Mobile Communications Chapter 4: Wireless Telecommunication Systems

slides by Jochen Schiller with modifications by Emmanuel Agu

Market q GSM

Overview q Services q Sub-systems q Components
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen Schiller, MC SS05 4.1

Mobile phone subscribers worldwide

approx. 1.7 bn



Subscribers [million]

GSM total TDMA total CDMA total 800 PDC total Analogue total 600 W-CDMA Total wireless Prediction (1998) 400



0 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 year

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen Schiller,



GSM: Overview
q q q q

q q q q

formerly: Groupe Spéciale Mobile (founded 1982) now: Global System for Mobile Communication Pan-European standard (ETSI, European Telecommunications Standardisation Institute) simultaneous introduction of essential services in three phases (1991, 1994, 1996) by the European telecommunication administrations (Germany: D1 and D2) è seamless roaming within Europe possible today many providers all over the world use GSM (more than 200 countries in Asia, Africa, Europe, Australia, America) more than 1.2 billion subscribers in more than 630 networks more than 75% of all digital mobile phones use GSM (74% total) over 200 million SMS per month in Germany, > 550 billion/year worldwide (> 10% of the revenues for many operators) [be aware: these are only rough numbers…]

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen Schiller,



the network handles localization better frequency efficiency.Performance characteristics of GSM (wrt. analog sys. from cars. authentication via chip-card and PIN Total mobility q Worldwide connectivity q High capacity q High transmission quality q Security functions q Prof. smaller cells. voice and data services international access. trains) access control.jochenschiller.-Ing.. wireless communication.4 . http://www. uninterrupted phone calls at higher speeds ( MC SS05 4. Dr. more customers per cell high audio quality and reliability for wireless. Jochen Schiller. chip-card enables use of access points of different providers one number.) Communication q mobile.g.

-Ing. no transparent Bchannel q q reduced concentration while driving electromagnetic radiation abuse of private data possible roaming profiles accessible high complexity of the system several incompatibilities within the GSM standards q q q q Prof. Jochen Schiller.5 .Disadvantages of GSM There is no perfect system!! q no end-to-end encryption of user data q no full ISDN bandwidth of 64 kbit/s to the user. http://www. MC SS05 4.

ISDN) tele services source/ destination network TE (U. R) Prof. http://www.GSM: Mobile Services GSM offers q q several types of connections l voice connections. S. data connections.-Ing. short message service multi-service options (combination of basic services) Bearer Services Telematic Services Supplementary Services bearer services Three service domains q q q MS TE R.6 . S MT Um GSM-PLMN transit network (PSTN. Jochen MC SS05 4. Dr.jochenschiller.

4. 4.1200 bit/s q data service (packet switched) l synchronous: 2.8 or 9. 4.6 kbit/s l asynchronous: 300 .de/ MC SS05 4. http://www.-Ing. Dr. Jochen Schiller.4.jochenschiller.6 kbit/s l asynchronous: 300 . 50 kbit/s possible – will be covered later! Prof.9600 bit/s Today: data rates of approx.Bearer Services q q q Telecommunication services to transfer data between access points Specification of services up to the terminal interface (OSI layers 1-3) Different data rates for voice and data (original standard) q data service (circuit switched) l synchronous: 2.7 .8 or 9.

free of charge.Tele Services I q q q Telecommunication services that enable voice communication via mobile phones All these basic services have to obey cellular functions. connection with the highest priority (preemption of other connections possible) Multinumbering several ISDN phone numbers per user possible Prof. Dr.jochenschiller. mandatory for all service providers. Jochen Schiller.8 . Offered services q q q mobile telephony primary goal of GSM was to enable mobile telephony offering the traditional bandwidth of 3.-Ing.1 kHz Emergency number common number throughout Europe (112). http://www. security measurements MC SS05 4.

l Short Message Service (SMS) alphanumeric data transmission to/from the mobile terminal (160 characters) using the signaling channel. implemented in the fixed network) l .. http://www.jochenschiller. Message Handling System. Jochen Schiller.9 . Dr. thus allowing simultaneous use of basic services and SMS (almost ignored in the beginning now the most successful add-on!) MC SS05 4.Tele Services II Additional services q Non-Voice-Teleservices l group 3 fax l voice mailbox (implemented in the fixed network supporting the mobile terminals) l electronic mail (MHS..-Ing.

Dr. countries and protocol versions Important services q q q q q q identification: forwarding of caller number suppression of number forwarding automatic call-back conferencing with up to 7 participants locking of the mobile terminal (incoming or outgoing calls) . MC SS05 4.. Jochen Schiller.-Ing. cannot be offered stand-alone Similar to ISDN services besides lower bandwidth due to the radio link May differ between different service providers.jochenschiller.10 . Prof.Supplementary services q q q q Services in addition to the basic services..

11 .jochenschiller. MC SS05 4.Architecture of the GSM system GSM is a PLMN (Public Land Mobile Network) q q several providers setup mobile networks following the GSM standard within each country components l MS (mobile station) l BS (base station) l MSC (mobile switching center) l LR (location register) q subsystems l RSS (radio subsystem): covers all radio aspects l NSS (network and switching subsystem): call forwarding.-Ing. Dr. switching l OSS (operation subsystem): management of the network Prof. Jochen Schiller. handover.

de/ MC SS05 4.-Ing.jochenschiller. http://www.Ingredients 1: Mobile Phones. The visible but smallest part of the network! Prof. Jochen Schiller. PDAs & Co. Dr.12 .

Dr.-Ing.Ingredients 2: Antennas Still visible – cause many discussions… Prof. http://www. Jochen Schiller.13 MC SS05 4.

Ingredients 3: Infrastructure 1 Base Stations Cabling Microwave links Prof. MC SS05 4. http://www.jochenschiller.-Ing. Jochen Schiller.14 .

Ingredients 3: Infrastructure 2 Not „visible“. Dr.jochenschiller. Jochen Schiller. http://www.15 .de/ MC SS05 4. but comprise the major part of the network (also from an investment point of view…) Management Data bases Switching units Monitoring Prof.-Ing.

16 . http://www.-Ing. EIR. Dr.GSM: overview MC SS05 4. Jochen Schiller. AUC HLR NSS with OSS VLR MSC GMSC fixed network VLR MSC BSC BSC RSS Prof.jochenschiller.

GSM: elements and interfaces radio cell MS Um RSS BTS MS BSS radio cell MS BTS Abis BSC A MSC NSS MSC signaling GMSC IWF O OSS EIR AUC OMC MC SS05 4.jochenschiller.17 .-Ing. Dr. PSTN PDN BSC VLR HLR VLR Prof. Jochen Schiller. http://www.

open interface with 64 kbit/s user channels Prof.-Ing. Jochen Schiller.jochenschiller.18 .de/ MC SS05 4.System architecture: radio subsystem radio subsystem MS MS network and switching subsystem Components q Um BTS BTS Abis BSC MSC MS (Mobile Station) q BSS (Base Station Subsystem): consisting of l l BTS (Base Transceiver Station): sender and receiver BSC (Base Station Controller): controlling several transceivers Interfaces BTS BTS BSS BSC A MSC q Um : radio interface q Abis : standardized. http://www. open interface with 16 kbit/s user channels q A: standardized. Dr.

-Ing.jochenschiller.Radio subsystem The Radio Subsystem (RSS) comprises the cellular mobile network up to the switching centers q Components q Base Station Subsystem (BSS): l Base Transceiver Station (BTS): radio components including sender. managing of network resources. controlling BTSs. receiver. MC SS05 4. http://www. Jochen Schiller.if directed antennas are used one BTS can cover several cells l Base Station Controller (BSC): switching between BTSs.19 . antenna . mapping of radio channels (Um) onto terrestrial channels (A interface) l BSS = BSC + sum(BTS) + interconnection q Mobile Stations (MS) Prof.

GSM: cellular network segmentation of the area into cells possible radio coverage of the cell idealized shape of the cell cell q q q q q use of several carrier frequencies not the same frequency in adjoining cells cell sizes vary from some 100 m up to 35 km depending on user .-Ing. shapes depend on geography) if a mobile user changes cells ê handover of the connection to the neighbor cell MC SS05 4. Dr. transceiver power etc.jochenschiller. Jochen Schiller. hexagonal shape of cells is idealized (cells overlap. geography.20 Prof. http://www.

jochenschiller.21 . 955-1023 124 channels +49 channels Uplink [MHz] 824-849 876-915 890-915 880-915 Downlink [MHz] 869-894 921-960 935-960 925-960 GSM 1800 GSM 1900 (Americas) GSM-R exclusive 512-885 512-810 1710-1785 1850-1910 1805-1880 1930-1990 955-1024. 0-124 69 channels 876-915 876-880 921-960 921-925 . http://www. Jochen Schiller.Additionally: GSM 400 (also named GSM 450 or GSM 480 at 450-458/460-468 or 479-486/489-496 MHz .GSM frequency bands Type GSM 850 (Americas) GSM 900 classical extended Channels 128-251 0-124. MC SS05 4.-Ing.Channels at the lower/upper edge of a frequency band are typically not used Prof.Please note: frequency ranges may vary depending on the country! .

com) T-Mobile (GSM-900/1800) Germany O2 (GSM-1800) Germany AT&T (GSM-850/1900) USA Vodacom (GSM-900) South Africa Prof. Jochen Schiller.jochenschiller. http://www.gsmworld.-Ing.22 .de/ MC SS05 4.Example coverage of GSM networks (www. Dr.

de/ MC SS05 4.23 . Dr.jochenschiller. http://www. location update Handover management BTS X BSC X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Prof.Base Transceiver Station and Base Station Controller Tasks of a BSS are distributed over BSC and BTS q BTS comprises radio specific functions q BSC is the switching center for radio channels Functions Management of radio channels Frequency hopping (FH) Management of terrestrial channels Mapping of terrestrial onto radio channels Channel coding and decoding Rate adaptation Encryption and decryption Paging Uplink signal measurements Traffic measurement Authentication Location registry.-Ing. Jochen Schiller.

-Ing.jochenschiller. Dr.615 ms GSM time-slot (normal burst) guard space tail user data S Training S user data guard tail space 3 bits 57 bits 1 26 bits 1 57 bits 3 546.5 µs 577 µs MC SS05 . http://www.24 Prof.GSM .TDMA/FDMA 935-960 MHz 124 channels (200 kHz) downlink fre qu en cy 890-915 MHz 124 channels (200 kHz) uplink higher GSM frame structures time GSM TDMA frame 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 4. Jochen Schiller.

-Ing.048 Mbit/s Prof. http://www.GSM protocol layers for signaling Um MS CM MM RR RR’ LAPDm radio LAPDm radio BTSM LAPD PCM Abis BTS BSC A MSC CM MM BSSAP BSSAP SS7 PCM RR’ BTSM LAPD PCM SS7 PCM 16/64 kbit/s 64 kbit/s / 2. Dr. Jochen Schiller.25 .de/ MC SS05 4.jochenschiller.

http://www. Dr.-Ing.4 types of handover 1 MS 2 MS 3 MS 4 MS BTS BTS BTS BTS BSC BSC MSC BSC MSC MC SS05 4.26 . Jochen Schiller.jochenschiller.

Dr.Handover decision receive level BTSold receive level BTSold HO_MARGIN MS BTSold MS BTSnew MC SS05 4. Jochen Schiller. http://www.27 .

Dr. Jochen Schiller.jochenschiller. activation ack HO access Link establishment clear command clear command clear complete clear complete HO complete HO complete Prof. activation HO command HO command HO command HO request ack ch. MC SS05 4.28 .-Ing.Handover procedure MS BTSold BSCold measurement measurement report result HO decision HO required MSC BSCnew BTSnew HO request resource allocation ch. . open interface) A5 for encryption (standardized) A8 for key generation (“secret”.jochenschiller. http://www.-Ing.29 Prof. Jochen Schiller. open interface) MC SS05 4.Security in GSM Security services q access control/authentication user ó SIM (Subscriber Identity Module): secret PIN (personal identification number) l SIM ó network: challenge response method l q confidentiality l voice and signaling encrypted on the wireless link (after successful authentication) “secret”: • A3 and A8 available via the Internet • network providers can use stronger mechanisms q anonymity l temporary identity TMSI (Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity) l newly assigned at each new location update (LUP) l encrypted transmission 3 algorithms specified in GSM q q q A3 for authentication (“secret”.

de/ MC SS05 4.-Ing.Data services in GSM II GSM Data transmission standardized with only 9.30 . http://www.4 kbit/s not enough for Internet and multimedia applications packet switching using free slots only if data packets ready to send (e.6 kbit/s q q advanced coding allows 14. Jochen Schiller. 50 kbit/s using 4 slots temporarily) standardization 1998.jochenschiller. Dr. more flexible disadvantage: more investment needed (new hardware) GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) q q q q q Prof..g. introduction 2001 advantage: one step towards UMTS.

de/ MC SS05 4.jochenschiller.Example 3G Networks: Japan FOMA (Freedom Of Mobile multimedia Access) in Japan Examples for FOMA phones Prof. Jochen Schiller. Dr.-Ing. http://www.31 .

Jochen Schiller.32 .-Ing.jochenschiller.Example 3G networks: Australia cdma2000 1xEV-DO in Melbourne/Australia Examples for 1xEV-DO devices Prof. Dr. MC SS05 4.

http://www.33 . Dr.Isle of Man – Start of UMTS in Europe as Test MC SS05 4.-Ing.jochenschiller. Jochen Schiller.

-Ing. Jochen MC SS05 4.34 .jochenschiller. Dr.UMTS in Monaco Prof. http://www.

UMTS in Europe Orange/UK Vodafone/Germany Prof. Jochen Schiller.jochenschiller. MC SS05 4.-Ing. http://www.35 .

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