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Chal2ter VITI: Catalogue d'Oiseaux

Catalogue d'Oiseaux(1956-1958)

The year 1958bringsthe epicwork for solo piano,Catalogued'Oiseaux,the complete thirteen of which lastsjust underthreehours.This seminal performance work comprises in design': (arch-shaped) set seven pieces, volumes,forming a symmetrical

Book I I Le ChocarddesAlpes(alpinechough) H Le Loriot (goldenoriole) IH Le Merle Bleu (bluerock thrush) Book 2 IV Le TraquetStapazin (black-eared wheatear) Book 3 V La ChouetteHulotte (tawny owl) VI L'Alouette Lulu (wood lark)
Book 4 VU La Rousserolle Effarvatte (reed warbler)

Book 5 (short-toedlark) VHI L'Alouette Calandrelle IX La Bouscarle(Cetti's warbler) Book 6 X Le Merle de Roche(rock thrush)
Book 7 M La Buse Variable (buzzard) XH Le Traquet Rieur (black wheatear) XIII Le Courlis Cendr6 (curlew)

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Thecentral, to thelongest thesongs of the pivotalBook4 is devoted piece whichdepicts domain. its Indeed, but Books 2 6 and surrounding and also portray one reedwarbler
is its immediate books bird The the envirorunent. structure and palindromic of principal thus: 3-1-2-1-2-1-3.In termsof the numberof piecesin eachbook, the structureis fascinated indeed, his Messiaen throughout was with mirrored music, palindromic; for rhythms, example. arrangements - nonretrogradable

from a specific habitatand songsters Eachpiecedepictsa principalbird, surrounding included description is France. A as a prefaceto everypiece,while a of region verbal it, is birds descriptionof the principalbird's enviromnent, the with associated other and habitat However, the are not the only nonof alsogiven. manyartistic reconstructions includesfrequentsoundbirdsongmaterialto be utilised throughoutthe work. Messiaen into the descriptions all written are wWch and elaborate colour associations programmatic suchasthe earlier score;in addition,manyof his previouscompositional procedures, techniques, are also andthe experimental modesof limited transposition quasi-serial Catalogue d'Oiseaux is and techniques, materials of numerous a compendium employed. into threechronological Shu-WenSundividestheseaspects birdsong.In his dissertation, Sun's Mowing is both derived from Philips" The and categorisation categories. approaches:

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(1) 'Technique'Mateda]2 a) modesof limited transposition b) GreekandI-Endu rhythm from harmonies earlyperiod c) characteristic d) useof TurangalUa motives

(2) 'Experimental Period' Material de Valeurs. in Mode (as dynamice treatment: a) quasi-serial modesof pitch, rhythmand .) b) twelve-tonemodes(appearing in anysequence mutation) or p.;,

(3) Birdsong (77 differentsongsters) a) varied species b) usingfull gamutof complexsonoritiesavailable on the pianoforte textures c) hybrid,polyphonicand manyone-voice-dominant

(4) Innovations (not belonging to Messiaen's chordal-complexes a) useof modes) humanperceptions b) attemptsto depictbird habitats,animals, useof pedalmarkings c) experimental

both inferior d) hybridtextures effects andsuperior resonance using


dominant) (one homophony homorhythm. voice or part and e) f) quasi-glissando effects g) polyphonyon piano

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It is important thatJohnson's to understand classifications andinsightremain authoritative


Catalogue dDiseaux, issue he for to the an which study of comprehensive sources and devotesan entirechapter.However,it is, asbefore,imperative to build on thesepast discovcries.

in hassubdivided Messiaen's Further,Johnson useof rhythmandpitch non-birdsong five into features these within the abovenew are accommodated groups: material catego6sation.

It is essential often to include theuseof 'invented'Greek although andHindurhythms, Sun's) (an detect. hard Additionally, of to theyare theabove categorisation adaptation
Messiaen harmonies. In Messiaenic the traditional employs manypieces, mentions traditionaltriadic chordsalongwith one or two addedchromaticinflections.The opening Vh) E (with for F# Te Loriot', and two chordsof an addedminor are major example, by F# Calandrelle' VAlouette Similarly, hybrid textures set up the are of opening major. from dominant) homophonic by (lower followed cries two-voiced voice major chordsand birdsong. juxtaposes with the short-toedlark. Messiaen material cleverly non-birdsong Lulu L'Alouette beginning 'la The 'modal' chordalcomplexes the of and end of nuit', at bird. A lark, insistently interspersed the the principal the wood callsof repeated with are but Catalogue, in found birdsong is polyphonic not on of non-birdsong superimposition birdsong Non-birdsong birds between and materialremain are numerous. counterpoints

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dynamic, in rhythm, distinctfromoneanother texturally and pitchandintervallic content,


with the varyinguseof tempi.

It is not only Messiaen's subdivision of the work into books that givesit a graspable is form: individual by The the carefully composer. and each piece organised symmetry form of mostpiecesincludeseithera refrain,which alternates with other material,or a form is dictated by In the the unfoldingof night and cases, palindromicstructure. many Often,like a painter, disregards day: onceagain,Messiaen traditionalformal organisation. itself in the symbolism imagerymanifests the composer's of coloursandthe synaesthetic in four fact birds in day. Owing that the time to the o'clock the often singat change of frequentlydepictsnight time. morning,it is inevitablethat Messiaen

'As to the form, thereis nothingleft of the traditional.Exceptinga reminderof the Greek triad (Strophe,Antistrophe,Epode)with interpolatedcouplets,in the "ChocarddesAlpes!, by harmonised and exceptingthe singingphrase colouredchordsof mode3 which unfolds slowly asthe river, in the'Sascarie,....15 Ta Rousserolle Wherean entireday is depicted,the form is more easilydeterrnined: depicts,in a Circadianfashionakin to ReveildesOiseaur,a Effarvatte', for example,

half day, in from hours the a of to three piece midnight a.m. next periodof twenty-seven defined by different has its distinct form, hour. However, urunistakably own everypiece an from bar in length blocksof material, to several blocksof material. These one whichrange

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in highly habitat, that they are portray specific subjects natural a pages, programmatic -a
impression birdsongor songs,an animalor a subjective of nature.

Harmonyis extremelyusefulin seeking to represent the timbre of a bird vocalisation. Harmonyalsocancreatea numberof different 'illusions'.-For example, the tawny owl's has Chouette Hulotte') (in Ta and not only meticulouslymarkedchordalcomplexities cry but diminuendo 'resonance alsogives,as chords, using contractee'-type normally a sudden C-A by PeterEll (1995), an illusion of a glissando described third the and minor with by fluid In Other runs. created chromaticism. effectsare quasi-glissando accompanying by Effarvatte' (reedwarbler),tlis principalbird is depicted,on oneoccasion, 'Rousserolle black hemidemisemiquavers interchange notes. slurred and white a rapid group of which

four bothlistener being imagine Of course, timesas three the or andperformer speed must
'La harp lei VIII/I is like the the that composer as advises, quick: glissando of a Effarvatte', p331. RousseroHe

There are several occurrences of non-birdsong material that are influenced by the

(or integration Ta Chouette The Hulotte' 'experimental an openingof period'. embodies in otherwords, eachnote is allocateda specific 'mode') of pitch, durationanddynamics: dynamicandduration.The A naturalabovemiddleC is giventhe durationone bottom A down demisen-dquaver, to the naturalon the piano, note, progressively andeach last is longerthan its predecessor is given a durationone demisemiquaver that to the say, dynamics, The forty-nine demisemiquavers. has duration too, are to note a equivalent

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in a palindromic is givena ff marking, D# is givenppp, theA natural arranged continuum:


is down ff. is below: A This the while next natural onceagain shown

A (ffl) Gg (ff) G (0 Fg F (p) E (pp) DM(ppp) D (pp) Chl(p) C (Mf)

Bb (ff) A (fff) 'mp' fromtheEstin orderto formulate Messiaen themarking the seven excludes
dynamic level: 1) ppp, 2) pp 3) p 4) mf 5) f 6) ff 7) ff of gradations

hasalsocodifiedbirdsonginto four specificcategoriee.The reasonfor tMs is, Johnson first, to createappropriate tabularformsthat displaythe group structure,showingthe differenttypesof texture,timbre, tonalitiesandbird-grouprelationships the and, secondly, formal displaying birds between the structure andtheir natural overall association envirorunent.

Eachof the thirteenpiecesis innovativein its own way this chapterinvestigates

birdsong forward-loolcing its Catalogue d'Oiseaux treatment. and

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desAlpes',is set,asis Ta BuseVariable'(no.11),in the Te Chocard Thefirst piece,


form Dauphiny. The that represent sections of revolvesaroundthreesubstantial mountains definesthesedivisions,asin the ensuing Messiaen threedistinctmountainous scenes. work Chrotiochromie,as 'strophe, 'antistrophe',and 'epode'. They are orchestral bird, depict flights by 'verses' that the the criesand aswell asthe of principal separated often raucousandferociousrumblingsof the raven,togetherwith materialrepresenting form flights birds. is displayed below: A this tripartite plan of of other copious

Strophe Verse

The ascenttoward the Meidje glacier: 'grim andmassive' (1) Cries of choughs andraven (2) Flights of birds (i) alpinechoughcrossing the abyss (fi) majesticflight of goldeneagles (iii) 'sparkfing' flight of choughs (iv) motionless mysterious ascent (v) acrobaticflights of choughs; abovechasm

Antistrophe

The fallen logs aroundthe warrenof SaintChristophe:enormous andpowerful -

Verse

(1) Criesof choughs (2) Flight of birds

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(i) alpine thelandscape chough surveys whileskimming overabyss flight of golden (ii) majestic eagle (iii) motionless andmysterious ascent (iv) flight of choughs in the sky (v) two choughs flight of choughs (vi) acrobatic above chasm Epode 'gigantic Mysticalstone andsupernatural' circleof Bonne-Pierre:

breakup blocks of music:each Long silences Thereis no feelingof line or development. is illustrates bird flight-scene, there no and eithera vocalisation short section or a The the two. with colourful of alpinechough'scallsare greatlyenriched superimposition

fifthswith elaborate harmonies: its first cries,in verse1, contain invented (1) threeperfect
in both parallelandcontrary harmony,and(2) ascending anddescending sernitones 'Le VIII/2 [ex in thus creatinga quasi-glissando effect an anapaestic motion, rhythm Chocard desAlpes', p2, s3, W& (p8), A, bl]. With the the alternator p2, exceptionof

the 'briffiantTsparkling', equallyemphasised two-part homophonic'vol deschocards" (p de I'abime' deschocards dessus 10), each (p9) andthe polyphonic'vol acrobatique au with an inventedhannony.A particularlypoignant note of the alpinechoughis depicted landscape 'surveys (p6) is in the the the chough verse as alpine second effect produced bacchius by 'tragic' His a stilted metre, the created criesare abyss". while skinming over usedfor the first time.

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The second piece,'Le Loriot', is setin the earlYhoursof the morningin the district of Charente. The openingof the piecesuggests the first tentativebird callsof the morning. from the next: the music,in addition,hasa calm serenitywhich is set Eachbar is separated chords,whereeachvoice movesup a whole up by the openingpair of dominantseventh bird, following in 'gilded'9 The the goldenoriole, the call of principal note parallel. from is built forrning hybrid its high texture: superior resonance a resonances, employs derniserniquavers [ex VIEU31.Incidentally,this hornorhythmic with the left handdon-inant in Each E is based Messiaen's 2, of the emergence around major. mode preA'ominantly call is in homorhythmic dominant) bird (one the style,with or same written part principal in 'Lent' The is found the the this to section chords. preceding only exception without fez VIII/4 'memory in (b 115) 'rainbow the the the of gold' represents and sky' which areused:the top two establish a chordaleffectwith the p9, s5, bl-21, wherethree staves part beingdominant;however,the basspart (stave3) addsblock chords second from Cinq Rechants. The two openingchordsof the the third of movement reminiscent between later form interspersed to extended chordalmodulations, whole pieceare from two gardenwarblersandeventually, fluttering complexcounterpoints at the 'Lent' full bar E 100, the representing concludingwith a richly resonant major chord, sectionof sunof rnidday.

descending is by A beautifulquasi-glissando, the robin's rapidly effect produced homophonic (tender', 'confiding') texture: in 'tendre, two-voiced conflant' serniquavers a the right handusesblack notesandthe left haswhite [ex VIII/5a - p2, barl3l. The

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in 'incantatory' thrush this songof thesong alsoemploys effect anascending orderin its later,comparatively appearance; vigorous although, whiteandblacknotesarenot
confinedto onehandfez VIH/5b - bar 123]. exclusively

Thereare threebrisk, assertive two loquacious gardenwarblers, polyphonicduetsbetween duet is Wgher blurs first The this contrast, the the second consistently given notes. where keeping in higher the top the third, range, still a although predominantly part wMe 'O hands' 'crossed A to while adding occasional accents. overlaps a still greaterextent is often requiredin this more substantial third counterpointsection:additionally, technique incorporated in both parts of rhythmic notesandrepetitions more reference motivesare [ei VII1V6- p61.

Te Loriot' is saturated with precisepedalmarkingsproducingoften expressive nuances often, two or or uniquetimbral qualities,wherethe tone colour is dramatically changed: threesimultaneous groupsof notesmaycarry a distinctivedampened sound,while others indications left blackbird's includes for In instance, the the the score, sustained. are song, Twithout 'p6d III (left 'avec left 4sans 2" and sourd. mute' pedal), pedal' p6dTwith [useof] middlepedal'. The specificuse of soft and middlepedals sempreTcontinuous 'sparkling', desired is delivered the the upperpitches:eachnote with producesclarity of 'muffled' or 'muted' effects.In the sections which involve strict harmonicmodulation,at barl 00 for example, givento eachchord, creatingan a right pedalmarldngis scrupulously flights fuH Birds' throughout. enviromnents and vocalisations, sound and addedresonance left 'sourd. ' (muted, instructions, (1) by technical suchas are significantlycoloured these

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' (without mute,left pedal),(3) 'ped.' (right pedal),(4) 'ped. pedal),(2) 'sanssourd.

(continuous fight pedal), (5) '+ ped.III' (plusnUdle 'sostenuto' (6) sempre' pedal),
cavec 2nd p6d.' (with the 'soft' pedal),(7) 'mettre tr6s peude pedale'(usevery little right dimension These to the sonorities another markingsadd pedal). producedby tls versatile instrument.

The pieceendswith the openingcall of the goldenoriole,but in this instance without the chord. resonance effectscreatedby a preceding

Set in the Roussillondistrict on the southerncoast,the third piece,Te Merle Bleu', blue in the seemingly gentle sea a numberof contrasting moods,including presents terrifying wavesand 'rough' cliffs, interspersed the high-pitched, with (for example) stridentcallsof swifts. The manydepictionsof birdsongare often quite sharplysetagainst 4mood'sections 'the of rock which'aresomewhat ambiguously resonance characterised blue halo'. At the sametime, Messiaen links faces', 'luminous,iridescent, establishes by betweensections landscape, birdsong human connecting effectively and perception his frequenttreatmentof superiorandinferior resonances. Thus the intrinsic quality of a bass in is bird's lower Bb For the the particular vocalisation enhanced. "ample, accented homogenises (bar 2) reverberates with the bigha huge'boom of the surf andsuddenly in These the swifts are alwaysrepresented the top rangeof the pitchedcriesof swifts. include in chordal style: varioustritones andmajor most occurrences piano'sregisterand 7'h/diminished octaveintervals[ex VIW7 - pi].

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is in in several (bars 18-19) Water is represented written guises.Its second appearance homophony: by liquidity is two-voiced suggested the equallyemphasised demisemiquavers, and a muffledquality by its low bassregister.The effect of water bassflourish by gracenotes,andquickly followed by a descending dropletsis then created de is 'clapotis [ex VIIII/Sa - bars 18-22]. A further appearance of water entitled is four bars, form in Feau'Plapping the thus: short of water':

b55-581 droplets VIH/8b lei descending flourish droplet flourish ascending -

followed by a sectionentitled'la merbleue', depictingthe Thesebarsare immediately

harmonious Messiaen's 2, horizonof 'the bluesea':based these exquisitely on mode


the satintexture andpurple-blue,slate complement accordingto the composer, episodes, These b59-63]. VIR/8c blue [ex blue-black thrush's the rock plumage shades of and - p5, harmonies before, andafter, other presentan unusualstillness andcontemplative sensitive in dominate that the the the material sea non-birdsong rest of more tumultuousversionsof bass in by flourishes (bars 68-70) the For the this piece. are represented example, waves low displays later [ex VIH/9a, b]. A the a waves versionof and shortrapid cellsof chords [ex VIR/9c]. A further example A naturaltrill which rumblesin the distance to pianissimo 'the blue last be located before bass deep sea', the of appearance can resonance of a very is forcefulness dramatic is left die This dynamic ffff preto away. wherea thundering invented by strildrig of waves,where empted a pulsating,chordalrepresentation
harmonies, like tam-tams, are Mowed by obtrusive inferior resonancesonorities, while

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forte chords theimmediately the'hugeresonances preceding of rockfaces' represent


(p22).

depiction The specificsubjectof the piece,of course,is the blue rock thrush:Messiaen's introduction is bird's in his Te directly he to to this environment says related of water Merle Bleu' that 'its songblendswith the soundof the waves'. The bird's distinctive is, like the swifts', represented homorhythmically, that grace with the exception character included. immediately Its becomes apparent whenthe uniqueness occasionally are notes bar four-voiced At 84 bassresonance threetwo-, sometimes effects. or chordal or setsup (p7), the blue rock thrush'ssongis built aroundthe perfectfourth: eachsemiquaver interspersed is with eitheroneor two quaverchords[b841.In this particular pattern

ionic (UU-). The some two creates metres are employed pedalmarking minor example,
blue bass Indeed, the the rock accompanying with resonances chords. extraordinary by bass thrush'svocalisations sonorities, are,in the entiremovement, often complemented by faces blue the the with given off rock overlooking sea,andsaturated echo representing to the overalltimbre anda the perfectfourth interval,giving both a naturalopenness by rapid feelingof quarW harmony.In addition,the sonorous 'halo' is achieved forming the ensuing bell-like resonance in the blue rock thrush's derniserniquavers, iridescent (bars Ws 3 1-3 6). In 2 4, typically timbres are way, radiant, cretic, vocalisation -

blue. the associated with colour of are most which produced,

by the emphasis The importanceof the blue rock thrushis, arguably, placedon matched but blue 'the devoted for the to sea' supporting sections whole example, water - with, -

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larks be Whereas by herring the the theckla, gull and shouldnot overlooked. r6les played Messiaen to the blue rock thrushsingsalone,the pair of 'chirruping' thecklalarks enable if has long is The these a motion of sections continuous: one part write contrapuntally. Short, durationor trill, the other maintains through momcntum rapid groupsof notes. it, describes in dance, 'wild IEII Peter this wherethe as cellsoccur regularly repeated "' flavour first inspiration 'Balinese of the solo. mirrors the pentatonic

Throughout the piece, each birdsong or non-birdsong feature appearsin blocks, and each

discret. These features the than -.,repeated motivesenable these once. appears more of formal the listenerto recognise the thus the components of of piece, enhancing sense final F# blue 'memory The the thrush', the the with of rock musicconcludes structure. A hinting major tonality. at an minor chord

Te TraquetStapazin',a substantial piece,is also set in the Roussillonregionof the from border. is Spanish here However, the Mediterranean taken the the scene coastnear is form forests The depicting terracedvineyards, cork-tree andmountains. mainlandside, from to sunset. the time-scale through sunrise representing period a cireadian achieved E by bottom followed The pieceopenswith four widely-spaced natural,then a a chords, harmonies in form iamb. The the sombre of an chord anda superiorresonance bird bars interspersed terracedvineyards of various with short representing - are bunting. Ortolan black-eared including the warblerand spectacled wheatear, vocalisations, defined by The form of the piecemaybe dividedinto several are verses which sections in different These the majesticsequences sonorously positions. sun representing

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both superiorand inferior resonance in four incorporate effects.Eachverseis arranged

first interrupted by birdsong, by followed two the short snatches and all are of are staves;
The tablebelow setsout longerpassages madeup of severalbird vocalisations. Messiaen's characterisations of eachverse.

Verse I (p8) Verse 2 (P12)

'the red andgold disc of the sunleavesthe seaandclimbsinto the sky' all notes colourfW- resonate other markings- majestic,resonant, FULL SUN 'the goldendisc of the sunJimbs higherinto the sky - luminousbandon the sea' before as other markings-

Verse3 (P22)

'surroundedby a deepred andgold, the sungoesdown behindthe mountain' before'2 as markings other -

in display beautiful built All theseverses colours, a rangeof effectsand upon resonance are in black-eared bird The harmony. the the wheatear, of calls, case the static especially 'Lent', in to this tempo section marked introducevariety colourationanda morerapid [pl2l. its texture grand with

The first sectionintroducesthe songsandcallsof all the birdsto be heardin the piece. landscape, interpretations by brief broken Thesebird vocalisations of andare either up are is in 'terraced the the raven sectionwhere as vines', or appearconcurrently, suchasthe

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depicted'on the rocks of the cliff'[p1j. Both the spectacled warblerand the goldfinchare in it is for by a texture: that reasonthat they are accompanied mostly a single-line written left in hand. By contrast,the 'proud andabrupt' homophonic derniserniquavers the chord homorhythmic andthe 'cruel' and 'barking' repeated of the black-eared wheatear criesof the herringgull are sufficientlycolourful without harmonicsupport.Sharpchordswith gracenotesandshort flurries of descending chordsin parallelsuggesta accented in in herring Its the almostpersecutory manner gull. short refrainsare often an sniggering, in (p3). is depicted 'raucous' (p3 In the a addition, raven and rhythm p6) anapaestic its later ]. A homorhythmic texture in four or five parts [ex VIIDVIO of call version - p3 follows: (p6) employs a numberof recognisable patterns,as Raven'sHomorhZhmic Song(p6) bar I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 characteristic II epitrite iamb double-iamb harmonicostinato iamb 3 chordal-complexes cretic 2 'stabs' 5 chordal-complexes bacchius tribach+ bacchius

Of a differentcharacter chordsthat give the spectacled againarethe simpleaccompanying is E its This 'tender[ness]'. with major and often coloured particular song, which warbler later, is C#, this equal other songsachieve at stage: givena notablepron-dnence an added or greatersignificance.

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Although 'cadenza'may seeman inappropriate term for a sectionof this music,sincethe Catalogue d'Oiseauxis written for pianosolo, certainlongerthan average the whole of justify description, in As the the traditionalconcertocadenza perhaps certain vocalisations in in appear various guises,so thesepassages motives manyearliermelodicandrhythmic feat4res, Thesesolosgive the impression are now virtuosicallyreviewedanddeveloped. of found in Riveil desOiseauxor OiscauxExotiques.The first example the piano cadenzas the rock bunting,p14 - usesthematicmaterialtakenfrom its earlierappearance after the first verselex VHV1 I-p 101;B naturalis the reference and note commonto both cadenza by demiserniquavers broken Equally, typically up gracenotesand continual are source. into instances. divided in both demisemiquavers G#s The groupsof aremostly semiquaver tribachiccefls;however,manyporrectus threesandfives.The groupsof threesareusuallY flexus melodicshapes B-E-B-G# is written with a group of arefound. The melodicshape this shape threefollowed by a singlenote,but groupsof five alsopresent with two beginning, With B the exceptionof the the cell. or as part of a at additional naturals It is based flexus, B-E-B-G#. C# Bb, the the entire solo around porrectus occasional and is, however,the lavishsolo from the thecklalark that canbe likenedmost to a cadenza. length, longer for Completed this with ninecrotchetrestsandrunning a comparatively is is homophonic; B top the a commonreference solo again natural mostly spectacular by divided derniserniquavers dominate homophonic they Passages the are solo: of point. falling in length bar five bassflourishes two-part effectsanda two-voiced of one seven in homophonic two-voiced triU. This sectionfinishes and alternator a crescendo with a between high-pitched [ex VIII/12 At 'chirp" two a counterpoint p2l ensuing ppl7-191. -

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in birds begins: both their melody songs are related character, alternate with as goldfinches
high-pitched trills. The B naturalis not the only tonal/pitchreference point to be made.E frequently, in its the triad, appear notes after the multicoloured especially major, and is 'above (red, the mountain', asthe spectacled warbler orange and violet) repeated sunset Turangalila E 6 Interestingly, is presented the motives with an accompanying major chord. first included: the they the the seaand are colour chordsof sunsetare also representing du Sommeil 'Jardin from the this themes sixth movement of symphony, subsidiary the spectacled d'Amour'. The piececoncludes with the memoryof a bird; on this occasion by its is warbler's song reviewed,at a tenth of original speedand onceagainaccompanied bl-21. [ex VIOV13 E sixth s5, an major chordwith an added - p27,

describe both Book Three with associated two aspects of which shortpieces of consists
(5), Chouette Hulotte/'Tawny Owl' first, 'La The sections alternates night-time. in its the owls the continuum, of various and calls quasi-serial night, with representing descriptions images disturbing Here, in Isere. Oregeval are createdwith many wood the inquietant'Pstrange '6trange, 'vague terrifying' or et terrifiant'Phazyand suchas
d'enfant 'un the the assassine'Pthecry of a cri piece even end of worrying', and at

chHd'. murdered

In from these the The 'night' episodes than the owls. calls substantial sporadic more are from jerks the texture the notes of out of sound appear segregated sections, quasi-serial The busy fortissimo than others. essential aremore while certainmoments markings, with ABAB form of the pieceis asMows:

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A- The Night B- Calls of Owls

organised pitches, dynamics and durations (i) long-cared owl (ii) little owl (iii) tawny owl

A- The Night B- Calls of Owls

organised pitches, dynamics and durations (i) long-eared owl (ii) little owl (Hi) tawny owl

beginswith 'very dry andpercussive'low C naturals'like a Eachof the 'owl' sections its calls.The solemndrum'. Every owl is given a limited time - usuallyonebar - to present owl may be dividedinto several musicof the long-eared parts. Short flourishesoften conclude with a top B naturalwith accompanying pitch or chord;we alsofind accented forte chordsfbHowedby softer ones,forming a quasi-resolution. B section, In the second involves by falling first followed The twice. the long-eared two appears owl anapaests devices IH two the second employs new of epitrite with calls,while combination -a in echo[seeTableEU1].The form of the second trochaiccell, anda double-iamb follows: is (p7) as appearance iambs, double-iamb in 3 +1, trochee, echo. anapaest

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incorporate C natural [see In addition, thechords thenotes predominantly andA natural


important bear in is This to mind, asthe tawny owl moreregularlyandemphatically p3j. falling C the similar motive where a naturalandA naturalare usedonceagain. employs doesnot presentthe lavishlychromaticharmonies The first appearance of later versions. However,the third occurrence of the tawny owl's call (p8) includes beforetwo homorhythmic demisemiquaver 'retentissant'/'resounding' chordalcomplexes This dominant falling VIM141. include [ex C A to the pitches clusterchordswhich also dramatic homorhythmic (one dominant) densely texture the voice represents clustered little The from 'hollow', Ell in 'screeching' Petei to owl timbre suggests". as change Various includesa final 'yelped' call and'mewed' white/blackascending glissandoeffect. harmonisations, other subjective of this C-A caHcontinuethroughoutthe movement:

in harrowing', douloureux'/'dismal included, 'lugubre and such as et are also suggestions 0


the correcttimbre. order to help the performerto achieve

Wood is T'Alouette Lulu'/"The in The second this representing night couplet piece Lark'(6). An impression of a calmnight is instantlyproducedby four chordsendingwith 'poetic, bird's by Bb major, andleadingonto a superiorresonance the principal created iambic featuring Hquid,unreal' repetitivehomophonic groups. accented call, relentless Eachbar of chordsportrayingthe calmnight is followed by a motive using one, two or decoration lark The to the simple times. threenotesandrepeated provides many wood deployed by in device Messiaen very earlypieces. a chords, underlying

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The form maybe simplifiedas follows:

Night chordsandwood lark decoration NightingaleInterlude

bars 1-15 bars 15-24 A B A B A B A bars 24-26 bars 26-39 bars 3941 bars 41-42 bars 4244 bars 4449 bars 49-end

The form usestwo contrastingtextures.The first, entitled'poetic, liquid, unreal', hybridtexture setup by the wood simplechordalprogressions comprises with ensuing is the often 'sparklingandcaustic'vocalisations lark, andthe second producedby a The hannonicostinatopart of the nightingale'ssongis alsointroducedby the nightingale. be Its composerashavinga sonority 'like a harpsichord phrases can mixedwith a gong'. follows into four [ex VIM15]:, as categories subdivided

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(1) 'Sparkling,caustic': randomchordsbuilt up from 4ths, 5thsand2ndsjp3, s4, bI I


(2) Two-part alternator jp3, s3, b3l

(3) gracenotesandabruptchords [p3, s4, bI] basschords[p3, s4, (4) 'Like a harpsichord n-dxed vvitha gong': homorhythrnic repeated
b2l

hasa rich chordalalternator.In the sameway, the two-note iambs Later the nightingale deux' later hannonisation 'deux the en of repetitions woodlark are given additional and
[see b32 and b43].

final in found (above) The I The repeated chordsare also on severaloccasions. is if lark 'merge into &mysterious' the the the music calls of wood repeated silence',as Keats' 'plaintive fading into the distance anthem reminiscent of nightingale, whose fades'.

in Set Effarvatte' ('The ReedWarbler') is the seventh 'La Rousserolle the cycle. pieceof is it is longest just OrMans, Sologne the the southof piece,and centralto the whole of In a pieceof aboutthirty minutes'duration,Messiaen Catalogued'Oisemnc. represents following from 3 its habitat, the to the reedwarbler, and other species a.m. midnight hours. twenty-seven of period morning-a

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haveanalysed Messiaen's formal structuresusingterminology Typically,musicologists 'refrains', 'introductions' 'strophes, and"codas':thesesubdivisions are often very suchas hasso meticulously helpfulto the analyst.However, on this occasion, as Messiaen marked in the score,it is perhaps the timesof dayat variousmoments morerevealingto present 14. in direct the material relationto the circadiantime-scale -In addition,in his preface dividesthe pieceinto timesof day, dravAng Messiaen of the attentionto key features is does A the tempocontinually timelessness once again of created: only not music. sense fluctuate,but also certainperiodsof time aregivenunequallengthsin the score.For is insects' buzzing 'like trill the of a warbler's example, grasshopper - which endsup After lassitude 'chirruping the the to sun"s. under of nature noon and sufficient represent five in In bar the the contrast,the resumes at o"clock afternoon. reed warbler rest, a one incorporates birdsong longer from 6 5 to andnon-birdsong of sections m. p.m. p. period for (p 18-34). minutes several and runs material,

The 'mysterious''music of the ponds' that opensthe pieceis followed directlyby a 'chorus of frogs'. This chorusperfectlyenhances the notion of a dampenvirorunent, ready is bird bird, This for the first appearance the the given two main of principal reedwarbler. (pp4-8), is found first the the this of the characteristics early of at stage many where solos: first later 'cadenza',andindeedthe counterpointed two are reedwarblers, songsof displayvirtuosic and rapid musicthat is intimated[ex VIW16]. All three sections for d'Oiseaux. Catalogue in Both the solo passages are markedwith a note unparalleled les diversitd d'attaques 'avec et notespiqu6es: the performervolubilit6, unegrande fuU assertiveness, and a rangeof attacks- the gracenotes et rebondissantesTwith s6ches

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interruption This cadentialsolo includesnumerous [to be played]dryly and percussively'. homorhythmic homophonic based or calls on two or three separate repeated callswhich first iambs incorporated during ionic Incessant the solo, and minors,anapaests are notes. is is impressive Most later 'cadenza' the of phrase the a so clear cut. particular not while is in its harp's 'like accompanied and glissando',occurs own right a reedwarblerwhich, by trillings of a secondreedwarbler.

is indications the to that Messiaen say, the the of ambience of environment givesprecise Night', The 'Solemnity three the at appears the of music. phrase, mood of programmatic 42). In both instances, the music in the morning(p9) andat n-ddnight the following day (p, 'like that, of clash a the chords cluster sonoritieS16 : extremely quick same exactly employs loud bottom A by followed two black and natural a are notes alternate white and cymbals", first is like 'metallic The vibrations' - the pianissimo effects. resonance superimposed Th in bass, 'like interval is loud 7"' trombones'. C-B the the a second minor while major -

'Sunrise[s]'and 'Sunset(s]'appearfrom time to time in variousguises,displaying below: in listed These order associations are colour associations. exuberant

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Sundses in Ta Rousserolle Effarvatte-' and Sunsets

Page

Description/ Characteristics Sunrise1- pink and mauve orange (dreamy) and mauve rose

Location

Tirne[Period

waterlily pond

6 a.m.

12

Sunrise 2- densechromatic chords

6-8 a.m.

12

Sunrise3- dense chromatic chordsandclusterascension"

6-8 a.m.

13 14 15 38-39

Sunrise 4- mauve+ gilded Sunrise5- mauve+ gilded's Sunrise 6- chordal ascension Sunset1- red andviolet orange,red violet descending chromaticchords + violet andgilded (dreamy) Iris pond

6-8 a.m. 6-8 a.m. 6-8 a.m. 9 P.M.

40

Sunset 2- red andviolet descending chromaticchords (dreamy)

Iris pond

9 P.M. Midnight

40

Sunset 3- all lower in range

Iris pond

9 P.M. -

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Midnight 41 Sunset 4- 'the red disk of the sunmeetsits own reflection andsinksinto the water' chromaticdescending cluster chords(extended version) Iris pond 9 P.M. Midnight

includes both Messiaen led Interestingly, "memory two short sections of sunset' which enti, take on a dark violet colouration.The specifiedsonoritiesall affect the timbresof the birdsong.Thesestriking passages alsohelp dividethe musicalform of the piece,which is shownbelow.

Page Nos. 1-3 4-8 9-11 11-15 15-18

Features "music of ponds' (midnight), frogs reed warbler's I st grand solo (3 a.m.) 4solemnityof the night' (3 a.m.), noises in the marsh etc., frog sunrises(6 a.m.), blackbird, red-backed shrike, redstart yellow irises (8 a.m.), pheasant,reed bunting, green woodpecker, starling, great tit, white wagtail

18 18-34

grasshopper warbler's extended trill - noon reed warbler (5 p.m.), sedgewarbler, purple foxglove, great reed warbler,

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in counterpoint black-headed gull, coot,two reedwarblers 34-37 yellowirises(6 p.m.), grasshopper warbler, coot,skylark,frogs,water rail 3842 its own sunset on iris pond(9 p.m.), bittern,'the reddiskof thesunmeets into thewater'.nightingale, sinks of sunset and reflection memory 42-45 in (midnight) bittem, the the solemnity noises of night, nightingale, frog, (of night) marshes, memory 46-51 nd bittern frogs, 2 (3 ), of ponds, reedwarbler's grandsolo a.m. music

Book 5 beginswith the piece,'L"Alouette Calandrelle'(no.8), which is set in the Crau form is in The Provence. the three sections, with a coda: of piece of wilderness

SectionI kestrel,quail, short-toedlark Introductory chords,short-toedlark, chorusof cicadas,


Section 2

lark Short-toedlark + crestedlark counterpoint, short-toed Section3 lark, introductory kestrel, short-toed chords quail, cicadas, of chorus
ICoda

lark introductory lark, chords, short-toed quail, sky quail,

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beginswith someinformationaboutthe settingof the piece.Above two Messiaen introductorychords,the latter beingF4, he writes, 'warmth and solitudeof the Crau desert'.The 'Lent' tempoindication,the 'bright' and rapid interruptionsby the short-toed immediately lark andthe reststhat divide eachphrase of sparsity. of music createa sense by static homorhythmic birds that are represented The composer chords, several chooses in invented their times short that the several are assigned are repeated chords while in birds The represented this way are: sections.

(1) chorusof cicadas (2) kestrel


quail

V, is 'a' the labefled in then the If thefirst invented second and chosen section chord a
fbHowingrepetitionsareto be found:

(1) chorus of cicadas [pl, s3, b2l

abbb,abbb,abbb[ei V1W17a] [ex VI1V17b] aaaaabbc aaaaaaab aaa,aaa[ei VIII/17c]

(2) kestrel [pl, s4, b2l


(3) quafl in cretic rhythm lp2, sl, b1l

homorhythmic" 'mixed homorhythmic" texturesare Both 'paraUel and contour contour in the short-toedlark's songs: incorporated -

249

homorhythmic jp2, b21 chords s4, parallelcontour homorhythmic lp2, b2l chords s2, mixedcontour

The rest of the principal'ssongis derivedfrom its one-voiceddominanthomophonic is bar I bar Each 2. two-part the to at chord closely call related original sotirpeat is frequently [see The 2nds bIj. B cell are used p2, s2, natural/Ab compoundminor divided into is lark This the the the toward short-toed endof phrase. passage of repeated the following textures:

(one voice dominant) i) homophony homorhythmic H)mixed-contour chords (independent iii) homophony contours- repeated pattern) homorhythmic chords vi) paraHel v) minim (conversation lark) two-voiced with crested polyphony vi) (ex VIR/181

its apogee The piecereaches with the homophonicsongof the sky lark, marked'jubilation homophonic loud joy'. declamatory is This and song continuously vih6mente'Penergetic, divided by singlequavers, demisen-quavers the or the are serniquavers throughout; forerunner in is descending interval. This the derniserniquaver of solo a quaver a rhythm, d'Oiseaur. later VAlouette desChamps'in PetitesEsquisses

250

This rathersimplebut effectivepieceis followed by the moreformally complex'La it is inevitable Bouscarle'('Cetti's warbler'). Set in closeproximity to the river Charente, birds indeed that water playsa supportingr6le to the manyrepresentations animals. and of Two sections are devotedto the reflectionon the water from the willows andpoplartrees, four 'la of are entitled simply, verses music rivi6re'. Theseverses, with their calm while basedon mode3, act asaccompanying to birdsong(p4) andasa passages sonorities incorporated Bird in their vocalisations own right. andsoundsof other animals are passage from the 'pique, pointu, tr6s secTcutting, pointed,very dry' squeals in this realisation: of the moorhen,the 'joyeux et clair'/joyous andbright' sonoritiesof the blackbird,to the 'fl6chebleue-verte'/'blue-green arrow' of the kingfisher'sflight.

Timbre playsan importantr6le in 'La Bouscarle'.At this stagein Messiaen's writing, the indication birdsoncys have least . of either animals' and other noises also at of one ma ority fact, be In in their they the spirit which most of the should played,or generalarticulation. by differentannotations. A full list of theseasthey appearin birds' songsare distinguished this pieceis shownbelow:

(1) Cetti's warbler (2) moorhen (3) kingfisher (4) blackbird

abrupt and violent9 cutting, pointed, sharp dry (abrupt) joyous a) and bright

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b) abrupt andviolent (5) robin (6) corncrake (7) songthrush, liquid,intimate, confiding to-and-fro scraping, noise of saw a) like a chanted triumphant spell,active, b) pearl-like, liquid,snatched (8) wren (9) chaffinch (10)blackcap joyousrefrain,authoritative a) brightandgentle, b) dazzling (II)hoopoe (12)nightingale stifled,monotonous a) caustic, colouration andgong of a harpsichord b) incisive, abrupt, sparkEng (13) sand martin (14)yeflowwagtail

but in his The kingfishernot only hasits own bird vocalisation the score, also marked rapid flight of courtshipis depictedwith its 'glittering of a blue andgreenjewel'. Both the flight andthe ascending chordalnuptial chordal'blue-greenarrow' featuresare related 3, to the sonorities, andcomplement mode closely quite reflectionsand coloursof the falling fourths The the river recalls andmodalquality of the 'love theme'from the river. TurangalilaSymphony.

252

in the stonecircle of Mour&zein Te Merle de Roche' (X) is set amongst the rock shapes the scene, the H6rault.The piecetakesan arch form. The introductionestablishes which is The 'black andprofound' musicfound in profundity and mysteriousness. oneof immense two quiet low chordsin the bass,shortly followed by a cluster the earliestbarscomprises huge hand in in its 'the they treble the the of clef represent night state, chord moonlit stone,raisedasa magicalsign'. The maleeagleowl follows on in solemn'ululation, and the femaleresponds with a very 'dry' succession repetitions. of low muffled anapaestic displaythejackdawsat daybreak (feauring a variety of bacchius, The next sections from the black redstart,which are epitrite II andvariousother metres)andvocalisations in diplodocus, interspersed the of set stone.The stegosaurus and with representations (10 form: following thrush takes the strophe rock midday, centralsectionwhich represents ). (5 The ) takes thrush series permutations rock strophe m. p. a.m. - permutationseriesfrom Livre Duries' 'Soixante-Quatre thirty-two chromaticdurations- reminiscent of de pierre,transportant d'Orgue (1951). This sectionrepresents a 'cort6gede fantOmes black dead femme the transporting woman', a morteTprocessionof stoneghosts, une In formations dinosaurs. addition,the rock thrush which suggest and various rock redstart its indeed, in in its is idcalised('idialisfl, displayingthe orange/bluc song,and, colours leaps, intervallic by huge however, dinosaurs, The superior are represented stone plumage. is It inferior tempi series. rapid changes of and,onceagain,a permutation resonances, and interesting that a non-birdsong of texture,rhythm sectioncanincorporateas manychanges last birdsong. dusk The the sectionof of piece end andmelodyas a sophisticated heard, introduction: female the the the while the eagles are of male and sonorities echoes

253

densely the colossalhandof stoneconcludethe piece scoredclusterchordsthat represent in solemnthoughtfulness.

Effarvatte' (VII), the grasshopper As hasbeenseenin Ta Rousserolle warbler's trill birds in in day. Thej ackdaws this the the time way, piece same mark of midday; represents is by the maleand femaleeagleowls. daybreak, (p2) represent while night-time suggested hasdifferentiated This is the first time that Messiaen the vocalisations of maleand female: but female descending has two-part the chordal cry and a glissando, a the maleeagleowl hasrepeated anapaestic rhythmsand,towaids the end of the piece,an additionalrepeated iamb, iarnb low bass [ex VIH/191. As two anapaest, anapaests, calls of succession incorporates impressively, long Messiaen divide Johnson silences out, most which points in between in the criesof the male thrush's the are regularly used songsand rock passages The writing createan atmosphere silences andsparse of expectation. owl. eagle

Interestingly,therearewhole barswherethe composerspecificallyrequests no use of dinosaurs, fortissimo depicts durations In that stone short accented section a are pedal. Once scathing effect. again,sparseness andanticipationare written, producinga stabbing, [p2l]. by them two rests serniquavers with either side of solitary exemplified

Ta BuseVariable' (M) is set at oneendof Lake Laff-reyin Dauphin6,at the foot of the 'bare mountain'of the GrandSerre.The form is thus:

254

first Introduction third section section refrain section refrain second - refrain shortfourthsection - coda

is dividedby a passage from the mistlethrush:openmajor andminor Eachof the sections is iambic in V111/201. This [ex the two rhythm music given the parts chordsaccompany instruction:'strong, bright, nostalgic,bronzedcolouration' (p5). The basschordsalternate C major with E flat minor, but it is the abovetwo-part figurationsin the right handthat is dissonance. Of the composer's of employment the significance most notable provide in is Ms. the Throughout the top the this the third of part of chord section, openparallel left hand,while parallelfifths are found in the bottom two voices.In addition, parallel intervallic Messiaen fifths canbe found in the right hand.Furthermore, similar groups incorporated, while major thirds are often together parallelsixthsare relationships o [previous ex VIR/20 p5, s3,b2]. Thesecharacteristically followed by minor thirds? bird The in heard fifths the other vocalisations. some of are also parallel resounding its later in In Sths includes instance, buzzard,for appearance, threeperfect succession. a hand, in fifths by is held &mewing the andperfect andaugmented together right open cry' fifths has The bl-31. in left VIII/21 fourths the [ex parallel also yellowharnmer s4, p12, in its brief callsmarked'fresh, naive'. However,it is not just parallelfifths that are by followed thirds, is as thirds major the of minor employment of equal note prominent: instance, for fourths. The is carrioncrow's song, also the useof parallelsixthsandperfect hand, in in falling climacus the is madeup of repeated thirds while an right cells,written b2l. A, in left [ex VIH/22 figuration the p8, appears arpeggio-type -

255

Both introductionandcodacomprisea) callsand criesof the buzzard,andb) its flight in [and] landscape'. in indicates Messiaen '... takes the meticulously which glides circles... is for beat: instruction "24P italicised this two-part eachslow quaver serene passage the is interversions. This twelve-note series section a of and uses spaced very widely declares by 'optimistic triumphant' the that the a and song of chaffinch contrasted homorhythn* call. Dramaticcontrasts are not uncommondevicesusedby the composer: the listenercannothelpbut recognise exactlywhen (for example)a new bird vocalisation fresh begins. is between landscape interchange A description the the striking example of or high-pitched fifth the the sweet, and alternatorsof the callsof yellowbarnmer open dulcet 'like bells", have 'timbre tones the are small of a and whose goldfinch, glockenspiel'.

that seems to developinto a song- as opposedto the other The only bird vocaUsation is longer discrete that the than passage of whitethroat, average whose sections short and demiserniquavers by its continuous (pl4-15) is animated rests.The with only occasional its flight; buzzard, it began, followed by the of with a representation as piececoncludes, 21 it into later however,in this version ascends the air.

both 'Le to 'Le TraquetRieur' ('The Black Wheatear'- MI) is in several waysrelated TraquetStapazin'(IV) and Te Merle Bleu' (III). All threepiecesare set in the Roussillon district. Te Merle Bleu' represents the blue sea(in severalguises),its terrifying wavesand from faces; 'Le Traquet Stapazin' the mainland the the scene rock views the resonances of

256

forests is depicting Te Traquet Rieur' tree terraced cork vineyards, and mountains. side, faces depicts blue Port-Vendres the also and rock and sea.In addition,the piece set near bird its the vocalisations of of predecessors. many shares

in threedifferentways.The first, entitled 'joie de la mer Here,the seais represented (ppl, 6,12 and 19of the score), bleueTjoy of the blue sea' appears on four occasions Eachresonant dividing the threestrophes that present variousbird vocalisations. bass low is begins the same section cluster exactly each with a resounding appearance in inversion, broken A second an ascending chordusingonly the major chord chord, an is followed by fortissimo 'dazzling' fifth the chord, group of same and a of root and A long Bleu', In Te Merle Additionally, the strophes all resume after a pause. chords. The blue is thrush. the to, rock major often referred particularlywhen accompanying is blue 'joy bass low the the of the clusterchord, representing of sea, reminiscent opening 'boom of the surf, alsoin Te Merle Dieu'.

by two-part The 'coup de vent sur la merTgust of wind on the sea' is presented beginsin the bassandrisesto the top of the piano'sregister,in a homophony. the passage la du in (p The 'poudroiement 17). argent6 soleil sur andall staccato gradualcrescendo, but is in haze dust the the sea' sun alsowritten sen-iquavers, this of on merTsilvery four-part Both appearonly colour chords. of thesesections sectioncontainsoccasional last in in the the strophe. pieceonce

257

The simpleform of the pieceis shownbelow:

Joy of the blue sea StropheI Joy of the blue sea Strophe2 Joy of the blue sea Strophe3 Joy of the blue sea

PI pl-6 p6 p6-12 P12 p12-19 P19

Apart from the threedistinct appearances of the sea,Messiaen also depictsvocallisations

herring bluerockthrushand fromtheblack-eared swifts, wheatear, gull,blackwheatear,


is important, first, differentiate It between black-eared to the warbler. wheatear spectacled (XII). The blue rock thrush,herringgull and (principalbird of IV) andthe black wheatear in Bleu', black-eared Te Merle the while wheatear,spectacled warblerand swifts areused in Te TraquetStapazin'- in fact, all the afore-mentioned birds herringgull are employed later The found in Catalogue in in found this the swifts piece. only numbers and are d'Oiseaz, giventhe instruction,'strident': in Te Merle Bleu' they -x - are on both occasions falling four in Te Traquet by three groups of colour chords, or whereas are portrayed direction, 'piercing', is included.Both Rieur'. clusterchordsareused,anda subsequent in falling The in two-chord altissirni and are often presented phrases. arewritten examples blue rock thrush('Rieur' and 'Merle Bleu') andthe spectacled warbler('Rieur' and

258

The blue rock thrush, 'Stapazin')are represented with a staticchordalaccompaniment. however,in Te Merle Bleu' alsoincludesfrantic homorhythmic calls.The spectacled instruction, 'with is the given assertiveness', andin Te Traquet Stapazin', warbler usually avecvolubilitU'sunny,vAth assertiveness' the directions'ensoleiII6, and 'gaiTcheerful' herring The included. gull, commonto all threeworks, is consistently given short are its Rieur', 'aboiement hurl6/'howling Te Traquet bark[s]' In are reminiscent cries. abrupt in Te Merle Bleu': found those continuousrepeated clusterchordsare always of includes Te Merle Bleu' by 'ferocious' chord. a grace-note also short rhythmic preceded Te Stapazin' Traquet a sniggering, almost persecutory portray manner. patternswhich in flight. its brief; Once herring the gull again, short and vocalisations are also presents by 'cruel' abruptsemiquavers, however,short quasi-glissandi anda are 'barked', preceded dry' 'ricanement tr&s staccato see'Psniggeringly very percute, percussive, pattem of idea its bass listener in This the the the clef gives calls. an of range of chords,written

Te TraquetRieur' alsoincorporates theseubiquitousserniquaver clusterchordswhich are by gracenotesin this 'dazzling' principalbird's song.In addition, inunediately preceded in frantic fourths, is black the where parallel wheatear given a chordalaccompaniment, dominatethe right band.This principalbird is alsodenselyscoredwith den-iserniquavers, less blue invented than those the which rock thrush's are no colourful of chords seven-part in Merle before, Te languid [ex VIU/23a, Just b]. sonorities as even often affectionate, by the modalinterludesof the rich blue sea,so herethe blue rock Bleu', it was surrounded by theselush, often triadic harmonies. Indeed,there are thrushagainis accompanied frequentappearances the birdsongin the blue rock of A major chords,accompanying

259

VIIU241. in lex The pieceends,as it the those spectacled of warbler and thrush sections, began,with the 'joy of the blue sea' involving both superiorandinferior resonance effects.

Set on the barrenislandof Ushantin the Finist&reregion of Brittany, Te CourlisCendrd ('The Curlew' - XIII) is the final pieceof the CataloguedDiscaux. Messiaen usesso in fashion it free be in birdsongs that time and such a of would space a short such many form. features however, be definite Certain to try to a may, establish confusing from for example, distinguished: the texturethat represents the sounds of wavesreturns b.; ing bass for in the the conciseexcept additional piece,eachappearance time to time in Likewise, 13. flourishesandrumblingostinatodemisemiquavers which occur on page devoted begins is to there the asa twelve-note a section water, which piece the middleof includes length into leads the which another section of notable gradually and passage fog little by little'. Its instruction, 'the thick chords, the and night spreads programmatic heavily it, hands', be 'high Messiaen intended to and with, as played puts which are fog indistinct A darkness descend and createa generally environment. as continuously fortissimoalarmis then given off from the lighthousein the form of a hugebasscluster features include Further inferior the two alarms subsequent notable resonance. and chord interspersed from between the the this caHs end, with various and point appear which tem, little ringedplover,black-headed herringgull, sandwich gull, little tem andredshank. identical they the and all The ascending are of curlew return: chromaticquasi-glissandi du 'bruit The the the surf of times. concludes with ressacPnoise piece seventeen played interchanges black-note blaring in ascending runs andwhite-note reverberation, which, a bass. in low the clusters,all

260

The vocalisations of the curlew are portrayedin three separate ways.First, singleE flat in bass in 'fluted' high 'sorrowful' E the accompany chords and colour chords and minor by chromaticruns and 'wild, the treble clef The second versionis characterised includes desolate' 'tragic third the the trills, while and quasi-Slissandi repeated passionate'
22 final latter is found in AD this the category, curlew's minor chord underlies and effects.

1 [ex VlflV25a, b, at the endof the work cl. appearance

Apart from theselongerthan average sections, manyshort callsfrom variousbirds are Messiaen birds the that are associated throughout with the piece. employs mostly sounded is 'seabirds'. list birds in CendW A Courlis Te the to of used shore,often referred as below: provided 24 desolate') 'wild 'tragic (Tuted and passionate'; glissandi and sorrowful'; curlew , ('piercing') tem sandwich black-headed gull (cruel, [with] wicked pleasure) little ringedplover fluted') ('gentle and redshank like homs') 'resonant, the herringgull (occasionally marking with ('strident') guH common guillemot oystercatcher

tumstone

261

The abruptcallsof thesebirds are all extremelyrepetitive.For instance, one particular few involves the separate comprise oystercatcher many all parts, of which very of passage is. VIIIV261. As bar [ex common, a separate are each presents repeated which notes below: idea, shown motivic bI- interruptioncall b2 -5 tribachiccells+ high accented pitch W-7 iambs W-5 tribachiccefls b5 -4 iambs b6 -9 iambs V-3 tribachiccells+ high accented pitch b8 - trillings in clusters b9 - two-part homophony b 10 - trillings (2-pt) bII- scandicus b 12 -2 chords(Eb, D, E) (2-pt) b13 - scandicus b14 -3 chords(as 12) (2-pt) b 15 - scandicus b 16 -5 chords(as 12) b17 - two-part alternator bI8 - high-pitched chord b19 -5 iambs The shoreis perfectlycapturedby theseyelled,brief calls from the seabirds.

largelybecause The Catalogued'Oiseauxhasrightly beengiven particularemphasis, so for intimated instrument, been have this createdon and so manypossibilities manytimbres is be later In the instruments to the used with works, orchestra combinations. and other includes have he had ideas Messiaen Indeed, as must of orchestration, sameprecision. instructionsin the Cataloguesuchas 'like a glockenspiel'(goldfinch,Te Traquet

262

Stapazin',p2), 'like a solemndrum' (Ta ChouetteHulotte, p6) and superimposes a

'like 'like 'like tam-tam, a clash of cymbals', a metallic vibrations' of similes: multiplicity
(Ta Rousserolle Effarvatte, p42). Messiaen's 'like trombones' programmatic and

Timbre, descriptions at this alsogiveanimpression of thetimbrethatis to beachieved.


is for development, it has become importance: Messiaen's this of of paramount stage in decided bird Messiaeb to that exploreonceagain vocalisations relation reason,perhaps, to orchestralmusic.

263

Notesto Chapter Vill


Both the numberof booksandpiecesin this work are primenumbers, reaffirmingthe affiliation with asymmetricality/symmetricality. paradoxical composer's ' Material explained in Messiaen's Musical (Pads, treatise,Techniquede mon Langage Leduc,1944)- in other words, earlyprocedures. 3Although,in this work, only adaptations from the originalsare used. 4 Articulation is excludeddueto the difficultiesthis would inflict on the performer. 5Takenfrom the programme Yvonne Loriod's recording,Erato: notesaccompanying STU 70595-8. 6 SeeMessiaen Companion, ed. P. 1Ell (London, Faber, 1995),p327. 7 SeeRobert SherlawJohnson, LfeliaM (London, Dent, 1976,revised1989),pp134135. 8The goldeneagleis neverportrayedin song:only its flight is represented, is it carriedas by the currentsof the air. 'A literal translationof the word 'doW (aswritten, by Messiaen, in the score)is 'gilded': it seems that the dominantpart, the left hand,is coveredwith gold reflectionsof the right later in the work, seebar 115. hand.Gold appears 10 for listener in left hand, it difficult to Theseaccents, those the the make especially betweenthe first andsecond differentiate gardenwarbler. " Messiaen Companionop. cit., p 334. 12 in Thesearetranslations takenfrom Messiaen's annotations the score. 11 Cp-=-ar-9= op. cit., p327. Messiaen 14 SeePreface to the score. " SeeMessiaen's in footnote the score. own 16 The musicis identicalexceptfor the fact that the earlierversionrepeats the first two barsafter the chordalsection,labelled'tr6s lent. 17 Musical,op. cit., musicalversion,nos. 366A (p56) and333 de mon Langage Technique (p52). " Although not indicatedby Messiaen. '9 Thesecharacteristics from the score. aredirect translations ' The oppositeis alsofound, i.e. minor third/major third. In addition,Messiaen playswith e/perfect Oh/major 5h 3"', inversions, perfect relationships. minor mostly 21In the first version,it descends. 22 Thesetrills are written a fifth apartgiving a very openquality. 23 basschord is usedin E flat andE major. At the beginning spread of the work a sin-dlarly 24 frequentlyuses,as an indicationof timbre, the direction It is interesting that Messiaen by manyornithologistswhen describing 'fluted': this term is employed the character of a bird's vocalisation.

264

Chanter IX: Use or Birdsom! in Selected Works 1960-1987

Chronochrone (1960)

Chronochromie, HeinrichStr6belcommissioned and it wasfirst performedat the in October 1960.Chronochromie is an extremely Festival,Germany DonauescWngen Oiseaux in for found des Oiseaur in Rivell the which piano and orchestra complexwork by tunedpercussion. Time, 'The Colour The title, translated Exotiques- is replaced of as integral is less importance birdsong in inunediately that thar, the of preceding suggests brings birds from France, fact, diverse in Messiaen together countries as such works, yet, however,that a balance hasbeenstruck JapanandMexico. It is apparent, Sweden, The prevailingmoclus birdsongand other sources between of musicalcomposition. fourth is based (Strophe I& H) the on three second and movements of operandi durations thirty-two where permutations, chromatic are employed:eachof superimposed is colouredin entirelydistinctways. ' Although the word 'time' is the threepermutations be freedom, its immeasurable in to timeless the title, the seems work with almost used fines bar by Typically, the of superimposed rhythmic complexities. produced a multitude tp6de by for in the the the are co-ordination predominantly used caseof especially different Each is instrumentalists. to the metal permutation a assigned of conductor intensity, has Moreover, instrument, the timbre a separate andpitch. and percussion harmonies cascades of colours,while the whole registerof of the stringsproduceelaborate 'milkyHe is instrument such as mentions specific colour combinations explored'. each

263

hemmed 'pale embellished with orange complex and with gold' grey sonorous or white
with greenandviolet reflectione'.

involves Chronochromie technical many procedures, such astheinterversion system,


describes 'natural both Messiaen features take on equal as what material': alongside into is divided follows: in The the piece seven movements as work. emphasis

Introduction H Ul IV v VI VIE[ StropheI I AntistroPhe StropheH 11 AntistroPhe tpOde Coda

Takenfrom ancientGreekpoetry,the triad (Strophe- Antistrophe- Epode)is extended introduction by its framing by the doublingof the first two movements, the and - notably, in format, in Greek As the the strophe similar poetry, andantistrophe are coda. and involves different Messiaen, to the counterpoint,other rhythms music although,according lines In three the two three of strophes, of superimposed versions andcolour chords? Strophe 1, Messiaen In the thirty-two note-values underpin movements. on permutations 3, in 22,23 1,2 the and and and second strophe, permutations permutations superimposes
24 are employed. The note-values are 'coloured', in order that the listener may recognise

266

Thereare threeways in which this is done.The first is the 'minting' thesepatterns. (Le Monnayage) technique wherethe long durationsare variedby the constantuseof denominator, in derniserniquaver (32" the this effectively a common case subdivisions, is in birdsong. is durations' The 'unfolding the counterpointed given used of note) which instruments: the upper 'unfolding' is playedby threegongs,the to the metallicpercussion by bells, 'unfolding' the set andthe lower unfoldingby a Chinese cymbal, of central timbre is vaned constantly through the colour cymbaland tam-tam.Secondly, susPended instrumentation. is by Messiaen The third technique as elaborate and named chords instruments gstrains are doubled, of chords'.The attacksof the metallicpercussion by chordson twenty-two solo strings.The strophes usethe and prolonged underlined throughoutthe movement, series as a cantusfirmus. permutation

The antistrophes, areboth closelyrelatedin structureandalsoemploythreepermutations However, durational the antistrophes the series. useonly part of the permutationseries of The the the antistrophes movements. concentrate on the songsof the song of ends at instrumental lex DUIa, b]. thrushandskylark,playedon various combinations

from the osprey(Sweden),Paradise The introductionmakesuseof bird vocalisations and (Japan), bushwarbler (Japan)andthe flycatchers Japanese Narcissus grey thrush(Japan), Interversions fortissimo the white-tailed eagle. andthereare calls of are employed, acute, inspired by The the torrents. rocks and mountain two sections are rocks representing fortissimo'jagged' twelve-notechordsplayedby the whole orchestra, while the mountain in the violas anda torrents areportrayedby flourishesof quintupletdemiseniquavers

267

flycatcher'sshort 'vaporousconfusion'of trills on the secondviolins. The Narcissus

in both instruments for is the a and concurrently xylophone marimba: play passage written
fashion,producinga porrectuscolouredby the woodwind, andare involved high-pitched its The DU2 lei in an ascending the textures coda as most same uses of glissando - p221. few included, birds the additionalare notablythe although songsof a earliercounterpart, little.cuckoo(Japan), the blue flycatcher(Japan)and the white-eye(Japan)[ex VU3]. The densely the orchestrated accented chordsof the white-tailedeagle with work concludes
[ei IX/4].

tp8de its first of The sixth movement the reminiscent outcry performance: caused an at in des Oiseaza, involves in NMI an dawn this strings solo movement eighteen the chorus into is divided birdsong. The two four-minute movement outpouring of almostcontinuous fbUows: as sections

Section I Section 111

ppI55-178 pp178-204

in instrument bird's the first to changes any The song, while solo each one sectionassigns in bold: here secondsectionare shown

268

Instrument

V Section

Section 2rkd

I' violin I I' violin 2


I' violin 3

l' blackbird 2 blackbird Ydblackbird 4hblackbird yellowhammer 1A goldfinch chiffchaff 2ndgoldfinch whitethroat lesser whitethroat 1" chaffinch 2dchaffinch
5h blackbird Ohblackbird greenfinch I't golden oriole nightingale 2ndgolden oriole
nd

I' blackbird 2 blackbird Ydblackbird 40'blackbird yellowhammer linnet chiffchaff Ist gardenwarbler whitethroat 2 gardenwarbler + lesser whitethroat [continues withoutbreak] [continues withoutbreak]
5h blackbird 6h blackbird greenfinch I St golden oriole nightingale 20dgolden oriole
ad nd

I' violin4 I' violin 5 I' violin 6 2 violin I


2 ndviolin 2 2nd
nd

violin3

2d violin4 Vdviolin 5
2 ndviolin 6

viola 2 viola 3 viola 4 ceUo I viola I cello 2

At the beginning section(p 178)the songsof the linnet (I't violin 6), first of the second 2) heard, (2" (2nd 4) second and garden are violin while the warbler violin gardenwarbler

269

break. dominant The the two chaffinches continue vAthout of a most voice representations linnet, fortissimo: is it is by birds' the that the this marked of accompanied stage other at
dynamic first bar its [ex DUS]. The the within range character p-pp of songs,which remain interrupted by a simplespondee. is striking, consisting three rising anapaests of

The first section,therefore,assigns one solo stringedinstrumentto onebird's song, At instrument half-way this the point. entries:each plays songuntil occurringin staggered the openingof this secondsectionmost of the birds are silent:the linnet andgarden first heard for before. Gradually, time, the the chaffinches while continue as are warbler blackbirds,a whitethroatand nightingaleaddto the texture; with the exceptionof the Unnetandgardenwarblers,all instruments areportrayingtheir originalbird vocalisations. is that, nearthe close,the second in the movement The only other change violin 4 returns to the lesser whitethroat.

In sucha complexmovement that consistsof perpetual variation creatingan improvisatory however, features, Certain it is difficult the to are characteristics. grasp unifying qualityP (I" in first 2dgolden The the and same part. and second cello parts repeated persistently in in lower than the range songs; addition,triplet semiquavers, other orioles) aregenerally The call of the yellowhammer falling,intervalsin slursandglissandieffectspredominate. (1' violin 5) involvesthe sameiambicostinatopattern- gracenote E naturalfollowed by Similarly, DU61. lei in the throughout the A chifthaff movement semiquavers natural an 4 its lei IX/7], 'chirpS, is (2'dviolin 1) very repetitivewith continuous while the gracenote idiosyncratic 'machine-gun' (I" quintuplet and sextuplet viola) nightingale's

270

lex LX/8]. For the deniseniquavers cellsalsoachieveaudiblecoherence andscandicus

is heightened by listener, the overlapping thescore's of range complexity andby the


is instruments Perhaps Messiaen timbre: throughout. solo stringed are used similarityof bird it is difficult decipher to that when so vocalisations simultaneously many suggesting is listeningto a dawnchorusin.the field. With sucha limited variety of timbre,Messiaen forcedto employvariedrhythmicand pitch featuresin order to highlightimportant dynamics The this to composer's varied achieves phrases. use of texturesandpartsof fact due however, that they to the areundoubtedlyconcealed manyphrases someextent; is human brain in because by tessitura., the or smply are overshadowed pitches the same decipher to suchcomplexpolyphony. unable

dramaticaUy for Chronochromie Messiaen instruments that The r6le of the varies chose [ex DU9 The two the the warblers agile solos of marsh clarinetsare given throughout. Strophe 1, p39] andaddto the colourationof the songthrush in a contrastingchordal fashion[previous ex DUIb]. The violins are alsogivenvarying tasks,from the interruptioncallsechoingthe ospreylei IX/jo - p2l] to a complexharmonyinvolving a 181 lei DU12 from DUI to interversions lei Itrills cluster p39], of -p superimposition tp6de. This in blackbirds, the yellowhammers, goldfinches of the agilerecapitulation bird Time' Colour 'The to or underline of notion of - using colour chords accentuate future importance in become is to works. orchestral of paramount vocalisations Moreover,instruments are intendedto performa variety of tasks,providing he, dominant to enhance or effects melodic even special producing a accompaniment,

271

As in Messiaen's instrument birdsong. therangeandcapabilities of each useof thepiano,


fully utilised. are

SeptHaTkaT (1962)

hadnoted down As a direct result of a tour to Japan with YvonneLoriod, Messiaen birdsongs Japanese new to his repertoireand hadbeeninfluencedby their habitat,aswell 'Gagaku' Japanese The Noh by theatre the the useof variousmetallic and court music. as Orient: instruments, the to the and marimba adds sense of xylophone percussion birds seemto co-existin a suitablesetting. in this piece,the Japanese impressionistically, is minimaland,comparedto the traditionalsymphony The choiceof instrumentation

d'Oiseaux Catalogue instruments. by dominated heavily windandpercussion orchestra,


hasbeenshownto be written in a block-like fashion- that is to say,barsor sectionsof is feature, bird there very and animal(s)or vocalisation, an environmental musicrepresent Halkar, Sept features. different little development two more of or more or superimposition including features Chronochromie, different in than combines musical many effectively is However, birdsong,dqIi-tilas, rhythms,colourations, the orchestra el aL permutations blocksin both the layout andthe scoring:within eachgroup, the dividedinto separate features in instruments the caseof the eight violins, are similar rhythmic or, often aregiven lines There homorhythmically. course, givento the piano', xylophone are,of solo scored its is huge the to marimbaand the chords while on own, able play piano andmarimba: in homophony. two-part combine occasionally xylophone

272

The groupsare as follows:

Group I- piccolo, flute, 2 oboes,cor


in anglais, clarinet Eb, 2 clarinets in Bb, bass clarinet, 2 bassoons Group 3-8 vioHns Group 5- piano (soloist)

Group 2- trumpet,trombone

Group 4- xylophone, marimba (soloists) Group 6- cencerros, bells, crotales, triangle, (and often in one line only) cymbals, 2 gongs, Chinesecymbal, 2 tamtams (C. G. C.T).

'Introduction, the piano playsa tila labelled'rythme droit' andthe In the first movement, 'rhythms has The the tila. the version a retrograde plays of same of woodwind percussion the three shakti' (colouredby the brass),the marimbaandxylophoneplay anothertila, into gradually merges simhavikrarna, which varna, andeight violins play a melodic migra. in Messiaen's In this case, line simultaneously. uncharacteristically music,the melodyis 'true This be describes Messiaen to the structures. rhythn-dc must what as subservient The coda,too, is a continuationof the superimposition heterophony'. of rhythmic line in the eightviolins. melodic sequences -and

273

These'block-like' formationsareusedthroughoutthe work with a few single-voiced however, There textures two movements that involve are, asexceptions. polyphonic is the third movement, birdsongas material.The first example 'Yamanaka-Cadenza' (pp2745). The form is an ABABAB structure,thus:

Bird.ChorusI

pp27-30 ......................................................................

flycatcher) I (Narcissus PianoCadenza pp30-32 ............................... Bird Chorus2 pp32-35 ......................................................................

bunting,Japanese Skylark) pp35-37 2 (grey-headed PianoCadenza .... Bird Chorus3 pp3743 .......................................................... ...........

3 (grey thrush) PianoCadenza pp43-45 ..............................................

At the opening,the woodwind represents the birdsongsin full chorus.The black-faced bunting,Japanese yeUowbunting,grey thrush,Japanese white-eye,Indian tree pipit and flycatcher(whosesongis given dominance beingforte) are portrayed, the Narcissus bar, first flycatcher blue by flycatcher In followed [ex LX/13]. the the paradise and shortly flycatcherrepeats the samechoriambicceUthreetimes (-UU-), while both the Narcissus have in being, (UU-), thrush mere accentor anapaestic a sense, andalpine rhphms grey Messiaen important Narcissus the to the chooses choriamb. of present extensions In fact, duringthe flycatcher'ssongwith dfferent instruments, singlyor in combinations. flute it is in first (pp27,29), Bb to the this and secondclarinets movement, given courseof 37) andhasthe piano(p30-32) (p29), clarinetin Eb, secondoboe(p34), Marimba(p. in its first cadenza lei DU14a, b, c, d, el. In the choruses, developits characteristic the

274

dcmiserniquavcr flycatcher'ssonginvolvesnumerous Narcissus ascending runsandshort

found in three the thescandicus of uses exact pitches motive calls- oneof which repeated
its bush Japanese (F#-D-Ab)7 lei b] Indeed, IX/15a, the warbler's call ubiquitous of immediately preceding motivic cells also employthe sametriplet rhythm.TheNarcissus homophonic flycatcherin its cadenza patterns, of page30-31 involvesmanyrepeated isolated Someof the repeated high-pitched use patterns colour-chords. and alternators bar 14 chord of a of the cadenza, wherean accented at especially chords, colour Mowed by duration is in white and a rapidgroup of threechordsalternating serniquaver by followed black notes.Perhaps this bar maybe described a chordal as an accented chord it label formula, it be justifiable bar but, to this a choriamb. may anapaest; aseach employs Indeed,bar 6 is a choriambwith an extra chord at the beginning,as is bar 20 an extended be bar from Therefore, derived 17. being IV, the as categorised cadenza may paeon foHows:

bar
1-3 4 5 6-7 8-9 10-12 13 14-15 16 17-18 19 20-21 22 23

metre
choriamb rest spondee extendedchoriamb 3/16 extended choriamb anapaest choriamb 3/16 IV paeon

other features
descendingcefls rest widely-spread chords repeated 5-note cell

texture
homorhythmic/2-Pt rest 2 chords homorhythmic 2-pt homorhythmic/2-Pt homorhythmic homorhythmic 1 chord 2-pt chords 2-pt chords 2-pt chords rest 3 chords

as 13 descendingflourishes descendingflourishes (taken from b 17 & 18) ascendingflourish rest

IV extendedpaeon rest 3/8

275

24-26

iamb, tribach, spondee

2, porrectus, 2

flourish 27 28 spondee 29-30 extended choriamb 31 rest rest rest homorhythmic (6-pt) 4/16 32 33 ascending2-pt flourishes 2-pt chords 2-pt chords 34 rising alternator 6/32 2 chords (2-pt) 35 1 chord (4-pt) 2/4 36 37 rest rest rest in relation to plainchant andrh)lhmicfeatures (Note:whenmorerecognisable melodic and areused, tables arenowmoresuccinct). motivicclassification prosody,

2/3-pt homophonic/ homorhythmic 'scattered' 2 chords homorhythmic

in the xylophoneoften recallsthe soundsof the nightingale, The Narcissus'representation Sinilarly, F demiserniquavers. its 'machine-gun' on repeated natural sextuplet effects with bird harmonic descending the those thrush's calls are reminiscent of of principal the grey in Ta ChouetteHulotte' (CataloguedOlseaux no. V).

four by a rhythmiccontinuumon the metalpercussion The bird choruses areunderpinned bushwarbler Wasusingirrational values- and a call from the Japanese independent by long duration in followed by a a rapid is portrayed crescendo, which, interrmttently, different have begin but All they this melodicshape and a on pitch, all versions scandicus. identicalrhythm- the tritone is presentonceagain.Playedon the trumpet,this call is given first bird In the addition, and second choruses usealmostall the same notableprominence. is the the superimposition birds; althoughthe birds' actualsongsarevariedconstantly, blue-tail, introduces (pp37-42) Japanese bird The the third red-flanked chorus robin, same. hawk Japanese cuckoo, grosbeak and stonechat. warbler, crown willow

276

involves birdsong is de Oiseaux Karuizawa'. 'Les that The second number six, movement features harmonic includes two This movement piano cadenzas and ostinatoand also before in 'tr6s (Indian Pipit the tree the same vein as song) and rhythmiccontinuums dans le dans Vaigu' grave, aigre criard et sonoritiesof the greatreed rythme- percut6sec '6Notable be found between b, DU16a, lex to the are similarities cl. warbler found here its French counterpart, cadenza warbler's with great reed yoshikiri'/Japanese dDiseaux [ex Catalogue Turddide', found in the seventh 'Rousserolle movementof in iambic in bas3 Here, d] the the two DU16c, the opening and colour chords the rhythms d'Oiseaux. found in Catalogue in identical to those sonority andshape treble arealmost is similarto the alternatorof the The two-part alternator(in bar 10 of the 2d cadenza) de bruit is 'thrashed, the Frenchgreatreedwarblerwhich given marking clanking'NW6, ferraille'. The fortissimospreadchordsin an iambicmetre (bars 11-13)are alsofound in differently (pplOS-109). Effarvatte', althoughharmonised 'La Rousserolle

in bushwarbler)is featuredthroughoutthis movement Again, the Uguisu (Japanese is it here, birds in Although the three used movement alsoappear manyof variousguises. long duration by liclatant' followed bush Japanese shape an rhythmic warbler's the both fact they that two the the that pieces so closely, as as well relates scandicusg by group I bushwarbler is usuallyrepresented The Japanese incorporatea pianocadenza. includethe (woodwind section)with a trumpet lex IX/171. At other times,its appearances (p flutes 11). Furthermore, I the the towards the of piece, end and trumpet, oboes single bushwarbleris pre-figuredby flourishesfrom the woodwind sectionin a Japanese

277

first joining flute, in the trumpet trombone oboe, crescendo, and a subsequent climactic for is figure At 27, this tripleted trill. way makes a chordal alternato? which pianissimo by the use of augmenting slowed rests,concludingthe movement. gradually

The metallicpercussion sectionaddsto the sonoritiesmadeby the solo linesandthe Theseuniquesuperimpositions 'blocks' of instruments. provide inexhaustible possibilities for further timbres,accentuating the beautyof the exotic birds' vocalisations, especially All the textures the and metallic percussion marimba ensemble. vvith xylophone, in is based by Shu-Sun thi-, are employed work which on suchan unusual enumerated instruments. of combination

Couleursde la Cit8 Celeste(1963)

Messiaen to write a work for threetrombonesandthree Heinrich Str6belrequested in including instruments The the task, accepted composer while severalother xylophones. Messiaen timbre, to this to of and support a variety unusual ensemble. order produce " in for immediately sawthe possibilities the trombones an apocalypticsonority. Addedto horns bass is in D, instrumentation brass three trombone, two trumpets, trumpet a and the it became in F. The threexylophones xylophone,xylorimba andmarimba,while was the subtletiesof the aforementioned tuned thoughtthat threeclarinetswould accentuate is The instruments. to also piano employed, quality often with a percussive percussion four Bells, cencerros, gongsand two tam-tamscombinewith the match xylophone-trio.

278

thesesonoritiesand- althoughthe piecewas written only oneyear after SeptHmkd Gamelan lex DU18 effects produce oflen - p491.

Messiaen takesfive quotationsfrom the Book of Revelation: 1 'a rainbowsurrounding the throne' (IV, 3) 2 'and the seven angelshadseventrumpets' (VIII, 6) 'to the starwas given the key to the botton-dess pit' (IX, 1) 4 'the fight of the Holy City was Ekeajasper stone,clearas crystal' (=, 11)

5 'the foundations with all mannerof precious of the wall of the City were garnished ' (=, jasper, sapphire, chalcedony, emerald... stones: 19,20)

In to harmonies. in in addition Some to the certain the score relation arenoted colours, of
four Messiaen inspiration cites of the work, the programmatic natureandthe sourceof frequently includes in fact, In them the the employed most and music. plainchants, is (mode Sunday Pentecost' two 'alleluia on the used six), eighth after of plainchant, four Est following is Gregorian The in the afleluias: style. a of occasions almost

Magnus Dominus I eighthSunday after Pentecost Christus Easter Resurgens 2 fourth Sunday after Caro Mea, 3 CorpusChristi (Holy Sacrament) 4 feastfor the dedicationof the church- Aborabo

279

The first alleluialisted aboveis the mostfrequentlyusedhere,andfor brevity, it is to be


Alleluia (8h P). as referred

from scripturestresses The list ofjewels found in the last quotation. the importance given (Paradise). Indeed,the to colour associations, symbolicallythoseof CelestialJerusalem hasoften saidthat it is the ornission first.quotationmentions the rainbow:Messiaen of a that producescolour. tone in a full compendium of sernitones

(sp) rhythms,which As in previousworks, Messiaen alsousesGreekand Shamgadcva form a rhythmiqstructurein the work, andpennutationof intermsions. The central from figure first interversions, dqli-tlilas rhythmsand 42, the combines work, sectionof is It 'groups' thesecombinations of material. of timbresandrhythmsthat createand other Greek Sharngadeva The intensifythe contrasts transformations and of sonority. and opposedto the simpledurationsdeployedin the colour chords are dramatically rhytlu-as andplainchants.

The threemainsectionsare preceded by an introduction The form of the work is sectional. introduction by (pp The introduces bird 1 followed a short a coda. vocalisations, and -5) first first (pp 6-2 1) (8" P). The the the statement of and alleluia section cadenza piano birdsong,symmetrical displays arrangements of colour-chords,an alleluia(8h P), two bottomless flash has key 'the 'Eke depicting that the to the of star a pit' and quotations (this time from the meadowlark), lightningthat illuminates the sky', anotherpianocadenza first Corpus (p2148) Christi The the the of phrase section alleluia. middle a refrain and

280

barc-throatcd bcllbird, 'cries' from flourishes from displays the the redand raucous

for thefourthSunday in Easter for the first time and is heard Thealleluia breasted toucan.
is tila superimposed uponpermutations13,14 and 15.The third section a rhythmic It is first found (1) as an (pp48-60)presents the alleluia(8h P) in varioustransformations. introductionto the section,(2) with tila (producingGamelan effectsin the (3) superimposed instrumentation), with the alleluiafor the dedication,(4) with Sharngadeva with colour-chords motives,and (5) asa slow 'ecstatic' version,harmonised A birdsong. further (p6l-73) has The fragments the tila of coda strophes on piano. of and frenzy by followed the this a wren opens section, representing stripe-backed pianocadenza (S'h P). The tila alleluia on and superimposed rest of the codaconsistsof a of polyphony the the the of symbolism of of chasm; reft-ain; reappearance representation cadenza; piano in Corpus Christi lightning; flashes alleluia solemnity. anda concluding of abyss;

birdsongsfrom manyparts of the world As in Oise= Exotiques,hereMessiaen combines heard be Canada) Argentina,Brazil, Venezuela, together (New Zealand, not which would beauty it, its 'intrinsic in the wild. Birdsongis includedherefor, asMessiaen andas a put for his (or Paradise) joy': Celestial Jerusalem heavenly the would composer, symbolof birdsong. embrace

The birdsongis generallygivento the clarinets,piano andxylophone-trio.In the by sharp, the parsonbird (New Zealand)is represented Introduction,for example, by by falling the three a the and on piano, clarinets, clusterchords chordson accented is figure 2, Before the call rising of clarinets,pianoandxylophone-trio. combination

281

by form The the cluster chords on piano. of the parsonbird's opening coloured is follows: as vocalisation bar melodic shape/ other features high-pitched chirp 2 3 4 5 falling clusters porrectusflexus scandicus porrectusflexus, interruptioncall 3/16 double-iamb paeonIV bacchius paeonIV, iamb 3 cl pno, 3 cl xyl-trio xyl-trio, 3 cl & pno metre instruments

However,the xylophone-trioalsocolours, the clarinets'timbre in the vocalisations of the in DU19aq interact [cx kiskadee the the they the case of yellowhead, and, with piano great b- p2, rig4 & p3, rig5j. The metallicpercussion andxylophone-triooften manufacture

Sept Ha&aT. At thebeginning Gamelan of reminiscent sonorities, of thethird section,


th (8 P) Shamgadeva the superimposed alleluia is on various rhythms,the cencerros where due bells Japanese fact to that the piano simultaneously the tubular qualities produce and high-pitched These 'stained-glass' and effects cluster-chords. sonoritiesare regularly plays helpingto producecolourssuchasgreenemeraldandviolet amethyst in the background (p 15), andinteractingwith the moreregularwesterninstruments.

The bare-throated Certainbird vocalisations aregivenfull supportby the orchestra.

'arrach6, bellbirdfromBrazilis givenchordal callsat the cri6'/'snatched,, cried' iambic


in, by These the beginning second one,two or section. calls are played periodically of, and by in in horns, Bb, D, trumpet trumpets trombones, a piano tbreeclarinetsaccompanied

232

Although is in the tuned the crescendo no percussion. second marked, chord each andall by beinghigherin pitch andaccented. It is importantto note that &cry'is given emphasis the first clusterchord in the pianousesonly white keys,while the secondemploysonly black keys" [ex IX/20].

in the work; as in previouspieces, Five brief cadenzas the arefound at variousstages instrument. designated five bclow: The listed is the piano cadenzas are piano

(1) p2 (2) p19 (3) p6l. (4) p66 (5) p72

fig 3 fig 31 fig 80 fig 86 fig 97

stripe-backzd wren Westernmeadowlark stripe-backed wren Mexicantropical mockingbird Westernmeadowlark

the stripe-backed In the first cadenza, wren (1) is portrayed(at figure 3) using several indication 'sans bar feature designated itself ideas the to a and each with motivic is employed, battue'/'without pulse'. Two-part homophony togetherwith the (anapaest: demisemiquaver derniserniquaver cell scandicus aforementioned 12 flourishes ) quick additionally, of clusterchordsproducea vivacious, while. serniquaver bird is This in (figures 80-81) lei LX/211. the third also cadenza portrayed colourful song 61. deployed; however, Here, features begirg the the page coda, all the of same are at deeplycolouredchordsareincluded.The Westernmeadowlarkof Canada alsohastwo

283

figures 31-32 97-98 (2), (5) figures 1, towards the of section at end and cadenzas: at small

Christialleluia before thework. Thesecond thefinalCorpus whichcompletes of these


(p72) four-part flourishes the as the same widely-spaced, chords and similar uses cadenzas just threefeatures, first (p 19),which - given the indication'muffled' - comprises as

follows:

chords a) two widely-spaced flourish b) single-fine (chordal) c) anapaest

is a permutationof the abovefeatures,thus: The form of this cadenza

1) a-b [rest] c-a-b [rest]

[Test] (extended) a-c -b [ex IX/22 - p19]

figures (4) is a representation Mexican the tropical The other cadenza at of mockingbird (S'h tila 86-87,after the frenziedpolyphonyof birdsongsuperimposed alleluia and upon Exotiques, Oiseaur found in like Here, the P). of pianocadenzas manyrepetitiveexamples four times, Mexican the two tropical mockingbirdrepeats same or even colour-chord the deeply is lei LX/231. last enriched alternator a colour-chord the phrase while

284

The preceding the long-billcdwren (I' clarinet), polyphonic'tour de force' represents kaka (2d island clarinet),yellow-rumpedcacique(3d clarinet),rufous-bellicd green south thrush(piano),varioustila and the alleluia(S'hP) superimposed on oneanother.Later, introduced: birdsongs but othersare additions,most are someare replacements, more notablythe three-partversionof the takahe'ssongplayedon xylophone,xylorimbaand bird, is incessant den-dsemiquavers, the triplet and oven and rufous which given marimba, further Gamelan the creating xylophone-trio effects. alsoemploys -

is it hassaidthat the form 'depends Although In this work, Messiaen entirelyon colours'. is it into (introduction break the the to three coda), work up sections sections useful imaginative in 'Celestial Messiaen's City' the that creates greatest perhaps array of colours impacton the listener.The specificinspirationof the piece- the Book of Revelationit dazzling does dimension, the and visionary containingas gives work a mystical birdsong of colour, apprehensions andplainchant. apocalyptic

Et Exspecto Resurrectionem Mortuorum (1964)

intended Messiaen this work to be performedin a vast openspace a originally - perhaps The simplicityof largechurchor Cathedral, or evenin the openair or amongstmountains. V first last Movement Movement both I the the sectionof the piecesectionof and involvevery simpledurationalvaluesindeed- presents power. monumental a strengthened The pianoandstringsareleft out completely;instead, the orchestration consists of

285

brass instruments, including homs bass a sixteen-strong section six and a wind eighteen impressive in Bb percussion section. and an saxhorn -

by a quotationfrom The work is dividedinto five movements, eachof which is preceded in fact, birdsong. is little In birds There Bible. two useof only arc mentioned the very the in (or Ulrapura is first Amazonian the The twice the musician wren) which appears score. de du fils les la Vheure vient o6 morts entendront voix entitled, third movement DieuTthe time comeswhenthe deadwill hearthe voice of the Son of God' (St JohnV, here in is be heard hour death, the TI-ds to an 25). and symbolises of particularspecies said innervoice of ChristwAing the deadfrom their rest, announcing the irrunincnt into halves, is divided The three two of employs each which movement resurrection. elements:

I uirupuraoutbursts beinga pennutationof the first) 2 tubular bells- two setsof four notes(the second 3 Tutti - brief, rapid -a tumultuousfrenzy,overlapping with the pp-ffff trill of gongsand tam-tam(s)

brief bursts is Uirapura's through Amazonian of sound-a raucous The caU expressed in lei DU24 crescendo values and quasi-glissandi of chords,shortnote - p32]. succession

286

13 in fourth is 'lls headed, lark the The calandra movement which appears ressusciteront,

de le joyeux des les dans itoiles acclamations concert et avec un nomnouveau glorieux, fils du ciel... /'They will rise againin glory, with a new name,andjoin the blissfulconcert

is in Son Heaven... ' As the title, the the the of the of evident acclamations and stars of
joyful for its Messiaen lark mainly, as relates, qualities: chosen chirruping, was calandra joy 'celestial four birdsong the and one of qualitiesof the glorious this alsosymbolises
agilit3e"14 "gift of souls,the

[ex IX/251.

Movementfour is dividedinto six sections: eachsectionis prefacedby threetam-tams falling in Trinity, 'long' to the thirds say. needless three representing senibreves, playing -

isjoinedby sixgongs: however, their two-by-two, Thefinallinkinggroupof threenotes,


in The the thirds. of vocalisations minor and major various also are entries staggered in form The lark the the two movement of six of sections. simple represented are calandra

is asfoHows:
tam-tams 1) Easter Introit tam-tams 2) Calandra lark tam-tams 3) Easter Introit tam-tams 4) Calandra lark

first (with 'theme Introit Easter the 5) of piece', andtila) tam-tams forceful 6) (with succession of semibreves- whole orchestra gongs) six tarn-tams

287

lark contributesa rhythmicvitality to an otherwisestatic set of The songof the calandra bars 'gift its Messiaen As the of of agility', songsymbolises writes a numberof chords. With bar is in length, tempo. occasional each given a a exceptions, all rapid varying first 200), 'Un (serniquaver At tempo the the time-signature. marking, peu vif' separate flourish, few barsof its first appearance chordal serniquaver chord,anapaestic presenta high-pitched double-iamb, two loud serniquaver a chords, shriekanda chordalalternator b1l. Messiaen [previous IX/25 in the sl,, seconds a couple of ex p48, of space all in high-pitched harmonic divides the seen as alternators, shrieks with cleverlyandregularly lark's In song the the calandra of appearance previousmusicalexample. addition, second beginswith two setsof three chordsmakingup a cell: eachchord hasseveralnotesplayed that a representation by most of the woodwind section.It hasnow becomecommonplace its in fully bird's number the to song of colouration order portray may need song -a of a is lark different dynamic The instruments the calandra pitches. songof all playing of fluctuation broughtto life by the colour-chordcomplexities the of pulseat and perpetual it is becomes interested in Messiaen As colour associations, more sucha rapid speed. fashion. in highly developed his birdsongs timbral inevitable that are presented a more

M6ditationssur le Myst6rede la SainteTrinit6 (1969)

(195 Here, d'Orgue 1). for Livre first is Miditations the The major work organsince birdsong, his features incorporates Messiaen commonlyassociated uniquestyle: with Greek Hindu limited the transposition, and plainchant, modesof religioussymbolism, However, drops, a new and note values colour combinations. added rhythms,water

288

in idea is deployed Meditations langage 'le the communicableTthe compositional -

Messiaen has language'. it Although that admitted wasa game, each note, communicable
beginning on the A abovemiddleC, is assigned a letter's, while the remainingletters(I-Z) is in fixed both feature fixed durations. A registersandwith musical areallocatedpitches Latin Trinity before In to the to essential verbs, and cases given addition, nouns. assigned is givenmelodicandrhythmicfeatures.Thesecomplicated rulesmakeit possiblefor from SaintThomasAquinas,albeitwithout adverbs, Messiaen to spellout passages indefiniteor definitearticles,pronounsor prepositions.

The work is dividedinto ninemovements, eachmovementeulogisingan attribute of the is involves dedicated Meditation Trinity. I 'God Father' to the the a threepartsof and 'communicable language' which the employs outlining a portion of passage substantial Meditation is devotedto SaintThomasAquinas' 'SummaTheologica'.The second holiness, openingwith a plainchantin octaves,'Alleluia de la D6dicace'- 'Dieu est Saint'/'God is Holy'. The form is divided into two equalparts,both of which usethe same in in below: is form The the same order, ending a coda. shown of material sections
Part 1 a) Plainchant and passagerepresenting the holiness of Christ b) wren c) coloured chords d) blackbird e) chaffinch f) garden warbler cadenza g) blackcap Pairt 2 a) Plainchant and passagerepresenting the holiness of Christ b)wren c) coloured chords d) blackbird e) chaffinch Ogardenwarbler cadenza g) blackcap Coda Plainchan't yellowharnmer

289

is written in octavesandin five phrases, The plaincbant the last concludingwith repeated de la holiness ('Gloria Christ's Both A the representing passages staccato naturals. Messe')andthe sectionI haveentitled 'Colour chords' (en trio) involve manychordsthat in described device (for 6ths, 7ths 9ths and major example) aretriadic, yet enclosing -a Musical' whenreferringto very earlyworks. The last chord 'Techniquede mon Langage Lent' sectionis simplyA major in first inversion.Messiacn's in the first 'Presque Here (p16, by foHowed form in the chord. colour a of chordalcomplexes, resolutionsare final before is line (G the W), twice the top repeated natural-Fnatural) statedand s4, is interesting is It harmonised. the that this the cell richly passage: simplemelodic chord of instance, for blackcap, The has 'style in to oiseau'. composer, manycases, resorted earlier by an A major chord with an added by a single-line is represented texture accompanied If then M26]. lex inversion) (1' combined are and characteristics melodic rhythmic sixth (paeon IV) flexus follows: iamb its phrase(p19) maybe characterised as - porrectus in is found iamb. birdsong decorative Similar 5early anapaest porrectus- group of du Sommeil 'Jardin Turangaffla Symphony, the the of sixth movement piecessuchas d'amour' or evenin the VingtRegardssur PEnfantJisus. Indeed,the gardenwarbler's broken in demiserrAquavers, line in is texture continuous occasionally cadenza also a single form is based in beat As [ex DU271. the by earlierworks, up a singleserniquaver or rest The bird birdsong juxtaposed than the vocalisations. superimposition of many rather upon including different in twoinvolves textures a however, time a very short several wren, bacchius), (anapaest, trill, jagged two-part three-part twoa and phrases part alternator, The [ex U081. (homorhythmic) homophony three more sharp chords and two-part innovativesongof the blackbirdis dividedinto two distinct textures.The first is a single-

290

line textureandthe secondinvolvesa homorhythmic motive, a chordaltrill anda two-part

first in its flourish the two second appearance, of chords, mostnotably whichconsists,
is found on This falling shape higherthanthe other, resultingin a 'twit-too' vocal shape. [ex DU29 the throughout work ocpsions many - p221.

The third, brief meditationrefersto a text by SaintThomasAquinas,andis the only here, hand language'. 'communicable The states the to part, right movement makeuseof like it: in Indian the the two part, pedal the text, while, staves accompany rhythms, other is in line intervallic leaps, but is line, the middle the top monophonicand showssimilar
two-parts continuously.

God God definition important it is fourth the of The as expresses meditation particularly he but Yahweh, in Moses Exodus Messiaen to asks see citesthe passage where as 'I AM'. it for before kill but I 'You you andcry out would cannotseeme, you, shallpass replies, 'I I before According to am', and am, something shouting, scripture, passed my name". Claude full in discussions In duly is the the with at climax score on organ. this noted Samuel, that in order to createtrepidation,he decidedto employ the composer explains includingthe criesof the black woodpecker.Here, most of the bird vocalisations, &strange' birds' vocalisations take a prominentr6le; most imaginativeis the composer'sinstruction

In blends addition, for bizarre and mixture. clarion often of of registrations combinations in Washington, first the organtherecreatedquite a sensation, perfonnance at the work's later in discussion: few Messiaen a platform years relateda as

291

'An thefourthmovement theblackwoodpecker of the"Miditatione' where his fear, I wasableto make full useof theso-called "trompettes expresses en directly the trumpets pointing at theaudience, chamade", whichcreated a 16 listeners. [Seeex IW30] the tremendous stir among

Thetreatmentof bird vocalisationin the fourth meditationis mostlythrough short calls. The 'grand solo' of the songthrushis built up of short, snatched rhythmicmotives,and includesa quasi-SEssando staccatocolour effect,marked'Eke silk tearing', and ascending brash, drops densely 'like [ex IK/31a, b]. The clusteredsonorities of water' chordsmarked iambic be described black 'cries', the short the only again can while woodpecker as of homorhythmic 'too-wit' [ex DU321. The the repetitive ring ouzel mayresemble cells of is heard Tengmalm's owl earlyon and,after the stirring climax at the endof the texture of bourdon huge descends, followed by the solo on silence a owl's reappearance movement, is how [ex IX/33a, b]. From ffITto pppp,Messiaen mankind small succinctlysymbolises light holiness'. 'dazzling to the of compared

The first The fifth meditationdescribes threedivine attributeswith precisemusicalthemes. 17, low in its register- reminiscent is 'God is Infinite', which is givento the 16' bassoon of Nous" (La NativiM). The secondis 'God the Everlasting, the pedalpart in 'Dieu Parn-

is flashes 'God Unchanging" like is the third, serenely treated of colour,while wMch
Another in foundation limited 1 8' 16 transposition. the third stops modeof and scoredon in Spirit Messiaen Holy describes toccata the also an exciting on manuals. passage describes the 'Father Omnipotent'and 'Our Father'. the Father,differentiatingbetween

292

is struck -'God is Love'. The piececoncludes Finally,a simplebut paramount sentiment Dbs innocent the of the yellowharnmer: vvithsuchsimplicity, the composer repeated with love". It is 11, 'divine this that sweet, naYve song completes cherished meditations projects V, VIII andIX (at the end of the work - ex EK/34).As W. H. Hudsonwrites of this bird, it 'singsin the sultriestweather silenc[ing]other voicesso he will utter his monotonous ... day'18. the gloorniest chanton

to the Son- 'In the Word was Life, andLife was light'. The Meditation VI is dedicated based is Interestingly, to themes. thereare similarities on plainchant entirely movement birdsonghere:thereare manyrepeated pitchesin the 'Offertoire', while the 'Graduel' - on fifths by is diminished both occasions are single chord, accompanied a while and perfect Catalogue from blue in to that the thrush's song of rock written above, a stylesimilar

dDiseaux".

is dedicated in 'communicable Holy Spirit. Here, to the the The seventh words meditation language'aretakenagainfrom SaintThomasAquinas' 'SummaTheologica': 'The Father Holy Spirit-themselves love Leitmotifs Son the through areused the us'. and and Father, Son, Spirit Holy the the verb and throughout representing movement, repeatedly the 'to love'. The birdsongis limited to a commonbulbul in the top stave,which decorates language. The songlabelled'oiseaude in the 'communicable leitmotifs andphrases both in the introductionand coda- washeardby Messiaen at Pers6polis'- appearing Iran: he was unableto get a glimpseof it in order to identify the in modem-day Persepolis identified is highly kind bulbul. Its been has It song repetitive,and as some of now species.

293

The two-part chordsat the beginningof its song is written mostlyin two-part homophony.

in its first appearance IV rhythrnic formincessant cells.Thepenultimate uses paeon phrase


in interval in (two is followed by the cell which each rising notes) same or - the a sequence

interval: demiserniquawrs hand left descends. As the similar each cell of gradually case -a
has lex DU351. this a glissando phrase quality used, are

The eighthmeditationportraysone last attribute: 'God is One'. The openingplainsong, 'Alleluia de ]a Toussaint',is indeeddirect in its closeresemblance to the original chant. The simplicityof this singlehe givesthe piecea feelingof archaicpurity recallingsimilar Glorieux. Corps At Les in diminuendo in the gradually close, a rising passage monody final (in the to the penultimate which sernibreve phrase) chord, until each addsnotes

This passage two ascending and a chord. gradual nine-part notes of pedal consists
In of use white notes only. addition,the naive,repeated in its simplicity symbolises completetWsmeditation. of the yellowharnmer serniquavers

its in The final, ninth meditationarisesfrom the preceding symbolicaffirmationof piece from God, the whole work, previous musical the power of andreshapes elements in God' hears One 'Theme from the the octaves of movement. opening second especially from the original appearance transformation on pedalsonly at the start a andon manuals, in H Meditation fifth the are warbler's animated cadenzas garden meditation; of the final display is This identical in of virtuosic meditation a climactic style. recalled an interspersed derniserniquavers flourishes with andcolourful toccatas,rapid encircling

294

God'. in birdsong lively 'Theme tumultuous the of and alleluias a glorification of equally The yellowhammer's concludethe entirework. pWntive serniquavers

hereonly usesonekeyboardinstrument,andmuchof the birdsongis AlthoughMessiaen fashion, in the specifiedcombinations produce somewhat archaic of registrations a written However, the when complex are used. especially colour chords results, extraordinary in birdsong here has the of many as a structural employed major element composer birdsong The transformations themes createa and and reappearances of meditations. his developmental to of a striking music.Additionally, the emergence andcyclic nature listener both instantaneously for begins birdsong leitmotif the and a new section theme, or is Messiaen's the analyst. use of varyingsmallrhythmsand melodiccells a usefulsignpost The birdsong,especially there for deciphering calls. or cries when are repetitivegroupsof dueto the listeneris alsoableto hearthe differentqualitiesof bird vocalisations is individual This songster. group of meditations registrationandrangeof each is brief, but be to performedas an entirewhole, eachpiece,althoughoften recommended self-sufficient.

La FauvettedesJardins(1970)

in manyways,the piano pieceLa FauvetledesJar&ns returnsto the musicalworld of the is it in Ws Catalogued'Oiseaux.Like several outlining programmatic, pieces earliercycle, day, beginning just finishing II before 4 about prn. at and am the courseof night and by expressing illustratesthesechanges Messiaen the changes of light (andthe colourful

295

diurnal As in Ta Buse the on andnocturnalbird vocalisations. water) with reflections

is LakeLaffrey,specifically Variable', thecomposer's the endof the source of inspiration


lake, overlookinghis beloved 1930"shousein the Alps, at the foot of the 'bald' mountain in location, lake birdsong Serre. In Grand to the the the trees, show order colours, and of the period from the end of Juneto the beginningof their full glory, the composerchooses July.

lasting Althoughthereare severalsimilaritiesto the Catalogue,this extensive work, forty limited to transposition, the uses minutes?, a greater of extent modes approximately inversions"and 'contracted In 'transposed chords of resonance'. addition, chordsof its improvisatory long Messiaen the several solos showing presents of gardenwarbler, he in fluid Samuel Claude dexterity that seems It virtuosity: conversation and with great , wasvery proud of the work.
21 -

The form of the work is governed by the use of colour chords which portray the changes

depiction landscape. into Messiaen divides fight the the the of sections several piece and of indication dawn, is little 5am, 4am, these there evening, of afternoon, night although begins in The before 4 the work score. am with threethemes:night, subdivisions barren-faced The Grand Seffe. the the and mountain next section of water of undulations by the homorhythmic, is heralded cretic rhythm of the quail and is followed by abrupt distant [ex IX/36a, bl. The nourishes treesand the of nightingale representations of figuration interspersed the three themes with previous and a sumptuous are nightingale

296

involving thirdsportraying thealdertreesat theffinge chordandhigh-pitched a sustained


lake. the great of

by extremelycalm colour chordsdisplayingthe pink lake at dawn(p4). Dawn is presented inversions. There This is the first of six colour-chordinterludesusing chordsof transposed is here: bars (four first bars), (six the third the two the three shortest phrases while are is down lei ICK/371. that the the tone transposed except second same, a each)are exactly It is interesting to note that the first colour chord in the first phraseis exactlythe same as

in Titurgie deCristal'from theQuatuorpour thefirst chordin the pianoaccompaniment


la Fin du Temps, while the third chord is exactlythe sarne asthe fifth chord in this same C being first involves first The the this two phrase crotchetchords, sequence. resolutionof

The being inversion Eb first its in the period second sixth. and with an added major major Hdden in four fleeting 4 amand5 am, between thegarden amongst presents solos, warbler
surroundingthe lake.Thereare alsovarious the ashtrees,willows andbushes high-pitched the theme opening clusters, chromatic night' of amongstabrupt restatements 'victorious' alternators of the nightingaleandtwinkling sonoritiesof the wren. In the brisk dernisen-dquavers There the continual are, garden warbler, are employed. of solos that richly harmonise however,occasional two falling pitchesin a quasi-cadence pauses lex IX/381. Thesequasi-cadences are similarin natureto the tawny owl's calls in the

laterin thiswork. In the Catalogue (no. d'Oiseaux 5) or its appearance Catalogue is in C-A falling dDiseaux,explained this the third chapter, monotonous richly earlier
harmonised, creatinga 'hollow', 'hooting' timbre. Thesetwo pitchesare againrichly

however, first in this harmonised two solosof thegarden the the of work; close near

297

(p8), G-C# (pIO) E-Bb (pl B-F These 1) the two-note and cells are used. areall warbler, (p12), 5 Towards the sunrisesandonealmost thewild mintandthe smells tritones. am interrupted briskly, blackbird by harmonic the the of sings as repeated ostinato grass green laughter, by thechaffinch similar strophes with who erupts with. thegreen woodpecker
'jubilant, ecstaticphrases and of the skylark,whosepronnentshrill chordalalternators inventive b, The has long [ex IX/39a, B is solo the garden c]. warbler a new, natural note (pp14-18)overlapping right andleft handswith great effect, exploringthe high registerof the piano.

to breakout abovethe lake, now stripedwith Later in the morning,a stonn threatens in the interlude,only here bandsof greenandviolet. Onceagain,there arethree phrases

into leading becomes The is an moreandmoreemphatic, thethird greatlyextended. third harmonic Serre Grand The theme. the chaffinches sing,exchanging of version extended
At [ex IX/40]. there this point swift, chuckled with endings alternators and ostinatos high-pitched 'grated' voice interchanges follows the greatreedwarblerwhosegnashing, [ex J. LX/4 1 low, 'dry' rhythms callswith

however,with the 'coul6, doW/'slurred, gilded' passingcalls of the The sunreturns,, is harmonics. day (pp21-41) The the saturated with mainpart of goldenoriole, enriched

from brutal 'croaks' interrupted by the by long the occasional warbler garden solos with
from 'dry' from harsh, the the alarms cries golden oriole snatched and short, crow, carrion by is in (p25) depicted black kite Also this the calls repeated section, shrike. red-backed is ('like flight hennissement' the the ccomme a whinny'), and swallows also of un

298

it (p33); but is flight black kite heralds Ici the the the that of nU-aftemoon represented
IX/42 a, b, c, d]. This section(pp4447) is a development of its earliercalls:its flight is by descending in the the pitches,contrarymotion ascending and patterns portrayed beginat the dissonances and,in a passage marked'm8memouvemene,serniquavers bottom of the pianoandgraduallyascend to the top, suggesting the black kite's encircling for Once in top, the the the sky. at chordal complexes overlapvAth oneanother spirals bars,representing the orbits growing narrowerand narrowerwith the twisting of several its tail.

introducesa short colour-chord. As the black kite descends and hits the water, Messiaen interludedescribing the 'cahn, ecstatic'lake. This time, now in the nO afternoon,the lake

in the Thefinaltwo chords takeson every azure shade of blue- peacock, andsapphire.
by both however, in inversion, A 6h I' rest on major with an added coloured sequence, In the hot sun,we hear the singlerepeated note of the yellowhammer with its harmonics2. first, 6 the chord cadence where, at plagal aD major goldfinch complements a prolonged fbUowedby A major with the repeated lex IX/431 (M with two-part homophony, pitches in Messiaen five a the also uses colour chords superior on resonances yeHowhammer. of blue illustrating the sky andthe gilt-greenof the mountain. short section,

As night falls the abrupthomorhythmic ostinatocriesof the greenwoodpeckercontinue, A major added6thchord (I' inv.) with flute-Ekestrophes by a contrasting fbHowed of the blackcap,marked'lumineux,sanshite'. The nightingaleannounces sunset(p52) with two

by harmonic followed harmonised anapaest and a anascending scandicus colour-chords,

299

is from built fourth (E-Bb-Eb) diminished the tritone, chord a and octave, ostinato; perfect featured intervals interludes lei IX/44]. Sunset throughout the regularly colour-chord all by four densely harmonised is alsoportrayed in their 'ecstatic chords vvithfermatas: theypresent the red,orange contemplation', andviolettinges of thesunat thistime.The
its darkens is followed by 'hooting' the theme as winding callsof quaver night reinstated, in Catalogued'Oiscaux lei IX/451. the tawny owl - rerniniscent of its appearance

in lake interlude, by Messiaer; the the alsorepresents moonlight another colour-chord


in four bars first bars The two three chords with of settlingmusic. concluding comprise

in in first first inversion first is is The the a majorchord and second a minorchord each.
inversion:F-F minor, D-D minor andA-A minor. The fourth bar, however,displays final black depicted The the trees a with silhouettes are of alder quiet superiorresonances. Serre, Grand the the piece. concluding of statement

Most impressive arethe long solosof the gardenwarbler. Theseare enriched with colours, the handsoverlap,andthe full rangeof the pianois utilised. In addition,a great flu ty is by in The tempoin the samesongor call seemto continual motion. changes achieved in 'lent' duration The nightingale's diminution bring alive manyvocalisations. a of gradual interruptedby 'vif' clusters.In the gardenwarbler's long tempomarldng(p8) is suddenly described by (1) harmonisations (as too, two are pauses produced rich notes of solos, in left (3) (2) Resonance to effectsareused resonate. earlier), rests,and chordswhich are 'laissezr6sonner'is oflen written into the score,and this work to the fuH.The expression

from harmonics it is with theensuing theresonance. texturethattheunique areproduced has (invented indicated, In fact,even this or when expression notbeen manychords

300

bird vocalisations, triadic)accompany or immediately thereby precede elaborate creating


fascinating effects. resonance

includes interludes Messiaen thatrepresent thelake,in 'renversements also several


is birdsong here linked perfectlyto the time of day. The The transpos6s' colour-chords. in for landscape, the the thereby materialprovides setting working other non-birdsong

birdsong. by has he Messiaen how thepiece, the with mentioned was pleased parallel
ftom the Cataloguein its useof 'renversements beinga development transpos6s', cresonance contractde',anddisplayingfluidity in the gardenwarbler'svirtuosic and Grand hints at earliercompositional The lengthysolos.However,the composer elements. Serrethemeandthe cretic rhythmsemploythe addednote value,triadic chordsareused

in deployed (p48) for anoftencalming frequently two andthree are effect, whilemodes in homophony, three-part twoand occasionaUy or evenin monody. chords or many

Des Canyons aux Etoiles (1971-1974)

Des Canyons a=boiles

by the patrOness Mss Alice Tully andwas was commissioned

Hall New Alice Tully York. The the at m work consistsof twelve pieces,thus: premiered

301

No. of Movement Part 1 1 2 3

Title 'Le D6sert'

Translation 'The Desert'

Focus desert

'Les Orioles' 'Ce qui cst tcrit sur lesIfttoiles' 'Le Cossyphe d'Heuglin'

'The Orioles' 'What is Written in the Stars' 'White-browed robin' 'CedarBreaksand the Gift of Awe'

(1) birdsongs/calls stars(1) (2) birdsongs/calls

'CedarBreakset le Don de Crainte'

CedarBreaks

Part 2 6 7

'Appel'Interstellaire' 'IntersteHar Call'

stars(2)

'Bryce Canyonet les 'Bryce Canyonand RochersRougeOrange' the Red-Orange Rocks' 'The Resurrected andthe Songof the Star, Aldebaran" 'Northern Mockingbird' 'Wood Thrush' 'HawaiianThrush, Leiothfix23, Elepaio, Shama'

Bryce Canyon

Part 3 8

'Les Ressuscitds et le Chantde Petoile Aldibaran'

stars(3)

'Le Moqueur Polygotte'

(3) birdsong/calls

10 11

'La Grive desBois' 'Omao,Leiothrix, Elepaio,Shama'

birdsong(4)

12

'Zion Park et la Cit6 C61este'

'Zion Park andthe CelestialCity'

Zion Park/Paradise

302

Employinga diminished orchestra(at leasthalf the sizeof that usedin his symphony),

Woodwind Messiaen to produce andgrandiose and monumental sonorities. still manages


by glockenspiel, brassare complemented xylorimba,tubular bells,songs,variouscymbals, templeandwood blocks,crotales,a smallstring section(six violins, threeviolas, three instruments hom. double bass), Further, he two solo piano and unusual uses cellosanda for the first time. The first is the 'ioliphone', a wind machine,representing the soundsof the 'gdophone'or sandmachine,portraysthe soundsof the earth. the air. The second, Moreover,threedifferent chimesmadefrom wood, glassor shell play a specificrole in the does dramatic (tOle). The the thunder manyunique as effects, sheet piece,producing be from instruments limitless that variety; can produced give such orchestralcombinations (for includes The however,Messiaen, techniques. cellos copiousextended over and above,

bridge, bows behind the the their to representing and alongside scrape asked are example) is flicker five;in thissame in movement bluegrouse the portrayed movement red-shafted
by indeterminate pitcheson the violins andviolas marked'arp6ge14 cordes,entre In addition,the trumpetusesvariousmutesandplayswith mouth cordier'. et chevalet bow. Many the unusually, are occasionally a crotales, playedwith pieceonly, while in At double-stopping. the end harmonics the strings, on combination with are employed deployed harmonics (for instance) demisemiquaver are septuplet of the eighthmovement 24 in glissandi and similareffectsarefound in the songof the wood thrushin movement , is lark's is Another the notated occasionally meadow song which western ten. example implied. Messiaen harmonics, they relates: are sometimes although without

303

'Its songis incredible, Eachnote carries very limpid, with manyharmonics. it is one of the greatestsongbirds five or six harmonics; of the United States. "25

in Des Cwityolisauxboiles that do not appearin any Therearemanybirds represented is This thereare certainbirdsthat are only partly coincidence; nevertheless, other work. found in the threeplacesthat the composer transcribed cites for his inspiration.Messiaen 'Bryce birdsongfrom three specificplacesin Utah. The first placeis the deserted wild and Canyons',where,apartfrom the birdsong,the hugered/orange andevenviolet-tinged fascination formations Western Here, tanager to the the of were particular composer. rock is portrayedby threenotesthat, in the wild, may be described as 'tiot, onomatopoeically tiot, tiot'. In contrast,the blue grousehasa deepvoice, 'wuh, wuh, wuh', while the Clark

is harsh location, Breaks', horribly The 'Cedar has not asvast voice. second nutcracker a
it is but like, 'amphitheatre' Messiaen huge Canyon, Bryce with so as even advises, a as found hassaidthat the most beautifulbirdsongs be Messiaen 'spiresanddungeons'. to are Paradise. For instance, in the third setting,'Zion Park', which symbolises the its harmonics, Western the virtuoso piano solosof with meadowlark many aforementioned its here. 'co finch, the vireo with appear grey and mo co mol sonoritiesaH the cassis

in this work, yet its prominence is sharedequallyby three Birdsongis usedextensively describes Claude Samuel, features. In the the composer with conversation significant other from depths displaying 'astronornical', to the the the the canyons vastness of as work

Canyon; Bryce immense homage being 4geological', and to the of rocks especially a stars;
'theological', beingassociated with praiseand contemplation and devotingitself to the

304

Equally,it is an 'ornithological' work, bringingtogether (Paradise). Jerusalem Celestial birds from all over the world. Thereare fifty-nine birdsongsgatheredfrom North America, from birds Japan, Australia Chinese Hawaiian Islands, Africa, from the the and many (leiothrix) from China,the shama from India andthe magpie thrushandred-billedmesia, Madagascar. from robin

four the As shownin the abovetable,eachmovementis mainly preoccupied with one of five There theological issues: or omithological. movements are geological,astrological, by birdsong. dominated

two) describes, 'Les Orioles'/The Orioles' (movement as is implicit in the title, many here: Many the these notably, species. orioles are represented particular of vocalisations (piano (xylorimba) Scott's bullock's Baltimore and solos), orioles and orioles orchardand is (mainly thrush hooded/Lichtenstein's the orioles on woodwind), while olive-backed the The found. the orchardoriole. movementopenswith a piano solo representing also betweenthe Americanorioles' songsand hasstressed that thereis a difference Messiaen including Le bird found in his Oriole', Loriot, 'Golden European a pieces manyof the it is Chronochromie, Catalogue'dViseaux Oiseaux, the title des the of Rived where in later Fawette des it is Jtzr&? Nevertheless, in the the piano zs. evident and piece second Te in found Orioles' those 'Les to there that interludesof are manycharacteristics similar d'Oiseaux. Catalogue Most in notableare the two slow chromatically Loriot' the earlier in the ends secondphrase resolution, creating a calming effect: sink which chords coloured has Messiaen to said aG chord added sixth. major with an resolution a sumptuous with

305

from its that the goldenoriole's songcreatesa powerful sense ofjoy, emanating
major26. key, it is in E the of although use major usuallyrepresented predominant It iS

importantto note, however,that colour chordsare usedregularlyin a contrastingfashion higher in to a one, with chord rises usually a an accent where - this casethe effect of an is dramatic 'call' In involves harsh, this the created. an structure movement, often betweenpianointerludes,other lusciousmodalharmonies (tutti), special interchange in harmonics birdsong. depict The strings and most of effects which glissando harmonies luscious harmonically modal are of the sixth ren-dniscent aforementioned 7 Symphon Turwigalila ('Jardin Features du d'Amour'). Sommeil the of ) of movement . to an earlierMessiaen style,notablyin the shapes andlengthsof the musiccorrespond harmonies the the the with enriched values and added note modal quality of manyphrases,

into In triadic orchestral that chords added or with sixths ninths. these clusters resolve
is decoratively ' in du Sommeil... birdsong 'Jardin the style - and used again a sections in instances, The by than, the the rather as other on piano. most xylorimba played in displays the the variety wide of orioles' songsandcalls terms of rhythmand movement their multi-colouredsonorities.

d'Heugfin'/The White-BrowedRobin' (4) is a piano solo which represents Te Cossyphe birdsong. does African's 'This solo movement not comeas a shockto the this south-east hasbuilt up a numberof specialeffectsthat symbolise, listenerasMessiaen andoften in is instruments Here the like, orchestra. madeof orchestral no mention various sound but the growUng'ostinato instruments, while chordsin the bassproducetimpani 'effects, Te Moqueur harmonies tutti. are representational of an orchestral the elaborate

306

Polygotte'/'TheMocking bird' (9) is more than doublethe length of the earlierpianosolo. This later pianosolo is an advance upon the earlierCataloguedOlseaux-influenced interesting Messiaen copious employs cffects: notably,altematingclusterson movement. long keys, black lyrebird, the quasi-glissando and effects representing superb white harmonicostinato,andcluster-chords playedwith the palm of one's handand evenwith both arms.Nearthe opening,trills are heard;in joyous fashion,this setsup the piecefor fragmented has but The chordal alternators andrepeatedrhythmiccells. piece elaborate lesscontinuitythan onewould expect,possiblyresultingfrom his useof manyextended techniques and melodicmotives.However, while at the sametime contrastingrhythn-dc the mockingbirdis in fact a 'counterfeitbird' - one which imitatesothers- andthis quality it displays fragmented, by perpetual is achieved the variation. Although the pieceappears full gamutof 'style oiseau'effectspossibleon a singlepiano.Many changes of tempoare is four, In the movement comparison with where robin only white-browed specified. depicted,six differentspecies are hererepresented: variety is found in the northern in features bird's the chords colour golden song, whistler, of the superb many mocking * lasting in lyrebird" and, a short concludingsection one page,the Australianmagpie, PrinceAlbert lyrebirdandgrey shrikethrusharefirst introduced.The movement with a superblycolourful superiorresonance. concludes

The by the whole orchestra. 'La Grive desBois'PTheWood Thrush' (10) is presented is inverted feature in different two an arpeggio ways used most prominentmotivic first horn, is flute, The the version slow and solemn,playedon throughoutthe movement. is involving den-dsemiquavers ioliphone, the bell second on quick, rapid while and one

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flute, glockenspiel andxylorimba,ascending chromaticharmonics on upperstrings,and ioliphone andcrotalesthat linger beautifullyafter the other with concluding often havefinished.The movement instruments 'man deformedby himselr - man symbolises himself be magnificentagainafter resurrection. has The wicked will eventually made who hom the the magnificent of represents music serene man,while the 'deformed' musicis by light-hearted, harmonics These themes. vivacious sections rapid with characterised high-pitched lingering resonances on crotales- are exciting andvery colourful, tinged and Messiaen has labelled it silver, although not glittering as such.Due to the triadic with natureof the maintheme,manysimplechordsare employedthroughoutthis magical by immense the the towards end of piece, slow and, and chordsare played the movement first in L 'Ascension. the the style of movement of orchestra whole

'Omao, Leiothrix, Elepaio,Shama'-a This is contrasted with the eleventh movement, difficult piecewhich perpetuallychanges tempoandbeat.The four birds in the title are from birds United States Hawaii. The the other with and omaoand elepaioare employed
from the Hawaiian Islands, the leiothrix (or red-billed mesia) is from China, and the shama

is Chronochromie La in Trawfiguralion de J&us-Christ Notre Seigneur and - prominent (omao) long from India. The structureinvolvesfour verses and with refrain, a piano solo birdsong, brilliance The the of playedon marrycombinations of recapitulation. by the dynamism is enriched instruments, of varying speeds andmetre.Thereis a from little desert Idbital&9, the heterophonic of songs green warbler, superimposition by harmonics bulbul, spottedmoning warbler anddark-backed weaver,all accompanied in the strings.The kibitaki's songis found in the clarinets,while the desertwarbler is

308

in blue is in by Later jay depicted the the two on one piccolo. movement represented
first is The a short piano solo employingfour descending chordal contrastingmanners. bou-bou Sirnilarly, Affican flourishes, the the the second uses whole orchestra. while in ff in brass is builds (ff-pp). The the chords up to a climax violent portrayed music shrike Paradise. leadinginto the last movement,'Zion Park et la Cite C61este', which symbolises beginswith a chordaltextureplayedon woodwind andbrass,again This final movement first LAscetision: by feature has the to this this almost of movement stage alluding becomecyclic in this work. Messiaen's styleat this point displayssomeof his early its keys: in harmonies, in the music the especially use of major characteristics conventional Additionally, A the hints three. the constant use of major, principally with mode at often bunting in decoration, Lazuli the as are represented early movement vespersparrowand is here It that onceagain this occasional simplicity and on the glockenspiel xylorimba. in into A finality Paradise: the an major of close,resolving grandeurand a sense creates birdsong inaudible. (ft), flutes brass fading is The and away, almost chord on solo strings is colourful, innovativeandforward looking, andyet more birdsongsare being introduced into te aviary.

SaintFrangoisd'Assise(1975-84)

for Paris invited by Rolf Liebemwm the to a In 1975,Olivier Messiaen work write was finally agreedto this requestandbegancomposingan extensive opera, Opira. Messiaen This further him to to three opera, three orchestrate. and years write a to take was which

309

into Messiaen (scenes) divided rmusical tableaux as consists spectacle' prefers, of eight or
threeacts,thus: Act 1 1st Tableau -Tableau Tableau 'La Croix' 'Les Laudes' 'Le Basierau Upriux? ' Act 2 7 Tableau VAnge, Voyageur' 'The Journeying Angel' 5"' Tableau 7 Tableau VAnge, Musicien' 'Le PrEche aux Oiseaux' Act 3 7Tableau, 8";Tableau 'Les Stigmates' 'La Mort et la Nouvelle Vie' 'The Musical Angel' 'The Sermonto the Birds' 'The Stigmata' 'Death andNew Life' 'The Cross' 'Lauds' 'The Leper Kiss'

descriptionof this work asa 'musicalspectacle'is indeedapt, as features Messiaen's in is found here: there traditional operaare not no overture,nor arias with often associated importantly, but, dramatic than more narrative, rather unfolding sense, the conventional haschosen to presenta seriesof 'mysteries'or significant'pictures. The opera Messiaen latter-day first Messiaen be fact in writing a oratorio at contemplated seenasa might St however, himself For but the task. the not worthy of composer, passion, thought Franciswas a manwho hadthe closestaffinity wiih Christ. In his life, he enduredpoverty, from humility he the the to suffered of vows and chastity-, even strictly andadhered

310

Needless deeply St Messiaen to the of stigmata. say, ascetic affliction admired agonising
inspirationfrom St Francis,readingcopiousbooks on the subjectandtaking especial Francis' 'Canticleof Creatures',the Tioretti' and 'Considerations of the Stigmata'(both Franciscans), by anonymous and from Holy Scripture.Thereis alsothe obviouspoint that birdswould be likely to that St. Francis'traditionalassociation with animalsandespecially development The Francis' to the traces composer. appeal opera spiritual makea powerful inner in his 'the the toils: the soul of a as composer advises, of grace progress and surveys

Saint".

in New Caledonia Messiaen to trip order to broadenthe geographical madea special flyeater) The (fan-tailed birdsong his the and representations. songsof gerygone spreadof he friarbird), for found in Caledonian (New this opera,and exaxnple, are only philemon in its first his Interestingly, largest the chorus and any of works. at orchestra uses denied huge forces for logistical Messiaen the orchestra such, was reasons: performance, depth This instnmnentation be the on stage. new of enhances accommodated could not indeed, in birdsongs; unusual combinations are employed and, addition,the ondes certain is first There Messiaen's the three to the on music. are ondes: positioned returns martenot

front in the second the third the left handsideof thestage, of the on right,and centred
dpun-ics, infinite has The timbre, and almost possibilities and of attack ondes conductor. in fiffl, deployed lines flexibilty the to the the this quite slow solo unlike uses the composer Thesespecialeffectsare often usedwhen colouringotherblocks TurmigafflaS)7nphony. is frightening its low to able generate sonorities. register of sound,while

311

is asfollows: The orchestra


7 flutes (3 fl., 3 picc., I alto) 3 oboes I cor anglais 7 clarinets (3 Bb, 2 Eb, I bass, I contrabass) 3 bassoons(I double bassoon) 7 horns 5 trumpets (4 Bb, I D) 4 trombones 3 tuba large percussion ensemble 3 ondes large strings section g6ophone and doliphone

Messiaen the Throughoutthe eight scenes, which symbolise presents severalcyclic themes dramatic Five themes with associated are or sentiment. character specific a of emergence by followed (1); is theme Francis: a chord St. there a principlemelodic a cluster on violins demonstrating 'decision (2); theme' often solemnity trombones, the an energetic on doubleoctaveleaps(3); a 'themeofjoy' on xylophone,woodwind involving descending Further, (5) (or (4); blackcap, the the D song of trumpet and ubiquitous capinera). and identified by is birdsong), (and theme which alters a periodically everyother character Francis, St. The dramatic theatrical the to or setting. are: seven characters main according Saint's four friars dissident Elias Leo, Masseo, leper, the the the and the and the angel, Bernardo. dearest companion,

is The in dramatic important. scene. angel r6le the Birdsong structure of each an plays
by in high flutes, by the their and shrieks registers, on oboe clarinet and seven represented

312

flyeater), (fan-tailed its harmonics, the with staccatoarticulation gerygone while imminent heralds between the glockenspiel and with xylophone, piccolo arrival alternating is by leper 'dochmaic The (iambic a portrayed andcretic rhythm' this character. special of incorporating intrusive long) long, long, cluster short, complex with rhythms short, his the that character's exasperated resentment of ghastlycondition. exemplify chords into a Whenthe leperis cured,however,this themeis transformedand re-orchestrated

blue bells, is the thrush 'dance tubular while rock reproduced on the ofjoy' with
his has Brother Leo trills strings on and cymbals. own song xylophone-triowith accents,

from does, 'I he the the taken for a theme afraid words am on road..., as using,
is intimated by by Masseo Brother simple Ecclesiastes; supported melodicphrases while has The Bernardo, inversions'. Brother 'transposed a eldest character, also of chords

Caledonian (New horns the the song and of philemon theme andstrings, on melodic
his appearances. In contrast,Brother Eliasis friarbird) on woodwind often accompanies harsh by the the trombones, the of on strings and sonorities gloomy glissandos portrayed differing disturbed These the the of reed warbler. rhythms musical and erratic, notou'O Elias"modusvivendi,with his love of moneyandluxury. featuressymbolise

The initial St. Francis' is first understanding of spiritualperfection. with The act concerned in homophony, the three-part the on xylophone-trio opera songof the skylarkopens is heard This Ballinese throughout bells by sonority cymbal. suspended and accompanied in first Its fact, in the the There of skylark scene. second songs several are, the work. . fourth in lavi harmonies. The third is and woodwind sh on multi-layered appearance from first), is interspersed fifth is (as the the Balimese statements while with are versions

313

brotherLeo andWgh-pitched from the little owl. The sixth variantis a multiscreeches layeredpolyphonicsection.The Balinese-trio beginsthis sectionandactsas a musical core: in staggered entries,the woodwind sectionfollows in superimposition with many colour chords.The woodwind occasionally stop, leavingthe xylophone-trio, on its own. ('un peuvif, sen-quaver This excitingpassage the conclusionof this first = 200) precedes

scene.

is announced by two setsof bellsand complexcolour-chords. Here, The second scene depictslife in the monastery. Messiaen St Francisdesiressaintliness, andpraysto God askingto meeta leper in order to love the personand overridehis disgust.After a series calls. andpizzicatoeffects,the blackbird'ssongis heardin short,repeated of hannonics

is it but flourishes does blackcap, Theblackbird the tutti, alsoemploys on woodwind as


the songof the gardenwarbler that is of notableproninence.Using the xylophone-trio, intervals beginwith repeated compound are employed, andmost phrases pitches, many in first the the scene. recalling skylark'ssong

describes The third scene the 'leper Idss'.Thi- scene openswith brief, disjointedcallsof intimatesthe 'horror of leprosy' with a contrabass the Ural mountainowl. Messiaen and leper is his in low The to their painfully registers. unreconciled ondesmartenot display helps is brass However, it to this that the emotion. when section and predicament, Thereis a long silence,followed by simple the leperis curedthe musicis transformed. fifled joy, blue 'Nfiraclel' Both harmonics. He the then with men are shouts, white-note by is the thrush on xylophone-trioandaccompanied multi-layered rock represented

314

trills on aC majorchordwith anadded repeated pitches stringed sixth,and(for example)


in jubilant is Francis is double leper It the are employed passages. a curedand miracle: becomes a Saint.The motive of the blue rock thrush,often in the dochmaicthythm (iambic+ cretic), is written in the third transposition of mode2, andis addedto the theme dance leper's by high As the the trombone, ofjoy played woodwind andxylophones. concludes with trills on the strings,the blue rock thrushis depictedby clusterchordson the xylophone-trio.

first The Act Two alsoconsists the travelling angel,and three scenes. scene represents of here, involved introduction the themes the characters presenting of openswith a musical Masseo's Leo's Brother Bernardo themeand the song, with philemon's song, specifically, (string Elias Brother featuresassociated rhythms glissandi, with notou andthe assiduous (fan-tailed flycatcher) The the entrance the of the announces gerygone warbler). reed of in Scene five the angelplayingthe viol to the mockery. presents scene and concludes angel St. Francis,andthe music- his first insightto the CelestialCity - provestoo muchfor the in Saint,who promptly faints.Setin La Verna, this sceneemploys uniquesonorities the Its is heardon two occasions. birdsong.The soft themeof the gerygone,for instance, is from is birdsong is the the conductorand played treatment semi-aleatoric: given a sign high-pitchedphrases thereaftefad libitum. Jagged, are playedon the glockenspiel, falcon's (p5 The 6 8). A by female cries chord voiceson an major ethereally accompanied brass in by homorhythmic the continuous texture woodwind and on are produced a in later the scene comprisingseveral a provocativesection semiquavers, pre-empting for Messiaen is homorhythm (p79-85). It blocks to use common of superimposed

315

blocksin isolation; but herethesonorities (gerygone), piccolos orchestral of thestrings


flutes (garden (two ostirops andMaka), second (blackcap) and oboeandsmallclarinet warbler)are superimposed upon eachother. Another exquisiteeffect is found in the by 'viol' glissandos gerygone'ssongwhich is accompanied on stringsusinga combination hamonics andresonance of effects.

'The important Sermon is The sixth scene Birds', the the to the with regard of opera, most it forty-five is birdsong; longest, lasting the to its deployment of also approximately

into is divided beginning introduction. It seven parts with an minutes.

This introductionbeginswith the skylark'ssolo on the xylophone-trio;therefollows a

in birdsong in hors tempo: staggered mistlethrush entries of and mostly superimposition (thirdondes, (first flute),song blackcap blackbird (soloclarinet), thrush andfirst piccolo),
(first ondes),uguisu(templeblocks,cello, doublebasspizzicato,secondondes)andlater, the chaffinch(threeviolins, r6co-r6coandtrumpets)are playedtogether.St. Francisand Brother Masseoenterin part 1 wherethe songsof variousEuropeanbirds are introduced is dislayedby each by the Saint.An arrayof uniqueeffectsand musicalcharacteristics by frequentflutter-tonguing bird, especially the turtle dove.This bird's songis represented

by flutes played on theribbonanda tremolando the glissandos and ondes andclarinet, on


identify flute, the its fingerboard. The stringed percussion and clarinet xylophone, on effect descending delicate has scales andmore melodywith a quiet, wren, while the robin is to the here Assisi) (blackcap The whole entrusted always of glissandi. capinera 'joy 'decision theme' theme' After and the cymbal. woodwind sectionwith a suspended

316

from New Caledonia St. developed birds Francis) (associated stated with are and upon,
St. Francis,after tastingthe blood of the dragon,is ableto understand and are presented. interactwith the birds. Part 3 is a concertof birdsongcontainingfour gardenwarblers,a birds from (piccolo, flute, oboe), mistlethrush,cuckoo Morocco and Sweden chaffinch, (trumpetandhorns)andwood pigeon,while part 4 returnsto the two aforementioned forward Francis. He St. The Saintadvises the then to deliverhis Sermon. themes steps of

from God- theirplumage, birdsaboutthemany gifts theyhavereceived wingsand


blackcap birds interrupts St. Francis The the asks only are silent; sporadically. migration.

hasfinished, WhenFrancis thereis an them. thebirdsto thankGod,andhethenblesses


high-spirited second concerteruptswith the skylark'sxylophonea as upheaval enormous in in by followed time this turn trio texture, a garden warbleranda secondskylark,

Francis St. in disappear Brother Masseo birds 7 The approaches part as chords. woodwind him. birds have forget him that the the to good given example andadvises not
from hear Interestingly, the goldenoriole on woodwind with more songs,mostnotably we delicateclusterchordglissandos on strings,anda counterpointplayedon two ondes introduced 'style being blackbird. Still blackcap to the more effects are and representing

oiseau'.

tp6de in Chronochromie. Greater is development from the 'The Sermon to theBirds' a


blocks being in hors freedomis producedby severalsolo instruments andorchestral 31 dernisen-quaver bars involving by the asa with of metre tempo and constantchanges tpOde (for Additionally, 3-2-3/32 denominator, the only usedsolo example). common into brought is fashion, in Here, the play. whole orchestra a polyphonic strings.

317

Scene 7, 'Les Stigmata',begins The third act is the shortest,comprisingtwo brief scenes. his horrible Saint The the a as whole represents condition movement ascetic and at night. is The ffightening Birdsong Stigmata. used symbolically. owl's cries,other chordal of descending Later, the the the motion of woodwind create an eerie effect. clustersand black andgrey coloursof the modeof timbre, durationand intensityproducesmore Later, soft E major chordsaccompany feelingsof anguish. the chordalsongsof Christ Life', New Eternity. Scene 'Death the to eight, and chordsrepresent path while ascending beginswith an introductionto the themes of St. Francis.All the brothersare present La his farewells Mount St Francis dying him the to time, on ground. says space, watching Verna, his dearbrothers,the city of Assisiand,lastly, to the kestrelandblackcap.The from the Canticles on Saintsingsthe last stanzas of the Sun,andthe gerygonereappears he bells The toll the the as announcing arrival of angel. the xylophoneandglockenspiel in in by Enormous the dies. orchestra climacticsonoritiesareproduced complexchords becoming frantic. The the they stage ascend, spot-light on more graduaUy and crescendo, bright, almostblinding,andthe chorusconcludes with the words, increasingly becomes he bringsto Ue power, glory andjoy'. 'from sorrow, from weakness, andfrom shame,

(1984) Livre du SaintSacrement

in this mysticalcycle The organis reinstated as an importantinstrumentfor the composer lasting comprising and devotedto the blessed eighteen movements sacrament, first four The has The hours. theological two entirework a scheme. approximately

in blessed before invisible Christ devotion the the sacrament; of acts are meditations

318

life (Christ's five describe in Christ's to eleven specific, meditations enigmatic events final for thepresent, (12-18)areprayers the while seven meditations mysteries), ' Communion. Holy transubstantiatior? the and concerning

Here,new birds emergefrom the Holy Land in 'Le Dieu Cach6'(meditationthree)and, in birds the the the the the nightingale and melodiouswarbler,all other exceptionof with from Cache' Dieu Middle East. In 'Le the the gathered work asa whole are new, between Tristram'sgrackleandthe Olivaceous simple warbler's songsare positioned Tristram's The textures. the grackleare of chordal strophes slow and monody plainchant its is both Its indistinguishable treated or chordally either on appearances. song effectively in two parts,centringon E major.In fact, the first two chordsof its first two calls(p 15) b8) (p15, inversion. Additionally, in texture the two-part ensuing are E major second C# G4 D# harmonic G4 E, E-B, following pitches most the and cells: contains -A#, beingin the triad or at leastin the scaleof E major,while in the left hand,one of the Although tone is E [ex 11X/46 the triad whole p15]. chords a complete major subsequent its E here, is found the scale, A# G# to of notes and references are major many made cell begins its in fifteen. The final bird's in songs of second appearance meditation even the in Tristram's The two the grackle of appearances andendswith this samechord. Meditation III maybe categorised asfollows: V Song:cretic (b1) - cretic (b2) - paeonIV, iamb,paeonIV (W) - bacchius, cretic (W) (W) iamb, flourishes, (b2) 3 (bl) Song: cretic 2nd anapaest, cretic - cretic however, is in and two-part staccatoserniquavers The Olivaceous written warbler, throughout.The handsare often more than an octaveapart,producing derniserniquavers,

319

3rds, M/471. [ex 2nds minor and major and compound compound and minor major mostly in E major. In additionto the Tristram'sgrackle'stonality, The pieceis firmly established in E major (with a the first 'chordal' sectionendsin the dominant(B major), the second
th is final in brief ), 6 the the third, the chord and chordal section - concluding piece major

major.

Ta Manneet la Pain de Vie', theselargeintervalsin two parts In the sixth movement, lark devoted desert in [ex LX/481. Thesecuriousvocalisations to the two sections recur iamb flourishes, features based, the the two of and occasional upon exception with are is the iamb.Retrogradation The most frequentlyrecurringof thesefeatures the anapaest. is frequent,andmajor 7h andaugmented octave(or minor 9h) intervalsare used

is birdsong heard Throughout this of symbolic aspects movement, alongside constantly.


the wind (p43), reminiscent the desert,includinga chordaltrill representing of the Catalogue d'Oisea= in Effarvatte', The 'La Rousserolle [ex IX/491. trill grasshopper's in intervals descending two two-part parts, uses smaller a also and mourningwheatear, flourish (p38).

The two common birdsongs not taken from the Mddle East have contrasting roles. The

decoration de I'Eucharistie') (Institution in merelysupplies eight nightingale movement In 7h isolated its the B trill. contrast, melodious and alternator major naturals, with d'eau'. 'Les Deux Murailles in has the thirteenth two movement, solos extensive warbler Mow its ('too-wit"). There The previousimnbicceUis harmonised the openingof song at bar homophony, further features: the opening using two-part three a variationon

320

in in harmonic chords, similar colouror cluster andrepeated chords a ostinato alternative


Calandrelle' d'Oiscaux) bkestrel T'Alouette (Catalogue lei LX/50a, the to of style its indeed deploys The (pl0l), solos, or cadenzas second of eventighter clusterp96-971. in These [ex IX/511. the the are solos, with song of clamorous reed warbler, chords in the the sectionmarked, cascades of contrary as are motion arpeggios style, virtuoso divided dress6es'Pthe 'Les vagues the partedwaves', andother passages portraying water is here in birdsong broken Christ Host. The in the Red Seaandthe presence the so of from integratedthat one is often unableto distinguish another. one song

is the fifteenthmovement, Ta Joie de la Grice', which consists Of notableimportance

bulbul, different birds the three the yellow-vented strophes of enthusiastic of entirely Tristram's grackle and the white-throated robin. The simple block form of the piece

birds, in from Each involvessix sections the anda coda. eachof sectionpresents a song the order given above.The first sectiontreatsthesesongsbriefly, while eachsuccessive bulbul's length increases In the the the of songs. addition, yellow-vented sectiongradually final followed by is the the whose grackleandwhite-throatedrobin, song always shortest, for This three-and-a-half pages. process extendingthe songsand of graduaUy songruns Oiseaux des behind for Uti Vitrail basic is birds the the et premise structure of phrases developsshort rhythmicandmelodiccellsasthe pieces (1986): in'Manyworks Messiaen in bulbul, Tristram's Both two the part the are and grackle vented yeUow progress. (for bulbul's fragmentary. The homophony, song yeUow-vented andoften soundrather in by in its final, is broken state section rests:even more elaborate up numerous example)

321

before is, bulbul The the the ten. of each at notes rest most, yellow-vented six, number
variesits metrethroughout,as shownbelow: Yellow-VentedBulbul Songsin Ta Joie de la Gr5ce' (restsare markedwith a-' sign)
V Song (p l 19) nd 2 Song (pl20) P Song ( p122) WhSong ( pl23) 5 Song (pl25) _F Song (pl28) epitrite 11 ionic minor - paeon IV (porrectus flexus) epitrite II - iamb, paeon IV (porrectus flexus) ionic III flourish epitrite minor, - cretic bacchius, paeon IV - cretic epitrite bacchius, paeon IV - ionic minor, triple-iamb epitrite III, flourish paeon IV - single note - paeon IV (porrectus flexus) - bacchius, tribach + cretic - single note - iamb

become bird The phrases also of each graduallylonger:by the sixth section,the Tristram's including longer (p has 129, s3) that containstwo complex passages, one many grackle drawn-outphraselei IX/52a]. The iamb,cretic andpaeonIV flourishesin an elaborate, [ex LX/52b]. The throughout these present sections songof the white-throated are metres is in fourths (hinting elaborate, containing at quartal repeated recognisably chords robin in two-part sequences, harmony),the paeonIV andiambicrhythms,shortfour-note ceUs in hand black in the other, andmanyother notes use white one and of which some flourishes.

the cretic rhythmsof the Tristram's gracklefollowed by a two-note The codareintroduces into descending leading the a two-part robin, gradually and white-throated cell of in fourth The feature the this seen piece. already and of a sixth section alternator, feature bird's displays then the and regular of stating a source as a song meditation lengthening it, fully-fledged developing the versiontowards phraes, a creating gradually the endof the movement.

322

in 'La Joie' The last movement triumphant, the the ecstatic eighteenth spells out language. Toccatas, flourishes tumultuous ostinato sequences and communicable into lead In the the ascending work, chromatic scales and abrupt clustcr-chords. eventually birdsongseems to haveprovideda structurefor eachpiece,giving - with the unn-dstakable Messiaen included, Where have been colour-chords not timbres- clearpointsof reference. hasrelied on characteristically unusualcombinations of organregistrationto produce

timbres. these unique

323

PetitesEsquisses d'Oiseaux(1985)

in be heard birds In this shortpianowork Messiaen four European the to allows songsof is birdsong isolation.HereMessiaen the excludes almostall other compositional material: by colour-complexes left on its own, only periodicallypunctuated of the renversements Moreover,this deceptively transposds simplegroup of or resonance contractde-type. indications birds' by the of usual comprises six of songs unaccompanied pieces portraits features lacking habitat, Greek f1indu the other and or species or or rhythms surrounding Catalogue d'Oiseaux. follows: The the six as with piecesare associated

I 'The Robin' 2 'The blackbird' 3 'The robin' 4 'The song thrush' 5 'The robin' 6 'The skylark'

in displayed I, V, IH As is immediately the the pieces and songs of robin are evident, dividedby musicalportraits of the blackbird(II), songthrush(IV) andskylark (VI). Each features. fact, In dedicated the to the all three musical the same robin employs of pieces juxtaposed is in block form birdsong to that one say, where the portraits arewritten musicaltextureis given a coupleof bars,followed by another,andso on.

324

The robin, itself, is often The threerobin piecesconsistof a numberof differentphrases. is birdsong in homophony, in demisemiquavers. This 'vif' 'mod6r6' two-part or written lent'. A by homophony in 'un three-part tempo most a slow peu alsorepresented marked black. from is-the isolating technique composer's white notes of prominentcharacteristic in The uniquequality of the quasi-glissandos the robin's strophes that so often accompany At is here in 'vif. this rapid the on marked piano manysections other works produced is just like black to a specific the a glissando: andwhite notesare assigned speed, effect black hand between these andwhite alternates of groups group of notes,while each

3. drops flis 'little describes 'cascade Messiaen of as motiveasa of pearls'or notes' d'Oiseaux-3 its Catalogue in back Te from harking Loriod' to the appearance water',
in black for is Te Gorge' Rouge (I), The first glissando notes the of ex=ple, written with instances in five Many hand in left lex IK/53]. of the of groups and white notes right bursts be found in Catalogue d'Oiseaux. In the this segregation can addition,occasional Like b2l. by [ex DU54 birdsong s5, p4, accompanied are white-note clusterchords of of a that of Ta ChouetteHulotte' in Catalogued'Oiseaux,thereare manyexamples R is GA deeply Here the two-note two occur and notes melodywlich coloured. simple in dedicated in lavishly harmonised the to the and a quasipieces robin, sporadically is device in des Jardins, La Fauvette b As 11. IX/55 [ex this called s4, seen p4, resolution cresonance contract6e'. Threecolour chordsare alsousedthroughoutthe threerobin being birdsong. These the third the most the three. to colour chords. punctuate pieces labelseachone a, b and Johnson infrequent- arewritten in severaldifferenttranspositions. 13 C, below C# lowest 1-13.1 and to the them middle refers root a number c andassigns

325

is its 13'h C# immediately C. Thefight handshows transposition, similar above middle


in La Fauvetteandmanyother pieces- three-partchords to the colour-chords shapes involving tritones,perfectfourths andfifths. Thesechordsof 'renversements transpos6s' in distinctly in slow, simple quavers are and groupsof one to six, and providethe pieces highthe structure of and produce a sense with ensuing with exciting resonance effects birdsong. pitched

features:colour chordswith Te Merle Noir'/'The Blackbird' (II) hasonly threeseparate itself, the time effects andwidely-spaced values, song chordsproducingresonance added beginsthe piecewith colour complexes in a chordaltexture. [ex DU56a, b, c). Messiaen first The first two phrases two chordsand concluding the are related,the second repeating followed by harmonic Each (b4). triadic two chords, of these a new resolution with in first kind. On the this this only concludes occasion, piece with a resolutionof sections C in last In the the major simple are chord. section, a employed colour chordal white notes is here, Interestingly, is the time added sixth recalling used. added value employed with an These by followed the style of composer. sections always rapid are an early in two-parts,representing demisemiquavers tle song:indeed,the notesfrom the here, just blackbird's left in The to the resonate as so often robin's pieces. resolutionare involving brief, flourishes demisemiquaver are andconcludingwith short many phrases feature iambic begins The third or cells. with a clusterchord using extremely scandicus low pitches,followed by a six-partchord in which the top threenotesstandout. In each has left been the to resonate, and,therefore,an preceding immediately music occurrence, inferior resonance produced effect is createdby the bassclusterand a superiorresonance

326

by the six-partchord.The form of 'Le Merle Noir' maybe divided into four verses, all in the sameorder. components comprisingthe threeabove-mentioned

The fourth piece,'La Grive Musicienne'/'TheSongThrush, is a fine example of juxtaposition features. Messiaen of musical exploitsthe songthrush's repetitive is Again, them there twice times. three cells repeats short and once, or even characteristic development, nor are technicalprocedures only the composer's employed, no followed dense With to the the transcriptions are applied create structure. chords, useof However,a new tempo by additionalfeatures, manyuniqueresonances are achieved. is feature. Amongstvariousrepeated to cellsare each characteristic not given marking homorhythmic (b62), (W), two-part a repeated quasi-glissandos ostinatos ascending flourish involving to an A major chord (b27-29),a two-part an ascending motive isolated The (b3 5), d, b, (b lex DU57a, 18) three rest of and colour chords c, el. alternator iamb, features two three the movement cretic, uses or repetitionsof varyingrhythmic bacchius, IV III, or anapaest. paeon epitrite

Skylark' (VI) is the most lively andvivaciouspieceof the VAlouette desChamps'PThe it is in built Again, this case,numerousshort cellsare upon ostinatos; many work. is feature four five The &equently, three times. of a group often or common most repeated found in two-parts,in a Iigh-pitched descending demisemiquavers are arpeggio:examples
in by 78, bars 10,18,47,59,66 the middle most and of which a chord are preceded at

found Indeed, homophony IYJ581. high-pitched [ex the two-part the other piano rangeof hereis alsopre-figuredby a similarchord or occursasa continuationof the

327

descending These the rapid, arpeggio. rathersolemnchordspunctuate aforementioned do in harmonic 120,50,9 (bars the two-part as writing, colour chords ostinato virtuosic 92 and 103).The last three soundingcolour chordsin harmonicostinato(bar 103)are followed by a turbulentgroup of clustersthat bring the work to an enthusiastic end. involves,at first, chordalandsinglenote Graduallydescending, this faster sequence hand fourth/tritone in in left. A the the and single right perfect alternators alternators

in descend begins the alternators which gradually andpitch-bychord-by-chord sequence


'vif, Two in bass. IX/591. [ex the the abrupt calls conclude work pitch

Un Vitrail et desOiseaux(1986)

'Les Oiseauxsont plus importantsque les tempi, et les couleursplus 35 les importantes que oiseaux The prominence givesto colour in this pieceis immediately which Messiaen evident.The favourite instruments the to producean composer"s of combinations of several work uses in it in its influence the many ways shows, simplicity, of earlier array of colourful effects: form five different block The textures, presents of which two are closely simple works. introduction The the the represents nightingalewith xylophone-trioaccompanied related. in found by texture throughout the a also opera and sporadically metalpercussion, by the woodwind section,the 'tr6s Couleursde la Citi Cileste [ex M601. Accompanied lent' trumpetthemeis written in 2/8 and3/16, using only quaversand a semiquaver is As the the two tied very phrase rhythm with crotchets. completing value, added-note

328

that shiftsthe quaverbeat,the rhythmirresistibly simple,andit is only the serniquaver notablythe openingof Tanse de la Fureur,pour les Sept recallsearlierMessiaen, Trompettes'from the Qualziorpour la Fitt du Tempslex LX/61]. As PaulGriffiths points the musicis not only a chorale,but also a song.The trumpet andbellsthemeis OUt36' richly colouredby the whole of the woodwind section,similarto the 'Corpus Christi Alleluia' of Couleurs.All threeappearances concludewith the tritone ostinatocell, G to C#, in a quaver-serniquaver rhythm.The songof the chaffinchis alsorepresented on the is by is blackcap. its bursts, In the the and answered song song of short xylophone-trio with colour-chords on tutti woodwind andtrills on a triangle[ex richly harmonised bird's la luminositi IX/621. Eachnote is given a separate displaying the colour-chord, of in lengthen increases itself timbre.Its phrases the gradually on eachoccurrence song and duration.Indeed,with the exceptionof the chaffinch'ssong,aUthe sections extend; however,the musicdoesnot developin anytraditionalway, but insteadthe samemotivic characteristics are simplyrepeated andelongated.

beginandendwith the gardenwarbler on the piano.After All threepolyphonicsections the pianohasplayedtwo initial colour chordsandbegunto portray the gardenwarbler's flute the other birds Mow in staggered rapid demiserniquavers, entrieson andclarinet.

is givena downbeatandthereafter In fact,these Eachinstrument playsin horslempo.


be 'chamber' to as may referred. versionsof the continuous'free time' sections found in the 'Sermonto the Birds', the sixth scene heterophony of Messiaen's opera. in the first polyphonic'section, five in the secondand seven Threebirdsongs are presented in the third. It is interestingthat suchvivid colours; are hereemployed, yet only common

329

birds arerepresented: hasdecidedthat eventhe commonbirds of Messiaen perhaps Europehavecomplextimbres.

Althoughthe title, 'A Stained-Glass Window and SomeBirds', seems to give the birds an in by birdsong,asMessiaen to be r8le, fact the pieceis dominated almostperipheral seems bird's the progressive extension of a given evoking songasthe day unfolds,usingthe features throughout.In the caseof the polyphonicsections, and melodic rhythmic same birdsongasthe intensification Messiaen through staggered the suggests entries gradual of 0 birds land hors in The birds tree. tempo, the or as on passes, a composer uncages morning interact free to they the that are more with one another,althoughmaintaining so However, Messiaen, in their of songs. contrastto the 'tp8de', usesonly characteristics flutes,clarinetsanda pianoratherthan solo strings;eachinstrumentis designated to one bird's song.In the final polyphonicsectionMessiaen threegardenwarblers encapsulates flute first instruments has flute third The three third piano, and clarinet. many on descending runs similarto the quasi-descending glissandos of the robin on the third line however, to maintainits intrinsic qualities.The robin's each solo manages clarinet; (for descend lowest the texture they to spring example) out the of as pitches glissandos IX/63]. [ex in these sections used

The form of the pieceis shownbelow:

330

INTRODUCTION STROPHEI

STROPHE2

STROPHE3

Nightingale on xylophone-trio and metal percussion a) theme on trumpets b) chaffinch on xylophone-trio c) blackcap on woodwind d) Hors Tempo Polyphony - garden warbler (pno), blackbird (I fl), subalpine warbler (I' cl) a) b) c) [extended] d) Hors Tempo Polyphony - garden warbler (pno), blackbird (I" fl), blackcap (2ndfl), subalpinewarbler (ld cl), robin (2d cl) a) [extended] b) c) [extended] d) Hors Tempo Polyphony - garden warbler (pno), blackbird (Id fl), blackcap (2d fl), garden warbler (Yd fl), garden warbler (I" cl), subalpinewarbler (2d cl), robin (3d cl) i) nightingale on xylophone-trio ii) 4 phrases: 1-3 = trumpet themes in succession,4= colour-chords, + mode I

CODA

La VdIe d'En Haut (1987)

At the beginningof the work, Messiaen citestwo quotationsfrom Scripture:

les choses d'en-haut,M oCisetrouve le ChristTSeek thosethingswhich are 'Recherchez

[on [Saint hand God]' Christ Paul,Epistleto the the sitteth right of above, where
Colossians, Chapter3, v. I]

and,

331

du ciel, d'aupr6sde DieuTAnd I sawthe Holy ' Et je vis la Cit6 Sainte,qui descendait City, comingdown from God out of Heaven'[Revelation,Chapter2 1, v.2].

Both quotationsrevealthe composer'sintentionto createa vision of the CelestialCity. In Couleursde la CW Celeste, thereare five quotationsfrom the Book of Revelations, one in Here, focuses trumpets. the sameway, the composer mentionsthe on seven of which melodyof the trumpetswhenreferringto the secondchorale,thus achievingagainan apocalypticquality.

Messiaen In this simplework in block form, written for orchestra solo, andpiano fife. huge, The the the on chords two crotchet of monumental aspects new main represents be in 'monumental Paradise brass the called a what might glory of portray woodwind and joy birdsong the textures three the of the resurrected. of symbolise separate chorale',while 'monumental in the work. The first choraleis the aforementioned Therearetwo chorales in densely in (1), tutti chords. grandiose orchestrated, written simplecrotchets chorale' in order to accommodate The secondchorale(2) employsmanychanges of time-signature by it is (sixteenth): frequent the also accompanied the useof addednote values homorhythmic fivehigh-pitched together or six-part that play a andpiano glockenspiel lent' in 'presque in the the sectionof the second texture, reminiscent, style,of pianopart la du Fin Temps'). Annonce I'Ange (Vocalise, qui pour of the quartet movement

332

by The structureof the work maybe dividedinto two sections, succeeded a central birdsongsectionanda coda.The first two sections eachcomprising are exactlythe same, This followed by 2, I the the warbler. songof melodious threecomponents: chorales and in is texture to the continuousthree-part ubiquitousxylophone-trio song given homorhythm.Its repetitivesong,using shortrhythmiccells,employsthe same in immediately the the preceding the chaffinch of shortvocalisations as orchestration is Oiseaux, des Un Vitrail the warbler's song more although melodious et work, interspersed 3 2/32 23 2/32 dynamic. Bars with simplerepeated are of and rhythmically in bars inflection) 4/16 2/16, harmonic (in of sense an exciting and creating of notes In lex DU64]. by Messiaen in freedom.Its songopens the sameway aspreviousversions 'd6sagreable' begins Riveil desOiseaux(p11), its second with a similarrising, phrase iambic This first cell iambic the rising the second accented. and a grace note cells, patterndu Saint Livre in found is the thirteenth of movement warbler again of the melodious (pp96 and 101).In the fifth volume,part I of 'Traitd de Rythme,de Couleur, Sacrement is built its Messiaen (p577), d'Ornithologie' parts: that several of often up song explains et is iambic displaying the first is 'prelude', second a the aforementioned cells,while the a Further, by followed the IV this beginning cell. of extensions paeon with stropheoften its tempo imitates slower a at the pitches repeated with reed warbler melodiouswarbler is 'grande Its b]. DU65a, flourishes lei sirrdlarly coda' the virtuosic rapid skylarkwith and Here, the melodious than the tempo material. musical other rapid virtuosic andat a more has b 1-2), (p4, the added 'prelude' and has s2, pitches and repeated similar a warbler has Its the by of excitement being certainly the song xylophone-trio. played colourations,

333

be its does is to there the skylark's;yet, although second not appear appearance extended, virtuosic ending. a comparably

is After the first two sections, there a comprisingthe threeaforementioned components, birds, blackcap the two the songs andgardenwarbler. of centralsectionwhich alternates in almost. Eachbirdsongis heardfive times.The blackcapis orchestrated exactlythe same first Un Vitrail, but, in its in its at contrast, are rhythmicgroupings way as appearance fifth its lengthen However, the version gradually until songandphrases more sporadic. in frequently blackcap, The the (pp22-23)whereone phraseencompasses used ninenotes. VhraiL it does in Un introduces just fashion, in the gardenwarbler, as opera a similar

The gardenwarbler's songis long and'chattering' in style,brokenup by dense colour bird's found in five in this technique of manyrepresentations or six parts-a chordsoften des Jardins. in Fauvette found La indeed These the cadenzas shorterversionsof are song. in the pianopart of Un Vitrail, herethe 'chattering' However,unlike the example including is Each in the to two and up extended, song gradually parts. are mostly passages fifth version.

by followed first, 'monumental of anextended version Thecodaconsists the chorale', of


the second,'accompanied'chorale.

334

The structureof the work is as follows:

Section 1

) a) choraleI ('monumental, b) chorale2 c) songof the melodious warbler

Section 2

a) choraleI ('monumental) b) chorale2 (extended) c) longerversion

Birdsong Section [Five alternatingpassages] i) blackcap(woodwind) fi) gardenwarbler(piano) Coda a) choraleI ('monumental') b) chorale2 (extended)

335

Notesto ChapterIX Although rarely notedin the score,often a note-value an exactcolour mayresemble association. 2 ClaudeSamuel, Samuel, Olivier Messiaen: Claude Music andColor: Conversations with Press,1986),p 136. transE. ThomasGlasow,(Portland,Oregon,Amadeus 3 ClaudeSamuel, op. cit., p132-3. 4 Almost identicalto its representation in CataloguedDiseaux. The informationhererefersto the piecein general.The tp6de' - beinga movement that i only solo finesin 'free' polyphony- is an exception. comprises 6Notably in the P and6h barsof the secondchorus. 7 This melodicshape is a particularfeatureof the whole work and, indeed,of Messiaen's dstyle oiseau'throughouthis career. 8The Narcissus flycatcherincludesa similarharmonised choriambicmotive marked'gai, in b2), (p75, shape. althoughnot a scandicus color6' 9 Comprisingmostlyfalling andrising minor 3rds andmajor 2ndsin groups of twos and threes. " Although the original quotationfrom Revelation,VIII, 6 statestrumpets- seesecond fistedquotation. 11 The only exceptionto this rule is the first call of figure 49 - the oppositeapplies. 12 Also in augmentation or diminution. 13 It is.importantnot to confuse'alouettecalandre'('calandralark) with 'alouette lark'). (short-toed calandrelle' 14 ClaudeSamuel, op. cit., p141. " The German is Bb H. B and =D natural = system applied, where musical 16 in St. June Hall John's 11,1972 Bach Takenfrom a PlatformDiscussion the on of in her book, Messiaen Festival- cited by A. R6131er Diasseldorf Church,duringthe second Contributionsto the SpiritualWorld of Olivier Messiae (Duisburg,Giles andFrancke, compiled1986). 17 Usedregularlyby Messiaen. 18 by in Wandering Voice A Takenfrom W. H. Hudson'sbook Birds andM cited (London,Bellow Publishing,1996),p49. MichaelWaterhouse 19 See'Le Merle Bleu' (p6) from CataloguedDiseaux. 20 lastsjust over thirty-two minutes. PeterHill's performance 21ClaudeSamuel, op. cit., p153. As seenthroughoutthe 'Meditations'. Also known asthe red-billedmesia- seeChronochromie. 24Of course,the inclusionof stringsmakesit possible to havereal glissandoeffects. 25Cited by H. Watts in her article 'Canyons,ColoursandBirds', Tempo 128, (1979),p6. 26Olivier Messiaen, Trait6 de Rylhme,de Couleur.et-d'Ornithologie.Vol 5, part I (Paris, Leduc, 1999),p448. " In fact, accordingto Oliver Knussen, andthe Songof andrightly so, 'The Resurrected in Turangaffla is 'paraphrase' Aldebaran' Star, the this the a of same movement Smphony. SeeTempo 116,March 1976,pp394 1, in Ids review ofDes C=yoiLs aux Etoiles.

336

28 Employsmanyfeaturessimilarto the northernmockingbird. 29 flycatcher. Narcissus 3' A type of pigeon. 31 into divide Near the beginning hors the the tempo tempo orchestra of scene, strict and two parts.The woodwind,strings,bellsandxylophone-trioare conducted, while the three D trumpet,hom-trio, rattles,glockenspiel ondes, play at their own speed. andvibraphone 32 In fact, Movement)UI is entitled'La Transsubstantiation'. 33 A few exceptions are found in the glissandos whereblack andwhite notesare not set singlepitchesare found in an aliengroup. apart,but only occasional 34SeeLrgit6, op. cit., p 147. 35 Takenfrom Messiaen's prefaceto the score. 36 Companion, Messiaen ed.PeterHifl, (London, Faber, 1995),p513.

%A

337

Conclusion

This thesishassurveyed the evolvingtreatmentof birdsongthroughoutMessiaen's career, his works chronologically,andfocusingon the following issues: discussing

(2) Instrumentation (3) Timbre (4) SpecialEffects(5) Texture (6) (1) Selection of Species RhythmandMelody (7) Authenticity

in Messiaen's development from Thereis a progressive treatmentof birdsong,traceable L'Ascension(1937)throughto his last works. The following chartsindicatesignificant described featuresof this development: the compositions are divided into severalstages as in the thesis.

A- Si2niricant Date 1933 1935 1936 Piece LAscension La Nativit6 du Seigneur Po6mes Pour M

Early Works

Innovations in Representation and Treatment of Birdsong * frequent trills and repeated rhythmic cells in m,.,vement H rhythmic freedom of 'Dieu Parmi Nous' repeated 'iambic feet' in 'Les Anges' fluttering/chattering effects on the piano high-pitched 'chirps' and 'interruption calls' cluster chords regular use of high-pitched sonorities for & 'oiseau' 'comme used phrases un oiseau' first time blackbird and nightingale in 'Liturgie de Cristal' f machine-gun' effects (nightingale) rscandicus' melodic cells (nightingale)' tritone alternator regular use of grace notes des 'AbIme Oiseaux' movement entitled rhythmic freedom (including added-note

1941

Quatuor Pour la Fin du Temps

338

1943

Visions de L'Amen

1944

Vingt Regards sur I'Enfant-Msus

1945

Harawi

1946-8 Turangalila Symphony

implied sonorities of bells and birdsong many cluster chords bird-like 'interruption calls', also in succession loquacious demisemiquaver patterns decorative and soloistic r6les of bird style sonorities of larks specified les devoted 'le tous to short sections merle et oiseaux' * use of two synchronous key signatures (Eb major with atonal birdsong) * varied use of articulation * piano depiction of birdsong intensified by orchestral accompaniment * 'cretic' rhythms * regular use of reference points in 'style oiseau' * piano cadenzawith many bird style characteristics

B- The Experimental Period


Date 1950 Piece Innovations in Representation and Treatment of Birdsong

Messede la Pentec6te

1951

Livre d'Orgue

1951

Le Merle Noir

* juxtapositionof bird stylewith 'droplets of water' * superimposition of bird style on 'drops of water' * organregistrationcreatingnew timbres * specified birdsong andunspecified * birdsongcentreof attentionin 4' movement * conversations of monophonicbirdsong * first birdsongcadenzas * birdsongdistinguished by timbre/registrations as well asmelodic/rhythmic characteristics * 'continuousmotivic islands' * superimposition of rhythmicinterversionof chromaticdurationson birdsongin 'Soixante-Quatre Dur6es' * birdsongmostly specified * songof the blackbird is the nucleusfor musical inspiration birdsong * flute represents

339

C- Riveil des Oiseaux and Oiseaux Exotigues


Date 1953 Piece R6veil des Oiseaux Innovationsin Representationand Treatment of Birdsong * all birdsong now specified * only piece to make exclusive use of birdsong * use of 'circadian' time-scale * first employment of onomatopoeic instructions * several birdsongs depicted from all over France * harmonies used to colour songs and calls * harmonic ostinato * heterophonic polyphony of birdsongs * birdsong portrayed by whole orchestra * unpitchcd and pitched percussion used * Greek and 11indu rhythms used in conjunction with birdsong * homophony on piano * homorhythm. on piano *colour-chords on piano * rapid changes of tempo * long polyphonic sections (tutti of birdsong) * quasi-gEssando effects on piano *C crossed hands' and overlapping on piano

1956

Oiseaux Exotiques

D- Catalo2ue d'Oiseaux Date Piece Innovationsin Representationand Treatment of Birdsong

d'Oiseaux 1956-8 Catalogue

* portraitsof birdsong * depictingsurroundingspecies, habitatand natural features * specificcolour associations * meticulous pedalmarkings * homophony (onevoice dominant) * homorhythm(one voice or handdominant) * 'hybrid' texture2 'superior' and 'inferior' resonance effects complexcolour chordsusedin manysongs flights of birds portrayed overlappingof hands to soundqualitiesaddedto subjective responses score counterpoints/polyphonies solos/'cadenzas' of one species'songs __J

340

E- Selected Works from the Period 1960-1987


Date 1960 Piece Chronochromie Innovations in Representationand Treatment of Birdsong * birdsong from Sweden, France, Japan & Mexico * tp8de' - 18 solo strings in continuous polyphonic birdsong tutti * harmonies and harmonics on strings producing cascades' of colours * colour associations added to score * equal emphasis on (1) interversions (2) birdsong * pizz. in strings * juxtaposed orchestral groups or blocks * metallic percussion * Oriental sonorities from xylophone, marimba and various metallic percussion instruments many Japanese birdsongs solo lines given to marimba, piano and xylophone specific positions given to whole orchestral ensemble * six orchestral groups * bird choruses underpinned by rhythmic continuum

1962

Sept HaYkaf

1963

Couleursde la Citd Cdleste

1964

Et Exspecto Resurrectionem Mortuorum

* xylophone-trio * piano haspercussive r6le * somebirdsongssupportedby whole orchestra * equalimportancegiven to colour, birdsongand plainchant *specificuse of brasssection(excludingstringsand piano) evenwhen depictingbirdsong * complexcolour associations more importantto the lark's songs) composer(shownin the calandra evenmore innovativeorganregistrations language'to off'communicable useof Messiaen's set birdsong * particular,extensive focus on the gardenwarbler's songs *improvisatoryqualitiesof the song * 'renversement transposis' & 'resonance contractee'colour chords * first useof 'wind' and 'sand' machines to birdsongtimbre accentuate * useof chimesmadefrom shell,glassandwood * crotales

1969

1970

M6ditationssur le Mystre de la Sainte Trinitd La FauvettedesJardins

ttoiles 1971-4 Des Canyons aux

341

197583

d'Assise SaintFranqois

1984

Livre du Saint Sacrement PetitcsEsquisses d'Oiscaux Un Vitrail et des Oiseaux

1985

1986

(includingcellosscraping * extended techniques bows andmanymutesused) * dramaticuseof birdsong,cyclicallyor symbolically * first useof 'hors tempo', in 'The Sermonto the Birds' * ondesmartenotusedexperimentally * revertsto mostlyjuxtaposedmaterial * gradualdevelopment of birdsongcharacteristics throughoutmovement *4 miniatureportraits of birds' songsin isolation * only occasional triadic or colour chordsusedto breakup phrases develop * birdsongphrases throughout gradually piece in depth increase * polyphonicsections and gradually durationasthe pieceprogresses * early 'monumental'style in brasscontrasted with maturebirdsongdepictions

1987

La Ville d'En Haut

TablesA-E tracethe appearance of new ideasin the composer'sevolvingtreatmentof in in birdsong,extending the boundaries this other as of his own compositional style respects.

influenced in his heterogeneous language Style oiseauis an essential constituent musical building begins by issues. Messiaen by often unrelated on spiritual and musical, physical ( de Langage by described in 'Technique composers past as mon employed techniques

language be defined. 11is Musical')in orderthata newcompositional ownmusical


is then enriched throughouthis careerby the introductionof additional language interversions in Experimental Period (1949-195 1) For the are techniques. example, language. the communicable introduced,while in the M&tafions (1969) he employs

342

importantto Messiaen Birdsong,however,remains throughouthis life andits significance in several is strengthened ways.

high'chattering', 'Fluttering' in earlyworks, birdsongtakeson a decorative role. or interruption features that appear trills, tritones calls, alternators and are pitchedsonorities, in but described in Chapter in 5 (Table A), the all common are also earlyworks regularly hallmarks Messiaen's these aswell as characteristics of early style oiseau. are music; yet, of birdsong. The later, are renditions of sophisticated namesof species more many Oisemix des Riveil found in (Table but it is A), the earlyperiod not until occasionally In the (Table Q that the names of birds areindicatedin the scorein everyinstance. beginsto investigate Period(TableB), Messiaen the possibilities Experimental of timbre Livre de la (1950) in both Messe Pentecdte innovative and organregistrations using been have bird stylerepresentations d'Orgue (1951): with few exceptions, to this point up limited to the piano.In NMI desOiseauxandOiseauxExotiquesthe pianois againthe begin but for birdsong in instruments instrument to the portrayal, other orchestra main birdsong. depict named

full focuses the textures techniques, Messiaen the and contrasting on pianousingextended

d'Oiseaux Catalogue Here, in (Table D). instrument one only using the of range is ableto concentrate instrument, andrhythmic thecomposer on theintrinsicmelodic
interaction bird's the the and songs song, species' of many of each characteristics habitat. the surrounding of representation

343

Timbrebecomes of major concernin the works from 1960until the endof his life (Table E): Messiaen attemptsto simulatethe characteristic qualitiesof birdsongusinginvented instruments. Ilis search for timbre produces innumerable of chordsandcombinations inventedcolour chordsandinnovativecombinations In Chronochromie of instruments. (TableE), birdsongfrom Sweden,France, Japan andMexico are portrayedamongst Later, the metallicpercussion harmonies pizzicato, andmetallicpercussion. of harmonics, feature Messiaen's becomes Gamelan common of a music, and section effectsare also Canyons Etoiles (1971-1974), Des In techniques aux still more extended are employed. bows from their to the trumpetsusing only the mouthpiece; the cellos scraping used These techniques are employed. and sand machines extended and wind additionally,

his instruments In timbral the palette. produce extraordinary results and extend unusual
in dAssise (1975-1983), St Frangois 'hors Messiaen tempo" technique, the as uses opera, the later Un Vitrail et des Oiseaux(1986),whereinstrumentalists are given a signto start from the rest of the orchestra. This by the conductor,and continueplaying,independent freedom. greater almostaleatoriceffect createsstill

for lifetime's It is in this relentless and a search rhythmicandmelodicprecision

birdsong into timbrethathasbrought investigation of exploration abouta wide-ranging


development in his innovative in incorporation a their Compositions, exemplifying and following dealwith The from drawn the sections sounds of nature. creativeresponses from drawing Messiaen" the preceding arising style, s conclusions -of sevenmainaspects in the contained the earlierchapters. tablesand analyses

344

(1) Selection of Species

first beganincorporatingbirdsonginto his works, its function was WhenMessiaen decorative, 'oiseau' 'comme the terms and and un oiseau'were used predominantly in the preface Although the nightingale impressionistically. to andblackbirdare mentioned it is not until Vingi Regardssur IEnfanf-Jgmisthat the Qualuorpour la Fin du Temps, for function becomes birdsong Gradually, the of moreprominent: are specified. species is 'Communion' from de la (195 Messe Pentecdle 0), in there the a example, a sectionof Noir (195 1), Le Merle bird droplets between styleand of water, while counterpointsolely blackbird. is dedicated flute for the to the songs of entirely andpiano, a piece

by birdsong be in Messiaen's A development useof can readily seensimply noting t4e des Oiseaux NMI in Indeed, increase the numberandvariety of species employed. steady (1953) represents thirty-eightbirds from France,and OiscauxExotiques(1956) portrays diversecountries.As Messiaen's birdsongfrom several transcriptions so the accumulate, increases, supplyof providingthe composer with an endless used numberof species inspiration. musical

(2) Instrumentatio

in important instrument in Messiaens is The piano an extremely works: one can see Table A abovethat the pianois presentin most of the early pieces.In theseearlyworks, it is the

345

'style labelled the that oiseau' characteristics, produces or otherwise.Trevor Hold piano hasqueriedthis choiceof instrumentfor manyreasons relatedto authenticity- notably, through a sustained that it cannotcrescendo note, play intervalssmallerthan a semitone, integral in birds' true to all a glissando, of which are or produce components many songs the wild. Yet, throughoutMessiaen'oeuvre,the pianois rarely excludedin a composition: is it in Riveil desOiseauxandOiseauxExotiquesit almostplaysa concertante and r8le, isolation in in for many works solo piano.Malcolm Troup claimsthat the calledupon its immense 'brittle' in 'chameleon'-like of and range, nature- was capable piano- with producingboth 'ersatzgamelan'effectsand 'twittering birdsong".

birdsong,using However,in the 'experimental period' (seeTableB) the organrepresents between different both differentiate innovative to accentuate registration and colourful, des NMI oiseazx, Messiaen By the time of usesthe whole availablerangeof sonorities. to depictbirdsong.The uniquetimbresof eachmusicalinstrumentcreate the orchestra distinguishes As species' of colour, and unique songs. more typesof texture are collages becomemore apparent. introducedin later pieces,so thesedifferentiations

(3) Timbre

is Messiaen's timbre An increasing of evolving. a centralcharacteristic preoccupationwith Johnson statesthat, style. compositional

346

'the concernfor timbreis the maindevelopment to be found in his birdsongfrom 1953to 1958. 's found that timbrewasthe most difficult aspectof birdsongto However,the composer He states: simulate. or even reproduce, 'eachnote is providedwith a chord, not a traditionalchord but a complex to give the timbre of that note for a bird piece of soundsdestined ... comprisingone or two thousand notes,thereare one or two thousand inventedchords.It is an enormous task for the imagination6 .

Certainly,Messiaen's of synaesthesia, sense andhis love of colours,helpedhim to increase intensity the chordal-complexes which of the original7, of a wealth produce in the timbre the wild. the song of simulating

Needless to say,it is not simplythe chordal-complexes that evokean approximation of birdsong.Accordingto Messiaen, the tonesof the birds are, 'so extraordinary that no musicalinstrumentcanreproducethem. One instruments, of or needscombinations and still more combinations (see TableE). of pitches's complexes hasadmittedthat his treatmentof timbre developed Messiaen over time. last 'As I grew older, I drew increasingly to timbre works, such near - my boiles, Cwiyons aux containfar more tone-coloureffectsthanmy asDes earlierworks'9

347

From quite earlyon, Messiaen exploresandextendsthe fiill capabilities of instruments with regardto rangeof pitch, decorativedevicessuchas trills, and 'interruption calls' (see TableA). This wealthof specialeffectsandsonoritiesis developed evenfurther through birdsong. Wsexplorations of

(4) Special Effects

he employsin order to The composer often usesthe full pitch rangeof the instruments Copious trills and 'interruption calls', amongst sound qualities. produceextraordinary vocabularyfrom quite early on. Of course, variousother effects,were part of Messiaen's Messiaen andutilisesmanyother specialeffectsto generate creates a rich compositional palette.

For example, typical Easternsonoritiesareintroducedin SeptHa&af (1962) alongwith birdsongcoUected during a recenttour to Japan. Here, the composercombines Japanese a violins,woodwind, trumpet,tromboneand solo piano part with xylophone,marimba, instruments. is It this metallicpercussion that metallicpercussion ensemble numerous fascinating 'gamelan' Later, the and effects, especially with xylophone marimba. produces in Saint FrangoisdAssise (1975-83),andin Un Irarail el desOiseaux(1986), the becomes favourite (consisting a and of xylophone, xylorimba marimba) xylophone-trio

instrumcntal combination.

348

for (19714) instruments Efoiles the the two In Des Canyons composer uses unusual aux Climes (madefrom wood, shelland first time: the wind machine andthe sandmachine. (t6le), dramatic the thunder and a sheet produces and enriches effects used, also are glass) birdsong.Additionally,extended techniques are found in the cello parts,wherethey are behind bows bridge. Various their the to and alongside mutesare required scrape harmonics in harmonies double-stopped effectsare played with glissando and employed, by the strings.

(5) Texture

development. is further dimension his texture Messiaen's a compositional of choiceof Throughoutthis thesis,I haveusedsevenprincipaltypesof texture in order to categorise birdsong:

(1) monophonic (2) two-voicedhomophonic (onevoice dominant) (3) two-voicedhomophonic (4) homorhythmic (5) homorhythrnic (onevoice, handor part don-dnant) (6) hybridtexture (with 'superior' or 'inferior' resonance effects) (7) polyphonic for intended from been Sun's have originally Thesecategories adapted researcheslo, further facilitate* in d'Oiseaux (see D), Table Catalogue to research the order of analyses in Messiaen's As treatment the to shown originally, works. -tables, orchestral with regard (and birdsong Increasingly, monophony 'style was monophonic. specified and oiseau' of

349

by homophony, homorhythm In two-voice replaced and polyphony. were octavewriting) Catalogued'Oiseaux,the first useof (1) two-part homophonywith one voice dominant dominant, found. Caityon. is in Des Later, (2) texture v one voice or part with and chordal boiles St Fraiiois dAssise (1975-83), (1971-4) and specialeffectsand more aux in the are orchestra,producingan evenwider colours employed of cascades elaborate first intense is in later More the textural works: polyphony generated effects. rangeof des Reveil is in birdsong located 'dawn 'outpouring' the chorus' sectionof of polyphonic (1960) featureseighteen Oiseaux(1953).Of course,the 'tpode' from Chronochromie in Saint birdsong, in outpouring of while polyphonic solo strings an almostcontinuous FranCoisdAssise (1975-83)and Un Vitrail et desOiseaza(1986), hors tempois linear interaction freer movement. of simultaneous producinga employed,

(6) Rh3qhmand Melody

for almost 'The birds providedhim with exactlythejustification he needed individual figures whether of or of repetition, pitches, of melodic unlimited sections'[Malcolm Troupf'. However, This endless supplyof rhythmicandmelodicvariation is difficult to categorise. in in birdsongs have been the the the of revealed the underlyingcharacteristics mainworks

bird's for developed Messiaen fmotivicclassification' tables. style each a characteristic


instruments but that the only sonority most clearlyrecreate not songor call, employing length, by differentiating to them respect with phrase varying speeds andtextures,or also by rhythmicor melodicfeatures.Giventhe repetitivenatureof birdsong,it hasbeen 'alternator' 'interruption The introduce terminology to the analysis. to and new necessary

350

has been It birdsong into its basic this. to also of useful simplify motivic are examples call' for instance, blue the rock thrush(presentin the CataloguedOlseaux andin components: its phrases the opera)often bases aroundpermutations of a pentatonicmode- F#, E, C#, in the third B andA., althoughmanyphrases tableauof the operafeaturecomplicated 'dochmiac'rhythmsand other chromaticpitches.

The 'motivic classification'tablesin the mainpart of the thesisareusedin conjunction 12) from (and ideas from Dupr6's Marcel treatise andthe prosody with the termstaken has it Use from to tracepatternsof of prosody made possible plainchant. adaptations in birdsong, of melodiesare often relatedto adaptations while,shapes rhythmandaccent 13 'anchor' is 'reference' in Additionally, tonal, that or points music rarely of plainsong . havebeencited in order to locatea 'pivotal' centrein an otherwiseatonalor modalsong.

(7) Authenticijy and its Importance

instrumentation his his Many ornithologistshavecriticisedMessiaen's of and choice work, few ornithologistsare ableto write or performmusicat a Nevertheless, inexactitude. Griffiths Paul disciplines As level, the two advises, rarely meet. and professional '.. he Wessiaen]is far moreconscientious an ornithologistthan any earlier ' far than ornithologist". other any musician,and moremusicalan observer he later birdsong, to Messiaen tried to the was Although soundsof copy exactly originally admit that,

351

'involuntarily, I inject my reproductions of the son f,s with listening' '. and of my manner method of something hadto transpose the In addition,birds generallysing at sucha high registerthat Messiaen it for in instruments: four be by least down them to octaves order played western at songs is this octavedisplacement themto andslowing down of the original songsthat may cause be unrecognisable.

An analogywith paintersandpaintingsis appositeto Messiaen's'birdsong, compositions. ('photographs'), His representations asmusical so much exact reproductions are not describing ('paintings'). This birdsong interpretations when analogymaybe extended of fall into The Messiaen's his thirteen two naturally categories. works pieces. the natureof in bird's d'Oiseaux (1956-8) Catalogue the a song, portraying each piece piecesof La be described 'portrait[s]' habitatandother surrounding species asmay as - may des Oiseaux(1985). Indeed,Nveil des FauvettedesJardins (1970) andPetitesEsquisses Oiseauxmaybe described as a 'portrait of the dawn chorus', deschbingthe periodfrom forest day in The France. the second category of an unspecified to next noon midnight from bird 'collage', the taken be over world all vocalisations are where as categorised may Oiseaux F-rofiques being described. is of a particularnaturalsetting andthere no sense (1960) andthe 'Sermonto the Birds' from the opera(1975-8.3) (1956), Chronochromie ftamework 'portraits" However, the there within are alsominiature of this. are examples Sept Halkar in des Oiseaux (195 3) Rgveil in or of of manypieces- the piano cadenzas

352

himselfhasdifferentiated betweenthe two types,stating Messiaen (1962), for example. that the first is 'truthful' ('portrait') andthe secondis 'unfaithful' ('collage').

Neithermethodis more importantthan the other, andhowevercomplexthe birdsong, intentionwas to respondcreativelyratherthan to imitate. As Johnson Messiaen's advises, 'He is concerned with a humanworld containingbirdsong,rather "' in its "bird than a world" own right. in indeed, It is apparent that birdsongfeaturesin the majority of Messiaen's compositions; is it des des Oiscaux, d'Oiseaux, La Fauvette Jardhis NMI Catalogue and works suchas integral in Birdsong feature. the composer'sspiritualworld: also plays an role the principal de Qu6netain Tanneguy advises, as
'If one had to try and put in a nutshell the main features which characterisehis vision of the world, isolate four governing themes: one would probably religious meditation, the sublimation of love, intimate from the time, confines of and an escape 17v communion with nature.

birdsong for Messiaen. It was a central the Onecannotunderestimate significance of inspiredby compositionalexplorationand featureof Wseclecticmusicallanguage w1dch,

further component, one essential world,couldnot existwithout andspiritual thenatural


factors. between Messiaen important these is the it to was relationship explore and devotion loyalty His Catholic. Roman to playingthe fundamentally and unrelenting a Even his illustrate many this. Trinit6 to La title the subject of works or matter and organat do indicate a theologicalcontext, there are many in works that, on the surface, not

353

features that play a symbolicr8le. Thesefeaturesare the hallmarksof Messiaen's music. The trinity, for example, throughoutthe composer'soeuvre.The occurssymbolically MMIations (1969) arededicated to the mysteryof the Holy Spirit as the title indicates: 'the Threeare One', the 'Son' andthe 'Holy Spirit', while that represent thereare phrases incorporates denoting language the threepersons.In addition, phrases the communicable in d'Olseaux (1985) symbolically manyother works. Petiles F-squisses the trinity appears Offrwzdes Ouhliges Les (1930) fifteenth has bird's three the three songs, movements, uses Sacrement juxtaposes Saint A (1984) Livre birds' three songs,thereare of movement Oiseaux des (1986), in Vilrail the xylophone-triois ubiquitousandthe et threestrophes three rhythmic continuums, gpersonages amongstothers. rythmiques'systemsuperimposes In the preface to the scoreof Vingi Regardssur I'E?ifwlt Jjsus (1944), Messiaen states has 'three le Fils" du Fils 'Regard sonorities,three modes,threerhythms,three sur that Significance is on each other. superimposed alsogivento prime music of strands is five Indian is 'Shiva', Number the the number of god while numberseven the numbers. it signifiesthe day of rest. Christiansymbolism is 'perfect number"and,for the composer, lesser his in to a greater or extent. works revealed all

freedom The GreekandHindu rhythms,, with their animetricbeat,may symbolise spiritual the the and values non-retrogradable when rhythms,especially added-note alongwith is less rikelihood detecting there the tempo even where of pulse: slow a at played irregular indicate 'end bar lengths tempos the the and ,timelessness' of time' and slower of the GreekandI-Endu 'eternallife'. Furthermore, rhythmsmay signify Christianhope and in Et Exzpecto Resurrectionem death the second movement of as seen triumph over

354

Morluonim(I AwaittheResurrectiott wherethe of theDead,takenfromtheCreed)


Simhavikrama the the tila, the of symbolises power using section, percussion metallic the risenChrist. 'lion' while accompanying a tritonal trumpetthemerepresenting in illustrate important The the text, as Plainsong a certain r6le. plainsong may alsoplaysan in Corp. Glorieur, Les in Regina' 'Salve the suggest, as or v may of version elaborated is simpleandunchanged, the simplicityof faith. Midilations, whereplainchant

his own birdsongtranscriptions hasanalysed that Messiaen using It is significant birds For from derived the the are composer, prosodyand plainchant. terminology for Messiaen's he to search new what wishes attainon earth. of precisely symbols liberty from further him the and takes away sovereign procedures compositional from frees himself he birdsong, the to improvisatorysounds of nature:when returning in limitations. has Messiaen his admitted, musical pre-conceived of constraints He bird is for freedom. Gol6a, Antoine that the the continues, symbol with conversation

'We wak he flies. We makewar, he sings's'.

indicates his issue life, that throughout music, prevalent Ms obsession an everlasting with in heaven. fteedorncould only be possible he felt complete

implicit in Messiaen's that musicalandspiritual are Therearea numberof paradoxes for but faith, is Christians devout Many that*doubt of part a necessary admit philosophies. his intention deliberate The use of of Messiaen therearemanyother contradictions.

355

in birds' birdsong interaction the set songs and of carefullynotated - rhythmsandmelodies freedom, just is is is to the to time of as antithesis rhythm anunetricality, stoneis love human to divinelove. Birdsongis, therefore,proof of the timelessness and birds language God. By the to the through of spiritual seeking evoke ecstasy of existence hoping the Messiaen theosophy, the truth. Perhaps to comprehend upholdsa profound is it 'The St. Gospel John's is truth will the taking of written, advice where composer birds icons: Messiaen's free' (John, 8 they symbolise nature'svoice or are v32). makeyou life for desire Messiaen God's Their the eternal or a give perhaps sounds voice. even perfection. previewof everlasting

intended faith, few Catholic Messiaen's It is curiousthat considering piecesare profound however,that his eclecticmeans for liturgical use:it appears, the copious of expression is God birdsong his indicates inspirations the techniques, all pantheism. and symbols, the composer would chosethe naturalworld over the manaroundus, Giventhe chance, 'real' for Messiaen, the the soundsandthe musicof the of nature are sounds madeworld: EasternandWesterntraditionsarepre-conceived or even'unreal'.

'For me, the only real music has always ... 19" in existed the soundsof nature.

156

Notes tG-Conclusion

2 This phrase is coinedby Paul Griffiths in his book, Olivier Nfessiaen andthe Music o Time, (London,Faber,1985), 147. 3 Terminologytaken from Shu-WenSunin his dissertation, Sets 'Birdsong andPitch-Class "L'Alouette Calandrelle"',(Universityof Oregon,1995),p35. in Messiaen's ' Malcolm Troup in The Messiaen Companion, ed. Peter10, (London, FaberandFaber, 1995),p393. 5R. S. Johnson, Messiae (London,Dent, 1976,R/1989),pl 18. , 6 ClaudeSamuel, Samue-1, Olivier Messiaen: Music andColor. Conversations Claude VAth Press,1986),pp94-5. (Portland,Oregon,Amadeus " In this instance, the 'original' is the version - seenthroughoutTrait6 de Rzhme. de instrument dynamics, Couleur, et d'Ornitholoizie'- which is not yet orchestrated, an given inflection. harmonic or any 8Takenfrom the Public Discussion December 7 1968,during the first Dilsseldorf World of Olivic Festivalcited in A. R68ler, Contributionsto the-Spiritual Messiaen (Duisburg,GilesandFrancke,1986),p32. Messiaen 9 R66ler, op. cit., p108. 10 Shu-WenSun,op. cit., pp33-36. "Malcolm Troup in The Messiaen Companio op. cit., p397. 12 Marcel Duprd, 'Trait6 d'Improvisation',vol. 2 CoursCompletd'Improvisationi I'Orgue (Paris,Leduc, 1926). ` SeeMusicalExamplesin table form EUI andH/2. 14 Paul Griffiths, op. cit., p168. 15 ClaudeSamuel, op. cit., p94. 16 Johnson, op. cit., p 131. 17 'Messiaen: de Qu6netain, Poet of Nature', Music andMusicians xi/9, (May Tanneguy 1963),p 10. (Paris,Julliard, 1960),p 19. 18 Antoine Gol6a'sbook, Recontres avecOlivier Messiaen 19 Ibid., p223

The frequently used scandicusmelodic shape.

357
M uslcal-Exstmvlc3=Cb ar)ter I

1/1addednote value('Techniquede mon Langage Musical', ex. 1-9)


I Strawinsky Satre die Prislemps, /)&"so Societe. 13 ,, H ol !4i of .... ; P:4 114,91... fimmiza A4 13 2A 113 A 13 A in A Ll A 73

3 rigaverdAana

rfM' F-35 ,

rg5-9,

13

46 --

++

birdsong('Jardin du Sommeild'Amour'. birangall1aSymphony) 1/2decorative


astfft

TOW.

temator)

I hoso

0.46

solov"s

Div.

lkms lost I* offee"

post I*$ *or4o*1 w1broteIA$ soft;.

358

11- Musical Examples -Chanter

Table 11/1Useor Prosody in Messiaen'sRhythmic Analysis (1) lamb (U-) ffraiti', p439) .....

(2) Double-lamb

(U-U-)

ffraiti',

p555)

M_F5 V;--

in echo (3) Double-lamb

(U-U-)

ffraiW, p429)
p ffraitk',

(4) Trochee

(-U)

p66)

A i_7\__ P__`7N
Ij

(5) Amphimaccr(cretic)

(-U-)

ffraiti',

p305) _A

(6) Dactyl

Wu)

ffraiti',

p85)

(7) Anapaest.

(M)

('Trait6', p 118)

(8) Bacchius

(Traitt', p536)

Lt

(9) Contra-bacchius

(__U)

("Taitil, p66)

(10) Ephrite I
%

ffraiti',

p536)
--.

I-H-OF 4-M rII

MR

(11) Epitrite H

(-U--)

ffratti',

p 133)

(12) Epitrite III

ffraiti',

p212)

359

(13) PaeonIV

(UUU-)

(Traiti',

p 121)

go I

(14) Choriamb

('Traiti', pI 11)

(15) Spondee

('Traiti', p239)

(16) Ionic Minor

(UU--)

('Trait6', p326)

15-0(17) Tribach I (UUU) ffraiW, p85) 9w I I

Table 11/2use or Plainch2nt in Messiaen's Melodic Analysis (1) ClimacusResupinus (Traiti', p78)
4w

(2) PoffectusFlexus

('Trait6', p77)

(3) Torculus Resupinus

('Traiti, p84)
!

1
(4) Porrectus
ft

h010
('TraiW, p IS8)
061 w 11 0'.

(5) Torculus

("Traiti', p193 & 194)

360 (6) Scandicus ('Traiti', p193 & 194) OL L

(7) Climhcus

('Traiti', p193& 195)

11/3 song of the nightingale ('La Rousserolle Effarvatte', Catalogue d'Olseaux) [iamb) lanapacst), -1 r Rossignol >. (z , ve, i2o) I vir peu 0,
too)

tim.

-ij-wr jua

jj* (6rusjue
.,

el incisil)

. ..............

6 p
I

-i
iambs)

"=

",

Ru4 "- 9rI


11

ra IIRr.

r. 9, t; ;

V,!=

t---

r-U!, alternator] Locut (oh. 100)


ler.

vir

(P2
M

132)
AD A..

loinfaiA,

luxaire

/*

PIT

6i"
I

IT

it

(mordant, comme sut xylopAone) PIP


- 0.1
+ F--

FF V. 1FiFiF-i-fI.
Fm--

-ryy It-U. I [altemator)

r-[double-iamb) Un reu vir

(san-t vid. )

kp

r-[anapacst]-i S lz w .w Orst-que et incifill) MY F-H

361
Musical Examples - Chapter IH dominant b) the on seventhc) on the chord of the ninth chord a) perfect chord
AA

d) resonances, perceiving an F#
A

(taken from ex.183-186, 'Technique de mon LangageMusical)

I--l
111/2 tritone theme('Technique', ex.215) lp
111/3

r-I
V 1

% 0.1

_I

I-I

1,

-[--I
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la Fin A Temps Qualuor ('Techh. from iqbe', ex. 222) pour colour chords
Presque lentg ImPalpable, IoI nt at n f= f=l `r7..........

annonce 14fist d6
viola"

0) tf
vlalonceM

pp im p 0 got

pp sourdins ............
AL 1 ppp 49 F f l n'

plallo
040

ka EEE

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I-. JL . -7-- ---I--7=-L

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Ft

41 w

I LPN V lv

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111/4 modes of limitedtransposition


(Whole-tons Mode Iami Scajej

362

(Octatodic Mods A

Scalal

mcwe 3

Mods 4

Mode

Mod*

Mods 7

III/Stxtract from 'Paysage' (IloiniesportrMi)


r--, Plal . me d* ch a Sri os it d# roiLdri fig.

111/6 themefrom 'Boris Godunov'('Technique', ex.75 & 76)


AA

111/7 a) opening of Stravinsky's 'The Rite of Spring'


Lon.to- J. so hmpo rubato
Clartnrtto in La 1

Clarinetto In SIasoo Fagotte 1

___________________

_______________

I
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LrEc
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it

from P44 extract -.


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363

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4- -

I
14 1

-'A

1.

4--g kol
VY sly
LA

-rise pill Psi-4r .

ales

Piet

*190

Pat

ar o

pi -

poll

O. B. -b is a subsctof a)

('SubtilitE Corp. Uofieux') cles. % note values I 11/8Iliodified plainsone. with added a 11 113ten --1 mod-firi
0. corset
argue

364

Fo-s 7. I--I c ---e


I tA2 IPO, -

-4)
AB AB A 13 AU P''

'simliavikridita' 11119

simhotipilrUile

1 ff P- -tF!.

AB 14 gil

('Technique', 24) ex. diminution 111/10 and augmentation


TABLEAU DE QUELQUES FORMES DAUGMENTATION OU DIMINUTION DIUN RYTHME

24 CVrA TION 7ABIE or sovr FORMS OP AVGV. OR DIMINUTION OP A RNYT11M

Augmentation

Vergr5secrun. -

24 TABRUZ VINIOSA rORMrNDtJt MRO)OSSSAUNG RATTIMIS ODZR Diminution Ver/i/cificrutig


p

ajOut du quart des valcurs of (Ae'vaimes: addifinve a/ a. quarter Hinzurigung eines Viertels der Werte -

u) retralt

du einquikme 1 11111 Fdes valeurst

ij 11111 F. F -m F- M1 Fif intliet '''' t wilAdretrat Wegnahm@ eines Fnftels der Wertet

ajo, ut du tiers des


'a eu rs :m-IgF.

ii-H
A, der Werte:

b) retralt du qu&rt d:: valearal

IF,

of a fAird of addition HinzoNgung eines Drittitle

of a rf; r of ivitUrnival hms sines Vicrtels der Worts i Weg-na.

iAc 41mest

ajoul do A' 0111t 3

]a Mottle F1 FR. F. tou ajout des valeurs) k. r Me value-0 addition ofAalf addition of the datr(or HitizurUgungdes Punktes-(oder Hinzurigung der Will'te derWertet) augmentation classiquet *1 IOU ajout des valeurl k 111 F4 FR riles-Memel) addition of Me Valve& to fAcat"Ncs) eta qsic atteverntatio"Ar KILssische Vergriisterungi Wer H intufUgung der Werte so alch ajolut do double des r--111
0 E14.
FL FR 111&

e) retrait da pointt Couretralt du tiert des va eure t tei(AdfeirdRiof the dot:for WejMahmedes Punkteas toder Wegnahme eines Drittel@ der Werte) d) diminution de plagilque 1mi la Thoftlij f! r FIE
(00 des retrall, valeurei

(er tuitAdremal ofAaff ihe vimlue. claatie diminutiont vj Xiastische Verkleintrung-loderW*gn&hme derHilfttderWerte) ;, des dee retralt 40 3 val eu rt tM Je, 9 vIsev. tritA dro wa of (wo-tA irir of Wegnahmt von zwei Dritteln der Wertet f) des ? V4 des retralt ,v&It urs -I FP. iW

,,,, eurs

1,

P11 , P. _A;

addition of (trice (AC Values: HinzuNgunir des Doppelten der Worte: ajout du triple valturs : des

addWoo of tArce (imes Me VaIM2 w1figurugung des Dreffacheft dorwerte.

wi(Adrawal of Wepahms van drel Ylortoln der Wortst


g) retralt des 44 des 1 F- -m Fnfteln -m m--m F. der Wtrtel

sjo,ut du quadruple des


'a Ouro gHri11

t F.

F. M-

mAdition fif jbw r times Me WinsvNgunK den Vierfachan der Werte:.

VaTwe., I

WI-g, nabm* vonwier

*****.

365
Musical ExamvIes - Chamer IV

IV/1 subjective notation(takenfrom Hold's article,'The Notationof Birdsong')


W r rr'the roller' (or 'shake') as in the can3ry,

(W

for tones-witha ctrong'mingling' or non-musical sounds-

for sounds essentially mn-musical

IW2 pressure-levelgraph from a melogram,wing-beat noise in tEe drumrr6ngdisplay of the ruffed grouse

de 40-

Id

3020L 10

Cos

2 L-J 6.5 al

WWIUva

91

%44t

Secs

s's...

366

Musical Examoles- Chnpter V V/1 early


El Loni. th T-FI t4vewr

(LAscension) including trills styleoiseau',


bn
63) pf"Poloolk Pee POU

po-m looJeouple
Lont. ri%vwrfP2 III

rurA

I
2 Clar Lew. r

1! VV
Pit

Alf. %

(Rived des Oiseaux) V/2 two chaffinches


Mt Pinion
$11.11% (I IA )---.0 or 40 -k. I!

air

V/3 'fluttering' on the piano (Vtpouvante", Pomes pour Mi)

V/4 melodyinfluencedby the 'Bofis Godunov" theme,graduallyaccelerating ('Ta Voix', PonzespourMi)

-------------------------------

1--------------X

14--

Li; .--A 0,

k.

die

?tf.

W-f-

ke-

#OL

------------m be le A2-.

d'. i* fa i ea 0

J-9-2

rt7n I

high 'chirp' ('Les Deux Guerriers',Poemespolij."i) a V/5 soundresembling

367

V/6 high-pitched acciaccaturas ('Joie et Clarti des Corps Glorieux')

V/7 flute-like timbre ('Les Bergers', La Nativiij de Seig7je, ) 11. Men rnod4t, 4 ad lib. G bnurdon b
IG

0 P Sallujon. If
ja f01111

V,

--lop

Piz

a' a V/8 'Magnificat, alleluiatic praise in bird style' ('Dieu Parmi Nous', La Nativite) tr

I (; legato

t.- ?w F- FF'F IIII ! I. .IQ

lop Fi11111i1111iF1"F111

birdsong('Liturgie de Cristal', Qiiaiiiot-poiii- la Ein de 7knil). V19 heterophonic 7)


scandicus I Von clal

scandicus

VC114

V/10 movement three, 'Abime des Otseaux tQuaiuoi-)

III..
Lent,

Ablme
expreself et triste (J44

des
1 ) vokv.

368

oiseaux
answcring phrase
1 -1 -1

B. Godunov phrase B. G. theme theme ansWering


claricette Si on
F (dischij

i T"

B.G. thcma

answering phrasc
Sc 'w , i jpie -=: "

Presque f, ol,
x(mooloillif. foommof an

0: 10mm

(4121

IRV.

-;

vioeow,

trio

loirv

crest. Inallo

aft

mmeet,

2 1xvi <,

altemator

altcmator

scandicus

scandicus

=1 WO
r-3,1 Lent (L- 44 tim) Pre qua vix son's pressor. groself ot puissant jzt2a

S Pressez
10
ii

sL

ZI -p
2

tay.)

I 17--1,1

-pz

L 4

MI @rose. W&MO

tit

r-

4 ----1

crese.

Rall.

Modleri

(X-92 eav

rr

0 f1

"

(OCAO)

Rall.
'r%I, -V

:2; :2V

=I'-'; 231-;7119:011-4 -

(V/10 continued)

answering phrase

B.G. theme

answering phrase

369

Lent, expreseiret triste (444 guy. )

99l E-1 -

fL
jDpp : 2.. Sent

'P

Prteser,

A Iw

pr

*OvIrtivullse"t

It I 0, X, lz 1 1-

hl od ir6

Y)f .

) 92 sov.
lp,

41 .0.

Pres ue vlf il A k.
Arillant, PrOSS0.8

Lent

6tootev.)

ff 'N<!r

theme

'chirps'(Touillis d'Arc-en-Ciel... ', Qualuor) V/1I high-pitched


n4)bu.
Von

t*. i-rP

vino4wri.

uos Pou vir

11, 10

I I.-

fl-f1-

I!

JO

ClAr.

9=0

3. b.

D.f o r4 -

velle
(9 Robuste,
-d
41.03

modir6,

) un peu vif (J=66 env.

bratel st e

ff
.

ffv
i= R=
---------sans ta.

$fff
-dP-

-I-

V/12 bird-like calls (2nd de LAmen) movement of Misions a)

8-

b)

V/I 3 repeated calls (2"d movement or vi.vioiis)

370

*.
V/ 14 repeated cluster calls (2"d movement of Vkvinns)

figuration (40'movementof Visions) V/IS rapid demiserniquaver I

Trs lent, avec 8


F14t, .
Ic
Iris

arnour(-072) -------

----

----

--------

-----------------

unix elfave L

Pp
%

ICS

-ZAA

-'

to
A

121FIt':

r I. -.

Trhs Ient, avec amour(#=72) -5


-0.6.0,00L= PPP ppp

%T

-I . 06

Id

-t":
IE

ppp

\ ;_ Q ,-; 1
IV

\ 'Z

NN

F= 6 , ==

V/16 beginningora whitethroat's song (Chronochtuntie)

I
Td %. I

IF

It

4-

371

V/17 gracenotes in 'style oiseau' (5th movementof Ilisions)


81 --------4.4. 3-----------------------

P?
in ppfen toLltaant risonner)
wf

ttl.

r Pi!
p .

4.
p

,4

ri

Mf-====--ar

7nf exir-esstf

du le Fils') (Regard Fils V/ 18elaborate, monody sur complex rhythmically I scandic"rscandicu j -------- ------- -1---------------------------------------------------1 11 wt t Ete99 bi h. hf , -iw

iamb

iamb

dim. double-iamb-, di 1-double-iamb-I

>_
-4---------419

rs_Tn_ ----------------------------b4L -------------------9Fi NF 01F

iamb 1,.

iamb 'I r ------------"Rz ool

scandicus.,

4-.>I.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------lm ,0o

A .4 ;L'.
p

MA 'F;

A i! 9: i pjamb

l33L

V/19 David I findley's tiansuiption ora nightingale's song,

at

14

%peed.

pige

372
Lis

JjW -*

---

.-

A-A'

-f

9 ItAr

0!

f7y
16 b

bbkb

vi

L-J

ILI Ii-P.
23

t ff
1.01

( -ti

Ll.

111 r

0, Am 7
0,3EI r---r E r -1-T--"
,, %OA,

kv wr

Ti

rr

rfi-

rr(ro'lli

pr

00

r I-

jr"

-L-P
k JAS .6

-II

pr

R-5

F==!, R

V/20 early songsof larks ('Regard des Hauteurs')


(Valcutitt)

373 a----------------------------------------------i
-. 46. ^. JL. A it 40.1-L . .-

7v

ionicminor

L ionicminor-J

Ljonic minor-J !a % r. pacon ---------IV--Pacon m ------

--------------------------------------

---

--------h.... ... -

- ----------------------------------------------------------kAL L... ... ---;

11

slacc. sempre
K

6T

LionieminorJ

Liordcminor-J

pacmIV-J

L-double-i=b-J

8 -------------------------rl, 10-I; ilowt h. .

It-IEJ

-------->

I -------------------AL JL

*---------------------------------6L JL 41L A 4L

LiIi
A

IIAAAAAA 6L
AL

Piilf

p stacc. crcsc.

V/21 'blackbird andall the birds' ('RegarddesI fautcurs')


8
A
IL

374 Trbs vif


1 -19 wi

Mod6rtI (=116) -----------------------------------OL I- =4 PIpb,,4-

Me fnerl
tousle$

el oieseau, )

i
t

1-1
4L -OL

-- I..

(bfoulN r sponde&l 7-3


A -PI

de p6dale. ) r s=dicus,

O'Lrkr',;

dr. A

at ;tA 2

rscandicul

r=dicus,

iamb, r

rPolTc"usi

4' 0,
21

b.
0.

e-V/22 a) interruption valls ('Regard de I'Esprit de Joie')

Presque

(k160) vir
nAt

NO PIA ,

f staccato
I-0-40-04Am--L-*. -----------------------------------------------------------* f-40-4 a- 0 al- --mI

N't'olent) Wl. L

joie') I'Esprit de CRegard de b) interruption calls


18dimacus ccllsl
: bib)

373

k.

-'

i__'

'V

de Joic") VEsprit de ('Regard V/13 interruption calls and quasi-glissando N L. . .N J


---------24

Pressez

,NI

tP`4

11

xf

V/24 loquacious ostinato hemid emi semi quavers ('Premiirc Un peu. plus lent (=40)

Communion de la Vierge')

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.0"4

O-i-

.) ___ .1j

II

"

______

-4

____

V/25 'commeun xylophone'('Noel, )


376
blodr, A un peu vir (=i261 feomme un Xylophone) I?
a

lip.

'1= P

V/26 nightingale's song on the xylophone (Clirmodiromie) aftcmator---, fX3 III

W27 spirited 'style oiseau'andsyncopated rhythms('Regard des Anges')


A

Winc

(comma un olseau) i. ft -----------it.u

mouvemwit

4.
(extendedclinmus ccllsj

Z-

double-iamb., r-------------

spondee-I ----------------

jamb ('chirp') r 4 =ftl ,

iamb ('chirp' ------------------------------------------

V/28

(Te Baiser de I'Enfant-lisus) high-pitched Ifills a) 8

b) interruption cails (Le Baiser') 'deuxcn deux'

377

7
. t..

17,

-I

RL!

PIP

bar in ('Regard des Prophites... ') triplets a complex V/29 grace note

k1

h-L -I-

I-

v8a

4, ', 1 :*. -784 b! ------

in here ('Regard de I'Onction white-note Terrible') chords 'machine-gun' effects, V/30 4=-.; I-dtf8 ------ ; -----------I-"& ---------------------------------------I Ovt I I. OdL WOL I. SOL _d9_ _OOL I dPI crc.,; c. I'mollo

V/M

interruption de I'Eglise d'Arnour') 'style ('Regard oiseau' and call a) vivacious Pressez %Il 1111)11VL

Cresc.

P
535

kr-

kr-k"

M. RRAM. I f-,
Vokrz, )

d'Amour; interruption diatonic b) black note calls('Regardde VEglise


*j
. -T, ).

Trs lejit(A40)

fi

0. .

-41

10 '0* ap-

-I-

Pbassa

'style oiseau'aboveanEb brokenchord V/32 staccato Verte', Harawi) ('Bonjour Toi, Colombe u. p#it, vir
u. pet, %-ir IorUC minor

378

........................ P:t.
I Cumme file Oistall) A

.................................................
E-U

............................

.....

1 ........................................... Ilp ...........................

J)
ni v

I
(

Da.

Tqb

..................................................................................... :f'.. W- IHrr I'L 1 -0

L- ionicminor

iam('chirp')

E= E ff f ==;

iamb -------------------------

doublc-iambr I ..............

iamb

ff

"If

-f

;1-07
Ta

Itl

flourishes V/32 additional V/33 as with

379 ths pett vif

Uii
..........................................

Ia peto vir ........................................................

12
-V -*I........................................................... 4.....................................

.1

r=. L ionie rninor-J

............................................................................

. .........

...........................

j*IC -----------------1.

...................................................
42 0fit if

.........................................................................................

........ .............
Tff -3 iambs
....................................................................... iotuc minor

11H

L
SAldm

P4

.....................................
..........

.......................................................................

rf

'Doundou Tchil' (Ilat-cm i) r, the of refrain %1/34 extract orn

380

............ .....................................

4-T
A-' . .... ............................................................................................................

IP

climacusresupinus

D"1111 ................ ..........

doms

dopos .................................. .........

Fs=

idicus

doms

411141 141111.

IA12

. ti'T ,

.........................

flourish(Toundou Tchil', Harawi) V/35 'glass-like'ostinato

two alla

----------------------------------------------

------------

.............

.................
rv

40

I.

I.:

A&

MA

I 61 b. . us, pets vir I v tho Pell


H: F.
p7W -V -0-

Dutits Ir %.

dou

hf bas-111

('Escalier Redit, Gestes du Soleil'. Harawi) 1,1136 cells rhythmic repeated

381

Vir. joyetox 4-t PARM101111f:


AfK rIIA NTI 1
Ile Vir.. A-H 14tyrsox Pnr le P111".

4-1. pn-vpvloem-

*-H H C-" L u -0 &- aH &. ..

T-Tn 29. h .
Mf Inallo

,
IT

PIANO

Tell.

V/37 decorative birdsong over F# major+ 6"' (Amoure Oiseau d'ttoile",


I'v4-441114' P .. POPPIf-lit. nvee 4-linrivir f-I

Harawi)

(WANT 01
Pren-igiiP. levit. ............... siver elinrivir ri. :=47
-

............ I

psir

-A it&

A _:

PIANO

PI)

r"Mme Un 01VIIII

V/38 opening of loquacious solo (Thant d'Arnour 2', Turairgallia Syml)hony).,in a polyphonic texture, piano part (Is a %folio 600.6t pigs CAP1404)Sale I." es ----F
fl. so cesee
piage (At do io@bets Josef tI

altemata-,
X

d
I* IjklI. Itta to'

'r
3Sm 7

PaA;
to Moft

-\

7r II

382 V/39 'style oiseau' on piano (Thant dAmnur 2% bwaitgalfla), in a polyphonic texture, piano pam only akmator-1 rA*, $ 4-61 flop 1.01 40 96610 veii top. 02.1% Ples P. 110.906 Mas 4.0 ... . 2fL. I, r, r-P. j41
--

resee

so #ke%

poegb

f
-=-==

/I

llnb
ties@

vmm
WSW -: Nt-"EL-

111.80

poffcctus

rises

ries.

tatkilu

rise*

IN. G..

NI/40dccorativcbirdsong('Jardin du Sommeild'Amour", hatingulila) 383


IP & dp a0v

X.;:2
to

PIANO

SOLO

Ila

j P.4.1.

4, werwe". Wo4s. 0; 1131161petaPAaI

m III AII

0ND9 WARTINOT SOLO


forrv"If (if PISA III; P06.041m) 0

Tr; o modift. trio teadre


VIOLONS I*! %
p

on)

Aa

VI 0 LOWS Div.

if ip 6q re10

:m

ALTOS Div.

lves)

"r -

JPesprWooff
VIOLOWCULIS
P gsprovelf

V/41 the 'serene song' ('Jardin', Turangalila)

Piles

V/42

a) common rhythmic cell

b) cell extended,forming a 'palindromic' pattern


IC6

c) "chirp'

WUT'
-

.L
FIAING SOLO

sl

; --4 r---

T-14

('Jardin...', Turangalila)

2', ("I'urangalila 17143 I)illl() catIciun

384

us pts

81&.

vir (, k i3o t.

II, A" lio. -I


rIANO S"o

'-V-' kA 16

-a...

Wn'

F.*.

-Ij!III 1;. 1

i".

W repeatediambs

WMENIMMIN

? .

imam

spondee
1 shIg li 19, i

plas.. Sol*
%&x
1-c.

Ir -law

7411

L.! bb

Lb _j

Pleae, 5.114
AAA I

"Its

.-i HP

-F

i--

ES

I,,,

2a 110126vir

20 repeatediambs vir

ilmd

Un Feu VIOR ... e............

III) I

rillime Sale

4....

ChAriler VI - NI Imic PLLAitmilt %, I/I -staccatogoutte d'eau' and 'oisejiu' features('Offertoife'. Alexie de la

385
Mto 4 'k-010

rt-

itambe VIS pe;

*I

wais

cilesto (Steresto

Post

flats dimtor)

4,

plegols lit-

1.3"

a-

"Urdes

81

redo

(2 altenatoriJ

lent

&WO

It .

1.0

A i,

W53

& pop ! Al , _

12altcmators)

Pos.

MAIN

p btt
dL

AL

Poe tstaccole lovIle ul


-* ,.

deem)
LL -

b;

-..

1. -

MAN

-,

g>

10.

'JE9ti
A. $, A u 9!

kc 1
lalti--Tnator]-u

____________

A Pro

WAR

rtl

V 1/2

T4 bird colour chords, style. minor cell resembling the cuckoo a)


14od 4irqi PL: Hautbois (iijed )3 Ia136

386

MAN
.j

W--

Ij

-h a 31 post

MAN.

m d pp

RI toambe ot volz eiltete 1 urdon Pid- soubaebes

111

Leut

0)
MAMI

1-

'o..

dim.

mA

pp

b) nightingale's song
A39

JA Pal:

.1

flGis 4,
piccolo

I---1, SIX. Poo. pfi-f

3'? 1

3 0-. bourdon 8 A IM k0w-. R: flate 4, OYMWO

rtOrculus resupinus

V'ii''.

-m

r- mm11Li-5,
lir 4/alternator

F--

--. &-

r-

-xZ1i-4
.

9 ', f- dr.

- wr.; l' aczar-m i 1:

mg

ly

-=

lt.

-'p

F=:,

MAN

R. toutdon 16 el oclavic 21 boutdoia8 Poo: fjjs HIU.

(Tommunion', Messe)

I)itd blackbird i thc song of N11/3 ordroplets and si)-le. of water two parts - representations
(Tornmunion", Xfe-vse)
Mudiri, 11bremeeit
08.1

387

't osn ML

ja Tempo
OL a rall. POS.

90ow-

0-

40.

'do.

qO-

P qO6.

Rzf

VA -4

-f
iI
2

Oco ruhlo

JqI,

1 0-Rpm- A

100

))Is

9?

)10

(goulles deau) siltaccato

%I

-.

-k.

AN I .4

05-

N%m

"Pew'

Tiv-

rall.
L-O, %-

a Tempo
dF6

y, meple)

PZ flats 4 souls 12

YOCO

.I

A-4 j

Xpow's

'3

3tt

J scandicus -1
re4leez

Pp

Poro

rall.

P-

?4'IM.

a0

(VI/3 continued)

388

n6

presseit

1. poop,

%1%4 .

povp 2P I, b wm 14.!

I%J

pow,

19

( ro
a M. 4

pre"qez

beaueoup

.MAV.

90

01, -,
T
a43129-I-

== v-1901k-6: RE!

w PI

=
Poo - (flits 4)

tj

J,

7-a

it

a TOPO 4
-1

poco

rall.

a (bourdon 8)

. 06

14 AIt.

fi

Y a '
Mes-se), top stave only a%

-, -or

VIA chorus of larks ('Sortie, a

vir (CAceur des Clouelles . GpRgt ? A -: I 011/10d-p


fir

crctic -., r-crctic-, F) I 4-4


0 CA

d/anapac-s-t

f+d --C,

d/anapaest

q r-

r-

3 crcticrh>Ihms -

II r-

13 eg

(N11/4 continued)

389

is
A

19
P_P,;

1.1
1D
kr=Qr= A IOLI.

;,M gv. on
PL OW

[1M .M-M P

r=Ptotp -4-Mitio! Rt I

72-1

AMPACS

rsNnd"-,

2 climacus ccUs

lop

A*

r=

V1/5 blackbird's cadenza (Thants d'Oiseaux', Liwe d*Ot-pte), monophonic as written rv, Pacon i
A
NAM.

Presq%se

Poe.oL.

vir

(mqk noir)

paeon

5 CU31
3-

.I-00-ia
P-n=2

o
OP . 1,0 0i
043

L4 !-!.

-, A F-

0HPIFin
t

sp 1

01-G

--

=;; a, torculus csupmus dur=na rosu PMUS dunacussupinus


/0

di=CUsrpinus
_'3

CrItc

A.
NA01. 3F

41
rT6
40N. -

- ; ====
243

-4F___ 11 ff j -4-

t leo

t, r

1-2. -, O., -. __

a2
dM=SrPmus

paconIV.

33

AM.

r=uplnus climacus
t 1 4 Im

climacusc u mus
1 2
t

13

1313 31

SZ-S
*3

Fi

C: 2
*S

(VIJ5 continued)
credc-I

CIUTQ%: us rcsupuIU3

Crctic.,
to

390

19

7.0

--Q

33

----w

0-

a3

21 chmacusrpsupinus
b r-. Ot" PI 0 Eli

-ILtorculu5u esupinus
t- 311 1) NuA

climacusresupinus

211.

3 132
0.

scandicus

porrcctus

p0mcclus climacusresupinus
AIt 1 11.

14
It !
w r3

4 A-4,
-t t)

. or---

I.
F;:o

i 'a

6-

..!

FI31

r=

--- --- v-

itz,

k: 4
it j

Q;::::d rt

ti

33 AA

21. 3

-S0

scandicus

chinacus rcsUpInus
t

Nt.
Ldouble-iamb-J
cl=acu resupinus
t

t
3 I

tE,
3

101-1=
torculus resupinw,.

4 climacusresuPulus ctlis-

------

t orculus .. rcsupmus V116 robin's cadenza (Thants d'Oiseaux,

Liv? -e d'Orgue) 3-1 Vu peu leut vir

A3t3

M.dr. 3 Q- r-

MANUEL=,

0: f late 4S
SGUISI
L

II

MAN.

AP

Ito#

IqrOM

PiDALE,
-

Ib'

I.

%Ikv

17

14A4

I-

I't

lc

IIAI

OL

I
%'I/? nightingale's 12 Tre*j, cadenza (Thants d'Oiseaux'. Livi ed Vigite)

nL0_#1er; r, tend

Inuchine-gun c5octs]
e

391
4

OL#L!f PPP
ji 4 OL

A q VA, If 0 f i

)1P

PP

PP

Ir PP
L
C==

I! 0- .0 :!= ! ZC

-0-i
f

g--1
tE

:tx

2 spondecs MN .

PPP

-f

f 11,1*
-Zo

IN Is low

lrlu=

VP PMTW ts t4 % alp Pon It

21.

0-2

torculusrcsupinqs

anapaests--J

(machine-Sun efl7ects)

P 3

qi::

PPP

VI/8

a) repeated calls of the great tit .2 aaapaests

b) sharp COS repeated of the greatspottedwoodpecker

MAN.

%AN.

(ir;

s see, Comm#

&II. Vivert

0111

LP

rill. P a, "12 .41.44

of the nightingale c) tritone alternator


21

.,, k

('Soixante-Quatre Duries, Uvre Xftue)

r[t).

N'1/9ext i act of comitei pointcd birdsoilF, CSOi-""IC-()u-ItI e I)UI 63'. 1-i"Ie d'Orpio)
I-0(111prip Owl F A (3 F4:.:.

392 114101 t; Ip Ross #It##1 pr) UF , '!


7a- mr- 11

pn. 3 214
Id #; J,

Po

it.

0)

-1.; -

mj-

04 --Z
U,
.

lr

-0 -A

*I

In

:IA

io-

-L

a 11

--

--

a-

0-

-U.---

A-gato sempre AU

VI/ 10 1' flute cadenza (Le Merle JVoir)

S=dicus

3 to"161616 U.Dom swee vit.


FLU? v m. od --.

PIANO

pp ............
Tr.

...................

145 ff ff

r-.T-,. IF

-iamb

ff

i=b

iamb

plop

(Le Merle Noir) in island. effect continuousserniquavers VI/I II motivic

31
dr.

3y
tr

31

tr f6i

tj

f A

N'1/12 A' section, 2"d flute cadenza (Le Merle Noir)


VJn pow wit. aw*e ftatakele

shortalternator scan(Lcus

393

bfod4r4;

---

---"1

fw

-p-

iI:,,

it:

LZ=--Mj

AT I ..

1% trochee

pp ............ vvr--i
-0.

in .N.

I..

----

pacon
A

ILA

49 11 -LC
iambs--, tv
cretic if

rI

r-:: ),
dicus f
ff

'2 scandicus cells

cmendedciinucul

rI spondee

-f

ff 4 iambs

-f

ff

-'CffOlpp

PP

394
Mu; Cal Examples - Ch: lDlcr V11 des Oiseatir) (Riveil III monophony Nrl Tjvno
EM us ! rv trot ve pru virth A
bow

. mi R)

Us FrV lost(),

is I

V11/2 two-voiced homophony in the piano: olive-backed thrush (Oiseaux Exatiques)


IAr L. kfl; kj %fl j 49

P.
PiAno Sola

_.#

I-V

7='-:: O r== T4.1 Ta

i j; RFlzj-F J

pA

li 10-4T q0ri Tel I Tl*. %

VI 1/3 two-voiced homophony- one voice dominant ('L'Alouette Calandrelle', Catalogue dDiseaux) Alouette Calandrelle Ull reu Vir
2L-

h. (. log)
-P- -to- L-P

-1

in

.-. -.

tt4

4L

4L

I
- ----ZZZE zr, IaI

I, '/* (el" ir)

ZE9
si I

24

in homorhythmic VI 1/4 a) shama textureon the piano b) shama on woodwindand trumpet:homorhythmic Xfj .................. .......... Cl a P.%asse
AL

17' . Solo
1131se" ff

2 cor'l fit r-F

I Trio.

laughing homorhythmic thrush: c) white-crested

395

30

t. Cars ril F4

buppe blodl

#life
I to -d. Ito 41

1 Trp.
p)

Finliques) (Oi.eeati L.:.

--.a
-

=IM --.Q .

.4.

14anapaestsl

dominant Cotalogue) ('Le Courlis Cendrd, homorhythm: stave or voice VIl/.,, one Chevalier Gambette
ht ............. .................... (. 92) 331en inodiri 16 ............ . ...... . .................. . .............. p797 gig (doux
A It

-song or the redshank

r el INIO
p

pPP

Pp

P4 )IP

III 013

11P

ov

(Oiseaux American aroliqlIes) thrush texture: wood V11/6 resonance effectsthybrid [includcs hannonised fl"us shaMI porre= d'Amiriqut) lois, des (C; ri, e
Trv-. 4 madero 0-4 100) (to or rithets, loisse: Isagmrareatribrer) %. .......... II

-A ....................

piano Soln

"' e, iJille

I)

';
I (if I sse*

L "' I '1 .irEEB I'flassie: othrer)

r'
fIi)-

1k
Tl

fEE3

L"
41 TA ToFff)
4 ...................................

"

...............

fiano 0

i'
e --., 9:::: lK22E2

rf
g r I

S lo

41
Z%

Ta

4$.

ii

VI 1/7 a) carfion ciam.in chordaltexture,onomatopoeia .0


he*$ "Sir* Mai; Tf;.$ "ir(j a100) Trs %ei bi. r (J'iv 14) W. bi. be; bl-LL" M-Ll-'L Tris firij '74 6, 9 004) too$ .. ' =,, == II 0-t

b) scrin sit tj . so)

396

......... ..........

else
c) cry of nuthatch
M. A. W. (I. DOI

P....

Sew

d) greenrinch and blue tit


U" t:, v Ver if JP Trrs

oe
booood

13ionicminormares]

c) 'pi-pe-rri-re' causorthe songthrush r -P. 0" ,,

pp

pr

9 CIN

M..

Aftff.

6'.

00. ".

86,

0IF
t4lv 't-'-se qJ

m
al

.!r

3W-7-.
I- II

-. -;
jiUJI21

741

pr

(Riveil)

Yt -i0*
'deuxendcux i

-1

VI 1/8shortcalls from chiffchaff, little owl, wood lark; robin"ssong(Riveil) J-. r0 a *44* ") r; 1, 4-11Us IDess wit Alestue sale

POllI M,

safe I rws) (POWV

lot.

lip gorge
p

was
Sol$A

"_

Cb. u. tI.
10 1.11 Wt

eq..

6 scandicus cells-

11/9%%-Iiitcthroat's Song (Nivil) ,%,

397

Ills@* Sole

...........................................

.......................................

. ..........

.......

I ...........

.....................

Plag. 9.10

.......................

. .....

...

..............................................

P.

- r If

-- --A.

.1

0-

11P

66666,W flip,
PO ectus iamb. PU it IV

kNOMWE66

V11/10 robin's cadenza (Riveil)

Af
Sale p (rapid#. A move d9vs rl teafseal)

Rouge-prge

6"
Cu=CUS

Pismo %ale

-1--i

AV

Piece Solo

or

double-iamb

climacus

P, amo Solo

iamb I

Ay

figs. t."lo

on the violins(Riveio VII/I I rich clusterchords

398

ties

:09

-W; ffmli, -Vol-

fourths VII/12 chordsbuilt on perfectandaugmented & divisi violas a) violins Sim

2L
r'T 'I

I
-V I 'k

I tj

Pill IP !
v00v

..
(Rivelb
. ............ r ........

b) golden oriole Voss '416 Pis wommommal


Alias PIP

..... .......................
6mmmJ I!

....... ...........

=1

blackbird's V11/13
cadenza(Riveio

4---.

I r-L07-

plaso Ir // Ia.. ,
$

.... .................................. .....


... ................... -1

.I-

rot

jr ..................... 6 I ........ ................... ......... %.............. It I .. S. I .............

rk 147i InvjRIg %L%p-. t. a %;


9 !............... ............

1,

UL

Sole xr
AV .1... ...........

............................................ .10 VE6d


4.4, j

....... ..... ...........................

112--oo, r-m--1

Z/ . ........ ............... .

....................................

04, In, a.
0 ................. ........... ........................................................

-1; rA It

In-va 01.
..........................

I t.
. ...

I %$.

-11! pie.. SOO

'EkO

1. ,L................... .... ............. kft. Irk& VIP EITEE

. ........ to

Et,

.......... Iv%It

.........

10foo,

r...........................

......................................................
JF

...

.............
NA h4 TMj

. ............

4ili .......

It .............. 44........................
1EI I

).

Pi me.

a.....

:Fm=! r ...... ...................... m g54. M. 4141 ,= IRV

W--Mq ...........
0*- %! -L-M

ww'.

.C........................ .It. ..........


t
S ......... ...

.*

191.

.,

dactyl

-T-

S .......... fA ....... ....

voi

;, 2fkfj
i p-

. ............................

2 1. -

1%

.... ....... .............................. ... ...... . .............. ..... . ...... L- pliv h-Ir m iC4 "u. -5-Z7 -12-

'

11114 orchestral plan of Oisetwx 1--rofiques

399

r, :5.
0

#-'% -A

4A

n X,

to n n

:4

r_ %A 4A

"I

n
n 04 lot 4A

n L

n v* I
0

4A

Wl 0

tr 2

::r
:3

:Z: Cb

00

Cl.

aq :3 low
* 0% 0

E'roliques) (Oiscaux red-billcd nicsia 400


harmonicl altamtor-

t
91 (mainsts Vif

I
6

liciou) (. -144)

11

r-tjllsw
Air.d. deffors
j sit

Piano Solo

2 22 -`Z
Mf

==. -P
I&31 it

(wended clunscus) Lndo


1) &P-

ks....................................
-P-=

It-Ilil;

I 41
7-

Fi: no

S IQ

40 ff

: -_: t=

harmaiie ostinato
L6 42

...................... *-A lo-, Fll


-*#Pl pip LI-

;L

Piano Solo

rp.tj

.I

pp
-V

Jr
It

Tel

hannonised scaMicus
ir
I!

(--t4o

t.

Ak

c-:flo, p"N'I's
V %. - . .II.,

Piano Solow
-.

lrs

errs

see
Piano Solo

ism
.0

r4

Mv-

anapacsL, "_7

Aisilast, presser

i/-a

A pr

IF

Ra=-

EEEE

14),

.%i

Ta t

-VIIJ15 continued)
401
I"-

If
.............. 'r T,# Ado' f 110'
V

vi
Ip
C. -. OF, ee523EEit -

I,.,,
I.

, 'F Pianu Solo sec


FK
. .,

0,

-1-

FF9.

--

iw

It lop,

qvv

Mothril
A" Ir (41:

at chime) 2scandicuscells

3 Wnbs

Fisno Sol"

i'

..

)
___

I1
fres

1 L x . sll! & rc
fres

1(1,1.
________

Ii*1t

e i,.,,

r"1v

s. 'pl,. I1. taj


_____

FZ=

su Sit
d. dessirs

iamb

lr

r-- W. ---w.
-7

7-: 1 (malvall)
(ihs 112)
KZ

Ti, Z!.. 4 vir(i)-ow


r' t. 03.d .11r

Piano Solo
w

%.

.0
` I Y. W./

si
%0--4

294K ,1
tris Ire -j Vrr, l see
-

--Tl-

(Grive des bois. d'Amirique)


,Zt zt (-100)1 A-a: IP-Ik=. -...............

hanwWsed
I, r%,,

ectusAC\US

l
Pisno Sol"

. 0 -0.

. 00.

'.

r r- t -- --0-

%i..........

coles

Ilii

%.. 0

pr= rznw O=

,-

(Isisse.,
vibrer)

x#

=-''4

j, 0=Zxt;

lig

41

EE3
TO%

p(lattle: Pg
voirer)

61

Ta

= fl; harmonis6d porrectus


4 I

-v: 8 rilpfri

1
I'-

S. -

pire

rail. --Is..

7-2 1.

h3mumised porroctmIla=
MPO 24 41 ........... .....................

er

or- p

pr-

Pian

---4

1 ff

SolC,
IEEE! Ta 31r( t--==4 T, 2,1 4 z 92 .....................................
at oA . 0.1 -sk& -6A IPA-WA mom 10.1

11 ...... .............. 1 ............ s

li:Y..
-.

Ekl? L 15
U

, -411 ---,
W

6-%.

t 10 0 -W7; F-T--I -_Qtz


1.10

07

Lp

1.6.

&

---.

Q -1

-3 --V

V,

kf"Up Af
ZVI-

lop lop,

F
-. 4zj '-4z,

T JA.

II

144

'Y

T"a6A -45

chordal tnbachiculls

Virginia of 1/16 VI cardinal

(Oiseaux

&otiques)

402
(Csiale3i-rougt, do Virgisiol
, rj. m v tr
%A

m6

tieptmr

Pitt

posswe

(UL'v r. re mine 64= fee Lt; -. . . .........


A. a AL

1'ratot de'roffle
......
A

@##I

L L ,

ON

F-P

pi

All"
--Mir

Till

t--==4 j

F,=-

F--=*

40

n0'( 1,13

Mind) Solo

I %li

----7

Es .01

FV .....................................................
piano Solo

9-

F-p
PIr

2--j

__ff

47-ASolo ....... .... ....... ............... ...................

33

1............. i %ji

-...

................

...............

................................................

.............

........................................................

PI&IIII

Sol"
'A 0-s --I

IIA.

introductory in flowish including (OiseaurExotiques); woodwind 17 1/ prairie chicken.


(M Tfif-t2 lent (= 38)

403
4 -? ff

tle Fl. I Fi.

t Btb
Pko Cl3r, mi

2 Clar. so

P! f Sombre

Clar. bassi si i

I R&siof

F).

1 Otb.

Pte clir. mi b

si

1 Bablon

here) (onlywoodwindensemble shown

Erouques) (Oiscaur 4th from cadenza the piano 11/ 8 extract

404

Uli

ptbil vi t
mitgleniegt de Voheau-Cht
h ..

Vitbritlant Dollteelt ei Robeliel


# .............................. 1

,*
12 48

,4

Mano Soloo

Ma cistao-C.tat 02 moqvtlf dt Is Carallat


I
1

cl

Piano Solo

(01.4t.
.................. ............. *1.........................

At as)

A 'fl

1'

1 OL

09

Ot

Piano Solo
k44-0 -

.....................

Ile^

II

-V-

.fE
I

dessirs)

11'

-I

kaop

***, ***"*, *",

...............................................

il,

Z. S

2"

Piano Solo

i. -k9- IV

4-W4
#--,

I .

=_ - =_-1 ,I

- 1W- --- m

--

,*-

.......................

............ . 13

.....................................................

Ile

-IN %lon
jr

In--

Piano
Soln

........... 511fAA

11, ........................................................................................................................ --7 AL .I%a81

Piano Solo q4w p 40' vI

21. 0i &IZ3
; ". ;"IL, NW.

IT

51

as

0, .

2-

DW

J?*Ir fill 96

U.

t3,0

Oli 'Tthrush (concludes Ome, VI 1/19 final cties (if I Ile 1 -it' w% I it
9
jA

405
r 3.3w 3. 'Aw

2,

At

Af

I! Lt ff IB.

ub

AA

:-;: 1

Ir

V.

-1 Stb

---

6," "' "" 0'

?-r "

Clar v. t .

vp ol

ok 'o

Ok

10

11

ip IP.

60 AIlk-

*II*II 10 op
&Ell

Clar ei b .

'J- Z.. U.

Z.- Z.

wo lp ': p

tl&r

hasse gr,b .

4L

ee Fe
it
:. .--. -3. L -

2..

;. .6
3 3.3.2.

1- 3.....

..... .. 33V-- 30 30-

30 io

'I-

sp 3w i.

"

-a.

J.-

0-4----

2-

L% lip

3w

a.

_..

3w

b.

ft.

b.

b.

1 Trr

-14.: . ................. ............ ...............................................

Glork ....................... X% 10 . ... ............................ ......................

=t.

..... .... ..............


't - ?. 'r
3r 00 00 MW AW dbO 00 0; . 2 0.
AW dW 04 . 69LAA

U.
As &A SO dW MA &A

p14nn Solo

:.:

p o 'p .0
...........

.07

.0V

.0z o -4 -4........... .............

-4 .. ........

-4

.a

.....................

A Trl

t. )

w -t. 1
EEI

(31.. se ei
` 7 MT

Taitutam
Vf4of, roptle It #Peg fil I'd$? proloof

'roast. jostill'a
o0so**

10 dobste offro,

-)

406

Musical Exanivies - Charitcr VIII I 11/1a glissandolike a harp (Ta RousscrolleEffarvatte'. Condogue dDiscour) %I Rousserolle
var ('. 144)

Effarvatte

(comme

mit

-liss4nde

dr Aarpr)

VI 11/2cries of the alpine chough ('Le Chocarddes Alpes', Catalogue) Chocard des Alpes
t-2

@-hP
-= iiw c 4

-I

kK

. A
4 -. j --

[3 anapaests) (Jes cAocards)


Modiri (zI32)

IT&

(un (cri

%lh. it CAocard traverse


tragilse

It pricipice dams 14 solitude)

lV4,4,
en criont)

rN

t-

if
1

;: -

if

jr*

's&.

i.

VI 11/3hybridtextureof the goldenoriole ('Le Loriot', Catalogue)


t, ent (LO) 44 Men Inottir-i (=100)

sourd

catme 'S. p it TI ...................

iq/.

n.t sourd .bo?

11&86

lie I* doopes, CI t fill I I mo golden xI i otinle if tu it if', t"Ita )few I CI I sit. k-olou
j, ent (P: 56)

407
"1
3 OL

to.

Lo r in

til.

dr d. otee

oil

Y
I 1115% %I a) glissandoof the robin ('LeLoriot, Rouge-gorge
Un AVa peu vif

dog

Catologue) b)glissando or the song thrush ('Le Loriot', ratafogue) vir (-. 144)
a18 L lot 1% .

(,,

#or
6tem Vf#404"*)

)) (tendre,con1jant) ---E-=aIrL-II-.
3 IAb.
4P.

11, .

(". tf. 001ca, 11,1141re

. __

SaII ICIN IV41 IAX

V Fauvette des jardins


23

VIII/6 two-part polyphony in two garden warbler's songs(Te Loriot', raialogue)

81! /

P
2

4_r___kr= -110

%II
%I, L

r= F_
ijL bAL

(mettre tres polmae yo-Ale)

Fauvette des jardins


I $ S

-=1=

___

\
-1 7-1 -1 31

I I

III I 2I

q5-

A Lz p:

I%

NA1117 sttident calls of swifts CLe Merle 131cu',


Martinets noirs (strident) . 161t .....

408

off ==-

iff :: ---

mf

VII1118 of water representations 'muffled' with a quality water a)


vii ( 2 152) Weam)

b) 'lapping of water'

-* c) 'the blue sea;

. , rr; Dn tent -46

(doux. Aarmoniram ricomirmy 141V)

Merle Dieu', Catalopit O-CLe


.......... ..... ....

(. 04INce colocli)

Vo

depictionsof waves VI 1119 desccnding flourish a) continuous


Tres vir (-. 140)
Oex vt?,rvps)

409

-Z%7
VA 40

dim
AF T -6

icb.

k, *- vv
:1%

b) with harmonies
Vlf (=144)

k==

OF-VP pp g rw; -I

p 9=.

:-r, \11
bass in 'rumbling' the trill c)
5
L5-E
. 0.91

4L;

Or delsirs) rl--

I\w-p0-;
Ar
I

qv-

(Nd sempre)

6-0-11
%L--O-(dr. pill)

(Te Merle Bleu', Catalogue)


....... ..............

...

Vill/10 raucous calls of the raven ('Le Traquet Stapazin', Otiologi, e) Grand Corbeau
U1, peu vif ( r 112)

410

VIII/I 1 source of the rock bunting's strophes ('Le Traquet Stapazin', Catalogue) Bruant iou
v ir (* trw

4rL -l '-' (h II P. *) .t ^" A


lot J
-g

rb

r-an 'p,

F r-

4t

49-

t-

% rt

4-0.

r- , r-

(sans pd.)
V

4e"-

I
* 1_

de

4 1.41,04 t-rgg-- k.
-1Z. dr

t- 1

CI. 'cadenza' Tfacluct laik's c lbeckki V111112 conchmiono1*11le

I 'Ohil-IXTO
411

......................... 49

..... . ................................ . ............ ...

(Pid
...............

sempre)

P .: F__

17:

-Nfvo rlz; -=z

4L

vRe
.................

. ....

t Ila

(Ped xplnpre)

-if

P1

a==. - 1,
(Pid. sompre)
2 12

ir --=,., p ,r

I*

L-

M4

..

1.1

(rid. srmpre)

AI

Ip

cre3c.

(rid . so-flipre) A

f
7:'

f
(Pid sempre)

-tr

NIIII/13 memory (if tile spectacledwarbler (concluding 'Le 'I failuct Ntapalln-. ( -jjjajj)gjJe)
nxtr; vnevnent 1--nlent* (-N:, 42)

412
-____

LIr1
-

I W11 OS p

_d3_. ,

V- 00;

ii

'resounding' calls of the tawny owl, falling motive C-A richly harmonised N1111/14 ('La Chouette liulotte', Catalogue)
Chouette Hurotte . ......... , i .... p -,; stir
tI

* -Ok -& ----

O! t

ar

11--dkf-

f
p

44;

j rp., F)

off

fly, , I&

V111115 contrasting song of the nightingale (L'Alouette Rossignol


vif ( = 162)

Lulu', Catalogue)

11 C

-I

11'

JI,

--r

v -w -w "W -W Ir -v (sant ped )

-Ir -W -Tr hamonic ostinato

Un

peu Aft

vir

- 114) Air--

-A-

U72
vif (= ist)
Pa F 4N

p (comme ma chrecin

m; lo; do- gamr)

eb

17. W

d6

* -X. no)

'Un peu wir

-.

l---___------_.

_------...

11*(bridant, mordant) .

". I-.

I, 777

P'd-)

%b,

N-111/16 two-patt polyphony two iced warblersCl. a Itntoo-vitille I flat%atic'. Catalogue)


413

vI

I.

14 .1

16...................................................................... ...... ......... ... ....... IAItvI I :1L', o

4.0 =

40

...

IIII tj

2! Effarvatte

.p

6 ................... S!, .
(,*. d. dessars)

..... ...................... . ... ,It


41

01 .

F-z :

L%

tiff

t W-1 OF
.

Ull
plus

-.: ==
ri

l*
crest.
(1',; (f, -vempri-) jot/*

lg-9P
14 1

Crrxe.

I
trese,

vif

(=170) . ..... . ........... -,


4II -* -!. -, -, - -.

1m .
IE

dim

fill

I'PP =
I

VIIIIII/17homorhythinic calls
a) chorus or cicadas Wa-mr Weseqatri) abbb (etc b) kestrel VU

414
s:0 -Lit* -Ow= f NEVE r-r-r-r Jf. = V pw=)W-: 'L... abbc

(z 113) 211-4: vif 0-lue OR=Zo =

... .......................... ..... ........ c) quail. 2 creticrh)ijuns

long

('L'Alouette Calsndrelle'. Catalogue)

(sons prd., avec sourdinr)

VI 11/18two-voice homophony: short-toed lark Un I)CU Vif (= too)

Catalogue) (VAlouctic Calandtelle, vir (At isc)

lUn
A--k

licu

vif .........

(4c108)

-VIA(l.

ist)

............. ..

d- dessals
O-h

........................................................

,.

W4 -.; qo* i
6a\

r-: rrz

i-

q-0.4 ITAI

1.4
%ZL

Ull reu vllr 16 ...................... 4skI

(--ION)
0-

vir

( = 160)
33
4

Is,

-t-

4AL

f-

140. b.

t&,

t I1

11

-1 411

lb

(Art. d. de-tsous) lqf ...........

to

vIlvig

remale('Le Nierle de *titdd##gut-) Rocho'. ( and male owl eagle Orand Due (ulmlement prare du m4le)
us, peu )eilt
Z. b-.

40
a --1-11
Men enodird (18)

(r

84)
.-

01 1

.0..

1-1

(le mile)
Un peu vif (cUs& Irou 138) lent (a so)

.aI

fL

I.

ii' .

elf

................................ ...

Ua femelle: Un Peu

percussion vif, (= 13 8)

ilouffie)

FP

Orib 4fee)
r

pid. )

............. .............................................. 6 (avec sourdine)

VM/20 bronzedtwo-note cellsfrom the mistle thrush('La BuseVariable', Catalogue) as

ff(fOrl,

'o.

IT&

%*&

VIII/21
13use variable

cries of the buzzard Cl. a Buse Variil, W. I 'awhoxi,e) 416

...........

lite it lot's

. ................... ...................... .....................

......11 ....... . ..........


=. . =

. ........

-Z

..

zV...

g I;
IK

fly-

EEO

11 to

(CH mingli)

VI 11/22'wild and fierce caw[s]' or the carrion crow ('La Buse Variable', Catalogue) Corneille noire
h r, (. SO L ww 'Vit n it --2(-2144)

r 10' ==,. .
----A
AI 'z-, ZU a 9.4

*L a,

VIIU23

homorhythm: a) seven-voiccd blackwhcatear Traquet rieur


Modiv; III ( --Ise)

=: =.1

off
17

b) 'affectionates sononties:blue rock thrush


Nlcrle bleu . levit
lin peu 100)

la

4.9

7:

;A
(Te Traquet Rjeur', Catalogue)

by A majot thrush accompanied blue 10Ck V111/24 dUscaux) Catalogue Rieur', Traquet ('Le

bieu Merle lent Us$Peu


i %7: 0 xl

417
(x

too)

II

1L

Vill/25
m n, i i /r

nuted' high-pitched, chords over Eb minor a) Courlis cendri


120) 6

eta

lq/,

(fl;

tr,. Irlift.

b) 'wild andpassionate' trills


lrl-114 vir

jj*j.! Ml., ".'. do-sx. mx)


F- =! - 1=1 17=-r=

AlAWile

two-voiced quasi-glissandos ascending c) repeated Courlis cendr6 S ......................................... . ........ men annilre
10PI) 40
7 _6 ' Ot-2

03

dim, OL I
oo/' (tr, 7,,, Ptquc ef dAtoli, d4jrv le Tr d'#t4 glissinds)

7=41FA

snWaral

-I

"-__-

(Te CourlisCendri,Catalogue)

VI 11/26oysictcalchet Cl -c Courlis Ccndri', ( 'citahopte)

Iluitrier pit, Vol JI$-%I %it (. Itn)

418
0

Uor

6 Ide eel- 0 d, /a

7 iambs >>
/10; so /,; /,;;

-zoo

tj

...

wo

06

I-

Otto,

4 iambs

9 iambs

! Z:;:

o-

0-0v1L:;.

=--

.M

LL
_____

_______________

_________________

k'a

.fII.

). *
.a

-I
clustcrtrilitngs

-ir

.. ....................

qio
ar

Lscandicus (21XJ

LwAndicus(2-p(O

(%II 11/26 continued)

(2-pt scandicus F ................ .......

410

sop

nit
prd Itb. 15 iambs: 2-pt I

1.

'I .

0,11
Jdi
7=IP

-14

-A

ol & -- ;--0

V-

S....

420 Nitisical Exameles - Chnnter UX IX/I by trilled cluster chords on strings the accompanied skylark of -song a)

('Antistrophe 1', Chronochromie)

.................... V

.....................

........................................ #L A- JIL OL__

I ..................... 10L

.............

............................... ,a-

...........

................................................ 4.

................

17, Ar
ok

46

Cvw%h Pu4p

P" 333 32 3
I.

Lie
prp

(loss rial )

23 32

22 32

o-

4 . '

-5.

#====I

-*.

R=w

P3
4 Alto%

(Sol$ Tiols)

32

2322 132 (salts riels)


ppr

32

ppp+* (set fitt)

0IMS-11 hornorhythmic on %%m1d%%Md 1))song (if tile 50119 -hrmtochromie) Ill. ( ('Antistrophe

htill pou %-If(. IGO)


3 Fl

421

III h

ff

Jr ----------

C4

jr

41T

2-2'3
2
ClAr ff

J32
7-t

ff

-j-/

1-10

10 ----0 -

QI
EF- -iA -4x:;

Clbogst.

A-

---Vl

J7,
Ir

Jr

-4 vai

I--

% no? .1

Its.

jr

OWN

ff.

Kibitail porrectus, ... .. ,--.


rI

ZRp"
b4,6 %I @act* 6

aW a"=
POFTCCUS
-

(Introduction, flycatcher Clironochrande) the narcissus of lX/2 glissandos


!!
MArimbs
_______

(Gobo- onotichos Narcillo.

du Jspoft)

J",

iIII.
-4 U'-

_________

cinch" 3 r. nng-t

______-

c
-

ti
___________

jj)

vp

L 4 f%

birdsJapanese iti(in thrush and litilc cuckoo three while-eve. PICNIX/3 superillIPOS of .

(Toda', Clit-Onochromic)
Nlodo: :

rt (J v110) a......................................................

14

422 T4
............................

0i
Ill. rl

F-

. ."g
t= MI T

it

.......

it

t A Fl

r
r! clar

AL

Zosttrops

luctUll

(Japon'

2 Cial

771

..............................................................
Cloth

..........................................

A X% In.

(petit

coucou

do Japan)

.............

............................................. Al s I

.........
=Aft IF

..........

Mir

Nt rl inba

IN14 densely accented chords- white-tailed eagle (concluditil; ( 423

lelit

(A-.

72)

.........
........... 1A ..... ..... ................ ......

...............

...................I ....................
V-

'07

....

.................

2 CI

Iii

.t-.:

I-

..

t.

-.
lp

M-o

It -6

Tt is Tt it

ti

mn i

4 Cols

TAA
00 .

14...........

.......................

........ ...................

q9
....

W4..p -.

$4

.......................

.....................

X3 I., ; - -EFEE :j =

cls'eh. -%

is

M. -

-.

---

-0

PC=--

III-

Rr
FF-= f- --

Z7 ;
C-t

.... ..
lp

'T

H7
-T.

S-11

I,!.

%.. Y%

i6l
'07.

1: ...............

=9, 6
--

-c

1% -.
=r

pT

.--6.

--

e. -

;z

Lvd 4 *I. ----r-o # I

Sr,

IL
...................... * ............... 0................................. . ..... .

(IX/4 continued)
424
a ... ........ ..... ............ .........

..

I. $. I'l

Z, k1
VI

Clot
bA%b,

Cl.

A SIP

V'- Tri,

:1 Trp.

4 Cors

:1 Trhu Tob*

Glock

Io. X.%

N(. i ri inh o Ch. rho-to

ligs

It..

%of

lv

so,

V045 & 1%4

L-

lot

i r

"r-j

F ft w

41- SI

*a aA-4

110 to III&, Gaft ol (I all I wq

IX/S bcginnimz, of the secondsectionof the 'hp6dc' himet dominant (Chrollocill-Olme) I 7F anapac-, - Ff---.......
,F4
I-. f %..a .1

FF--. ---i',;

1 r- i;.

3,

,
2.

i V.

425

Ito %,,, a f

21 %,.: * I

,,. -A

a .................................................................. to, 0. OM -0 19P

1'.! Fauvette des jardims

: 21 Favvette des jardiis


p or -p 04 0-

-O_A R- I-L *af.


--.

%. 1.4

-a191i91..
----------

1 r- tee

0. ot
-

&I

li

=;P-, -

ww
It fj -. 4 %-,

('tp6de', Chronochromie) LX/6 ostinatopatternof the yellowharnmer ............. ...... .........

IX17 continual'chirps' of the chiffchaff('tp6de, Chi-mochronzie)


A .?

................................................................. ....................................................................
Iki Ii 1114 iIiIt I LI

24 V! @ 1

-0

-I

-e

--

derniserniquavers ('tp6de, Chrotiochronae) IX/8 'machine-gun' of thenightingale


1':r Alto

(Strophe 1', Chrowchromie) IX/9 two marshwarblerson clarinets

r'lAr. 14

IX110ospicy('InlrodLictioil', ('Iii-oitoclironie)
6

426

S..

fl. P11.6 2 Fl. S! Fl.

Tr, m mod4rg ..

(:

144)

It

%
42 rjw_-

I) owdd-*I
A

2 H16. C. SMAI m, clar.


30

2 Clar. Cl. basse


At.

no! s

30

PLtTrp. 8 Trp.
Ell V

4 Core
fp-, : EEa

Ij

3 Trbon.

Tubs,
-

tA

2;

17 W

Clncbp%
Eff

ChIn. 'r A. -

3-M.

T.-T. Ne

611

. Or

je! 0 vcLlbi dIv. en 3

art*

p t l

to
r

2e, vv! div. pe 3

arto

to I

area All#%$ al.


3j -&? to it artf, Z:.

vrlvs

f orts

rRol

P * Do 19 i CiD 611cla. 10i petite$ notes Ww"g.

IX/I I superimposition of interversionson violins ('Strophc 1'. ClIfollochromic)

4
8 A

427

Vuhs Irp
AOR

................................................ ............ ................. .............................. (evil 101hralo) ......... , AVM ;q 0 '. o o rp -f pp s1f
0

:S -

7 2V V986

W pp

6 64 )

;r so.

=--

-e

pr

pr

pp

.0

iattrPmrsion 2
Allme pr 4
110, IgRI , wpgr' pr (won weirsw

-Ir POP
' pr morl . I tlki;
.-. -

pr

(*old DrArdlo)

r 7

3 interwarsion

pr

If

;V

IX/12 trilled clusterchordson violins (Introduction' C11rotiocliromie) s

34
6 vcfls soll

IrceL.,

If it., -%

6 11 2(1 VIU.
coll

IX/13 birdsong polyphony ('Yanianaka-Cadenza", Selit HaAa))

428

gjll peu
P'r FUITR

zlit --a................
vIf

11 IlAt'TBOI-q

2" HAUTBOIS

rOll

ANGLAIS

pil-

CLARINETTE

11.1tCLARINETTE

CLARINETTE

CLARINETTE

BASSE

1,:r HASSON

V'

BASSON

TROMPETTE
.................... , --f -.

XYLOPHONE

, il ---,

..

Icg 1
.VAR IMB A
...... . ...... ......... . ......

S RO CEX CER.

CROTALES

CLOCHES C. 0 C. T.

flycatcher's IIX/114 orthe narcissus song various ponrayals in two clarinets Bb a)


Ao It! Clar

J3chcwiambs)
1 -,

429

93116
I:E-CI. ARINr?, Tlt

v.

b) flute
i 11it& I-, A rt. 440......................... glor... rip I t S. 71 - ro m ................ 1-1-11: : 1-1

In Q-

in Eb andsecond clarinet oboe c)


'.. -if .. W--. -

--,

Mr
d) marimba
Msrlmhs

13choriambsl . ....... . ...


d dr dr

e) I" pianocadenza
[3 choriambs) ff)
uln reu Tif (T-7111 SIVS:Jim) 10, I IN LP

?&[no

FT
blodJr4 (z 100) vir

exicndedchoriamb---I
(v 144) 1

r-emcnded

thofiamb.,

Piano

3 cmended chonambs ko
10=2 -, i t-

? Ian@

Rif

N c3z

rr It . Im ---I --

(IX/14

e) continued) ...........

unapacm

, Olumullin ll

430
VA

is"it L

ff

fir

o eg
RT rra
It IIII r,

2 paconIV cells

(J'it )ky too vir


,

1\
OIL. 41

Flame

:
At &

b -t T41

__

-it_

blodgre*

7b

reolque
/kit

p-aeon 2 extende IV cells

Name 'por,

--m- p

iTA,

iamb

spondec Irrv; om vir (Arill4st) 4) 1?


-6 -a .8

II
2 --? -

k!

.IL!

114; rq; ,

flat's
A ...... I Z7

2 cxtcnded choriambs -

2a

7A vir
ro"Al -le

its)
I = c::

io
_c:r_v 2

it

1"11' u171-4rZ40 ....... ......................


of

W/

Tre

vir

too)

Extrgmt vif 100)

UnpeuvlN-8160)

4 flem It's I
Tian*
-&I.

. -j
f

17 Vy8m3n3ka-Cadcnza, fe -

Hg
-1 ---IrNZ-S

Septlla)ko))

=Z -,
v It

.I

flycatcher donnnant b), b) the thmic cen or the usuisu narcissus f of cell ubitiminw; JX/15, a) regular
Deal&* I. 04f, . --- --1-

431

SeptHathal) ('Yamanaka-Cadenza',

IX/16

Indian tree the harmonic pipit of ostinato, a)

P lose

TA

b) rhythmic continuumin the I" piano cadenza

ull

Pell vir
-10.

(#

UA

.9

Jf

a-

-,
(poor (poop
qoL

Pi &Fk a II T*, ttj 4 TA PIZ -0Vf.

I ;t ?Al

1(

2A

iI=-/
if

ri site

'-.
________________

I I'
_

p p
.

if c=f -q

F ==4______ -

=i

24

c) bcginning ofgtcat teed warbler's cadenza


ut,
F201 04

pet,

vir

(.
Acrt"It

124)
4"148 It 111*c
A.

432
Alf'40t,
AL

$offr

ro telari
L

doss 11,10ro)

I hane

;I

IMF

-n

g!

PV
*

-V
VP

wvv

a spe

a tr rr

--0--

I-

Li

I(

_____

_____

I
*p it ........
...

yrFF

i..

der

____

Nano

I F_

r:
____ Wt 70

'c
'
____

I
__ __

IIIIIT1

)I

I_

L4

lf
_

4if
___ ____

I
tie 2A

if
___

____

_I

___

d) comparison with the European great reed warbler Rousserolle TurdoYde


112) (ailre. lourd)

I'deuxendem(')

::? b

1 k

AL

--:.,

00

oil
1 7
-1=

JN
-W, :tY7
%v

kF

(sanx pid

(a. b, c- 'Les Oiseauxde Karuizawa', SeptHatkaj) (d = 'La RousserolleEffarvatte', ( dialogue)

IXII 7 uguisu's call on woodwind

& trumpet MeS Oiseaux de Karuiz, 2wa', Sept liakkat) harmonisett


1r 12 4

harmoruieds: ujtcui z7
tp

11

i: b-.

............ t- .

433

K" FLOTF

I FLOTE

1-:r 11AUTROIS

20 IlAtITBnIS

COR ANGLAIR

lll

CI. An[NETTF

RO' CLARI. 4RTTF

1p CLARINETTF -.

CLAIIINFTTF

HASSE

Itr

BARRON

2P

BASSON

r. ==
uguiso

PP
V7
ffetlobfill

i TRomrETTE

de la OM Cilesle) (Couleurs IX/I 8 idiomaticgamelan sonorities

"

Illell

................................................................................................................................... JIL 4L -AL .

1110(11-6

liana

.9

Tfb

2.11
4IL .-

Ta

gCene

-OL

tp-

AlItluis

du8,. ' d1m. apris Ptateci

IX/19 a) gicat kiskadee,coloured by xylophohe-trio biilma


M. Clar. T-Ii peuvir ( -- 12 6)k ?I

434
=

I.

(hfirel

OL
Clar.

Clar.

)L

9.

41

$ I 'C

v Piano opf,

Ta
41, ........................... .

A) 10.
.............................. v ............

xylorlm

Mar.

-Fi

,-2 8
Cene.

)A

223 rF2
_A

322 32

2,n-n 32........... .......

loche% )ti

b) yellowhead
3 117rz.
1.

1.

ri3no

2%%P

je

................
%b'rim.

f
_____

tfit:

33322 Z, 32 ........ rn-f-%l inI . ............... m


-F

Ui

cr

(C'nillefir.,
3!

bellbird (Coulcurs) IX/20 Brazilian bare-throated is cit 1,4-ti --ir (w,. - i2so
I( la 06. ff 0

435

1.)rrv.

4e

I I.,

') i. -

3b

T, p

IL

Tri,

0---

0r, . .:
I

2. -

or_,.

E: Zii

--

gi
0
LF Mq

Trhn

ri.,,.

fff I Ta it
...........

........... X% Inrim

Is ............. jr

Slar.

I-=

-_--

Cenc
4L

Cluebri. Gonrs

__ -

4'-'7

t-

IX/21 I" piano cadenza: stripe-backedwTen(Couleun)


S=dicus

Trogl6dyte'b&*rri %11 .
riano

vir ( -, ic o) &Ifflle) (3-ams


-.'-Is-"\ 3.11.1

-go-

S 4 !

Itf

fq
--

nf
-I-.A pv 7 IF 3

Ttl

T"a s=dicus--l
L d. des3 1w sI

Tel

rianv

k.

.4p. 2 IL

T414

IX/22 I' brief cadenza wcstem meadowlark (Cmileurs) 436

-11 F-4 7%imit'i-4 (J)z


Trh
(san-f af/mo-

Sto u roe Ile ............. II--I

"%"I, !r'-,!

a no

8
TA am

law

zlle
'Nlodr4
8. ................

4e .
104) iso)

A
L

JL

,,

3-

---.

I--

A-----4W

Piano

Vz

Tt,

4r .
'Nlmlt*(
......... ........

1)

vs,

pou

vir

(.
dr

w)
IrAsmjr

vir

(I,.,

Ito)

Piano

zi

T(Ih

la,

IN,

IX/23 piano caden7R Mexican tropical mockingbird (Coulew-s)


( -. %i ., t-r4 'YS411S h4five) Maqueur =Io a) 21 ............... AL 7L f 1110diri 14 II 44 !. -...

437

du venesufla

.......................

......

-f

PP

Pv

), P

PI

Ta

Tel

N, If

101)

111cii
.................

siiod4ri

(xvi)

.................................... tt

Plan. -

Pf

2 3

Exspecto Resun-ectionem Xfoi-tuonim) (Ef Amazonian uirapura JX/24outbursts:


N1r. d: r,; ( : 17e ). a........... Z: ........ ...
............ ..... . ........

F1 1.2

62

p
Jj,

3" rI Into I..-. :1, lilts


-"I tip f ME= 5i w -. F-=-. = A

I' alog]

r k*' ( IAr

clar,

1.2

1* Mir . Cl 1.3"t

Pit'

--I

JX/25 brisk song of the calandralark (EI &specto)


JAi2

43?..

2 P"

Ft.
.............

Ft. 1.2

:i Ft.

1 Htb. 11:

Hth. 2,3

C. asiAl.

Pie Clsr-

-T

o --

n 1-- =
fr

Clar. 1,2

3? Clar.

I. basal

1%,at$ Rmr--.-: V. 6,2,3


P
.1

.......... .
2 PI' Fl. m, rt.
2. 3

oif-p

ri. 2, a Itr Rtb, Htb. 2,3

C. angl.

41 V

jlv clar.

Clar.

C, l

PIP
Cl . basse

Bcsf 1,2

tc==

3? B^.9

Pir Wft

W2

IX126 simple song of the blackcap (2'dMovement ofMiditations sur le MyWre de la Sainte 7MWi)
IC31en A

G:

mod4r4 42 -

'T "137
(Fauvette i tite nalrep

5-4! 'P' 4A.

-01-

I-V -I ! x

1.4

IX/27 garden %%8rblv'% cadenza Wj 'Meditation')


i Faw%pn del
if" Poo
A%

jardinS
d d.... I. s

)
a VI qr

p, %&Wit 41II#,

439 112%&3 I
jw E-i"

,I
P-4 L 1-1

31

L! fta 0,

wo, via

M-3 -3 33

_j

E-E!

MA

33

AM

AI WAS

Al

L1L!

'd

43 P 1h3

Wipaills

143a46 bA If-

AL
Wei : r=: P. F m. il go-: =; " r I I, -

13a

3 kA
5.r -4 AN=: -11-4 -P

2331
P--4 333 I AL

US-

est-I f-ana JX/28 varied songof the wren (2"a'Meditation')

AM

.5 a

MAN.

blackbird's (2"d Weditalion') the nd song 2 IX/29 pontayal of . W. r %Ul)tllu %: r0inuk; "! (merie no1r) f-double-iamb, cretic >, Mod-; ri; 90111 4 14,, 0: 31d 0 OIL b,. A PI 4! il MAN
. N M Mr Z. A13

climacus rcsupinus dicO smdicus


-1-1

440

climacusresupinus

MAN

double-iamb
3 FA
4AN

3 iambs
F III:
..

bS

; ep..
I;:

91h

;L
on iIi

OL
r_ k, iItI _4114 Ii, V. ad-

black (0 the woodpecker JX/30 startling cries of


ebL .4 10,7Imsee) I

'Meditation') t PL 6 4

vir

it

Un

reu

lent

MAN

Pos ff

E55

R:
SF,

M0
TPP)
(PP)
pp

(en
? ED

ff- pp .

IX/31

'snatched, 'like tearing' other rhythmic Motives of the song thrush and silk a)
Modere

Un

]POU vir

MAN

3Kodiri r it 4,

Modiri ". L-

vir IT

7a

I: k

L I

I I

t'i

Pol 66 LEI (commo de la nie dicAtree)

mA

b) 'like drops orwater': song thrush


Yrf odi ri 164

I un vou -it

2 ionicfillnur nictres

441

4 Id A.,

(comiffie aes gottries a taiti

('4h 'Meditation')
iambs

IX/32 ring ouzel's calls (4h 'Meditation')/3


Irris mmodirg (Merle i iolastft-n)

MAN

ipi

IX/33 a) homorhythmictexture: Tengmalm'sowl ('4')"Meditation')


(Chauetto
laien

do Tonemalm)
madiri

(bovrdon 16, bourdan 8, stuls I I

W MAN. a

IMf t

-1

Z-

-I

w-

;, -

_-

"

lp ir

1" -I

Z-

-I

; --

Z-

Z.

'L

Z-

Z.

FR

nq

INK :1

00

6==ximxw

k: =: =

b) sametexture on solo bourdon (concludesthe 4h 'Meditation')


Men

vaod4ro;

o. fl6te harm., bourdon 8, bourdoc 16-

MAN

(Chouette

do Tenrmalm)

(bnurdon 16, bourdon 8, seuls)

5d

JX/34 simple pitches of the yellowhammer (concluding 5"' Weditation')


Igambe, YOU cilcste) Blen v=cdZrj

442

R:

ppp

MAN

( T

(bourdon

8)

p (Bruant jaunt)

==r-? ED.

de ('7h 'Meditation') Persipolis 'oiseau the so-called I X/35 song of


IV PersiRSUls-L-2paeon cells-, io (olseau r-

2 paconIV cells

MA

iamb

r-3

iambs >. .

wyno r--l

bdA

r-double-iamb--l

iwpb

wAN

x. rdl:

S,

u sv

JX/36 a) creticrhythm:quail
caille
un re a. v . 0) 16

(ptd

b) abrupt flourishes and repeated chords: nightingale 443


vir 41's 1601 Un you
I m

vii

126

F- b

LqE! T 2=2
tit

TIOSSIgnol

(La Eazivette desJardins)

UU37 pink lake at dawn (La Fauvelte)


I-Ormt. (-- 861
N
mo1 4 den

Tr*'R
A.

K -_7 ---

V-

I#PP

Im

Mtb.

"XLb6

'TA

MX

(le Jac rose i Paurore)

-U&

JAIQ-

A&Q

. 664A.

-&a

ta,

la

TA

I&

IX/38 extract from an early solo of the gardenwarbler (In Fativetie)


. .................... .............. .

444

.......................

. ...................

.z.............

49

Ir
31

fv
Eta

liz&

1t

-4

'-

L ---

===-

IX/39 a) homorhythmic greenwoodpecker of laughter: eruptions


Dien bA Inod4ri AL 4-ld;! -AL 1001 -IS. JL fj. JL out d.
-A-4-

ar

Irl
40 3#F 6 -A Ir >. -di. "r Z1. -do. or >. -do. -30' '*' VZ1. "101 -W : F. W-e :; -W -V Z. IR t . 0.1 d& I :MC, -dPV 91

ff 0It

t;

::..

#V'

homorhythmic harmonies! quartai chaffinch ridson 'Un- pow ,


IfAIII) pro mass 'VI. Modiri (. h. 1110)

-1 -

V-

-0.

IV,

I.;.

--6

c) 'jubilant' criesor the skylark


Alovelti des ebamps
Ih. 1441 Un POU vIf

445

0
r

dM6

r 1,
IIIIS-(p.. ' s. p., )

(LaFauveite)

IX/40 'harmonic alternator':chaffinch(La Fautwile)

I X/41 'acidulated' voice: great reed warbler (La Fauvelle) Turdold Rousserolle 4.10011c, "I". -e medir.;
A ff mf rvec) 41 ; 2% IOL v. AL I

1:7 V7

", C)
-W ri

1p. 3 IT& 11% I11 :5: i V, M: VV t

6-1

-I; 591 0 tO 0

. A

VrV,

.I
>>, 0"""1
______

ap
1a.. o0--

0
I.

-10--

'1

3 I-J-

---c ---- 1; 7

`4

-4

cm-

gpx--

-u

PP

"-, Itt I -, .1. cr


W,
dm

Z:-_-

3=

me "0r

ff (trot)

sr

ST

'pl;

f
ar

IX/42 a) bmial croaks carrion crow


ris,

Cor ne iIIe
4

1261

(atotpm4,) grifche Peorcheut 6t 116) 16 %10440'it to Wr, . -'. .e 6 9=: = E=d. ]Z F= = =ZU ; W. l* 77 . Z r -e.

dt%"larins red-backed slirike


f

446

-4, - zz:;, w=

0.

I.
Milan
Tin

IT&
noir
pow wit

0-

ip

kite: 'like black the a whinny' c) repeatedcallsof


41001

d) flight of theblackkite (opening) DOI


A\t

de Milax
un pen 'wit 16 1. . 132) .1.
i

Mod4ri,

4II

$$S
It.. L I_

"f

"t! a

JA

Ia%1,11

;-,

IAI

fa, in# a )0181)

(La Bouvette)
IX/43 goldfinch's song over D major with an added 6h (1-a Fauvette) *
t. kr4, I! t

ib ard onneret.,,
A

vie ptu %it1P., 1261


*i-!

IX14+Aigntingale (La I auveite) announcing sunset

-A -t,

ff-. I
hartnonic ostinato

A:::

C--ff

vif

(.

140)

C7
Ii1

====

k=-

&--

IX/45 'hooting' calls or the tawny owl (Ia Fauvelle)


-rr; I. M 1 (J'; 461 pindpre; Is 120) 0. 0. -Irri: I*nt 10 44,

447

AL

JL

AL

6houette Hulotte

(Clair at terriff; Aj)

(floor

r of forr#/fast$

IX/46 Tristram's grackle (Movement Three, Livre du Soho Socremem) I 't Song i; Ein Mawda
Un peu V11 ritiorneau de 1 rsvtm I Geds lft
actic r

/ fl Is Met %14",

cretic

PREO
If 161AK Pot

910

paconIV

b1p,

iam

pucon

ILI
MAN

bacchius

cretic---l

m
f . "d

Three, LA. dit (Movement IX/47 Olivaceous -rc SaintSacremem) warbler


Un peu Of

4:!:

%. W

Mks.
ipii-

W L: pacon
% -* 2'

IV pecon
IL

Lan3pacst-J Lt=b. J

IT 1p

11

9,!

MA

mpest.

T iarhb

ionic minor %

T iunb
U: t , . !! ";

4p

. 5; 1

03

Lextcnded ionic minorJ

Louble-ijurtJ rwon iV-J

IX/48

osong orthe descit laik (Niovemcnt Six, Livre 448


It matud bladirt. 2Ns. ocumvsn 2.3" un pvu lent 1 In. tout souls I du ciserl (desort dg judot. pwmj 4, is ()s, wul,, w) Ammomanp

MAN

1
"L. I

MAN

A.%,

MAN

MAN

MAN A

I C

cynbide 3 ramp "%it bowden 16. menu* 11 kwm 6. boutdon

=zia- I

IX/49'%vind of thedesert'(MovementSix, Lirre du sailitSocremetit)


Lent A
Poo

it

MAN

%:. '

%: w

Ea 'OE!

! FF.

lX/SO a) I' solo of the nicludious warbler - opening iambic celis


Un pew vif I IHYP0131S polySIOVIC,

449

MAN

-1

b) harmonic ostinato in the melodious warbler's song

MAN

- 100 ZO 7-1
IXISI tighter cluster chords in the secondsolo bvre duSainl &crement) (Movement Thir-teen',

(NlovementThiriten. Livre du SamtSacrement)

I
IX/52 a) elaborate,long phraseof the Tristram's grackle
I10

b) creticryt6s in this song

kg

'7i

Fifleen, Vire dit SaitiMicremelpt) (Movement

450
Tif ,. 164 1

-------

1.

!f,-

dep....

i. 0

a;

1U-,

IX/54 white-note chord accompaniment('Le Rouge Gorge', Peliles Esquisses)


6

M04iri
dOL

(,

ell

IX/55 rich harmonisationof two-pitch cell (Te Rouge Gorge', Pelites Dquizes)
Lent I 1h" 54 1

P.
1 16

Ia. VU56 three main features of Te Merle Noir':

a) colour chords with added note values


ijmpeuient 80)

.
0

r-,

-7 -r.

11
JL

04

I
Till. . Ta.. U. ich. Ta. T". ITlub. . em.

[Resolution]

Too.

Ille song itwir

>lodird. tJ - lir,
peu vi

451

lU

>

he 4

3r--

c) widely-spaced chords producing resonanceeffect3


moaiTi 11 Be, II

('Le hictle Noir'. Iletites Ktquisic,t)


8b --------------t",

IX/57 features of the song thrush


a) ascending two-part vi r 16n quasi-glissandi

b) hamonic ostinato

NJIE 0,

c) repeated motivearoundA major

TA

d) two-pah alicrnator

452

TAb

-:,

isolated three colour chords e)


l bindiri 1- @0 ------------.d_; -6 _

%we

.9.. rb.

l1b.

('La CilriveMusicienne',Pelites r. iqiiis.ic. e)

IX/58 regular motivic ostinato: skylark (VAlouette desChamps'.Ilefites F-squIxtes)


.......................................:............................

(1
yp

lZ

-1t

IX/59 turbulent chisicis skylark 1 T Irip vif (I . 144)

453

(I-Wouette

des Champs'. Pelites Kvquix. ves)

%b .

--qm-

Vif(v

Un

peu

)out

(j4124)

JX/60 nightingaleon xylophone-tdoand percussion


M. nmas

kylonmbs

((/n I-7trailel des Oiseaux) 111.0

IN C-0 IV C... b I. T.

IX/61 'trumpet theme' (Un Varail et des Oiseaux)

454

-IV*. ..
. Ll

A-.; 2

"_.

-4

TIRE
- .-

Ar
..l.

.0

._

-a
N

I-

"-

a, r-71

455
IX/62 I song of the blackcap (IM Vilrail et des Oiseaux)

I iewcelt, # Itle noire Dien mod&r&


.

u- 352)

% u. 1.fw --6. L
6.

%;

notes

% 1_0-rL.

V.

nulf

ri en s.,

Efr_: 9_ f

IL'Illb

L*

MI

CA

IpAt

P" clar

I
Clat

031

Basso"

23 T2
11I. rj
ME LEJ P?

3 16

2 16

IX/63 extract of biidsong polyphony, including quasi-glissandosof the robin (1by Vitrail et des Oiseaux)

456

Flisse

r,

Clannetie

(lannellf

c3anntstg

Piano

IX/64 'prelude'of themelodious song(La VilledFx HaIII) warbler's


Prcsii

III C."

-P

IX/65 a) rcpcated pitches- melodious warbler Ij :0


t: i zzI.; z

457

LL
p 4 16 ., 16

C"w III -F mp

b) rapid flourishes:melodiouswarbler
.......... ....... ............... '1; ............
'Worn. " f

.1, ----

'-t'

332 T2 IU 4*Y. SMW III& den Haiti)

438 Biblio2raAv

"-Niusica]-T*mcs133(1992) pp449Anderson, Julian. "Olivier Messiaen(1908-1992), 51.

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460

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Nichols, Roger. "'Boulez on Messiaen':R. Nichols in conversationwith Review. lxxi/283 (1986) pp167-170. " Organists PierreBoulez, Nichols, Roger. 'Messiaen[at 70: Interview with Roger Nichols]," Music and _hfusicians. (December1978)pp20-2. (London, Oxford University Press,1975,secondedition Nichols, Roger. Messiaen. 1986). " 1& 92, (1950) pp99-114. North, M. E.W. "TranscribingBird Song, " Nature, Music Njuf&jML Poet "Messiaen: de. Quinetain, Tanneguy of and xi/9. (hlay ep 1963)pp 8-12. (Paris,Aphonsc Leduc, Reverdy, Michele. L'Oeuvre pour Piano-d'OlivierNfessiaen 1978). (Duisburg, Mier, Almut. Contributionsto the-SpiritualWorld of Olivier Nfessiacn. Giflesund Francke,1986). (Paris,Vcntadour, 1986). Rostrand, Claude. Olivier Messiaen

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2. Sun, Shu-Wen. 'Birdsong and Pitch-class Sets in Messiam's "L'Alouctte Calandrelle"', for the degree of Doctor of Musical Arts, University of Oregon, 1995,

463

Disco2r.it)hv

Le Banquet Cileste - ThomasTrotter (org) - Decca448 064-2 DKP(CD) 9078 Priludes - PeterHill (pf) - Unicom-Kanchana Bate (org) - Unicorn-Kanchana DKP(CD) 9004 Diptyque - Jennifer Petit (po - ENII CNIS 7 Trois Milodies - Mich6le Command(sop), Marie-Madeleine 640922 Theme et Variations - ChristophPoppen(vIn), Yvonne Loriod (po - ENU CDC 7 54395 2 Fantaisie Burlesque - Y. Loriod (pf) - Erato OME I Apparition de I'tglise-tternelle - Messiaen(org) "par lui-mime' - ENII US 7 674002 desBaycrischen Rundfunks, L'Ascension (orch. version)- Symphonieorchester conductcd Schwarin CD HI 3110 15 by Karl Anton Rickenbacher DKP(CD) 9024P. 5 L'Ascension (org. version)- JenniferBate (org) - Unicom-Kanchan3 Piecepour le Tombeau de Paul Dukas - Gloria Cheng(po - Koch 3-7267-2111 La Nativiti du Seigneur - SimonPreston(org) - 425 161.2 DM21 Poimes;pour Mi - JaneManning (sop), David Mason(po - Unicom-Kanchan: kDKP(CD) 9094 0 Sacrum Convivium - London SinfoniettaChorusconductedby Terry Edwards Virgin VC 91472.2 Chant de Terre et de Ciel - JaneManning (sop), David Mason (po - Unicom-Kanch= DKP(CD) 9094 Les Corps Glorieux - ThomasTrotter (org) - Decca448 064-2 Walter Boeynk-ens Harmonia Nfundi Quatuor pour la Fin du Temps - Ensemble I INIC 901348 DKP(CD) 9144 Rondeau- PeterM (pO - Unicorn-Kanchana Visions de I'Amen - DoubleEdge: EdmundNiemann& Nurit 'Tilles- NA 045 CD Trois PetitesLiturgies de la Prisence Divine - Y. Loriod (pD. J. Lodod (ondcs).Kiffin Orchestraconducted by Doliumil Kulinsk-FemaleChorus,PragueSymphony suPRAPHON 110404-2 231 Vingt Regardssur I'Enfant-J&us - Malcolm Troup (pO - ContinuumCCD 100415 Harawi - RachelYakar (sop), Y. Loriod (po - Erato ECD 75501 Loflod (po, J. (ondes), Y. Loriod Orchestre de IOpera Bastille Turangal^ila. symphonieChung DG 431781-2 Myung-Whun by conducted Soloistsconducted by PavelKUhn- SUPRAPHON 11 Cinq Rechants- KWin Chamber 0402-2231 DKP(CD) 9078 Cantiyodjaya - PeterIfill. (po - Unicom-Kanchana ttudes de Rythme - Gloria Cheng(po - Koch 3-7267-2141 Quatre Messede la Pentec6te- Gillian Weir (org) - Collins 70312 (org) 'par lui mEme'- ENII US 7 674002 Livre d'Orgue - Messiaen 639472 Le Merle Noir - KarheinzUller (fl), Aloys Kontavsky(pf) - ENH CDN17 Orchestraconductcdby Vaclav Reveil des Oiseaux- Y. Loriod (po, CzechPhilharmonic SUA ST 50749 SUPRAPHON Neumann OiseauxExotiques - P. Crossley(po, London Sinforietta conductedby Esa-Pckka 44762 N12K Salonen -

466

Catalogued'Oiseaux - PeterFEII(PO- Unicorn-Kanchana Books DKP(CD) 1-3 9062, Books 4.6 DKP(CD) 9075,Book 7 DKP(CD) 9090 des BayerischenRundfimksconductedby Karl Chronochromie - Sympbonieorchester CD 3110 15 HI Schwann Anton Rickenbacher Verset pour la Fite de la Didicace - JenniferBate (org) - Unicorn-Kanchana DKP(CD) -9028 Wind Ensemble Sept Halflmli- PeterDonohoe(po, Netherlands conductedby Reinbertde Leeuw - Chan9301-72 Couleurs de la Citi Cileste - P. Crossley(pf), London Sinfoniettaconductedby Esa. 44762 Pekka Salonen'1142K Et ExspectoResurrectionernMortuorurn - GrouPeInstrumentali Percussion de du DornaineMusical conductedby PierreBoulez SMX 68 332 Orchestre Strasbourg, SymphonicChoir, La Transfiguration de Notre-Seigneur Jisus-Christ - Westminster Orchestraconductedby Antal.Dorati - DeccaHEAD 1-2 425161 National Symphony .1 DM2 Miditations sur le Mystere de la Sainte Trinit6 - Hans-OlaEricsson(org) - BIS-Cl) 464 DKP(CD) 9090 La Fauvette desJardins - PeterHill (pf) - Unicom-Kanchana Ars Nova conductedby Nlarius Des Canyonsaux Etoiles - Y. Loriod (po, Ensemble Constant- Erato STU 70974-5 Livre du Saint Sacrement- Almut RoBler(org) - Motette DCD 1106 1 Petites Esquisses d'Oiseaux - Gloria Cheng(pf) - Koch 3-7267-2HI InterContemprain Un Vitrail et des Oiseaux - Y. Loriod (pf), Ensemble conductedby Pierre Boulez - DisquesMontaignes=V by PierreBoulez NSA 135646 La Ville d'En Haut - Y. Loriod (pl), BBCSO conducted Un Sourire - FrenchRadio Philharmonic by M. Janowski RCA Orchestra conducted 09026 61520-2 Eclairs sur Pau-delh... Orchestre )Opera Bastille de by Myung-Whun conducted DG Chung 0439 929-2 -