Islam

:
History, values and culture

Shawqi Kassis, Ph.D.

We are all Muslims; some have the Gospels, others have the Quran
A Patriarch from Syria

1. Which of the following is a true statement:

A. All Arabs are Muslims
C. Iran is an Arab country

B. All Muslims are Arabs
D. None of the above

1. Which of the following is a true statement:

A. All Arabs are Muslims
C. Iran is an Arab country

B. All Muslims are Arabs
D. None of the above

Islamabad D. DC .2. Jerusalem B. Mecca C. Washington. During prayer a Muslim should face: A.

Jerusalem B.2. During prayer a Muslim should face: A. DC . Islamabad D. Mecca C. Washington.

distribution of educational material Qs & As 5 min 5 min 20 min . and Arab Americans Suggested reading.PRESENTATION OUTLINE • • • Introductory Remarks Historical overview Islam as a monotheistic religion       the Quran God or Allah pillars and values social code and reforms relation with other faiths the Sunni and Shiha sects 10 min 30 min • • • • Science and civilization 10 min Islam today.

Alamin (the faithful) Titles: The prophet. the messenger (Alrasul) Tribe: Quraiysh Holy Book: The Quran. derived from „read‟ . Arabia Descendant of Abraham Nicknames: Almustapha (the chosen).Islam • • • • • • • Founder: Muhammad Ibn (son of) Adballah Born: 571 AD in Mecca.

Abraham Ismail Adnan Quraiysh Qussaiy Abdmanaf Abdshams Hashem Adbelmuttalib (Amneh+) Abdallah Abutalib Hamzeh Alabbas Abulahab Alhareth Muhammad Ummayah Dynasty (661-750) Ali Abbbassides Dynasty (750-1258) .

Historical Overview .

The Levant The fertile Crescent Mesopotamia EGYPT • Medinah •Mecca Dynasties of the South .

few urbanized areas Urban centers. 7th Century • The Arabian Peninsula         The source of Arabs and the Semitic race Mostly desert. Arabs of the North and Arabs of the South Dynasties in the south Religions – Christianity (inclusive). 854 B.C.Middle East. Mecca Mainly tribal society First mention of „Arabs‟. Judaism (exclusive). 3rd century  A foreign occupying power  Sectarian conflicts with the locals . polytheism • The Sassanid or Persian Empire  Ailing • The Byzantine or Eastern Roman Empire  Christianity is the state religion.

Byzantine Empire * Persian Empire • An Arabian dynasty * An Arabian dynasty .

Islam. brings peace to war-torn Arabia Muhammad dies in Almadinah.  single-handedly. Unmarked grave (his will) • 629 • 632 . 610-632 • 571 • 610 • 622 Muhammad born in Mecca. “Hijra”or Escape. First revelation in the Harraa cave (27 Ramadan).  Year 1 in the Islamic calendar  „Missionaries‟ sent all over Arabia – building peaceful coalition Muhammad conquers Mecca peacefully (NO REVENGE)  destroys idols in Alqaaba. Muhammad and followers escape prosecution and go to Almadinah (Yathrib).

Islam by the death of Mohammed 632 .

defense. Iraq.656-661 • Power struggle escalated to armed conflict • Emergence of political parties • End of democracy.632-661: the Four Elected Successors (Caliphs) Abu-Bakr . Wise leader. crisis manager Omar Ibn Elkhattab . Engraved currency. Persia  Damascus (9 / 635) and Jerusalem (5 / 638) surrender peacefully – Omar‟s pledge to the Jerusalemites • A modern state: Treasury.634-644 • A first-rate statesman.644-656 • Collected and compiled the Quran • Emergence of power struggle Ali Bin Abitalib . Ummayah Dynasty in Damascus. modest and just. Muawyia (661-680) . communication. • Conquered the Levant. Honest. Othman bin Affan .632-634 • The first elected official. Egypt.

Islam at 644. the year Omar died .

Asia. much of C. Tariq Bin Ziyad • Expansion into W. Europe blocked in France by Charles Martial. 661-750 • Empire center and capital move to Damascus • Expansion: All N.The Ummayah Dynasty. W. Iraq (10 Nov. the wall of China  711: Conquer of Spain and Portugal. but the Caliphs brutally liquidate all rivals  Karbalaa in S. Africa (Atlantic). arts. agriculture. 732 • Power Struggle continues. and science . 680) and the emerge of the Shiha • Addelmalek builds Al-Aqsa Mosque and the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem (691) • Massive translation of Greek and Indian writings • Arabization of the empire • Bloom of architecture. Europe.

732. 100 Yrs after Mohammed .

The Abbassides Dynasty. public baths. public libraries and hospitals everywhere • Other dynasties in Egypt. and parts of the Levant. • A 2nd Ummayah dynasty in Spain. built 762 AD by Almansur (2nd Caliph). learning. 9th century  Qurtoba (Cordova) competes with Baghdad • Cairo. architecture. Spain. 750-1258 • The center of the Empire moves to Iraq and Iran • Baghdad. Baghdad becomes the glamorous center of the world  Science. • With over 2 M. built 968 AD . art. and wealth  Lighted streets.

Islam as Monotheistic Religion .

or peace. related to „salaam‟. an inspired scripture. 4 to >200 verses/chapter (verse = Aiyah) • Confirms most narratives and prophets of the Jewish and Christian faiths  Special place for Virgin Mary. is the first Muslim Islam is also a code for social conduct Quran plus the authentic statements of Muhammad (Hadith) = Shareeha (constitution). as Interpreted by Islamic scholars • Muhammad is the last prophet (33: 40).Islam: • • • • ”Surrender”. father of all prophets. God‟s word inspired to his messenger. Abraham. • 114 Chapters (chapter = Surah). the only female (the Chapter of Mary) • Allah is the word for God used by Christian and Muslim Arabs  God = Allah (Arabic) = Eluhim (Hebrew) = El (Aramaic) • One and only one God. • Gabriel highest ranking angel The Quran: • Islam‟s holy book. no trinity • Arabic as the language of the Quran .

• No hierarchical authority or priesthood 3. "purification" by setting aside a portion (2. Essential practices 1. The declaration of faith: • "There is no deity but God.5%) for the needy 4. Only those who can . • Wealth belong to God and it is held in trust by humans. Prayer: • Five obligatory prayers each day. or. Pilgrimage: • A pilgrimage (Hajj) to Mecca.The 'Five Pillars' of Islam The framework for Muslim life. • A direct link between the worshiper and God. • Zakat. and Muhammad is the messenger of God" 2. Arabia. Zakat: • Obligatory charitable giving. Fasting: • From sunrise to sunset during the holy month of Ramadan 5.

. • Many directives in the authentic statements of Muhammad (Hadiths):  He told his companions as they go home after a battle "We are returning from the lesser jihad [the battle] to the greater jihad. • It is the difficult effort needed to put God's will into practice at every level • The "greater jihad” in the Quran is that of the soul. and jihad is not one of its "pillars” • Jihad in Arabic does not mean "holy war”. of the tongue. "The most excellent jihad is the speaking of truth in the face of a tyrant" (Hadith) – Physical: Combat waged in defense against oppression and transgression. » Profoundly misunderstood in today's world. The "smaller jihad" is that of arms. at home"  Three levels: – Personal: That of the soul – Verbal: Raising one's voice in the name of Allah on behalf of justice. It means "struggle” or “strive”.Jihad and the Conduct of War • Islam is not addicted to war. of morality. etc. of the pen. of faith.

g.17)  “If any one slew a person--unless it be for murder or for spreading mischief in the land--it would be as if he slew the whole people. children and the elderly during war (4:96. 5: 2.Jihad and the Conduct of War • Much of the Koran revealed in the context of an all-out war imposed on early Muslims by the powerful city of Mecca.36. 4: 89). it would be as if he saved the life of the whole people.  While one finds "slay [enemies] wherever you find them!" (e. a true friend" (41:34) • God does not allow harm of civilian. and you shall not expect a reward (4: 25.” (5:32) • You shall feed and protect prisoners of war. 8: 61. and love he between whom and thy self was enmity may then become as though he had always been close unto thee. and requests the protection of women. and if anyone saved a life. the only permissible war in the Quran is one of self-defense. 48: 16.. in almost every case it is followed by something like "if they let you be. and you have to protect prisoners of war . God does not allow you to harm them" (2:90. 5:24) Thus. and offer you peace. 4: 90. you cannot kill unarmed (civilian). 22: 39)  Since good and evil cannot be equal. and do not make war on you. and many passages deal with the conduct of armed struggle. 9: 91. repel thou evil with something that is better.

a church. Do not harm a horse or a camel’ . a synagogue. Do not bring a tree or a plant down.Jihad and the Conduct of War • Warfare is always evil.g. 22: 40) • Muslims may not begin hostilities  "Fight in the cause of Allah those who fight you. Sometimes you have to fight to avoid persecution. 41:34) • „Martyrdom‟: Those killed during fighting or while doing civic duties (martyrs) are promised a place in heaven (several passages. 25:68) • One of my favorite Hadiths  'Do not attack a temple. fight back • Hostilities must be brought to an end as quickly as possible. e.. – Notice: Defensive war. and must cease the minute the enemy sues for peace (2:192-3. the one Mecca inflicted on early Muslims (2: 191. 2: 217).. 6:151.g. 2:154. for Allah loves not transgressors. or to preserve decent values (4: 75.g." (2: 190). it is forbidden and condemned (e. suicide is not allowed. 3:169-172) • However.. e. 17:33. but do not transgress limits.

46. like the Gospels.g. Jesus.. 19:1-98) • Accepts that Mary‟s conception is from God‟s soul. Abraham. 3:45. Zacharia. Isaac. Joseph. Jacob. it says “it is meritorious to forgo revenge in a spirit of charity (5: 45) • Acknowledges Adam. Solomon. Ishmael. tooth for tooth. 4:155-159.Relation with other Faiths • Like the Torah. and others as the “the good prophets of God” • A special place for Jesus and Mary (e. 4:156-158. Noah. the Quran permits retaliation eye for eye. • Rejects the divinity of Jesus (no trinity).g. John the paptist. David. Moses.. 5:17-19) . But. • Jesus was not killed (e.

" who worship the same God (e. and it is to Him we bow. holy places and shrines of all faiths were protected .  "And dispute ye not with the People of the Book.  "There must be no coercion in matters of faith" (2: 256) • Muslims have to respect Jews and Christians. Our Allah and your Allah is one.Relation with other Faiths • Islam did not impose itself by the sword. Do not conquer.. revile or slaughter but to reach out toward others with intelligence and understanding” • The Levant remained mainly Christian for almost 200 Yrs.g. the "People of the Book. except with means better. "O people! We have formed you into nations and tribes so that you may know one another" (49: 13). 'We believe in the revelation which has come down to us and in that which came down to you. 29:46).  No one was forced to convert to Islam • The right of all faiths to warship was respected • Sites of warship. subjugate. 2:62. unless it be with those of them who inflict wrong: but say. convert.” • In one of his last public sermons Muhammad said  “God tells all human beings.

the lost. Charity …. the ill. Help the orphan. 152) – “O mankind. or at least the like thereof" (4: 86). others) what you like for yourself” (Hadith) – when you are greeted with a greeting of peace.  On top of the Zakat. 2: 282.g. – No Arab is privileged over non-Arab but by his or her conduct (Hadith) – All people are equal like the teeth of a comb (Hadith) – “You are not considered faithful in the sight of God unless you like for your brother (read. The noblest of you in the sight of God is the best in conduct” (49:13). .Social Justice • Charity. We’ve created you from a male and a female and have made you nations and tribes that you may know and interact with each other. the elderly  Endless times in the Quran (16 times in Chapters 2-5 alone) • Freedom. Equality.. Charity.  “An hour of justice by a ruler is better than sixty days of hard work” (Hadith)  Endless request for justice in the Quran (e. Justice …. answer with an even better greeting. Integrity. the homeless. the poor. 6.

g. blood..g. improperly butchered animals..Other Values Right and Status of Women • Eliminated many pre-Islamic discriminatory practices • Gave women rights (e. gambling. baby animals. • Women are not required to cover their faces. both were made from a single soul (e. and charging interest • Alcohol drinking was gradually disallowed . 4:1) • Limited the number of wives a man can marry • Treat women with kindness and respect their rights as equal to men The hijab or head scarf • Modest dress apply to women and men equally (Quran and Hadith). inheritance) and equality to men. • The forbidden or „taboo‟ (muharramat) include pork. • Women are required to cover their bodies so that their figure is not revealed.

Science and Civilization .

massive translation of Greek and Indian writings  preserved all literary and scientific works and transmitted them to Europe . and produced a plethora of knowledge and discoveries in all disciplines • Induced the later European renaissance • The Arabic tong. and knowledge-advocate Islamic faith was the culture • Repeated requests in both the Quran and the Hadith for seeking knowledge.• A dedicated quest for knowledge and a burst of scientific innovation in a multi-ethnic and multi-faith society • Lasted for over 8 centuries. and application of rational thinking  Seek knowledge even in China  Seek knowledge from crib to grave  On judgement day. inclusive. and tolerant. the ink of scientists is valued by God higher than the blood of martyrs  The two important disciplines of science are theology and Biology • Initially. was the vehicle. invigorated by the Quran.

• • • • Medicine and Pharmacy Chemistry and Physics Mathmatics Astronomy .

in each of Baghdad. • Alcohol as disinfectant. urine tests. Surgery: • Threads from animals intestine. • Mobile hospitals for emergency. • Patients records and vital signs. • Departments and University Hospitals. • Treatment of cataract. including specialized. • Opium and Hashish for Anesthesia. and removal of kidney and gallbladder stones Autopsy !!! • Students training (Anatomy) • Cause of death .Medicine and Pharmacy • Institutionalized and regulated the practice of Medicine and Pharmacy  The modern concept of clinics  Board exams and license to practice. family history. and Damascus. and outlined possible side effects (PDR‟s!!) Hospitals: • Tens. Regulatory boards (FDA's!!!)  Classification of plants and Algae for their medical use. Qurtoba.

which is much faster than the speed of sound • Ibn-Rushd (Aviros): 13th Century • Philosopher and Physician. • Ibn-Seena (Avisai): 10th Century • The “Qannun”. great clinician and experimentalist • Many books including “Smallpox and Measles” • Ibn-Elhaytham: 10th Century • Multidisciplinary scientist. and Math. Many books • Ibn-Elnafees: • Blood circulation and the role of lungs • Abulkassim Alzahrawi (Abulcasis or Albucasis): 11th Century • One of the greatest surgeons. A good dentist and GP. • Removal of breast cancer. Ophthalmologist • Mechanism of sight. • Described the medical use of over 2700 plants • Light has a finite speed. the medical text book in Europe till 19th Cen. Function of the eye • Over 100 books in Med.Known Physicians • Abu-bakr Elrazzy. • Hemophilia and its hereditary transmission (female to male) . 9th Century • Father of Physicians.

Laws of refraction. fermentation. HCl. • Eluded to the Magnetic properties of some objects . Tartarate • Discovered and prepared in pure form 28 elements (Ibn Elhaytham) • The processes of crystallization. Alcohol. HNO3) and bases (NaOH) • Light travels in straight lines.Chemistry and Physics • Arabic terms and methods of preparation for Alkali. • Preparation of acids (H2SO4. reflection and illusion of light. sublimation. distillation.

 Right  Left. But 1000 • Arithmetic.Mathematics • Arabic numeral and the decimal system of numbers. z) to solve complex arithmetic/geometric problems Trigonometry (Albairuni and Albuzjani). Calculus. y. differential and Integral.  p = 3.141596535898732. English. Some known Mathematicians: • Abu-bakr Alkhawarismi • Thabit Ibn Qarra (9th Century). • Ibn-elhaytham • Albairuni (10th Century) • Albuzjani • Omar Elkhayam (2° & 3° equations) . Roots and powers • Algorithm = Alkhawarismi • • • • The mathematical ZERO Algebra (combining fractions). The Use of (x.

and location of planets and stars • The Asturlab • Earth is spherical and rotates along its axis and around the sun. • Calculated earth circumference (Albairuni) • Calculated the time needed for one rotation around the sun (solar year). and many stars are from Arabic Some known astronomists: • Alkindy (9th Century) • Albattani (9th Century) • Ibn-elhaytham (11th Century) • Thabit Ibn Qarra • Almajreeti .Astronomy • Astrology (myth)  Astronomy (science) • Movement. path. with an error of 2‟ 22” only (Albattani) • Calculated the equinoxes • Current names of most constellations.

like Sunni • However. they place Ali very high as a holy figure.Sunni and Shiha Sunni • 90% of Muslims • Follow the Quran and the Hadeeth as we have them today. • Believe in the Quran and Hadeeth.D. Iraq (55%) and Lebanon (~40%) . and as interpreted by the Sunni scholars Shiha • Came to be as a sect after 680 A. and think „main stream‟ Islam discriminated against him • Today Shiah is mainly in Iran (90%).

Alisraa Walmaaraj • Symbolizes the ascending. in Jerusalem.Important Holidays Al-adhaa (the sacrifice) • Symbolizes Abraham attempt to sacrifice his son Ishmael by God‟s request. • The pilgrimage to Mecca Alfetr • Observed at the end of the holy month of Ramadan (the fasting month) The Islamic New Year • Yr 1.D. of Mohammed's soul to heaven The Birthday of Muhammad Ashuraa day (Shiha only) . • Should sacrifice an animal and give the food to the poor. Islamic calendar = 622 A.

three continents  0.3 Billion Arabs  Indonesia (200 M) > India (180 M) > Pakistan (160 M) > Bangladesh (120 M) > China (80 M) > Egypt (70 M) • There are about 20 M Christian Arabs  Egypt > Syria > Lebanon > Palestine > Iraq • About 7 M Muslims in the USA. 3-4 M are Arabs  Roughly half of the Arab Americans are Christians .3 Billion worldwide.Islam Today • 1.

Ex governor of OR • Spencer Abraham (Lebanon). Sci. current state governor • Donna E. Shalala (Lebanon).. member of the Nat‟l Acad. NASA. the moon mission • Ahmed H. Green Party founder. and 2000 presidential candidate John Sununu (Palestine). White House Ex-Chief of Staff John Sununu JR.. member of the Nat‟l Acad. Microbiology • Majdi Yacub. Biochemistry • Qais Elawqati (Iraq). Secretary of Energy • George Mitchell . Ex dean of the White House press corps. consumer advocate.Arab Americans • Farouq Elbaz (Egypt). • Saleh Wakeel (Iraq). Zewail (Egypt) Winner of the 1999 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Tech. • Edward Attiyeh (Syria). Ex secretary of HHS • Helen Thomas. first open heart surgery • Michael Debakee (Lebanon).. Cal. Sci. chief cardiologist of the White House • • • • Ralph Nader (Lebanon).

Hollywood movie director (director of the „Halloween‟ series) • Tom Shadyac (Lebanon). president and CEO of Ford Motor Co • Ray Irani CEO of Occidental Petroleum (Exxon Mobil) Co • The Hyatt. US Chess Champion • Jacques Nasser. a Hollywood star • Yasser Seirawan (Syria). an astronaut who died aboard the space shuttle Challenger • Candy Lightner. and Farah enterprises • Christina McAuliffe. Hollywood movie director • Salma Hayic (Lebanon).Arab Americans • Casey Kasem and Don Bustany (Lebanon) creators of radio's American Top 40 • Mustapha Elaqqad (Syria). founder of MADD . Hagar.

ed. 1994 • Science in Medieval Islam. An Empire of Faith”. American Trust Publications. 1998 • “The Meaning of the Holy Quran”.Suggested Reading • “History of the Arabs”. Ali. Marcel A. John L Esposito. eds.. and Philip Saliba. PBS Video. NYAS. 1999 • “Islam: The Straight Path”. 1997 • “Lives of the Prophets”. Leila Azzam. 2000 . 1997 • Arab American Encyclopedia. 1998 • “Jihad: A Commitment to Universal Peace”. Philip Hitti • “The Arab People”. Karen Armstrong. 1988 • “The Oxford History of Islam”. Boisard.. Anan Ameri. and Dawn Ramey. eds. Howard R Turner. Karen Armstrong. George Kindy. 2001 • “Islam: A Short History”. ed. Albert Hourany • “Islam. John L Esposito. Abdullah Yusif. 2000 • “Muhammad”. 1995 • “From Difference to Equas”.

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