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CHAPTER 01
TEMPERATURE AND HEAT
11 TEMPERATURE SCALES
Problem 11
Absolute zero is C
0
15 . 273 − . Find absolute zero on the
Fahrenheit scale.
Solution
The Fahrenheit and Celsius scales are related by
9
32
5
−
=
F C
T T
Now C T
C
0
15 . 273 − = , therefore
9
32
5
15 . 273 −
=
−
F
T
32
5
) 9 )( 15 . 273 (
− =
−
F
T
32 67 . 491 − = −
F
T
F T
F
0
67 . 459 32 67 . 491 − = + − =
Hence absolute zero on the Fahrenheit scale is F
0
67 . 459 − .
Problem 12
The melting point of tungsten (W) is C
0
3410 . Express this
temperature on the Fahrenheit scale.
Solution
The Fahrenheit and Celsius scales are related by
5 9
32
C F
T T
=
−
32
5
9
+ =
C F
T T
F T
F
0
6170 32 ) 3410 (
5
9
= + =
CH 01 TEMPERATURE AND HEAT 2
Problem 13
Express the normal body temperature of C
0
37 on
(a) the Fahrenheit scale and
(b) the Kelvin scale.
Solution
(a) The Fahrenheit and Celsius scales are related by
5 9
32
C F
T T
=
−
32
5
9
+ =
C F
T T
F T
F
0
6 . 98 32 ) 37 (
5
9
= + =
(b) The Kelvin and Celsius scales are related by
15 . 273 + =
C K
T T
K T
K
15 . 310 15 . 273 37 = + =
Problem 14
The boiling point of nitrogen is K 35 . 77 . Express this
temperature in degrees Fahrenheit.
Solution
As 15 . 273 − =
K C
T T
C T
C
0
8 . 195 15 . 273 35 . 77 − = − =
Therefore 32
5
9
+ =
C F
T T
F T
F
0
44 . 320 32 ) 8 . 195 (
5
9
− = + − =
Problem 15
At what temperature is the numerical value the same on the
Kelvin and Fahrenheit scale?
Solution
The Fahrenheit and Kelvin scales are related by
5
15 . 273
9
32 −
=
−
K F
T T
CH 01 TEMPERATURE AND HEAT 3
5
15 . 273
9
32 −
=
− x x
35 . 2458 9 160 5 − = − x x
x x 5 9 160 35 . 2458 − = −
35 . 2298 4 = x
K or F x 575 575
4
35 . 2298
0
= =
Problem 16
At what temperature is the Fahrenheit scale reading is
equal to (a) twice that of the Celsius and (b) half that of the
Celsius?
Solution
The Fahrenheit and Celsius scales are related by
9
32
5
−
=
F C
T T
(a) Now x T
F
= and x T
C
5 . 0 = therefore
9
32
5
5 . 0 −
=
x x
32
5
) 9 )( 5 . 0 (
− = x
x
32 9 . 0 − = x x
x x 9 . 0 32 − =
x 1 . 0 32 =
F x
0
320
1 . 0
32
= =
(b) Now x T
F
= and x T
C
2 = therefore
9
32
5
2 −
=
x x
160 5 18 − = x x
160 5 18 − = − x x
160 13 − = x
CH 01 TEMPERATURE AND HEAT 4
F x
0
3 . 12
13
160
− = − =
Problem 17
At what temperature Celsius is the sum of Celsius
temperature, the Kelvin temperature and the Fahrenheit
temperature equal to 15 . 495 ?
Solution
Let x
0
C be the desired temperature, then
K x C x ) 15 . 273 (
0
+ =
and
5 9
32
C F
T T
=
−
5 9
32
0
x F x
=
−
32 8 . 1 32
5
9
0
+ = + = x x F x
Now 15 . 495
0 0
= + + F x K in x C x
15 . 495 ) 32 8 . 1 ( ) 15 . 273 ( = + + + + x x x
32 13 . 273 15 . 495 8 . 1 − − = + + x x x
190 8 . 3 = x
C x
0
50
8 . 3
190
= =
Problem 18
The melting and boiling points of gold are C
0
1064 and
C
0
2660 respectively. (a) Express theses temperature in
Kelvins. (b) Compute the difference between these
temperatures in Celsius degrees and Kelvins.
Solution
(a) K K C T
MELTING
1337 ) 273 1064 ( 1064
0
= + = =
K K K T
BOILING
2933 ) 273 2660 ( 2660
0
= + = =
(b) C T T
MELTING BOILING
0
1596 1064 2660 = − = −
K T T
MELTING BOILING
1596 1337 2933 = − = −
CH 01 TEMPERATURE AND HEAT 5
12 LINEAR EXPANSION
Problem 19
By how much would a m 10 long aluminum bar change its
length in the process of going from C
0
30 to C
0
50 ? The
temperature coefficient of linear expansion for aluminum is
1 0 5
10 5 . 2
− −
× C .
Solution
The change in length is given by
T L L ∆ = ∆
0
α
) 30 50 )( 10 )( 10 5 . 2 (
5
− × = ∆
−
L
mm m L 5 10 5
3
= × = ∆
−
Problem 110
A m 100 steel measuring tape was marked and calibrated
at C
0
20 . At a temperature of C
0
30 , what is percentage error
in a m 100 distance when using this tape? The value of
coefficient of linear expansion for steel is
1 0 5
10 2 . 1
− −
× = C α .
Solution
Now T L L ∆ = ∆
0
α
) 20 30 )( 100 )( 10 2 . 1 (
5
− × = ∆
−
L
m L 012 . 0 = ∆
Percentage error % 100
0
×
∆
=
L
L
% 012 . 0 100
100
012 . 0
= × =
Problem 111
An aluminum flagpole is m 33 high. By how much does its
length increases as the temperature increases by C
0
15 ? The
coefficient of linear expansion for aluminum is
1 0 5
10 5 . 2
− −
× = C α .
CH 01 TEMPERATURE AND HEAT 6
Solution
The change in length is given by
T L L ∆ = ∆
0
α
) 15 )( 33 )( 10 5 . 2 (
5 −
× = ∆L
mm m L 12 10 2375 . 1
2
≅ × = ∆
−
Problem 112
Steel railroad tracks are laid when the temperature is
C
0
5 − . A standard section of rail is then m 0 . 12 long. What
gap should be left between rail sections so that there is no
compression when the temperature gets as high as C
0
0 . 42 ?
The coefficient of linear expansion for steel is
1 0 5
10 2 . 1
− −
× = C α .
Solution
The linear expansion of a section of steel for given temperature
change is calculated as
T L L ∆ = ∆
0
α
)} 0 . 5 ( ) 0 . 42 ){( 0 . 12 )( 10 2 . 1 (
5
− − × = ∆
−
L
mm m L 8 . 6 10 768 . 6
3
≅ × = ∆
−
Hence the desired gap between two rail sections is mm 8 . 6 .
Problem 113
A circular hole in an aluminum plate is cm 725 . 2 in
diameter at C
0
20 . What is its diameter when the
temperature of plate is raised to C
0
140 ?
Solution
Now T L L ∆ = ∆
0
α
) 20 140 )( 725 . 2 )( 10 5 . 2 (
5
− × = ∆
−
L
cm L 008 . 0 = ∆
The new diameter will be
L L L ∆ + =
0 1
cm L 733 . 2 008 . 0 725 . 2
1
= + =
CH 01 TEMPERATURE AND HEAT 7
Problem 114
A copper telephone wire has essentially no sag between
poles m 0 . 35 apart on a winter day when the temperature is
C
0
0 . 20 − . How much longer is the wire on a summer day
when C T
C
0
0 . 35 = ? The coefficient of linear expansion for
copper is
1 0 5
10 7 . 1
− −
× = C α .
Solution
The increase in length is given by
T L L ∆ = ∆
0
α
)} 0 . 20 ( 0 . 35 ){ 0 . 35 )( 10 7 . 1 (
5
− − × = ∆
−
L
cm m L 27 . 3 10 27 . 3
2
= × = ∆
−
Problem 115
A brass rod m 5 . 1 long expands mm 89 . 1 when heated from
C
0
20 to C
0
90 . Find the coefficient of linear expansion of
brass.
Solution
The change in length is given by
T L L ∆ = ∆
0
α
1 0 5
3
0
10 8 . 1
) 20 90 )( 5 . 1 (
10 89 . 1
− −
−
× =
−
×
=
∆
∆
= C
T L
L
α
CH 01 TEMPERATURE AND HEAT 8
13 SUPERFICIAL OR SURFACE EXPANSION
Problem 116
A glass window is m 200 by m 300 at C
0
10 . By how much
has its area increased when its temperature is C
0
40 ?
Assume that the glass is free to expand. The coefficient of
linear expansion for glass is
1 0 6
10 9
− −
× C .
Solution
The increase in surface area is given by
T A T A A ∆ = ∆ = ∆ α β 2 α β 2 = Θ
) 10 40 )}( 10 300 )( 10 200 ){( 10 9 ( 2
2 2 6
− × × × = ∆
− − −
A
2 3
10 24 . 3 m A
−
× = ∆
Problem 117
A square hole cm 0 . 8 along each side is cut on a sheet of
copper. (a) Calculate the change in the area of this hole if
the temperature of the sheet is increased by K
0
0 . 50 . (b)
Does this change represent an increase or a decrease in the
area enclosed by the hole?
Solution
(a) The change in the area of the hole is given by
T A T A A ∆ = ∆ = ∆ α β 2 α β 2 = Θ
) 0 . 50 ( ) 10 0 . 8 )( 10 7 . 1 ( 2
2 2 5 − −
× × = ∆A
2 5
10 088 . 1 m A
−
× = ∆
2 2 4
109 . 0 10 1088 . 0 cm m A ≅ × = ∆
−
(b) As the length of each side of the square hole increases with
increase in temperature, therefore the above A ∆ represents an
increase in the area of the hole.
CH 01 TEMPERATURE AND HEAT 9
14 CUBICAL OR VOLUMETRIC EXPANSION
Problem 118
A quartz sphere is cm 75 . 8 in diameter. What will be its
change in volume if it is heated from C
0
30 to C
0
200 ? The
coefficient of volume expansion for quartz is
1 0 6
10 1
− −
× C .
Solution
The change in volume is given by
T V V ∆ = ∆
0
γ
) 30 200 (
2
75 . 8
) (
3
4
) 10 1 (
3
4
3
6 3
−
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦

¹

\

× = ∆ 
¹

\

= ∆
−
π π γ T r V
3 8 3 2
10 96 . 5 10 96 . 5 m cm V
− −
× = × = ∆
3 6 3
10 1 1 m cm
−
× = Θ
Problem 119
Find the change in volume of an aluminum sphere of cm 10
radius when it is heated from C
0
0 to C
0
100 . The coefficient
of linear expansion for aluminum is
1 0 5
10 5 . 2
− −
× = C α .
Solution
The change in volume is given by
T V T V V ∆ = ∆ = ∆
0 0
3 α γ
The volume of a sphere is given by
3
0
3
4
r V π =
Hence
T r T r V ∆ = ∆
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
= ∆
3 3
4
3
4
3 α π π α
) 0 100 ( ) 10 10 )( 10 5 . 2 )( ( 4
3 2 5
− × × = ∆
− −
π V
3 3 5
4 . 31 10 14 . 3 cm m V = × = ∆
−
3 6 3
10 1 1 cm m × = Θ
CH 01 TEMPERATURE AND HEAT 10
Problem 120
A bowl made of Pyrex glass is filled to the very brim with
3
100 cm of water at C
0
10 . How much will overflow when
the temperature of the filled bowl is raised to C
0
50 ? The
coefficient of volume expansion for water is
1 0 4
10 07 . 2
− −
× C .
Solution
The change in volume is given by
T V V ∆ = ∆
0
γ
) 10 50 )( 10 100 )( 10 07 . 2 (
6 4
− × × = ∆
− −
V
3 3 7
828 . 0 10 28 . 8 cm m V = × = ∆
−
3 6 3
10 1 1 cm m × = Θ
Problem 121
The mercury in a thermometer at C
0
0 has a volume of
3
50 . 0 cm . What will be its volume at C
0
100 ? The
coefficient of volume expansion of mercury is
1 0 4
10 82 . 1
− −
× C .
Solution
The new volume ‘V’ is given by
T V V V V V ∆ + = ∆ + =
0 0 0
γ
) 1 (
0
T V V ∆ + = γ
)} 0 100 )( 10 82 . 1 ( 1 ){ 10 50 . 0 (
4 6
− × + × =
− −
V
3 3 7
5091 . 0 10 091 . 5 cm m V = × =
−
3 6 3
10 1 1 cm m × = Θ
Problem 122
What is the volume of a lead ball at C
0
12 − if its final
volume at C
0
160 is
3
530 cm ? The coefficient of linear
expansion for lead is
1 0 5
10 9 . 2
− −
× = C α .
Solution
Let
1
V and
2
V be the volume of given lead ball at C
0
12 − and
C
0
160 respectively, then
) 3 1 ( 3
1 1 1 1 1 2
T V T V V V V V ∆ + = ∆ + = ∆ + = α α
CH 01 TEMPERATURE AND HEAT 11
)} 12 ( 160 ){ 10 9 . 2 ( 3 1
530
) 3 1 (
5
2
1
− − × +
=
∆ +
=
−
T
V
V
α
3
2
522 cm V =
Problem 123
The volume of a metal block increases by % 15 . 0 when it is
heated through C
0
50 . Calculate the coefficient of linear
expansion for this metal.
Solution
The change in volume is given by
T V T V V ∆ = ∆ = ∆
0 0
3 α γ

¹

\

×

¹

\

= 
¹

\

∆


¹

\
 ∆
=
50 3
1
100
15 . 0
3
1
0
T V
V
α
1 0 5
10 1
− −
× = C α
Problem 124
A brass cube has an edge length of cm 2 . 33 at C
0
20 . Find
(a) the increase in surface area and
(b) the increase in volume when it is heated to C
0
75 .
The coefficient of linear expansion for brass is
1 0 5
10 9 . 1
− −
× C .
Solution
The initial surface area and volume of the glass cube are given
by
2 1 2 2 2
0
10 613 . 6 ) 10 2 . 33 ( 6 6 m x A
− −
× = × = =
3 2 3 2 3
0
10 659 . 3 ) 10 2 . 33 ( m x V
− −
× = × = =
(a) T A T A A ∆ = ∆ = ∆
0 0
2 α β
) 20 75 )( 10 613 . 6 )( 10 9 . 1 ( 2
1 5
− × × = ∆
− −
A
2 3
10 382 . 1 m A
−
× = ∆
(b) T V T V V ∆ = ∆ = ∆
0 0
3 α γ
) 20 75 )( 10 659 . 3 )( 10 9 . 1 ( 3
2 5
− × × = ∆
− −
V
3 4
10 147 . 1 m V
−
× = ∆
CH 01 TEMPERATURE AND HEAT 12
Problem 125
The coefficient of volume expansion of glycerin is
1 0 4
10 05 . 5
− −
× C . What will be the fractional change in its
density for a C
0
50 rise in temperature?
Solution
The change in density is given by
V
m
V
m
− = − = ∆
'
' ρ ρ ρ
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
∆ +
∆ −
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
−
∆ +
= ∆
) (
1 1
0 0 0 0
V V V
V
m
V V V
m ρ
0
0
0 0
2
0
V
V
V
V
V
m
V
V m ∆
− =


¹

\
 ∆


¹

\

− =
∆
− ≅ ∆ ρ ρ
T
V
T V
V
V
∆ − =
∆
− =
∆
− =
∆
γ
γ
ρ
ρ
0
0
0 0
2 4
0
10 525 . 2 ) 50 )( 10 05 . 5 (
− −
× − = × − =
∆
ρ
ρ
Problem 126
When the temperature of a metal cylinder is raised from
C
0
60 to C
0
100 , its length increases by % 092 . 0 .
(a) Find the percentage change in density.
(b) Identify the metal.
Solution
(a) The fractional change in density is given by
% 276 . 0 % ) 092 . 0 ( 3 3 − = − =
∆
− =
∆
− =
∆
L
L
V
V
ρ
ρ
(b) Now T L L ∆ = ∆ α
1 0 5
10 3 . 2
60 100
%) 092 . 0 ( 1
− −
× =
−
=

¹

\

∆

¹

\
 ∆
= C
T L
L
α
The given metal is aluminum.
CH 01 TEMPERATURE AND HEAT 13
15 SPECIFIC HEAT
Problem 127
What is the specific heat of a metal if kJ 135 of heat is
needed to raise kg 1 . 5 of the metal from C
0
20 to C
0
30 ?
Solution
Now T C m Q ∆ =
1 0 1
3
2647
) 20 30 )( 1 . 5 (
10 135
− −
=
−
×
=
∆
= C kg J
T m
Q
C
Problem 128
The temperature of a silver bar rises by C
0
10 when it
absorbs kJ 23 . 1 of energy by heat. The mass of the bar is
g 525 . Determine the specific heat of silver.
Solution
The heat absorbed is given by
T C m Q ∆ =
1 0 1
3
3
234
) 10 )( 10 525 (
10 23 . 1
− −
−
=
×
×
=
∆
= C kg J
T m
Q
C
Problem 129
The brake linings of the wheels of a car have total mass
kg 8 . 4 and specific heat capacity
1 1
1200
− −
K kg J . Calculate
the maximum possible temperature rise of the brake linings
when the car (of mass kg 800 ) traveling at
1
15
−
s m is
brought to rest by applying the brakes.
Solution
Assuming no lasses we have
Heat generated at brake linings = Kinetic energy of the car
2
2
1
v M T C m = ∆
K
C m
v M
T 6 . 15
) 1200 )( 8 . 4 ( 2
) 15 )( 800 (
2
2 2
= = = ∆
CH 01 TEMPERATURE AND HEAT 14
Problem 130
(a) Compute the possible increase in temperature for
water going over Niagara fall, m 4 . 49 high.
(b) What factors would tend to prevent this possible
rise?
(Given that
1 1
4190
− −
= K kg J C for water)
Solution
(a) If the change in potential energy of water appears as rise
in its internal energy, then
h g m T C m = ∆
K
C
h g
T 116 . 0
4190
) 4 . 49 )( 8 . 9 (
= = = ∆
(b) The water will evaporate during its fall accompanied by
cooling, therefore the above rise in temperature i.e.
0.116 K is not observed.
Problem 131
A kW 2 electric heater is used in a wellinsulated hot water
tank of capacity litres 200 to raise the temperature of water
from C
0
5 to C
0
60 . How long will it take to change the
temperature of water in the tank?
Solution
Now
T C m t P Q ∆ = =
P
T C V
P
T C m
t
∆
=
∆
=
ρ
3
3 3
10 2
) 5 60 )( 4190 )( 10 200 )( 10 1 (
×
− × ×
=
−
t
s h s t 5 min 24 6 23045 = =
CH 01 TEMPERATURE AND HEAT 15
Problem 132
Calculate the minimum amount of heat required to
completely melt g 130 of silver (melting point K 1235 )
initially at C
0
0 . 16 . The specific heat and latent heat of
fusion of silver are
1 1
236
− −
K kg J and
1 5
10 05 . 1
−
× K J
respectively. Assume that specific heat does not change with
temperature.
Solution
The desired amount of heat is given by
f
L m T C m Q + ∆ =
) (
f
L T C m Q + ∆ =
Now
kg g m 130 . 0 130 = =
1 1
236
− −
= K kg J C
1 5
10 05 . 1
−
× = K J L
f
K K C T 289 ) 273 16 ( 0 . 16
0
1
= + = =
K T 1235
2
=
K T T T 946 289 1235
1 2
= − = − = ∆
Hence
)} 10 05 . 1 ( ) 946 )( 236 ){( 130 . 0 (
5
× + = Q
kJ J Q 67 . 42 10 267 . 4
4
= × =
Problem 133
What mass of steam at C
0
100 must be mixed with g 150 of
ice at C
0
0 , in a thermally insulated container, to produce
liquid at C
0
50 ? The specific heat, latent heat of fusion and
latent heat of vapourization of water are
1 1
4190
− −
K kg J ,
1 5
10 34 . 3
−
× K J and
1 6
10 256 . 2
−
× K J respectively.
CH 01 TEMPERATURE AND HEAT 16
Solution
Let ‘m’ be the desired mass of steam, then heat librated by
steam to produce water at 50
0
C will be
) (
v v
L T C m L m T C m Q + ∆ = + ∆ =
)} 10 256 . 2 ( ) 50 100 )( 4190 {(
6
× − − = m Q
J m Q ) 10 4655 . 2 (
6
× =
The above heat will be absorbed by kg g m 150 . 0 150
1
= = of
ice to produce water at 50
0
C. Hence
) (
1 1 1 f f
L T C m L m T C m Q + ∆ = + ∆ =
)} 10 34 . 3 ( ) 0 50 )( 4190 ){( 150 . 0 ( ) 10 4655 . 2 (
5 6
× + − = × m
) 10 1525 . 8 ( ) 10 4655 . 2 (
4 6
× = × m
g kg m 33 033 . 0
10 4655 . 2
10 1525 . 8
6
4
= =
×
×
=
Problem 134
How much energy is required to change a g 40 ice cube
from ice at C
0
10 − to steam at C
0
110 ?
Solution
The net heat to complete the above change consists of the
following processes.
Q = Heat needed to convert C
0
10 − ice into C
0
0 ice +
Heat needed to convert C
0
0 ice into C
0
0 water +
Heat needed to convert C
0
0 water into C
0
100 water +
Heat needed to convert C
0
100 water into C
0
100 steam +
Heat needed to convert C
0
100 steam into C
0
110 steam.
3 2 1
T C m L m T C m L m T C m Q
STEAM v WATER f ICE
∆ + + ∆ + + ∆ =
) (
3 2 1
T C L m T C L T C m Q
STEAM v WATER f ICE
∆ + + ∆ + + ∆ =
) 100 )( 4190 ( ) 10 34 . 3 ( ) 10 )( 2090 ){( 040 . 0 (
5
+ × + = Q
)} 10 )( 92010 ( ) 10 256 . 2 (
6
+ × +
J Q
5
10 22 . 1 × =
CH 01 TEMPERATURE AND HEAT 17
16 THERMAL CONDUCTION
Problem 135
Calculate the rate at which heat would be lost on a very cold
winter day through a m m 8 . 3 2 . 6 × brick wall cm 32 thick.
The inside temperature is C
0
26 and the outside temperature
is C
0
18 − ; assume that the thermal conductivity of the brick
is
1 1
74 . 0
− −
K m W .
Solution
The quantity of heat ‘Q’ transferred from one face to the other
is given by
t
x
T
A k Q ∆
∆
∆
− =
x
T
A k
t
Q
H
∆
∆
− =
∆
=
Now
1 1
74 . 0
− −
= K m W k
2 2
56 . 23 8 . 3 2 . 6 m m A = × =
C T T T
0
2 1
44 26 18 − = − − = − = ∆ (Note that the difference in
temperature will be same on Celsius and Kelvin scales)
m cm x 32 . 0 32 = = ∆
Hence
W H
3
10 397 . 2
32 . 0
44
) 56 . 23 )( 74 . 0 ( × =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦−
− =
Problem 136
A steel plate measures cm 20 by cm 20 and is mm 0 . 5
thick. One face is maintained at C
0
140 . How much power
would be needed to maintain the other face at C
0
159 ? The
value of thermal conductivity for steel is
1 1
46
− −
K m W .
Solution
The desired power is given by
x
T
A k H
∆
∆
− =
Now
1 1
46
− −
= K m W k
CH 01 TEMPERATURE AND HEAT 18
2 2 2 4 2 2
10 4 10 400 400 20 20 m m cm cm A
− −
× = × = = × =
K C T T T 10 10 150 140
0
2 1
= = − = − = ∆
m mm x
3
10 5 0 . 5
−
× = = ∆
Hence
W H 3680
10 5
10
) 10 4 )( 46 (
3
2
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
×
−
× − =
−
−
Problem 137
How thick a concrete wall would be needed to give the same
insulating value as cm 10 of fiberglass? The values of
thermal conductivity of concrete and fiberglass are
1 1
1
− −
K m W and
1 1
042 . 0
− −
K m W respectively.
Solution
Now
CONCRETE FIBERGLASS
H H =
C
C
F
F
x
T
A k
x
T
A k
∆
∆
− =
∆
∆
−
F
F
C
C
x
k
k
x ∆


¹

\

= ∆
m cm x
C
38 . 2 238 ) 10 (
042 . 0
1
= =

¹

\

= ∆
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