""l% voltage to get the a""lian$e voltage /hings are $om"li$ated #% the fa$t that .1. then (e have satisfied the 0$urrent $arr%ing $a"a$it%1 "art of the Regulations >e then "ro$eed to ste" C 2f not. that1s the same as a voltage dro" of 9 2G >e (ould normall% ta3e the 0origin1 as the main distri#ution #oard in a domesti$ installation /here is a voltage dro" #e$ause the $a#le $ondu$tors have some resistan$e< it1s small. and (e must redu$e the $urrent rating a$$ordingl% /he a""ro"riate multi"lier $an #e found from ta#le . "i$3 the ne)t largest siEe of $a#le and tr% again from ste" . so (e must redu$e the $urrent rating a$$ordingl% /a#le .multi"l% the $al$ulated $urrent $a"a$it% #% 0 8C ".

C' /he dis$onne$tion time is $he$3ed #% finding the $urrent that (ill tri" the devi$e in the re4uired time &0 4 or B se$onds'. and determining (hether the $urrent flo( in an earth fault (ill rea$h this level /his re4uires 3no(ledge of the earth loo" resistan$e . the sho$3 voltage must #e less than B0G. so %ou (ill need to get the information from the su""l% $om"an%. et$' $ir$uit.2 Step 5( chec1 the disconnection time and*or shoc1 voltage 2f %our $ir$uit is "rote$ted #% an earth8fault devi$e &D*+'.B !ote that it is not the nominal current that (e use to (or3 out the voltage dro"< it is the $urrent that (e e)"e$t to #e flo(ing in normal $onditions /he voltage dro" re4uirements of the IEE Wiring Regulationsto ensure "ro"er o"eration of a""lian$es. (e multi"l% the applicance current #% the $a#le resistan$e /o get the $a#le resistan$e (e multi"l% the length of the $a#le #% the figure sho(n in ta#le . not for ele$tri$al safet% ".1. or use the (orst8$ase figures in ta#le .art of the earth loo" is outside the "remises. its resistan$e (ill in$rease. "i$3 the ne)t highest siEe and go #a$3 to ste" C ". or 6ust one $ir$uit /he dis$onne$tion time de"ends on the $ir$uit that the $a#le is to su""l% 2f it is a 0high ris31 &#athroom. then the $a#le siEe is 9K 9ther(ise.0 Step 0( chec1 the voltage drop 2f the voltage dro" $al$ulated in ste" C is less than 9 2 volts. (e normall% use figures for $a#le resistan$e at C0 degrees $el$ius >e don1t have mu$h idea (hat the tem"erature (ill #e in "ra$ti$e. the dis$onne$tion time must #e less than B se$onds /he sho$3 voltage is $al$uated #% multi"l%ing the resistan$e of the earth $ondu$tor over the length of the $a#le #% the $urrent that (ill tri" the "rote$tive devi$e in five se$onds &see ta#le . #e$ause (e "i$3ed a $a#le siEe in ste" 2 that ensured this (as the $ase . or dis$onne$t in 0 4 se$onds 2f it is a 0lo( ris31 &fi)ed a""lian$es. of $ourse.o." -xample Fere is an e)am"le to demonstrate the a#ove "ro$ess . there#% in$reasing the voltage dro" /o ta3e a$$ount of this.11 ". %ou (on1t need to $he$3 this ste" /his is true (hether the D*+ serves the (hole "remises. #ut (e 3no( it (ill #e no higher the C0 degrees.(hen a $a#le (arms u". garden' $ir$uit. to (or3 out the voltage dro". the dis$onne$tion time must al(a%s #e less than 0 4 se$onds 2f it is a 0medium ris31 $ir$uit.

it is 4uite li3el% that the am#ient tem"erature (ill #e greater than . (e $an $hoose the rating of the 7*B at this stage< a loo3 at the manufa$turer1s $atalogue tells me that there is a t%"e81 7*B (ith e)a$tl% that rating &other(ise 2 (ould have to "i$3 the nearest higher one'. (hi$h loo3s 9K !o( for the $orre$tion fa$tors First. so 21ll use that as the #asi$ figure ta#le . 2 need to 3no( (hat $urrent the sho(er (ill re4uire 2t1s A 9 3>.in$e this a""lian$e (ill have its o(n 7*B. ho(ever.2 (ant to install an ele$tri$ sho(er in m% #athroom -$$ording to the manufa$turer it re4uires A 9 3> &3ilo(atts' /he total length of $a#le run to the main distri#ution #oard (ill #e 1B metres.in$e a su#stantial "art of the $a#le (ill #e #uried in "laster.2 tells me that 2 need to multi"l% m% $a#le . 2 (ill "la% safe and use the figures for $a#les that are 0en$losed in a (all1 from this ta#le 2 see that a A mm $a#le has a rating of . (hi$h is A900 (atts.0 am"s .0 am"s is the nominal $urrent of the s%stem ( !o( 2 refer to ta#le . of (hi$h the last 2 metres (ill #e #uried in "laster #ehind the sho(er $u#i$le /he rest of the run (ill #e $li""ed to 6oists under the floor /he sho(er (ill have its o(n 7*B fitted in the distri#ution #oard >hat siEe $a#le do 2 needI First.1 to find a #asi$ $a#le siEe . so .0 degrees for at least "art of the $a#le.2 am"s in this $onfiguration. as it is #ehind a sho(er $u#i$le 2t1s unli3el% to #e a#ove 40 degrees. and sin$e this gives (hi$h is .

u""ose for a moment that this (eren1t the $ase.0 am"s gives 1 98 volts.2 am"s. so the $a#le 21ve sele$ted is not going to #e u" to the 6o# 2 don1t need to a""l% the rest of the $orre$tion fa$tors.o in "rin$i"le 2 don1t need to $he$3 the dis$onne$tion time in the event of an earth fault Fo(ever. so for 1Cm this is 0 1. so no "ro#lem there !o( 2 need to $he$3 the voltage dro" From ta#le .B' is 0 00CC ohmsJmetre. K 0 8' ohms.7*B sele$ted has &see ta#le . ohms -s (e are assuming the e)ternal "art of the earth loo" is 0 8 ohms. or 24C am"s /he . (hi$h is (ell (ithin the 9 2 volts allo(ed .0.o in the end. 2 settle on a 10 mm $a#le -s this $a#le serves a sho(er.o 2 (ill "i$3 a $a#le one siEe #igger /his is 10 mm .o 21ve hit a "ro#lem alread%: the nominal $urrent (as . (hi$h is 0 0AA ohms 7ulti"l%ing this #% the a""lian$e $urrent of . $orre$ted $urrent rating of the $a#ling is . and a""l%ing the "revious $orre$tion for tem"erature &0 8C' gives a $orre$ted rating of 40 . (hi$h (ould ma3e things 4uite diffi$ult' . the total earth loo" resistan$e is &0 1. "rovided 2 3ee" the ne( $a#le a(a% from other $a#les in the area 2 don1t need to $orre$t for thermal insulation.0 am"s.0 m. let1s do it an%(a%.D*+ for earth fault "rote$tion . (e (ill have to use a .o the final. (hi$h gives me an effe$tive $a#le $a"a$it% of 0 8C ) .0J0 9.A' (ill tri" in 0 4 se$onds (ith a $urrent of 120 am"s . #e$ause there isn1t an% in the vi$init% of the $a#le &2f 2 (as running the $a#le in a loft 2 might have to. and the $a#le (ould #e $li""ed to a surfa$e for its (hole run /a3ing the #asi$ $urrent $arr%ing $a"a$it% of a A mm $a#le as 4A am"s. (hi$h has a rating of 4.rating #% 0 8C to $om"ensate for this. even (ithout the D*+ !o( a drum of 10 mm $a#le is li3el% to #e 4uite e)"ensive 2t1s also going to #e ver% heav% and diffi$ult to manage 2 (ould far rather do this 6o# (ith A mm $a#le /he reason that 2 $an1t do this is #e$ause the $a#le is #uried in "laster 8 for a short run 8 (hi$h redu$es the nominal rating of a A mm $a#le from 4A am"s to . (hi$h is 2C 84 am"s .2 am"s . so the total resistan$e is 0 0044 L 1B ohms. or 0 9. am"s (hen en$losed in a (all -""l%ing the $orre$tion for am#ient tem"erature &0 8C' gives an ad6usted figure of . for the "ra$ti$e /he $a#le is 1Cm long /he $om#ined resistan$e of the earth and live $ondu$tors &ta#le . sin$e the% $an onl% ma3e things (orse . ohms /he earth fault $urrent is therefore 2.C 41 am"s.o the dis$onne$tion time (ould #e ade4uate. am"s.C 41 am"s. (hi$h is (ell a#ove the . (hi$h is fine 2 don1t need to $orre$t for $a#le grou"ing.0 am" nominal $urrent.B 2 see that the resistan$e "er metre of this $a#le is 0 0044 ohms 2 have 1B metres to run.

12 "resents a sim"lified ta#le for determining (hether a sele$ted $a#le t%"e and length meets the regulations for voltage dro". and (e (ere not using an D*+. (e (ould need to $he$3 that the B8se$ond dis$onne$tion time re4uirement (as met From the ta#le (e find that the length limit in this $ase is 1. again mu$h longer than the $a#le run re4uired . so our 1C m $a#le is (ell (ithin that limit 2f the $a#le (as serving a $oo3er. if the $onstru$tion allo(s 2f the sho(er $u#i$le a#uts a $u"#oard.@ 2 (ould "ro#a#l% have to install the 6un$tion #o) in su$h a (a% that it (as a$$essi#le for ins"e$tion. for e)am"le. to $om"l% (ith ?2== B1. and the terminals of the sho(er are large enough to a$$omodate the dou#le $a#le Fo(ever. for e)am"le.B m. 2 $ould 4uite legitimatel% ?2== B2. the less li3el% it is to meet these re4uirements Before %ou $an ma3e use of this ta#le. 2 $ould do this easil% 2 $ould $li" the $a#le to the $u"#oard (all u" to the "oint (here it $ross the (all into the sho(er 2 $ould also install it in trun3ing in the $u"#oard. or B8se$ond dis$onne$tion. #e$ause the rating for the $a#le in this mode of installation is 6ust high enough to allo( it -lternativel%. (e onl% need to $he$3 the ta#le for the voltage dro" re4uirements /he ta#le sho(s that for a . and save mone% and effort 9ne solution might #e to run the $a#le u" the other side of the (all from the sho(er. and earth8fault "rote$tion (ould #e "rovided (ith an D*+ 2n that $ase.am"s /his is (ell a#ove the nominal $urrent. 42 volts.802@ run two A mm $a#les in "arallel from the 6un$tion #o) to the sho(er /his is onl% legitimate if the t(o runs are the same length &the% (ill #e in this $ase'.' . so no "ro#lem there either . 2 $ould run most of the $a#le as A mm . (hi$h $ould #e tri$3% if it (as under a tiled floor ".o if (e $an avoid running the $a#le in the "laster #ehind the sho(er $u#i$le (e $ould use A mm $a#le. (hi$h is . to a 6un$tion #o) &it (ould have to #e a 40 am"s 6un$tion #o)' 6ust outside the sho(er room some(here From the 6un$tion #o) 2 $ould run the last fe( metres using 10 mm $a#le 2f 2 didn1t (ant to use an% 10 mm $a#le at all.0 am"s. %ou need to de$ide (hether the earth fault limitation (ill de"end on sho$3 voltage. so no "ro#lem there /he voltage dro" (or3s out as 0 00CA ohmsJmetre ) 1B metres ) . (e (ere $onsidering a $a#le for an ele$tri$ sho(er. (hi$h (ould #e neater.sing the simplified ca/le length selection /a#le . 0 48se$ond dis$onne$tion. as dis$ussed on "age >ith this information. metres. %ou $an loo3 at the a""ro"riate $olumns in the ta#le 2n the e)am"le a#ove. and earth fault "rote$tion !ote that the longer a $a#le is.08am" t%"e81 D*+ on a 10 mm $a#le the ma)imum length to satisf% voltage dro" is C.

our$e: IEE Wiring Regulations ta#le 4+2Conducto r si"e #mm $ Current rating #amps$% Enclose Enclose Clipped &ree d in a d in to a wall conduit surface 11 14 18 B 2B .G*8 insulated $a#les of the t%"e normall% used for domesti$ (iring /he% don1t a""l% to armoured $a#le or $a#les (ith non8standard $ondu$tor siEes. 1C 22 . 1A B 2.G*8insulated $o""er $a#les at .lease note that all these ta#les related to .8 B2 1B 19 B 2C .1( !ominal $urrent8$arr%ing $a"a$it% of general8"ur"ose.0 40 B1 C0 1 1B 2B 4 A 10 . or single8$ore $a#les &e)$e"t (here indi$ated' a/le <. .0 degrees $el$ius .0 .'.A 4A A. t(o8$ore. 1. . +esign ta/les /his a""endi) "resents sim"lified design ta#les for use in "lanning domesti$ ele$tri$al installations /hese ta#les are referred to in various "arts of the #oo3 .2 4.

1 00 0 94 0 8C 0 C9 0 C1 a/le <.a/le <. 0 90 *li""ed side8#%8side. 0 AB 0 CB 0 90 n)0 A0 0 C.G* $a#les for am#ient tem"eratures different from ."( *orre$tion of $urrent $arr%ing $a"a$it% for grou"ing of $a#les (hen #un$hed and $li""ed.0 degrees $el$ius . tou$hing 0 80 0 8B ()+ 0 C0 0 C9 0 90 ().our$e: IEE Wiring Regulations ta#le 4*1 !mbient temperature #deg' C$ Correction factor 2B . or $li""ed side8#%8side .0 .B 40 4B B0 1 0. not tou$hing 0 94 .2( *orre$tion of $urrent $arr%ing $a"a$it% of general "ur"ose .our$e: IEE Wiring Regulations ta#le 4B1 ethod of grouping Correction factor with ( cables ()* *li""ed in a #un$h *li""ed side8#%8side.

ength in insulation #mm$ Correction factor B0 100 200 400 more than 400 0 89 0 81 0 A8 0 BB 0 B0 a/le <.)( Desistan$e "er metre of t(o8$ore $a#le. and the earth alone &for sho$3 voltage $al$ulations' .our$e: IEE Wiring Regulations ta#le B2. 0 020 0 01.'( *orre$tion of $urrent $arr%ing $a"a$it% for $om"lete en$losure in thermal insulation . 0 029 0 018 0 011 0 00CA 0 0044 . 0 00CC 0 022 0 01B 0 01B 0 01B 0 0090 0 00BB 1J1 1 BJ1 B 2 BJ1 B 4J1 B AJ2 B 10J4 0 04. the "o(er and earth $ores &for dis$onne$tion time $al$ulations'. at C0 degress $el$ius Figures are given for the t(o "o(er $ores &for voltage dro" and short8$ir$uit $urrent $al$ulations'. 0 029 0 02.a/le <.our$e: IEE Wiring Regulations ta#le 4+2B Conductor si"e #power/ear th$ #mm $ Resistance of both power conductors #ohms/met re$ Resistance Resistance of of power and earth conductor earth alone conductor #ohms/metr #ohms/met e$ re$ 0 04.

0 . "rodu$t information B% (orst8$ase is meant the smallest $urrent that (ill tri" 9BH of devi$es Rating #amps$ 0S1+21 fuse #amps$ 22 nJa 1.2 40 4B a/le <.0 100 nJa 1A0 200 nJa B A 20 .( 0(orst $ase1 $urrents that (ill $ause a "rote$tive devi$e to tri" in 0 4 se$onds .2 40 4B .a/le <.our$e: 7=7 Ltd .0 . "rodu$t information B% (orst8$ase is meant the smallest $urrent that (ill tri" 9BH of devi$es !ote that the 7*B figures are identi$al to those for 0 4 se$ond tri""ing Rating #amps$ 0S1+21 fuse #amps$ 14 nJa 82 12B nJa nJa 240 3ype-1 C0 #amps$ 20 24 80 120 128 1A0 nJa 3ype-0 C0 #amps$ nJa .B 200 nJa nJa 400 3ype-1 C0 #amps$ 20 24 80 120 128 1A0 nJa 3ype-0 C0 #amps$ nJa ..our$e: 7=7 Ltd ..0 100 nJa 1A0 200 nJa B A 20 .( 0(orst $ase1 $urrents that (ill $ause a "rote$tive devi$e to tri" in B se$onds .

oop resistance with 0S1+21 fuse 10 9 nJa nJa . 4.0( 7a)imum earth loo" resistan$es that (ill allo( a "rote$tive devi$e to dis$onne$t in 0 4 se$onds /hese are the $om"lete loo" resistan$es. nJa 1 C8 1 20 nJa nJa 0 A0 . 00 2 40 nJa 1 B0 1 20 nJa .2 40 4B 12 00 10 00 A 00 4 00 . CB . and the full length of $a#le inside the "remise /he figures are derived #% dividing the su""l% voltage #% the $urrent that (ill tri" the "rote$tive devi$e in 0 4 se$onds .our$e: IEE Wiring Regulations ta#le 41B1 Rating #amps$ .a/le <.oop resistance resistance with type-1 with type-0 C0 C0 B A 10 1B 1A 20 .oop .0 . in$luding the su""l% $om"an%1s "art. 00 2 00 1 88 1 B0 nJa nJa 8 00 4 80 nJa .

#e$ause an% $urrent that (ill dis$onne$t an 7*B in B se$onds is enough to dis$onne$t in 0 4 se$onds .a/le <. 00 2 00 1 88 1 B0 nJa nJa 8 00 4 80 nJa .our$e: IEE Wiring Regulations ta#le 41B1 Rating #amps$ . 00 2 40 nJa 1 B0 1 20 nJa . CB .oop resistance with 0S1+21 fuse 1C 1 nJa nJa B 22 nJa 2 9.0 .oop .5( 7a)imum earth loo" resistan$es that (ill allo( a "rote$tive devi$e to dis$onne$t in B se$onds !ote that the figure for 7*Bs are identi$al to those in the ta#le a#ove.2 40 4B 12 00 10 00 A 00 4 00 .oop resistance resistance with type-1 with type-0 C0 C0 B A 10 1B 1A 20 . 1 92 nJa nJa 1 00 .

9 0 .2 40 4B 2 B0 2 09 1 2B 0 8. 0 41 0 .1 0 2B nJa . and allo( a B se$ond dis$onne$tion time rather than 0 4 se$onds /hese figures assume that the tri" $urrent of the "rote$tive devi$e limits the loo" $urrent.1 nJa nJa 1 AC 1 00 nJa 0 A.a/le <. rather than the total loo" resistan$e .0 .our$e: IEE Wiring Regulations ta#le 41* Rating #amps$ Conductor reistance with 0S1+21 fuse .16( 7a)imum earth $ondu$tor resistan$es that (ill allo( the sho$3 voltage to #e 3e"t #elo( B0 volts. 0 C8 0 A. 0 B0 nJa 0 . BC nJa nJa 1 09 nJa 0 A1 0 40 nJa nJa 0 21 Conductor Conductor resistance resistance with type-1 with type-0 C0 C0 B A 10 1B 1A 20 .

#ut man% ne( develo"ments use /!8*8. . su""l%.B ohms /!8*8.a/le <.u""lier "rovides a $om#ined earthJneutral $onne$tion 0 .ome rural areas use // su""lies 2f %ou don1t 3no( (hat t%"e of su""l% %ou have. . don1t guess: as3 %our su""l% $om"an% !ote that // su""lies have a mu$h higher earth loo" resistan$e than the others eaning Supply type code Supplier4s earth loop resistance 0 8 ohms /!8.u""lier "rovides no 20 ohms earth< %ou have an earth s"i3e near %our "remises . to #e used for a""ro)imate $al$ulations 7ost "remises have a /!8.11( t%"i$al 0(orst $ase1 values of the su""lier1s "art of the earth loo" resistan$e. // .u""lier "rovides a se"arate earth $onne$tion .

1.C4 1C0 21B 12A 99 A. DeM0 .. 1C1 1. the $orre$t ma)imum length to use (ill #e the lo(er of the voltage dro" and sho$3 voltage figures 2n 0high ris31 areas it is the lo(er of the voltage dro" and 0 48se$ond dis$onne$tion time figures 2f an D*+ is used.A1 4B 1A2 CA 9B BC 4B .12( $a#le length sele$tion guide /his ta#le sho(s the ma)imum a$$e"ta#le lengths of $a#le that (ill satisf% voltage dro". 98 14B 2..7*B8 BB 1 107*B81 107*B8B 1B7*B8B 1BB.C .A.1 C8 14B C2 B2 A9 90 AB 8C ..7*B8 . onl% the voltage dro" figure needs to #e $he$3ed cable/circuit aximum length to meet criterion #metres$% Golt dro" .A1 207*B81 207*B8B 20.. 1A0 204 11B 88 B. DeM0 .9 8. C2 B2 . 22 22 1C 1C 1C 2C 2C 2C . 108 1A0 2B2 .. 4A . and dis$onne$tion time re4uirements !ote that dis$onne$tion times are ta#ulated for t(o values of e)ternal earth loo" resistan$e< %ou (ill need to de$ide (hi$h is a""ro"riate at %our "remises 2n general.0.A1 BB.ho$3 voltage 0 4 se$ dis$onne$t.7*B8 .B 1C0 21B 12A 99 A. DeM0 8 0 4 se$ dis$onne$t. sho$3 voltage. 41 42 .0 49 C2 111 1..18 18A 14C 94 1A0 8C AC 8B 110 8B 10C A.18 18A 14C 94 A8 8C AC 4C 110 8B B9 .1.48 2B2 . 2.0.B .1. 1C1 1.A1 22 22 1B 1B AA A.9 2. DeM0 8 B se$ dis$onne$t.1 C8 B.A1 207*B81 207*B8B 20B.C B A.B 1 mm2 1 mm2 1 mm2 1 mm2 1 mm2 1 mm2 1 mm2 1 B mm2 1 B mm2 1 B mm2 1 B mm2 1 B mm2 1 B mm2 1 B mm2 1 B mm2 1 B mm2 1 B mm2 2 B mm2 2 B mm2 2 B mm2 BB.B B se$ dis$onne$t.a/le <. . . AC 44 C2 42 .1.C .7*B8 BB B A. 41 22B 1A0 204 11B 88 B.C 1 107*B81 107*B8B 1B7*B8B 1BB.1 90 AB .1.