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India in Fifteenth Century

India in Fifteenth Century

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This 1857 volume is a compilation, edited by R. H. Major of the British Museum, of narratives of journeys to India 'in the century preceding the Portuguese discovery of the Cape of Good Hope; from Latin, Persian, Russian, and Italian sources'. India was regarded as a fabled source of riches even before the time of Alexander the Great, and Major's introduction surveys the surviving accounts of overland journeys there before the fifteenth century, assessing their validity and where possible matching ancient to modern place names.
This 1857 volume is a compilation, edited by R. H. Major of the British Museum, of narratives of journeys to India 'in the century preceding the Portuguese discovery of the Cape of Good Hope; from Latin, Persian, Russian, and Italian sources'. India was regarded as a fabled source of riches even before the time of Alexander the Great, and Major's introduction surveys the surviving accounts of overland journeys there before the fifteenth century, assessing their validity and where possible matching ancient to modern place names.

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Mem. K.A.A. F. Hon. M.. Petersburg.THE IIAKLUYT SOCIETY.S. Inst. SIR RODERICK IMPEY MURCHISON. &c.I Z. W. ROBERT LOWE. F. LORD BROUGHTON. Corr. Acad. Hon. LEVESQUE.A. St. JOHN BRUCE.C. Rear-Admiral C.R. W. F. Sc. The LORD ALFRED CHURCHILL. The Marquis of LANSDOWNE. Honorary Secretary..S.S.B. D. 1" DRINKWATER BETHUNE.A. G.D. BEAUFORT. Hon.B. Rt. F.S. CHARLES RICHARD FOX.. D.P.R. M. F. CHARLES WENTWORTH DILKE. His Excellency the COUNT DE LAVRADIO. K. The Right Rev.H. DAVID DUNDAS.S. ELLIS.. the LORD BISHOP OF ST.C.B. R.. Mora. 'ice-Presidents. HENRY GREY. DAVID'S.. Fr. Esq. Sir Sir Esq. II.. F. HENRY RAWLINSON.L. President.R. R..St. K..P.S. F. Rt.S. Ofy^^rfr^c^ . Esq. &c. Hon..C. MAJOR. P..S. C. R. Esq.S. M. Imp. Rear-Admiral Sir FRANCIS Rt.P. F. Esq. JOHN WINTER JONES.. Lieut-Gen. Sir Sir ERSKINE PERRY.. WHEWELL..C. Esq.A. The Rev.


d. The Travels of Athanasixjs Nikitin. Rendered into English. a native of Twer. Major. The Travels of Nicolo Conti in the East in the early Translated from the J.A.S. by late Secretary of the Count Wielat the Russian Legation Court of St..S.CONTENTS. a Genoese. Esq. Esq. Esq.h. Major. original of Poggio Bracciolini. H. by Winter Jones. Quatremere. F. Ambassador from Shah Rukh. a.. 1442. Persian into French by Translated from the M. with Notes. The Journey of Hieronimo di Santo Stefano. James's.. Translated by R. Translated from the Russian.A. H. a.. 845. PART OF THE FIFTEENTH Century. Narrative of the Voyage of Abd-er-Razzak. with Notes. F. British Museum. . by R.S. HORSKY.A. Keeper of the Printed Books. F. with Notes.


the a . an interesting volume might be formed. In the first the translation of the interesting manuscript of Nikitin. Murchison. Sir Roderick I. The present collective volume has been produced by the joint labours of three different persons. Winter Jones. Secretary of the Russian Legation at the Court of St. and hence. has arisen the delay which has instance. taken place in its completion. Mr.EDITOR'S PREFACE. was undertaken by the late estimable Count Wielhorsky. and by great good his recall. procured for the Society from Moscow. James's. unfit to fortune was completed by him before The smallness of this document separate made it form a work . through the instrumentality of our president. in a great measure. previously untranslated into English. and it was thought that by bringing together a collection of voyages in the same century.

While thus tors to this called upon to refer to the contribu- volume. After transde' Conti and annotating the voyage of Nicolo it and seeing through the press. in consequence of the increasing pressure of his important duties in the lating Museum. has left undone. a task which. which he obligingly undertook to do. The following autograph letter . Count Wielhorsky. the editor cannot deny himself the satisfaction of recording in this place the fol- lowing exalted testimony his to the generous conduct of lamented friend. after his return to Russia. In the spring of the present year. present Keeper of the Printed Books in the British Museum. but which he could not continue with justice to the members of the Society or to himself. he felt compelled by the claims of his present responsible position to give up a task which he would otherwise gladly have completed. the Honorary Secretary of the Society volunteered to complete what Mr. was requested to edit such a volume. though with much hesitation.11 EDITOR S PREFACE. although been performed under the advantage to of not having in any way interfere with the labours of his predecessor. Jones had laborious.

" Count Michel Youricvitch. bless. " The Most High has otherwise ordained. 1856. the accomplishment my views and intentions. so full of humanity and Christian sentiment. was published in the Journal de St. " Count Wielhorski Matuschkine completely justified my choice and my confidence. It is with keen sorrow that I have learned the premature and unexpected death of your son. He had already worthily received a testi- mony of the high satisfaction of His Majesty the Emperor. which It gave me pleasure to think that. in his short career. and for having so well divined my wishes and carried them out with so much success. has known self how to distinguish by a useful activity in the performance of his professional duties. and your son lavished upon them. feelings of midst of incessant labours. of I intrusted to him.EDITOR S PREFACE. One him- consolation remains to your sorrow — it is the secret thought that your son. the attentions. to his zeal. at the period of his visit to the Crimea. humanity and ardent Thousands of wounded still men. " Deprived of the satisfaction of expressing my thankfulness to . Petershourg of the 3rd January. Ill from the present Empress of Russia father. I should have the heartfelt joy of expressing to him my sincere gratitude for his arduous labours. by wise measures and indefatigable activity. —Appreciating the generous wounded in the senti- ment which led your son to express the desire to go to the aid of the suffering among our brave soldiers army of the Crimea. Petersburg. and that Divine Grace has granted him an end that every Christian may envy. thousands of mourning families have blessed. on his return to St. and it I am unable to express the interest and sympathy with which inspires me. in the which were joined. I appreciate the extent of your grief. in this sacred work. and its translation into English appeared in The Times of the 12th of the same month. the to the Count's Count Michel Wielhorsky.

" To those who knew Count Wielhorsky in Eng- land the noble conduct thus feelingly appreciated by the Empress those will occasion it is no surprise this .IV your son himself. 26. in the paternal house example of the family that he imbibed the principles which formed the rule of his life. who obligingly rendered his best services to our Society. 1855. in in his It name and was remembrance of him that and in the address myself to you. hoped that testimony to the worth of one. now gone. Petersburg. M. by who did not." " St. K H. ever yours. and which. after his death. will not be deemed superfluous. I EDITOR it is S PREFACE. very affectionately. . while. " Maeie. Dec. will assure to his memory an imperishable fame. " I remain.

though endowed with a and climate on gifts which nature has poured forth her choicest with the most partial profusion. yet the time had not yet come when Vasco de Gama. Before the days when Alexander of Macedon sought to add to his triumphs the conquest of the Eastern world. for the first time laid before the English reader. by rounding the . as Horace poetically did of old. and at the same time boasting a civilisation even far beyond the limits of authentic history. it is remarkable that India has till never been thoroughly explored century. of the " intacti thesauri divitis Indise". within the last explora- No era in the history of the tion of such a country can be without its interest. The subsequent soil history of comassertion.INTRODUCTION. claims a peculiarly honourable the chain of our information respecting at that It is true that it was no longer possible period to speak. India had been pronounced by Herodotus to be the wealthiest and most populous country on the face of the earth. merce has proved the correctness of his Yet. but the period treated of in the collection of docu- ments which are here place in it.

A. by the discontent of his troops. to re- . The earliest fact which he has recorded respecting the intercourse of Indians with other nations. apes and peacocks". ivory. c. will be best appreciated by our taking a brief retrospect of the intercourse of the AVest with India. but of brief duration. comprising India within and beyond the Ganges. with the East Indian Islands. With the conquest of Darius III by Alexander. part of Hindostan by Darius He also states that Indians served in the Persian armies.. however. had opened up a readier track to that more active commerce. Alexander. Although dia pilots of it is now well ascertained that In- was the country from which the Phoenician King Solomon's fleets " brought gold and silver. is the conquest of the western I. one of the five great affluents of the Indus constituting the Punjab. extended sense. The interest which attaches to these docu- ments. in his famous expedition. and bringing under review the earlier voyages mised that the made to that country it being preword India is here used in its most . Cape of Good Hope. was compelled. The sway of the Persians over that country was. however. and the death of that prince in the year 330. the Persian empire ceased.11 INTRODUCTION. by which these riches should become the property of the whole western world. or Gharra. yet even so late as the days of Herodotus the knowledge of that country was extremely limited. when he had reached the Hyphasis. inasmuch as the original designations of these various importations are not Hebrew but Sanscrit.

India both by land and by It was evidently his plan that the treasures of that country might thus be carried through the Persian his Asiatic Gulf into the interior of dominions. nevertheless. his rival for the throne. trade. suddenly arrested the prosecution of these grand conceptions. He dwelt for several years in Palibothra. though lost. however. while by the to might be conveyed death of this Alexandria. The Macedonian conqueror. the first Megasthenes was. which. To expedition. —a city supposed to have occuafterwards pied the site of the modern Patna. linquisli the design of this Ill advancing any further. perhaps. European who had ever beheld the Ganges. and by commissioning Nearchus to survey the mouth of the Indus to that of the open the means of a communication with sea. earliest dealer in these fictions The was Megasthenes. now has probably been transmitted to us pretty closely . — and wrote an account of the country. an Indian prince . through a long have been mixed up largely with the fabulous. The narratives which we have had handed down series of ages. Red Sea they The untimely great monarch. Seleucus himself being compelled to withdraw from India to encounter Antigonus. to us respecting India. by founding several coasts from the Tigris. apparently so unsuc- cessful. laid cities on the branches of the Indus. one of the immediate successors of Alexander. who was sent by Seleucus. on the banks of that river. to negociate a peace with Sandracottus [Chandra-gupta]. was due the commencement of that Indian which has subsequently proved of such vast importance to Europe.INTRODUCTION.

that we are indebted for the earliest account of Ceylon or Taprobane. The development of the Ptolemies. seem sea. one of the companions of Megas- thenes. Strabo. These people. and hence to Thus Egypt became the principal point of communication between India and Europe. in the narratives of Diodorus Siculus. goods brought from the Alexandria. be commended for it is Moreover. could by no means dispense with the costly productions and elegant manufactures of India. to have had an unconquerable aversion to the — a ludicrous example of which we have in the singular instance of the voyage. to Onesicritus. Meanwhile the Persians. in curiously many — totally undeserving of credit. now first rendered into English in the following pages. of Berenice. rian. From him we and its first hear of its trained elephants. however. are his minuter details seem of its —nay. gold. But of this hereafter. The supply of Indian commodities to the various provinces of Persia .IV INTRODUCTION. his India may. geographical description enough. notoriously addicted to refined and effeminate luxuries. accuracy. its pearls. of Abderrazzak. East were conveyed by caravans to Coptus on the Nile. Pokh to the Court of Bij- The droll pathos with which he bemoans his sad lot in loses having to undergo so many hardships. and Ar- Yet though respects. the ambassador of Shah nagar. florid nothing from the exaggeration of oriental hyperbole. on the of the plans of Alexander was not lost sight of under the enlightened government By the establishment of the port Red Sea.

though few. — that a discovery was made of the greatest importance both to geography and During the many voyages made by the navigators of Egypt and Syria. was effected to those of the by camels. It through was the opinion of Major Rennell. Rome had become tress of Egypt.INTRODUCTION. down which river they were and thence circulated either rivers. and the it is certain that Strabo. and the luxurious and costly — articles which that distant country alone could furnish. — that about the year a. who wrote a little before commencement of the Christian sera. could have failed to be observed. of the traders from the Red Sea the mis- had reached the Ganges. It is . and during the other from the west. conveyed to the Caspian. that the regular shiftings of the periodical winds. and even sailed up the Ganges to Palibothra".—-the great highway of Indian maritime commerce to the west. it was scarcely possible commerce. an authority always deserving to be listened to with deference. or monsoons. It was about eighty years to the Egypt had been annexed is. blowing during one part of the year from the east. states that some. by land-carriage. By this time. Periplus of the by the author of the Erythrean Sea (supposed to be Arrian. that " under the Ptolemies the Egyptians extended their navigations to the extreme points of the Indian continent. 50. or by the navigable the various parts of the country. to feed the pleasures became necessary and maintain after the grandeur of an empire glutted to satiety with the successes of conquest. however. Roman empire. from the banks of the Indus Oxus.d.

000 of our money. in all This bold adventure gained for him the honour of having his name attached to to the wind by which he was enabled perform this novel voyage. Pliny has very fully described to us the shortened route thus gained. that we are in- formed that Hippalus.VI INTRODUCTION. the greater part of the distance being travelled by night. The entire distance from Coptos to Berenice . His experiment was suc- and he found himself carried by the southprobability Mangalore. is From Julio- three hundred miles. The first point he mentions. western monsoon to Musiris. From Coptos or watering to Berenice are noted various places. the commander of a vessel in the Indian trade. to be that suburb of Alexandria called by Strabo Eleusis. theoretical observa- tions of his predecessors. from Alexandria. a port on the coast of Malabar. which Mannert considers on the Nile. cessful.400." The sum here mentioned may be computed at about £1. giving back her own wares one hundred in exchange. had the hardihood to stretch out to sea from the and practically tested the mouth more of the Arabian Gulf. is Juliopolis. at which the travellers rested during the day time. He says : " The subject is well worthy of our notice. which are sold at fully times their prime cost. inasmuch as in no year does India drain our empire of less than five hundred and fifty millions of sesterces. to whom we are indebted for the earliest mention of the peninsula of the Deccan. vSpev/juara. and whose details are remarkable for their correctness). on account of the extreme heat. polis to Coptos.

The voyage from Berenice was generally commenced before or immediately after the rising of the DogStar. however. a vast variety of important articles. as dangerous for disembarcation. and as the roadstead was at a considerable distance from the shore. it was possible reach Musiris. vSpev/xuTa Vll The still traces of several of these site were found by Bclzoni. The distance from Coptos was two hundred and fifty-seven miles. in boats hol- lowed out of a single tiara of from Cottonara. commerce . the Cot- Ptolemy. to which pepper was conveyed. at the foot of which ruins are barkation. gums. and thirty days brought them to O eel is. in large supply. occupied twelve days. and the Carless. at the of Berenice. silk. He describes this place. In the days of which we write. and to be seen. we are accustomed such as cotton. supposed to be either Calicut or Cochin. to which we have already referred. cargoes thither in boats. a harbour at the south-western point of Arabia Felix. now called Gehla. and coffee. whose ruins exist. were to blowing. near Mount Hissan still Ghorib. in forty days. convenient port was Barace. to receive from that country. on account of the pirates which frequent the neighbourhood. which D'Anville iden- with Cava Canim Bay. was ascertained by Moresby and as the Sinus bottom of the inlet known Immundus. spices. indigo. had to be conveyed A much more tree. In the present advanced stage of our acquaintance with India.INTRODUCTION. or Foul Bay. Pliny states that Ocelis was the best place for emif Mtppahis. or tifies else to Cave. wool. or the west wind.

while Ptolemy commits the egregious error of making the coast line run nearly west and east. commodities more immediately meet- ing the requirements of the most luxurious subjects of a very luxurious kingdom. that time de- rived alone from India. at not only in their religious worship. spices tells and silk. was sought for eagerly by the wealthiest Roman ladies. for which his writings are remarkable. us were so Diamonds and pearls. the the The great geographer Ptolemy. and who correctly represented same as extend- ing from north to south. were largely used. the moved sufficiently mouths of the Ganges being reeastward to allow room for the numerous names of places of which he had gained information. and silk.Vm was confined to INTRODUCTION. which history much in demand amongst the Romans. and so late as the time of Aurelian. but in burning the bodies of the dead . describes peninsula of India with far less accuracy than Arriau. such as were principally supplied from India. was valued at its weight in gold. The abundance of topographical information. afforded him of . who wrote at commencement of the second century. and cinnamon. in the it who wrote but shortly after him and century. the centre of a large propor- commerce of the day. was due to the great extension which insertion of the commercial intercourse had received in the century immediately preceding. Spices. frankincense. The importations at that time consisted mainly of precious stones and pearls. and tion of the to the facility which his residence in Alexandria. cassia. in the later half of the third century of our era.

. but with wonderful copiousness of detail as to the names of towns.: INTRODUCTION. though the inaccuracy of his geographical delineations throws great obscurity over the identification of most of the points he lays down. Chersonesus has been shown by D'Anville to be the Malay Peninsula. the Ilakluyt of that day. says that on the first accession to farthest east rumour of his the throne. Of the distant inland regions thus traversed Ptolemy was enabled to gain some general information. consulting the itineraries of various merchants. That the communication between the east and west in the fourth century was tolerably frequent and regular. in short. was. lineates. that part of His Aurea India which lies beyond the Ganges. rivers. deputations came from the His words are to congratulate him. He de- with great inaccuracy as to its general form. IX He first He acquaints us with the names of six different mouths of the Ganges. the western part of the kingdom of Cochin China. who. may be gathered from the language of Ammianus Marcellinus. and his Sin-hoa. and to the countries bordering on the Caspian and Black Sea by land carriage through the provinces that stretch along the northern frontier of India. and describes their positions. and headlands. wishing to pay homage to the memory of the Emperor Julian. From the age of Ptolemy until the reign of the Emperor Justinian but small addition was made to geographical knowledge concerning India. We have already spoken of the trade which had long before been opened into the interior of Persia.

vii.X INTRODUCTION. they brought home not only the costly products of India.) After the partition of the course between Roman empire. who. was doomed to receive an almost fatal blow under the following circumstances. however. with what and rapidity the voyage from thence to Malabar and out vessels Ceylon might be performed. " Inde nationibns Indicis certatim cum donis optiet mates mitteiitibus Serendivis. they fitted which made change their this voyage annually. cap. the Egyptian trade . in ex- for specie and some of the commodities of own country. small Having learned from the Indian traders who frequented the various safety ports in the Persian Gulf. The caravans came by CanIndia by . to entertain a more reasonable notion of its importance and value. The Persians. ante tempus abusque Divis (Lib. costly This latter channel of com- merce. 22. and thus. Rome and dahar into Persia. after the subversion of the Parthian empire. began. . but through Egypt especially the Greeks received an enormous quantity of the products of the East. but also those of China. By channel the luxurious inhabitants of Constan- tinople were furnished in large abundance wdth the manufactures of Hindustan and by this means. had in earlier times manifested an extreme dislike to maritime com- merce. in conjunction with other causes. Constantinople was the centre of commerce between Asia and Europe. as we have already said. to which they were enabled this procure at Ceylon. the inter- way of the Red Sea began to decline but while the Greek empire flourished.

it followed that W'Cre obliged to purchase from their enemies at an exorbitant rate East. As at the time the frequent wars between the Persians and the Imperial government of Constantinople afforded the former a pretext for seizing the caravans by which the manufactures of China were conveyed through the Greeks Tartary into Greece. and in the course of a few years the . and residence in the latter acquired a knowledge of the methods not only of training the silkworm. which same from time immemorial had been imported into Ceylon from China. sity. all those valuable commodities of the to which had now become The Emperor Justinian. had the tion of seeing his wish partially gratified by the occurrence of a curious and unexpected circumstance. returned to Constantinople to Justinian the much admired and imparted to important discovery which they had made. Two monks had during of the Nestorian persuasion. which was mainly due to the their physical situation. The emperor encouraged them go out again to China. to a depression almost amounting to Tlic success of the Persians in their commerce with advantages of India. that at length the whole of the silk trade. after them almost a necesmaking some his subjects satisfac- fruitless efforts to rescue the commerce of from the exactions of the Persians. increased to such an extent. to India who had country been sent as missionaries their and China. fell into their hands. XI was subjected annihilation. but of manufacturing silk into those beautiful fabrics that were so in Europe.INTRODUCTION.

rors silks The subjects of the Greek empe- were no longer indebted : to the Persians for their even Chinese silks underwent a temporary de- preciation in the European markets. cane. however. They multiplied rapidly. of the advantage thus suddenly obtained by the Greeks. and extensive silk manufactures were soon established in the Peloponnesus and in some of the Greek Islands. Retiring in the later years of his cell. was in the reign of Justinian that Cosmas. were but little able to contend with their wealthy rivals in commercial pursuits. important change was effected in the commercial intercourse between Europe and India. toge- ther with that of the cotemporary Greek historian. of which Christiana. entitled Topographia has been pre- served to our own times. nar- rowed in their fortunes by the repeated exactions of Justinian. . made some voyages to India. It from his account. and thence found their way into Italy It and the Grecian States. life into a monastic he composed various works. and fed with the leaves of the mulberry. one. and thus an In spite. on account of which he received the surname of Indicopleustes. This W'Ork contains a partiis cular description of India. and even the wealth and mercantile influence of the latter had not yet so entirely destroyed the Egyptian trade but that some of the commodities of Hindustan were still imported into Egypt.Xll INTRODUCTION. monks returned from their mission. bringing with them the eggs of the silkworm concealed in a hollow They were hatched by the heat of a dunghill. an Egyptian merchant. the merchants of Constantinople.

The Arabs thus becoming sensible of the enormous advantages derivable from Eastern commerce. was. the Greeks were excluded from inter- course with Alexandria. soon . at the head of a numerous army of the faithful. fostered and brought into action by his successor. by which the nations of Europe be- came almost entirely excluded from any share in the old modes of intercourse with the East.INTRODUCTION. The disciples of Mahomet. The rapidity of the successes of the Muhammedans stands unrivalled in the history of mankind. which had for a long time been their principal resort for Indian goods. In the course of the succeeding century other events occurred. to and betook themselves with enthusiastic ardour the task of promulgating the doctrines of their prophet and extending the dominion of his successors. marched into Persia. stimulated alike by the love of gain and the desire of propagating their new religion. that the Xlll above events connected with Indian commerce in the reign of Justinian have been derived. laid aside the pristine peaceful habits of their race. and subdued but took possession of that all country. after the death of Mahomet. and established the dominion of the Khalifs and the faith of his great predecessor on the ruins of the dynasty of the Sassanides and the religion of Zoroaster. and in the course of a few years subdued the whole of that ancient empire. Procopius. This new and vehement spirit with which the Arabs had become imbued. as they not only Egypt soon fell beneath their sway. the intrepid Omar. who.

and were in the habit of publicly celebrating their five prayers in the day. nevertheless a considerable num- ber of individual merchants established themselves there. and of Ibn also Haukal. and imported many In of the most costly commodities of the East immediately from the countries which produced them. They speedily outstepped the limits of previous nautical investigation. namely. the Khalif Omar founded el the city of Busrah on the west bank of the Shat Arab. We at the find from the narratives of the celebrated Arabian traveller and historian Masudi. and Malabar. Ibn . that although the Arabs. made no fixed Gulf the made stay on these coasts. who wrote beginning of the tenth century. The Mussulmans had erected mosques.XIV INTRODUCTION. of Cambay. from the Panjab to the Sunderbunds. The part of India with which the Arabs had the least intercourse was Hindustan properly so called. who ries in the course of the seventh and eighth centu- several descents upon the coasts of Guzerat. the country watered by the Jumna and the Ganges. a station scarcely inferior to Alexandria for the shipping engaged in the Indian trade. danism had begun to develope itself. an Arabian traveller. and the Arab name was held in high respect They both agree that Muhammein the country. entered upon the pursuit of mercantile enterprize with the same ardour which had characterized their efforts as warriors. order to give every possible encouragement to com- merce. who visited India a short time after Masudi. between the junction of the Tigris and Euphrates and the Persian Gulf.

XV cities in Haukal. About the commence- ment of the tenth century. Meanwhile. began to manifest itself in the free cities of Amalfi and Venice. These are desolate countries. had submitted to their sway. Nor were their The whole of the north coast of Africa. from the Delta of the Nile to the Straits of Gibraltar. the continued w^hich they were engaged with the Christians pre- cluded the latter from deriving any of the benefits which had previously been open to them through the medium of commerce. hostilities in during this same period. and this with an earnestness of purpose which the wealth they thereby acquired only . particularly in the cultivation of the mechanical arts and in the pursuit of domestic traffic. however. such as Canooj. together with a great part of Spain. It was by the inland intercourse to stimulate through Tatary alone that they received the produc- and then only enough their desire to obtain more. a remarkable spirit of industry. so wide apart are they and so encompassed with dangers. monopoly of the Indian commerce. and a consequent enormous incertain that they obtained a crease in wealth and prosperity. says " after making mention of some the Gulf of Cambay and on the neighbouring : coasts. successes confined to the East. which He in deserts at great distances. tions of the East. There are other cities." But whatever of the it is limit may be assigned to the advance Muhammedans into the interior of the country. These are the towns with which I am ac- quainted.INTRODUCTION. which the native merchants alone can penetrate.

it became a matter of paramount importance to the merchants . themselves became the sovereigns of the very states and cities into which the costly products of India were so largely imported. the religious object of which it These expeditions. dis- and though the commercial intercourse with the East was doubtless not the primary object with the tinguished commanders of the Crusades. About the middle cline of the eleventh century the its empire of the Khalifs began to decline. The new desires and increasing ardour for commercial entcrprize thus engendered. laid the basis of that Western Europe has never The illustrious warriors of the West who led their armies into Palestine. yet fully opening the eyes of to the the sovereigns of the to West wealth which was be gained by the lucrative commerce of the East. and de- paved the way for the irruptions of the Turks. is not our purpose now dans. the ancient channel of intercourse with India by Egypt was again laid open. to dwell upon. while they naturally revived the old hostility between the Christians and Muhammegrowing and thus caused a suspension of by more their intercourse. and under the auspices of these Italian merchants the Eastern trade diffused its beneficial influence over all the west of Europe. mercantile prosperity which since lost sight of. tended gradually to soften the feelings of alienation which had grown up between the Christians and Muhammedans . whose invasion of Syria and Palestine was one of the proximate causes of the crusades. served to augment.XVI INTRODUCTION.

On the partition of the Grecian States in 1104 by the leaders of the fourth Crusade. By this means the cities of Venice. They gained permission to settle at Acre. established their intercourse with India upon a more solid basis than that which they had heretofore possessed. XVU who were associated in the cnterprize. and Florence entirely grossed the Indian trade. and otlier trading towns on the coast of Syria. and accordingly. Pisa. in Amalii. fell The Venetians in retaliation procured a Bull of dispensation from the Pope. that by their success d . conspired with the disaffected Greeks under the Pala^ologus. by the settle- ment of their merchants at the different trading cities of Egypt and Syria. The Genoese. Constantinople and thus the entire commerce by into their hands. and of some of the most important islands of the Archipelago. Aleppo. en- Genoa. the Black Sea. While these rivalries were pending between the Venetians and the Genoese. we find the republic of Florence bestirring itself so actively in the pur« suit of commercial influence. command of Michael and drove the Venetian merchants from . and every important port Europe was at that time visited by their mariners. and consequently the inland trade with India. and were thus enabled to secure essential advantages in the Indian trade over the rival states of Italy. jealous of this superiority. by which they were permitted to open a free trade with the infidels . together with a variety of privileges Avhicli greatly enhanced the advantage of their position. the Venetians obtained possession of part of the Morea.INTRODUCTION.

several days our traveller journeyed painfully across the sandy desert. rendezvous of the people dwelling west of theHoangho. the would carry us beyond the of which . that from the plateau of Pamir. Sou-lai-ho. he arrived shortly after at Kona-tcheou. from documents unknown or misemployed. the capital of one of the of Eastern Turkistan. the Altai mountains. It us in reference to central had been till recently believed. the capital of (Oigour). and tlie at length reached the city of Igou. which stretches north and north- west of this river. westward from Igou brought him the kingdom of Kao-tchang. south of the river named by For Klaproth. glaciers Of this mountain and its formidable he gives a fine description. The Baron immense von Humboldt was the hitherto first to show. M. Julien here remarks upon the exact agreement of his geographical details. from the Chinese maps. given in this part of the itinerary. a city still bearing the same name. with the notions which the recent labours of the illustrious Humboldt have given Asia. Six or seven days journey to the capital of this capital. which edge the southern coasts of Lake Baikal.XX INTRODUCTION. After leaving identification the itinerary continues to lead us westward through cities and kingdoms. at the northern extremity of the Tsongling mountains. limits of this analysis suffice it that it at length brought him to the mountain Ling-chan. there existed an uninterrupted chain of almost impassable mountains. where the to Oxus takes its rise. that an . kingdom of the same name districts This city seems to correspond with that as now known Kamil.

Our traveller made a prolonged stay in the northern parts of the Panjab. lie to He the penetrated the mountainous districts which north of Cashmi'r. and then to have crossed the river a second time near Attok. and reached that part of the valley of the Indus near the modern Iskardo. depression separates the group of XXI Pamir from that of from the Altai. and it was by our traveller took his course. and at length reached liar to every Englishman by recent occurrences. but the difficulty of tracing the various points of which he treats in this part of his journey arises not only from the fact that his journal was made up for an object quite distinct from that of geographical research. the Gandaki. It was by this natural pass. Hiouen-thsang passed by Samarcand. by which the places which he mentions might be identified. becomes more circum- . Before descending to the lower countries watered by the Ganges. Hiouen-thsang lie visited in detail those which along the upper part of the river. He appears then to have redescended the valley of the Indus on its western bank (which no European has its hitherto explored at this part of course). It is the only route which the caravans could have this route that followed. We will not weary the reader by folPeshawur. but from the imperfection of modern maps.INTRODUCTION. The route of the traveller through the region comprised between the Ganges. that the most ancient times the numberless migrations have been made in the direction of the Caspian Sea. and the mountains of Nipal. a name rendered fami- lowing him through a course of unrecognizable names of places.

as well as with an account of historical traditions and religious legends. From Ganges Benares. The most celebrated of these is kingdoms were those of Ayodhya. He passes through the north-east part of Bengal. the only place which through the range of time has preserved his renown from the days of old. After Ma- gadha the narrative become more thsang pursues his Tliouen- route eastwards. That part of the plain of the forms the province of Oude. whose renown Prayaga.: XXll stantially INTRODUCTION. with capital seated carried back to the remotest times of the heroic : period of India its on the confluence of the Ganges and the Yamuna. at that time divided Ganges. and it which owes Kapilavastu. was into twelve little kingdoms. and then downwards the Ganges. Here we the find new and curious information respecting . which It is here. where he died. river. in corresponds with that part of the present Bahar ex- tending along the south of the especial. to this position the profound religious veneration which has always been entertained for where the Buddha Sakyamimi was born nasi. that his narrative is enriched with local topographical details. to the south-west point of the delta of . Palibothra of the Greek and Latin authors and the from his account there ancient is abundant room hasty. for map of India to be remodelled. which now and the north of Allahabad. traced. and lastly Varathe modern Benares. : Kasinagar. our traveller has but to cross the to enter the territory of Magadha.

again enters visits Multan. Reinaud. Eusebe Renaudot. with . It Seignelay. and has additional illustrations still more received some most valuable corrections at the hands of M. on the opposite coast of the peninsula. and thence a second time Magadha. and published at Paris in A of translation appeared in English in 1733. made who most translated probably had his principal establishment in Busrah. in a memoir published in the . its birth. to speak is by the Muhammedan merchant. and arrives at length kingdom of Malwa. capital of the back again north-west.INTRODUCTION. after this long course of journeyings through- out India. from the manuscript in the library of the Comte de 1718. The second voyage of which we have that in the beginning of the ninth century. This was Turning the southernmost point which he reached. XXIU Not content with had vari. the name of which at the present day. on the Lower Palaru. has more recently passed under the able in re- vision M. the kingdom of Druvida. liaving studied for many years those parts of Northern India in which Buddhism Goda- he traversed a great part of the penin- sula of Hindustan. Soliman. is well known He then resumes his journey westward towards Sindh. Finally. He coasted down to the and then turned inland towards Kantchi. he made his return homeward to China. The narrative of this voyage was first from the Arabic into French by the learned M. between Pondicherry and Madras. Alfred Maury. who and 1845 gave a new corrections lately it translation of these voyages. he at the visited Concan.

on the west by the Laccadives east and Maldives. seas It to commences be crossed by indicating seven in passing which have from the mouths of the Tigris and Eu- phrates to China. who be- longed to the town of Siraf in Farsistan. . volume of the Bulletin de la SocUU dc Gengraphie^ p. used by Ammianus Marcellinus in the passage we have already quoted. bounded on the north by the Sea of the country of Lar. Renaudot . and the second commentary on Soliman's voyage. The third the manuscript describes as the Sea of Herkend. the Larice of the ancients. 203. He makes the number of islands of which the Maldives and Laccadives to consist to amount one thousand nine hundred. respond to that of Divi. gives The seems name which he them of Dybadjits. Several leaves of the earliest part of the original manuscript are wanting. in the The two first which are missing manuscript. are shown by M. written some twenty-seven years after by Abti Said Hassan. The the work thus published by M. and on the east and south- by the peninsula of Hindustan and the island of Ceylon.XXIV fifth INTRODUCTION. consists of tive two parts a the first containing the narra- of above-named traveller. an amateur in geographical science. The period of Soliman's voyage was one in which the commercial relations of the empire of the Khalifs with the East were at the highest point of their activity. E-einaud to be Gulf and the Sea which stretches from the Persian the mouths of the Indus to Goa. at thirteen Ptolemy reckoned them to hundred and seventy-eight. Soliman.

Beyond this began the fourth as sea. sailing with the monsoon. after ten days sail. man also speaks of three other seas to be crossed is on the voyage to China. XXV Cosmas had already spoken of these islands in terms similar to those used by Soliman. otherwise Maliapur. This region.INTRODUCTION. Maury shows. before which those pass which Arab ships were accustomed to made for the coast of Malabar and in the direction of the Island of Ceylon. Ten days from Be- toumah brought the ships to a place called Kedrendj. answering. By Soliman's account one month's sail from to Koulam (Quilon). a the north of Cape Comorin. but here there a defect in the manuscript of one or more leaves. which Eenaudot understands . . The first country which attracts his attention is naturally that near the Gulf of Cambay. called Schelaheth. Soli- M. to the Straits of Malacca. to mean Beit-Touma. they reached Betoumah. Reinaud remarks : " It will be remembered that he started for India from the Persian Gulf. where Saint Thomas was believed to have been buried. From little to Muscat brought the ships they sailed to the islands Lendjebalous in the Sea of Schelaheth. In pursuing the route of Soliman M. and at that time the most considerable port of southern India. supposed by M. and other ten days to the Islands of Sumatra and Java. known as Adam's Bridge. the house or church of Saint Thomas. Maury to be the Nicobar Islands Koulam and thence. The sea of Herkend extended as far as the chain of rocks which stretches from the Indian continent to the island of Ceylon.

under the reign of the great Vikramaditya. signifying " centre". still Masudi adds that in According to time this empire existed. and On the south is it terminated at the province of Concan. Reinaud presumes to be " derived from Malva- radja. Masudi. received on account title preeminence the of " the grand centre". which M. according of its to Masudi. and of it the English at this day build their vessels of war at Bombay. and the empire of which we are now speaking. and had its capital Ujain. to which he gives the epithet of Hauze. far mlancl which stretched Malabar. at a period apparently corresponding to the year 607 of our era. and from its ruins several kingdoms were formed. shortly before the Christian era. comprehended Guzerat. or liis Rajah of Malwa". from the forests of that valuable wood which crown the western chain of the Ghats. the other empires of India. which called by Edrisi the country slope of the of Sadj or of the Teak. . the Gulf of Cambay. fallen The affairs of the go- vernment having into disorder. towards the north-east.XXVI INTRODUCTION. all absorbed for it. reIndian civilization lates that the principal centre of was at Canooj. namely. Canooj. the empire was divided. Its prince was known by the title of Balhara. Cashmir. Sindh. or as the Indians pronounce Ujjayini. The provinces which encircle the Gulf of Cambay formed the empire which. and which. This tree at that time furnished the inhabitants of Siraf in Farsistan with the wood of which they built government their houses. in his Moroudj-al-cheheh.

in the second century. " Baron Walckenaer writes The paranas and Hindii books show that the title of Maha-raja or great king ally was origin- applied to the sovereign of a vast monarchy. which he was were white and more Conbeautiful than those of the rest of India. and the This dynasty continued until neighbouring islands.INTRODUCTION. Soliman places the king of the Djorz. says he places the kingdom of Thafec. which. XXVll Soliman the Balhara was the chief of the princes of India. according to Abu to Said. when he went to battle. the year 628 . Sumatra. Next it Djorz. dominions. tiguous to these kingdoms he places the empire of not large. and all tlic Indians acknowledged his pregreat favour in his eminence. which we find mentioned not only by the Miihammedan writers but also by the authors whose narratives are printed in this volume. comprised a great part of India. the custom continued of giving the name of the sovereigns of the dismembered empire. but after the subdivision of the emof Mehradje or Maha-raja to one pire into several sovereignties. the Malay peninsula. but the women in E-ohmy. The Arabs enjoyed this Hespectiiig name of Maha-raja." Next to to the Balhara. the learned as follows. and. who and reigned over the largest and richest portion of also of designating India itself it. In this country . seems be the king of Canooj. by the name of the country of the Maha-raja. which. whose sovereign possessed a vast number of troops. was accompanied by fifty thousand elephants.

Reinaud conceives to be the a signet ring. XXVlll INTRODUCTION.. kingdom of Kascheb Soliman passes to that whose king is named Kyrendj. and Aracan. Reinaud places an in the environs of Madras and Masulipatam inference which he holds to be confirmed by the the . to be re- the names of places had not been . . to show an interruption in the enumeration of the principalities of India. A passage from He says : Edrisi " seems to lead to the same conclusion. the which God only knows. Soliman inland of an kingdom named Kascheb or then speaks delicacy. to dominions border on Such. Concan). or Vijinagar. the king of Camroun (Kamboja). and which is situated on the sea coast. whose China. Reinaud. a title equi- valent to Jiinc/ of kings. greatest king in India is The (or the Balhara. Bengal." continues M. that a robe Kaschibyn. which M. ancient kingdom of Vijyapur. cotton stuffs were manufactured of such exquisite made of it would pass through This M. It is remarkable that he makes no allusion here to Cape Comorin or the neighbouring territory . which probably answers to Mysore. seem we come upon several kingdoms." These Avords. Reinaud. which could scarcely occur except in reference to the coasts of Orissa. From expression " After this of Soliman immediately afterwards : number of says M. After that the king of Thafec then the king of Djaba (Java) then the king of Djorz and lastly. Then comes Komkam . but Abu Said supplies the omission and w^ith great correctness. " appear the have been the divisions It is of India in gretted that ninth century.

would all seem to be in this predicament we go by the evidence of Ibn Khordadbeh." the name of Senef with that of Tsiampa. led into the sea called Sandji. But Soliman and Masiidi seem agree in representing the Sea of Senef as west of the Straits of Malacca and the Islands of Sumatra and Java. and whose inhabitants more and more resemble the Chinese. The kingdom are a great . to Masiidi the on the coast of Aracan. Some authors have connected a sail of two days. From Kendrendj the ships sail for Senef." After crossing the Gulf of Bengal. which makes it not unlikely to mean the sea of Naafi. Soliman describes the states of Mabed. He thus expresses himself. in number of towns. and Indeed. XXIX more to distinctly fixed. a name which M. a name then " and to this day borne by the southern part of Cochin to China. rative suggests the idea that the country of His nar- Moudjah its was near the seaport called Senef. and which was probably near Cape Martaban.INTRODUCTION. which was the to to be an alteration of the word in the middle ages name known Beyond which apply to the south of China. Some of these have been those attached to certain names seem dynasties. Reinaud conjectures Manji. which gave name to the surrounding region. in which case another origin this must be attributed to the name of Senef. But according passage through the Straits of Malacca and those of Sunda. where the influence of to China was found have obtained a footing. they if not the proper names of the countries. an Arabian writer of the last half of the ninth century. Soliman landed in the country of Moudjah.

that we possess before the grand epoch of the discoveries of Marco Polo. you are not of sleepy. because unquestionably it is the most important.XXX of INTRODUCTION. 6. He claims for a value equal to the nar- Soliman and Abu The voyages of Sindbad the Sailor have by most of us been regarded than one of the responses of the to as nothing better fair princess Sheherazade sister. separated from China by mountains. if quest of her Dinarzade. des Voyages^ p. the never ending re" Sister. calls attention to another document previously preserved to us in Arabic. 1831. ratives of point of view it had been Said. when its details and its early period are considered. Heinaud the corresponds point the with the kingdom of Siam." The learned Baron Walckenaer was by no means the same opinion. wdiose importance in a geographical ignored. . a translation of which into French was made by M. We have thus closely followed the course of this voyage with the comments made thereupon not only by the cotemporaneous writer Abu Said. From this Arabian ships took their course towards China. they form in Arabic a distinct and separate w^ork. tell us one of those beautiful stories of yours. on 22nd July. and published in Paris in 1814. and published in the Nouvelles Annales tom. liii. belief that it Mabed was which gives M. in a paper read before the Academic des Belles Lettres. Langles. The Baron Walckenaer. Although the voyages of Sindbad the Sailor have been inserted into the Thousand and One Nights. but its more recent commentators. of whose account we shall hereafter have to speak.

geographia oricntalis ex Tiircico in Latinum versa Mattli. translated from the Malay Malay by Mr. The bad first country which Sindbad reaches that of the Maha-raja or great king. . which goes to the shore to meet a stallion which emerges from the sea. ascribes to the voyages of Soli- Sindbad a date about coincident with that of Although. 1818. 126.INTRODUCTION. t. The author of these annals connects this tradition city of Vijnagar. and also of an island named Kacel. Leyden. and that the city was the sovereign of of Mahradje of which he speaks are still is the city of Vijnagar. they are not the less certainly based real facts within the upon knowledge of the Arabs of the is time. is opposite Anagundi. in its commerce (See Ghihan-Numa. tells The story which Sind- of the mare of the king of Mahradje.) The magnificence of this city is also fully spoken of by Nicolo de Conti and by Abd-er-razzak in the text of the present volume. Katib-tchelebi. Hence it may be in- ferred that Sindbad's Maha-raja the Dekhan. p. XXXI The Baron Walckenaer man. nearly with the foundation of the in the centre of the Dekhan. Norherg. where the beating of a drum was heard. Londini Gothoriim. i. doubtless. which supposed to have formed a portion of the ancient city itself." describes this city as the most magnificent and the wealthiest of the two capitals of Narsinga. the ruins of which seen near the banks of the Tungabudra. occurs also in the Annals. these voyages may be imaginary when regarded as the explorations of one individual. or " the Turkish geographer.

which was unknown to the Greeks and Romans. namely. and breeding and milking its young in like manner. In his second voyage Sindbad mentions but one country. which is the nearest of these countries to Persia. and it may be accepted almost with certainty that Sindbad's descrip- . from the researches of modern naturalists. where is camphor in his gathered and where the elephant and rhinoceros are found. He describes with great correctness the mode of ex- tracting the camphor by making it. was supposed by M. Maury mean the This opinion had been already propounded by the Baron Walckenaer. speaks of a fish in Sindbad the Island of Selaheth. In his third voyage Sindbad lands on an island of tatooed and ferocious savages. to be the Malacca tapir. The best is procured from Sumatra. Straits of Malacca. It may rhinoceros and the elephant. It has been already stated that Selaheth. and which produced camphor. or the island of the strait mentioned by to Soliman. It has been stated by Marsden that the hippopotamus exists in Sumatra. was the country visited by Sindbad second voyage. which would seem exactly to correspond with the character ists which orientalto and European navigators have always ascribed the Andaman Islands. but this is now known.XXXll INTRODUCTION. incisions in the tree which produces He also describes minutely the The Arabs were the first to mention camphor. Borneo. and the Malay peninsula. the peninsula of Riha. in which were high mountains. therefore be inferred that the latter. partaking of the nature of the ox.

tion applies to the diigong, a sort of sea-calf,


known on

those coasts.

In his fourth voyage Sindbad an island (for

again carried to

countries were regarded as islands

by navigators who were unable
relates that

complete their


gives no


to this island,


he found there


gathering pepper.

This would seem to be the coast of Malabar.
district of

In the

Cotton ara, on this coast, the best pepper

gathered and in the largest quantity to the present

On this coast Ptolemy places the island of pepper. On this coast Cosmas, in the middle ages,





it is

here that

whence pepper was exported Ibn Batuta, an Arab, whose travels

in the fourteenth century

we have

yet to mention,

saw and well described the

and says that


was the principal source of wealth of the country.

Hence Sindbad went

to the Island of

Nacous, ap-

parently the Island of Nicobar.

" Thence," says he,

we came

in six days to the Island of Kela.


travelled into the interior of the
It is a large

kingdom of Kela. empire bordering on India, in which

are mines of tin, plantations of sugar cane, and excellent

camphor." The Baron Walckenaer recognizes

Sindbad's kingdom of Kela in the province of Keydah,
in the

Malay peninsula, watered by the river Calung. In this province, which is opposite to Sumatra, the trade in Malacca tin and camphor was principally
carried on.

In his


voyage, Sindbad, after suffering ship-


upon an


where he becomes the


victim of the Old
to carry



of the Sea,





on his back.

The Baron Walckenaer

lieves that the country of the


of the Sea

again a portion of the coast of Malabar.




in the early part of the fourteenth centells

tury visited this coast,

us that in his time there

were no horses or beasts of burthen, and that everything had to be carried on men's backs,



themselves for this purpose.
ness of his inference
fact that after


proof of the correct-

drawn by the Baron from the escaping from the Old Man of the Sea,
he arrives almost immediately
nuts, that

and setting
at a place

sail again,

where they gathered cocoa

in the Maldives,



opposite to the coast of
says, " the


" Doubtless,"


cocoa grows in

the islands of the Asiatic Archipelago, but



oriental geographers the cocoa nut islands are under-

stood to be the Maldives."

" Thence," says Sindbad,


sailed to the island of

pepper and to the peninis

sular of Comorin, in
called santy.


found the aloes wood,
to the pearl fisheries.

Thence we went


a bargain with the divers, w^ho brought


up a considerable


of beautiful pearls, and

God heaped me

Avith blessings



I tra-

velled without interruption

from country


arrived at Bagdad."

The Baron Walck-

enaer well expresses surprise at any mistake having

been made respecting a track bearing such clear



Maldives Sindbad

sailed to the island of

pepper on the coast of Malato the coast of


Thence he goes

Comorin, in the

region of
called, as

the aloes wood,

Komar, where ho
Ibn Batuta informs





Komar, or Thence he proceeded to the Gulf


of Manaar, where the pearl fishery

carried on,


a sort of dependency of Ceylon, and after

making great


his rich cargo

he returns






difficulty in

determining the places

by Sindbad in his sixth voyage.




by a tempest upon an
aloes, of the species



placed as in a

gulf in the midst of the sea.


trees are all superb


santy (Hindi or Sindi


(Kumari "?), names and thence he passed by a subterraneous passage or

taken from the countries

cavern into the island or kingdom of Serendib or
of small

This passage was doubtless the succession
islets or

bank of sand known by the name of
Sindbad speaks with tolerable cor-

Adam's Bridge.

rectness of the dimensions of Serendib,

which he

describes as eighty leagues long


thirty leagues in

average breadth.

The seventh and


voyage of Sindbad


again to

Serendib or Ceylon, whither he was sent as ambassador by the Khalif Harim-al-Rashid.
It is


of notice, that in each of Sindbad 's voyages two or

names only
and his

are mentioned,

and very frequently

only one,

namely, that of his

on the products and natural

history of these places are

while he never

names the countries which he makes the scenes of his extravagant fictions, and says nothing of their



productions, showing thereby that the fictitious

only laid like a coat of varnish over the



respect, however, to

stories related

as they are

some of the marvellous by Sindbad, it is to be observed, that repeated by other travellers of veracity,


as all that



not necessarily untrue,




such stories before

they are discarded as entirely




cellent observations on this subject

were published

by R. Hole,

in a



Remarks on


Nights' Entertainments,

London, 1797,



which, having verified the references,


give some
that of the



of these stories

gigantic bird called the

" Sindbad climbs a mountain, and beholds on one
side nothing but skies




the other some-

thing white attracts his notice, and, on approaching



he perceives


be a huge round
wdth a




smooth polished


The sun


now ready

to set,

and the sky sud-

denly grew dark, as

covered with a thick cloud.

His surprise and terror are not diminished on perceiving that

was caused by the shadow of a stupen-

dous bird directing her flight towards him.


apprehends, and justly, that this w^as the wdnged
monster, of which he had heard sailors talk, called
the roc, and that the

huge white bowl' was




bird descends, and



in the act of incu-



who had

crept close to the egg^

being blessed with an admirable presence of mind,




fastens himself to one of the bird's legs with the linen


which was wrapped round

his turban.

In the

morning, agreeably to his hopes, the roc takes her

and soaring above the clouds, urges her

course with such rapidity, as almost to deprive


of his senses.

She, at length, descends to the earth

he unties the knots with which he had fastened himself to

her leg


and the

bird, soon afterwards, picks

up a monstrous serpent and
zoicon^ vol.

away with


" If any one chooses to look into Bochart's Tlierop. 84,

he may find a more extravagant

account of this bird, extracted from Arabian authors,

than what


here given by Sindbad."

In AYilford's paper on Egypt and other countries,
Asiatic Researches^ vol.
viii, p.





" In

the language of mythology,



uvagas are large serpents, and the garudas or supernas,



which are either the condors of


and vulture

of Linnseus, called

rokhs by the Arabian fabulists and by Marco Polo,

mere creatures of imagination,

like the

Simorg of

the Persians,


Sadi describes as receiving his

daily allowance on the

mountain of Kaf



be the truth, the legend of Sanc'ha-naga and Garuda is thus told in the ancient books of the Hindus.

The King

of Serpents formerly reigned in Chafar to the eastward,

cragiri, a

mountain very

but his

subjects were obliged

by the power of Garuda

supply that enormous bird with a snake each day.'

Thus much for the mythological part of the story. From Marco Polo we get the following account of the


or. and into the air from whence it lets it to the ground. now at a cer- called San Lorenzo (Madagascar). makes In form its appearance from the said to resemble the . in length. report that call a tain season of the year. which they eagle. and the truth of the wonderful things told of AVhen they returned to the presence of his majesty. of the eagle. in order that when dead may prey upon the carcase. that Persons who have seen this when the wings are spread they to point . reported their hav- ing seen them. and Messer Marco Polo conceiving that these creatures might be griffins. bird assert. as to this point that their shape but they maintained birds. sent messengers to the island." The Grand Khan having heard this extraordi- nary relation. measure sixteen paces in extent from point and that the feathers are eight paces thick in proportion. rukh. half birds and half lions. which enables us to speak with greater approxi- mation to certainty of the locality : from which it came. but in reality to examine into the circumstances of the country it. as it was altogether that of might be " ' said. He says ' The people of the Island Magaster. n«M. an extraordinary kind of bird. positively affirmed to have measured . particularly questioned those who . such as are represented in paintings. on the pretext of demanding the release of one of his servants who had been detained there. they brought with them (as I have heard) a feather of the ninety rukh.XXXVlll INTRODUCTION. it is but it is incomparably greater in size as to seize being its so large talons. it fall and strong to lift it an elephant with . southern region.

objects to Mr. On maps is where the great Terra laid Australis Incognita. tom. Geoffrey Saint-Hilaire's Notice of bones and eggs found in Madagascar. 213. there will be found immediately south of the Cape of Good Hope. as far as he is aware. and appellata therefore tallying with : Marco Polo's account. printed in the Annates des Sciences Naturelles. however. describes the bird as coming Madagas- car from the southern region. In confirmation of this correction. and upon those by it whom was presented he bestowed valuable I." to The editor has been unable discover the voyage in which these birds were it observed. S^'""^ Serie. of the has not been previously noticed. Geoffrey Madagascar to Hilaire. that naturalist says " The stories about the roc may easily have had some connection doubtless with the discoveries of gigantic eggs. where he is speaking of the Epyornis. close of the sixteenth century. the editor would call attention to a fact which. spans. sic a Lusitanis ob incredibilem earum avium ibidem magnitudinem. gave rise among the natives. down. but is alike certain that many early . gifts. p. because Marco Polo. to time in the island of to made from time Madagascar. Strickland having fixed the identity of the roc as a bird. this legend " Psittacorum regie. Strickland refers. to whose account Mr." M. his This surprising exhibition afFordcd majesty extreme pleasure.— INTRODUCTION. one of : the giant birds of that island.'" In a note to M. XXXIX and the quill part to have been two palms in circumference. and with the opinions which they St. or Magellanica. xiv.

at the to their hiding places. protects him from their fury during the night . whose entrance was low and ' strait.Xl INTRODUCTION. and would present no small temptation to the exaggerative ten- dencies of orientalists. the contemplation of which would have af- forded pleasure. to have come. whose size would alike show that the ancient fable was based upon truth. had not other objects inspired sensations of a very different nature. He supports himself for some . like parrots. said. that the least of swallowing an elephant. lost to us. This valley. But his to return to Sindbad: " to On looking less around him.' A them was capable of cave. it is abounded with serpents of such a prodigious ' magnitude. satisfactory to it is know modern investigation has proved the existence of birds in former times. it is at least re- markable that Portuguese navigators should have indicated the existence of birds of incredible size in the same regions as those from which Marco Polo that makes the rukh In any case. surrounded by inaccessible precipices. be no deplorable than He finds himself in a deep valley. voyages of the Portuguese have been and that portions of the great southern continent have been from time to time more recently discovered.' and which Sindbad barricadoed appearance of morn they retire with a large stone. he perceives his present former situation. strewed size with diamonds of an immense and exquisite beauty . being found in a country as yet undiscovered south of Africa. exist as to the probability of Whatever doubt may large birds.

and he soon after beholds other pieces tumbling cipices. xU time on a scanty stock of provisions. to appear at the proper time. compel them through fear . . he falls asleep but his rest is interfell rupted by a large piece of fresh meat which near the place where he lay. after having eaten a sparing meal . to throw vast joints of meat into the valley. we may suppose with no very perfect composure. placing himself beneath awaits. conveying the prey to their nests on the rocky sum- Whilst they were thus employed. an ample compensation " Sindbad now fills begins to entertain some hopes of his escaping : he . at the season when eagles bred in the surrounding mountains. down the surrounding pre- " He now it recollects having heard (but he ' always considered as a fable) of a valley of diamonds. the event. the largest piece of meat he it.INTRODUCTION. on whose points the meat fell. to drop their precious morsels which commonly afforded these adventurers for their labour. and the diamonds. inclosed in a leathern pouch. which he had prudently taken with him. it was the merchant's occupation to watch their proceedings. these eagles much stronger in this country than anywhere else') their lofty station. and of the stratagems adopted by merchants to procure them : of its being the custom. and. pouch with the most valuable could find and. in the valley. to it. would adhere On (' the sight of such unusual dainties. in hopes of would descend from mits. by extreme vociferation. diamonds to ties himself with the cloth of his turban . One day.

cisely Romaj. 1743. which live on the summits of the mountains. adhere to these pieces of flesh. to their no small his appearance. the merchants advance with loud shouts. whose task to throw down into the valley slaughtered lambs. De decim gemmis rationcdis summi sacerdotis Hehrceorum Liher^ opera Fogginii. it is coun- tenanced by writers of a different cast from our Epiphanius. that it has the effect of a kind of chaos. followflesh. It is inaccessible by man. makes This story need not be pursued any farther. " A . and the valley is so excessively deep that the bottom of invisible from the top of the surroundis ing mountains. and having seized on the meat and nest appendage. this narrative may seem. gives a pre- similar description mode is of finding jacinths in Scythia. So great the darkness. from first which stones the skin has been taken off." It is sufficient to add. ]\ua:e cafile its descends. of the p. " In a wilderness in the interior a valley begirt of great Scythia. that the fortunate aeronaut enriched both himself and the However wild author. which fly cause her to surprise. she deposits them near her away. died in the year 403." he says. archbishop of Salamis in Cyprus. in a little who duo- treatise. and Sindbad. " there with stony mountains as with walls. watch until . 30. away They then who are condemned to this place. To this place certain it is criminals are condemned. The Then little the eagles. fly ing the scent of the down and carry the lambs with the stones adhering to them. other merchants.xlii INTRODUCTION.

spoken of in terms of great siastical writers. who wrote this.^ xvi. xvii). trans- A similar account is given by Marco in India. plenissimam scicntiam consequeris . [De Naturd Anim. an enormous this : voyage as having attracted Sindbad's observation tortoise. renders that Golconda was alluded tain Albenigaras. whose shells were fifteen cubits in length. inasmuch which are the prey of Sind- bad's rukh. to. makes the vultures and eagles fly safe away from with the meat to places where they the serpents. may be Another wonder deserving notice occurs in namely. in- deed." away the Epiphanius. toises He might have seen in iElian that the 1. Marco Polo also speaks of these serpents. twenty cubits in length not to be attributed and breadth. and sufficiently large to . with that of Sindbad. it He it moun- and says that was infested with serpents. and while his account agrees as the serpents. is respect by many eccle- here quoted " and St. Polo and by Nicolo de Conti. quod si legere was from the first volueris. The account to a licentious of these animals is exuberance of fancy in the Arabian tor- author. Jerome styles the treatise Egregium volumen. c." and. it is by no means improbable that it account of Epiphanius that this story was lated into Arabic. tlic xliii eagles have finished their meal. namely. and run and take stones. are devoured that of Conti by the Venetian's eagles. fifteen days journey north of Vijanagar.INTRODUCTION. as of a usage which they had heard was practised and the position highly probable calls the ascribed to the mountain by Conti.

to their houses. in condifi"erent sequence. the first fossil remains of which were discovered by Dr. of the Colossochelys were collected The remains ^during a period of eight or nine years. ix. L. that the chelonopJiagi (shell fish eaters. and them as in a boat [Geog. 1). however. they belong. were to be found near the island of Taprobana. Diodorus Siculus on the faith adds to their testimony. row in xvi. 10) : they likewise turn to them upside down. cover a house. 16). a boat. iiii. They were found associated with the remains of four extinct species of mastodon and elephant. or anything approaching a complete skeleton. will ever be found in the Sewa- be mentioned. and a vast number of other mammalia. that . the circumstances under which they are met with. in crushed fragments contained in elevated strata.1. to a varying in size great number of and age. 1. c. In this colossal tortoise we recognize the Colossoclielys Atlas. skirting the southern foot of the great Himalayah chain. species of rhinoceros. which occasionally supplied them with and a dinner. Pliny and Strabo mention the same Hist. there room for hope that a perfect lik Hills. derived a threefold advantage from the a roof tortoise. say. c.Xliv INTRODUCTION. It is to shell. that re- mains of manv of the animals associated with the . men used us. in the tertiary strata of the Sewalik Hills or Sub-Himalayahs. hippopotamus. Falconer and Major Cautley in 1835. From animals. cir- cumstance [Nat. horse.. is which have unlittle dergone great disturbance. and assures of an historian. along a range of eighty miles of hilly country .

1845. Nothing certain is knowui. nation and the object of him allude to that who performed We of the Spanish Jew. read at the Zoological Society. his profession or whether his object scientific was the acquirement of riches or of formation. It is one which is eccentric alike as regards the it. Benjamin of Tudela. we extract . in the year 1159 or 1160.) is An idea of the vast size of this tortoise cast in the afforded by the upper galleries in the British Museum. and printed in the Annals and 3Iagasine of Natural History^ vol. during w^hich he traversed the greater part of the then either as known to world. 55. xlv Colossocbclys in the Sewalik Hills have been dis- covered along the banks of the Irrawaddi in Ava. xv. much and must now at too lead the reader on to the account of the next voy- age in chronological sequence bearing upon India. and in Perini Island in the Gulf of Cambay. however.INTRODUCTION. in- The only conclusion suggested by his that he Avas anxious to ascertain the number of the Jews who were dispersed throughout the different countries of the world. May 14th. We have. narrative is. p. already dwelt length on these interesting details. Falconer and Captain Cautley. showing that the same extinct fauna was formerly spread over the whole continent of India. started from Tudela on a journey of some thirteen or fourteen years. and to make which it himself acquainted with their moral and religious condition. (See a paper by Dr. who. As that portion of his wanderings is relates to India comparatively short.

" This river (the Tigris) runs downward and falls into the Indian Sea (Persian Gulf). after this they close their shells and . a city Israelites. comestibles and pulse. In this vicinity Ten days passage by five sea lies El-Cathif.Xlvi INTRODUCTION. and Persia import silk of (a and purple cloths. being the point to which Indian merchants and those of the islands bring their commodities . The extent of this island is and the inhabitants do not carry on any no rivers agriculture. that by the late learned and respected Mr. Yemen. in the vicinity of an island called Kish. " It is. of Berlin. fall upon the bottom of the sea about the middle of the month of Thishri (October). and are consequently obliged to drink rain water. however. The " island contains about five hundred Jews. collect these reptiles from the . rye. namely. millet. wheat. principally because they have nor more than one spring in the whole island. a considerable market. hemp. articles of which form objects of exchange spices. those from India import great quantities of live and the inhabitants of the island by what they gain in their capacity of brokers to both parties. Asher. mash and all sorts kind of pea). six miles. while the traders of all sorts Mesopotamia. which are sw^allowed by the reptiles. some people dive with the assistance of ropes. flax. with about thousand : the pearls are found about the twenty-fourth of the month of Nisan (April) large drops of rain are observed upon the surface of the water. entire from the best translation which has been made of his narrative. cotton. . is The extract taken from pages 136 to 143 of his valuable work. barley.

which they are prevented from doing in the day time. The trees are small and the pepper is originally white.INTRODUCTION. which sur- round the towns. and which he returns to those applicants who can This custom is minutely describe them. the trees which bear this fruit are planted in the fields. From the third hour of the day (nine o'clock in the morning) people shut themselves up in their houses until the evening. xlvil bottom and bring them up with them. at The streets which time every body goes out. all black. From Easter to new year (from April to October) is during the whole of the summer the heat extreme. and receives goods that may have been found anywhere. them security " for down their names and The king thereupon grants their property. are addicted to astrology. and markets are lighted up and the in- habitants employ all the night upon their business. " Seven days from thence fines of the ChuLim. " observed in the whole empire of the king. which they may fields even leave in the open without any guard. sits One of the king's officers in the market. . and are trade. in consequence of the excessive heat. tlicy arc after which opened and the pearls taken is out. write on board their report them to him. port. " The pepper grows in this country . They are descendents of Khush.worshippers. is " This nation very trustworthy in matters of and whenever foreign merchants enter their three secretaries of the king immediately repair vessels. on the con- country of the Sun. and every one knows his plantation.

but spices. and every morning they run towards the that rising sun . ledge of the " and some decisions.Xlviii TMTRODUCTlOxX. it into basins and hard pour hot water upon it it is then exposed to the heat of the sun and dried in order to make it and more it substantial. this their deity. cloths. 'This way is their folly. observers of the law. at vvhich moment both men and women and burn incense in honour of their cities take up their censers. calls it it so constructed by machinery (our author the sun witchcraft) that upon the rising of turns round with a great noise. and many other kinds of spices also grow in this country. " Cinnamon. The flesh dries upon the bones.) All the and countries inhabited by these people con- tain only about one hundred Jews. every place of worship contains a representation of luminary. " These people worship the sun about half a mile from every town they have large places of worship. em- balm them with certain put them upon stools every family keeping as these and cover them with apart. the Prophets. .' (Psalm xlix. 13. it. little Thalmud and The island of Khandy its is distant twenty-two days . ginger. and all corpses resemble living beings. every one of recognises his parents and them his the members of family for many years to come. in the course of which process becomes of a black colour. are The Jews know- good men. and possess the Pentateuch. but when they collect they put . " The inhabitants do not bury their dead. who are of black colour as well as the other inhabitants.

the like of whom altar are to be met with nowhere. into the fire.' (Psalm Whenever the appointed day arrives. and he answers : ' I have met my companions. and lo pears in the image of the dead. they prepare a sumptuous mount him the devotee afoot if he be upon his horse if he be rich. until this is entirely con- Within three days of ceremony two of and thus their principal priests repair to his house address his children : ' Prepare the house. for to-day father.) shall thee. all and kindred be well with intention to applaud him and say it ' Happy shalt thou be.front of the of their house of prayer you see a deep ditch. you will be visited by your who ! will manifest his wishes unto you. vow to burn themselves do they and if any such devotee dehis : clares to his children so. Elahuta. They pass their children through and into " this ditch they also throw their dead. journey. 2. or lead poor. called The inhabitants arc fire Druzes. but they have not admitted me into their company. The dren inquire after his state in the other world. everywhere in the houses consecrated to their and those are expert necromancers. feast. Deity. He he throws himself and all his kindred manifest their joy by the playing of instruments sumed.' Witnesses are selected among the devil apwife and chil- the inhabitants of the town.INTRODUCTION. Some of the great of this country take a alive . in which a continually kept burning . to the brink of the ditch. and twenty-three thousand Jews live them. this they call it. and cxxviii. among priests These Druzes have priests idols. large fire is In . xUx worshipers. before h I .

Marco became a great favourite with the Khan." We now come to the account of a voyage which. which the pass off as magic. all before others. Grand Khan of that country. " was long the general manual of Asiatic geography throughout entire Europe. and after travelling for three years and a half across Asia and encountering a variety of dangers and disasters.' my debts to my will. namely." In company with his father and his uncle. Marco Polo. friends and neighto discharge He then makes a divides his goods among all his children. especially after the voy- ages of the Portuguese had confirmed many of his supposed rhodomontades. and he not seen any more. " This account. who had many years before made a trading journey to Tartary. natives of Venice. . that of the great father of modern geography. at length reached the court of Kublai. and to be lies and deceit. they retain a strong hold upon the is make them believe that their equal not met with upon earth.1 INTRODUCTION. After a residence of seventeen years at the court of Kublai. and commands them debts he owes and to receive what people . have discharged bours. owe ^ him to this will is written is down by the witnesses go his way." as Sprengel observes. claims attention as regards the it is detailed observation by which characterized. Marco Polo started in 1271. In conpriests sequence of these people. the three Venetians became extremely anxious ' to return to their native first A blank occurs here in both the editions. and was employed by him in several important missions to distant provinces.

. the courtezans dedicated to the service of the temple. which. noticing on his way the After some stay Angaman (Andaman to Islands). where he learned much of Great Java or Java. It is with this return voyage that we now have to do. He touched at the kingdom of Ziamba (Tsiampa). across the Indian . however. and so. Coromandel. as the worship of the cow. Then passing Cape Comorin he sailed along the coasts of Malabar. home. The voyage occupied a year and a half. and finally reached Venice in 1295. Ceylon he sailed Maabar. but the coast of . He then sailed southward. He notices its fine cottons also its various superstitions. H country. and the acts of voluntary self-sacrifice to their gods. must is not be confounded with Malabar. before they reached the court of this king. under name he designates Sumatra. though he did not himself visit either that island or Borneo. and at length obtained permission to accom- pany tlic ambassadors of a king of Khorassan. as well as the custom of females burning themselves after the death of their husbands. the abstinence from animal food.INTltODUCTION. its He appears then to have sailed along coast through the Straits of Malacca island at to Seilan [Ceylon]. and passing the small island of Pentan (Bintang) w^liich came to Java Minor. Thence they travelled to Constantinople. to who had come demand a princess of the Khan's family in marriage for their sovereign. through the Indian seas. Avhere he notices the abundance of pepper and ginger Ocean. then along those of Guzerat and Cambaia. named Arghiin.

and if scribe them. and the rubies from the mountains of Thibet. of the sapphires of Ceylon. By his observations on the manufactures and chiefly interesting to a navigation of different countries. and a rich field for such observation lay before him. In lieu of wine. topaz. and espewith such products as by their costliness or usefulness might become valuable as articles of com- merce. the palm tree gave bread fruit tree afforded its its milk. like an immense chain. and everything which might he does not minutely de- flatter the palate of man. he found in rich abundance in these climates.lii INTRODUCTION. from the territories of Kublai Khan to the shores of the Persian Gulf and of the Ped Sea. He tells us of the and the emerald. to whose nation he belonged. and the food. silent Nor less is he upon those less but not highly prized productions of India which are derived from beneath the surface of the earth. He found the shores and the islands of the Indian Sea luxuriantly covered with nature's choicest productions. wholesome The betel nut. the amethyst. In the course of his inquiries and explorations. Marco Polo took pains cially to make himself acquainted with the natural history of each country. and the diamonds of Golconda. and sj)ices. he constantly shows his sense of what would be maritime and commercial people like the Venetians. The commerce of India he found stretching. He furthermore traces down as far south as the island of Madagascar the nautical explorations of the . he at least names the useful difterent plants from which these luxuries were procured.

because the current draws them so strongly tow^ards the south The vessels from that they cannot turn back again. if . The age of great maritime discovery had not yet arrived. nearly all our knowledge on the state of manners and civi- lization among . and were brought back to India by the spring ("?) monsoon. the population of Further Asia is de- rived from the accounts of Muhammedan head of the geographers and travellers and at the latter class. by carrying them far away to the south across an ocean to ^Yhich they found no limit. Those who escaped the dangers of this navigation. and suggests to us an explanation of the reasons why those early naviga- tors failed in discovering the southernmost point of Africa. they at the same time exposed gators to a adventurous navi- new kind of danger. and that an immense tract of ocean lay beyond. would w^arn other explorers from venturing upon similar risks. Maabar (Coromandel) take twenty days in reaching this island and three months in returning. " They cannot go. In the long interval betw^een the travels of Marco Polo (1271-94) and the awakening of the spirit of discovery in Portugal in the fifteenth century." Some attempts had doubtless shown that vessels driven southward of Madagascar had met with no land in that direction. so strong docs the current lie towards the south and never has any other direction. Asiatics of tlic Hii middle ages.INTRODUCTION." he says. and if the monsoons presented opportunities of boldly sailing out of sight of land. " further south than this island and that of Zanguebar.

and proceeded by land towards Egypt. were " the Sheikh Abu-Abdallah birth. The adventures which befell him during and his long sojourn in India. from the abridged Arabic manuscript copies in the Public Library of Cambridge. and titles of Ibn Batuta.three. form one of the most curious and eventful chapters of his peregrinations . The name. started in year of the city. as stated at length." the He was a Moor by and a doctor of Muhammedan law and set traditions by profession. not only of the natural productions and agriculture of the country.'uces. at the from his native Tangier. the This explorer a. but of the manners. etc. He out with the purpose of accomplishing the pilgrimage to Mekka. and history of Hindustan. indefatigable we may safely place Ibn Batuta. botany. Hegira 725. preeminence be regulated by the extent of ground passed over. which preceded for nearly three hundred years the establishment of the . age of twenty-two or twenty. with notes on countries visited. 1829. of the made by Professor Lee. London. and printed for the Oriental Translation Committee. this part of his narrative derives additional interest from the details which he intro. under the Affghan dynasties. geography. 4to. style.liv INTRODUCTION. was the history. surnamed Ibn Batuta. antiquities. 1324.d. A valuable translation of these important travels. institutions.. and confor tinued thirty years with unwearied diligence travelling about in different countries. Mohammed Ibn Abdallah Al-Lawati Al-Tandij.

than a consolidated monarchy) was on the point of dissolution.INTRODUCTION. escaping with difficulty from his captors. Sultan is Muhammed. accession of the reiGrning sovereign. which especially valuable from supplies. he again forward. the governors of provinces to and led the erection of indeetc. After renewing his this equipments. Iv Mogul power. to the presence of the emperor. pendent kingdoms in Bengal. whose fortune led him to India at the all crisis when the unity of the Patau power (at times rather an aristocracy of military leaders. his colleague in the embassy killed.d. extending from the conquest of Dchli by the Muhammcdans under to the Kotbed-di'n Ai-bek. in 1188. the Dekhan. Tie gives an first historical retrospect. 1342). when his escort was overpowered in a con- with the Hindus. On the arrival of an embassy from the emperor of China. and receiving delay his outfit and credentials. he gladly accepted an appointment envoys destined to convey the as one of the in return gifts sent by Sultan Muhammed quitted . in 1325 . made his way back. and time . and he himself. This preliminary sketch is continued by the personal narrative of Ibn Batuta himself. without the dangerous walls of Dehli early in the year of the Hejira 743 (a. He flict had not advanced many days journey towards the coast. which drove into open revolt. it the son of Tughlak. from the mad tyranny all of Sultan Mu- hammed. the additional facts which and the light thrown on many of the transactions recorded by Ferishta. alone and on set foot.

costly gifts of which they were the bearers. that they captured only those vessels which attempted to pass their ports without the payment of The embassy remained three months in Calicut. among other places through which he passed. remarkably perspicuous and accurate and he to the confirms the statements of Marco Polo as maritime and piratical habits of the people. that the captains. without molestation the distant readied Calicut. and Onor or Hanavar : and notes with special wonder the juggling performances of the Hindu yogis. made the best of their way to China. pepper. but till the monsoon enabled them to sail for China every stage in this mission was doomed to misforWhile the envoys and the suite.Ivi INTRODUCTION. toll. however. into and it spices. ginger. bassy. and the singular custom of suc- cession is by the female line in preference to the male. Batuta himself had accidentally delayed going on board . of the numerous sovereignties which was subdivided. he describes. Goa. were in course of embarcation in the port. with the tune. . a violent tempest by which part of the Chinese squadron was driven on shore and wrecked while the remaining arose. port of In where the Chinese junks awaited the emthis long and toilsome journey through Central India and the Dekhan. His account of the country and its natural productions of Malabar. . alleging. but his two colleagues perished in one of the \ . the cities of Daulatabad. vessels. were driven so far out to sea. . instead of return- ing to Calicut. on board one of which Ibn Batuta's property and harem had already been embarked.

arrived in ten days at the Zabiyah-Al-Mohli. which. " These islands. was current in lieu of coined money. effect of accident but once landed on the island. and their prayers are answered. and peaceable is : The people Their they eat what lawful. rice. Their chief subsistence was on fruit of the and the cocoa-tree . " constitute one of the wonders of the world . for their number " is about two thousand. which they had seen from the sea." The Cingalese name of this mountain is Sumanakuta^ and of the footstep Serapadd or Bripada^ the footstep of Buddha. " I kept as a blessing. was principal of commerce : a sea shell." he says. and he was left Ivii with only his " praycr- carpot and ten dinars. nearly one hundred of which are so close together as to form a kind of ring" are religious. bodies are weak. they make no war. smoke. he it determined not to quit without visiting the mighty mountain of Serendib (Adam's Peak). stranded ships. or Maldive Islands. The designation of Adam's Peak is derived from i . The arrival of Ibn Batuta in Ceylon had been the . chaste. in China. their formed from the article fibres of this tree. " like a pillar of sail. by tra- Adam.INTRODUCTION." at the distance of nine days and on the summit of Avhich was the famous footstep attributed dition to " our forefather. as they had been given me by some holy receiving intelligence that all his men. he determined to resume his wander- and setting sail from Hanavar." At length property had been confiscated on the arrival of the jnnk ings ." he says. and the coir-rope." fish. called wada. and their wea- pons are prayers.

. which then. voyage to Sumatra was the sight of a huge distant which the sailors declared to be a rokh. of the districts his description of the hills. is and the beard of the males like that of a His stay in the islands of the Indian Archipelago was not of long duration. who expected nothing was. but reached destination without mishap. the giant bird to which we have already alluded in adverting to the narrative of Sindbad.Iviii INTRODUCTION. removed by a change of his which carried them away from the their monster. his notice of them now. attended by four yogis. Avind. the through which cinnamon and he passed. whom the king Ayari provided as guides. it is monkeys. wdth the plants which pro- duce them. The only adventure which marked Ibn object in the air. as usual." " They are black and long-tailed. so that they could gain no clear notion of shape. and relates principally to the spices. the The camphor. In the large : aloes. The account of his route is interspersed. only. are described with minuteness and with tolerable accuracy : he also records the abundance Batuta's and common use of elephants. The less fear of the instant mariners. etc. as constituted their chief wealth. the rubies and carbuncles. the nutmeg. than destruction. clove. . which (3facacus abounded in the species silenus) not difficult to recognize called the Wanderoo man. however. Arab geographers For this venerated place of pilgrimage he accordingly set forward in a palanquin. with notices of the mineral and vegetable riches.

. . if From the the Euphrates eastward to Pacific. iifty arms of Timur. and an easy prey. who were reigning when Ibn Batuta travelled and he was himself an eyewitness in China of the commence- ment of the struggle in which the Mogul dominaThe Muhammedan empire in tion was overthrown. almost the only Asiatic power which had wholly escaped the Mogul tempest. the voyages to India which fall within the Of period comprised by the present collective volume. from the mad misgovernment fell of Muhammedyears later. ben-Tughlak to the . to the general disorganization which paved the the establishment of a way for new empire by Timur.INTRODUCTION. but of the four principal empires into which this was subdivided. the semi-European Khanate of Kapchak was the only one in which the symptoms of division and decay had not yet become enormous tract apparent . during his residence at Dehli. the monarchies of Persia and Turkestan at the deaths of the respec- were virtually dissolved tive monarchs Abu Said and Turmushrin. that of Nicolo de' Conti takes the lead both in date and in importance. India. the the shores of the Northern whole surface of Asia. lix The visited political aspect of the eastern world. was actually in the course of dismemberment. we exclude two peninsulas of Hither and Further India. was in a state of transition from the form which it had assumed in consequence of the Mogul conquests of the preceding century. when by Ibn Batuta. was ruled by sovereign houses descended from Jenghiz .

sailed along the coast of Malabar. volume of his Navigationi et The original Latin. crossed the desert and reached Cairo. He afterwards went to the south of China. who. to renounce the Christian for he besought absolution his apostasy from Pope Eugene IV. who. he himself says. and on sailed his return passed along the coasts of Ethiopia. visited some parts of the interior of Hindustan. many after other and " much it fruitless labour was informed that. it. whence he started on his travels to the East. a He passed through Persia. as given in the Viaggi. returned to Venice in 1444. in the city of it Lisbon. after twenty-five years absence. requiring of his That pontiff granted his petition. and Java. The latter wrote them in Latin. was a Venetian of noble family. though in what year is not precisely known." failed in so. merely him as a penance that he should relate Bracciolini. and in order to religion. which Pamusio could not find. when young man. but in cities of Italy. resided as a merchant in the city of Damascus. save his As he had been compelled." and was from Portuguese translation that his first Italian version Avas made. Sumatra. adventures to Poggio the Pope's secretary. but this so scarce. or as he was named in Latin Dc Comitibus. and also the islands of Ceylon. De Varietate . " made every doing exertion to find not only in the city of Venice. that early translation as was Ramusio. had been printed this faulty in Portuguese. lost his wife and two children. Nicolo de' Conti. up the E. at length appeared in the fourth book of Poggio's treatise.Ix INTRODUCTION.ed where he Sea. life.

4 to. rative of Abd-er-razzak's lection.. Foriunce lihri quatuor. which stood on the shore given in full in the narcol- of the river Tungabudhra. the other Helly. A description of this vast city. judging from the itinerary of Odoardo Barbosa in the beginning of the next century. he comes to the great city of Bizenegalia (or Vijanagar). where the red sandal grows. At a dis- tance of three hundred miles inland. occur fre. quently in India but it is difficult to detect those referred here. Paris. cities. noble city of Pelagonda (Pennaconda the same sovereign. names rise. Durma-patnam. and also the preva- lence of the custom of Suttee. subject to Twenty days hence by land brought him to the seaport of Peudifetania. mountain of the sunhere and Chandragiri. where the same name is mentioned. the burial . to identify. Udayagiri. the one named Pacamuria. is voyage in the present Eight days journey from Bizenegalia was the "?). the capital of the mightiest kingdom at that time in India. which the editor has been unable the districts around these cities he speaks of the growth and mode of drying of ginger. mountain of the moon.INTRODUCTION. His next point was Maliapiir. and from this edition the present is translation into English made. near Tellicherry. first 1723. On the road he passed two named Odeschiria and These Cenderghiria. respectively. The first Indian city which Conti reached was tlie Cambaya. edited by the Ixi Abbe Oliva. sail After twenty days from Cambaya he comes to two cities on the In coast. probably. where he notices number of the pre- cious stones called sardonixes.



place of St. Thomas, whose body was worshiped




These Christians, he


scattered over all India, and in Maliapur there were
to have been an irregularity in the narrative, probably from

a thousand of them.

Here there would seem

the confusion incidental to an oral description



after mentioning Maliapur, he says, " All this pro-



called Malabar."
to say, "



the more apparent

he goes on


this city is another,

called Cahila,

where pearls are found," which

in all



the Colchos of the author of the Peri-

phis of


Erythwan Sea, the modern pearl fishery

of Kilkare, in the strait which separates the island of

Ceylon from the continent.

The very next

place of

which Conti speaks, moreover,
His account of the cinnamon
island, is

Ceylon, which he

describes as three thousand miles in circumference.
tree, as

growing in


remarkably exact.

The next

point in his


Sumatra, which he


but which he says


by the natives Sciamu-





printed instance within the



which the name of Taprobana,


in earlier times unquestionably appertained to

Ceylon, was given to Sumatra, although the same
error occurs on the Catalan


of 1375, entitled

of the



It is repeated in the



monk Fra Mauro,

was maintained

throughout the maps, almost



Italian, of

the sixteenth century, and was continued by Mercator, in

some of the editions of whose

atlas it is prefirst


the seventeenth century. Its




Ceylon on the face of maps

it is


difficult to

speak of with certainty, but the earliest correction
that the editor has

met with

in print

by Barros,




" Se vera o engaiio que alguns presentes
dizer que a

Aurea Chersonese a que nos chamamos Camatra, he a Taprobana." On the maps of the seventeenth century, however, we find the two islands designated by their present names without
reference to ancient nomenclature.


Conti remained one year in Sumatra.
in strong terms on the cruelty



and brutality of the


and their cannibalism.


natural productions he quotes pepper, long pepper,

camphor, and gold in abundance.


describes the

pepper tree and the duriano or Diirio Zihethinus of
Linnaeus, one of the most highly esteemed fruits of




From Sumatra

a stormy passage of sixteen days



Tenasserim, which he describes as

abounding in elephants and a species of thrush.

him again turning westward and arriving at the mouth of the Ganges, up which a sail of fifteen days brings him to the large
this point




and wealthy
he found


of Cernove




speaks of the huge size of the


tree, of


for sailing

on the



also alludes

with wonder to the crocodiles and fishes

which were found in the Ganges, and to the bananas and cocoa-nut trees which adorned Sailing yet further up the the villas on its banks.
river for the space of three months, in

which course



he passed four very famous


at length


an extremely powerful city called Maarazia (Ma1),


where was great abundance of



gold, silver, precious stones,


this city

he diverged
found there.


some mountains lying

to the east, for

the purpose of procuring the carbuncles which were

After spending thirteen days in this

expedition, he returned to the city of Cernove, and

thence proceeded to BufFetania (Burdhwan).



the Ganges, he again turns eastward and








doung mountains

to the Irawadi,

he reaches Ava, the

up which he sails circumference of which

he describes

be fifteen miles.


gives an in-

teresting description of the process of catching


rearing elephants, and speaks of the rhinoceros and
of huge serpents of the python species.
refers to the habit of tattooing


and the use of the
After a

talepot leaves for the purpose of writing.

passing allusion to Cathay, the
to the northern part of China,

name formerly given

which he describes as beyond the country of Macinus (Siam), of which he

then speaking, his narrative brings us to a city

called Panconia, probably Pegu,
for four months.

where he remained


here specifies the vines as being

the only instances of that plant which occur in India,

and there only in small quantities, and even then not
used for the purpose of making wine. In this place



mentions a variety of
oranges, and


such as pinewhite


melons, together with


wood and camphor, which

latter disappears if



they do not sacrifice to the gods before they cut the

Thence by a sudden


he brings us


two islands called Java, distant from the continent one month's sail and within one hundred miles of
each other.


for his

former distinct mention of

Sumatra under the name of Sciamuthera,
islands of


have been supposed that he was here speaking of the

Sumatra and Java


but as he now describes

one of these islands as three thousand miles in

cumference and the other two thousand, and as he


in his description of

Taprobana or Sciamuthera

given to that island a circumference of six thousand
it is


be presumed that Java and Sumbava

are here alluded




more probable,

as it

tolerably certain that the southern coasts of neither

of these two islands had been explored for nearly

two centuries

after the date of Conti's voyage.


their circumference could not be spoken of except

from conjecture.


remained in Java nine months with his wife

and children, who accompanied him in

his jour-


speaks of the cruelty of the people, and

alludes to the practice of cock-fighting, so fashion-

able amongst them.



makes reference

to a

bird without feet and with an oblong
scription of

the de-

which would seem

to agree

with that of

the bird of paradise, which, though not a native of
Java, might have been imported from
since the skins of these birds are




wrapped round

a stick and used as ornaments, the feet being previously removed, and
it is


be observed that our






saw the bird


islands referred to

under the names of Sandai

and Bandan,

as lying at fifteen

from Java,

would seem

be Bouro and Coram, or Amboyna,

from the statement that Bandan was " the only island
in which cloves grow,

which are exported hence


the Java Islands
" the sea


and from the further remark, that

not navigable beyond these islands, and

the stormy atmosphere keeps navigators at a distance,"

being well

known how dangerous and
present day

rarely attempted


a passage

through Torres'



New Guinea


these islands,

would appear that Conti did not visit but merely spoke from what he learned
which country their products
states that,



in Java, into

were imported, and the more so as he

having quitted Java^ he bent his course westward to a
city called

Ciampa, which voyage occupied
thence, he in a like space

him one month. Departing
coast of Travancore

of time reached Coloen, probably Quilon, on the


calls the

province Meli-

which appears

be Malabar.

the Galeopithecus or flying squirrel,
native of the

Here he found which, though a

Molucca and Philippine


some parts of the west coast of



also ac-

curately describes the Jack [Artocarpiis integrifolia\

and seems, from
fruit tree.

his allusion to fruits without kernels

and with incised leaves

have met with the bread

He also

describes the




mango under the name three days brought him to

who there " are allowed to take several husbands. where he spent two months. contrary by the women. he proceeded next to westward days. and then mouth of liancota. The husbands contribute among themselves to the maintenance of the wife. who lives apart from her husbands. this point He found for the most part inhabited by Nestorian he makes his journey Christians. Me- Thence he proceeded to Calicut. stands the series. The children are allotted to the husbands but at the will of the wife. He then visited Colanguria (Kodungaloor)." who knew own Departing from Calicut. it country. is is that of Abd-er-Eazzak. From in the homeward manner we have already described. polygamy as practised. from page 21 The next voyage in this reasons we have assigned in first in collection. in that its ance of the father does not descend to the children. — Kamal-ad-din Abd-er- . to the grandchildren. IxVli relates a Cocym. Poggio here gives a summary of the answers given by Conti to his inquiries respecting the manners and customs of the Indians. at the the Paliuria (Yellarapully).INTRODUCTION. Cambay. for the the advertisement. and " the inheritmust. where he vellous story of monsters in mar- human form. where he describes the habit of to the usual fashion. have been " a wise child father. doubtless Cochin. which. whose full designation written thus. which he reached in fifteen Hence returning by it Calicut he visited the island of Socotra. for which we refer the reader to the text of this interesting narrative to the close." so that some have ten and more." Truly.

and bad scarcely fulfilled bis mis- wben be was ordered of ambassador. In a. fatber's deatb.d. 856 (a. 1462) Abd-er-Razzak was elected Shaikh of the monastery of Mirza Shah . and in a. prevented his journey. namely.h. a journey into Irak. bassy into Gbilan. After Abd-er- Razzak resided successively with Mirza Abd-al-Latif. our author. 1446) Abd-er-Razzak was sent on an emdepart for Egypt with of bis master.h.h.d. honour .h. and Mirza Ibrahim and in a. Jalal-ad-din Jobak. had an opportunity of witnessing most of the events of the war. had an interview with the celebrated historian Sharafad-din Ali Yazdi. in tbe Matla-as-Sa-dain. and 845 to (a. 867 (a. who had been sent on a mission into that part of tbe country. after bis be was admitted into tbe service of in a. was kazi in tbe time of Shab Rukb.d.Ixviii INTRODUCTION.d.d. Razzjik Ben Jalal-acl-dm Islicik-as-Samarkandi.h.Allah. 816 (a. Of tbis embassy be gave an account In a. Abd- er-Hazzcik was born at lierat. 1441) be was sent on an important mission one of tbe kings of India. Mirza Abd. In that year tbe Sultan Abii al Kasim Babur. In a.h. as here translated (a. in a. Mirza Babur. 1452) he made preparations for . 863 wben Sultan Husain Bahadur undertook an expedition into Jurjan. who treated (a. tbe king of tbe country of wbicb Vijanagar was tbe 850 sion. Two years greatest afterwards he became attached to the person of the Sultan Abii Said. 841 (a. Sbab Rnkb. capital. passing through the town of Taft Yazd. him with the 1458).h. 1437). to tbe title Tbe deatb however. 1413).d.h. His fatber. and our author was present at tbe conference. tbis.

AudiffVet. in his Siipercheries Litteraires^ as proving that Langles was not only undeserving of the literary reputation he enjoyed. Ixix' Rukh. Querard. AudifFret. which was printed in the third volume of the Biographic universelle et portative des cotcmporains (1854). a little by Abd-er- work forming but the half of a small volume. published by Langles. written by the same Abd-er-Razzak. H. 1798-1820. was for a long time believed by orientalists.INTRODUCTION. B. and in order from one of the copies those paragraphs which . at Herat. P. 1482). The narrative of his voyage to India was duced. that the voyage of Abd-erRazzak was taken entirely from a French translation made by M. two copies of which are in the National Library a painful task to have to translator has at Paris. J. it. of the manuscripts in the Library at Paris. one of which is connected with It the document of which we now treat. Galland's work as his to conceal his plagiarism. It is show that the pretended published M. M. 887 (a. but that he had been guilty of two literary frauds. Galland (the celebrated translator of : the Arabian Nights' Entertainments) from a history of Shah Rukh and the other descendants of Timiir. A very curious notice the keeper upon Langles. was the only attempt made by M. says M. has stolen re- own. in the Collection jyortative Voijages. not in a literal. is quoted by M. AudifFret says " It is now proved beyond a doubt.d. by M.. that the voyage from Persia into India E-azzak. six vols. intro- but in a popular form. Langles in oriental literature. and held that office until his which happened in a. tie death. 12mo.

'IXX INTRODUCTION. et Quatremere. where. lated to the voyage of the Persian author. that the marrow into boiled in the bones. and the in French. without recollecting that another copy existed upon which he himself had marked these paragraphs in brackets. will be found in the elaborate by M. he was compelled to pass several months Muscat. accompanied by a version two other extracts from Abd-er-Razzak's history. this latter the present translation has been M. The most satisfactory description of the article work. and proceeded by way of Kohistan and Kirman to Ormuz. Abd-er-Razzak set out from Herat in January 1442. From made. however. which comprises a great portion life Shah Rukh. and to that of Abd-er-Razzak himself to India. but being too late for the monsoon. relating respectively to the voyage of the ambassador of Shah Rukh to China. Quatremere. that is contestably one of the most curious and veracious histories that has been written in any of the Eastern languages. in terms of the From Ormuz he at sailed for India. as irrelevant to our subject. the heat was so intense. whose high saying authority is unas in- questioned. of text. of which emporium he speaks highest admiration. in the fourteenth volume of the Notices of the of Extraits des Manuscrits. and the metal of their swords melted like wax. passes the most favourable to judgment it the merits of the work. as he drolly describes it. The excessive heat threw him . Of the discovery of the " supercherie" consequent this first upon we do not here treat.

The request of so powerful a prince was not refused. and a cap of ceremony. where he speaks terms of commendation of the facilities of honesty of the people. a message arrives from the Kingof Vijanagar. who assures him of deliverance. equally admire the persons of the natives. he delivered his presents. and the commerce. having a favourable voyage. having only a piece of cloth tied round their middle. in adorned with paintings. and holding in one hand a shining javelin. in a whom a hall he found. however. richly caparisoned. These did warm admiration from the and it is not impossible that. and in the other a buckler of bullock's hide. a fever. which did not leave him till Ixxi he got to sea.INTRODUCTION. The port at which he arrives in is Calicut. an em- broidered pelisse. with a request that the Muhammedan ambassador to his might be permitted Abd-er-Uazzak to repair court. in which he sees his sovereign Shah Rukh. as the ambassador looked with considerable dislike on the people in spite of his commendations of their worthiness of conduct. similar state of nudity. These devils were black and naked. he recovered his health. when. as extremely painful. and left Calicut with feelings of great . He does not. he describes in the midst of his trouble he has a vision. On being presented to the Sameri or King. which consisted of a horse not seem to excite any prince. his own manner may not have been remarkHis stay and at Calicut able for amiability. who seem to him to resemble devils all rather than men. and surrounded by two or three thousand attendants. On the very next day.

stone. its vast palaces. bazaars and pretty women. we must and refer the reader to the text. rubies for to eyes. had an opportunity of witnessing the great yearly festival of Mahanadi. distant parts of India. in which a thousand elephants. That prince gave a gra- cious reception to the letter of his ambassador . made of massive From Mangalore houses he proceeds like Belloor. From Calicut he proceeded to Mangalore. Abd-er-Razzak at to his companions were better treated here than Calicut. whose presents formed the principal support From extent. which seems . gold and betel stay he root. with human its size. Bellour he proceeded to Vijanagar. delight. and as it Shah E-ukh and to was contrary to the custom of the country to give entertainments to ambassadors. near which he saw a huge temple of cast bronze. But what pleased our ambassador the most was the loveliness of the female singers and dancers. where the were palaces and the also women like celestial houris. containing an idol of gold. covered with armour and with castles filled During his with jugglers on their backs. he presented him daily with liberal supplies of provisions. Here was a lofty temple surrounded by gardens.Ixxii INTRODUCTION. They had a handsome house assigned them. for the its description of the splendour of which city. and were admitted soon after their arrival to an audience of the king. and performed a variety of gambols. were collected together. and surmounted by a cupola of polished blue which was frequented by pilgrims from of the place.

The I disgust of Abd-er-Razzak is comically expressed in the following characteristic reply. though with a marked diminution of consideration in his manner. and made mention of a variety of costly presents which he proposed to send to the Shah by the hands of Abd-er-llazzak. that he On the king's return from an expedition into the south had made he sent for Abd-er- Razzak. however. I will never of thy love I reach my own again set out on another voyage. At the close of the festival he was presented to the king. The king conferred with him for a considerable time respecting the Shah of Persia and the great capitals of his kingdom." started Abd-er-Razzak from Vijanagar on the 5th on his return voyage November. I . and set sail from the port of Mangalore on 28th January. and treating him with kindness. gave him letters and some presents for the Shah. The result was a great change in the treatment shown to him by the courtiers during the absence of the king. who declared that Abd-er- Razzak had come without any authority from Shah Rukh.INTRODUCTION. whom he found seated on a throne of gold bedecked with precious stones. 1443. This prosperous condition of the embassy. 1444. not even in the company of a king. if and promised him a better reception he should ever return with more satisfactory proofs of the genuineness of his mission. and that he was merely a private adventurer. to Ixxiil have turned his head. was doomed to meet with a reverse from the jealousy of some merchants of Ormuz. " If. when once have escaped from the desert country.

attracted the attention of M. a Russian. whose nar- rative work by the late amiable and highly accomplished Count Wielhorsky. in Arabia. and to describe in alter- nate succession events of the highest as trivial incidents of every-day life. The next journey is into India given in this volume that of Athanasius Nikitin. was kept in the college of the Cathedral It first Church of St. moment as well " A register of this description. reader's attention to the We invite the his amusing description of sea passage. recollections of the past and occurrences of the present . " It will be ages. who has left us the following account of the narrative itself and of the document from which it has been translated.Ixxiv INTRODUCTION. After a stormy passage he arrived at Kalahat. in the month of March. Stroew. and the only means through which records of times gone by were saved from oblivion and transmitted to posterity. was translated for the present Secretary to the Russian Legation at the court of James's. the w'ork of a suc- cessive number of chroniclers. The same may be said of the monastic Greek Hussian Church with regard to ments of remote ages. P. periods of joy or of sorrow. the monasteries in remembered that during the middle Western Europe were the only abodes of learning and science. 1444. a . Sophia at Novgorod. those working and It orders of the the part they took in preserving the literary and historical monu- was the task of many of to humble brethren. commemoto register rate in true but simple words. St.

" A few years before. 629). it is less defective tion. second volume of this work.' to " The manuscript alluded by Karamsin. and was pub- under the title oi Sofi/jsJd Premennik^ or SopJdan Chronicle. was found in the archives of the monastery of TroitskSergivsk. which. Karamzin. the Russian historiographer. for purposes of commerce. although does not evince any remarkable power of observation. 4to. ence in the following words (end of chapter vol. or any great amount of knowledge. geographers have ignored the fact that the honour of one of the oldest voyages to India. in two volumes.— INTRODUCTION. it We possess his diary. Athanasius Nikitin. the more so as the state of India at that time fectly is but imper- known. visited. dicovered another codex of that curious manuscript. p. and of which he gives an abstract (notes to vol. still must be considered a curiosity. about the year 1470. in which several An authenticated copy of the . the kingdoms of the Deccan and of Golconda. . undertaken and described by an European. and acquainted the world with its existvii. pp. 145164. that Nikitin's journey to India was originally '• It is in the laid before the public in extenso. a citizen of Tver. belongs to the age and country of Ivan III. than the one published by Stroew leaves are wanting. vi): " ' Hitherto. and has been used for the present translaAlthough never printed. IxxV gentleman formerly attached lished in 1821 to the archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs at Moscow. vi.

H. in placing before the reader the objects depicted. it is in some to instances obscure. by whose orders it was transmitted. ^ The original bears all the at marks of a manuscript written fifteenth. and a most painful absence of that minuteness of description which. former was obtained from the Archeeological Commission at Hakluyt Society in London. There besides. Russian Ambassafor the Moscow dor at the British Court. and through His Excellency Baron Brunnow. member of the Imperial Council. " A striking peculiarity of Nikitin's narrative. The reader will meet with more than one sentence of a doubtful meaning. and occasionally be at a loss for the is. to the Russian text itself. sense of an entire passage. with the following letter from Count Bloudolf. the close of the in the and contains some additions made sixteenth century. to It was transmitted Baron Brunnow. can alone be considered as a source of interest or instruction. and in gible others utterly unintellifail a circumstance which could not be apparent in the translation. at the request of Mr. and embodied in the original translated. Major. . throughout the memorial a want of coherence.Ixxvi INTRODUCTION. " The date of Nikitin's journey may be inferred from a note of the chronicler given It states that the ^ in Stroew's work. spelt in Russian letters text. is the frequent recurrence of oriental words and sentences. 11. Some of these have been while others have been necessarily left without explanation. author accompanied Wessili Papin. As .

. in a few words. He then retraced his steps. and traversing the northern and western provinces of Persia. He must have returned to llussia in 1474 for. previously its to reduction by the Portuguese in 1515. travelled to where the fire burns unextin- Thence he crossed the Caspian Sea and on to Bokhara.INTRODUCTION. the great commercial mart of the Persian Gulf. who at the time were masters of that country. " The following. " He landed in India at Choul. at that time a vast emporium of eastern commerce.' appears that our traveller set out in 1468. he reached Hormuz. he went guished. Boris and Gleb." or Easter days. according to his own w^ords. India. " Starting from Twer. during his wandering through Persia. was his itinerary. Released through the intercession of the Tatar ambassador Hassan-beg. and having performed his devotional duties at the shrine of the martyrs. he proceeded down the Volga to the Caspian Sea. several places. under whose protection he had accomplished a part of Bakoii. whose wealth and populous cities struck him with admiration. a short distance south of Bombay. At Astracan he was robbed and made prisoner by the Tatars. one year It therefore of falcons from the before the Grand Duke war with Kazan. which he calls the chief city of the whole Muhammedan Having here taken up . to Hindustan. and part of Asia Minor. whence he proceeded through rather difficult to trace on the map. his journey. he spent " six great days. ' Ixxvii who was sent to the Shah of Shirvan with a present Iwaii III. Beder.

he never failed to keep the great festivals of the Greek-Pussian Church. places. " A staunch and zealous devotee. nessed the performance of various religious customs connected with the worship of Buddha. . and also to some other which we have been utterly unable to ascertain. which he very properly There he wit- Jerusalem of the Hindus. and on this occasion he enters upon a few details regarding do- mestic and devotional habits of the Hindus. his residence. while the people were wretched and miserable. in company with some natives. Ceylon. as well as their relations to the at that period Muhammedan invaders. who were in possession of the greater part of the country. that he did not visit those places. " At last. " He visited. remarking that the youthful sultan and the country were ruled by the ambitious nobles. but only speaks of them from hearsay. he gives a highly coloured account of the splendour and magnificence of the court of Beder. who delighted in wealth and luxury. These. It appears. the Budhkhause calls the at Perwattum.IxXViii INTRODUCTION. to his infinite distress. a circumstance he constantly recurs to with the greatest sorrow and regret. " In the course of his account sions to Calicut. the existence of we find brief allu- Pegu. having spent about four years at Beder he bethought himself and in the adjoining countries. although he had no books of devotion to guide him. however. he had been robbed of in the afi"ray above mentioned.

a port of tlie vast Indian Sea. and delivered to the diak.INTRODUCTION. the present Theodosia. Sultanieh. the great meeting- pUice of nations of the coast of India or Ethiopia. return to his native country. The chronicler only remarks that. he ultimately reached in safety the port of KafFa. and set out one Ixxix month before at the ' Muhammedan all Bairam. " Proceeding thence through Shiraz. he once more made appearance at the Orda of Hassan-beg. Anxious embarked shortly and having experienced a great deal of bad weather and contrary winds.' his and took passage. in the year he obit tained the description of Nikitin's travels (14T5). and Tabriz. and should the reader be tempted occasionally to take exception at the uncouth style of an enterprising but uneducated man. he after at Trebizond.' to Hormuz. of icturning to Russia. had been brought in the same year by some merchants " to Moscow. he should remember that the chief attraction of a work of this kind consists in its antiquity and origi- . a kind of secretary of state. for ' two golden coins. Pie embarked Dabul. expressive of his gratitude to heaven for his preservation to his native country. was reported that he (Nikitin) had died before he reached Smolensk. written by himself. Here he terminates his narrative by a long sentence in corrupt Turkish. Ispahan. Kahis to shan. We have been anxious to depart as little as possi- ble from the quaint idiom of our traveller. and safe return " What became of him after this is not mentioned. of the Grand-Duke. The record of his voyage.

vdio visited India on a mercantile is volume speculation at the close of the fifteenth century. Adorno. From place to Calicut he sailed to Ceylon and the eastern coast of India. but had . succumbed under the trial. and so down the Red Sea to Aden. activity Upon reflecting. He then sailed to Sumatra. one either in the performance or the first He to proceeded to Cairo. and thence up the Nile Cane (Keneh). in eight which every lady has seven or husbands. who worship to the the sun and the ox.IXXX nality. In this place he notices the extensive growth of ginger and of pepper. but was not a long recital. and then sailed direct to Calicut. INTRODUCTION. that was better than idle mourning. and moreover refers peculiar same kind of polygamy noticed by Conti. he made fresh efforts for the recovery of his property. speaks of the idolatry of the people. and that the latter of these qualities might have been seriously impaired had we adopted a more polished and modern translation. that a solicitations. thence to Cossier. and at length succeeded. who agreed ducats. a Genoese merchant. give him two thousand his payment. however. His voyage is a succession of sorrows. Santo Stefano's companion. Here he remained four months." The last traveller whose account is given in this collective Hieronimo de Santo Stefano. sell At this latter he was his merchandise to the king of the country. but was so tardy in w^as spent in daily whole year amidst great privations and annoyances. and thence compelled to to Pegu. and Santo Stefano himself nearly died with grief for his loss.

there when eighty days after came on such a storm. asserted to be the constant custom in Muhammedan countries. either of a voyage or overland journey to India in the fifteenth century. "when the king. for Cambay. subsequent to the in Bartholomew Diaz. to recover a considerable portion of his property. llie IXXXI who had heard it of death of his companion. Santo Stefano was able to produce an invoice which had been made all out at Cairo of that belonged to him. and in the evening was picked vessel bound. Hence he set sail for Cambay. we must in not pass without reference in this introducthat country tion the journey of a Portuguese to 1487. By self clinging to a plank for a whole day. scarcely landed. Although this is the last personal narrative with which we are acquainted. belonged to Adorno. from whence he made who way through Persia to Tripoli in Syria. who died childless should go to the and consequently seized the whole of the on pretence that the whole Fortunately.INTRODUCTION. and thus he was enabled. he was fortunately taken into the service of a merchant of Damascus. Six months he was detained by stress of weather at the Maldives. memorable voyage of which he rounded the Cape m . at which place he wrote his narrative. as his up by a had been. out as supercargo to his him Ormuz. through the intervention of the Kazi. sent Now utterly ruined. property for himself. and he resumed his voyage. tliat the property of those king. But his ill-luck still pursued him. he kept him- from drowning. went to the that the ship and all his goods bottom.

both of them well versed in Arabic. effort to and he now resolved on making a double it. or Cabo Tormentoso. a Franciscan patched for that purpose in had been discompany with a layman friar. Pedro Covilham and Alfonso de Payva. round the to take southern extremity of Africa. from the storms he had encountered. an abridged translation of which was inserted " Master in Purchas (vol. received the following orders respecting a second journey overland. In May of the next year. and first which. . Ixxxii INTRODUCTION. Venetian com.. from Hakluyt's papers. merce for drugs and spices to its source to ascertain whether it were possible for ships to sail. on a former occasion. page 1091). bon. ii. ary voyage We learn from the missionin Lis- by Francesco Alvarez. published folio. but without any successful result. 1540. The ambition of John II had already. This disappointment only rendered king John more determined on securing his object. but the attempt was rendered nugatory by their ignorance of Arabic. Antonio de Lisboa. accomplish fitted squadron in to out for Bartholomew Diaz had a him. kingdom of ." that in Covilham " was the borne in the towne of Covillan. with which he set sail rounded that famous cape August 148^^. to India and particular information on every point relative to this important navigation. led him to seek some information of respecting India by means of a journey overland. and after reaching Jerusalem they were obliged to return. Good Hope (148()). They were to trace the to discover the country of Prester John . he gave the name of Cabo dos Tormentos.

And Alfonso de Paiva was chosen for this enterprise. desiring by all meanes that his ships gegi. he was one of the guard of the king Don John his valour presently made him Sonne. . Fernando. and gat into the service of Don Alfonso. and was afterward sent to conclude And and being returned he was sent again to the king Amoli bela . to spie out who were those gentle- men him. should find out the spiceries. a peace with the king of Tremizen which restored the bones of the infant Don At his returne he found that the king Don John. king of Portugall who for his Sicile. which placed him in the house of Alfonso. a very skilful! Arabian tongue. where he stayed a time. kinoJohn called him and told him secretly. Duke of and when the warre began betweene Portugall and Castile. when he the sent because he spake Castilian tongue very well. and served also abroad in France. had determined to send by land certaine men to discover as much as they might. a man at arms. When Peter de Covillan was returned. of his subjects which practised there against returning out of Castile. seeino- . untill the time of the treasons liim into Castile. brother to the said duke. After the death of king Alfonso. a citizen of Castle Blanco. he went into Caslile. he was sent into Barbarie. that having in the man. and he was continually in that warre.INTRODUCTION. hee returned home with Don John Gusman. and learned the Arabian tongue. and very expert " alwayes knowne him loyall and his faithfull servant. . and readie to doe his majestic good service. Ix XXllI Portugal]. and being a boy.

was the Nere licentiate Calzadilla. inhabitant of Pietre at that and the doctor master. bishop of Viseo and the doctor master. Moyses. saying that it was impossible to travell this : way with- out understanding the Arabian tongue fore seeing he understood the and thereprayed same well. the Don Emanuel alwayes out of a general there present. which . as his faithful this servant. they king were both despatched in Saint Arren. . the 7th of May. and other rie which were brought unto the of Venice from the countries of the Moores seeing hee had sent for this purpose one of the house of Monterio. neverthelesse. at was but duke. and yet. and whether his reached unto the sea . this enterprize to doe him this so principall service sort that promising to reward him in such all he should be great in his kingdome. and his posteritie should alwayes live contented. and map of the the making whereof . but that wisedome and sufficiencie he was sorry that his highnesse his was not answerable to the great desire he had to serve .IxXXiv INTRODUCTION. hee him to undertake .' " And so in the year 1487. ' That he kissed his majesties hands for the great favour which he had done him. he understood the Arabian tongue to send him with another companion territories he purposed and to discover learne where Prete Janni dwelt. of Lisbon. Peter answered him. and where the sorts of spicecitie : pepper and cinnamon grew. . prior of Porta de Ferro. and one Frier Anthony. which could not passe the citie of Jerusalem. which at that time they gave them a sea-card. Roderigo. taken toorld. he accepted message with all his heart.

but beyond our power to explain. he would scarcely have passed over so great a fact in silence. on the Red Sea at the foot of Mount Sinai. they had found some memoriall of that matter. . but had he round to its seriously believed that a passage southern coast would have laid open Asia Europe. as though they should have becne com- manders in the discoverie. Then crossing over to Alexandria.'" These dark hints of earlier information existing with respect to the Cape of Good Hope are of the highest interest. of finding out the countries from whence the spices come. left Naples in the month of May 1487. Jew and all this knowledge. time was a IxXXV woikc was done very secretly in the house of Peter de Alcazova. From whatever manuscripts the above map was we find from Castanheda. says Alvarez. Cosmo de Medicis to and from Naples they the Island of Hhodes. with crowns in money and a for hundred Lisbon letter of credit. and proceeding with the caravan to Tor. and as though in those seas had beene some knowledge of a passage into our . where. It is true that island Marco Polo described Zanguebar as an of two thousand miles in circuit. and all the forenamed persons showed the uttermost of their . and as though one of them should have gone there into Ethiopia to discover the country of Pretc Janni. gained some information relative to the trade with Calicut. westcrne seas because the said doctors said. compiled. they travelled to Cairo as merchants. that Pedro de five Covilham and Alfonso de Payva.INTRODUCTION. their bills of son of sailed exchange were paid by the .

companion. in a Moorish ship Cananore. following remarkable report: — " among other curious facts. he therefore resolved Portugal. of the continent. the latter immediately returned with letters from the Covilham.. Covilham embarked in that city. being the sailed first of his countrymen who had on the Indian Ocean. containing. that Payva had been The names of these messengers were Rabbi Abraham of Beja. At for Aden. having visited Kabbi Abraham and . That the ships tvkich sailed doivn the coast of Guinea might he sure of reaching the termination to the soiith . where he met with messengers from King John. called by the Moors the Island of the Moon. and the Island of the his Moon' (Madagascar). . on the eastern coast of Africa. according to Alvarez. he procured some intelligence of the Island of Lawrence. to venture no farther until the valuable information he possessed was conveyed to With this idea. Thence they sailed to Aden. and Fayva towards Suakem. he returned to Egypt but found. heard of cloves and cinnamon. appointing Cairo as the future place of their rendezvous. and seen pepper and ginger . in Abyssinia. Covilham had now. and examined its gold mines. at Cairo. and Joseph of Lamego . where they parted Covilham directing his course towards India. He then passed over to Sofala. IxXXVi INTRODUCTION. on his arrival murdered. on the Malabar coast. where St. hy jjersisting in a course and that tvhen they should arrive in the eastern ocean. their best direction must be to inquire for Sofala. and after some stay went to Calicut and Goa.

that when. Avhere the court then resided. the Portuguese embassy. Aden. His original account . to spend the remainder of his life He married in that country. that he was compelled in Abyssinia. in order to improve their commercial information.INTRODUCTION. not He passed thirty. the city of to tliis IxXXVii Baghdad with the Isle of Ormuz previous event. he landed dominions of the Negus. and from posts. now in existence. John an account of and Covilham embarked for Abyssinia to frustrated. under Don Ro- driguez de Lima. they returned together to Gulf of when the latter hastened to give their tour. tunity to visit to the Covilham eagerly embraced this oppor- Ormuz. had thus made themselves acquainted particulars with many respecting the spice trade. and having attended Abraham Persia. 1525. occupying highly important siderable fortune. That prince took him with him to Shoa. or s third volume of Bruce unknown but from the Travels we derive the followis . This alone was sufficient to recommend them to the patronage of John ployed by him to II. in It is stated amassed a con- by Alvarez. complete that part of his voyage which the death of Payva had hitherto in the Crossing the straits of Babelmandeb. and they accordingly were emto seek Covilham with Payva at Cairo. Covilham shed tears of joy at the sight of his fellow country- men. where he met with a very favourable reception. He at length became so necessary to the prince. with additional directions go to Ormuz and the coast of Persia.three years of his life in is Abyssinia. arrived in Abyssinia. and died there.

We may allow even more than this. with unremitting vigour." Dr. the several ports in India which he had seen temper and disposition of the princes . or to the northward of this on the western sort coast. none of them had ever passed none for alto the Corrientes by sea most twenty degrees from Corrientes from the Cape for twenty degrees Cape. He reported that the country was very populous. who. p. and cities all around the were exactly represented. the situation and riches of the mines of Sofala. Christians. which he had received from the hands of a Moor in India. little which he declared be attended with very with a danger. Vincent's remarks on this passage from Bruce are important. the passage round Africa. although from what authority he supplies it we are not told. In his journal. say. full of cities both powerful and rich . and there was such a map among the Moors and cities there are must be a fiction. it account (see if Peri2)lus. and that the Cape itself was well knoAvn in India. for it highly pro- was a prevailing notion and in all ages.. and he exhorted the king to to pursue.IxXXviii INTRODUCTION. that Africa was circumnavigable. That fictitious maps is might exist. ing information. both in the Indies and Europe. on his part. He accompanied this description chart or map. spared no expense keep open the the correspondence. this He says : " Whence Bruce draws 197) I cannot discover. where the Cape. that the natives had gone by .. coast. for . among Muhammedans and bable. Covilham described . He says : " Frequent despatches from him came to the King to of Portugal..

that which the Portuguese afterwards report of Benomotapa. he says it was ill written and disfigured this I take to be the map it is to which Bruce alludes. Such a corrected map of Covilham's we as read of in Castanheda. p. (Ramusio. farther to the south than the navigators by sea nimous and that their accounts were ahnost unain maintaining the same assertion. perhaps.INTRODUCTION. and De Gama did not sail till after n . though he passed the Cape. filled up the map he had it received. v.) in their full extent. that it p. or cor- or added to is such information as he could it a more probable account than the recities port of this Moorish map. AVe are not to believe these reports. 206. 288. as the practical to is be assigned to Diaz and De Gama . and the much greater. which had possessed cities of great extent and regular buildings. is The strongest evidence I have found of this.) mentions such a road true. the aforesaid letter of Covilham to other information. above assigns with equal justice and honour the theoretical discovery of the Cape to Covilham. and from which it was said there were public roads running far to Barbosa the west and quite down to the Cape. : went far south may be but hardly to the Cape. (P^njo/ws." "'Whenit ever I can discover the authority of Bruce will if deserve consideration . land Ixxxix much . which contained that never existed. till then I shall think that Covilham rected collect it. . et seq. a great nation remnant of a when they arrived in Africa. who seems to have seen : it. for Diaz re- turned without hearing anything of India. i. King John." all In any case. which.

much valuable assistance in the course of this introduction. which he saw on his return. In the valuable manuscript " Insularium Henrici Martclli Germani." of his return The reason and it may possibly be that he had parted with one of his little fleet on his passage. bears the name of De la Cruz. from the tremendous A name storms he had encountered on his passage. W. Ano. and which indicates the ultimatum of Diaz's adventure in the following legend : " Hue usque ad ilhe de' fonti pvenit ultima navigatio por- tugalesium. and be desired. however. to his determination. Vaux. in perpetiiam rei memoriam. which was made between the times of map Diaz and De is a Gama's voyages.XC INTRODUCTION. who as changed the " Stormy Cape" into the " Cape of Good Hope. the intelligence of Covilham had ratified the discovery of Diaz. ." in the British Museum. erected a cross Algoa Bay. dm. The for editor great obligations to his friend. The great Cape itself. of far more cheering omen was suggested by the styled the hopeful foresight of the Portuguese monarch. Esq. 1489. which rock still. S.." a name which is to will in all probability. he Cabo Tormentoso. may have on a rocky islet in He. W. contributed may be supposed that the difliculty of obtaining information from the natives. preserve the maritime glory of an cannot close without expressing his enterprizing nation to the end of time.


In tins year 845 (a. The three principal cities are Bokhara. fallen I shall set forth all the circumstances which have . with their positions. 1442). .d. dangers by which they have been rendered remarkable and I shall also relate. the son of Ishak. have given long lists of places in the province. Abd-er-liazzak. and the . in affect the my I usual manner. Fars. the author of this narrative. but the Transoxiana of the ancients. It is Better spelt in English nation. and that the leading people of our age will allow the sun of their consideration to shine ^ upon the recital. Samarcand. and I shall insert in it all sorts of marvellous facts and wonderful matters worthy of notice. my adventures. Its limits are an Arabic desig- the river. and Osrushnah. Abulfeda and pied by the Uzbeck Tartars. and venture to hope that my work will find credit amongst men of intelligence. will take pleasure in reading this work. Nassir Eddin. territory it comprehends is better recognized by Euroj^eans as that occuThe Arab geographers. instead of finding fault. as gathered from various authors. literally signifying — " beyond Ma Wara-ee Alnahar. Ma-wara-amahar. the narrative shall be its minutest details. under my notice in the space of three years all I shall recount. Irak. in obedience to the orders of the sovereign of the world." and representing the not easily defined. In the hope that the author's given in friends. fully and in detail. set out on his journey towards the province of Ormuz and the shores of the ocean.^ Azerbijan. those events which provinces of Khorassan.

as well as the progress of the smaller bodies which canopy the earth. are subject Creator. that the bridle which guides all created beings is held by the hand of a that the proud- Divine power. and brings home to his recognition the that the revolution of the great bodies fact. are manifested alike in the nature of those beings which resemble the atoms contained in creation. as well as in the movements and actions of man . observes with certainty. by the the eyes of whose intelligence are illuminated light of truth. like a bird. Narrative of my voyage into Hindoostan. and description OF the wonders and remarkaijle peculiarities WHICH THIS COUNTRY PRESENTS. by the fingers of Providence est existences are forced to bow the head beneath the comto mands of a God who does everything according pleasure. and whose soul. to the wisdom and . and the characteristics of His omniscience. which people the the will of a heavens.NARRATIVE OF THE JOURNEY OF ABD-ER-RAZZAK. Every man. Who is alike holy and powerful that the intelli- gence of His omnipotence. His . soars with fixedness of vision into the regions of knowledge. .

condescended to allot to me my provisions and post horses. but by the help of that living is and powerful Being. the wall of which and four bazaars could be distinguished . present the most marked indication of the Divine is omnipotence. In piu'suance of the orders of Providence. " If Providence locre not the mover of all the events of the world.) . is Providence who holds the reins. which accompany a voyage by sea (and which in themselves constitute a shoreless and a boundless ocean). the perils. the happy Khakan. who makes easy that which most difficult. Hence it is that the utility of such a voyage as this has been shown in the most perfect manner in the marvellous language of the king. hoio is it that the progress of those events to is so fre- qucnthj in opposition our oivn will ?" it " In every occurrence. tvhethcr fortunate or unfortunate. at the still In the middle of the desert of Kerman. started on his journey on the first day of the month of Eamazan (January 13th). but no inhabitant was to be found in all the country round. (T passed in the desert near ancient dwellings. seeing that I have wandered at hap-hazard into that country devoted to darkness. His humble slave. he arrived ruins of a city. who is the author of all knowledge. I received orders to take my departure for India . after having made the necessary preparations. none of which [)r(S(n(cd signs of anything but ruin and decay. and of the decrees of that Divine prescience. the comprehension of which escapes shall I all the calculations and reflections of man. by the route of Kohistan. Fll-TKENTIl CKNTUKY. and guides His creatures .4 INDIA IN TMl'. and also that the execution of so important an undertaking cannot be either accomplished or related. the grandest evidence of a wisdom which sublime. the proof of this is found in the fact that the measures adopted hy men are all fallacious ^ The events. and how be able to set forth the events of my journey with clearness. His majesty.

and Irak-Adjcmi. the Emir Hadji- Mohamed-Kaiaschirin. returned Hindoostan. his kindness. from Egypt. the provinces of Ears. Turkistan. the China. On my road I met the Emir Hadji-lNIohammed. The it. 5 This desert extends to the frontier of Mckran and Seistan.* and the city of ^ ^ ^ The Arabic name for Anatolia. as far as the environs of the city of Damghan. with everything that I could require. shore of the Sea of Continuing at my the journey. the whole of the kingdoms of Tchin^ and Matchin. is Ormuz. 30th) I reached the city of Kcrman . I arrived towards the middle of the month Oman.M!I)-KU-RA7. being then absent. which also called Djerrun. it is a pleasant place. I at Bender-Ormuz. is a port situated its in the middle of the sea. On the eighteenth day of Ramazan (Jan. Melik-Fakhr-Eddin-Touranschah. Or rather Dasht-i-Kipchak.ZAK. son of the Emir Naim-Eddin-Seid-Nimet-Allah. who was the most distinguished personage of the city of Kerman. at this time from the countries of He On loaded the fifth me with attentions and proofs of I day of Schewal (February 16th) quitted the city of Kerman. I was compelled to sojourn in this city until the day of the feast. as well as one of great importance.oum. •• desert of Kipchak in Tartary. Khorassan. and even of the whole world. had had assigned and I mc a house. The il- lustrious Emir Borhan-Eddin-Scid-Khalil-Allah. The merchants of seven climates. IrakArabi. the country of E. and disposal. Ma-wara-amahar. Tlic southern parts of China.. on his return from an expedition which he had made into the province of Bcnboul. prince of Ormuz. Syria. to was admitted an audience of the prince. and all tliis space presents formidable dangers to travellers.JOURNKV OF . the kingdom of Dcscliti-Kaptchack. The darogah (governor). .^ Azerbijan. and which has not equal on the surface of the globe. having placed a vessel at my went on board of I and made my entry to into the city of Ormuz.the countries inhabited by the Kalmucks.

^ The town now known as the capital of a district of the same name. . Sokotora. * " The Maldives. Though now of little note. The city of Bijanagur. Zanguebar.'* Kalbergah. and the sacking of the metropolis in 1565. resulted in the total defeat of Ram Rajah. is situated in the province of Beeder. 2 This is name in Indian language means. now in ruins. and people. 1810.^ make their way to this port . An interesting account of this empire and its fall.^ Tenasserim.d. and Ycmbo hither those rare and precious articles which the sun. and on the establishment of Mahommedan independence in the Deccan in 1347. Java. remains of the city are situated on the south bank of the Toombuddra river. fifty miles south south-east from Darwar. Mahommedan sovereigns of the Deccan and this Hindoo principality. the extend as far as . in the province of Bejapoor. one hundred and five miles west of Hyderabad.^ the islands of Diwah-Mahall/ the countries of which Malabar. and its subsequent depopulation The celebrated Italian traveller Cesare Federici. It was thither that our author. speaks with enthusiasm of its extent and enormous wealth. as the reader will hereafter see. 1 Pekin." London. " the country under the wind. the sovereign of Bijanagur. Schahrinoii. and was finished in 1343. The author means the ports of the sovereignties so named. it was formerly famous as the metropolis both of a Hindoo and Mahomedau sovereignty. the inhabitants of the sea coasts arrive here from the countries of Tchin. It was begun to be built in a. Rajahs of Kalberga are mentioned by Ferishta as independent princes when the Deccan was invaded by Alia ud Deeu in a. who was there in 1567. Jiddah. Query. as the capital cities bearing the same name were not on the sea-coast. directly opposite to Annagoondy. 4to. 1295.''' the coasts of Arabia. city "^ was made the capital of the new government. they bring Aden. was once the metropolis of a mighty Hindoo empire.d. all KhauLalik. Kanbait. Bengal. comprising the whole South- East Peninsula. Abyssinia. The incessant hostilities between the 1:336.'' Gudjarat.6 INDIA IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. this . is given in the commencing chapter of Colonel Wilks's " Historical Sketches of the South of India. ultimately directed his steps and his narrative mainly The consists of the description of this empire. the cities of Zirbad. Shahnoor or Sivanur. the ports of Bidjanagar." and •^ referred to India beyond the Ganges. Cambay. in the latter year. its capital.

since he voluntarily placed himself All. moon. and no injustice towards any person whatever. and . for freight in the ships. which is the when tempests and attacks from pirates are to be Then they gave me permission to depart. and the from rains 7 have combined to brinej to porfectinn. cried with one voice that the time for navigation was passed. a is For all objects. men and horses could not all be contained in the same vessel. with the exception of gold and paid by Avay of duty. they were distributed among several ships. to sea at this season was alone responsible for his death. and all the season terrors of the sea presented themselves before me. and that every one who put in peril. The sails were hoisted. tenth of their value Persons of all religions. the merchants. that is to say the beginning or middle of the monsoon. When I came a little myself. are is found in permitted great numbers in this city. and we came to the end of the monsoon. This city is also named Dar- The inhabitants unite the flattering character of the people of Irak with the profound cunning of the Indians. I sojourned in this place for the space of two months . either Bargains are mad(> by money or by exchange. was allowed to pass. and. As the dreaded. Travel- countries resort hither. having sacrificed the sum which they had paid project. As soon as I caught the smell of the vessel. with one accord. that for three days respiration alone indi- cated that to life remained within me. in exchange for the commodities Avhich they bring. and we commenced our voyage. and which arc capable of k'rs all bcini^ transported by sea. difiicultics abandoned at the their and after some disembarked port . silver. they can Avithout trouble or difficulty obtain all that they desire.JOURNEY OF ARD-EU-RAZZAK. and even idolaters. the governors sought all kinds of pretexts to detain me so that the favorable time for departing by sea. alanian (the abode of security). I fell into so deep a swoon. who were my intimate friends.


of Muscat.


For myself,

I quitted this city, escorted

by the

principal companions of
called Kariat,


voyage, and went to a place


I established

myself and fixed


with the intention of there remaining.
the coasts designate

The merchants


which they

find themselves

by the word teWii (loss) the condition when, having undertaken a

sea voyage, they
to stop in

cannot accomplish

and are obliged

some other

In consequence of the seve-

rity of pitiless \\'eather

and the adverse manifestations of

a treacherous fate,


heart was crushed like glass and



became weary of



season of relaxation be-

came excessively trying



moment when, through

the effect of so



situdes, the mirror of


understanding had become covered

with rust, and the hurricane of so


painful circumstances

had extinguished the lamp of
in one


mind, so that I might say




fallen into a condition of apathetic stu-

on a sudden I one evening met a merchant who was
I asked

on his return from the shores of Hindoostan.


whither he was going


he replied




only object


reach the city of Herat."


heard him utter the


of that august city I went very nearly distracted.


merchant having consented


request to tarry awhile, I

off the following verses

upon paper.


in the

midst of strangers, at the hour of the evening

prayer I set me clown


I recall my At

adventures, the recital ofivhich


with unusual sighs.

remembrance of



and of my country I

loeep so hitterly,

That I should deprive
hahit of travelling

the lohole

world of the


I am a

native of the country of the Arabs,

and not of a

strange region.


mighty God, lohom
to the







companionship of

my friends.







condition, and to


tcdiousncss and dangers against which I have
tend, has been set forth in full


to con-

in this narrative.


far as regards a certain



men and






Ormnz upon
to ascertain I shall

a separate vessel, I have

been unable hitherto

what has been

their fate.

may be

some day

be able

put their adven-

tures into writino:.

Description of

what occurred during the time that WAS involuntarily detained upon the sea shore, AND of what happened TO ME IN THE ENCAMPMENT OF Kariat, and in the city OF Kalahat.
time that I was perforce sojourning in the place



called Kariat,

and upon the shores of the ocean, the new

moon, of the month of Moharrem of the year 846 [May 1442], showed me in this abode of weariness the beauty of her disk.




at that

time spring, in the season in which

the nights and days are of equal length, the heat of the sun
so intense that

burned the ruby in the mine and the
the sword in


in the bones

scabbard melted like

wax, and the gems which adorned the handle of the khandjar

were reduced
TJie heart

to coal.

Soon as the sun shone forth from the height of heaven,

of stone grew hot heneath
teas so




The horizon

much scorched vp hy



That the heart of stone became soft

wax ;

of the fishes, at the bottom of the fish-ponds, Burned like the silk which is exposed to the re ;




the icatcr


the air gave out so burning a heat,

the fish

went away

seek refuge in the






the jjlains the chase

became a matter of perfect



the desert ivas filled tvith roasted gazelles.

The extreme heat of the atmosphere gave one the idea of As the climate of this country is naturally the fire of hell. opposed to human health, my elder brother, a respectable and learned man, Maulana-Aiif-Eddin-Abd-el-Wahhab,
the rest of


companions, and myself,

fell sick,

in consefate into

quence of the excessive heat, and we resigned our
the hands of Divine goodness.

Since the

power of doing our own


has escaped
to see


our hands, we surrender ourselves

God, waiting

His munificence

will ivork for us.


constitution of each one of us

had undergone

so sad

a change

trouble, fatigue, sickness,

and the burning of the
This cruel condition

went on increasing every day.
for the space of four

was prolonged

months; our strength

gave way by degrees, and the malady increased.

I am reduced


such a state of tccakness,

O mg friend,
one climate

that the zephgr carries


each instant


another, like the smell of the rose.


continue no longer in


gag positioyi,for the action of
lihe the

fate has

made me


and fall

cord of a hgdraxdic
hodg, ang



one has seen the pain loithdraio

from mg

more than cause and
In the meanwhile

have been seen

separate them-

selves the one from the other.

was informed

that, in the environs of

the city of Kalahat, there was a place called Sour, which
offered a salubrious temperature
spite of

and agreeable waters.



extreme weakness


went on board the
sooner had


and departed from Kalahat.


arrived than


malady increased


in the daytime I

was consumed by

the fire of a burning fever, and in the night I was devoured by the anguish of chagrin. The unwholesomeness of the
disease disordered


bodily frame,



the earthly




disordered by an excess of


hand of the

fever, aided

smoky vapours the by the tempest of my

misfortunes, overturned the tent of


bodily health, which

the conjunction of the four elements, like so



guardians, tended to support.


was torn

to pieces

torments of absence, by the sorrows of exile.

by the During the



heart was bedrenched with blood in consequence of

the injuries of a treacherous fate, and
to utter a



during the night

my lips my eyes

were powerless
remained con-

stantly open,



soul was on the point of quitting the

asylum of

my body.

That feeble body, beaten

to the to


by chagrin and the sorrows of

was content

bid adieu







lost all

hope of prolonging

existence, gave


to death,

and abandoned


to the

goodness of the living and merciful God.

My respectable brother, Maulana-Afif-eddin- Abd-Wahhab,
in obedience to that
try he

must die/' " Wherever thou mayst be death

maxim, " Man knows not in what counand in obedience to that other sentence,
shall reach thee",






hands of the Deity, and was companions of the prophet

buried in the neighbourhood of that place of pilgrimage

where some of the



grief of this loss,
a deep impression

and the pain of this separation, pro-

describe or to represent

upon me, which by words.

it is

impossible to




much beauty would

there be in the Jlotvcr of

youth, if only

bore with

the characteristic

of eternal


But we


separate from relatio?is

and friends ; such

the irrevocable decree

of heat en. Unhappy me! detaching myself from

and regarding

the past as having never occurred, I determined to continue


voyage in a vessel which was leaving

for Hindoostan.


few strong



me on board

the ship.







sea which fate renders terrible take resignation for

thy barque. Set foot upon this vessel, for
it is

God Himself who


thy course.


of eminence will look

upon matters with


minating attention,

occurrence offers a sort of analogy

with the history of Moses, who was placed in an ark and



the water.

Everything externally spoke of
In like
analogous in

death, but the interior was the enclosure of safety.

manner Khidr^ showed Moses a

fact perfectly

the sinking of a vessel, for externally

seemed that


lead to the loss of men, while in the interior

offered deli-

verance from the hand of a tyrant.

In short, the
ous, gave


of the sea having


the hope of a perfect cure

become more salubrithe morning of

health began to dawn, upon the longing of





wounds caused by the sharp arrows



malady began

and the water of


hitherto so troubled, recovered

purity and


Before long a favourable


The prophet Alkhedr, whom the Mahometans usually confound

with Phiueas, Elias, and

metempsychosis successively through

George, saying that his soul passed by a all three. In Sale's " Koran", we

find the following incidents described as occurring

between him and

Moses, and to which doubtless our author here refers.






said unto him, Shall I follow thee that thou




part of that which thou hast been taught for a direction unto



lie answered, Verily thou canst not bear with
suffer those things the





thou patiently

knowledge whereof thou dost not






shalt find






neither will I be disobedient unto thee in anything.


said, If



therefore, ask


not concerning anything until I shall

meaning thereof unto thee. So they both went on by the went up into a ship and he made a hole therein. And Moses said unto. Hast thou made a hole therein, that thou mightest drown those who are on board ? Now hast thou done a strange thing. He answered, Did I not tell thee that thou couldest not bear with me ? Moses said, Rebuke me not, because I did forget, and impose not on me a difficulty in what I am commanded."
declare the
sea shore until they

and description OF THE CUSTOMS AND INSTITUTIONS OF THAT COUNTRY. Note hj M. like that of Ormuz. brings together merchants from every city and from every country in it are to be found abundance of . 13 breeze began to blow. " Tlicy have progressed by the help of a favorable wind^'' carried joy and gladness to the heart of my companions .— JOURNEY or ARD-Kll-KAZ/.^ During several days the realization of this sentence. and this maxim: " Ilast thou not seen the ships ride over the sea by the goodness of God^'' opened the gate of joy in the hearts of friends. contains a considerable ^ It number of Mussulmauns. and especially from Abyssinia. Narrative of our arrival in Hindoostan. Zirbad. from House is of GocF and other parts of the Hedjaz. which. and the narrative of the voyage of his humble slave. for a greater or longer space. vessel who . my as Finally. Mecca. ruler. and the vessel floated over the surlace of the water with the rapidity of the wind. precious articles brought thither from maritime countries.AK. AND OF THE MARVELS AND ASTON ISHINCi FACTS WHICH IT PRESENTS. . Calicut is a perfectly secure harbour. and abide at will. the town inhabited by Infidels. will here be found described to the life. after a voyage of eighteen days and many cast nights. we anchor in the port of Calicut and the detail of the marvels of this country. by the aid of the supreme king and . and Zanguebar time to time ships arrive there from the shores of the . i^uatremere. arc Here begins a long and emphatic description of a this portion. in this harbour . I should have translated ' but I felt that these curious details inter- rupted tho narrative in a disagreeable mauuer. and situated on a hostile shore.

^ Security and jvistice are so firmly established this city. They have one to the sect in. if they levy a duty on the goods of one-fortieth part they are not make no charge on them whatsoever. or wherever may be bound. over which they keep watch day and night." in which the whole civil and canonical law of the Mahometans is contained. But is at Calicut. in- duced him deputed by ^ do so was as Some ambassadors this monarch. is In other ports a strange practice vessel sets sail for a certain point. effected. whatit ever jjlace it may come from.^ and the motive which had follows. is When a and suddenly driven by a decree of Divine Providence into another roadstead. they When a sale is . the happy Khakan. celebrated with feasts. the who was descended from the grandfather of Mahomet. under the pretext that the wind has driven it there. and unhesitatingly send into and the bazaars. plunder the ship.14 TXDIA IN THK FIFTEENTH CENTURY. the inhabitants. every ship. adopted. He wrote a book on the " Principles of Islamism. was writer on jurisprudence among the Mahometans. and have built two mosques. Kadi. liberation of prisoners. etc. and some caps. With him originated one of the four sects of Islamism regarded as orthodox. '^ Now Year's day. a priest. similar to those distributed at the time of the Nauruz to . without thinking in the meantime of any necessity of checking the account or of keeping watch over the goods. returning from Bengal in comEdris. that the most wealthy merchants bring thither from the markets maritime countries considerable cargoes. some robes of cloth of gold. sold. The officers of the custom-house take upon themselves the charge of looking after the merchandise. has no trouble of any kind to put up with. . constant residents. and when it puts into this port treated like other vessels. some horses. had sent as a present for the prince of Calicut. which they unload. in which they meet every Friday to offer up prayer. Abu Abdallah Mohammed Ben first surnamed Schafei from one of his ancestors. His majesty. and for the most part they belong of Schafei. some pelisses.

As soon as the sovereign of Calicut occurrences.. liavini. the king of Bengal. had sent rival ambassadors and messages. and . A short time afterwards.TOUKNKY or AHD-Kll-KAZZAK. the object to which they should direct their aspirations. to himself of whatever having received of an attack this The prince of Djounah-pour summary ultimatum. bearer of peremptory orders addressed king. the Khotbah^ cele- brated. Mohammed. 15 panv M'ltli tlK> ambassadors of tlio latter country. — as the Kabah. on every is Friday and every solemn feast day. according to the prescribed rule of Islamism. to they shoidd pay their homage. the description •which they gave of the greatness and power of the Khakan reached the ears of tlie sovereign of that tliat city. he prepared some presents. With your majesty's permission. His message was to the effect that the king must refrain from interfering with the kingdom of Bengal. bless for the Khalif. showing that they re- garded the ausfust court of that monarch M-hicli as the Kiblah. complaining of the invasion of Ibrahim. in which they praise God. of the land and of the sea. The emperor despatched country of Djounah-pour the Scheikh-alislam Kcrim-eddin-Abu'lto the makarim-Djami. all He learned from authentic testimony. the kings of the habitable globe." The sound of his Khothah ^ is become so acceptable to the A sermon preached every Friday afternoon after the service in the 2)ray principal mosques. had laid his cause before the court. and sent an ambassador charged wath a despatch. which is the asylum of kings. Sultan of Djounah-pour. gave up all idea was informed of these upon the country of Bengal. consisting of objects of value of different kinds. in default of which he might take the responsibility the consequence should be. and to the asked for succour. in which he said : " In this port. been obliged to put into Calicut. of the East as well as of the AVest. these prayers shall be adorned and honoured by the addition of your name and of your illustrious titles.

beyond to all doubt. The emperor acceded the for setting out and gave instructions Emirs that the on ambassador should make his preparations his journey. it will be. hazarded their denunagainst his success. distinguished for his eloquence in the and the Emirs presents . As soon as I landed at Calicut I saw beings such of. in literal pursuance of the precept expressed in that verse. icho are neither men nor devils.IG 1M)1A IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. ciations upon the humble author of this Certain individuals. however. and the brightness of the sun of knowledge to shine into the window of his heart.^ shall invite that prince to embrace the religion of Islamism. setting out in company with the ambassa- dors from Bengal. that all the infidels have shown themsehes ivilling adopt it. and cause the flame of the light of faith. in good health years of absence. and by that time his calumniators were no longer in the land of the living. " If your majesty my master. The messenger was a Mussulmaun. These deputies." this request. nevertheless. reached the noble court of the emperor. a beauty. and Avho. He arrived. imagining in their own minds choice fell The that it was likely he would never return from so long a voyafter three age. laid before that monarch the letter and the by which it was accompanied. By thy loisdom and hy thy good counsels engage men to enter on the ways of thy Lord. work. At sight If I of ivhom the mind tahes alarm were to see such in my dreams passages . by despatching an am' bassador sent especially to him. I have had moon . to world. and draw from his beclouded heart the bolt of darkness and error. . as my imagination had never depicted the like Extraordinary beings. a perfectly to righteous and meritorious deed. My the heart woidd he in a tremble for love ivith many years. whose face was like but I could never fall in love ivith a negress. course of his address he said to will be pleased to favour the prince.

JOURNEY OF ABD-RIl-RAZZAK. is The Sameri belongs I obtained to this sect. the Bramins. the hall was ^ " Hindu ascetics a caste of Hindus. with whom it is the woman have a great number of husbands. and in the other a buckler of ox-hide. The such as Infidels are divided into a great number others. The blacks of this country have the body nearly naked they wear only bandages round the middle. When my audience of this prince. called lankoutahy which descend from the navel to above the knee. The people of this cast do not burn. who are commonly weavers. When his who succeeds him." " Hindustani Dictionary. of classes. common which might be taken for a piece of mist. 17 . but bury their dead. In one hand they hold an Indian poignard. The sovereign he dies it is of this city bears the sister's of Sameri. and after the lapse of three days was conducted his to an audience with the king. or his brother. I had a comfortable lodging assigned to me. This costume is As to the Mussulto the king and to the beggar. which has the brilliance of a drop of water. Amongst them practice for one there is a class to of men. fulfils it.^ and all Although they are agreed upon the fundamental principles of its polytheism and idolatry. or any other of his relations." —Forbes'a * 3 . and while he remains there no other enter. after the mauns. they dress themselves in magnificent apparel manner of tlie Arabs. each sect has peculiar customs. and manifest luxury in every particular. the Djoghis. are sometimes buried alive with their husband's corpse. each of whom undertakes a special duty and of the night are divided The hours of the day and between them allowed to each of them for a certain period takes up his abode in the house.. and his inheritance does not belong to his son. After I had had an opportunity of seeing a considerable number of Mussulmauns and Infidels. No one reaches the throne by means of the strong hand. and the women . like the rest of the title I saw a man with body naked. son Hindus.

dream recurred to my mind and filled me with joy. on a certain night of profound darkness and unusual length. at the : hour of prayer. and in a dream I his majesty. we had loe the honour to see some guished friends. in which sleep. but being captured on the all their road by some cruel pirates.18 filled INDIA IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. had been shipped on boatd another vessel by order of the king of Ormuz . toe have also attained the object of our From the close of the month of the second first Djoumada [beginning of November 1442]. After they had me take a seat. which are seldom realized in our . On leaving the my house. and we have seen our very dear friends . I remained in place." this who came towards me with all when he came up to me said The following morning. who brought with them a certain number of horses. Although. in general. I was saw at length asleep upon my bed of rest. to the days of Zou'lhidthis jah [middle of April 1443]. The Sameri showed me but audience I returned to little consideration. Thanks desires. dreams are but the simple wanderings of the imagination. and all sorts of things beside. with two or three thousand Hindus. and they caused and the cap to to pass in procession before the throne. the happy Khakan. the horse. after every sort of disquietude. who wore the costume above described the the principal personages amongst Mussulmauns Avere also present. the garment of cloth of gold. and narrowly escaped with their lives. . disagreeable weariness. and " Afilict thyself no longer. the letter of his majesty. he to God are not dead. had imprisoned my senses and closed the where everything became door of my eyelids. was read. the pelisse. they were plundered of wealth. the made happy Khakan. Meeting distin- them at Calicut. be worn at the ceremony of Nauruz. the pomp of sovereignty. like an imperious tyrant. a source of trouble and During this period. Several individuals.

that perhaps the morn- ing beam of happiness was about to daA\'n upon me from the bosom of Divine goodness. a place situated opposite the Island of Serendib. yet which arc shown guished it 19 docs sometimes occur that the facts sleep in arc afterwards accomplished . each of which equal to Calicut. and on terra firma his territories comprise a space of three months' journey. which includes Calicut with some other neighbouring ports. he nevertheless pays him respect. : The are inhabitants of Calicut are adventurous sailors they known by In the name of Tchini-betchegan (son of the Chinese). and which ex- tends as far as Kabel. which are most part laden with pepper. and such dreams have heen regarded by the most distin- men as intimations from God. would be immc- . otherwise called Ceylon. to kill a to eat flesh whosoever should be discovered slaughtering or eating one of these animals. had sent to the Sameri a delegate charged with a that he letter. On a sudden a man arrived. for name From Calicut are vessels continually sailing for the Mecca. and stands extremely in fear of him . this harbour one may find everything that can alone : be desired. cow. I asked them its interpretation. or One thing its is forbidden. My reflections led me to the hope. and pirates do not dare to attack the vessels of Calicut. namely. the happy Khakan. bears the general of Melibar. Every one has heard of the dream of Joseph. in which he desired sador of his would send on to him the ambasmajesty. and that the night of chagrin and weariness had nearly reached its close. this latter prince is has in his dominions three hundred ports.JOURNEY OK AHD-KR-llAZZAK. who holds a powerful empire and a mighty dominion under his sway. The coast. and that of the minister of Egypt. Avho brought me the intelligence that the king of Bidjanagar. Although the Sameri is not subject to the laws of the king of Bidjanagar. if what is said is true. since. waking hours. Having communicated my dream to some skilful men.

placed so seems ful to look at you. ten an in equilateral square. 2 Cubits. . of great size. in anuotatiug this word in the version of this journey it inserted in his " Collection portative de Voyages. idols.^ situated on the coast of Mclibar. In the middle of the town an Langles. its eyes are formed of two rubies. of about in length. reached the port of Mangalor.20 cliatcly INDIA IN THE FIl'TEENTH CENTURY. It is entirely formed of cast Upon made that in the front stands human figure. that the rays of the sun could never penetrate the obscurity. nor could the beneficial rains at any time reach the soil to moisten I it. So respected its these parts. I came each day came to a some populous town. The humble author of this narrative having received his sea. its it the houses of which were like palaces. distance of three parasangs from At It is a Mangalor he saw ghez'^ a temple of idols. departed from Calicut by After having passed the port of Bendinaneh." conjectures to be a corruption of Cananor. a It has four estrades. give a general idea of ^ it. to After passing this temple. ten breadth. and five in height. I mountain whose summit reached the and the foot of which was covered with so great a quantity of trees and thorny underwood. and women there reis minded one of the beauty of the Houris. artistically that the statue is The whole city or worked with wonder- delicacy and perfection. Having left this mountain and this forest behind me. audience of dismissal. which has not its equal in the universe. At length skies. temple of parasangs. After staying there two or three days he continued his route by land. so lofty as to It In a be visible at a distance of many would be impossible to describe such a buildI can only is ing without being suspected of exaggeration. which forms the frontier of the kingdom of Bidjanagar. punished with death. reached a town called Belour. bronze. of gold . that the inhabitants take is the cow in dung when dry and rub their foreheads with it.

So great a number of pictures and figures had been drawn by the pen and the pencil. of which he had heard. joined together with so much delicacy and skill. He brought together there all sorts of delights. that they seem to form but one single slab of stone.JOURNEY OF A1?D-Ell-RAZZAK. The stone presents three rows What can I say of this rounded and cupola. are paved with polished stones. and which. a fabulous monarch of Arabia.^ The roses all kinds are as numerous as the leaves of the trees. point. ^ Irem is the name given by orientals to the earthly Paradise. offered Its vault. elevation vied with that of the heavens. and the Paradise became invisible. in the space of a month. which Chedad ben Ad. height. and would seem as if looks down upon this beautiful spot with pleaall sure and admiration. made an attempt at constructing in imitation of the celestial Paradise. From the the bottom of the building to the top there is not a hand's breadth to be found uncovered with paintings. twenty in breadth. and terminating in a of figures. rivals the garden of Irem. ^ China. after manner of the Franks and the people is of Khata. whose towering height heaven itself is reflected in the Avatcrs. lohich.^ . All the ground of this parterre. if 21 open space. The temple consists of a structure of four estrades ture thirty this strucfifty in ghez in length. as regards the deli- cacy of the loork. to the world an idea of paradise ? resembled a new moon . one may of use a comparison. its lofty. to sketch it all upon damask or taffeta. * . that it would be impossible. on the borders of the streams rise a great number it of cypresses. In the middle of this platform rises a building composed of a cupola formed of blue stones. the environs of this place of delight. of about ten ghez in extent. plantain trees shoot out their tufted branches. and look like a fragment of the sky which might be supposed to have been brought down to the earth. but on the day of its completion he and his subjects were destroyed by a powerful tempest.

whose dominion ex- tends from the frontier of Serendib to the extremities of the country of Kalbergah. The most of the distant cities send hither their alms. He saw a place extremely large and thickly peopled. and give feasts. temple morning and evening. The troops amount in number to eleven . and at the end of the month of Zou'lhidjah [end of April] we arrived at the city The king sent a numerous cortege to meet of Bidjanagar. to the city of Bidjanagar. In the opinion of is men without religion. From the frontiers of Bengal to the is environs of Belinar (Melibar). the shies. lak (1. have shown to readers and writers that the chances of a maritime voyage had led Abd-er-Razzak. they play on musical instruments. that vault. previously without stones in Since that the gold its stoiies now seems formed of them. and in their forms re- sembling devils. One sees there more than a thousand elephants. the author of this work. of that orb has taken a purer allotj. the distance more than a thousand parasangs.100. The preceding details.000). After having sojourned in this town for the space of two or three days we continued our route. and a king possessing greatness and sovereignty to the highest degree.22 INDIA IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. this place the Kabah Guebres. perform concerts. great and small. very fertile. and appointed us a very handsome house for our residence. us. forming a close narrative of events. and contains about three hundred harbours. The country is for the most part well cultivated. in their size resembling mountains. which have nothing in them which can be agreeable to God. All the other buildings. Since that its head shot up toivards it. All the inhabitants of the town have rents and pensions assigned these to them on this temple. after devotional exercises. are covered In this with paintings and sculptures of extreme delicacy. have rubbed themselves against the sun.

JOUKNKY OF AlU)-Krv-l! A/ZAK. and fortress represents the space to which extends from the bridge of the new river. in These are fixed one no horse or the citadel. and which presents us with the stories of a rdi and a Brahmin. and examine everything Avith a severe inspection. built on the summit of a It mountain. The book of Kalilah and Dimna. It is built in such a manner that seven citadels other. round shape. is probably a production of the talent of the literati of this country. one half of rises which sunk in the ground while the other beside the other. such a manner that approach foot soldier could boldly or Avith ease If any one this would wish to find what point of resemblance fortress and rampart present with that him picture to himself which extends Buraderim Direh dou from the mountain of Mokhtar and which exists in the city of Herat. lying Djakan. The second Karav. The third citadel comprises as much space as lies between . the most beautiful work existing in the Persian language. solid gates. doostan to find a more absolute rdi (king) of this country bear the title for the to monarchs the Brah- of rdi. and constructed of stones and lime. 23 One might seek in vain througliout the whole of Hin. Next him mins hold a rank superior to that of all other men. citadel are stones of the height of a man. and the same number of walls enclose each the first is Around above it. The city of Bidjanagar is such that the pupil of the eye has never seen a place like it. situated town of Ghinan. let that the first citadel corresponds with that (the Valley of the Two Brothers) as far as the banks of the east of the river and the bridge of Malan. the has very guards of which are constantly at their post. to the east of the the bridge of the bridge of Renghineh and to the west of the garden of Zibendeh and of the village of Hasan. and west of the village of It is a fortress of a Sa'iban. and the ear of intelligence has it never been informed that there existed anything to equal in the world.

azi and dome-shaped monument of Mohammed-Sultan-Schah. but the audience is hall of the king's palace elevated above the rest. the first fortress. same distance from the The space which separates the first fortress from the second. At the gate of the king's palace are four bazaars. Above each bazaar all a lofty arcade with a magnificent gallery. as well as in the king's palace. In this place one sees a constant succession of sweet smelling and fresh looking roses. These people could not live without roses.21 the INDIA IN THK FIFTEENTH (lENTUKY. situated in the south. emeralds. In agreeable locality. to each profession has shops . Each class of men belonging contiguous the one to the other the jewellers sell publicly in the bazaar pearls. The rose merchants place before their shops high estrades. shops. The sixth is equivalent to the sj^ace contained between the King's gate and the gate of Firouz-abad. placed opposite each other. The bazaars are extremely long and broad. It is the palace which is used as the residence of the king. The The fourth correspends to the space Avhich separates the bridge Andjil from the bridge of Kared. The seventh fortress. which lies on the north. which is placed in the centre of the others. which sanss. on each side of which they expose their floAvers for sale. and up to the third fortress. this and diamonds. the mausoleum of the Imaura Fakhr-eddin-R. many is is and a bazaar. one sees numerous running streams and canals formed of chiselled . fifth comprises a space equal to that which extends to the from the garden of Zagan bridge of Andjegan. occupies an area ten times larger than the market- place of the city of Herat. and they look upon them as quite as necessary as food. to In the space from the third the seventh one meets a numberless crowd of people. It is the calculated to be two paraeast to the west. is filled with cultivated fields. rubies. and with houses and gardens. is The is distance from the gate of to the first gate. On the north the portico of the jDalace of the rai.

the divan.TOURNK. The of two kinds in one they Avrite kalam of iron vipon a leaf of the Indian tree). they then take a which they cut letters . and sound a trumpet. On the left of the Sultan's portico rises the divan-klianeh (the council-house). then rising up explains the business which brought him there. which writing is very long time. hall. 4 . but a short time. called Daiang. and here writing of this people their letters Avith a is the scribes. present. and the writing soft stone. of writing they blacken a white surface. who pronounce comBefore reaching the plimentary expressions in his honour. according to the jjrinciples of justice adopted in this kingdom. polished 25 and smooth. is seated an eunuch. In sit : its length thirty ghez. hall stand tchobdar (hussars) drawn up Every man who comes upon any offers a small busi- ness. who alone presides over At the end of the in line. and no one thereafter is allowed to make any appeal. and the Daiang pronounces his opinion. each of which is guarded by a janitor. upon an high estrade. nut (the cocoa-nut which is two ghez in length and In the second kind two fingers in breadth. king's apartment there are seven doors to be passed. lasts These characters have no colour. When On the Daiang leaves the divan they carry before him several parasols of different colours. like a kalam. and held in high estimation.. it is placed the defter-khaneh (the archives). the In front of is a height of which its is above the stature of a man. each side of him walk panegyrists.Y OF A Hn-KR-RAZZAK. at each door a parasol is When unfolded. and breadth ten. He the Daiang arrives passes through the seventh door alone. prostrates himself with his face to the ground.^ and which they use kind of to form the this stone leaves lasts a on the black surface a this white colour. passes between the tchobdar. which it is extremely large and looks like a palace. gives the prince an account of what ^ The reed they use for writing. this In the middle of palace. stone.

on the upper part of the hand. and no payment is ever made by a draft it upon the revenues of any province. down to the artizans of the bazaar. the largest of these animals are kept near the palace. he has to be paid by the darah-Jchdneh. which they called djitel. This latter is also a very useful coin in currency. This empire contains so great a population that would cells. . in the interior of the fortress. be impossible to give an idea of it without entering into the most extensive details. fingers. lapse of a few minutes Beliind the king's palace are the house and hall allotted to the Daiang.26 INDIA IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. wear pearls. is A copper to coin worth the third of a tar. In the king's palace are several like basins. in their ears. made of gold mixed with one called varahah weighs about one mithkal. two dinars. The king . These elephants possesses one copulate. every four The soldiers receive their pay months. To the left of the said palace is the darah-hlidneh (the mint). In this country they have three alloy to : kinds of money. coins the Of these different fanom is is the most useful. Opposite the Divan is - Khaneh (the palace of the council) the Fil-Khaneh (the house of the Although the king possesses a considerable number of elephants in his dominions. called fanom. is is the half of the the third. which is called pertah. first and second between the north and the west. both those of exalted rank and of an inferior class. all the provinces. and after retires. the second. equivalent in value to the tenth part of the last-mentioned coin. tlie matters arc going on. All the inhabitants of this country. call tar. equivalent kopeki first . on their necks. at a fixed period. bring their gold to the mint. on their arms. and on the elephants). filled with bullion. and bring forth young. They cast in pure silver a coin which the sixth of the fanom. According If any the practice adojited in this empire. forming one mass. man receive from the divan an allowance in gold. or rings adorned with precious stones.

and the roof composed of strong the back of these animals are is The neck and bound with chains. the elephant attacks his keeper. them in butter. and the king punishes this this negligence severely. seizing his stick. The mode of catching the elephant is as follows. 27 white clcpliant of an extremely great scattered here and there grey spots on whose body are freckles. Each elephant has which are extremely pieces of wood. the ele: phant would easily undo them the fore feet also are held by chains. If they were fixed otherwise.JOUHNKY OF Ani)-KR-RA//. . . and cover the they dig mouth of it over. but very lightly. They then make after steeping weighing about two 'man. The elephants is of the palace are fed upon kitchri} This substance cooked. and the whole balls of it. the end of which strongly fastened to the top of the roof. the walls of solid. salt is thrown on is and fresh sugar is sprinkled over it. upon this another man shows himway off. and goes away. him from continuing to do Before long the animal becomes very friendly with this latter individual. to beat the of these men comes elephant. eaten in Ilindoostan. two or three days are allowed to elapse before any one goes near him. When time a an elephant falls into it. These animals take food twice a day. At the end of that man comes and strikes the animal with several : blows of a stick well applied self. and the second prevents so. and rice. to drink. and it is taken out of the copper in the elephant's presence it. hurls a great which he throws some food For several days the first to the elephant. A kiuJ of food made of pulse. a separate compartment. and butter. after and violently drives away the man who struck the it blows. hke Every morning sight of this animal is led out before the monarch. If one of these ingredients has been forgotten. they put them into the elephant's mouth. who ' by degrees approaches the elephant. then mixed well together. On the road which the animal takes when he goes a trench. and the him seems to act as a happy omen. and. and.AK. size.

and yet the king had a very strong desire to gain possession of this animal again. wood like a beam. He then scratches won over by this allows a chain to him and rubs him. The keeper led the elephant into who rewarded him with a noble Even the sovereigns of Hindoostan take part in hunting the elephant. that an elephant having escaped. His keeper. They remain a whole month. and when they have taken it. and the elephant. strong hold self This cord he laid Do what the elephant to strike would to shake him- and twist about. he pro- ceeded place. in the desert or in the jungles. his who body and chest one of the thick cords with which the elephants are bound. the opposite side. and at the same time gave blows upon the head. blows with his trunk both right and he could not get free. dug a trench on his road. for which this animal is known to have a liking. At length him some heavy worn out. submits without resistance. himself upon the back of the animal. and be passed round his neck. pursuit of him. or even more. man threw had about of. He rolled himself on to his side. him fruits.28 offers INDIA IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. . the presence of the king. placed it before as him on the surface of the ground. and left. gave and up his the contest. One of the keepers hid himself in the branches of a tree under which the elephant had this still to pass. took up with his trunk a block of at short distances. and surrendered his body to the chains neck to the fetters. . who dreaded the contrivances of this man (like a gazelle which has escaped from the net of the hunter). mana3uvre. At the moment when the elephant came up. any of these animals they are very proud of Sometimes they cause criminals to be cast under the feet of an elephant. fled into the desert and into the jungles. The animal. and thus he reached the watering all The keepers of the elephant had lost hope of retaking him. testing the road. who went in The story goes. generosity. but every time he did so the man leapt cleverly the animal.

to and have the charge of attending contribute to amusement. these * . All are so well drawn. and take his pleasure with her.\K. tigers. and of perfect beauty. and other animals. and his tusks. levied on the receipts of the houses of prostitution. Each of these women great value. Behind the darab- khaneh is a sort of bazaar. where are stationed twelve thousand soldiers guard. panthers. has by her two young slaves. all and their coquetry. thrones and chairs. which is more than three hundred ghez in length. several platforms con- On the two sides of the avenue formed by the chambers are represented figures of lions. and export them to different countries. structed of beautiful stones.JOURNEY OF that the animal AI!1)-KU-UAZZ. that alive. who receive every day a payment of twelve thousand fanotn. which are decorated with extreme magnificence. is Anything that he carries about with him delivered into the keeping of those engaged in the service . and is is bedecked with pearls and gems of dressed in costly raiment. his trunk. They are all Each one of them who give the signal of pleasure. on which the courtezans seat themselves. the beauty of young girls collected therein. of the houses of prostitution latter are responsible for it. extremely young. in front of are erected. and more than twenty in breadth. everything which can enter into this Any man may and select any girl that pleases him. them according is to the which varies by the ghez. and if anything is lost. the house of the as a Opposite the clarah-khanch (the mint) Governor. The magnificence the of the places of this kind. j^o to The merchants who where they sell trade in elephants seek them in the island of Ceylon. tariff. locality. you would think these animals were Immediately mid-day prayer they place before the doors of the chambers. and after their movements have so natural an appearance. 29 may crush them to pieces with his knees. their allurements. sides are On two them ranged chambers and estrades . I will confine myself to the description of some particulars. in the form of thrones. surpass description.

rested himself for several days from the fatigues It of his journey. his . and some tokouz of damask and satin. He had an olive complexion. and their general proceeds to twelve th. and offered for the monarch's acceptance five beautiful horses. lation. The prince was seated in a hall. of this narrative. superintendents of the quarter in which who gave orders to the we lived to bring These guards. the guards. surrounded by the most imposing attributes of state. that I took up my One day some messengers came to sent from the palace of the king seek me. composed of pearls of beautiful water and other splendid gems. the seven fortresses alike contains a great Each of of pLxccs of prostitution. in a circle. slaves.30 INDIA IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. on being informed of the value of the up the Such and its are the details which relate to the city of Bidjanagar sovereign. paid back the fugitives or amount. and which resembled which one sees in the city of Herat. Right and left of him stood a numerous crowd of men ranged satin. was on the first day of Moharrem abode in this great [May city. had run away.ousa. having arrived in this city Zoii' IhidJaJi The author at the end of the month of [the end of April 1443] took up his abode in an to extremely lofty house. to . The neck king was dressed in a robe of green around his he wore a collar. over the King's as a which gate serves passage for the entire popu- He 1st. Information was given of the circumstance to the governor. .nd J^anoin. which had been assigned that gate. him. to make good the loss. 1443]. number amount which forms the pay allotted to These latter have it assigned to them as a duty make themselves acquainted with every event which occurs within the fortresses if any article is lost or stolen by thieves it is their place to report it if not they are bound Some slaves which had been bought by to make it good. my companions. and at the close of that same day I presented myself at court.

the monarch took pity upon him. in his note on this passage says. it is M. five 7nan^ of rice. The king said to him by his interpreter : " Your monarchs . in consequence of the heat. the king sent for him. was in perspiration. on his cheeks might be seen a slight down. Langl^s. On each occasion the author received a packet of betel." As the humble author of drowned hand. and the great number of robes in which he was dressed. and they presented humble author tAvo packets of betel. one of sugar. consisting of two sheep. a purse contain- ing five hundred y^wows. On being led into the presence of this prince I bowed my head three times. august letter of the emperor. a purse oi fcmoms. four pair of fowls. one of butter. khata which he held in his and sent him a fan. The monarch received me with interest. receiving permission house. If the half. ^ Its present weight to is about three pennyweights. market mann" is meant. Twice in the week.JOURNE"Y OF AHD-ER-RAZZAK. and twenty tnithkah^ of camphor. and some mithhal of camphor. to the this narrative. 31 frame was thin. to depart. similar to the After this a salver was brought. this purse full of gold we give to an ambassador." of a weight and a coin. the happy Khakan. and made me take a seat very near him. he handed it When he took the to the interpreter and said : " My heart is truly delighted to sec that a great king has been pleased to send me an ambassador. and he Avas rather tall . refers. and arti- they continued supplying him regularly with the same cles. invite an ambassador. and put questions to him respecting his majesty. the value of which has The name both much changed. that as the author has not specified the " mann it which he sorts impossible to fix its value. and two varahahs of gold . and receive him to their table as is you the and we may not feast ^ eat together. weighs about seven pounds and a . The expression of his countenance was extremely pleasing. There are more than ten in Persia and India. Then. but there was no beard on his chin. at the close of day. he returned to his Hitherto his provisions had been brought him daily.

together Moistening a leaf of the with a grain of chalk. the which becomes of a red This substance gives a colour to and brightens the countenance. probable that the properties of this plant may account for the numerous harem of women that the king of this country maintains. and four leaves of betel at a time. when the consent of her father and mother harem. . who it removes the disagreeable smell from the teeth.32 INDIA IN THE riFTEENTH CENTURY. and the kingdom of Ormuz. Sometimes spit out they add camphor to saliva. and each has a sepa- rate maintenance. In Hindoostan. It is mouth. then place them in the mouth. In each of these harems. and strengthens the press impossible to exit how strengthening It is it is. They bruise a portion of faufel it otherwise called sipari. roll them together. appeases hunger. a child who has is reached the age of ten no longer free of admission. and They thus take as many as chew them. an extreme fondness prevails this leaf. causes an intoxication similar to that produced by wine. and how much excites to pleasur-e. for which in it is fact deserves its reputation. they rub the one upon the other. the num- ber of the khatoun [princesses] and concubines amounts to seven hundred. as follows. The betel is a leaf like that of the orange. and excites appetite in those are satiated . but longer. but she enjoys the highest consideration. The manner in the mouth. the greater part of the country of the Arabs. it. and sometimes they colour. and put betel. as a beautiful girl is Two women never inhabit the same house. of eating (arcca). As soon is found in any part of the kingdom. she conducted with great pomp to the From that moment nobody sees her. is obtained. If report speaks truly.

33 Account of an Event relating to the King of bidjanagar. In consequence of the noise of the drums. the circumstances of which The king's brother. placed in ambush. they sent for another guest. During the time that the author of this narrative was still sojourning in the city of Calicut. the clamour. it is When thou hast taken thy departure. that such or such great personage should come and flutes that eat his part of the banquet. or sent messenger to say. At some came in person. like those life to who have to return set . with the exception of a small number to whom the secret was entrusted. no one. once having entered this place of carnage.JOURNEY OF AUn-KR-UAZZAK. with the details of that occurrence. who had had a new house shall is wc built for himself. there happened in the city of Bidjanagar an extraordinary and most singular occurrence. were invited were assembled together in one grand short intervals the prince either The men who hall. As soon as the individual who had been sent for entered the above-mentioned house. now relate. pierced him with a poignard. kettle-drums. disappeared. and cut him in pieces. all Care had been taken to bring together the drums. infidels Now it never to eat in presence of each other. never and the language of seemed : to address to these unfortunate ones the words of this verse Tliou shah not return any more. and the tumult. After having removed his limbs. out upon the journey of the fate come. sprang out upon him. two assassins. and these instruments playing all at made a tremendous uproar. and city. who. for ever. was aware of what was going . could be found in the the same time. invited thither the monarch and the principal perthe established usage of the sonages of the empire. trumpets. or rather the fragments of his body.

so that the and struck him therewith several violent blows. betook himself to the king's palace. INDIA IN IIIK FlFTKENTTl CENTIRY. left The traitor thus be- lieving that the king fidants to cut off the hall. brilis He said to the monarch : " The hall ready. that eminent receive an inspiration from Heaven. was dead. then going out of the he ascended to the portico of the palace. now I am Meanwhile his emissary had approached the throne with fallen. and king. thus losing to his house. with the help of one of who at the sight of this horrible tiansin a corner." This unnatural brother. the hope of enticing the king at the drew his poignard. there one of his con- monarch's head. : and thus ad- dressed the people " I have slain the king. holding in his hand a dish covered with betel-nut. following the The maxim which declares. action had hidden himself and went out of the palace by the way of the harem. the intention of cutting off the king's head. In this manner all those the state were slaughtered. At that moment the monarch cried out " I am . invited the multitude to recognize him : as their kino-. under which was concealed a liant poignard. slew this assassin. all who had any name The prince. still standing on the top of the steps of the hall of council. his (Ijandar [guards]. prince fell back of his throne. Brahmins. The king then. and addressing himself to to the guards who were stationed in that royal residence. leaving or rank in his house reeking with the blood of his victims. but that prince seizing the seat behind which he had struck the wretch with fell it with so nuTcli violence on the chest that he upon his back. his brothers." king. and they only wait your august presence. invited them to with flattering words go to his house. and such and such emirs. His brother. and caused them follow the steps of the other victims." viziers .34 on. said to in him : " I men am not good health to day. entered into the king's presence. So that the palace This villain then was thus deprived of all its defenders.

who was on his road home from his journey. their tyranny.. and devoted himself to the celebra- more earnestly than he had ever done before tion of the festival known bv the name of Malianadi. of INIahanadi. On being admitted honour of kissing the feet of the monarch. Men numbers AA'cre slain.y of ahi)-i. when he heard all the details of this affair. All those who had and aided in the conspiracy were put to death. which is celebrated avith extreme devotion amongst THE Infidels.j()ukni. a their glory. follows. he offered preservation of the God his fervent thanksgivings for the life of the prince.\k. and put him a to death. prepare every year a royal banquet worthy of a sovereign. letters of invitation. The man who had brought to the last the was put degree of torture. This solemnity bears in the name The manner which it is cele- brated is as In pursuance of orders issued by the king of Bidjanagar. 35 alivo. the generals and principal personages from all parts of his empire. . who and exercise an imposing authority in this country. The only one who escaped Ceylon. burnt alive.k-ka//. to the to was perfectly stupifled. 1 am well and safe. who previously to this sad event had voyage to the frontier of The king in sent him to invite him to return. Seize that wreteli. flayed. with a view of displaying their pride. Daiang. presented themselves at the palace." The whole crowd assembled together threw themselves upon the guilty prince. Description of the festival called Mahanadi. their fiimilies entirely exterminated.. feast. The idolaters. the gone on a courier to vizier. and informed him any way in great of what had just occurred. which extends over a space of three months' journey. their power. was Daiang.

a new chamber or a new hall presented itself to the In the front of this place rose a palace with nine pavilions. from which every one was Between the excluded excepting the author's friends. clothed in . the vast space of land magnificently decorated. in an extremely beautiful situation. faces more lovely than the spring. a thousand elephants. and with castles magnificently adorned. down to flies skill and gnats everything was drawn with extraordinary and delicacy. : that the imagination can picture. resembling the They brought with them waves of a troubled in sea. magnificently ornamented. palace and the pavilions. On the trunks and ears of these animals had been drawn. during three consecutive days. presented the appearance of the waves of the sea. with the emi- other substances^ extraordinary pictures and figures of wonderful beauty. were collected at the appointed time in the palace. who sang and inThe part of musicians is generally filled by Some young girls. At each moment view. as well as the elephants. and of animals of every kind. or of that compact mass of men which will be assemthis bled together at the day of the resurrection. Over magnificent space were erected numerous pavilions. and with storytellers. vented women. four. that they could turn rapidly round and present a new face. covered from top to bottom with figures in relief. in which the enormous elephants were congregated together. They represented everything men. in the month of Redjeh. birds. or a stormy cloud. which were covered with brilliant armour. were musicians and tales. In the ninth the king's throne was set up. In the seventh was allotted a place to the humble author of this narrative.36 INDIA IN THK FIFTEENTH CENTURY. with cheeks as full as the moon. wild beasts. which were jugglers and artificers. Some these pavilions were arranged in such a manner. with cinnabar and the chiefs of the army. and five stories. to the height of three. When nent personages and learned Brahmins from each province.

and raises the airs which moving in cadence with the time. At which one end of is this beam they attach a stone. A large elephant. stepping upon the first and second pieces of wood ascends the is third. they place another. and three quarters of a cubit in height of the two first on the top they place two other pieces. and at a of one (/hez in length . and on this the elephant mounts.JOUUNKY OV ARn-F. each of which is one cubit in length. 37 magnificent dresses. The jugglers exe: cute some feats of skill which are quite wonderful they place on the ground three pieces of wood. like the of a pair of scales./AK. breadth. charmed every heart. half a cubit in . While the elephant supports himself with his four feet upon this beam. and lowers his trunk alternately. the weight of equivalent to that of the elephant. of nearly the same length and breadth. which lies on the top of the first. and showing features which. until the two extremities of the piece of wood are exactly balanced. which touch each other. with a grace seduce every sense and captivate every mind. which crowns the whole. it so that the first and second pieces of wood form as were steps by which to reach the third piece.R-HA/. His keeper then lets go the cord by little and little. and which has a hole in the beam middle. like the beams of a pair of scales. the surface of which scarcely broader than the sole of one of the feet of this animal. After this they erect a column of ten ghez in height. The animal once placed on all the top of this beam. On was raised and again selves for fell. . follows with his trunk the musicians play. they raise behind him the other pieces of wood. like the freshest rose. which is by means of a cord they lower the end to which the plank is fastened. a little smaller. on the top of which they fix a long piece of wood. trained to this exercise. and the damsels arranged themcalculated to the dance. at the distance of one ghcz they place a broad plank. and at the other end. and above the second piece. were phaced behind a a sudden the curtain pretty curtain opposite the king.

the royal festival was pro- longed in a style of the greatest magnificence. orators.38 INDIA IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. in presence of the king all . . until that in which the raven of darkness unfolded its wings. which were about ten ghez both in length and in breadth. and makes the movements in cadence. bears the elephant and the other a stone of corresponding weight. It would be impossible. This piece of wood. at the moment when The the king arose. after the fashion of a semicircle. the art of inlaying precious stones country. During three consecu- from the moment when the burning sun like a peacock of enchanting plumage displayed himself proudly in the midst of the heavens. turns. without entering into details of too great a length. and in this elevated position the elephant follows the airs of the musicians. that in all the its the whole workmanproba- delicacy and ingenuity. the humble author of this narrative was conducted into the presence of the monarch. the monarch sent arrival at the palace I summon me. this j^earls of the most beautiful During the three days the king remained seated on cushion behind the throne. It is kingdoms of the world. receive from the king gold and tive days. making a half rotation from right to left. to hour of evening prayer. which was of an extraordinary size. enriched with precious stones. and games and amusements which sented. with precious stones of extreme value ship was perfect in ble. was made of gold. sports in which fireworks were this fete pre- employed. at the When the fete of jNIahanadi was ended. on the edges of which were sewn three rows of water. to describe in this place the picture of the different kinds of fireworks. On the third day. suits of ajjparel. The roof and the walls were en- tirely formed of plates of gold. and jugglers. and enriched . On my was introduced in the midst of four estrades. one end of which height of ten ghez. is no where better understood than in this Before the throne was a square cushion. throne. All the musicians.

He ordered to be given me some pi. tlic blade of a sword. the happy Khakan. who have become esta- blished in this country. fruits reserved for his own Certain inhabitants of Ormuz. Herat. and of the design which he had entertained of sending an embassy to the court. . The pomji of the king seated thereon was most imposing. in and was fastened with golden is Upon placed the throne of the king. and He expressed towards the emperor sentiments of the greatest friendship. cities. He said to me not execute work like that. two tokoHz [twice nine] of eunuchs. and other presents. 39 Each of the front. the csiradc. and said to me : " I shall send. and some use. his troops. respecting his great Shirez. the vizier ? It came even As will be seen in what followed. to and resorted every expedient to overthrow to its very foundations this edifice of peace and friendship. were extremely troubled thereat. and numbers of such as his horses.. upon the subject of the magnificent es trades enriched with precious stones. which is the asylum of princes. they spread abroad a the rumour that the author of this work was not really sent by happy Khakan.rses oifanoms. and the throne of very great size. having been informed of the favour which was show^n me by the king. some betel. together with an able ambassador. Samarcand." During this audience one of the king's favorites put a question to me. through the medium : of an interpreter. some rows of elephants.TOITRNKY OV Ain)-KI{-KAZ/AK. In pursu- ance of their wickedness aiid malignity. He questioned when me on also particular points respecting his majesty the his emirs. but it to produce workmanship of equal is not the custom." I The monarch highly approved of what had said. This assertion reached the ears of the vizier. emir and of the But vhy speak of the emir and to the Jiinrj. itself is these plates was as thick as nails." " In your country they could " Certainly in my I replied : country they are able beauty.

what cause of alarm can there be because certain of should my " servants are killed ?" Why I fear though a thousand of my servants toge- should die ? ther a In the space of a day or two I can bring hundred times as many. having heard of the conspiracy formed against the life of Diou-rai. At this period Daiang. set out on an expedition into the kingdom of Kalberga. Sultan Ala-cddin-Ahmcd-schah. : alive. which had led to this invasion were as follows. and of the assassination of tlie principal personages attached to the government of this j)rince. negligence. Troops were sent out on both which made great ravages on the frontiers of the two kingdoms. was equally troubled and irritated by the receipt On receiving it he said " Since I am of such a message. He scut to this monarch an eloquent mes: senger. the vizier. and I foundations the empire of idolatry." to be " If my enemies flatter themselves that they will find in it me weakness. atoms without number are seen. shall to the be given by to the hazdars [falconers] and Brahmins." " While the sun shines. or apathy. charged with the following message " Send me a sum of seven la/cs of verahahs. for whatever shall fall into my power me out of the territories of my enemy. Kalberga. idleness. I goes for star. what- my enemies will may find themselves able to take from my my kingdom. or else I will march into your Avill country a formidable army. the king of Bidjanagar. their seids and their learned men. be in their eyes a booty for them to distribute among part. had received the intelligence with extreme delight. am protected by a pow^erful and happy Fortune watches over ever me with affection. AVhereas. to supply the .40 INDIA IN THE FIFTRKNTH CENTURY." overturn from its Diou-rai. nothing. who manifested towards The reasons The king of the author of this work the most lively interest. The king had admitted into his council. Meanwhile." sides.

on several occasions when he met me on his road. and doubtful all as to what course he ought While these perplexities. without any reason. occasion. remained in a painful position. . me with kindness and asked after my wel- He is in truth a prince who possesses eminent quali- If we say sufficient. that he is just in everything . be paid a sum of seven thousand varahahs. which pro- duced a deep impression upon country inhabited by their minds. For a consider- able time the author. malicious. They also circulated amongst the idolaters a variety of falsehoods. were hanging over me. Two per- . suppressed. as soon as he had defiled by his presence the seat of authority. a Christian. mean. was in the midst of a to follow. having found a favourable their character. the daily allowance which had been assigned of to us. on the very day of his arrival. placed as he infidels.. place of Daiang. ties. turned towards fare. This wretch. most odious vices were united in him. without one finding in him any counterbalancing estimable quality. He expressed to Nimeh- pezir some keen reproaches for the neglect he had shown in the author's afiEliirs. . and stern. man thought himself equal to a vizier he was a creature All the of small stature. for which he delivered him an order upon the mint. had retraced to his steps. Soon after.TOrUNKY OF ARD-KR-RAZZAK. after having made an invasion upon the frontiers of the country of Kalberga. the inhabitants Ormuz. they said to that is man : " Abd-er-Razzak not an ambassador sent by his majesty the happy is Khakan he but a merchant who has been charged with the convey- ance of a letter from that monarch. such an eulogium is Daiang. however. ill-born. 41 This named Nimeli-pezir. manifested without reservation that diabolical malignity which was their stamped upon and the conformity of perverse inclinations having united them intimately with the vizier Mineh-pczir. the king. he caused to whom. and taken several unfortunate prisoners.

also dispatched a delegate who had filled the throne of named Kojah-Djemal- eddin. loho tcho. and the virtues of the saints. otherwise we should have shown thee greater attentions . thou shalt meet with a reception worthy of a king such as we are." that the tongue of great So and small. ivhen once I have escaped from the desert of thy love. however. and expressed himself in the following terms : " We had had the intention of gifts seeking the good will of the emperor by some sents and pre- worthy of a sovereign. set out on another voyage. have assured us that Abd-er-Razzak was not in any way attached to the court of your majesty. with the purity of the prophets.42 sons. and the pen of every secretary ought respect to this monarch) the following sentiment. the writing of every able to express (with man. INDIA IN THE FFFTEENTH CENTURY. both natives of who had fixed their abode in the kingdom of Bidjanagar. and various presents and stuffs were accordingly sent to them. On the the day of the audience of dismissal the king said to this humble author of work : " It has been asserted that thou wast not really sent by his majesty Mirza-Schah-Rokh. a Khidr. Fatah-Khakan. Delhi. I reach my own In a letter country. the one of the descendants of the Sultan Firouz-Schah. . possesses the love of holds the rank of Moses. he " This prince unites in his person the qualities of a king. the monarch inserted those statements so full of malignity which had been in- vented by the inhabitants of Ormuz. not even in the company of a addressed to his majesty. Kojah-Masood and Kojah Mohammed. charged with a present and a letter. God. if thou comest back on a future occasion into my territories. Certain persons. were appointed to undertake the duties of ambassadors. Thou art a Noah. I will never again king. like Abraham. Khorassan." But the author said to himself mentally : If." titles In detailing the said : which are assumed by the august Khakan. and that which constitutes the glory of a sovereign.

in con- formity to this maxim " God tvill is the friend of those who hold the true faith : He bring them forth fr 0771 the darhiess. .JOUHNKY or AIJD-ER-RAZZAK. Henceforth the habitable globe shall be regarded as forming part of thine empire. and the brilliant out-shining of the . the expres" hold the equinoctial line under the line of his is authority. became changed into days of gladness and confidence. The of sun of the Divine Mercy disjjlayed itself above the to the east horizon of happiness. loho encircles the majesty God. thou art Jesus.'''' and will lead them fo7'ih i7ito the Those nights of of the affliction and weariness. History of the Deluge. whose aspect expresses the Dicine Spirit. sun of prosperity and the evening. my hopes. were succeeded by the breaking dawn of happiness. and directed his course towards the shores of the sea of Oman. the country of Bidjanagar sion to is placed under the equinoctial line. passed in the sad abode of idolatry and error. The star of fortune arose The bright glimmer of joy and : satisfaction showed itself in the midst of the darkness of night. according to the ideas of these people. The duration of the night was longer than that of the day. set forth on his journey." perfectly correct. The humble author homeward of this work. which was full of the anxieties of weakness. ACCOTJNT OF THE AuTHOR's VOYAGE ON HIS RETURN FROM THE COUNTRIES OP HiNDOOSTAN. after having completed his ncgociations. DESCRIPTION OF A STORM. As. light. it is therefore that thou holdest the equinoctial line under the line of thy authority. Tlioii 43 of the throne of art Ahmed.

One of the ambassadors of Bidjanagar. and with vast hopes. crease. ness and compassion of God. hundred and Throughout For many years he had been an object of veneration both to Mussulmans and idolaters. on the of day of the month Hamaza^i [Nov. who was twenty years old. The latter has been constantly on the increase. 1443]. and as the whole country which I had traversed was inhabited by idolaters. I committed myself to the good- my journey." With on a heart full of energy. ney. Sord. 5th. T set out or rather. Under spot our this vaidt. I left the city of Bidjanagar to commence first my jour- After travelling eighteen days. On the twelfth day of the month of Schahan [Nov. and the former on the de- As tlie city from which I was returning was situated at the extremity of the regions of Hindoostan.— : 44 INDIA IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. head rest heneath the brink of the tomb ! After having celebrated in the port of val which follows the to fast. 1443]. the country his words were regarded as oracles. and I laid in the . had loho knotvs in lohat just died in this city. and no one ventured to object to his decisions. I made my Maganor the festiway to the port of all Manor [Plonawer] procure a vessel. the dwelling ivill of evil. accompanied by the am- bassadors. Kojah-Masud. a the honour of being admitted to the society of the Sheriff- Emir Seid-Ala-eddin-Meskhedi. ? entirely absorbed by the But why speak of what does not deserve to be recalled position l7i at all events in spite of my grievous place of hope I have hut this maxim as my sole provisio7i for my voyage " Despair not of the mercy of Ood. is hut noio the face of everything changed. my travelling resources had been troubles I had undergone. I reached the shores There I had of the sea of Oman and the port of Maganor.

after a million of shocks. the wind. . I collected observations respecting remarkable names and facts worthy of note. which resem- bled men in their drink. and the open we loere surrounded with happiness. The planks of which was composed. the wine which produced^ this it to the vessel. presented to our minds the forebodings of a catastrophe. little company The eye of sad events to Fortune appeared and of misfortunes loas gone to sleep. the author of which was the Iman Djafar-Sadek. at the moment that I was on the point of embarking. in the conversation of the companions of my voyage. for I lighted npon this verse " Fearnothing . 1444] and put presented to to sea. of and on all were heard groaning and The night. I felt all those anxieties disappear from my situmy heart. reached sea. Abandoning myself entirely to the hope of a happy deliverance. through the effect of the contrary winds.for thou hast been preserved from the hand : of unjust men. 45 provisions necessary for twenty persons during a voyage of forty clays.'" Struck with the coincidence of this passage w^ith ation. my thoughts the traces of the Divine power. I opened the Book of Fates. were on the point of becoming change penetrated even ^ Poetically speaking. at the same time. and throughout our peace and contentment prevailed. One day. and which by their conformation seemed to form a continuous line. which had caused me alarm in the prospect of encountering the sea. 28th. the vessel. While the vision of those ships which float over the mountain-like waves of the sea.JOUUXKY OF AllD-ER-RAZZAK. On a sudden the sea. There I found a presage of joy and happiness. and which is composed from verses of the Alcoran. The ship. On a sud- den. and the gulf. have given herself up to indolence. I embarked on the eighth day of the month of Zu'lkadah [Jan. there arose a violent all sides wind on the surface cries.

from the strangeness of their style. in to present. The sails were torn. and resigned myself entirely to the Divine Will. I remained. with respect to a fish. and of the profound which I became a prey. the manner of the Sofis. and had forgotten all his science. divided like the separate letters of the alphabet. tJie hilloio rises beneath it. shed bitter tears. the mast was entirely bent by the shock of the wind. the vessel was lifted up to the skies it . which resembled mountains. through the driving of the waves. in danger ? when all life itself. was For myself. to his skill in to might be compared was anxious throw himself into the water like an anchor. and. are utterly unintelligible. The captain. with tears in my eyes I gave myself up for ness to Through the effect of the stupor. Who is could give a thought to the jeostufis pardy in which their money and their were placed. icas lihe the to which is suddenly exposed the heat of the month of ^ M. like the sadsea. To our thoughts was strikingly presented the truth of that passage : " The it is loaves cover it. hitherto so strong. . the waters. under the impulse of to the the violent winds. this situation. which so dear to man. ice and utterly dispersed the firm7iess which and my mind. at another. which brought before in my its eyes the threatening terrors which the ocean had power lost." sailor The who. Quatremere here states that he has omitted two verses. At one time. ferent grades of passengers The dif- who inhabited this floating house after threw out upon the waves riches of great value. the cloud. and above swimming. which. the violence of the sustained me. voluntarily stripped themselves of their worldly goods. although fami- liarized with the navigation of all the seas.^ descended like divers bottom of The agitation of melt lihe salt deluge anniliilated the waters loliich is of the sea caused my body to dissolved in water . with my lips dry and my eyes moist.46 INDIA IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY.

I reflected and put the question to myself: " "WTiat. to wash completely and disperse from the face of my situation In the the dust which rendered my life a grievance to me. in the distribution of the water of His kindness. May the torrent of destruction overturn the edifice offate.JOUKNKY or Aim-Ell-RAZ/AK. and from who never upbraideth with the immense fresh verdure sea of his benefits. I drew from weapon. and was in language : by my situation that I repeated. through the my extreme alarm. who is supremely merciful. which has made fortune in her revolution fall so heavily upon me ? . bestow upon the shrub of my existence and to deign. then. 47 agitated. resembled. which tore my breast an my very soul. At the sight of the agitated sea. it Many dictated times I said to myself. Tamotiz . is this catastrophe. icy sigh it was a sharp Overwhelmed at every point. Each moment that the pupils it of my eyes contemplated that muddy water. pilace not upon us a burden which is heavy for our strength to bear ? I prayed to the Being. this verse ! A dismal night the fear of the ivaves. a flaming sword. to His goodness. and the brilliant mirror of my ideas. I addressed myself to God too with the expression of this verse : Oh. winds. overset by the tempestuous . of the dampness of the water. midst of this sad position. and so frightful an abyss 9 What judgmeyit of can they who are so peaceful on shore form of our situation ? The pure water my life was troubled by the agitation of in consequence the sea . little bedew and to . and seeing the gate of hope shut on every side against me. with an eye full of tears and a heart full of burning chagrin. and the putrefaction of the air. to be pleased. our Lord. as is even now mt/ heart is tronhlcd and ihejish which is taken out of fresh tcatcr. was covered with effect of rust. which thus brings in successive leaves the waters of misfortune upon my head.

and the sea.48 INDIA IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY.'''' The : morning of joy began to dawn from the East of happiness. through the hostility of a perfidious fate. gained sight. " What." was in the midst of these reflections. which. like that of a gem. . verse 63. and drires aioay his misery?''''^ infinite on a sudden. I my face to disappear ? On life the one have been unable to snatch my precious from the fury of the waves of death. has caused the serenity of side. to bring to the surface of the water the pearl of nearlects nothinsr my exertions. : brought to the ears of " Since on your behalf we fate have divided the we have saved you. If the man of sincerity casts [his loyalty to] his king into the fire of events. the zephyr of God's mercy began to blow upon me from that point which is indicated by these words " Despair not of the mercy of the Most High. in conformity with sires. at month all of Zu'lhidjah [middle of March. "" : by virtue of that Divine promise Who is He tvlio hears the prayers of the afflicted. which is ordinarily so pre- cious. My fellow-passengers. after the manner of pure and everything gold. master. my de- became completely calm." The impetuous hurricane was changed to a favourable wind. and the messenger of a propitious my soul these consolatory words sea. or rather the gold of his loyalty. in carrying out the business of my sovereign. of a base and contemptible destiny. the Koran. must show no alteration in the smallest atom . the tossing of the waves ceased. is this shame. and when its it it becomes a question of executing the business of regards life itself. about me spoke of dejection and trouble. nor have I been able. as utterly valueless. ^ At this period. then. when at length. to For a generous soul the fulfilment of the its which can tend it obligations Avhich has contracted towards benefactor. 1444] of the mountain of Kalahat. and found themselves at length in safety from the perils of the deep. after having celebrated the close of the at sea the feast of victims. surate 27. his nature. becomes I still more refined.

where it put in for a day or two. that even the bird of rapid flight was burnt up in the heights of heaven. that day- break one would have said that the heavens had earth on fire. Our voyage from sixty-^t. and reached the eighth day of the Ormuz on the forenoon of Friday. . 49 new moon of the month of Moharrem. set the So intense was the heat which scorched up the atmosphere. re-embarked and set sail from the port of Jurufgan. the month of Safar [April 22nd. we re-embarked. After having repaired the damages which the vessel had suffered through the effect of the storms. of the year 848 [middle of INIarch 1444]. as well as the fish in the depths I of the sea. The closing events ov the Author's voyage by sea. After leaving Muscat. On our arrival at the port of Muscat we cast anchor. the vessel arrived at the port of Jurufgan. still I had reached the point at sea for several which the new moon of INIoharrem shewed us her shining on the sea. port of Honawer to Ormuz had lasted ^ ' Oaore. His arrival at Ormuz. 1444].JOURNEY OF ABD-ER-RAZZAK. On this occasion at we felt during one night such excessive heat. In retracing the story of at my voyage.e days. and continued our voyage. like a beneficent spirit looked on us with a friendly eye. face The vessel remained days. under the protection of God Most High.




on from India. AS RELATED BY POGGIO BBACCIOLINI. for the came to pope Eugenins (he being then his return second time at Florence) for the purpose of craving absolution. IN HIS WORK ENTITLED LIB. of the situation and different manners and customs of the Indians. also of their animals and trees . compelled to renounce his not so much from the fear of death to himself. upon serving to be committed to many matters which seemed very dememory and also to writing. He discoursed learnedly and gravely concerning his journey to such remote nations. " HISTOllIA DE VARIETATE FORTUNiE.r HE TRAVELS IN TUE NICOLO CONTI. as his wife from the danger which threatened I being very- and children who accompanied him. IV. IN THE EAST. both in the meetings of learned men and at my own house. inasmuch as. he faith. who had penetrated to the interior of India. he had arrived Avas at the confines of Egypt. when. questioned him diligently. EARLY PART OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. desirous of his conversation (for I had heard of related many things by him which were well worth knowing). on the Red Sea." A CERTAIN Venetian named Nicolo.

after being tossed about by a tempest when oiF for a fortnight. ever penetrated. which are situated in the midst of the province. He says that on reaching the border of these deserts. vi. The king of this island. cap. he departed thence with his merchandise in company with six hundred other merchants (who formed what is com- monly called a caravan). was so much struck by his answers that he became desirous of The their friendship. so far For he crossed the Ganges and travelled far beyond the island of Tapro- bana. through fear of what might be about happen.. they that about midnight. . His fabri- accounts bore cations. they to all got up. being a young man. INDIA IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. like travellers. And saw a great multitude of people on horseback. to the eifect that a freedmau of one Anuius Plocamus. and thence through Chaldeea until he ar- rived at the Euphrates. in the island of Taprobana. with the exception of a commander of the fleet of Alexander the Great. was. 22). having questioned the freedman respecting the Romans. there happened to them a very marvellous adventure were resting. description given by these ambassadors of their island of Taprobana is inserted by Pliny in his history. with whom he passed over the deserts of Arabia Petrtea. pass in silence near their tents without off'ering molestation. being overtaken the coast of Arabia. and thinking that it might be Arabs who were while they stood thus they coming to rob them. and forthwith desijatched ambassadors to Rome. Nat. both of whom were driven there by tempests. resided as a merchant in the city of Damascus in Syria.. lib. and forms the twenty-second chapter of the sixth book. and not traveller He went farther than any former as our records inform us. driven on shore at Hypuros. and in what place each thing is produced. Avhile they heard a great noise. Nicolo. 4 and spices. all the appearance of being true. Having learnt the Arabic lan- guage. them any Several merchants who had seen the same thins* ^ This refers to a story related by Pliny {Hist. and a Roman citizen^ in the time of Tiberius Claudius Csesar. a point which there is no evidence that any European had previously reached.

before. where the sea rises and the Atlantic Ocean. and then at the travelling for eight days through the country. of which he afterwards made great use. who were in the manner through these deserts. * The Gulf of Cambay. the manner of Sailing through this gulf for the space of five days he came to the port of Colcus. the two parts of which are connected together by a single bridge of fourteen arches. situated in the having passed the mouth of the river In country are found those precious stones " Baghdad. and afterwards to Ormuz (which is a small island in the said gulf). is On the river Euphrates tliere a noble city.^ and in four days' journey beyond falls in Persian Gulf. distant from the mainland twelve miles. which he continued to wear during the whole period of his travels. learned the Persian language. Many monuments and still foundations of buildings of the ancient city are seen. he the Persians. loyal companions one Sailing in this wise together.^ through the centre of the The river Euphrates flows city. with strong towers at both ends. he arrived at the city of Calacatia. which he saw many noble and cultivated islands. Sailing hence for the space of twenty days in down the river. and also adopted the dress of the country. Bussorah. he arrived in the course of a month Indus. . asserted that they liabit O of passing. a very noble emporium of Here. the circumference of which teen miles. he arrived at a city called Balsera.THE TRAVELS OF NICOLO CONTI. and also the royal palace. ^ at the very noble city of after this second gulf^ Cambay. Subsequently he and some Persian merchants freighted a ship. Leaving this island and turning towards India for the space of one hundred miles. to be In the upper part of the city there is a very strong fortress. having first taken a solemn oath to be faithful and to another. having remained for some time.in this were demons. and which is four- called by the inhabitants thereof by the new name of Baldochia. a part of the is ancient city of Babylon.

this city there are ninety thousand this region men as to bear arms. A number. of whom like four thousand follow him on foot wherever he may go.b INDIA IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. Their king is more power- ful than all the other kings of India. which grows to the height of two cubits. one named In these districts Pacamuria. on which they cast ashes and place three days. more handsomely equipped. which sidered to be a great honour for them. so that its extent thereby encreased. the city tains is is sixty miles : its walls are The circumference of carried up to the mounestimated to be inhabitants of and enclose the valleys In fit at their foot. is con- . with great leaves. and are employed solely in the service of the kitchen. who are burnt with their dead husbands. and burns herself with him other wives. grows ginger. It is the called sardonixcs. of reeds. and the other Helly. The remainder are carried by men in litters. similar to those of the blue lilies called Iris. and arrived at two cities situated on the sea shore. Departing hence. the when the funeral pile is lighted. situated near very steep mountains. of whom two thousand or three thousand are selected as his wives on condition that at his death they should voluntarily burn themselves with him. he arrived at the great city of Bizenegalia. cast themselves will into the flames. which cover the They grow like the roots From these the ginger is it obtained. called in the language of the country heledi. He takes to himself twelve thousand wives. places herself by his side with . for one or more of their wives to burn themselves with them. geheli. her arm round his neck. in which time it is in the sun for dried. and travelling about three hundred miles inland. fruit. most dear to the deceased. with a hard bark. Proceeding onwards he sailed for the space of twenty days. at These ceremonies be described more length hereafter. The marry many wives as they please. ride on horseback. and neli. It is the root of a shrub. custom when husbands die. in She who was the order to add to the pomp of the funeral.

7 Pelagonda is suhjcct to the same is it is ten miles in circumference. viz. excepting that the branches do not are spread out horizontally : grow upwards. 8 Ceylon. and almost it Here there grows a tree which does not bear fruit. TK. Travelling afterwards hence at a city by land cities. safHres. by digging.\VKT-S city of OF Nlf'01. is but the leaf of which six cubits in length as many broad. garnets. All this province is called Malabar. and which they find. in like is is These Nestorians are scattered as are the manner Jews among us. but the leaves are very like those ^ ^ The Bay of Bengal. or Palmyra is tree (Bomssi's ffabellifoi'mis.^ ther are carried on the These leaves are used in as a country for writing upon instead of paper.(N CONTT. Three or four persons travelling together can be covered by one of these leaves stretched out. India. rubies. Proceeding onwards the said Nicolo is named Malepur. for twenty days he arrived and seaport called Pcudifctania. and distant eight days' journey from Bizenegalia.) : but the thinness of the leaves ^ enormously exaggerated. and those stones which arc called cats' eyes. It is a tree which very much resembles our thick wil- lows. where pearls are found.. The Fan Palm.THE The very noble king . there is In the middle of the gulf is a very noble island called Zeilam. situHere the ated in the Second Gulf beyond the Indus. L. which also called Cahila. body of Saint Thomas lies honourably buried in a very it is worshiped by heretics. where the red sandal wood grows. . and inhabit this city to the number all of a thousand. Here also cinnamon grows in great abund- ance. on the road to which he passed two Odeschiria and Cenderghiria. and so thin that when pressed together can this be held in the closed hand. and in rainy wea- head covering to keep off the wet. large and beautiful church arrived at a maritime city which ^ : who over are called Nestorians. Beyond this city there another.^ which in three thousand miles in circumference.

Sumatra.^ is leaving on his right hand an which eight means the island of gold. The ears The men are cruel and their cusboth of the men and women are very which they wear earrings ornamented with precious Their garments are made of linen and silk. the study of life. hang down The men marry as many wives as they please. island called Andamania.^ middle of which islands are is this island there is a lake. to No travellers touch here unless driven so taken they are torn savages. devoting the whole of their astrology. the circumference of which hundred miles. The three principal islands lying in close contiguity with each other island. large. and cultivating the virtues and refinements of called He afterwards went to a fine city of the island Taprobana. which are the bark is When In stripped off the much used by the Indians. The bark The fruit of the branches tree is is the thinnest and best.8 INDIA IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. The governed by persons who puted to are of the race of bramins. in stones. do by bad weather. in the a city three miles in circumference. : resembles the berries of the laurel it an odoriferous oil is extracted from adapted for ointments. is which island by the natives Sciamuthera. toms brutal. and who are reThe bramins are great life to philosophers. and to their knees. may have been mistaken by Nicolo for one . wood is used for fuel. ^ There are no longer any traces of a lake in the centre of Ceylon of sufficient ^ "* magnitude to contain a city three miles in circumference. in order to is This account of the cinnamon remarkably exact. be wiser than other people.^ He re- mained one year in this city (which is six miles in circumthat island). but are somcwliat larger. that of the trunk of the thicker and inferior in flavour. ference and a very noble sailed for the space of emporium of and then twenty days with a favourable wind. The Andaman Isles. for when to pieces and devoured by these cruel Taprobana is He affirms that the island of six thou- sand miles in circumference. of the laurel. The inhabitants are cannibals. ^ Their houses are extremely low.

390. is Ternas- which situated on the mouth of a river of the same name. but extremely oflfensive to those who are unaccustomed to it. ^ Batta a district extending from the river Singkell to the Tabooyong. camphor. having sea. one of the most highly esteemed fruits of the Malay Islands. L. the inhabitants eat human for flesh. When opened five fruits are found within. and inland to the back of Ayer Bangis.^ island of Taprobana he arrived^ at the city of stormy passage of sixteen days. . They In this island pepper. larger than the ordinary pepper. and also gold are produced in great abundance. when they have captured an enemy they cut off his head. also long pepper. and. In this island there also groM's a green fruit. flesh. it for' money. thrush. 3rd edit. Marsden. on account of . This district abounds in elephants and a species of Afterwards. The tree which produces and re- the pepper is similar to the ivy. When they desire to purchase any it they its give one or more heads in exchange for value. the seeds are green : semble in form those of the juniper tree they dry them in the sun. and are in a state of constant warfare with their neighbours. like In one part of the island called Batech. spreading a few ashes over them. The taste varies. 9 them against the excessive heat of the idolaters.THE protect arc all TllAVELS OF NIC0l6 CONTI. made many journeys both by land and he entered the mouth of the river Ganges. its nauseous odour..'^ They keep human heads as valuable property. resembling oblong oranges. which they call duriano^ of the size of a cucumber. that of cheese. gives instances of canibalism among this people as late as the year 1780. sun. the capital of a district of the same name in the Bii-man empire. store and having eaten the up the skull and use article. in his " History of Sumatra" (p. and he to according to is who has most heads in his house considered be the most wealthy. sailing ^ Durio ZiletJdnus.). ^ Tenasserim. Having departed from the after a sai'i.

which are found there. up at the end of fiftecu days he came to a hirge and wealthy city. at the end of a month's voyage. * Aracan. and landed at is an extremely powerful city called a great abundance of aloe wood. and above all those called tnusa. being in the middle of you cannot it see land on either side. resembling the nuts which and also we call nuts of India.^ sailed Having departed hence he up the river Ganges for the space of three months. Having spent Departing thirteen days on this expedition. thence he arrived. Cocoa nuts. at the mouth of the river Racha. skiffs adapted to The us are distance between the knots about the height of a man.^ figs. formerly called Nitces Iiuliccv. they is and of such surprising thickness that one man alone cannot encompass them with his arms boats. for •} make of these fishing which purpose one alone is sufficient. is ness. L. for the purpose of procuring those precious stones called carbuncles. which more than a palm's breadth in thickthe navigation of the river. wherein grow vast varieties of fruits. he returned to the city of Cernove. and situated upon the bank Quitting this city he travelled through mountains void of ^ ^ ^ Bananas. villas On both banks of the stream there are most charming and plantations and gardens. Bamboos. and thence proceeded to Buffetania. which are more sweet than honey. precious stones.^ and navigating to a up the said river. it. called Cernove.10 INDIA IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. where there gold. and pearls. Crocodiles and various kinds of fishes unknown to found in the river. . he came in the space of six days very large city called by the same name thereof. This river is so large that. and of the wood or bark. He On asserts that in some places is the banks of this river there grow reeds extremely high. fifteen miles in width. silver. From thence he took the route towards some mountains situated towards the east. it. as the river. Ilicsa Faradisiaca. leaving behind him four very fa- mous cities. Maarazia.

locis . and those weapons which we crossbows. Hac sola in civitate plurimas tabernas rei. and the circumference fifteen miles. quse invitatus. prout libuit variis circum circa dies . Their bows. is This province. but most probably Siam. antequam uxorem capiat. for fifteen clays and then through open plains more. aurca. trudi inter pellem et et amplius. proficisci enim rejicitur a conjugio :) execta atque elcvata paulum his sona- mcmbri liis virilis cute. THE TRAVELS OF all NICOIA) CONTl. carnem ex usque ad duodecimum. 8] : In the rutting season they drive tame female ele- 1 The Youmadoung mountains. and uses their backs.^ ten thousand of these abounds in elephants. ut puto. . feminas summa Multorum dum ambulant membra tibiis voluptate afiici. which called by the inhabitants Macinus. lasciva^que esse affirmat vencli in his a solis feminis ca que nos sonalia.^ Having sailed up this river for the space of a month he arrived at a city more noble than of Avhich is all the others.. a sono. as supposed by Ramusio. animals. dicta aj^pclla- mus. and it agrees with the mode stated by Pliny [lib. which is called by the inhabitants Dava. of Burmah ^ ^ The Irrawaddy. called Ava. ridicula. noluit eum a parvitate Priapi deridebant. (aliter ad has virum. ita ut audiantur. c. quam joci gratia scripsi. in modum parvuloc avellana. Ad hoc Nicolaus sa?pius a midieribus. mcmbrique tumore. at the end of which time he arrived at a river larger than the Ganges. 8. is This province cannot be Mangi. argentea fcreaque. repercussa resonant. . manner of capturing these elephants is said to be generally as follows. hoc ad explendum mulierum libidinem his enira tanquam internodiis. inde consuta cute intra paucos sanari fieri . 11 habitations' lor the space of seventeen clays. them They fight fix castles on from which eight or ten men call with javelins. The king keeps in his wars. formerly called Siau. dolorem suum aliis voluptati esse. forming the western boundary Proper.

12 INDIA IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. They drive the elephants into a small valley enclosed on all sides. into a place set apart for this purpose. and the doors are then immediately closed. while the feet as men be- hind throw the nooses over his hind he raises them. running nooses a man then presents himself to the beast in the forepart of the enclosure. with very strong ropes with . which so intelligent. runs out through the other. giving him only a little grass daily. perceives the female to be there and enters to by the first door come to her. It is also related rendered tame as the by Nicolo. and there make them gentle. The kings purchase these for their own use. and thus in ten days he others. to a pole fixed and then drawing the cords into the ground. and tame them by hunger. In the course of fifteen tie days he becomes him between two tame elephants is They afterwards and lead him through as the city. as soon as she sees him. quiet. left until phants into the woods. she. in order whom he carries on his back may not be injured. one When the elephant for the entrance and another for exit. tight fasten them and leave the elephant there for three or four days. that in other parts they tame them thus. through apertures made for that purpose in the walls. that is applied to the head. leave the males shut up and having removed the females they there. At the end of four days they drive them thence and conduct them to narrow places constructed for the purpose. As soon to kill as the elephant sees him he runs furiously at him him. who guides them with an iron hook. This animal is the javelins of the that those when he is in battle he frequently receives enemy on the sole of his foot. elephants are governed by one man. and The tame the wild ones eat branches of trees and grass. where they are the wild male elephants seek them . sur- rounded by a wall and furnished with two large doors. the female then gradually with- draws. The tame elephants are fed upon rice and butter. . As many as a thousand men then enter. feeding.

but shorter. as well men as women. and upon which they write. It is said that its is horn is an antidote against poisons. fruit like large turnips. eat The inhabitants as food." In this country there full is a kind of apple. also eat a kind of red ant. and on that account much esteemed. See oMe.THE TRAVELS OF NIC0L6 CONTl. : nevertheless when they rise the east. A species of python.* It resembles the elephant in size it is and which constantly at war. which reaches to The men all of this country are satisfied with one wife and their the inhabitants. the juice This tree bears contained under the bark becoming solid. as This country produces frightful serpents^ without thick as a man. in the morning from their beds they turn towards and with their hands joined together say. forms very agreeable sweet food. them roasted. a that of an ox. very similar to a pomegranate.^ There is also a tree the leaves of which are extremely large. and six cubits in length. p. round is the neck of Avhich fastened a chain of gokl ornamented its feet. and hold them in great esteem They per. and painted for ever. for throughout all India they do not use paper excepting in the city of Cambay. 13 The king of this province rides on a white elephant. 7. In the upper part of ^ towards Cathay. with to that of the unicorn. L. there Probably the Jamboo apple : Eugenia Jamhos. and rub into these punctures pigthey remain All worship idols ments which cannot be obliterated. puncture so flesh with pins of iron. * 2 * The Fan Palm. of the size of a small crab. . with precious stones. " God in Trinity and His law defend us. called tal.~ of juice and sweet. and on his forehead a horn similar colour. being about a cubit in length. The rhinoceros. which they consider a great delicacy seasoned with pepThere here also an animal which has a head resembling tail like is that of a pig. feet. this country. .

which are used kings.14 INDIA IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. near to the city of Kanbalu." by Marsden. fifty years before the time when Conti visited . but the tail to their feet. arc found white and black bulls. The principal city named called Cambaleschia. and those arc most prized that of a horse. all sorts. which have hair and a tail like more full of hair and reaching the tail. 287. p. See The Travels of Marco Polo. in which situated the king's palace. retire into the fortresses at his pleasure. and twenty-eight miles in circumference. considered a distinguished kind of embellishment. '"' limits cannot now be 2 Kanbalu. so that they may completely cover the hinder parts of the animal to the neck. for the service of their idols and of their their They also place them over the crupper of horses in a gold or silver cone. : they also fasten them hanging down. is valued at its w^eight in silver. is Beyond province of Macinus world. and the circuit is of each of these sited military four miles.^ The lord Khan. very large. Of this kind of hair they make fans. centre is a very handsome and strong fortress. arms of cities. but defined. and machines for war and the storming of From the royal palace a vaulted wall extends through the city to each of the said four fortresses. by which. which in the lanmeans emperor. is In each of the four angles there In these fortresses are depo- constructed a circular fortress for defence. called its Cathay embraces the northern part of China. for a full description of " the great and ad- mirable palace of the Grand Khan.^ is It is built in the form of a quadIn the is rangle." as it was about one hundred and the East. so that. The hair of which is very fine and as light as a feather. The cavalry also carry the hair at the head of their lances as a this mark of high nobility. they may form an ornaThis is ment to the breast. Fifteen days from this city there is another. the ancient name for Peking. and is one which is superior to all others in the of this country is called the Great guage of the inhabitants is Cathay. he can distant ^ in the event of the people rising against the king.

and if The camphor is found within the tree. in his 9 . while Odoardo Barbosa. the other two thousand. in his route to the They lie are distant from the continent one month's "^ and within one hundred miles of each other. Both are situated towards the These islands lay and are distinguished from each other by the names of the Greater and the Less. and more wealthy than any that have been before mentioned. it no more seen. and more populous than the others. * La Martiniere. melons. in his " Dictionnaire Geographique. both of which are called Java. Afterwards he departed from Ava and proceeded towards where there is the sea. whence the corruption Quin-sai. gentle and discreet. Hang-chow-Keun-che. ocean. the houses and palaces and other ornaments arc similar to those in Italy : the men. In central India there are two islands towards the extreme confines of the world. ^ Most probably the river Pegu. This the only place in which vines are found. chesnuts. and having entered the at a river. ^ is He for the space of four months. the circumference of which twelve miles. They have pine is apples. they do not sacrifice to the gods before they cut the disappears and bark. and in common parlance Keun-che. white sandal wood. but small and green. according to the statement of Nicolo. wise. in the time of Marco Polo. for the And in this place they do not use the grape purpose of making wine. Its present name is Haug-chow-foo.THE TRAVELS OE NICOEO Ncmptai/ which has been In these two cities. oranges." says that Little Java was the island now called Bally. and here in very small quantity : for throughout all India there arc no vines. and at the expiration of seventeen days he arrived at the mouth of a moderately sized river. sail. 15 It is thirty built by this kint^. miles in circumference. * Pegu is the city which corresponds most nearly with this description. and camphor. One east. at the end of ten days he arrived remained here very populous city called is Panconia.^ a port called Xeythona . CONTl. He ^ Nemptai is supposed to be the same as the city called. of these islands is three thousand miles in circumference. neither is there any wine.

of slight plumage. If any one purchase a new scimiter or sword and wish to try it. and inflicted it praise the skill of the person who if he thrust the weadesires pon in direct. rather than be naked sword until he is a slave. neither that any punishment awarded passers for the death of man. for the space of nine remained here children. is conqueror decides the winning In Great Java a very remarkable bird a found. cats. are present to witness the sport selves Those who make bets amongst them- upon these combatants. and with an trees. feet. They regard man as a mere jest. demanding of him his debt.: 16 INDIA IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. and the cock that remains bet. oblong it always frequents The it flesh of this bird account of his travels in India. which he constrained by the judges to satisfy. months with his wife and who accompanied him in all his journeys. dogs. slaves. as given by Conti (two thousand miles). states that was called by the natives Ambaba. does nat correspond with either of these islands. prefers death. and they eat mice. other kinds of unclean animals. There can be little doubt but that Sumatra was sometimes called Java. without tail . he will thrust is it into the breast of the first person he meets. resembling wood pigeon. in satisfy his by taking as many The amusement most ing. vogue amongst them is cock-fight- Several persons will produce their birds for fighting. The by examine the wound. Every person may wives as he pleases. The and all inhabitants of these islands are more inhuman and cruel than any other nation. probablj the modern Sumbawa. . They exceed every killing a other people in cruelty. seizing a issues into the street and kills all he meets. nor is any punishment allotted for such a deed. which are extremely small. however. each maintaining that his will be the conqueror. The circumference. Debtors are given up to their creditors to be their But he who. slain then comes the creditor of the dead by some one more powerful than himself man and cites him by whom is he was killed.

and is brilliant. but the skin and tail arc highly prized. he. which are called nori^ that both kinds of the size of doves hens. two others arc found the one . and gold. the feet being preoiously removed.' At fifteen days' sail : beyond these is islands eastward. some with red and a yellow beak. in which nut. In Bandan three kinds of parrots feathers are found. called in tlic which means a parrot with bright coloured plumage. pepper. excellent they excel in talking. at a noble ciiy twelve miles.^ the circumference of which is This province is called Melibaria. or birds of paradise. but these places are sufficiently near to admit of the skin having been imported into Java. megs and maces grow the other is named Bandan this is the only island in which cloves grow. some party-coloured. THE TKAVKLS OF is NICOI. and even answering questions. which are exported hence to the Java islands. Having quitted Java. imitating gable beyond these islands. The sea is not naviinhabitants of both islands are black. called Sandai. . called by the natives is colohi.'' and they ginger. camphor. and the stormy atmosphere keeps navigators at a distance. abounding in aloes wood.() (JONI'l. kokilo. In that journey he occupied one month in the and departing thence.. being used as ornaments for the head. of New ^ It is true that the bird of paradise is not a native of Java but Guinea. —the cockatoo : Javanese lan- guage * Quilon '" ? Malabar. ' A species of cacatU(X. arrived called Coloen. A species of Lorius I : so called noerri (the and n are convertible letters in the from the Javanese word loerri or Javanese language).^ which means the more human speech in The a wonderful manner. and taken with him such were useful for articles as to a commerce. ^ It is tell not easy to conjecture what bird here alluded to. 17 not eaten. : also some white of the size of These : last are called cachi. and it is therefore possible that may be one of the Paradisea. he bent his course westward maritime city called Ciampa. the skins of which are wrapped round a stick and used as ornaments. collect in it same space of time. Nicold does it not us that he saw the bird alive.

They have seven heads arranged along the body. and the flesh food. little They this are pleased with the sight of children. ' a kernel within. resembling very sweet to the and which are separated from each other by follicles. tending their feet and shaking their wings. and which as the chesnut. and live in trees. for they have a pellicle extending from the fore to the hinder feet and attached are at rest. but so large rind is A be grows here in great abundance. but harmless unless irritated. which is up when they They from tree to tree drawn by exflying. and an oblong for food. and by means are enticed into the presence of men. and also in another called Susinaria. but yields nevertheless to the presAVithin are from two hundred and figs.^ to the fly body. When pursued by hunters they fall to the earth tree when fatigued by and so are taken.'^ The ^ L). wild. and cinnanion. resembling the chesnut in hardis ness and flavour. There are also flying cats. the green and hard. flatulent. The tree here described is clearly the Jack {Artocarpus integrifolia. there is feet. bounces up with a crackling as The external bark is used provender for cattle. They have manner noise.^ In the same province. and of incised . prized as the best kind of This region also produces other serpents of a remarkable form. with difliculty by one the trunk of which produces fruit resembling the pineapple.18 brazil INDIA IN Till': KU-'TEENTII CENTURY. The python. to three taste. hundred apples. of crassa. are extremely rapid in flight. ^ The Galeopithecus. The subsequent mention of fruits without kernels. unless it previously incised somewhat. cooked in the same when thrown upon live embers. and the most venomous destroying men by their breath alone. found another tail like kind of serpent with four large dogs. as to lifted man . six name ells in There are also serpents without length. Avliich is wood. is that of which are hunted It is as harmless as kids or goats. fifty sure of the finger. They of all. one cubit in length and winged like bats. known there by the feet.

when these monsterS.S OF XICOLO CONII. another much prized for its applicability to The name of this tree is caclii. swim towards lie numbers. both male and female. Sailing for some time in this river he saw many fires lighted along the banks. Icepe. at the city Cocym. This fruit has no being in- The and is tree is like a large fig tree. the But those who were with him '' in the ship exclaimed.). fruit. who hid in the water.' ference. in the them in water to remove the same man- ner as we are in the habit of steeping green olives. and for this reason it is the custom kernel. leads to the supposition that the author had also met with the ^ bread fruit {^Artocarpus incisa. fruit of this tree is 19 its sometimes found under the earth in roots. and thought that they were made by fishermen. which name in the language city. and it human form. at night. and stands at the This city five miles in circum- mouth of a river. The Mango {Mangifera Indica.)." These have wood. after a journey of three is Having quitted Coloen he days. but within steep it is sweet like honey : before they are ripe they acidity. of the country signifies great This last city is eight miles in circumference. which Paliuria. Icepe. collect which. and burn near the water in great the fishes. and then Meliancota. L. seize them and devour them. from which it derives its name. attracted by the light. They said dif- that some which they had taken. In same fruits are found as in Coloen. many purposes. ignite . to set these apart for royal use. smiling.TlIK TU. Cochin % . tlie leaves tercised like those of the palm : the wood is equal to box- Avood. these excel the others in flavour. a nut. issuing from the water procuring fire it by it striking one stone against another. but larger than the nectarine the outer rind is bitter. ^ L. is He at the then visited in succession Colanguria. placed mouth of another i-iver. fered in no respect as to their form from this district the human beings. There is also called amha^ green and resembling very much therefore . He next leaves.WKI. arrived. but may be called either fishes or monsters.

visits to the maintenance who lives apart from her husbands. but with longer hair. These horns being extremely on journeys. abounding in pep- per. and with horns so long that when the head is turned back they large. myrobalans. Depart- ing from Calicut. so that some have ten and more. a maritime city. and at a distance of not more than each miles. and distant one hun- dred miles from the continent. he proceeded next westward to Cambay.20 proceeded INDIA IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. The by law. and vegetables. one of are two other islands. distant from other one ^ hundred which is inhabited by men This must be the island of Socotra. a noble emporium for all India. which he reached to the sea. lac. Cambay it is situated near in spike- and is twelve miles in circuit. Wild cattle are found in great abundance. he goes away without entering. milk. are used touch the tail. six hundred miles the most part inhabited Opposite to this five miles. eight miles in circum- ference. like barrels for carrying water Returning to Calicut. lac. but the size of the island is much ex- . These priests do not eat any animal food. The one husbands contribute amongst themselves of the wife. and There are priests here wife who is. but live upon rice. is This island produces Socoin circumference. burnt with the body of her husband. In this district alone the women are allowed to take several husbands. at the When her he leaves a mark door of the house. the text the African continent aggerated. silks. in fifteen days. and the continent mentioned in . with manes like those of horses. The children are allotted to the husbands at the will of the wife. there and is for by Nestorian Christians. indigo. are called bachari. abounds nard. who only marry one wife. which trends westward. which being seen by another coming afterwards. The inheritance of the father does not descend to the children. ginger. he spent two months on the island is of Sechutera. but to the grandchildren. island. a larger kind of cinnamon. myrobalans. to Calicut.^ trine aloes. and zedoary.

an opulent city. He then sailed over to jl^thiopia. in the manner of Europeans. each of which is valued at fifty thousand gold pieces. This third part excels the others in riches. after so many journeys by sea by the and land. on account of the dif- reaching this place from the ficulty of the navigation. he spoke as follows All India is divided into three parts . with ^ Jiddah or Ziden. will and the merchants very much that some carry on their business in forty of their own ships. These alone use tables at their meals. and all his servants plague. removed from so all bar- and coarseness. elegant habitations. called Gidda. in Arabia. with his wife and four children and as wife. The men rich.— THE TRAVELS OF and the other by women. For the inhabitants have most fur- sumptuous buildings. all that is beyond. so are extremely humane. then.^ a city of Egypt. they lead a more refined life. and handsome niture barity . and magnificence. a port where he arrived port in the in seven days. In this city he lost his and two of his children. and sometimes to their women pass over to the men. extending from Persia to the Indus the Indus to the the second. with his two children. and each return of the others own respective islands before the expiration of six months. In answer to my inquiries respecting the : manner and cus- toms of the Indians. politeness. ^ Cairo '( . remarkable for its buildings. many servants. after sailing for a month. Venice. he sailed in five days to Aden. at a He Sinai. Ganges and the third. Those who remain on the island period die immediately. and anchored in named Barbora. : one. beyond this fatal De- parting hence. He afterwards travelled through the desert to Carras. At length. and of life is equal to our own country in the style and in civilization.^ hmded Red Sea Red and subse- quently near Mount having spent two months in Sea. the NIC()L6 CONTF. 21 to Sometimes the men pass over the women. he arrived in safety at his native country. comprising the district from .

on beds ornamented with gold. both men and women. front of the person. of a red colour. silver vessels upon them is . which. They sleep upon silken mattrasses. There is also a lake lying between the re- Indus and the Ganges. but live upon a certain kind of meal. They have barbers like ourselves. which is a favourite drink with them. but very long their shoulders. and flow over way go to war. partridges. They have to fowling a great quantity of poul- try. In . Almost all. and descending as low and the over this a garment of linen or silk. the water of which possesses a markable flavour. and with the ankles. so as to cover the as the knees. The style of dress is different in different regions.22 INDIA IN THE FIFTRKNTH CKNTURY. They are much addicted no beards. and cheese. the use of wine a drink similar to There the no vines. capons. and for the same reason they only wear sandals. whilst the inhabitants of the rest of India eat are upon carpets spread upon the ground. and is drunk with great pleasure. corn or bread. as clothing on account of the great heat. flock to this lake for the purpose of procuring the water. They have tie hair. certain trees. Wool is very little used. and hunting. wear a linen cloth bound round the body. women to They cannot wear more ties. known among Indians rice but they make wine of pounded off the : mixed with water. with purple and golden we see in ancient statues. milk. descends to just below the knees. They have no rice. The men resemble Europeans in stature and the duration of their lives. and in this There is great abundance of flax and silk. they draw the water fresh every day. with the men. By means of relays of carriers mounted on horse- back. pheasants. being In Taprobana they cut branches of a tree called thai. and of these they make their garments. and hang them up on high these branches give out a sweet juice. and other wild birds. the juice of added to it. Some their hair at the let it back of their head with a silken cord. flesh. and even those living at a great distance. nor . All the inhabitants of that district.

of the Aveight of three pounds. beauty. who all are spread over the whole and confine themselves all to one solitary mate. by unnatural crimes their blandishments. The inhabitants of central India . for the Indians are much addicted to are unknown among is licentiousness but them. the hair of adorning the head various. Avith the exception of those who dAvell near Cathay. The manner gold. parts of India. in order to prevent approach to Over the . and youth . are only alloAvcd to marry one wife in the other parts of India polygamy prevails very generally. In some places they up the hair upon the top of the head. for that the colour held in highest estimation. is Some Avear false hair. placed herein on a handsome bier. Around are placed baskets containing very rich vestments and rings. AA'alled The entrance all to the it. ornamented with gold and silk. like a pyramid. but for the most part the head is covered Avith a cloth AA'ith embroidered AA^ith being bound up tAA^st a silken cord. excepting among those Christians who have adopted the Nestorian heresy. Puhlic women are everywhere to all be had. hang suspended OA^er the hair. By way of ornament they wear rings of gold on around their necks Avith their arms and on their hands . The sepulchre is a cave dug in the earth. also and legs. Avith pieces of cloth of various colours interwoven Avith gold. cave is up. 23 some places the women have shoes made of thin leather.THE TRAVELS OF NICOLO CONTI. sticking a golden bodkin in the centre. . of a black colour. and studded gems. Some cover the head Avith the leaves of trees painted. residing in particular houses of their OAvn in parts of the cities. who attract the men by sweet perfumes and ointments. strengthened are The dead by a Avail and ornamented. Avith golden pillars as supports. from Avhich golden threads. as though for the use of the deceased in the other world. of India. The dis- funeral rites are not the same in Anterior India excels others in the care and magnificence played in the burial of the dead. but none paint their faces.

The natives Some set up of central India cover up even their heads. with painted and cut paper hanging . and songs. dressed in his best is A vast funeral pyre erected over him in the form of a pyramid. is and this is The deceased hnsband garments. flutes. for the most part. to the splendour of the funeral ceremony by considered a great honour for them. standing on some elevated spot. In the meantime one of the and death. The dead are mourned for in various ways. and amid the sounds of trumpets. and abundance of ornaments. and the living wives. her body having fire. which form an ornament for the sepulchres. In obedience to the ex- hortation of the priest she then springs into the If some show more come timidity (for it frequently happens that they be- stupified by terror at the sight of the struggles of the thrown by the bystanders. pile The being ignited. constructed of odoriferous woods. exhorts her to a contempt of life kinds of enjoyment with her husband. she stands near the elevation on which the priest. The wife is compelled by the law to be burnt. In central India the dead are husband. walks gaily around singing. Their ashes are afterwards collected and placed in urns. accompanied by a great con- course of people. by means of which all kept protected from moisture and preserved a very long period. one or burned. they are into the fire poles in the highways. whether consenting or not. the wife. been washed according to custom. is whole an arch the grave for is constructed at great cost. But others are married under the express agreement that they should add their death. promising her all priests. it. are con- sumed in the same funeral pyre with to the their more.24 INDIA IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. much wealth. laid on a couch. and taking off her first dress puts on a white linen garment. fire When she has walked round the is several times. according agreement first at the time the marriage was contracted. even though she should be the only wife. others. called Bachali. or of their sufferings in the fire). habited in her richest garments.

kill or to eat. Many place the ashes of their princes to in golden or silver vases. . fruit. naked to the waist. the Bachali. During this period the friends lost carry a bitter leaf in their mouths. neither do they cut their nails or their hair. but all the food rc(|uired brought from without. or shave their beards. There called is a class of philosophers found throughout all India. and only take food once in the day. and through which they say Their the road to their divinities. 25 for three from the top to the They sound gongs days. into and command them be thrown some lake sacred lies to the gods. Avho devote themselves much astronomy of sujiesanctity and the prediction of future events. and beat their breasts.TIIK TRAVKLS OF NICOI. who stand round song the praises of the the body.O ground. abstain from it all animal food. without giving way of pain. and vegetables : they have only one who is burnt with her dead husband. rice. to Brahmins. Avith her arm under its neck. exclaiming. the members of the family and i\w. Otliers all mourn for three days. Lying by the any expression side of the corpse. cases the dead arc In many mourned for by women. to which the others answer at certain places. rior cultivation. These priests live upon wife. CX)N'JI. An art . as which they consider all a great crime to being of the most useful to man : the Indians use the ox as a beast of burthen. herbs. of life and manners. and are They are men distinguished by a greater hundred years old. as they assert. the neighbours assembling together in ceased. their father or Those who have for a mother do not change their dress whole year. beating their breasts the while. priests. and give food to the poor for the love of God. " Alas ! alas !" One recites in a dead. particularly the ox. Avhcre no meat is is house of the de- dressed. she submits to herself to the flanies. Nicolo asserts that he saw amonsr an instance of them one who Avas three longevity AA-hich they regard as miraculous so much so. that wherever he went he Avas folloAvcd by the children.

They are not acquainted with the use of the compass. g-comaiitia. and eating some coal placed there. by the mast. rites over calling frequently on their god. The sailors. which should carry his and showing. replied a to his mouth after having its Then he demanded what they wanted. which was placed throat cut. all In the meantime one of the Arabs. that he had just done and As he had predicted. by means of which they frequently predict future events with They also as much accuracy as though they were present. they were becalmed for seven days in the midst of the ocean. is practised M'liicli tlicy call by many of tliem. by casting his hands behind back. and having. He then approached the table. assembled together at a table placed having performed various sacred it. Then having promised that he would give them them in three days a prosperous wind. and it. quently able to excite account by means of which they are fretempests and also to allay them. what wind he would give. fearing lest they should fascinated all by the eyes of lookers Nicolo told me with seriousness. a wind sprung up. as they rarely see those of the north. fearing that tinue. by name. make use this of incantations. demanded the blood of a cock as a drink. and which Nicolo says he sucked from a fowl. began to sing in a marvellous manner. into port. and to run about the ship like an insane person. They find out Avhere . cautioned them that they should be well prepared to meet the force of the wind. and they arrived in port in the course of a few days. On be on. having utterly forgotten said. he shortly afterwards was thrown all to the ground as one half dead. when he was commander the calm might con- of a ship. danced round Muthia.26 INDIA IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. being possessed by the demon. many eat in secret. and they wind. that on one occasion. but measure their courses and the distances of places by the elevation and depression of the pole. moreover. The natives of India steer their vessels for the most part by the stars of the southern hemisphere.

which they are much But some ships are so built in compartments. the other portion remaining entire may accomplish the voyage. to which are afterwards distributed among the poor be eaten. some of and others of ivory. it is to the this life for their sake. sitting down with . and particularly urge upon them how acceptable gods that they should quit present themselves tion. after the manner of the ancient heathens. The Indians on this side of the Ganges do not possess bells. capable of containing five sails two thou- sand butts. The constructed with triple planks. and with lower part is and as many masts. to They also present feasts their gods. tlicy are 27 by this mode of iiicasurcmcnt. in order to to withstand the force of the tempests exposed. their idols. On solemn days Within they place silver. of sixty feet. first The modes of praying and of sacrificing among They enter the temple morning and evenwashed themselves in pure water . These idols are sometimes of the height them ing. that should one part be shattered. these temples are adorned with flowers. at others offer incense to their wood of the aloe. In the city of Cambaita the priests.WKI. having and some- times prostrating themselves upon the ground with hands gods by burning spices and situate and the feet held up.S OF NICOLC^ CONTl. repeat their prayers and kiss the ground. are various. in which they exhort them to the performance of their religious duties. for whom they erect temples very similar to our own. standing before the idols of their gods. deliver a discourse to the people. some made of stone. A chain attached to the fore part hangs suspended breast. the interior being painted with figures of different kinds.TIIK TR. Many immola- who have determined upon is self having on their neck a broad circular piece of iron. all Gods arc worshipped throughovit India. the fore part of which round and the hinder part extremely sharp. Tlicy build some ships much hirgcr than ours. into upon the which the victims. but produce sound by strik- ing together small brazen vessels. some of gold.

to the upper part of which are attached 23ieces of very beautiful cloth of various kinds. at a certain time of the year. the highways large beams. on the speaker pronouncing certain words. cast themselves on the ground before the wheels. in to which are young women richly adorned. placed between two chariots. and feasting. all three other festival days. patiently.!^8 INDIA IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. and other odoriferous which they bear most There are also all fruits. and on the outside on the roofs. is each day placed a man of pious aspect. cut off their own head. danc- of these festivals they fix up within their temples. which are kept burning day and night. making an incision Many. which lasts nine days. and at the same time drawing up their neck. they set up in all On the third. Then. as a sacrifice to their idols. hang themselves by way of ornament. On another merable number of lamps of oil entire days in singing. These men are assailed by the people. all On one of these occasions the males and females of sea. like the masts of small ships. who pelt them with oranges. and accompanied by a great concourse of people. who sing hymns the god. their Icf^s drawn up and their neck bent. an innuof Susimanni. and spend three ing. of sacrifice they consider the best and most acceptable of esj)ecial solemnity. interwoven with gold. insert their feet. lemons. having bathed in the rivers or the themselves in new garments. they suddenly stretch out their legs. yielding up their lives as saints. These men are regarded In Bizenegalia is also. away by the fervour of their faith. their idol carried through the city. suspended and half dead accompany their Thrice in the year they keep festivals of This kind all. capable all of enduring who is to pray for the favour of God. carried — in their side. On the summit of each of these beams things with equanimity. and inserting a rope thus through to the chariot their body. and thus idol. clad ages. Others. dedicated to religion. in order that they may be crushed to death. a mode of death which they say is very acceptable to their god. during which they sj)rinkle .

dancing in a circle. the effect of which he describes as being extremely pretty. Mimosa which is not. fetania there is not produced here our fruits also. at which there ing and instrumental music. and the sound of trumpets and flutes. surrounded infested with serpents. feasting. our manner . In the province of Pudiin height. with the exception of organs. although common . it. and the mountain itself is This mountain The ingenuity of man. of which each person carries two. as we have said be- fore. has. ^ it.^ At journey beyond Bizenegalia. Their weddings arc celebrated with singing. and apples. duced on higher. discovered a way of getting at the diamonds proproduces diamonds. and. The wash themselves many times : day with cold water. AVarm baths others are not used amongst them. at a certain men bring a The sensitive plant. and expands again fifteen days' is when he departs. and which called it. puclica. all the other instruments in use ing and playing are similar to our own. it by a name signifying " modesty". native of India. in the excepting by Indians of the superior classes to the north of the Ganges. by pools of water which swarm with venomous animals. there a mountain called Albenigaras. after file. however. while others sing forming a line in single little one after the other. a little Here. pears. both sing- Some sing. grows a tree about three cubits is which bears no fruit. There is another mountain near period of the year. and exchanging painted rods. such as peaches. in gardens. are not found The vine is rare. for.. among them for singThey make sumpis tuous feasts both day and night. passers by. This received by all with much laughter.THE TRAVELS OF NICOUN CONTl. only found in one place. toM'ards the north. however. even the king and 29 saf- queen themselves. L. with fron-water. placed for that purpose is by the wayside. cherries. with those whom they meet on turning . not having been able to find any mode of approaching the mountain. Oil amongst them. If a man approach all its contracts and draws up branches.

by means of machines which they construct for that purpose. In other worked into the money consists of pieces of iron. which they name after the signs of the zodiac. They divide the year into twelve months. weighing more than the double of our florin. lect This sand they col- and wash with water. and also less. fly safe spot. The sand passes stones. and collect the dia- monds which have culty. But they call 1. form of large needles. by the masters to prevent theft by the workmen or — overseers being appointed. in whose time there was peace all over the world. but even examine every part of their joersons. pieces of flesh. and continue their excavations until they come to sand mixed with water. oxen. to the top. silver and brass money. Venetian ducats are in circulation. In some parts again of anterior India. but use instead stones parts their Some regions have no money. and the behind this mode of digging for : stones of this description prevails universally. away with it To these places the men afterwards come. Some have golden coins. The aera is computed variously. if any. which they drive pieces. through pose. In some places pieces of gold worked to a certain weight are used as money.400. which we call cats' eyes. Great care is exercised servants. are left sieves made for the puraway through the sieve. moreover.490. cast the and having cut them into warm and bleeding fragments upon the sum- mit of" the other mountain. seizing the to places meat where they may be from the serpents. The diamonds stick to these Then come vultures and eagles flying to the for their food. The greater part date its commencement from Octavian. less diffi- which are considered precious. who not only shake the clothes of the operators. which. The natives of this . 1. In others the medium of exchange consists of cards inscribed with the name of the king.30 INDIA IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. are procured with They dig holes near sandy mountains in places where the stones are found. Other stones. fallen from the flesh. and.

They have a vast number of slaves. swords. and this is of all. and say " While they call other nations blind. NlCOLcN CONTl. 31 when engaged in war. fingers which are immediately wrapped up it. Having taken the is oath. use javelins." . car- rying the line from the top are to the bottom of the page. The Cambay alone use paper other Indians write on the leaves of trees. he then licks with his . where there witness to prove the offence. and swears by the idol that he is innocent. having first taken the oath. red hot if he declared innocent. a red hot iron plate for several paces before the idol if burnt in any part he hurt he offence. There many languages and dialects in use among the Indians.THE TRAVELS OF part of India. the person whom the oath is adminis- tered stands before the idol. left to But they do not write right or right to left. is no There are three modes of to swearing. of which they tiful make very beauor the books. Others again. everywhere adjudged to be the property of his In criminal charges oaths are allowed. In one. plunges two into the butter. round shields. arm-pieces. the most filled common A vessel is placed before the idol swears that he is with boiling butter. as we Jews do. such escape uninjured he as a mattock. carry the same piece of iron. if he escape un- exempt from the punishment awarded for the There is a third manner of swearing. that they : themselves have two eyes and that we have but all one. because they consider that they excel inhabitants of all others in prudence. in linen and a seal impressed upon to prevent the covering being . or . also other warlike im- plements adapted for besieging cities. The natives of central India call make use of balista?. and the debtor who is is insolvent creditor. He who inno- cent of the offence charged against him. from but perpendicularly. They call us Franks. is is punished as guilty. and those machines which we bombardas. tongue a piece of iron. and also bows/ The inhabitants of the other parts of India wear also the helmet and corslet.

and from is worm the same kind of bird again produced. He are. this bird collects a quantity of dry in its nest. that he was sometimes of the dead. very thin and carries about long as the trunk of a He who for this him a small piece of this iron rod. removed. sitting it pipes that . of triumph.oia INDIA IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. but without taking The island of Java. is invulnerable persons open their skin is by iron. several distinct pipes with many openings. attracts upon it. in the middle of which there as is found an iron rod. When wood all its death approaches. they . and which were attached the hair from the backs of the heads He added. moreover. The inhabitants have a pipe of admirable sweetness for singing. Their armies men and upwards. and as Nicolo admired it very much. If any injury appear npon the fingers the accused if punished. no injury present Pestilence is itself he is released. as a spectator. present at their battles. unknown among countries : the Indians . and and insert it in their bodies. produces a tree of great rarity. called Major. On the third day tlic bandage is taken is ofF. in the beak of which there it were. and. sings so sweetly with and soothes the hearers to a marits vellous degree it then igniting the wood by flapping wings. In a short time a this worm made is produced from the ashes. tree. the victors of which brought home. allows itself to be burnt to death. so that may touch reason many it his flesh. neither are they exposed to those diseases which tion in our Ciirry off the is popula- own the consequence that the num- ber of these people and nations exceeds consist of a million of belief. and being recognized by both parties as a stranger escaped unhurt. twelve chariots laden with cords of gold to by way silk. This esteemed of the highest importance by them. in imitation of the bill of this bird . any part in them. as says that on the boundaries of central India there is an unique bird called semenda. Nicolo mentions a certain battle.

said to be Nestorians that the patriarch of that peoj)le had delegated him to collect more precise information respecting us. being . and pain. his health this phenomenon is referred by the natives me. if any one hold in the torpedo. having carefully preserved the truth of the narrative. in the island of Ceylon. for the interpreter and the Indian not using their own . towards the north. respecting Christians. and about localities . whom He says fame reported that there is a kingdom twenty days journey from Cathay. returns to him. But if any one hold is the captured fish for a short time in his hand. him through the medium of an Armenian interpreter. towards the western sun. which Nicolo related to their gods. his hand affected by a particular kind of While preparing of to insert in this work. as to exist it were. there arrived another person from upper India. He asserted that their churches were larger and more ornamented than ours. he is hand the fish called is immediately be- numbed. but heretics. king and all of which the the inhabitants are Christians. he forth- with attacked by fever. He stated that he was sent to the pontiff for the purpose of obtaining information in another globe. respecting cause his is legend. called Arotani. in which the fishes are so abundant that they can be taken by the hand. the various accounts respecting the Indians related to me by Nicolo. who understood the Turkish and Latin languages . That their patriarch possessed great wealth in gold and silver silver.THE TRAVELS OF told NICOLcN CONTI. and were constructed entirely of tortoise-shell. one ounce of I conversed with from each head of a family. On laying of The cause to a certain down the fish. natural for. But it appears to mc that the among ourselves. receiving. origin of it in the manner in which I have narrated There is also a river in anterior India. at the annual census. 33 him the it. but only obtained information about the extent of the roads. . for the information my readers.

and conversed with the pope. both in their private and public edifices : many of them occupying an extent of ten or twenty miles in circumference. determined to commit them to writing. as is the wont of many pope from I ques- who come with lying pretences. that those things which they told me were and as I learnt from them many other things which appeared to be worthy to be I made known. they were near to its Then was I seized with a great desire of learning those things which appear to have been to ancient writers unknown Ptolemy. and all those other matters it which afford so much pleasure in the narrating. however. and of the Parthians. was known to them. and also to . who are day Tartars. he proceeded Venice. of and philosophers. and afterwards to Florence. for the space of several months. When it tioned them. its They asserted that the Nile took rise near the equi- . he departed. respecting the position and source of the Nile. an act of pious devotion. who was the first that wrote upon this subject all whom indulged in much vain conjecture respecting the source and inundations of the Nile. became very difficult to learn anything respectmanners and customs. asking neither gold nor silver. for Travelling he has dominion over nine very potent kings. truthful person. he arrived at length at the Euphrates to . in their country.34 lanouagc. his visit appearing to be that of one who came to do. ing th-eir INDTA IN TIIK FIFTEKNTII CENTURY. in obedience to the command he had received so and not for the sake of gain. the emperor of is very vast. and whether sources. to the About the same time some men came Ethiopia upon matters regarding the faith. two of them asserted that. But when assured true. that the power of him whom they all) call the Great Khan (that is to say. He asserted. then. by means of an interpreter. He as appeared to be a Having visited Rome. He said that he had seen many cities finer than this of ours. having embarked at Tripoli. called at the present through the country of the northern Scythians.

the summits of which were them. and fruit twice. They spoke almond. and all our fruits. the greater as wine. who wash in it are cleansed from the itch and leprosy. my me and beyond these informants had never seen it. is ex- tremely sweet and palatable. 35 sources at the feet of very noctial region. lemons also. ^'hc mile. there are fertile regions. in order that every night a thousand horsemen multitude that the climate of to repress the tumults of the . bearing herbage three fertihty.S OF N1C0L5 CONTl. vated. April. These many fine cities people also told there that near the sources of the Nile natives. by which the water of the the that cause the Nile to rise and overflow . and form a river which cannot others. with found there. as they report. to be of a vast number of trees of which : we know nothing. which flow into it the waters of more than a thousand the months that the rains fall very heavily in side on each of . The waters of two of paces from each other. called Varvaria. a liquor prepared from barley. distant about forty with clouds. and unites with them source. and extremely populous kept watch. Figs. which is the largest. Nile. and containing places a sea. cucumbers. is a mile distant from the third. part of the Ethiopians using in corn and wine. only. a vegetable resembling our the exception of the and "cedars. from three small always capped hioh mountains. swollen rivers March. on account of the . oranges. are. They assert also that those At a distance of fifteen days inhabited of the Nile.TRAVKI. unite at a distance of less than hali' a be passed on foot. . nectarines. and May. and not easy to commit what had never before heard but it was difficulty experienced was said to writing. before it is mingled with that of other rivers. was a city. at a distance of ten miles is from its They further testify that the Nile augmented by rivers. but journey beyond the sources and culti. from its mildness. of which they were twenty -five miles in circumference. the soil excelled all others in This region abounds times in the year. and that this district was very agreeable.

its Those who inhabit the source see the sun toit is regions in which the Nile takes wards the north. with in girth. riding on camels. owing to the size of the provinces. and. who only knew Arabic. cloves. food. beheld but one In all Ethiopia there is written alphabet. and reason perish of hunger. which they use on festi- The leaves of the tree are from one to two cubits in length. The Ethiopians are much longer lived than they live to be more than a hundred and twenty years old. they make a to the taste. I have written clown the description of one only. numerous it is navigable as far as Egypt. but in the month of March directly over their heads. It is of the height of a man. who are scattered about and wander through the desert naked like wild beasts. They rob this is the travellers of their camels. white bread. The whole country is extremely populous. of bark one over the other. the flesh and milk of which they use for food. and drink . in consequence of the sinuosities of the river.36 INDIA IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. in character resembling our chesnuts from which. but. like one which ^ Nutmeffs aud maces. there are different languages. The Nile is unnavigable as falls far as the island of Meroe. very sweet val occasions. . many even reach the age of one hundred and fifty years. but they say that the journey occupies six months. The road across is infested in many places by wild Arabs. as much is as a man can embrace with his many layers . arms. Beyond Meroe. and nuts. over which food and drink are carried by camels. when pounded. Some of them reported that the maritime region towards India produced ginger. for reaching us so few. and the number of those why so many who succeed in we are. sugar. Between these layers the fruit deposited. which are called muscatce} and Egypt fifty There are deserts between Ethiopia days' journey in extent. on account of the frequent through masses of rugged rock. with the intcqn-ctcr.

tables so that cloths They use two or three may eat together. who calls himself. God. adorned with gold and gems. both (for of region." pp. Some cover . and so large that one of them can contain an amphora of wine. There is a kind of beast of various colours. 259. the king of kings. which they bear after them fastened by girdles of the width of a palm. back of the in head flowing. wear : linen and silken garments the they have no wool) in some places women wear long trains. NICOT. 258. which are as large as our asses. men and women. after They have one king. the stones. with horns extending backwards three cubits in length. Their customs also vary according All however. using tableafter the and napkins European manner. of They say that there are many kings subject to him. . They are captured when young and brought up tame. some animals useful in war. women The small wear armlets enriched with various precious period from Christmas to Lent is kept by them as a festival. others gold and silver than tie it They abound much more we do the men wear rings. being devoted to feasting and dancing. described and figured by Salt in his " Voyage The horns mentioned by him as being in the collection of Lord Valentia. Their elephants are large in size and very numerous.THE TRAVKT. Their cattle have a hump on the shoulder. .S OF never suffers from pestilence . excepting that ^ has no proboscis to Abyssinia. rendering them so tame that they can be introduced into their theatres. They report that they have amongst them many kinds animals. in the manner of camels. Their tusks grow to the length of six cubits. it very like to an elephant. Sanga or Galla oxen.6 CONTI. are now in the British Museum. They also rear lions for display.^ They have some dogs. Some keep as them for the purpose of display and pleasure. and which will hunt down lions. the head with pieces of cloth. so that the 37 numbers increase to the difference from the freedom from disease and the longevity of the people. the larger ones when taken are killed. at the interwoven with gold some wear the hair up.

Another an wild animal ass.^ hair. that its and feet resemble those of the camel : it has two horns. because their smoke fever. the body not more than a cubit in thickness. Probably the koodoo (Strepsiceros Kudu). that purpose of scratching if it lean against a tree for the it itself. like the last. a horse in leaping. They informed me and was also another animal. very sharp at the extremity. one of which is situate on the forehead and the other on the nose/ They have another animal called zehed.38 INDIA IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. is hunted by them for food. has small horns.''' is of a red colour."* three cubits in length and spiral from the also. and worn by the women suspended from sorts of arms. and dividing it into minute portions that there them dearer than gold. with horns more than two cubits extending over the back. the well-known producer of the " civet. which are sold for more than forty gold pieces. Perhaps the Modoqua antelope (neotragus Saltianus). Salt. with a neck four cubits long and a hairy tail : the hairs are purchased at their a high price. cut out the part against which it had supported sell itself. They also ^ size of a camel and of the The Doubtless the zibett (viverra civetta). is and can surpass There yet another. that persons passing near shortly afterwards and guided by the scent. with cloven hoofs like those of an ox. is beneficial in cases of Another. in length similar to a goat. and ornamented with various gems. rather longer than a hare. one cubit in length." ^ ^ ® The giraffe.^ nine cubits long six in height. a small Abyssi•* nian species •^ named in compliment to the late Mr. it imparts to a smell so ex- tremely sweet. . It is as large as with stripes of a red and green colour. and has horns top. Ibex. without horns but with red in length. with hair very like to that of a leopard and a head resembling that of the camel. Another resembling a hare. and resembling it in other respects -^ possessing such a peculiar odour. and the neck more than two cubits mentioned another of the rhinoceros.

cubits long. but rarely. flies It but little. and having a head like that of a roebuck. to These references animals are particularly valuable. order that I might not weary the reader that there for they stated were some desert places which were inhabited by fifty serpents. the neck and head small. where the fine Koodoo antelope and the rarer striped Iiiaffelajj/ius Angasii. feet resembling those of a goose. without feet a and with a scorpion's calf at once."^ and which would swallow all whole As almost of them agreed in these state- ments.THE TRAVELS OE KIC()I. as they seem to indicate that our travellers Ahyssinia. The rhinoceros seems to be found in Darfur. terkoo. with slender legs. abound in some parts of the more southern lauds. It. with a neck six cubits in length. or further south towards Lut- between the N'gami and Natal. Keitloa. in . whereas the R. Sinnis.2 Many other things which they told me I have omitted. figured and described by Dr. but in running surpasses the swiftness of the horse. Gray. and had penetrated farther south than even Moon" have wonderfully disappeared almost seems as if our travellers may have reached the lands within the Mozambique Coast.'^ giraffe. some of which were tail. ^ * Boa constrictor. who could have it no object in deceiving me. The " Mountains of the it or diminished. information they gave I have thought good that the me should be handed down for the common advantage ^ of posterity.6 CONTT. and they appeared to be worthy men. and another species. ^ Another description of the The ostrich. 39 colour of the leopard. and the beak like that of a hen. is found.' To these they added an account of a bird standing six cubits in height from the ground. or the country .


who reigned as Grand-Duke of Russia from 1462 to 1505. the Black Sea I started from the — Doria Hondustanskaia — Doria Stenibolskaia. the India Sea the third. In consideration of his rela- . Conforming to the Russian custom.^ the second. is the Persian word for sea. my sinful wandering beyond the three seas the the sea of Derbend — Doria Khvalits. or son of Boris. and still by the people " More Chvalynskoie. called at that time More Chvalisskoie. before settiug out on a long voyage. with the kind permission of the chael Borissowich and the bishop Gennadius of * Grand-Duke MiTwer . The Caspian called ^ ^ Sea of Stamboul. Lord Jesus Christ. according to the author. named here Grand-Duke of Twer. Michael Borissowich. kaia. Son of Goil. son of Nikita. Athanasius.T HE TRAVELS OF ATHANASIUS NIKITIN. : as I it. was brother-in-law to Iwan III.^ church of our holy Saviour of Zla- toverkh. This is. sinful servant. the prayer of our holy fathers. VOYx\GE By TO INDIA. went to hear prayers at one of the principal churches iu classes of the Twer at that period. have mercy upon me. Thy wrote first." Doria. OF TWER. which still prevails with all Russian community. our traveller.^ went Sea.

turnpike-roads. its still in existence at Koliasin. ^ The namestniks. were annexed ^ to the Grand Duchy of Muscow. was a man of a religious turn of mind. Iwan SaraefF. ® . the ambitious Wiatopalk. who would not forego an opportunity. as the one offered Boris and Gleb. the Volga.^ From to the Koliazin I went to Ooglich . and thus destroyed at the very prime of life. were the chief authorities in the different provinces — the poshlimuk. which were numerous and oppresduring the dominion of the Tartars. Yempteobr. and the holy shrines of Boris and Gleb the martyrs thence to and received the blessing of the hegumen Macarius and the brethren. to the namestnik Michael Kisseleff. and bridge-tolls were already established on the high roads. ninety in number. who from that time were ranged among the saints of the Greek Church. Probably a traveller of some distinction. 4 INDIA IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. but whose character is not This was the ambassador of Shirvanshah. with an all epistle.^ tionship he retained the title of Grand-Duke. in which the number of horses and the quantity of refreshment the traveller was entitled to exact. the collector of duties. within spot precincts the remains of Boris much resorted to for devotional purposes. the person entrusted with the col- lection of tolls. And coun- Grand-Duke of Russia allowed me to leave the to to try unhindered. dominions 206. Wladimir.. on the death of their father in 1014. ^ At that remote period post-horses. without seizing it eagerly.^ . This convent. who was coming with falcons from Grand-Duke Ivan. were distinctly specified. sive * and customs. both of Vassili whom let me pass freely. when his i.* Papin merely passed through that town but I stopped a fortnight to wait for the Tartar ambassador of Shirvanshah the —Assanbek. being called upon to succeed to part of his domains. on the Volga." and I went on by Plesso and Nijni-Novgo- rod. Nikitin. the Kniaz Alexander. down came to the convent of the holy life-giving Trinity. but it required an order of the Grand-Duke. sons of St. their melancholy death inspired the people with a profound devotion for the youthful martyrs. both to him at Koliazin. which had already been abolished for most of the smaller states until 1486. Assailed by the assassins when they were saying their prayers. Kostromah. as we shall frequently have occasion to see in the sequel. duties. was treacherously put to death by their elder brother. enclosing and Gleb the martyrs. or lieutenants. whose dominions extended disclosed. was a A.

Those princes. and fly . the Grand-Dukes of Russia had to pay their allegiance and their tribute to the tyrannical khans. Karamsin his iii. it runs north to the main arm of the river. fortysix miles from the sea." we sailed at by Astrakhan at moonlight. around Astrakhan. subsequently it . lost all power over Russia. : The zar perceived us. 333-34. sidered as a mark of courtesy. ^ This is the name formerly given . who told us false tidings sultan Kaissim watches foreign merchants in the Buzan. who. that they might guide him the coat. an arm of the Volga. ceased to be the oppressors of Russia." Assanbek. was at that time the capital of the great or Golden Orda. during two centuries. a fragment of Baty's dismembered empire. the Ordea of Crimea. ^ Sarai. which may be consovereign.* fell Here we —" The in with three godless Tartars. on the western shores of the Caspian Sea. the place where. the famous residence of the great conqueror Baty. and we entered the river Buzan. until 1552. Tartar allies. etc. In 1462 Achmat was khan of Saray. was the capital of an independent Tartar kingdom. and to endure the greatest hardships and humiliations ever inflicted upon a conquered people. in many instances. and was succeeded by his sons. * Buzan is one of the many streams through which the Volga empties its waters into the Caspian Sea. . and three thousand Tartars are with him. Krimskaia Orda.^ lested through Kazan/ the Orda. etc. but also to the Roman emperor which Ivan III not only paid to Maximilian. however. and once the Tartars cried " Do and the zar ordered the whole orda to chase us. to the seats of the Tartar kings that ruled over Russia was also applied to the different kingdoms that sprung up from the immense empire of Baty in the beginning of the fifteenth century as the Zolotaia Orda (golden or great orda). in the reign of Iwan III. avoiding the town. the ambassador of Shirvanshah. still observable on the borders of the Akhtouba. AVc passed unmoOoslan. Sarai. but informed the zar of Astrakhan. A\^ith him I descended the Volga. I They took abandoned my boat and crept into the ambassador's with my not companions. gave to each of them a coat and a piece of linen.: TRAVELS OF NJKITIN. and. appeared as affectionate allies of that Hence the present of ninety falcons. now a heap of stones and the abode of loathsome reptiles. After a succession of wars with Ivan III he fell in 1480. ^ Kazan. forming the present Shirvan.' and Berekczauy.

a The Kaitaks. and ten head Russaks in the other. at sea. There they took her and four head Russians. take pity on the been plundered by the Kaitaks near Tarki. the ambassador of Shirwanshah. but having grounded mouth of the Volga we were taken. seized. and instantly plundered with all my things in In the larger at the we reached the sea. and the boat was hauled up again to the fishing-stakes. the smaller boat was wrecked on prisoners. was her. saying. One of our men was shot but we shot two of theirs. six Muscovites and six Tweritians. sea. and that the Kaitaks coming goods. re- me. A storm having arisen shore. the Kaitakian Kniaz. and Boolat-bek sent immediately to Shirvanshali-bek. or Tartar tribe that occupied the preseut Daghestau. The smaller of our boats ran foul of some fishing-stakes. and thy people arriving seized for the sake of my people and plundered their goods. dismissing us bare and naked be- yond the the nev/s. do thou and I will not refuse let it to my brother . . to Now. his brother-in-law. thou shouldest send them me and name cover their goods. but we robbed. the j ambassador Assanbek.6 INDIA IN THE FIFTKENTH CENTURY. And it. ^ Tarki. " A shij) of mine was wrecked near Tarki. to had travelled together." as we men that had And this he and went up the hill to Boolat-bek . uot far from the Caspian Sea. but for the sake of me ^ them go in liberty. to say that a Russian craft had been wrecked near Sarai. shouldest thou ever want any thing of me. For our . I prayed him Assanbek. town of Daghestau. where Vassily Papin had arrived and also and well." Alil-bek complied willingly. some Teziks. up had taken the people and plundered their at Shirvanshah-bek once dispatched a messenger to Aiil-bek. sins we were overtaken on the Bogoon (Buzan). did. Then came the and we came safe Kaitaks' and to made the whole party Derbend. and forbidding us to return home because of And so we went on to Derbend in two boats : in one. for these people are sent in my name.

son of Ilaly. but he gave us nothing. " The quantity of naphtha procured in this Baku is enormous. in the at land of INIazandcran. Olearius. — Geogr. from the centre of which a bluish flame is seen to arise.. the means to return to Eussia we were it too many. i and immediately sent the prisoners they were directed to to Dcrbend. iv. Leide. two vols. Here I lived six months. Dimovand (Demo- (here were killed the ^ Wherever each chose to go.500 lbs. some of which have been found to yield from 1000 to 1. their n . I went As the for to work at Bakou. an oasis in the midst of the surrounding desert (Macculloch. something less than a mile in circumference. where Alexander halted for five days Teheran.. whoever was stayed at went where others sought his eyes looked . " The soil there is reddish. he says neither herb nor fruit.) Orey or Rhey. and from Demo wend to Orey^ Amyl (Amol). p. some Shamakha me. or fire temple of the Ghebers." — (Kinneir's Persia. he is not sensible of any wai'mth. the following passage. and produces The Persians ascribe the cause of it to the curse : — which befel that land on account of Omar Saad. 1718). for which the peninsula of Abscharon is famous. who visited that country in 1G37. at a short distance south from is generally supposed to be identical with the ancient Rhages. the capital of the Parthian kings. to the curse alluded to. his own orda." and thence across the sea to Chebokhara (Bokhara). Derbend and then to Bakou.' whoever had anything in Russia returned home in debt . whence Shirvanshah in Koytul. With regard liv. and one fire month month I lived at Sareh. Near the naphtha springs still stands the Atash Kudda. where burns unextinguished. and one to Then I went wend). the Mahommedan conquest it was a favourite resort of the plain to the south-east of Ghebers or fire-worshippers. This fire does not consume. as to "We all proceeded there. TRAVELS OF NIKITIN.. p. folio. having in their centre a modern village with a noble mosque and mausoleum. Teheran). which thoroughly confirms ISTikitin's statement. 359.. in his pursuit of Darius. Speaking of the ruins of Rhey. It is drawn from wells. who was one of the first military chiefs iu the time of Ilossein (Shaussen). and ^ if a person finds himself in the middle of it. fire ^ By this unextinguished the author means the naphtha springs and the Before mud volcanoes. a remarkable spot. The ruins cover a great extent of ground. Voyages. we find in 678 (translated by De Wicquefort. So wc wept and dispersed wherever was . and prayed that he would give us . a day. etc. a city now in ruins. Diet.

Bender (Bunder. or one penny.^ I shipped sun is scorching and burns man. This Omar. the first stopped there a month. and large cities have not named the many through which the I passed. or 93(3 lbs. except Omar. Persia. equal to 26 pouds. where at I I also spent a month Nain. Bokhara. thirty .) avoirdupois.Abbas) . But the death of Hossein. four days to Degh{?) . was the only against man who him .* and lastly to We sailed six weeks in the tava till we reached Chivil. at (or Drey ?) to Kashan. where the cattle are fed with dates four altyn the batman '} and from Tarem to Lar. Thence in and farther to Kuzrat (Gujrat) and . brought upon that land the curse. who first had made professions of friendship consented to serve Fesid-Peser towards Ilossein. there was no general found at Medina who would take up arms against him. to and at From Yezd I proceeded to Sirjan (or Kirwan) Tarom (Tarem). which he had been coveting for a long time. and left Chivil on the seventh M^eek after the great day. On week after the great my horses in a tava. great prophet. I At Hormuz day. who was persuaded to undertake the war. who fell during the war. and seventy cities fell to ruins). Hormuz island. Chaoul. called in the Persian tongue Doria of Hondustan. by the common belief. a flourishing seaport before the Portuguese conquest. Kanbat (Cambay).8 INDIA IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. ^ Easter Sunday. where the indigo grows Chivil. and from Orey one month. still appeared in the tint and barrenness of the soil. for Hossein being of the blood of Mahomet." ^ A batman is a measure of weight still used in Turkey. and to from Lar seaport. and here there is a Hormyz (Hormuz). children of Shausscn Aley. (about 8 l-9th cwt. which. having reached I Hormuz four weeks before the great day. and in Caucasus. the grandchiklren of Mahmct. A vessel. four miles across the water and stands on an it. Twice a day the sea flows around first and here I celebrated the great day. remained and he cursed the Assassins. ^ * An altyn is three copecs. and another Yezd. and in great renown for his sanctity.^ and sailed across the Indian Sea in ten dayes to Moshkat (Muscat). and is the Indian Sea. by the promise of receiving possession of the city of Rhey and its territory.

I hear he holds seven tmas of Meliktuchar. but mostly beating them. . The servants of the kniaz and of the boyars loins.TRAVELS OF NIKITIN. is Fata a large silken garment. — 1 " Kniaz" is the Russian word for prince or chief. or a all bow walk and arrows —but naked and barefooted. their heads uncovered and bare breasts the hair tressed into one They bring forth children every year and the children are many and men and women are black. although he has many good and horses. Their kniaz' wears a fata^ on the head the loins loins . worn in some countries of Russia round the head or over the upper Perhaps Umrut (Omrita). . Hamilton's Indian Gaz. . or a sabre. and another on the boyars wear it it on the shoulders and on the also the kniaginies wear round the shoulders and the loins. forty miles south by east from Surat.^ and from that Indian town to Jooneer(?) in six days. and " kniaginia" for princess. while Meliktuchar himself presides over twenty tmas. with . in eight days to Pilee(?). We left Chivil. . The khan elephants rides on men. This is 9 an Indian country. to the Indian mountains thence in ten days to Oomri. a tributary of Meliktuchar. and tail. and do not hide their shame. ^ "boyars" means noblemen. carrying in the attach the fata round the hand a shield and a sword. Khorassanians. and went by land . a town in the province of Aurungabad. When I go out many people follow me. ^ classes. People go about naked. or a scimitar. Boys and girls go naked till seven years. some of Among his attendants are many whom come from the countries of miles south south-east of Bombay. stare at the white man. and thick bellies. Here resides Asat. or knives. This was a place of considerable note during the Bhamenee dynasty of the Deccan. being sometimes beaten. He has been fighting the Kofars for twenty years. khan of Indian Jooneer. Women about with their heads uncovered and their breasts bare. still by the women of the lower part of the body.

: Horses are not born in that country.: 10 INDIA IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. on the long coat). true God. leads up the In the land of India to stop at inns . also on kicJiiris. Trinity day. wearing shoulders. for riding. which takes a day to ascend. At Jooneer the khan took away my heard that I was no Mahommedan. mercifid God. for they like white men. arc brought over They all by sea in tavas or Indian ships. stranger. tuturegan(?). . Viz. Khorassan. . Surkniesk. in June. Horses are fed on peas sugar and oil . but oxen and buffaloes and these are used other purpose. poor sinner. admitting of only man at a time. boiled with early in the morning they get sMsTienivo. but day and night for dirt. and Chegotan. he said if O God. and having a Russian. sow wheat. and every Jooneer stands on a stony island . but the princes and nobles (a put trousers on. another as a belt round the waist. who makes the bed and that sleeps with the Women know you it willingly concede their favours. A narrow one road. horse. Oroban. gracious God. kept in large skins of Indian goat. and on the head . a shirt and a kaftan a fata on the shoulders. The winter began from four months there is till we wintered this at Jooneer and lived there two months but rain and the ground. with God's help I reached Jooneer well. but ^ " I will give thee the horse and a 1000 pieces of gold. ple put on the fata and wear In the winter. Wine . but it me a hundred roubles.' and . .. no human hand built it it — God made the town. hill to it. brought a stallion to the land of all India. (Unintelligible). At time of the year the people peas. it is the custom for foreign traders is there the food also cooked for the guests by the landlady. and (?) all sorts of vegetables. the peo- round the waist. and a third round the head. And cost I. conveying goods. is .

but there is nothing All goods for the land of Mussulmans. This sentence and we were From there we went in five days to ^ is not clear. and the And praying him delivered me from being converted. Merchandise conveyed by sea people that would bring duties are it is free from duty. thoii wilt 11 .^ but the all . We left Jooneer holy (Virgin)" for Beuruk (Bedev) . and then proceed to the land of HinThose Mussulman dogs have lied to me. should find here plenty of our goods for our country. of whom pray are Kofars. whoever of you wishes go to the Indian country may leave his faith in Russia. I did to explain the author's mind. the thou wilt not embrace our Mahommedan faith and if Mahommedan faith. and did not withdraw his mercy from me. and these are cheap." He gave me four days to consider. confess dostan. saying I . On the eve of our Saviour's day there came a man Khorassan. on the eve of the Assumption of the very city. as pepper and colours. neither Christians nor Mussulmans they to stone idols and know not Christ. 2 any construction the more so as the latter part of the sentence out in Mr. and took from him my horse. I shall keep all the horse and take a 1000 pieces of gold iipon thy head. Mahomet. Lord took pity upon me because of his holy festival. Such was the Lord's wonderful mercy on the Saviour's day. a large a month on the road. many. The sea infested with pirates. his sinful servant. and to us will give is no duty .) 15th of August. is left not venture to put on impression. embrace our faith. and allowed me not to perish at Fooneer among the infidels. He repaired to the khan into the town. and as it it stands thus in the original. Khozaiocha Mahmet. Christian to brethren of Russia. and I implored him from to pity me.TRAVELS OF NIKITIN. Stroef's (Count Wielhorsky. . Now. on the eve of our Saviour's day (18th of August). and this occurred during the fast of the Assumption of our Lady.

12 INDIA IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. but no other but Indian goods. and the women . which adjoins the mountains of . battle. or witches. 9 kors and from Beder is Koluherg. and also in black people article is sold . small ones : days from the latter to Kelberg Between these large towns there are many three for each day. They carry a citadel. kind of eatables no goods. the celebrated Arabian who visited India about the middle of the fourteenth century. The Hindoos walk on foot and walk fast. and all sorts of other merchandise. 40 from Beder 9. citadel twelve men in armour with guns and There is a place Shikhhaludin Peratyr. ^ thus : " Shikhb-aludin piriatyr bazaar Aliadinand. and the animals are clad in ornamental plates of steel. or thieves and cheats and they destroy their masters with poison. Some of the servants armed with straight bows and arrows. many . that will do And all are black and wicked." Shikhuladin. and occasionally four . and in the arrows.. so many hors. it is 20 kors from Jooneer Beder. Large scythes' are attached to the trunks and tusks of the elephants. stuffs. and every for Russia. The rulers and the nobles in the land of India are all all Khorassanians.^ and a fair once a year. to From to Chivil to Jooneer . traveller. all harlots. five Kulonghcr.000 is horses are brought there for sale from Beder. relates that in coming to Bengal his chief object was to see a great saint who dwelt in the mountains of Karuru. silks. The men on foot full the Khorassanians being mounted in armour. Elephants are greatly used in are sent first. to Ku- longher. as will be seen presently. a bazaar Aladin- and. which 1 20 Weighing three pouds Stroef gives it or 106 lb. however. goods. man as well as horse. appears to have been a in great veneration at that time. man held Ibn Batuta. where people from all parts of India assemble and trade for ten days. They are are all naked and bare-footed. and in (Kulburga). and carry a shield in one hand and a sword in the other. so . As many as 20. In Beder there a trade in horses. towns.

will see fire flashing from its AVild cats rove at night and catch fowls they live in the live in the hills and among their stones. and an army sent after the missing and when they come town they pull armies. festival of the Protection of Holy Virgin In that Aland (Aladinand ?) there is a bird. A fortnight after this festival they cele- brate Shikbaladin and the spring during eight days. They make the spring three months. who of is is attended by a host of armed followers. i. and placed on him at parting the fine goat's hair garment which he wore himself. (Cooley. 7wrs distant. and supplying his table with sorts of eatables. Ibn Batuta informs us pious and credible that he found the same belief established among persons in India. of handicraft. 203. and besides every description of goods that fair is . to kill it. or teach them dancing. already existed among lie the Greeks of antiquity. any them caught they complain . that flies at night and cries " gookook. and whoever attempts beak. that may not find their way home. the Shiekh Fatal ' The belief that these animals are but a variety of the human species. four monkeys with rods in their hands all being constantly in waiting upon him. it is thrown out on the high road. Thibet. Oddin> This saint treated him with attention. will die . there the man . Thus they who teach them every they are often caught sort by the Hindoos. and bring forth is a great They speak their own tongues many children and. 202. As to monkeys they woods and have monkey kniaz. gookooJc. is When to a . when a child .) Might he not be the same in whose memory everything was bought and sold at the Aladinand bazaar. of Shikbaladin. i. unlike its father or its mother. whom he were a king. the summer three months. or sell them at niglit. down the houses and beat the people and their it is said. (Cooley.^ Spring begins from the Protection of the Holy Virgin (10th October). Every thing whose the sohl or bought in memory fete falls on the Russian (1st October).TKAVELS OF NIKITIN. are many. 13 and the best throughout is the Land of Ilindostan. to their kniaz.) ." and any roof it lights upon. they treat as if was assured that the monkeys have a chief.

20. Melik-Tuchar. Mahommedan invasion was the capital Near the ruins of the old Beder. 105. Khorassanians rule the counis try and serve in war. and contains a great many people. . and the Becler is . all foreign (haurikies). The sultans Xhc sultau's palacc has seven o-ates. and in each scribes. whose seat of the capital was Kalbergah. . is f/Sn'^ The in the sultan^ (of Beder) a little man. 50. which he made his capital in place of Kalbergah.000 men fhc land is ovcrstocked with people opulent and delight in luxury. Ahmed Shah Bhamenee founded the city Ahmedabad. and in front one hundred horn-men. the winter three months. Mahomedau Hinold. twenty years power of the nobles. Beder was formerly noted Before the for works of tutenague it inlaid with silver. sfate are seated 100 guards and 100 Mahommedan This palace who enter the names of all persons going in and out. own troops. but those in the country are very miserable. the first of whom was sultan Allah ud Deen Houssun Kangoh Bhamenee. very wonderful to the smallest everything in ^ it is carved or gilded. who keeps an army of 200. ftunJ"'^""^ The and a sultan goes out hunting with his mother and his lady. and many are the khans that keep 10. in gilded armour. and. Melik Kharat Khan. preceded caparisoned in gold. The sultan goes out with 300. of his . dostan large. the chief town of the whole of the city is autumn three months.000 men on horseback.000 men Khan .000. and 300 common horses in 100 monkeys.000 There a Khorassanian Boyar. 14 INDIA IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. and by horn-men. 100 dancers. whilst the nobles are extremely on their silver beds.000 armed men.d. a. keeps 100. They are wont to be carried by some twenty chargers and followed by 300 men on horseback and 500 on foot. p. even After the Mahommedan conquest the province of Beder was the Bhamener dynasty of Deccan sovereigns. train of 10. and this is the modern Beder. The nobles. is Foreigners are not admitted into the town. and 100 concubines.) of a Hindoo sovereignty. 1347.. ten torchbearers and ten musicians. (Hamilton.000 on foot 200 elephants adorned golden clothing.

. nor their commerce. lady of high station. and my Mahommedan name Khoza Issuf Khorossani. the executions devolving on the kouteval. and got by him 60 and 8 a footoons. my horse about Christmas and staid at Beder Lent and made acquaintance with many Hindoos. saiadenie my name to was Ofonasey. in length two Snakes crawl about sajen (fourteen feet). neither their prayers. kouteval performed the duties of a chevalier du or night guard. Mandehlo. Olearius et traduits Vol. for the person that begins the suit is that in most cases it is the sufferer judged by the governors of the cities. or Bunder Abbas Jean A. that nor .TRAVELS OF NIKITIN. in describing the ( Gomron. manner and the consequence . told them what was my faith . was neither but a Chris- Mahommedan tian. says. nor their ^ The kouteval. p. I sold my stallion at Beder. carrying each a light. all of This is the only reason why houses of pleasure are which pay a tribute to the kouteval. but also confer a certain amount of honour on their customers. " But justice. especially during the night. 152.^ 1000 men kutovalovies mounted on horses in full armour. The crimes most severely punished are murder and adultery. folio. endeavoured conceal anything After that they no more from me. is 15 cut and ornamented witli gold most wonderfully. Beder. ^''^erand Ua people. . i. There is almost no crime from which you may not be redeemed by money so that it may be said of those countries. 153). " is administered there in a curious usually wins it. nor other meals. fort. The capital crimes are . had to keep good order in Voyages du Sr. according to the same authority (pp. having kept him whole year. Philip ('14th of November) till sold . especially when committed with a has to pay the fine. In the kingdom of Guzerat. inbhlies par A. that gibbets are erected there for the poor only. like the police of our days. I in the streets of came to Beder from Kulongher on the day of . 2 vols. that I ?). tolerated. . . authorities of the city of Olearius. with more truth than of any other. (casedronie." remarks Olearius.32). that the fftcet. 14 . Several courts of justice are within the building. stone. who in return extend to them such an efficient protection that they not only afford security. St. his duty was also to decide petty suits. the town of Beder is guarded by the night Throughout J cy n o . par De Wicque- the streets.

is A fair is held there during five days. cUd thcv j j all about their religion. We were the route. I agreed with some is go to Pervota^ which is their Jerusalem . believe in Boot (Buddha). Twenty millions of people assemble at Bootkhana. how he man. Having spent four months Hindoos a to Beder. and exhibiting it in carvings on the walls the deeds of Boot. INDIA IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTUHY. he is quite uncovered. ^fPenot-"' turn. in built in stone. emperor of Constantinople . vol. then as a man with a monkey's face. Bootkhaua a very extensive building. and a tribute of two mekshenics is levied on each for the sake of Boot. but sometimes a hundred millions. to witness the wonders of Boot. o : tliiiiffs iior ^ try to hide their women. in Asiatic Researches. And : I asked them believe in and they said to " We all Adam . Boot size. which are shown how Boot achieved miracles . eat. His right hand is lifted up high and extended like that of Justian (Justinian?). but none on at beef. and everyone coming is girls shave their hair at there shaves his beard and head and whatever hair on his body head . about the half of Twer. People from all parts of the land of India congregate at Bootkhana. v. and has Some its other budhs (idols) are See an account of Perwuttum and pagoda. All around are cut out twelve wreaths. or marry with those of another. fowls. . GkJiat Deikh Bootkhana. his tail is sculptured in stone of an immense rising over him. and eggs. ^ loins. At Bootkhana. There are in all eighty-four creeds. fish. Some them feed on mutton. and again as a a savage beast and a tail rising man with the appearance of a sajen (seven feet) above him. with only a small cloth round the the appearance of a monkey. its Mahommedan name month on Budhkhana. his left holding a sword . and no man of one creed will of drink. . 304. appeared in different forms then as a first in the shape of a man with an elephant's nose. and also of iowx fonties on each horse." and they hold the Budhs be Adam and and his race. Old women and Bootkhana.16 Bdigious creeds. by Colonel Colin Mac- kenzie.

They eat not with one another nor with their wives. stands of ]3oot and their children are also sculptured naked. no cow flesh. and the budhs also stand eastward.TRAVKLS OF NIKITIN. carrots with oil. will not eat lest nor see their food. They •I offer their prayers ^ towards the east. and the wives black stone and gilded. feet. lifting . . it but the mother gives to a there no good about them. and live . then they lie the head down with and wash the face to the ground. their hands and and neiigious custom?. A huge bull. but night. in before Boot people kiss his hoof and adorn him with flowers as avcU as Boot. chicken. they bow to touching the ground with both hands. They sit down to eat. Their fare is poor. is husband acts the midwife. happen they some. and they know each other like the monks. but say nothing. of the dead are burnt. and the ashes scattered When a woman is He gives the name daughter. Still is confined. ' in the Russian nmdoo mode of way. and should . hide themselves under a linen cloth they should be seen when •/ eating. They it take care that Mahommedans do this not look into their pot. and such is their law. carved . not what shame. On meeting together. therefore. and different herbs. they will never set the left hand to anything nor use a knife the spoon is unknown. rinse their mouths before they do so. no nindoo meals. no mutton. and pigs are in great abundance. (idols) The bodies on the waters. They take their meals twice a day. In travelling every one has a stone pot to cook his broth in. and are situated towards the east. . naked. drink not at and no wine nor mead but with Mahommedans they neither eat nor drink. on Indian corn. stretching their body to its full length. The Hindoos eat no meat. her to a son. The banquets were all on pork . Their Bootookhanies (places of worship) have no doors. both hands high and putting them on the top of praying. M-itliout 17 anything on their hinder parts. Al- ways eating with the right hand.

as they stand in the original. ollooak. a fortnight before the great Mahommedan festival (Ulu Bairam). During Lent they go to Pervota. with on their own excrements they bake bread and boil food. but are so corrupt as to be scarcely intelligible. Even when the meaning can be guessed been thought undesirable at. and with their ashes sign the images of these animals faces. I guess by different signs. in Russian Jerusalem. (Cairiam). are in Turkish. . bracelets round the arms. God that he may preserve me from God is one. to supply in English. me no books whatever lost . with afota round the fotas. Wednesday But I pray destruction. In India " pachektur a uchu zeder sikish ilarsen ikishitel On Sundays and Mondays ilia akechany atyrsen a tie jetelber bularadastor akul kara- vash uchuz charfuna chuk-kichi khosh. feet shod. a small linen round their loins and the women also naked. king of glory and creator of heaven and earth. it has sometimes. festivals. and carry round the neck 300 The Hindoos their call the hxxW. however. called " ach-chee." bells. foreheads. In Mahommedan the it is named Koka. as it in the present instance. which are cased have their These animals. ^ This. but some are dressed in wearing necklaces of sapphire. They come hither all naked. and the cow mother . They drive into the Bootkhana on bulls. and golden rings. nor can I tell from Friday."^ khubbem funa khubesia kap karaam From Pervota we returned to Beder. middle . But I know not the great day of Christ's Resurrection . And and and the Christian know to the not Easter nor Christmas. they only eat once in the day. those that I had taken from Russia were I forgot the Christian faith when I was robbed. and I am between the two only faiths. with only .18 INDIA IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. like the other untranslated passages in this narrative. that the great Christian day is by nine or ten days sooner than the I have nothing with Mahommedan Cagrim . in Hindoo tongue Tparvat. their Jerusalem. and whole bodies. the horns of in brass. father .

days to go by sea from to It takes ten Ormuz . from . who made heaven and earth and no other god of any other Bog olio. Hormuz is a vast emporium of all the world . to the in Hindostan belonging Dabul is the last seaport ' ^ ^ Mussulmans. still worn by Tartars. one tenth of everything.TUAVKI-S OF NIKITIN. duties are high. Hoi-muz. From China to Kyt you go by land six months. name did I invoke.^ six days to from Gujzrat from Moshkat to Gujzrat ten Combat (Cambay) four days. caikut.* as talach. From there to Colecot (Calicut) you have to travel twenty. 1 is a port of the whole Indian . Bog khudo. Ollo-varcno . abstained from female society. . but by sea in four days. and camtay. from Kalat Degh . March passed. Bog garym. Ceylon. But the sea. and I had not eaten any meat to fast one month. and prayed to God Almighty. silk. to Golat to (Kalat) . . Cambayat (Cambai) damask. to Ceylan to fifteen . thing is produced on earth you find it in Hormuz. to Shibait from Shibait Pewgu and from Pewgu China and Macheen one month by sea. having begun with the Abstaining from all Mahommedans animal or Mahomme- dan food. of a striped material. Blankets. Muscat. I fed myself twice a day with bread and water. 2 Long gowns. f^'^^^*^^"°^- and from Colecot one month to . The month on a Sunday.again adopted the Russian law. king of glory. you find there people and goods of every description.^ colour. 19 On my for return to Russia of I . and whatever : all this . half cotton * half "^ A sort of satin from China. but not in this manuscript. a manufacturing place for every sort of goods kiota. in Stroef s edition. Bog kerim. sensen olloty. Combat to Chivil (Chaoul) twelve days and from Chivil to Dabyl (Dabul) six days. olio gary niello. God. Bog Akber. from Ceylan twenty days . The distances in days between Degh.^ and there they prepare the blue stone and Guzerat are given There also grows lek daakliyh dalon.five days. khan. six days from Degh Moshkat (Muscat) days . .

adracli (?) cinnamon. sumhada} Elephants and ostriches live there and are sold. Shabat. Ceylon. a j)ort for the whole Indian sea. then the sovereign of Shabat for pays him 1000 tenkas the sacrifice and as a tribute. spices. perhaps. and it whoever saw will not go ovep healthy. The rupee of Akbar (sixteenth century) contained 174"5 grains of pure silver. and in the vicinity are found precious stones. and was divided into forty dams or pusas (of 191^ grains of copper each). cloves. Kntimonj . where many walk Calicut. ii. Elphinstone's History of India. and.8 grains of pure silver Akbar's rupee. Queen Elizabeth's shilling contained 88. on a the tomb of Adam. Neghostan. in the middle of (The Hon. It Khorassan. the latter by the weight. was of about the same value. Turkestan. Shabait. for ten silk. it which God forbid any craft to cross. on the Indian Sea.20 Dabul. Akbar's standard remained almost unaltered until the breaking all over the Mogul dominions the last century. . a tribute of one tenka. Pegu. is There. and servants and maids are very good. The tankha appears to be the coin represented by the modern rupee. of English money ^ . when at its proper standard. therefore. used for shaving (?). Ceylon Sea. and everything Pegu ^ is no inconsiderable port. muscat. big or And when eats he marries. crystal. M. is another not inconsiderable port of the Indian hill. ll^d. viii. principally inhabited by A sort of mastich. gems.a day small. was worth Is. ginger. horses are brought from Mysore. aromatic roots.fastisses . tenkas month. Dabyl (Dabvil) is also a very extensive seaport. a and he cheap. Rabast (Arabia).) Hence the value of one tenka at the latter part of the fifteenth century may be fixed at about two shillings. At Shabat the is country produces sandal. agate. book chap. colour plants. The country produces pepper. and every description of and everything is cheap. takes a month to to by land from this place to Beder and Kul- burgha. INDIA IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. cinchai. Calccot (Calicut) is Articles proiluced. up of the empire. note 19. the former by the size. of his time. is paid there to each Korossanee. is a very large place .

at Rachoor' the is diamond. antimony. kyrpiik. where porcelain months by sea. the husband pays him a salary. but is welcome to what he ate and drank. 21 are The products derived from thence Machin are also large. Indian peas and colour plants . for the people of Shabat are neither Jews. being so very black. a vassal to the sultan. ele- phants. are . because they like strangers and white people. Shabat is distant three months from Beder takes two months to go from Chim. is but by sea it Dabul to Shabat. ialhut. their own men is And when a woman conceives a child If the child by a stranger.000 pounds of That is district belongs to Melik-khan. the stranger receives a duty of eighteen tenkas if it is born black he gets nothing. at Guzrat at Cambat the agate . according to Stroef. The parcel sold at five roubles. which are sold by the dervishes. sandal. and Ceylon two At Shabat nature produces ammone. The lain is seaports of Cheen and Porce- made there.— — . the kona diamond lokot. . . hill. TRAVELS OF NIKITIN. and thirty kors from Beder. The diamond from that gold per is found on a rocky and the rough diamond hill is sold for two thousand pounds weight of gold is per lokot. ' Orachoor. The Jews but this is call the people of Shabat Jews like themselves not true. beads. born white. husbands in the day. but the best at ten a parcel of rough diamond penech chekeni siaje charasheshkeni asipit ek tenka. but sleep with they go to the foreign besides waiting on men and them and pay for them with sweetmeats and supplying that the foreigners them with food and drink. sold at 10. Machin and made and everything is cheap. which are sold by the lokot. find at Lecot (Calicut pepper. . the Indigo colour fatisses silk. at night Women it. gems. a syto. and sold by the weight and sleep Avith their low price. four months distance by sea from Beder. may love them. at a manik. cloves. . Indian dervishes. muscat. At Ceylon you ?). Cirkona danov konaj ? .

. and a liquid is generated therein. I have no they were taken by those that plundered us. attempts to travel at night.xS. forcibly exhorted me to go . when fattened. in the Kain (Nain) country of Mazanderan the third at Hormuz mans faith. but is the great day. which give a very strong smell on the fields and in the woods. cheap at Sliabat. kept the great day in May at Beder. for I all had nothing goods. There is a kind of deer. therefore. Monkeys and wild traveller woods and attack the cats. ten months by land and four by sea. the Mahommedan first residence in Hindostan. INDIA IN THE P^IFTEENTH CENTURY. together with the MussulI and there wept bitterly because of the Christian A Mussulman called Melikh. do not know when is Lent. but the Mahommedans kept ! the Bairam in May. Driven by this great misfortune I went to India. O many true believing Christians He that travels through countries will fall into . or Wednesday or Friday. or Christmas. . (Two lines unintelligible. but belong to a different Indian religion. or any other holiday. and vated at a use no meat. When wild they drop these vesicles. or . They cat not with Khuds (Jews and sugar are is ?) nor Mahommedans. and everything generally cats infest the . the fourth in India. have their vesicles cut. on account of the monkeys and wild it is From Shabat auJdikov. nor Christians. having begun to fast on the day of April the middle of . nor INIahommedans. being robbed of my . Chehokhara. . sinful man. I. on the highroads nobody. Silk culti- low expense. which. and any one attempting to taste the liquid I would immediately die. : The first great day I kept at mk\t\nke^t Easter days. and deprive himself of the Christian faith. the second at to return Places with to Russia. many sins. Musktieer.) Four great Lent which books fastings and four great days (Easter days) have already passed by.

mei'cy upon me. Olio karim.TRAVELS OF NIKITIN. and a heavy sword.viziers. attached to and large iron weights hanging from the trunk. my steps to wander for in my trouble I did no good for Thy evil. Olio garym. from the path of truth. But besides Bultan this there may be seen in the train of the about a thousand ordinary horses in gold trap- . thou knowest not the Christian faith. carrying citadels equally six warriors with fitted in steel. Olio ragymello.'''' But he re" Truly thou secmcst not to be a Mahometan but plied tliou marlijlarcscn — : . and who no more know where Oh Lord aAvay in Almighty.). on God alone knows I : " O Thee and unto Thee pray to save me from destruction. that I rely. man what may come cious Lord. Olio Ujkarim.) On the Mahometan clad in Bairam. holding in his a large iron hook wherewith he guides the animal. and have not renounced Christianity. armour sits A man hand in full between the ears. and with him twenty high. and have spent the whole of my days in Olio pervodiger. for I for I am near to despair Thy glance upon me and have am Thy creature do not lead me. Creator of heaven and earth. I Akhalim didimor But gra- have already passed the fourth great day in the Mussulcountry. menda namaz kilarmcn iy hcz namaz Jdlarsiz menda 3 kalarcmcn mcngarib cason cnchai. and each holding guns and long muskets. Damask steel armour. Each animal has two large its jirohortsy Aveighing a kentar (three pouds." (Three lines unintelligible. about 100 tusks. myself Woe to me. hereafter. bestow my trouble. obdurate sinner." And to I was then engrossed by many '' : a thought. but direct in righteousness . sake. The big elephants are mounted by twelve men. lb. and said to go. O Lord. turn not face Thy from Thy servant. who wandered from the path of truth. over to the ]\f : 23 ahommedan faith. O . Lord. three hundred elephants. But I said to him " Master. the sultan went out to tefcrich. Lord.

and Kashan ^ . the is canopy of which covered with velvet and ornamented It is carried with precious stones. Sea . but wdnds blow there sometimes. shields. full Some are naked. it is. are omitted in Stroef's impression. spears. or sabres. of people and sultan. rassan the climate is warm. Before him runs a Mussulman playing on teremetz. and all of them armed with bare swords top. three hun- dred trumpeters. but replaced by the words " at Mahrah. . The sultan. Ostan. and behind a great mighty elephant. The heat in Hindostan is not great it is great at Hormuz at Katohagraim. near Mecca ? The three following names. Tid. . and three swords mounted the in gold. a province in Arabia and Oroobstan Arabia. lances. however. at Lar. . At Djid. where gems are found at Tid -} at Bakh . that being the name given to that country by our traveller. but not to excess . and and horses are in the full armour. or large straight riders bows . also carries a suit of gold armour inlaid with sap- phires. In the land of Kho. . many chain. to it Mahmud sits on a golden bed. waist. wears a habit em- broidered with sapphires. riding on a golden saddle. a town on the Red Mahrah. Yezd. and three hundred kovre. I found there no fresh vegetables. by twenty men. in order that none should come too near the The brother of the sultan rides on a golden bed. which appears the better reading. attendants silk follow on foot also a decked with and holding in his mouth a large iron business to clear the It is his way horses. and before him many and dancers. and in Oroobstan". . Bakh. exceedingly hot in Chegotan. one INDIA IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. Mysore. and on his pointed headdress a large diamond he . at Mysore at Ostan . hundred camels with torchbearers. . three hundred dancers. with a silken canopy and a golden Around him singers drawn by four horses in gilt harness. and in the cities of Shiraz. but •wear a small garment round the At Beder moon remains three days. are crowds of people.24 pings. as the names referred to would indicate the first.

. as well as in the lands and Walosk. Uzu- Assanbekh killed Taousho Murzah poisoned . namely Hormuz. " Bulck'\ About two-thirds of a farthing. and may the Russian dominion increase. nor to Chegotay. and being alone -^ I spend daily for my food one-sixth of an altyn nor do I drink wine or synda. warm at But there 2\(rsk in Sevastihub is (Sivas) and in the land of Gurzyn} abundance of everything. ^ This may be Gruzia. a country which by its fertility would answer to the qualification given to it by our traveller. where eatables are plentiful and cheap. ' In Stroef. Stroef 's reading is Qurmyz. and extremely warm at the same at (or Shamakha and It is less at Babylon. Mecka you must take the Mahometan to and on account of this Christians do not like is go to Mecka. nor to Kitahagraim^ nor to Tezd f for all these places have been conquered by the Bulgack. Sultan Massait was . The land of Podolia also abounds in every produce. which does not seem so good. but there to no road from there Khorassan .^ and their kings expelled. spare ! my life. . is So there no practicable way whatever. May God preserve the Russian land. and Ediger Mahmet make his allegiance). world. ^ ^ * Here Here follows in Stroef 's edition " nor to Bodat''\ follows in Stroef. and more especially from hell God preserve this may He bestow his blessing on the dominions of Russia and the Russian nobility. " nor to Arabostan". having described it as a town standing on an island. I rely upon Thee I .TRAVELS OF NIKITIN. but continued in a state of defence. as the author would not have called it a land. I have lost my road and know is not where to go can well get from Hindostan to Hormuz. Ghilan the air is sultry 25 . Khuniit. If you proceed to faith. the present name of that part of the Caucasus known to Europe as Georgia. living in India very expen- I have spent the whole of my money. On the other hand. . O Lord. sive. at Shamah Sham). Lap. Uzu-Assanbekh took Shiraz but the country redid not appear (to fused to submit.

and a hundred loads of valuable goods while the army took an immense quantity of various merchandize. captured seven princes with their treasures^ a load of precious stones. and captured an immense quantity of precious stones. a load of diamonds and . and belonged warlike tribes of India. of Kurbant-Bairam. the whole of which was bought by Melikh Tuchar. is guarded every night by a hundred armed men. Two thousand horses stand in the stables of Melikh Tuchar. whose inhabitauts were to noted as intrepid and ferocious pirates. by two men. The town had been besieged for two years by an army of two hundred thousand men. kettledrums. each at the head of ten thousand warriors. in the Russian Calendar Peter's day viziers to encounter him at a distance equal to ten versts).) .' whose ships pirated on the Indian Sea. Farat-Klian took three large with an army of one hundred thousand men and fifty elephants of their own. twenty trumpeters. and also one hundred elephants. His court. one of the most 2C3. Mek-Khan. and with each vizier people. Melikh Melikh Tuchar came with and the sultan sent ten of ten kors (a kor is his army to Beder on the day . who gave order none of them should be sold to 1 that to foreign traders. ii. kirpuks. Probably situated on the coast of Malabar. are alternately Myza Mylk. and besides one hundred of his household boyars. and of ten elephants in full equip- ment. ^j^ ti^g court of Melikh Tuchar five hundred people sit down to dinner every day . of which one thousand are always saddled and kept in readiness day and night .26 INDIA IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. and cities. one hundred elephants. and ten torchmen while ten large His residence . They came Beder on the day of the Ascension. and three hundred camels. Melikh Tuchar took two Indian towns. (Mandelslo. but three viziers only are adfifty mitted to his table. each attended struck throughout the watch. sapphires and diamonds.

No man from the same vessel.s of nikitin. The with one hundred thou- sand horse and one hundred thousand foot of his own troops. mother and sister. ten tizierins. latter and carrying each a citadel and four men. they carry supplies of water for will drink with another drinking and washing. armed to With this force Melikh Tuchar went fight against the great Indian dominion of Chenudar. . . Melikh Tuchar moved from Beder with Sheikh Aladin. when in a campaign. of whom sultan.travi:t. one and fifty hundred thousand men of horse. cloth coverings. But the king of Binedar possessed three hundred elephants. and one hundred savage beasts led in double brother of the sultan took the field chains. is His brother. two hundred thousand of Beder. on the anniversary of Kussian calendar. 27 The and is sultan goes out hunting on Tuesdays and Thursdays. fifty thousand strong. viziers. carrying each four fifty elephants in naked natives with a that follow small garment round the waist. The sultan (of Beder) sent with him fifty thousand of his own army and three viziers with thirty thousand men. tion of the after the his army. thousand The sultan left Beder on the eighth month after the great day (Easter). against the Indians. foot are equally The women on uncovered . on the Protec- Holy Virgin. and with him twenty-six twenty were Mussulmans and six Hindoos. and a great many troops on foot.„y oz- There went out of the household troops of the three one hundred thousand horse. foot. ^. his own troops. hundred elephants with citadels and clad in armour. two viziers. the with long muskets. and two thousand women on horseback at the or on golden beds head of the train are three hun- dred ordinary horses in gold equipment.-. and one hundred equipped elephants. followed by his accompanied by three viziers. one hundred elephants fully equipped.

having each an army of forty thousand mounted foot.000 horse. 20 elephants. 10. 15. . and the true faith bids us to know only one God and to invoke his name in every place.000 or 15. On the fifth great day I thought of returning to Kussia. . forty elephants in full armour. being indignant that the Indians had turned out foot. Beder Khan His brother 30. . Vozyr-Khan . force of the And this is the Mamet deni Mahommedan iaria arast deni khudodonot.000 horse and 20. one hundred thousand each carrying four foot.000 horse.000 foot. men with viziers. The so sultan. There are thousand in India four great Hindoo viziers. . the day of Christ's resurrection. The sultan fif- mustered twenty-six each at the head of ten or teen thousand horse and thirty thousand foot. and twenty elephants. 30. I kept Lent time with the Mussulmans and broke with them on ..28 INDIA IN TIIK FIFTEENTH CENTURY. few. and God knows the true faith. Knowing no more fastinsf the great Christian day. 10 elephants. . 100. men and one hundred them twenty thousand sultan of India. added to two hundred thousand horse. The Indian Ocdonom went out with forty thousand horse. and I set out from Beder a month before the Mahommedan Bairam. 25 elephants. long muskets.000 horse.000 horse. 10 elephants. . 15. .000 foot. Kutar-Khan .000 foot. The Sultan . 10 elephants.000 foot.. . 3Iamet deni rossolial.000 horse. ..000 foot. 20. . . 60. 40. 20. .000 foot. Mai Khan led . Each vizier 10.

on the other on a dale won- derful place. which I did at Kulburga. having fought day and night reduce it. had neither eaten nor drunk for twenty days. numerous army. single . The Hindoo possesses a sultan Kadam is a very powerful prince. The treasury. having been found empty. were also made at five prisoners. and sold afterwards at ten tenkas and tenkas a head . ^ In Stroef. on one a on a dreadful jungel. lost many people.^ and intersected side by a river. five He lost thousand of his best soldiers. a city twenty kors from Beder. But their for they only took one Indian town. as given above ^ Forts may between Beder and Kalburga. " ten kors". resides on a is He at Kciicnaoar.TRAVELS OF NIKTTIN. On the capture of the men and women. the children at two tenkas each. and to any purpose convenient.' The suhan fifteenth at (of Bcder) after the day moved out with his army on the Uki Bairam to join MeUch-Tuchar campaign was not successful. be the meaning of the Russian word " rogy". it The enemy besieged owing to the for a month and food. who to stormed it. as given In ytroef it is rov>/. and town mountain rises high with a ravine below. 29 Easter day. The army that made the siege with heavy guns. tw^cnty thousand. This vast city surrounded by three forts. a road goes right through the town. which agrees better with the distance of nine kors. letter makes a great difference. and that many people and treasures. their heads cut off. the latter which alteration of a meaning " ravines". at the loss of Kulburga. the town was abandoned. had young and old. however. but could not be got This Indian stronghold was ultimately taken by Melikh Khan Khoda. want of water and at. the impregnable. Bewoed tured. in this manuscript. Plenty of water was in sight. bordering . and mountain Bichenegher (Bijanagar). town twenty thousand inhabitants. it is On one side quite inaccessible as the is .

me to Hormuz. Olio hon kar hizim —" God mudna naslp holmyshti. and I I made up my mind settled to go for to Russia. So embarked in a tava. and from Kynarias Surah." I remained five days in that country. right- eously hast Thou devoted us to destruction. during which I saw nothing. and from Kamindria to to Kynarias. Kulura. pay my passage to Hormuz two pieces of gold. of the baptism of Christ. the great meeting-place for coast of India all very large nations living along the and of Ethiopia. but distributed among a quantity of brynetz. which is a large bazaar thence I went to Kona- kelburga. and bread. but no sulakJimyk. O God. From Kulbuvga I went to Kooroola^ where the aJchik it is is produced and worked.30 INDIA IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. exported in to all Three hundred dealers diamonds to Calica reside in this place. and were at sea a whole month. I stopped there five (Calicut). We sailed from Dabul three months before the great day of the jNIahommedan Lent. On the following month we hishi: descried the mountains of Ethiopia. O God. Athanasius.'''' which in Russian tongue means our Lord. by the mercy the natives of God. and from whence parts of the world. of the Lent by the holy and fathers. fastings ordained bethought myself of the Christian religion. king of heavens. . and from Sheikh Aladin to Kamindria. and of the precepts of to the Apostles. From thence I reached Muscat in twelve days and there I held the sixth great holiday. Nine days journey brought twenty days. and from Surah to It is a Dabul. where I stayed ^ Stroef. months and then proceeded . and then those on board exclaimed : — " Olio hervogydir. . in order that they might not plunder our ship. met with no evil. a port of the vast Indian Sea. God the creator of heaven and earth. and from Konakelburga to Sheikh Aladin. town. and. pepper. the sinful servant of And there it was that I.

He ordered the whole of my . stopped there eight days Ispahan. and plundered many places. fifteen days from Shiraz to days from Vclergh Vergh. but having reached Vonada^ we encountered a heavy north- ern gale. and came to the orda of Assanbek. by the mercy of heaven. took Amasiah. Sava. Yezd. Tabrecz. about one hundred English miles v/est from Trebizond. from Ispahan I Kashan. stopped there ten days to to in nine . fifteen We lay for days at Platana. came to the third sea. : 31 to From Hormuz I . After staying there five to days I went on board a ship and agreed Cafl^a^ for be conveyed to at the one coin of gold. I spent ten days. where I arrived on the festival of the Protection Lady the holy Virgin Mary. forty thou- The khan sent against the Turks an army of sand men. stopped three days then in twelve days from Lar .TKAVKI. called in the Persian tongue Doria The wind was fair during the first five days. 16 . Stimbolskia. smaller Leaving the orda of our I went to Arzizin. ^ ^ The old name of Theodosia.^ and thence to Trebizond. the food to be paid end of the voyage. where There stopped five days . I was very much annoyed at Trebizond by the pasha Shubasha. from Kashan went by Koom. as there was no road further on. Probably Cape Vona. burnt down Tokhat. the weather continuing very bad. especially for w^ritings. to his residence on the hill it was searched. who conquered the cities of Sevast (Sivas). to sail and then we twice attempted * and again met with a Perhaps Erzeroum. the Black Sea. as I was coming from the orda of I here However. where I to Shiraz. stopped there six days I in five days from Yezd to . on the south coast of Crimea. stopped there seven days in . proceeded thus — First Lar. carrying the war to the land of Karaman. Sultania.S Ol- NIKITIN. which drove us back to Trebizond. lumber to be brought up Assanbek.

that did not permit us to keep the sea : " Olio ak.. nine days Olio before the fast of St. dighyt khudo dona Olio pervodiger donoamin mil- naralhmam ragym hariikhollocdik Ollo-ah her ahshikhiidoilello .e. khudo pervodiger.ta asalom'ih alm'(j(jmin{h almugaminu alaziru kanhiru alkhaliku alhariuu almusaviru alkafaru alkakharu alhakhadu alriazaku alfatagJiu alialimu alkabizu alkafizii alrrafiiij albasittii almahifu ahnuzilu alsetniu cdbasiru cdiaalliatufU. Philij) also the eve of Advent.^ Olio pervodiger. where we lay five days. is kamu oliadaMiu ' The fast or eve of St." except that we know no other God. Having crossed the sea. and thence to Kzov (Azov).6^4 INDIA IN TUK FIFTEENTH CENTURY. Philip. At last. akshi khodo didillo spiikurkhudo Solom Olloakber akham afatad bismilna girakmam rragym khiivomogtdezi lailai sa illiaguia alimul gaihi vasliagaditikhuia raklimanu ragynnl khuhomogu liazi liai laga illiakhuia Ahneliku Alakudosu alcJiehar'dalm'd. . the 13th of November. through the mercy of God I have crossed three seas. we were carried first to Sukbalykae. I reached Caffa. foul wiud. Avith God's blessing. i.



A GKNOA'ESE. of the gentiles. cities. On our road we met with the ruins of many still ancient and many admirable buildings constructed in the time standing. I will never- compliance with your request. the timbers of which were sewn together with cords and the sails made of rush Sea. ^ In this ship we sailed for twenty-five days.ACCOUNT OF THE JOURNEY OF HIERONIMO DI SANTO STEFANO. at the end of a fort- night arrived at Cariz. I then. and found a good port called Cane (Keneh). in it recalls many painful recollections. ADDRESSED TO MESSER GIOVAN JACOBO MAINER. Although theless.^ a port of the Red embarked on board a ship. having purchased a certain quantity of coral beads and other we started for India. You must know. and here mats. wherein Moses and the people of Israel wandered when they were driven out by Pharaoh. putting in is The route from Cairo to India thus early described the same which has been followed up to very recent times. . M^here. in which several temples are Afterwai'ds we departed from the abovenamed port of Cane. went together and Cairo. and travelled by land for several days through those mountains and deserts. that Mcsser to Hieronimo Adorno and merchandize. give you an account of our disastrous journey. At the end of these seven days we arrived at Cosir (Cosseir).

we finally arrived at a great city called Calicut. where is the port of the country of Prester John is : the lord of this island a Moor. This city is inhabited by Moors. wherever they can attach themselves their leaves resemble those of the ivy. We sailed for twenty-five days with a prosperous wind without seeing land. and a very extensive traffic is carried on there.-ie fifteenth century.4 INDIA IN at at t. with a favourable wind. off the right shore of the said sea. and then we saw several islands. and con- tinuing our voyage for ten days more. that do not think any other infidel potentate can be compared with him. like ivy it is left dry in the sun. and in wrinkled as we see plant a it. but sails were made of cotton. but did not touch at them . that the pepper it is is scorched in order that in it is it may it When to ripe and gathered green. It is not true. of half a Their bunches are of the length as slender as palm or more. situate on the is left shore of the sea and on the mainland. We the abode in this city four months. . distant about a mile from the land. I The lord of this country so just and good. that The reason why pepper we have none of the amongst not grow. as reported us. about the size of a small . Sailing more. does not grow in our region trees to plant. whence we embarked for India in another ship. is. and a finger : the grain grows very thickly around. five or six days becomes black and For the propagation of ginger they piece of a small fresh root. The pepper trees are similar to the ivy. We found trees that pepper and ginger grew here. Here we remained two months through the said sea in the for twenty-five days and then departed. and ulti- every evening very fine mately arrived an island called Mazua (Massawa). but uninhabited ports. we saw many boats fishing for pearls. because they grow round other . At the end of the said twenty-five days we arrived at the city of Adem. fastened together with cords. and having examined them we found that they were not of so good quality as the manner described above oriental pearls.

according to her inclination. or which they themselves make. which Departing thence after found in Calicut. and other gems. the people. \vliicli at J)l SANTO STEFANO.JOURNEY OF IIIKKONIIMO nut. They worship an ox. one of wives burns herself alive . like the preceding. : the sun. and also various idols. slain. that hi^^ when a man and they prepare to burn him. bk^s that of the wikl and so likewise are all month grows hirgc the leaf rcscmThe lord of the city is an idolater. is be- delivered over before the nuptials to some other jierson for fifteen or twenty days in order that she may be deflowered. In this city there are as many as a thousand is houses inhabited by Christians. and the district called Upper India. Every lady may take to herself seven or eight husbands. he would be himself immediately said. twenty-six days in which grow the cinnamon leaf. such as even in the Here grow many precious garnets. jacinths. for the fine ones wise are his people. and so likegood quality. we reached another place called Coromandel. There are many trees here of the sort also are trees. The lord of the said island is an idolater. again. that they build houses of it. trees. but not of very grow in the mountains. We we departed hence in another ship. When these people die they are burnt . but one. We remained here only one day. : 5 the end of a lily. There dies another custom in practice here. and are properly speaking like palm twelve days. she is is a virgin . where the red sandal wood tree grows in such abundance. being a virgin. or anything that has had life. never eat flesh or fish. have before they are objects of worship. their customs kill all and usages are various inasmuch as : some if kinds of to kill or animals excepting oxen and coavs any one were wound as I these. and after a navigation of arrived at a large island called Ceylon. cat's eyes. like one of the before-mentioned. Others. The men never marry any if woman who trothed. The lord of this place is is an idolater. which bears the nut of India (cocoa-nuts). which resemble the laurel stones. because. made like the one above described.

This country called is distant fifteen days' journey by land from another. all remain there a year and a solicit at which time we had daily the house of the said lord. ships. by reason of the troubles and intrigues occasioned by the aforesaid war. Ava. While we were thus fatigues suf- fering from cold and from heat. Ave The to price amounted to two thousand ducats. This St. yielded up his our Lord God. half. so that the other. This part possesses Lower India. We and remained in twenty called that place seven months. Here is a great lord. judging from the excellent life which he had always led. idolator. was at night. and as to to wished be paid we Avere compelled. nevertheless. was buried ruined church. we sold them. no one was allowed to go from the one place to Thus we were compelled to sell the merchandise which we had in the said city of Pegu. He is an To him. in the year fourteen hundred and ninety-six. Although the sacraments of the church could not be administered to him.6 •with INDIA IN TlIK FIFTKENTU CENTURY. which were of such a sort that only the lord of the city could purchase them. many other precious stones. that our Lord God eflfect will have received his soul into paradise. therefore. frequented by none . and this is their constant habit. ship. who more than ten thousand elephants. as there was no priest among I us. such was his patience and contrition. and to that have I prayed and continually do pray. w ith many and hard- Messer Hieronimo Adorno. in which grow rubies and Our wish was to go to this at place. who was a man of feeble constitution. days reached a great city called Pegu. him . that am sure. in a certain His body . like the before-mentioned. after five days' suff'ering. but at that time the two princes were war. and every year he breeds five hun- dred of them. and greatly reduced by these afflictions combined fifty- with an ancient malady which tried him sorely. We departed thence in another after is made after the fashion of the former. during which he had neither physician spirit to nor medicine. John's day. on the twenty-seventh day of December.

was a great chance had not followed him but afterwards. exerted myself to recover our property. it came to him. as my companion was dead. In this I sucsail ceeded. As. chief raised a quibble. difierent language. As it the weather was bad and unsettled. long pepper. in not very favourable weather. everything I had would have been taken away from me. and which inventory I brought forward in my defence. and I set in a ship to go to Malacca. considering that the which had taken such hold of me could bring no I remedy. all the said merchandize it. up until the truth was ascer- and if there had not been an inventory which I had brought from Cairo. The In all chief a Moor. that . silk. asserting that. and was resolved is to unload our goods in that place. there was a . to them These they took. in which were specified all the goods which I had brought with me. where grows pepper in considerable quantities. the captain took counsel with the other mariners and with the merchants. and being consoled by some men of worth. but with great trouble and expense. The remainder of our merchandize they it placed in a room and sealed tained.JOURNEY OF IIIKIIONIMO and I declare to 1)1 SANTO STKKANO. that for many months it was so grieved I and aiHicted by grief his death. which caused person to be searched. however. benzoin. I my had bought. we reached a very large island called Sumatra. I 7 you. and There were found upon me rubies of the value of three hundred ducats. and after being on the sea twenty-five days. that when case. and the chief appropriated himself. and this he thought it right to do in my He thereupon ordered all all my property to be seized. and many other articles. but speaking a the other countries where we had been they spoke different As soon as our merchandize was landed this lansruages. white sandal wood. any one dies without sons or brethren the chief takes his property. and of every other place Avhere the chief was a Moor. one morning. and that he would have being the custom of that country.

my ill fate. nor many other articles of ornament which a I possessed. the space from one to another being about a mile and a half . so that the vessel. on which I I and the were drowned. and rest sunk. and who had some knowledge of the of Italian langviage. that there was no means of bailing it out. months to We were obliged to stay here six wait for favourable weather for our departure. all black and naked. They hold Moors. but not withmuch expense and trouble. and the ship had got well out on our voyage. we reached certain islands called the Maldives. I determined my departure and selling all my merchandize. not content with the aforesaid disasters which she had inflicted on me. It pleased the was able ^ to lay hold of a large The original translation word " dishabitate" is thus rendered. by the help out God and his assistance I cleared myself. ordained that after eight days there should come water it a storm with rain. and there were seen in them an infinite number of people. There are trees size. Whereupon. and those who could swim were saved Lord God that plank of wood. which they import. to became filled with such a degree. cadi in that place wlio was very friendly to me. having no deck. and a little rice. all desert. growing there which produce the cocoa nuts of large The people live on fish. at sea When it came. were never recovered. as I have said. and after being twenty-five days at sea in unfavourable weather. The rubies. but being resolved in every way to crush me. and set sail in a ship to return to Cambay . but in the faith of the good condition and courteous. as its more literal would involve a direct contradiction to the concluding clause of the sentence. and have a chief who rules over the whole of them.^ small and low. through which the sea for the most part enters. which are from seven to eight thousand in number.8 INDIA IN TlIK FIFTEENTH CENTURY. place stay in. finding to that that to I was not take desirable . . converted the value into silk and benzoin. which lasted continuously for five days.

as it pleased the divine mercy. Thence to the city of Sultanieh. where for the space of one month. we were attacked and plundered. in the From Tauris I went to Aleppo. learning our disaster. Here many merlarge chants came to me. and made me very . and after I many days reached remained the country of the said Azami. I started from thence in company with some Armenian and Azami merchants by land.JOURNKY OV IIIKKONIMO floated at the 1)1 SANTO STEFANO. and we were divided amongst them accord- ing to their pleasure. because the roads were not safe on account of the wars. I stayed three months. From procured lac and indigo. and was enabled to proceed to Aleppo. of whom I was one. Here found some Moorish merchants of Alexandria and Damascus. to service one month. a sheriff of Damascus. Having there paid prepared to depart. silks. where I stayed many days. and thence to Kazan. when. three ships which had parted from our company and had been five miles in advance of us. and his agent. on account of the war which was then waging. I them with In this place of Ormuz are found many good pearls and good merchandize. and crimson stuffs. which came and took in those men Avho remained alive. in sailing which place 1 was his at sea sixty days. while with the caravan. waiting for the chance of accompanying the caravan. Thence I went to Ispahan. made an arrangement with and remained in his I afterwards a merchant. by whom I was assisted with money for my expenses. and middle of our journey. and thus I arrived in one of the said ships at Cambay. Again I was assisted by some merchants of Azami. where. the chief of which this place are is a Mahometan. and finally to Tauris. immediately sent out their boats. till It mercy of the waters from morning evening. beseeching me to return to Tauris to buy jewels. and I a great lord. With this I afterwards came to Shiraz. the dues on left merchandize which I had brought with me. and then proceeded to all Ormviz with some of his goods. who were with the same caravan.

I render infinite thanks to our and keeping I commend you. . in Syria. but as the roads were not safe I declined going. my If they . induce mc to go . To His care equals.10 offers to INDIA IN THE I'IFTEENTII CENTURY. on the first of September. But who can contend with fortune ? Nevertheless Lord God. and shown me so great mercy. Such arc the events Avhich in my disastrous journey befel me had not happened to me. 1499. Written at Tripoli. I might well have contented myself with what I had gained for in such case I should have had no favour to ask from my for sins. for that He has preserved me.

6 with a storm at sea. 6 Alkhedr. l. iii. properties of the. 8 death. 21 iv. 26 elephants. 27 . 7 Abu Abdallah Mohammed Ben Edris. 8 his illness there. 12. i. surnamed Schafei.Bananas. ii. 20 journey to Bijana. . . its . 5 Jerusalem. ii. 7 stays Ants. . 40 tables at. 13 his description Arabs their advance into India. stand in the work . xiii their trade with India. ambassaclor from Shah have visited the island of Tapro- bana. 12 Ala-eddin-Ahmed-Schah. ix Bijanagur. account of. a mountain producing Belour. 49 Atash Kudda. . 25 14 Bagdad. 31. . I. to Nicolo de' Conti. 13 at Kariat. description of. 14-17. Ivii Aden. 10 Arabia. his account of India. bazaar at. his account of that city. 23 . iii. naphtha springs. 26 magnitude of the Court.. a Gheber temple. ii. 10 ronimo de Santo Stephano. 18. fish in.ak ii. . 20 Adam's Peak. Isles. 24 Albenigaras. interview with the king of. 5 Bairam. III. . of Ethiopia. 37-39 III. figures in tins Index refer to the individual documents ns they tiius. . 29 Alexander the Great. 11 iv. ii. 32 . stated by Pliny to 1 : description of. .Betel leaf. II. ii. to Nikitin : Roman . 29 . . ii. ii. iii. his Baths. description of the Mahanadi.a Tartar ambassador. tomb of. his journey to India. iv. a mountain. peninsula of. 10 Adorno. iii. ii. . INDEX. 20 diamonds. i. . : ticed by. 4 sails to Calicut. Ixxiv sets . 27 Bengal. xlv. a river in Ceylon. i. 14. : . 45 reaches Astrakhan.Army of the Sultan of Beder. Bachali. the prophet. 14. iii. Arotani. 4. 15 Alil-bek. 19-22. 7 Bamboos. 6 Beder. 4 arrives at Ormuz. army of Aladinand. ii. results of his Bells. iv. xiv-xvi of the city. Abd-cr-Razzak. i. coins. ii. accompanies Hie. ceremonies of the. 23 Baku. unknown in part of India. i. 4 out on his journey to Antonio de Lisboa. . strange 39-42. ib. 23 want of fresh vegeberga. 33 35-38 he returns home. Hieronimo. 31 attempted murder of 6. anecdote of Benjamin of Tudela his journey. women. his interview with the sovereign. 4 . description of demons in. Indian priests. 5 Ormuz. 26 gur. ii. 12 Ammianus Marcellinus. 22-30 interview with the king. II. magnitude of. ii. 7 Abscharon. Ixvii- Rokh. i refers to Abd er-Raz/. iii. 6 his travels. . 11 trade of. 29 Batman. Adam. . iv. to Ilieroninio di Santo Stefano. kingdom of. . naphtha springs at. famous for Ava. invaded by the Indian expedition. account of. magnificent temple at. xlvi-1 Moses and. iii. bazaars. The large III. ii. Annius Plocamus. a Kaitak chief. he sails to Aracan. a measure of weight. I Andaman II. 43 meets Assanbek. 10 Mangalor. iii. Ixxxii proceeds by sea to Muscat. iii.king of Kalthe Sultan. Indians no. i. 24. a Siamese delicacy. iii Sultan of Djounah-pour. Animals of India. analysis of . it. city of 8 13. 24 rose merchants.

. 11. n. account of. n. in. respect paid to. n. . Ix-lxvii . Ixxxix Cows. 21 his account of India. 33 description of the Mahanadi festival at. splcndourof the royal palace. 20. 45 Boris. by Poggio Bracciolini. the cities of Cambaleschia II. 33 they send . iii. i. 21 Cheen. . jour- neys to Bizenegalia. i. . 26 Buddha. : . habits of people of. Ixxxiv-lxxxvii his claim to the discovery of the Cape of Good Hope. i. account of the. 14 and Nemptai. xx Chinesehouseslikethoseofltaly. 34 Christians : in Socotra. 15 Ceylon. in. 7 Sumatra. iv. 17 Cathay. 4 Brahmins. 21 Chaoul. the river. n. 28 II. xxxii Cannibalism. his de- scription of Ceylon. . II. ii. . description of the temples and religious rites at. 24 Cock fighting. 7 Diamonds. Sindbad's account of. 7. 13 in. in. discovery of the. i. 20 Aden. n. in. 16. fondness of the Javanese for. 23. 19. city of: description of. 4 . 20 Cambaleschia.. 9 Camphor. 3 his departure from Damascas with a caravan. i. n. burial of. 21 to Rome. .15 Christians in India: the Vizier of Bijanagur a Christian. . 3 . de Santo Stefauo. 17. 8 Chedad-ben-Ad. 7 5 Cities of India. 5 Buzan. . of Pegu and Java. in. 6 ib. a seaport. i. IV. 8 remains there a year and then sails to Tenassarim. in. 14. the king by his brother. the in- habitants of. magnitude of. 35 his expedition to Kalberga. . ii. III. by P. iir. route to India from. 38 war between the kings of Bijanagur. account of the province of. . Ixxxix Caste. 9 voyage up the . 20. 6. ii. 8. 17 Calicut and Cambay. . 30 religion and trade at. Pedro. Ganges. terrestrial paradise formed by. . . n. 17 Bizenegalia. description of the. 7. by H. Ixv. II. ii. Boa 39 constrictor. Dabul. . 6 . xxxvi-xl Birds of Paradise. 11 description of Cathay. 20 . 41 the Nestorians. 40 Dancing girls. a name given to Ormuz. iv. Ixxsii . description of. in India. 37 Daralaman.4 Derbend. tree. . rounds the Cape of Good Hope. 30 their value valley . 5 resides at Calacabia and sails to vels. . 34 Civet. 35. reaches the Euphrates and sails down the river to the Persian Gulf. . account of the religion of. 16 Conspiracy at Bidjanagur. Vizier of Bijanagur. in. 5 II. 8. 25 incantations used by the. 14. Alvarez. in. iv account of. and to Ilelly. see Pekin Cambay. 9 Cape of Good Hope. 40 capture of the city. . mourning for. 16 Bulls of Buddha. Dead. account of. in. idols at. discovery of. Bartholomew. . Sindbad's account of the of. and of Kalberga. 21 sails to Ethiopia and returns to Venice by Egypt. Ixxxii his journey to the East. INDEX. . 29 Birds: description of gigantic birds by Sindbad and others. 33 Conti. 38 Climate of India. 20. description of. . 21-33 Coromandel. i. . ii. 30 Daiang. tomb of Adam at. 18 Budhkhana. I. ih. account of the vessels of. Nicolo de' analysis of his tra. 19 . n. in. 18 Bussorah. 34 Diaz. consulted by Abd-erRazzAk. 10 returns and visits Aracan and Ava. 8 in. Calicut. described account of. Book of Fates. 25 Debtors sold as slaves. 3 Covilham. route to India from. iii. 15 of Malabar. iv. iv. Cinnamon IV. 23. . in Ethiopia. ii. xl a singular method of procuring them. 31 Demons seen in the Arabian Desert. 29 China. Cambay. 5 Cairo. ". 5 Cosseir. a Russian saint.

18 Press of Indians. Ganges. 35 Elephants. 24 terview of Abd-er-Ra/. iii. ii. i. 13 the description of. used in . 10. I. i. ii. 1 Guzrat. 23 Embalming of corpses. account of. xix-xxiii voyage of Foreigners. ii. 15 Epiphanius. death of. 4 Giraffe. in. in. of Marco Polo. 33 dia: the route of Hiouen-thsang Flying cats and serpents. xvii Geomantia. 12 Ibrahim. 19 account of the mode of finding Idols. 10 Genoese. a wonderful bird. Soliman. mention of India liy. i. 13 appearance of the people. of A. Diou-rai. 1!) in. in. on. 35. vades Bengal. war with Herat compared with Bijanagur. Conti's voyage down the. I. Ixxxiv-lxxxvii. 17 Ilippalus. account of. 18 Duties levied in India. n. 26 India earliest information regarding Ethiopia. account of. mode of capturing.Hair. rative of Sindbad tlie Sailor. 28 Hole. a Muhammedan merIII. 25 Egypt under the Ptolemies. 21 chant. i. cured by the smoke of Ibex advance of the Mussulmans into. Ixxx . of Abd-er-Razzak. a Russian saint. . dia. ii the expedition of AlexEuphrates. . by Cosmas. 7. ii. . 38 Gleb. xix. II. fever produced by the touch of. ii Kall)erga. 9. ii. 31}. iv. Nikitin. Hindu ascetics. his travels in India. i. fevers cured by the smoke of. communication with Expense of living in India. . feeling of Indians towards. 11 . 41. de Santo Stefano. xlviii vades Bengal. horns. ii. ii. : . posed by. 12. in Ethiopia. xxxvi Ilormuz. by certain Ethiopians. king of. xxiii-xxx the narFuneral rite. 37 used in Siam. IxviiIxxiv . 19 . 11. 13 Ptolemy's description of. viii II. to India. liv-lix . account of temples near 14. xvii. in. G iv. 23 iii. . description of the. route to India discovered Djounah-pour. Conti's voyage up the. 25 Ghebers. . 1 liii . 19 Egypt. i. kingof Bijanasiir. livlix. iii. i. iii. monsters called. 21 . Pedro Covilham. . lo xxxii Dreams. see Ormuz Horses. 31 attempt to assassinate. 10 ilossein. inbattle. 27 jacinths in Scythia. ii. II. Persian commerce with. i. 23 Heat of the weather. their Indian commerce.'ik with. . i. 38 xiii-xvi the Genoese and VeneFish. iii. 49 in. not found in Sumatra. xlvi-1 . vi Hippopotamus. archbishop of Salamis. ii. 12 feats performed by. 4 Gookook. 4-13 description of Calicut. inby. n. v Pliny's account of the route to InFan palm. 17. 23 his treatment of Herodotus. at Baku. Ibrahim. 5 thenes. Journey of Abd-er-Razzdk. 18 from China. iii. ander. . of H. 26 Georgia. a resort of. III. 4") his journey to India. xxiii Djoghis. ii. Voyages to Intian traders. . a description of. 28 III. 28 Alxl-er-llazziik. n. size of the leaves. of Nicol6 de' Conti. an art practised l^y the Bnihuiins. Ix-lxvii . x . . 35-39 India. 40 Hindoo viziers of India. 42 Djafa-Sadek. Ixxvii-lxxx . 37. ii.z. E). iii. of Ibn Batuta. ii. iii. i. his Icepe. his remarks on Sindbad's voyages. 7 Ibex horns. trade.3 INDKX. iii. modes of wearing. vi Festivals. . indigo trade at. xlii Incantations of the Brahmins. iii. in India. . . I i | I . 27 ir. . reflections of Abd-er-Razzak . ambassador from Shah Rokh to India. the Book of Fiites com. an anecdote about. of . 38 Ibn Batuta. 16 immolation to.. food of. Sultan of Djounah-pour. R. 7 Ginger plant. xii Fever. iii. . xxxxlv of Benjamin of Tudela. a Chinese traveller. . .Hiouen-thsang. i. iii the narrative of MegasII. 17 .

iii. cruelty of of Bijanagur. of Sumatra.. 10 Kalberga. 5 diamond mines. 9 gious ordinances. Ixxxii . 7 various cities in. 11 of Massawa. . war with Bijanagur. . . . . weapons. 21 description of the city of Bijauathe IVIahanadi festival. ib. ib. i. ii. Nestorian Chris. . 3 his account Irawaddy. 6 Sumatra.Indigo. 6 Kalahat. account of the city of. 22-32 Nikitrade at Beder. 32. 8 of Beder. 29 HieroOrmuz. . manners and dress of the natives of Central India. Mangalor. i. . great heat at. 30 jour. 30 divisions of time. . III. 7 his route the Maldive Isles. ib. 8. 11-15. 20 the people and their religion. 21 II. Dabul. inhabitants of Abd-er-Razzak's ' account of the natives of Calicut. account of the Sultan description of dive Isles. his Pelerins Bouddhistes. John king of Portugal. account of. . Jack tree. . . . tians in Nor th India. 9-10. 37 Julien. 32 Jews. 17-18 coins. 9-10 Scythia. 5 Ivan. 9 serpents of Siam. 27 the Indian army. 16 winters at Jooneer. 20 and at Belour.. Conti's account 6 of the Brahmins of of the natives of SumaCeylon. 26 religious worship 27 human sacrifices to idols. . 23. . i. cruelty of the Javanese. ib. . and Cambay. . 29 modes of obtaining precious stones. Grand Duke of Russia. 10 . manners and customs at Calicut. . . Kaitaks. iii. Early travellers to India. 8 Jacinths. 20 the inhabitants of Calicut. 21 account of Beder. funeral rites. 24 17 the inhabitants. 25 the Mahanadi festival. Bachali and Brahmins. 12 description of Shabat.. . 8 account of his voyage up the Ganges. . 40 i. . 9 customs tra. Bombay.Java. 11 and ants esteemed a delicacy. 16 he reaches Chaoul. di Santo de Stefano from Inns in India. a prince carried costumes. ib. 33 and the people. his mis- . 11 fruits and animals. 6 . magnitude of Indian armies. xix Jurufgan. III. 24 campthe Hindoo religion. city of. 21 of Ceylon and Coromandel. 5 of Ceylon. 35 . Jugglers. Stanislas. . a wonderful ings. ib. customs of the people of Pegu. . priests. 28 tances between the Indian cities. inns. Aden. 19 ney of H. ib. 8 Cannibalism. . 25 of Suttee.. 10 description of Ava. ib. 18 their writ. 26. of the people. . . of strange price of diamonds. . a Tartar tribe. 24. . . by men. . . Conti's voyage up the. men. inhabitants animals in India. . 13 of Ava. 15 Buddhists religion. 20 general account manners and customs of India. . . iii. : 49 .. 9 . . . Suttee. an earthly paradise. . 14 night watchtin's journey from Russia to India. 21 known to the Indians. I. . 24 mourning for the dead. 16. 19 nimo de Santo Stefano's account of Shabat and its and Ceylon.. 4 of Irem. . navigation and shipbuilding among the Indians. natives of Shabat said to be. 6 . . 36 . . . iii. .. 13 of Calicut description of Java. ib. ii. 5 Pegu and Ava. 3-8 reliaccount of temples of Perwuttum. 29 Kooroola. Nestorian religion of the inhabitants of India. xlii India. II.. 12 the nobles 11 Christians in India. weddings. . Calicut. 15. i. 16 their fondness for cock fighting. . . 7. 24. 22-2() 35. 4 voyage of Nicolo de' Conti to India description of from Bagdad. ii. gur. ii. ib. : . . splendour of the of the temples at Perwuttum and disSultan's court at Beder. 28 Bijanagur. . 28 . . 16-17 followers. . 8 and III. money. . iv. 20 wine unIndian merchants. . 33 Nikitin's account of the dress of the people about . 22. 21 . . 10 Cairo to India. 3. ib. 15 . . . . i. INDEX. 31 legal proceedings. ib. 8. 21 of the climate of Coromandel. . dancing girls. of the Malin India. . iv. ib.. . sions to the East. strange mode of finding in home by Persia. and Calicut. tree in. . . treatment of prisoners.

26 Nauruz. anecdote of Alkheda and. 7 . i. 19 heat at. 4 descends the . a Persian work. 5 . Paintings on the temple of Belour. 1 Omar Saad.'ik's travels. 1. 26. 6 vellers attacked by. xxxix Mahanadi. a Hindoo festival. 31 Monkeys. 31 arrives at Caffa. great heat at. described. iv I. Indian knowledge of. a Mahometan sermon. 31 Longevity of Brahmins. . account of the. n. I. 8 Ostrich. . 5 Kelii. 18. i. . deer. convent of the Holy Trinity at. 8 Mangalor. 21 Palace at Beder. in. at- Volga. 35 Maharaja. n. description of the city of. 46 Persians their aversion to the sea. i. Vizier of Bijanagur: his treatment of Abder-Razzak. i. 36 . account of the manuscript of his travels. Muscat. a Christian. tempt 1 1 . spends the winter there. storm in the. . Sindbad's voyage to. of Ethiopians. ii. 23 places where he kept Easter Days. 5 trade of. 28 count of the. description of. IT) Koliasin. ii. 16 religious remarks by. . 4 Langles. III. in. Kalila and Dimna. 33 Nikitin. in. Madagascar. n. origin of the title. 7 Maldive Islands. trial by. account of the city of. he winters at Jooneer. 32 Nile. 7 Navigation. i. remarks on his translation of Abd-er-Razz. . Ixix Legal proceedings in India. Gujrat and Cambay. ii. iir. xxxiii Kermau. il. his description of Chaoul. ii. 14 Panconia. 12 of. 22 character of the inhabitants Moses. 7 I. : IS . 6 thence Bokhara. . description of. 15. A. Kariat. 49 in. Sindbad's acMahommedan Sultan of India. Khotbah. de. Onesicritus. . 10 Pegu. . i. horses fed on.1 INDEX. his army. . 35 Nimek-pezir. ii. iv. 10. I. n. 7 and to Ormuz. 9. 5 he proceeds to Beder. iir. mode of administering. i. 3 stays at Nijni-Novgorod. 8 thence to Muscat. in. in. 31 tion of. ii. 20 . iii. to . 25 . III. length of the voyage to Ormuz Mango tree. Ixxiv analysis of them.14 Nestorians. 8-9 Kazan. tra. i. ii. a kingdom of. iii from. Mahometan New Year's day. account of. gigantic birds of. Ixxxii Pearl fishery in the Red Sea. . length of the voyage from Mountains of the Moon. city of. ii. 19 Megasthenes. Persian Gulf. his journey to the East with Covilham. 22 Nacous.. . ii. Pepper IV. iv. 26 coins of the Tartar rulers of Russia. 49 Melikh-Tuchar. I. 17 xl Payva. Ethiopian account of. 49 duties levied at. 20 in North India. 14 . i. 5 India. 15 Parrots. •23 i. 41 . in. 30 Ordeal. . 28 voyage from Dabul to Ormuz. to make him a Mahommedan. ib. 4. his description of Perwuttum. account of India by. a ruined city in the desert of. 23 in Malabar. to Derbend. . 6 Pekin. xxvii Old Man of the Sea. account of the. in. M. 39 . 30 journey to Trebizond. descripOaths. xxxiii Naphtha springs at Baku. 7 in Socotra. 20 Onore. curse brought upon Rhey by. in. the name given to the seats of Money at Bijanagur. Sindbad's account of. . in. ii. probably Kcydah. in. Athanasius. Ceylon first described by. iii.Ormuz. 39 Onore to. 4 trees. . . probably Nicobar. magnificent temple near. 13 . 12. 4 Peas. 22 he commences his homeward journey from Beder. iv. xxxiii . Mud Musk volcanoes. Ixxvii-lxxx he starts from Twer. 27 Orda. xxxiv Mahommedan religion in India.

viii first voyage. their fondness for children. xl the Siamese eat them. 20 Shikhuladin. in. 4 . 5 Schafei. i. partiality of the people at Bidthird voyages. IV. 1-liii his account of the Rukh. n. 29 Sepulchres. . 10 Sameri. . iv . 32 Porcelain. i. ib. INDEX. 3 . in. xii Sindbad the Sailor VValckenaer's Sindbad. . . pearl fishery in. reaches Cambay and home bv Ormuz. described by Sindbad. his account of India. in. IT Pliny's accovint of the route to India. ii. goes . 18 Santy. description of the. in. Sindbad's descriptions of. probably Sumatra. 4 Polo. 24 age. n. of a valley of diamonds. 5 Pegu and Ava. iv. 17 Precious stones. 32 Pictures. X of. Mussulman sect of. 27 temples. . 4 II. XXXV Rukh. 16 20 . serpents fifty cubits long. India.. Ixxx : . in. i. the geographer. description of the. n. 15. mode of procuring. 27 iv. account Pestilence dians. vi of Taprobana. account of the. 3 Calicut. Russian custom of prefacing a journey by. the Indian Phoenix. 36 Pirates in the India Seas. ii. 3 posting regulations. 20 Russia. xliii-xlv Rupee. iv. xxxvii-xl of the Marco Polo's account of it. ib. 13 Siam. n. . . n. see Rukh Sindbad's voyages. religious practices of travellers Slavery. i. xl-xliii mentioned by Ibn Batuta. iv. 21 Posting regulations in Russia. province of. II. 32 Sensitive plant. xxxi second and Roses. account of the ruins Serpents. 4 Prayers. 4 Ptolemies. mentioned by Silkworms introduced into Europe. fourth voyjanagur for. interview of Abd-erRazzak with the. or Ceylon. xxxii opinion as to the authenticity of Roc. viii . a gigantic bird. . Indian. 9. 4 Reinaud. . vi from Cairo. island of. . his edition of Soliman's voyage to India. 28 Rhey. in. di xxxiv his sixth and seventh voySanto Stefano. . 7 III. III. 5 III. 30 Prester John. Marco. Iviii huge tortoise. n. 18 flying serpents. II. a ruined city on the Volga. . ii. hill at. xxiii-xxx Religion of the Indians. in. iir. II. Hi. n.. xxxii Semerida. Pervvuttum. M. sketch of his travels in India. present of falcons made by the Grand Duke of Russia to. 11. xxxvi count of the roc. di). xxxviii Population of India. in. iv Ptolemy. . 23 Serendib. 6 death of his companion. title of the sovereign of Calicut. 3 observations on his ages. 20 travels. remarks on his acstories by R. 8 shipwrecked. described by H. of. n. I. 15 his route from Cairo Socotra. and his Route to India described by Pliny. n. . II. 12 Selaheth. 3 Hindoo. xxxii . account of the Old Man of the Sea. 39 Shabat. i. success of their commerce with 10 the In- to India. 7 is detained at the Maldive Islands. 14 Scythed elephants. 4 Rhinoceros. a saint. unknown among 31 Phoenix. in. Hole. xxxviii. to. 17. . 11 Riha. returns Ispahan. . xxxvi Sindbad's description of the. value of the. . account of Ceylon and Coromandel. produce of. analysis of his Snakes at Beder. ib. Aleppo. religious service. . festivals. xxxiii fifth voyage. . XXXV Rachoor. sails to Sumatra. 31 Smoke of Ibex horns a cure for fever. iv. . . a diamond in. Sindbad's voy- age . communication between India and Egypt under the. peninsula of. xxxiv Sarai. . 38 Santo Stefano (H. in. 21 Red Sea. xxx Sindbad's Roman trade with India. 22 . and . 12 Ships. 3 Shirvanshah. . his to . a sort of aloe-wood. 19 n. ii. iii. .

a place near Kalahat. 6 at 12 : Venetian trade with India. want of. churches made of. xxvi Temples. 14 at Beder. 20 Mangalor and Belour. 29 the king's harem. 12. attacks on travellers by. in. account of gigantic. i. xlix Sumatra. ii. . his voya. in. in. 5. divisions of in India. at Jooneer. . n. n. Writing.TNDKX. . . 24 j iv. Indian modes of. i. xxx Watchmen in India. i. in. fast of. Philip. account of. RICHARDS. xliii iv. 37. Baron.Trebizond. ii. 7 II. II. 37 polygamy. Thomas. probably described in Sindbad's voyages. 20 in. xxxii. . 23 Time. 17 Throne of gold at Bijanagur. 30 Suttee. 10. produce of. ii. 38 an island inhabited by. 31 dia b}'. 6. 10 Storm in the Persian Gulf. see Sumatra III. 10 at Women of India. 4. burial place of. I.:jc to India. 32 Tenka. 8 Suttee. i. Calicut. Soliman. ii. in. . II. 5 Walckenaer. rniNTF-n. 6 Tortoise-shell. account of. . n. 6. i. 5 courtezans at BijanaPerwuttum. ii. T. ii Sour. xvii Vines. 31 33 . 20 dancing girls. GREAT Ql'KETI STREET. account of at Orrauz. in. ii. 7 Suicide by fire. 15 Volga. Taprobana. 32 St. Solomon. in. 16 gur. . iv. i. cities on the. i. his opinion as to voyages of Sindbad. 21 IV. a Muhammcdan merchant. 31 Weddings. 29 Wild cats. . 20 Tides in the Persian Gulf. 5 modes of wearing their hair. Trade. 46 St. treasure obtained from In. in India. xxiii-xxx iii. 15 Weapons used by Indians. celebration of. 6 . . 24 Tortoises. I. ii. 22 Teak trees. 25 ii. 27 magnificence of at Winter. a coin.


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