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Report on the Industrial Internship at Schlumberger
Waqas Hassan Tanvir 03F-ME-20 Hafiz MUMTAZ ALAM HUMAYUN NAWAZ 03F-ME-59 03F-ME-64
Dr !"a"i# $"a%i%
D&'ar()&n( *f M&+"ani+a% En,in&&rin, Univ&rsi(- *f En,in&&rin, . T&+"n*%*,Ta/i%a
Most have evolved over a relatively short period as the understandings of criteria critical to the reliability of CT services have become better understood. describing their function and principal components or subsystems. model and design. In addition the operating conditions in many geographical areas often determine the most appropriate CTU design. every CTU comprises the follo ing principal items! • • • • • In"ector head Coiled tubing reel #o er pac$ Control cabin #ressure control e%uipment The follo ing section provides an over vie of these items of CT e%uipment. Regardless of manufacturer. .COILED TUBING UNIT (CTU): Introduction: There are many different designs and configurations of Coiled tubing unit (CTU).
&upport functions include! • • -eight indicator mount .epth system mount . pressure control e%uipment. COILED TUBING INJECTOR HEAD: Descri tion: The coiled tubing in"ector head provides the effort and traction necessary to run and retrieve the CT string into and out of ell bore. &everal hydraulic systems are used to enable to CTU operator to e'ercise a high degree of control over any CT string movement. safely and ithout ris$ of damage to the ell e%uipment. The follo ing functions apply to the ma"ority of in"ector heads! • • • • #ull the CT string #ush the CT string )old the CT string* +uide and support the CT string &econdary . pushing and holding the coiled tubing string under the specific ell bore and treatment conditions. CT string or the CTU. ( thorough understanding of the in"ector head control and monitoring system is essential to ensure the e%uipment is operated efficiently. !rinci "# $unctions: The basic functions re%uired of all CT in"ector heads includes safely pulling.1.
The force re%uired to over come the ell head pressure (cting on the cross sectional area of the CT string 2riction or drag created by stripper . (t least t o independent sensors are typically re%uired on every CT operation. In addition the transition from stationary to in3hole and out3of3 hole modes should be smooth and easily controlled. This is contained ith in a fi'ed outer frame ith the eight indicator sensors connected b. De t% s+ste* sensor: The in"ector head provides a convenient mounting position for friction heel depth measurement systems. plus ! • • • • /ffect of fluid density inside.outside the CT string 0ver pull (tension) to be applied at the 1)( /ffect of drag (friction) caused by the string or 1)( 2riction or drag created by the strippers !us% (snu&&in' (orce): The in"ector head snubbing capacity should be compatible ith! • • • Ho#d: The in"ector head should be capable of safely holding the CT string stationary.• &tripper Mount. the t o frames. )ei'% Indic"tor *ount! In"ector heads are typically configured ith the traction and drive components mounted of 240(TI5+ inner chassis. Guide t%e Tu&in': Components of the in"ector head serve to support and guide the CT string from the delivery angle of the reel into the ell bore. !u## (Tensi#e $orce): The in"ector head pull capacity should be compatible ith the eight of the CT string in use. This holding function should be available ith the hydraulic systems or po er pac$ in both normal operating conditions and disabled modes.
re%uires the in"ector head be capable of handling a ider range of tubing.tri er -ount: The primary stripper is generally permanently mounted to the in"ector head. Unless the in"ector head is other ise supported. The trend to ards larger tubing si6es hich enable greater circulation rates. the mounting bears all of the forces necessary to run and retrieve the CT string.rive and brea$ system Chain assembly +uide3arch assembly -eight indicator In addition. $e"tures: The design and configuration of in"ector heads have developed over several years to meet specifications hich reflect the evolving nature of CT applications.epth sensor mounts .. The principal component of In"ector head can be categori6ed in the follo ing systems or ma"or assemblies! • • • • . secondary or support systems include! • • &tripper mount . The stripper mount also provides a reference point ith hich the drive chains and guide arch are ultimately aligned.
COILED TUBING REEL: Descri tion: The primary function of the CT reel is to safely store and protect the CT string. monitoring and measuring e%uipment.. In addition the reel typically incorporates several features hich. trac$ing and spooling guide systems. (lmost all reels rely totally on hydraulic po er to operate the drive. 4ocal conditions and the nature of the CT operations ill determine the type of reel re%uired. although less obvious. Most significant of hich is the s ivel facility hich enables fluids to be pumped through the tubing string hile the reel drum rotates. • Truc$ mounted (fi'ed) 7 permanently fi'ed to the truc$.. #revious reels designed have used pneumatics or a combination of pneumatics and hydraulic po er. $e"tures: CT reels are commonly available in a number of configurations and can be categori6ed as sho n belo . This should be achieved hile avoiding e'cessive damage to the string through fatigue (bending) or mechanical damage from the spooling. to control some of the brea$ and level ind systems. The reel level ind is fre%uently used as mounting position for a variety of tubing production. are e%ually important to the successful operation of CTU. .
g. many of hich are still in common use. 10# system.) Tubing lubrication e%uipment(<) Crash protection frame = /. The evolution of CT string si6es and the general trend to ards longer CT or$ strings has resulted in many different reel designs. These structures typically enable the shipping spool to be fitted in place of the drum assembly. collector &pecial application reel 7 typically for completion applications. COILED TUBING !O)ER !AC0: Descri tion: The function of the po er pac$ may be simply stated as providing the hydraulic po er to operate the CTU and pressure control e%uipment. -ith the advent of larger CT si6es that are installed as completion tubulars there is increased of use of special reels and spooling stands designed to handle large tubulars. )o ever.• • • • • Truc$ mounted (s$id) 7 may be changed out &$id mounted 3 for off shore operations Trailer mounted 7 for large capacity (length) or heavy eight strings CT logging reel 7 fitted ith electrical s ivel . thereby avoiding unnecessary spooling. e. hich in large tubing si6es can be difficult and ha6ardous. To perform this function .epth measurement accessories(. the facilities and components identified belo are found on almost all reels! • • • • • • • Reel drum(8) Reel drive and brea$ systems Reel s ivel and manifold(9) 4evel ind assembly(:) .
such as permit to or$ systems. are complied ith fully and that actions need for such re%uirements have been completed.satisfactorily under varied conditions and for the duration of any CT operation. ( compressor mounted on the engine. provides an air supply for operation of the engine controls and pneumatic systems on the CTU. e.R(3RI+.g. 2ailure to follo the pre3startup procedure may e'pose e%uipment and personnel to unacceptable ris$s. In addition to the hydraulic po er supplied hen running. The CTU configuration ill determine the location of the po er pac$ and corresponding control e%uipment! • • • • Truc$ or trailer mounted using the truc$ engine as po er source Truc$ or trailer mounted ith an independent po er source &$id mounted ith the control cab and po er pac$ incorporated on one s$id &$id mounted ith control cab mounted separately from the po er pac$ Regardless of the type of the unit to hich the po er pac$ is fitted. In general all po er pac$s ill include the follo ing ma"or components! • • • • • • • • /ngine )ydraulic pumps #ressure control valves )ydraulic reservoir 2ilters and strainers )ydraulic fluid )eat e'changer and thermostatic valve (ccumulator 0peration or even startup of the CTU po er pac$ must not be attempted until a series of maintenance and operational chec$s has been completed. e.g. the function and facility contained ith in the po er pac$ ill be similar. The evolution of CTU designed to the current standards has resulted in several different designs of the po er pac$ being supplied. $e"tures: The ma"ority of CTUs in use are assembled by )>. current generation po er pac$s are designed to operate independently of e'terior po er of air supplies once started. the po er pac$ incorporates an accumulator facility to allo limited operation of pressure control e%uipment follo ing engine shutdo n. The po er pac$ air3receiver ill provide a sufficient storage to allo an engine restart shortly after shutdo n. in"ector head chain lubrication. provided the unit pneumatic systems are isolated. The environment in hich CTU is to operate ill determine the engine protection facilities re%uired by the relevant local and national authorities. The pre3startup operational chec$s ill vary ith the location and application of the CTU but should include the follo ing points as a minimum re%uirement! /nsure any location re%uirements. positioning of gas detecting and fire3fighting . the stripper air operated pump. lights and transfer pumps.
tubing eight at the in"ector head and tubing depth. CONTROL CABIN: Descri tion: The control cabin contains all of the controls and instruments necessary to allo the CT operation to be run from one control station. This in turn provides three important pre3re%uisites that are crucial to achieving ade%uate service %uality! . achieve ma'imum visibility from the control station. The level of the control and instrumentation ill greatly depend on the model and version of the CTU. The principal benefit of this comprehensive control and instrument pac$age is that it provides the operator ith an increased a areness of the CTU operating conditions. Monitor and record the principal ell and CT string parameters of ell head pressure. and that only %ualified personnel are authori6ed to operate the e%uipment. ho ever.e%uipment. /nsure operating and associated personnel are a are of the above re%uirements. in line ith the in"ector head. circulating pressure. the cabin is commonly elevated. the cabin is generally situated behind the CT reel. Control and monitor the operation of ell pressure control e%uipment. )o ever. typical design ob"ectives include ability to! • • • Control and monitor the operation of all of the CTU operating functions. To help. The location of the control ill vary depending upon the configuration and type of the CTU. 1.
based on primary factors hich influence the useful life of the tubing. $e"tures: Controls and instruments by function as follo s! • • • • • • • • • • • In"ector chain inside tension In"ector chain outside tension In"ector3head drive Reel 4ubrication controls #o er unit 1lo out preventer (10#).to in': The process of starting and stopping the movement of the CT must be conducted by applying or reducing the driving force slo ly and smoothly. (n accurate CT string or$ record is developed. The operating limits defined by CT soft are models should not be e'ceeded. in"ector head. &udden changes may e'ert unacceptable high forces to the tubing. .t"rtin' 3 . #otential problems can be identified and rectified before the interfere ith the operation of CTU.uring operation. The operation of primary. consideration must be given to the speed and levels of the force applied to the CT string. In addition the conse%uences of their operation must be understood. &tripper #rincipal gauges /mergency hydraulic supply e%uipments /lectronic e%uipment O er"tin' tec%ni2ue: The control and systems of any CTU must be operated in a manner hich ensures that the follo ing general re%uirements are met! The safety of the personnel associated ith the operation and maintenance of the CTU 0peration and maintenance of any controls or system of the CTU must not compromise the efficiency of the ell control barriers. (pplicable safety and environmental policies must be understood and complied ith.The CTU can be operated safely and efficiently. secondary and tertiary ( here re%uired) ell control barriers must be understood. . Runnin' t%e CT: . po er pac$ and pressure control e%uipment components. The operating limits of $ey components and systems associated ith the CTU should not be e'ceeded. reel. These must be consistent ith the ell conditions and e%uipment limitations.
but that each item is compatible ith the specifications and functions of the assembled stac$. &hear. e.&eal 10#. &uch e%uipment is typically operated in support of normal operating conditions or as a contingency. proven on oil and gas ells under a variety of conditions. 10#. 4. The assembled e%uipment is commonly referred to as the pressure control stac$.econd"r+ !ressure Contro#: /%uipment and practices hich provide or ensure the secondary barrier against ell bore pressure and fluids.g. the applications or treatment to be conducted or the or regulatory re%uirements applicable in the region a specific ell site. !ressure Contro# E2ui *ent: The pressure control e%uipment and practices associated ith the CT operations are designed and prepared to provide a high degree of safety reliability. Chec$ing the actual vs. This $ey feature enables CT to be idely accepted as live ell intervention method. In assembling this e%uipment stac$. e.g. there are al ays several items of pressure control e%uipment re%uired for any operation.The location of the CT 1)( in relation to the ell bore tubulars and restrictions should be constant consideration. The pressure control e%uipment re%uired and selected for any application depends on a number of factors. )o ever. but not be limited to. &uch e%uipment is typically operated in contingency or emergency situations e. stripper.g. the follo ing! Close observation of the eight indicator display! • • ( reduction in the running speed.The definitions listed belo are based on general understanding of some commonly used terms! !ri*"r+ !ressure Contro#: /%uipment and practices hich provide or ensure the primary barrier against ell bore pressure and fluids. These may include. (ppropriate precautions must be ta$en as the CT 1)( passes restrictions or variations in the ell bore diameter. . &uch e%uipment is typically operated during normal operating conditions. predicted eight. &uch factors may relate to ell bore conditions. it is not only important that each individual item be correctly specified and operated. Terti"r+ !ressure Contro#: /%uipment and practices hich provide or ensure the tertiary barrier against ell bore pressure and fluids. #ressure control e%uipment can be categori6ed belo ! • • • • &tripper systems 1lo out preventers (10#s) -ell head connections and crossovers 4ubricators and risers .
capping.te 81: -ell testing involves providing access to and measurement of dynamic reservoir data. and of course sampling.: The use of a rig and cre for drilling. holes.te 8/: The measurement of one or more physical %uantities in or around a ell. including pressure. flo rate and fluid hether the ell is flo ing or shut in. temperature. . redrilling or reconditioning of ell.o They -or$! . testing. liner to obtain an hydraulic seal CT logging and ired applications 7 to provide electrical po er to do n hole tool system. . suspension. production. 2racturing through CT CT drilling )e## Co* #etion 5 !roducti6it+ ()C!) An O6er6ie7 o( )C! )o . CT cementing 7 The process of forcing cement slurry through perforations. .• 4ive ell deployment systems A #ic"tions o( Coi#ed Tu&in': The follo ing main applications are of coiled tubing! • • • • • • -ell bore fill removal Matri' stimulation through CT 7 ( chemical treatment in"ected radially from the ell bore into the reservoir at a pressure belo the frac pressure to remove or bypass formation damage. sidetrac$ing. . The term comes from the ord ?4og@ used in the sense of a record or a note ireline logs are ta$en do nhole .te 8.te 81: The generation of (coustic aves that travel into the earth and reflect bac$ to the sensors to be recorded by sensors and interpreted by computers. deepening. completion. plugging bac$. transmitted through a ireline to surface and recorded there. or lea$s in the casing . This provides a subterranean picture of possible resource.
perforating. .rill &tem Testing Multilaterals &andface Completions -onitor3Contro#: • • • • • .ur("ce Testin': . setting pac$ers.o nhole Monitoring #hase atcher . #roductivity is the measure of a ell completion*s ability to produce.1R (rrays and data analysis .te 84! The or$ done on a ell bore to establish safe production of resource or in"ection fluids after the production casing string has been set.o nhole Control .er6ices: • • • • • • • • #ac$er &afety Aalves Retrievable 2ormation isolation valve Tubing Conveyed #erforating . e'pressed in volumes of gross li%uid produced per day per unit of differential pressure bet een the static reservoir pressure and ell*s flo ing bottom hole pressure (dra done) )C! -eteirs Co* #etion Too#s 5.te 89: &ystems that are pac$ed in the ellbore to ?4ift@ fluids because the reservoir lac$s the energy to cause the natural flo of fluid to surface. tuning hangers and Christmas trees in place.phase tester 0ilphase . This or$ includes running the pipe and "e elry. cemented and pressure tested.te 8:: #roduction is the stage in the reservoir life during hich hydrocarbons are brought from the reservoir through the completion facilities to be sold.. such as gas lifts or electric submersible pumps .
er6ices Tu&in' Con6e+ed !er(or"tion (TC!) &haped charge perforating is a critical part of ell completion process and development of techni%ue has been driven by the need for better ell productivity operating efficiency. T o basic perforating techni%ues are available to completion design engineer T%rou'% Tu&in' !er(or"tin': The guns are lowered into the well through Production string (drill pipe or test string) The guns may be conveyed by wireline or coiled tubing. Through tubing perforations guns offer the following features: .• • • • • (c%uisition &eparators 1urners Manifolds Bero /missions Inter6entions: • • &en Tree &ervices &lic$line REDA !u* s: • • G"s #i(t: • • +as lift systems 2lo Regulators /lectric &ubmersible #umps #o er &ystems Do7n%o#e . safety and lo er costs.ensors: • • #ump -atcher &urveyor )C! .
Bene(its o( TC!: • • • • • 4ong intervals may be efficiently perforated in one run ith a $ill string in place if re%uired. allowing the highest performance deep penetrating or big hole charges to be used at optimal shot density and perforating pattern. carrier type guns significantly reduce the amount of perforating debris introduced into the wellbore during the perforating process.• The wellhead and completion string are in place and tested before the casing is perforated. with or without a rig onsite C"sed Gun "nd Hi'% .D): Large diameter guns are lowered into the cased well before the production string is run (or in some cases as part of bottom hole assembly especially during drill stem testing and certain completion techniques). asing or !"# $uns offer the following features: • $un si%e is limited only by the internal diameter. T P operations are more efficient for long multi %one perforation intervals. • The under balanced differential from the reservoir into the wellbore provides perforation cleanup. ( variety of firing systems and accessories accommodates a ide range of ell conditions and completion techni%ues (fter firing. The choice between wireline and tubing coil perforating should be made on the completion ob)ectives and operational considerations. e'pended guns may be dropped to the bottom of the ell allo ing future through tubing operation $irin' He"ds . *rom the perforation view point wireline perforating wireline perforation operations are usually faster when there are a few short intervals to perforate. • Perforation may be made as required over the life of the well.%ot Densit+ er(or"tin'(H. • &hen guns are conveyed on wireline the overbalanced differential from the wellbore into the formation allowsthe' use of longer guns ompared to e(pandables through tubing guns. The programmed under balance is applied to all perforated intervals evenly in a controlled fashion.
(nother type of a firing system is by the use of firing heads . . Di((erent $irin' He"ds .+ste* The Trigger charge firing system adapts either the absolute pressure. initiating a time delay period during hich under balance pressure is established before the guns are fired. The main features are • • )eads containing primary e'plosives are run into the ell latched and then retrieved independently of the gun string The firing heads are connected after the guns are on depth. Tri''er C%"r'e $irin' . 0nce the delay has e'pired pressure at the firing head drives the firing pin into the detonator. (fter the string and guns have been run.ifferential #ressure firing head is actuated by the differential pressure bet een the annulus above the pac$er and the rat hole pressure belo .The main system that separates on firing head from the other is the method of its actuation. TC# and ireline provide a more efficient and economical method for a ide range of do nhole e'plosive operations. Di((erenti"# !ressure $irin' He"d The . is actuated by tubing pressure shearing calibrated pins hen a pre3set pressure level is reached. tested and positioned.1 is designed to offer ma'imum fle'ibility and control over the firing operation because the firing head is run separately from the gun string.+ste*s E (ire E#ectronic (irin' %e"d s+ste* /2ire electronic firing head systems for coiled tubing. drop bar or "ar do n firing system to transfer assembly that is run through the ell on slic$ line (or electric line).&"r "ctu"ted tri''er (irin' s+ste* The drop bar3actuated trigger charge firing system TC23. Dro . hich improves the level of safety for the entire operation. The main features are safety spring disables the firing pin hen the hydrostatic pressure is belo CDD psi ma$ing the gun string safe on and near the surface H+dr"u#ic de#"+ (irin' %e"d The hydraulic delay firing head. an absolute pressure firing head.
appraisal and even development phase of a ell.Actu"ted Tri''er C%"r'e $irin' .! The absolute pressure3actuated trigger charge firing system TC23# is designed to offer ma'imum fle'ibility and control over the firing operation because the firing head is run separately from the gun string. or to perform additional pre3conditional or treatment services prior to the completion of the ell. The types of pac$ers vary greatly. ( pac$er basically isolates the 6ones of annulus and the fluid up pumping. This can be better understood by considering that .+ste* TC$. The pac$er is one of the most important tools in the tubing string. hile permanent completion components are designed for specific installations and long life B"sic re2uire*ents .e. such as single3 or .&T tools are designed for a ide range of operating environments and multiuse i. is designed to offer ma'imum fle'ibility and control over the firing operation because the firing head is run separately from the gun string. Many components are similar to those of permanent completions although the temporary nature of the string re%uires some additional functionality normally not associated ith permanent completions.+ste*s The et connect firing system -C2 is composed of t o connector assemblies • Dri## . • A&so#ute !ressure. theyFre designed or configured to meet specific ellbore or reservoir conditions. They are run as a means of providing a safe and efficient method of controlling a formation during the gathering of essential reservoir data in the e'ploration.rill stem tests are affected by three different pressures! • • • )ydrostatic #ressure #h 2ormation #ressure #f Cushion #ressure #c E2ui *ent "nd too#s !"c<er This provides a seal and isolates #h from #f much the same as for permanent completions. 0ften.JD The "ar do n3actuated trigger charge firing head TC23E.J"r Do7n. • )C$ )et Connect $irin' . they can be redressed bet een runs.+ste* TC$.Actu"ted Tri''er C%"r'e $irin' .te* Testin' Introduction ( set of drill stem tools is an array of do nhole hard are used for the temporary completion of a ell.
and the full range of pressure and temperature applications.tandem3pac$er configurations. single3 or dual3tubing strings. O&=ecti6e o( .&urface sampling :."* #in' 2luid property data is needed to • • • )elp describe the reservoir #redict reservoir fluid behaviour (ssist in development )%"t does Oi#!%"se . The most basic re%uirement of the pac$er and associated tools relates to enabling efficient flo from or in"ection into the formation to the tubing string or production conduit. &ling In order to give our customer a good information of hat*s inside our ell e have to give them samples. The pac$er must not restrict normal production or in"ection flo . The oil and gas samples either directly or after recombination are ta$en in special cylinders and then sent to the #AT (pressure volume temperature analysis) laboratory for testing.1ottom hole sampling &ub category! (a) Cased hole sampling (b) 1ottom hole sampling T+ es o( s"* #es .DBR do: • • • • • • Reservoir fluid sampling -ell site fluid analysis (dvanced fluid research #AT soft are &ling and #AT e%uipment manufacturer &le management T+ es o( s"* #in' 8. This is a good loo$ for the customer to carry out the instructions of hat to do and hen to do act.
' string volume must have been produced &table do nhole and -)# 1&G.glycol(glycol is added to prevent rust formation) ith seperator pressure slo ly Remove the CDD cc ater..test engineer verbally confirmed about sampling &topped to testing guy to do any changes in pressure and level -ell should be stable < hours before sampling In oil bottles 8DI gas cap should be created for safe transportation .ead oil -ater )e## conditionin' • • • • • (lthough 8.glycol over the period of 9D minutes and then close the sample valve (t last note do n the final pressure and temperature The client . Connect the connection ith gas line or vertical side 2irst flush the lines then open the bottle valve slo ly (fter ta$ing the sample chec$ the bottle pressure should match ith separator pressure 5ote do n the final pressure and label the bottle 2irst chec$ any trapped pressure in the bottle Then pump ater.H 8I Clean stable burning of fuel #h neutral Gener"# s"* #in' re "r"tion • • • • G"s s"* #in' • • • • • • • • • • • • Chec$ the bottle is vacuumed or not.glycol at seperator pressure to avoid flushing Then purge oil sight glass (fter this flush the lines across the bottle Then open the bottom valve and displace the ater.• • • • • 1ottom hole -ell head &eparator recombination .
Ri' u co* onents • • • • • • &tuffing bo' 4ubricator 10#*s 7 ire line valve Tree connections (ncillary components (dditional -)/ • • • • • • Too# strin' co* onents Combination of different components &election due to ell conditions and limitations &election due to type of operation to be performed -eight needed to overcome ell pressure Mass to deliver the impacts hen "arring 7 either to shear pins of to free a device .
er6ice too#s 1asic service tools are attached belo the mechanical string and must have the largest diameter on the tool string .B"sic .
$is%in' nec<s • • • • • • Internal and e'ternal available /'ternal either Camco or 0tis JDK or 8.K under3cut 2ishing si6e measured at L(* Manufacturer* tool should match fishing nec$ angle 25 data must be recorded .
e%uali6ing prongs. must be considered hen selecting tool string si6e &hear pin condition can give do nhole indication Can be run minus dogs to ensure clear fishing nec$ ...g. standing valves Can be released from device if retrieval is difficult #ulling tool 0.!u##in' u too#s • • • • • • Used to recover devices from the ell bore Can be used to set devices e.
He"6+ dut+ u##in' too#s .
either on surface or do n hole Most can be resolved ith patience and good planning De t% Rite • • • • • • • • #rovide accurate depth by &tretch calculation #ressure and temp effect -ire si6e Tool string information Records operation and can be do nloaded to #C (dapters to ease install to current unit counter heads /lectronic load cell can be used .$is%in' • • • • • 2alls under several descriptions -hen a device is stuc$ and cannot be removed using normal procedures -hen L"ar action* has been lost hen trying to remove a device -hen ire is bro$en.
ump bailers Tubing puncher .E (ire tec%no#o'+ • • • • • • • • Computer controlled firing head run on &lic$ line (n alternative to running traditional e3line services such as #erforating guns #lugs and pac$ers Chemical cutters .o n hole samplers .
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