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Conceptual Problems

1 • True or false: (a) For a simple harmonic oscillator, the period is proportional to the square of the amplitude. (b) For a simple harmonic oscillator, the frequency does not depend on the amplitude. (c) If the net force on a particle undergoing one-dimensional motion is proportional to, and oppositely directed from, the displacement from equilibrium, the motion is simple harmonic. (a) False. In simple harmonic motion, the period is independent of the amplitude. (b) True. In simple harmonic motion, the frequency is the reciprocal of the period which, in turn, is independent of the amplitude. (c) True. This is the condition for simple harmonic motion 2 • If the amplitude of a simple harmonic oscillator is tripled, by what factor is the energy changed? Determine the Concept The energy of a simple harmonic oscillator varies as the square of the amplitude of its motion. Hence, tripling the amplitude increases the energy by a factor of 9. 3 •• [SSM] An object attached to a spring exhibits simple harmonic motion with an amplitude of 4.0 cm. When the object is 2.0 cm from the equilibrium position, what percentage of its total mechanical energy is in the form of potential energy? (a) One-quarter. (b) One-third. (c) One-half. (d) Two-thirds. (e) Three-quarters. Picture the Problem The total energy of an object undergoing simple harmonic 2 motion is given by Etot = 1 2 kA , where k is the force constant and A is the

amplitude of the motion. The potential energy of the oscillator when it is a 2 distance x from its equilibrium position is U ( x ) = 1 2 kx .

Express the ratio of the potential energy of the object when it is 2.0 cm from the equilibrium position to its total energy:

2 U (x ) 1 x2 2 kx = 1 = 2 Etot A2 2 kA

1435

**1436 Chapter 14 Evaluate this ratio for x = 2.0 cm and A = 4.0 cm:
**

1 U (2 cm ) (2.0 cm ) = = 2 E tot (4.0 cm ) 4

2

and (a ) is correct.

4 • An object attached to a spring exhibits simple harmonic motion with an amplitude of 10.0 cm. How far from equilibrium will the object be when the system’s potential energy is equal to its kinetic energy? (a) 5.00 cm. (b) 7.07 cm. (c) 9.00 cm. (d) The distance can’t be determined from the data given. Determine the Concept Because the object’s total energy is the sum of its kinetic and potential energies, when its potential energy equals its kinetic energy, its potential energy (and its kinetic energy) equals one-half its total energy.

Equate the object’s potential energy to one-half its total energy: Substituting for Us and Etotal yields:

Us = 1 2 E total

1 2

kx 2 =

1 1 2 2

(

kA2 ⇒ x =

)

A 2

Substitute the numerical value of A and evaluate x to obtain:

x=

and

10.0 cm = 7.07 cm 2

(b )

is correct.

5 • Two identical systems each consist of a spring with one end attached to a block and the other end attached to a wall. The springs are horizontal, and the blocks are supported from below by a frictionless horizontal table. The blocks are oscillating in simple harmonic motions such that the amplitude of the motion of block A is four times as large as the amplitude of the motion of block B. How do their maximum speeds compare? (a) v A max = vB max , (b) v A max = 2vB max , (c) v A max = 4vB max , (d) This comparison cannot be done by using the data given. Determine the Concept The maximum speed of a simple harmonic oscillator is the product of its angular frequency and its amplitude. The angular frequency of a simple harmonic oscillator is the square root of the quotient of the force constant of the spring and the mass of the oscillator.

Relate the maximum speed of system A to the amplitude of its motion: Relate the maximum speed of system B to the amplitude of its motion:

vA max = ω A AA vB max = ω B AB

Oscillations 1437 Divide the first of these equations by the second to obtain: Because the systems differ only in amplitude, ω A = ω B , and: Substituting for AA and simplifying yields:

vA max ω A AA = v B max ω B AB

vA max AA = vB max AB vA max 4 AB = = 4 ⇒ vA max = 4vB max vB max AB

(c )

is correct.

6 • Two systems each consist of a spring with one end attached to a block and the other end attached to a wall. The springs are horizontal, and the blocks are supported from below by a frictionless horizontal table. The blocks are oscillating in simple harmonic motions with equal amplitudes. However, the force constant of spring A is four times as large as the force constant of spring B. How do their maximum speeds compare? (a) v A max = vB max , (b) v A max = 2vB max , (c) v A max = 4vB max , (d) This comparison cannot be done by using the data given. Determine the Concept The maximum speed of a simple harmonic oscillator is the product of its angular frequency and its amplitude. The angular frequency of a simple harmonic oscillator is the square root of the quotient of the force constant of the spring and the mass of the oscillator.

Relate the maximum speed of system A to its force constant: Relate the maximum speed of system B to its force constant: Divide the first of these equations by the second and simplify to obtain:

vA max = ω A AA =

kA AA mA

vB max = ω B AB =

kA AA mA kB AB mB

kB AB mB

vA max = vB max

=

mB k A AA mA k B AB

Because the systems differ only in their force constants:

vA max k = A vB max kB

The blocks are . However. the mass of block A is four times as large as the mass of block B. 7 •• [SSM] Two systems each consist of a spring with one end attached to a block and the other end attached to a wall. and the blocks are supported from below by a frictionless horizontal table. How do their maximum speeds compare? (a) v A max = vB max . Determine the Concept The maximum speed of a simple harmonic oscillator is the product of its angular frequency and its amplitude. The angular frequency of a simple harmonic oscillator is the square root of the quotient of the force constant of the spring and the mass of the oscillator. and the blocks are supported from below by a frictionless horizontal table. (b) v A max = 2vB max .1438 Chapter 14 Substituting for kA and simplifying yields: vA max 4k B = = 2 ⇒ vA max = 2vB max vB max kB (b ) is correct. (d) This comparison cannot be done by using the data given. (c) v A max = 1 2 v B max . The identical springs are horizontal. Relate the maximum speed of system A to its force constant: Relate the maximum speed of system B to its force constant: Divide the first of these equations by the second and simplify to obtain: vA max = ω A AA = vB max = ω B AB = kA AA mA kB AB mB vA max = vB max kA AA mA kB AB mB = mB k A AA mA k B AB Because the systems differ only in the masses attached to the springs: Substituting for mA and simplifying yields: vA max mB = v B max mA vA max mB = = 1 ⇒ vA max = 1 2 v B max vB max 4mB 2 (c ) is correct. 8 •• Two systems each consist of a spring with one end attached to a block and the other end attached to a wall. The identical springs are horizontal. The blocks are oscillating in simple harmonic motions with equal amplitudes.

Relate the maximum acceleration of system A to its force constant: Relate the maximum acceleration of system B to its force constant: Divide the first of these equations by the second and simplify to obtain: 2 a A max = ω A AA = kA AA mA kB AB mB 2 a B max = ω B AB = a A max a . However. the period of a simple harmonic oscillator is given by T = 2π ω = 2π m k where m is the mass of the 2 oscillating system (spring plus object) and its total energy is given by E total = 1 2 kA .max kA AA mA m k A = = B A A kB mA k B AB AB mB Because the systems differ only in the masses attached to the springs: Substituting for mA and simplifying yields: a A max mB = aB max mA a A max m 1 = B =1 4 ⇒ a A max = 4 a B max aB max 4mB (d ) is correct. The angular frequency of a simple harmonic oscillator is the square root of the quotient of the force constant of the spring and the mass of the oscillator. the mass of block A is four times as large as the mass of block B. If you neglect the mass of the spring when it is not negligible. the mass of the spring in simple harmonic motion is usually neglected because its mass is usually much smaller than the mass of the object attached to it. how will your calculation of the system’s period. 1 (c) a A max = 1 2 a B max . frequency and total energy compare to the actual values of these parameters? Explain. How do the magnitudes of their maximum acceleration compare? (a) a A max = aB max . (d) a A max = 4 a B max . this is not always the case.Oscillations 1439 oscillating in simple harmonic motions with equal amplitudes. However. Determine the Concept The maximum acceleration of a simple harmonic oscillator is the product of the square of its angular frequency and its amplitude. Determine the Concept Neglecting the mass of the spring. (b) a A max = 2aB max . . 9 •• [SSM] In general physics courses. (e) This comparison cannot be done by using the data given.

neglecting the mass of the spring will result in your using a value for the mass of the oscillating system that is smaller than its actual value. ignoring the mass of the spring will cause your calculation of the system’s kinetic energy to be too small and. (b) mA = mB 2 . your calculation of the total energy to be too small. 10 •• Two mass–spring systems oscillate with periods TA and TB. Because the total energy of the oscillating system is the sum of its potential and kinetic energies.1440 Chapter 14 Neglecting the mass of the spring results in your using a value for the mass of the oscillating system that is smaller than its actual value. Because ω = k m . Hence your calculated value for the period will be smaller than the actual period of the system. Dividing one of the equations by the other will allow us to express mA in terms of mB. Hence your calculated value for the frequency of the system will be larger than the actual frequency of the system. (c) mA = mB/2. it follows that the systems’ masses are related by (a) mA = 4mB. hence. Picture the Problem We can use T = 2π m k to express the periods of the two mass-spring systems in terms of their force constants. Express the period of system A: TA = 2π 2 mA k TA ⇒ mA = A 2 4π kA Relate the mass of system B to its period: Divide the first of these equations by the second and simplify to obtain: mB = k BTB2 4π 2 2 k ATA 2 k T2 mA = 4π 2 = A A mB k BTB k BTB2 4π 2 2 Because the force constants of the two systems are the same: 2 ⎛ TA ⎞ mA TA ⎟ = 2 =⎜ ⎟ mB TB ⎜ ⎝ TB ⎠ . If TA = 2TB and the systems’ springs have identical force constants. (d) mA = mB/4.

substituting for mA. (c) mA = mB 2 . 2 2 12 •• Two mass–spring systems A and B oscillate so that their total mechanical energies are equal. and expressing AA in terms of AB. If mA = 2mB. . (d) mA = mB 4 . (d) Not enough information is given to determine the ratio of the amplitudes. (b) mA = mB 2 . fA = 1 2π 1 2π k mA k mB Express the frequency of mass-spring system A as a function of its mass: Express the frequency of massspring system B as a function of its mass: Divide the second of these equations by the first to obtain: Solve for mA: fB = fB mA = fA mB ⎛ fB ⎞ ⎛ fB ⎞ 1 mA = ⎜ ⎜f ⎟ ⎟ mB = ⎜ ⎜2f ⎟ ⎟ mB = 4 mB ⎝ A⎠ ⎝ B⎠ (d ) is correct. Picture the Problem We can use f = 1 k to express the frequencies of the 2π m two mass-spring systems in terms of their masses. which expression best relates their amplitudes? (a) AA = AB/4. 11 •• Two mass–spring systems oscillate at frequencies fA and fB.Oscillations 1441 Substituting for TA and simplifying yields: 2 mA ⎛ 2TB ⎞ ⎟ =⎜ ⎟ = 4 ⇒ m A = 4 mB mB ⎜ ⎝ TB ⎠ (a ) is correct. it follows that the systems’ masses are related by (a) mA = 4mB. If fA = 2fB and the systems’ springs have identical force constants. (b) AA = AB 2 . (c) AA = AB. Picture the Problem We can relate the energies of the two mass-spring systems 2 2 2 or E = 1 through either E = 1 2 mω A and investigate the relationship between 2 kA their amplitudes by equating the expressions. Dividing one of the equations by the other will allow us to express mA in terms of mB.

we cannot simplify this expression further. then which expression best relates their amplitudes? (a) AA = AB/4. are related. because the energies are equal. 2 Express the energy of mass-spring system A in terms of the amplitude of its motion: Express the energy of mass-spring system B in terms of the amplitude of its motion: Because the energies of the two systems are equal we can equate them to obtain: 2 EA = 1 2 k A AA EB = 1 k A2 2 B B 1 2 2 kA AA =1 k A2 ⇒ AA = 2 B B kB AB kA . (d) Not enough information is given to determine the ratio of the amplitudes.1442 Chapter 14 Express the energy of mass-spring system A: Express the energy of mass-spring system B: Divide the first of these equations by the second to obtain: Substitute for mA and simplify: Solve for AA: 2 2 2 1 EA = 1 2 k A AA = 2 mA ω A AA 2 2 2 1 EB = 1 2 k B AB = 2 mBω B AB 2 2 1 mA ω A AA EA =1= 2 2 2 1 EB 2 mBω B AB 2 2 2 2 2mBω A AA 2ω A AA = 2 2 2 2 ω B AB mBω B AB 1= AA = ωB AB 2ωA Without knowing how ωA and ωB. equate them and solve for AA. If the force constant of spring A is two times the force constant of spring B. (b) AA = AB 2 . (d ) is correct. (c) AA = AB. Picture the Problem We can express the energy of each system using E=1 kA2 and. 13 •• [SSM] Two mass–spring systems A and B oscillate so that their total mechanical energies are equal. or kA and kB.

How does this affect a clock operated by a simple pendulum? Determine the Concept The period of a simple pendulum depends on the square root of the length of the pendulum. The period will be (match left and right columns) 1. The period will be less than T0 when the train goes over the crest of a hill of radius of curvature R with constant speed. The train moves horizontally at constant velocity. less than T0 when 3. The train climbs a hill at constant speed. hence. D. The train rounds a curve at constant speed. equal to T0 when A. 15 •• A lamp hanging from the ceiling of the club car in a train oscillates with period T0 when the train is at rest. 1-B. 3-A. the clock will run slow. The period will be greater than T0 when the train rounds a curve of radius R with speed v. Determine the Concept The period of the lamp varies inversely with the square root of the effective value of the local gravitational field. greater than T0 when 2. B. 2-D. 14 •• The length of the string or wire supporting a pendulum bob increases slightly when the temperature of the string or wire is raised. C. The period will be equal to T0 when the train moves horizontally with constant velocity.Oscillations 1443 Substitute for kA and simplify to obtain: AA = kB A AB = B 2k B 2 (b) is correct. Increasing the length of the pendulum will lengthen its period and. . The train goes over the crest of a hill at constant speed.

the length of pendulum B is given by: fA = 1 2π g g ⇒ LA = 2 LA 4π 2 f A g LB = 4π 2 f B2 . (c) LA = 4LB whatever the ratio mA/mB. (d) LA = 3LB regardless of the ratio mA/mB.1444 Chapter 14 16 •• Two simple pendulums are related as follows. (d) LA = 2 LB whatever the ratio mA/mB. Pendulum A has a length LA and a bob of mass mA. 2 17 •• [SSM] Two simple pendulums are related as follows. (b) LA = 4LB and mA = mB. Pendulum A has a length LA and a bob of mass mA. If the frequency of A is one-third that of B. (c) LA = 9LB regardless of the ratio mA/mB. then (a) LA = 3LB and mA = 3mB. pendulum B has a length LB and a bob of mass mB. Picture the Problem The period of a simple pendulum is independent of the mass of its bob and is given by T = 2π L g . (b) LA = 9LB and mA = mB. If the period of A is twice that of B. pendulum B has a length LB and a bob of mass mB. 2π Express the frequency of pendulum A: Similarly. then (a) LA = 2LB and mA = 2mB. Picture the Problem The frequency of a simple pendulum is independent of the 1 mass of its bob and is given by f = g L. Express the period of pendulum A: TA = 2π LA g LB g 2 Express the period of pendulum B: TB = 2π Divide the first of these equations by the second and solve for LA/LB: Substitute for TA and solve for LB to obtain: LA ⎛ TA ⎞ =⎜ ⎟ ⎟ LB ⎜ ⎝ TB ⎠ ⎛ 2TB ⎞ LA = ⎜ ⎟ LB = 4 LB ⎜T ⎟ ⎝ B ⎠ (c ) is correct.

(b) LA = 2LB and mA = mB. undriven oscillator decreases exponentially with time. the period is independent of the amplitude. 2 19 •• True or false: (a) The mechanical energy of a damped. Picture the Problem The period of a simple pendulum is independent of the mass of its bob and is given by T = 2π L g . then (a) LA = LB and mA = mB. (d) LA = 1 2 LB whatever the ratio mA/mB.Oscillations 1445 Divide the first of these equations by the second and simplify to obtain: g 2 LA 4π 2 f A f 2 ⎛ fB ⎞ ⎟ = = B2 = ⎜ ⎟ g LB fA ⎜ f A ⎝ ⎠ 2 2 4π f B 2 Substitute for fA to obtain: LA ⎛ f B ⎞ =⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎟ = 9 ⇒ LA = 9 LB LB ⎜ ⎝ 3 fB ⎠ (c ) is correct. They have the same period. (b) Resonance for a damped. The only thing different between their motions is that the amplitude of A’s motion is twice that of B’s motion. . Pendulum A has a length LA and a bob of mass mA. Express the period of pendulum A: TA = 2π LA g LB g 2 Express the period of pendulum B: TB = 2π Divide the first of these equations by the second and solve for LA/LB: Because their periods are the same: LA ⎛ TA ⎞ =⎜ ⎟ ⎟ LB ⎜ ⎝ TB ⎠ LA ⎛ TB ⎞ =⎜ ⎟ ⎟ = 1 ⇒ LA = LB LB ⎜ ⎝ TB ⎠ (c ) is correct. 2 18 •• Two simple pendulums are related as follows. For small amplitudes. driven oscillator occurs when the driving frequency exactly equals the natural frequency. pendulum B has a length LB a bob of mass mB. (c) LA = LB whatever the ratio mA/mB.

(b) τ A = 2τ B . Express the decay time of System A: τA = τB = mA bA mB bB The decay time for System B is given by: Dividing the first of these equations by the second and simplifying yields: mA τ A bA mA bB = = τ B mB mB bA bB . Because the energy of an oscillator is proportional to the square of its amplitude. How do their decay times compare? (a) τ A = 4τ B . (d) The decay time τ for a spring-mass oscillator with linear damping is independent of its mass. However. 20 •• Two damped spring-mass oscillating systems have identical spring and damping constants. (d) Their decay times cannot be compared. (d) False.1446 Chapter 14 (c) If the Q factor of a damped oscillator is high. where ω0 is the natural frequency of the oscillator. so does its energy. system A’s mass mA is four times system B’s. given the information provided. the narrower the resonance curve. undriven oscillator decreases exponentially with time. Hence. (a) True. The decay time for a damped but undriven spring-mass oscillator is directly proportional to its mass. From Δω ω 0 = 1 Q one can see that Q is independent of m. Picture the Problem The decay time τ of a damped oscillator is related to the mass m of the oscillator and the damping constant b for the motion according to τ = m b. (e) True. the larger Q is. The ratio of the width of a resonance curve to the resonant frequency equals the reciprocal of the Q factor ( Δω ω 0 = 1 Q ). then its resonance curve will be narrow. the resonant frequency ω′ is given by ω' = ω 0 ⎛ b ⎞ 1− ⎜ ⎜ 2mω ⎟ ⎟ . 0 ⎠ ⎝ 2 (c) True. (e) The Q factor for a driven spring-mass oscillator with linear damping is independent of its mass. (c) τ A = τ B . and the amplitude of a damped. (b) False. For a damped driven oscillator.

21 •• Two damped spring-mass oscillating systems have identical spring constants and decay times. (c) bA = bB . How do their damping constants. 22 •• Two damped. Assume both systems are very weakly damped. How do their resonant frequencies compare? . compare? (a) bA = 4bB . They are tweaked into oscillation and their decay times are measured to be the same. given the information provided. However. (b) bA = 2bB . Express the damping constant of System A: The damping constant for System B is given by: Dividing the first of these equations by the second and simplifying yields: bA = mA τA bB = mB τB bA τ A m τ = = A B bB mB mB τ A mA τB Because their decay times are the same: Substituting for mA yields: bA mA = bB mB bA 2mB = = 2 ⇒ bA = 2bB bB mB (b ) is correct. (e) Their decay times cannot be compared. However. system A’s mass mA is system B’s mass mB. driven spring-mass oscillating systems have identical driving forces as well as identical spring and damping constants.Oscillations 1447 Because their damping constants are the same: Substituting for mA yields: τ A mA = τ B mB τ A 4 mB = = 4 ⇒ τ A = 4τ B τ B mB (a ) is correct. (d) bA = 1 2 bB . the mass of system A is four times the mass of system B. Picture the Problem The decay time τ of a damped oscillator is related to the mass m of the oscillator and the damping constant b for the motion according to τ = m b. b.

How do their resonant frequencies compare? 1 (a) ω A = ω B . However. the resonant frequency of a springmass oscillator is the same as its natural frequency and is given by ω 0 = k m . . (e) Their resonant frequencies cannot be compared.1448 Chapter 14 1 (a) ω A = ω B . (b) ω A = 2ω B . 23 •• [SSM] Two damped. Assume they are both very weakly damped. and damping constants. the resonant frequency of a springmass oscillator is the same as its natural frequency and is given by ω0 = k m . driving forces. Picture the Problem For very weak damping. given the information provided. (d) ω A = 4 ω B . where m is the oscillator’s mass and k is the force constant of the spring. where m is the oscillator’s mass and k is the force constant of the spring. (c) ω A = 1 2 ω B . (e) Their resonant frequencies cannot be compared. (c) ω A = 1 2 ω B . (d) ω A = 4 ω B . given the information provided. Picture the Problem For very weak damping. Express the resonant frequency of System A: The resonant frequency of System B is given by: Dividing the first of these equations by the second and simplifying yields: ωA = kA mA kB mB kA mA kB mB ωB = ωA = ωB = k A mB k B mA Because their force constants are the same: Substituting for mA yields: ωA mB = ωB mA ωA mB 1 = =1 2 ⇒ ωA = 2 ωB ωB 4mB (c ) is correct. system A’s force constant kA is four times system B’s force constant kB. driven spring-mass oscillating systems have identical masses. (b) ω A = 2ω B .

(b) ω A = 2ω B . driven simple-pendulum systems have identical masses. (e) Their resonant frequencies cannot be compared. 1 (c) ω A = 1 2 ω B . However. 24 •• Two damped. and damping constants. system A’s length is four times system B’s length. where L is the length of the simple pendulum and g is the gravitational field. How do their resonant frequencies compare? (a) ω A = ω B . given the information provided. Assume they are both very weakly damped.Oscillations 1449 Express the resonant frequency of System A: The resonant frequency of System B is given by: Dividing the first of these equations by the second and simplifying yields: ωA = kA mA kB mB kA mA kB mB ωB = ωA = ωB = k A mB k B mA Because their masses are the same: ωA k = A ωB kB 4k B ωA = = 2 ⇒ ω A = 2ω B kB ωB Substituting for kA yields: (b ) is correct. Picture the Problem For very weak damping. driving forces. Express the resonant frequency of System A: The resonant frequency of System B is given by: ωA = g LA g LB ωB = . the resonant frequency of a simple pendulum is the same as its natural frequency and is given by ω0 = g L . (d) ω A = 4 ω B .

presuming the desired motion of the pendulum is simple harmonic. Picture the Problem If the motion of the pendulum in a grandfather clock is to be simple harmonic motion. We can then use this value and an assumed value for the length of the pendulum to estimate the width of the grandfather clocks’ cabinet. then its period must be independent of the angular amplitude of its oscillations. 25 • [SSM] Estimate the width of a typical grandfather clocks’ cabinet relative to the width of the pendulum bob. The period of the motion for largeamplitude oscillations is given by Equation 14-30 and we can use this expression to obtain a maximum value for the amplitude of swinging pendulum in the clock. θ L w bob wamplitude w Referring to the diagram. we see that the minimum width of the cabinet is determined by the width of the bob and the width required to accommodate the swinging pendulum: w = wbob + wamplitude and wamplitude w = 1+ wbob wbob (1) .1450 Chapter 14 Dividing the first of these equations by the second and simplifying yields: g LA g LB ωA = ωB = LB LA Substituting for LA yields: ωA LB = = 1 ⇒ ωA = 1 2 ωB ωB 4 LB 2 (c ) Estimation and Approximation is correct.

the second term in the brackets must be small compared to the first term.5 m and that the width of the bob is about 10 cm.5 m )sin 7. The natural frequency of oscillations of this 1 MgD where M is the mass of the physical pendulum is given by f 0 = ω0 = 2π I pendulum.. Express the natural frequency of oscillation of the punching bag: f0 = 1 2π MgD I spindle (1) .5 times the radius of the sphere.25° w 2(1. Suppose that: Solving for θ yields: If we assume that the length of a grandfather clock’s pendulum is about 1. D is the distance from the point of support to the center of mass of the punching bag. then equation (2) yields: wamplitude = 2 L sin θ w 2 L sin θ = 1+ wbob wbob 1 1 ⎡ ⎤ T = T0 ⎢1 + 2 sin 2 θ + .10 m 26 • A small punching bag for boxing workouts is approximately the size and weight of a person’s head and is suspended from a very short rope or chain..0632 ) ≈ 7.25° = 1+ ≈ 5 wbob 0. Estimate the natural frequency of oscillations of such a punching bag. Picture the Problem For the purposes of this estimation.001 4 2 (2) θ ≤ 2 sin −1 (0. model the punching bag as a sphere of radius R and assume that the spindle about which it rotates to be 1.⎥ 2 ⎣ 2 ⎦ 1 21 sin θ ≤ 0. and I is its moment of inertia about an axis through the spindle from which it is supported and about which it swivels.Oscillations 1451 Express wamplitude in terms of the angular amplitude θ and the length of the pendulum L: Substituting for wamplitude in equation (1) yields: Equation 14-30 gives us the period of a simple pendulum as a function of its angular amplitude: If T is to be approximately equal to T0.

Picture the Problem The Q factor for this system is related to the decay constant τ through Q = ω0τ = 2πτ T and the amplitude of the child’s damped motion varies with time according to A = A0e − t 2τ . when your hands are empty.5 R = 2 R 2 I spindle = 5 MR 2 + M (2 R ) = 4.5 R + 0.4 MR 2 2π g 2 . Estimate the Q factor for this system.10 m ) 27 • For a child on a swing. (b) Now estimate the natural period of . Express Q as a function of τ : Q = ω 0τ = 2πτ T (1) The amplitude of the oscillations varies with time according to: The amplitude after eight periods is: Express and simplify the ratio A8/A: A = A0 e −t 2τ A8 = A0 e − (t +8T ) 2τ A8 A0e − (t +8T ) 2τ = = e − 4T τ −t 2τ A A0 e Set this ratio equal to 1/e and solve for τ : Substitute in equation (1) and evaluate Q: e −4T τ = e −1 ⇒ τ = 4T 2π (4T ) = 8π T Q= 28 •• (a) Estimate the natural period of oscillation for swinging your arms as you walk. We can set the ratio of two displacements separated by eight periods equal to 1/e to determine τ in terms of T.2(0.81 m/s 2 ≈ 1 Hz 2.4 MR 2 2 f0 = 1 2π 1 2π Mg (2 R ) 1 = 4.1452 Chapter 14 From the parallel-axis theorem we have: Substituting for Icm and h yields: Substitute for Ispindle in equation (1) to obtain: Assume that the radius of the punching bag is 10 cm. the amplitude drops by a factor of 1/e in about eight periods if no additional mechanical energy is given to the system. substitute numerical values and evaluate f0: I spindle = I cm + Mh 2 where h = 1.2 R f0 = 9.

80 m ) = 1 . (b) the period. T ' = 2π T' = 2π Assuming L′ = 1. these estimates seem reasonable. We can use the expression for the period of a physical pendulum to derive an expression for the period of the swinging arm. and D (= L/2) is the distance from the end of the stick to its center of mass. What are (a) the frequency.81 m/s 2 (c) From observation of people as they walk. T = 2π 2 I=1 3 ML Express the moment of inertia of a rod about an axis through its end: Substitute the values for I and D in the expression for T and simplify to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate T: (b) Express the period of a simple pendulum: ML2 2L = 2π T = 2π 1 Mg ( 2 L ) 3g 1 3 T = 2π 2(0. the mass is concentrated mostly at the end of the rod (that is.0 m = 2 . Simple Harmonic Motion 29 • The position of a particle is given by x = (7.Oscillations 1453 oscillation when you are carrying a heavy briefcase. M is the mass of the stick.0 m.81m/s 2 ) L' g where L′ is slightly longer than the arm length due to the size of the briefcase.5 s 3(9.0 cm) cos 6πt. pivoted at one end. in the briefcase). where t is in seconds. (c) Observe other people as they walk. (a) Express the period of a uniform rod pivoted at one end: I MgD where I is the moment of inertia of the stick about an axis through one end. evaluate the period of the simple pendulum: 1 . and that it can be treated as a uniform rod. Do your estimates seem reasonable? Picture the Problem Assume that an average length for an arm is about 80 cm. When carrying a heavy briefcase. and (c) the amplitude of the . so we can treat the arm-plus-briefcase system as a simple pendulum.0 s 9.

0833 s 2(6π ) Differentiate x to find v(t): v= d [(7.0 cm )cos 6π t ] dt = −(42π cm/s)sin 6π t Evaluate v(0.333 s f 3. (c) A.0833 s ) < 0 Because v < 0.0 cm cos ωt = 0 ⇒ ωt = π 2 ⇒t = π 2ω t= π = 0.0833 s ) = −(42π cm/s)sin 6π (0.00 Hz A = 7. (b) –A. The frequency of the motion is given by f = ω 2π and the period of the motion is the reciprocal of its frequency. (d) A/2? Picture the Problem The initial position of the oscillating particle is related to the amplitude and phase constant of the motion by x0 = A cos δ where 0 ≤ δ < 2π.1454 Chapter 14 particle’s motion? (d) What is the first time after t = 0 that the particle is at its equilibrium position? In what direction is it moving at that time? Picture the Problem The position of the particle is given by x = A cos(ωt + δ ) where A is the amplitude of the motion.0833 s): v(0.0 cm) cos 6π t to x = A cos(ω t + δ ) to conclude that: (d) Express the condition that must be satisfied when the particle is at its equilibrium position: Substituting for ω yields: ω 6π s −1 f = = = 3.00 Hz 2π 2π T= 1 1 = = 0. (a) Use the definition of ω to determine f: (b) Evaluate the reciprocal of the frequency: (c) Compare x = (7. ω is the angular frequency.0833 s. . 30 • What is the phase constant δ in x = A cos(ωt + δ ) (Equation 14-4) if the position of the oscillating particle at time t = 0 is (a) 0. the particle is moving in the negative direction at t = 0. and δ is a phase constant.

Picture the Problem The position of the particle as a function of time is given by x = A cos(ωt + δ ) . The initial position and velocity give us x = A cos(ωt + δ ) v x = − Aω sin (ωt + δ ) two equations from which to determine the amplitude A and phase constantδ. and (c) the acceleration ax as a function of t.Oscillations 1455 (a) For x0 = 0: cos δ = 0 ⇒ δ = cos −1 (0 ) = π 3π . and acceleration of the particle as a function of t: Find the angular frequency of the particle’s motion: Relate the initial position and velocity to the amplitude and phase constant: Divide the equation for v0 by the equation for x0 to eliminate A: Solving for δ yields: (1) (2) (3) a x = − Aω 2 cos(ωt + δ ) 2π 4π −1 = s = 4. (b) the velocity vx as a function of t. Its velocity as a function of time is v x = − Aω sin (ωt + δ ) and its acceleration is a x = − Aω 2 cos(ωt + δ ) . velocity. 2 2 (b) For x0 = −A: (c) For x0 = A: (d) When x = A/2: − A = A cos δ ⇒ δ = cos −1 (− 1) = π A = A cos δ ⇒ δ = cos −1 (1) = 0 π A ⎛1⎞ = A cos δ ⇒ δ = cos −1 ⎜ ⎟ = 2 3 ⎝2⎠ 31 • [SSM] A particle of mass m begins at rest from x = +25 cm and oscillates about its equilibrium position at x = 0 with a period of 1.5 s. Write expressions for (a) the position x as a function of t.19 s −1 T 3 ω= x0 = A cos δ and v0 = −ωA sin δ v0 − ωA sin δ = = −ω tan δ x0 A cos δ δ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎜− v0 ⎞ 0 ⎞ −1 ⎛ ⎜ ⎟ tan = − ⎟=0 ⎜ xω⎟ ⎟ x ω ⎝ 0 ⎠ ⎝ 0 ⎠ ⎛ . (a) Express the position.

0 cm. (c) What is the first time that the particle is at x = 0 and moving to the right? Picture the Problem The maximum speed and maximum acceleration of the particle in are given by vmax = Aω and amax = Aω 2 .1456 Chapter 14 Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: ⎡⎛ 4π −1 ⎞ ⎤ x = (25 cm )cos ⎢⎜ s ⎟t⎥ ⎠ ⎦ ⎣⎝ 3 = (0.0 m/s )sin (4.2 s −1 t ( ) [( )] 32 •• Find (a) the maximum speed and (b) the maximum acceleration of the particle in Problem 31. the particle is moving to the left. and its velocity is given by v = − Aω sin (ωt + δ ) . .2 s −1 )t [ ] (b) Substitute in equation (2) to obtain: ⎛ 4π −1 ⎞ ⎡⎛ 4π −1 ⎞ ⎤ s ⎟ sin ⎢⎜ v x = −(25 cm )⎜ s ⎟t⎥ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎣⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎦ = − (1. ω = 6π s−1. 2 2 Evaluate v for ωt = π 2 : ⎛π ⎞ v = − Aω sin ⎜ ⎟ = − Aω ⎝2⎠ That is. and δ = 0.3 m/s (b) Express amax in terms of A and ω: amax = Aω 2 = (7.2 s −1 )t 2 [ ] (c) Substitute in equation (3) to obtain: ⎡⎛ 4π −1 ⎞ ⎤ ⎛ 4π −1 ⎞ s ⎟ cos ⎢⎜ a x = −(25 cm )⎜ s ⎟ t⎥ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎠ ⎦ ⎣⎝ 3 = − 4. The particle’s position is given by x = A cos(ωt + δ ) where A = 7.25 m )cos (4.4 m/s 2 cos 4.0 cm ) 6π s −1 ( ) 2 = 252π 2 cm/s 2 = 25 m/s 2 (c) When x = 0: cos ωt = 0 ⇒ ωt = cos −1 (0) = π 3π . (a) Express vmax in terms of A and ω: vmax = Aω = (7.0 cm )(6π s −1 ) = 42π cm/s = 1.

and acceleration of the particle as functions of t: Find the angular frequency of the particle’s motion: Relate the initial position and velocity to the amplitude and phase constant: Divide these equations to eliminate A: Solving for δ yields: x = A cos(ωt + δ ) v x = − Aω sin (ωt + δ ) (1) (2) (3) a x = − Aω 2 cos(ωt + δ ) 2π 4π −1 = s = 4. Its velocity as a function of time is given by v = − Aω sin (ωt + δ ) and its acceleration by a = − Aω 2 cos(ωt + δ ) .19 2 s = −0. (a) Express the position. the particle is moving to the right. t= 3π 3π = = 0. Picture the Problem The position of the particle as a function of time is given by x = A cos(ωt + δ ) .Oscillations 1457 3π : 2 ⎛ 3π ⎞ v = − Aω sin ⎜ ⎟ = Aω ⎝ 2 ⎠ That is.19 s −1 3 T ω= x0 = A cos δ and v0 = −ωA sin δ v0 − ωA sin δ = = −ω tan δ x0 A cos δ δ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎜− ⎛ ⎛ v0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ x0ω ⎠ Substitute numerical values and evaluate δ: δ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎜− 50 cm/s −1 ⎝ (25 cm ) 4.445 rad ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ .25 s 2ω 2(6π s −1 ) Evaluate v for ωt = Solve ωt = 3π for t to obtain: 2 33 •• Work Problem 33 with the particle initially at x = 25 cm and moving with velocity v0 = +50 cm/s. velocity. The initial position and velocity give us two equations from which to determine the amplitude A and phase constant δ.

2 s −1 t − 0.445⎥ a x = −(27.0 s and its amplitude is 12 cm.2 m/s )sin (4.2 s −1 )t − 0. (b) t = 2. Express the position of the particle as a function of t: Find the angular frequency of the particle’s motion: Relate the initial position of the particle to the amplitude and phase constant: Solve for δ: x = (12 cm ) cos(ωt + δ ) (1) ω= 2π 2π π = = s −1 T 8.0 s.45 2 ( ) [( ) ] 34 •• The period of a particle that is oscillating in simple harmonic motion is 8.7 cm )⎜ s ⎟ t − 0. Once we’ve determined these quantities.0 s.0 s to t = 2.7 cm cos δ cos(− 0.445⎥ = − (1. and (d) t = 1.7 cm )⎜ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎠ ⎣⎝ 3 ⎦ = − 4.0 s.0 s 4 x0 = A cos δ δ = cos −1 ⎜ π ⎛ x0 ⎞ −1 ⎛ 0 ⎞ ⎟ = cos ⎜ ⎟ = ⎝ A⎠ 2 ⎝ A⎠ .2 s −1 )t − 0.445 rad ) x= (0. We’re given the amplitude A of the motion and can use the initial position of the particle to determine the phase constant δ.1458 Chapter 14 Use either the x0 or v0 equation (x0 is used here) to find the amplitude: Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: A= x0 25 cm = = 27. Picture the Problem The position of the particle as a function of time is given by x = A cos(ωt + δ ) .0 s to t = 4. we can express the distance traveled Δx during any interval of time. (c) t = 0 to t = 1.0 s.9 m/s 2 cos 4. Find the distance it travels during the intervals (a) t = 0 to t = 2.45 ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎣⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎦ [ ] (c) Substitute numerical values in equation (3) to obtain: ⎡⎛ 4π −1 ⎞ ⎤ ⎛ 4π −1 ⎞ s ⎟ cos ⎢⎜ s ⎟ t − 0.28 m )cos[(4. At t = 0 it is at its equilibrium position.45] (b) Substitute numerical values in equation (2) to obtain: ⎤ ⎛ 4π −1 ⎞ ⎡⎛ 4π −1 ⎞ s ⎟ sin ⎢⎜ v x = −(27.

second. Picture the Problem The position of the particle as a function of time is given by x = (10 cm ) cos(ωt + δ ) .0 s.Oscillations 1459 Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: ⎡⎛ π ⎞ π ⎤ x = (12 cm ) cos ⎢⎜ s −1 ⎟ t + ⎥ 2⎦ ⎣⎝ 4 ⎠ Express the distance the particle travels in terms of tf and ti: ⎡⎛ π ⎞ ⎡⎛ π ⎞ π⎤ π⎤ Δx = (12 cm ) cos ⎢⎜ s −1 ⎟ tf + ⎥ − (12 cm )cos ⎢⎜ s −1 ⎟ ti + ⎥ 2⎦ 2⎦ ⎣⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎣⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎧ ⎡⎛ π ⎞ ⎡⎛ π ⎞ π⎤ π ⎤⎫ = (12 cm )⎨cos ⎢⎜ s −1 ⎟ tf + ⎥ − cos ⎢⎜ s −1 ⎟ ti + ⎥ ⎬ 2⎦ 2 ⎦⎭ ⎣⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎩ ⎣⎝ 4 ⎠ (a) Evaluate Δx for tf = 2.0 s.0 s ) + ⎥ − cos ⎢⎜ s −1 ⎟ (1. and fourth second after t = 0. ti = 1. We can determine the angular frequency ω from the . third. the particle is at rest at x = A = 10 cm.0 s ) + ⎥ ⎬ = 12 cm 2⎦ 2 ⎦⎭ ⎣⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎩ ⎣⎝ 4 ⎠ (c) Evaluate Δx for tf = 1. (b) Find the distance traveled in the first.0 s.0 s ) + ⎥ − cos ⎢⎜ s −1 ⎟ (0) + ⎥ ⎬ 2⎦ 2 ⎦⎭ ⎣⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎩ ⎣⎝ 4 ⎠ = (12 cm ){− 0.0 s. (a) Sketch x as a function of t.0 s ) + ⎥ − cos ⎢⎜ s −1 ⎟ (2.0 s: ⎧ ⎡⎛ π ⎡⎛ π π⎤ π ⎤⎫ ⎞ ⎞ Δx = (12 cm )⎨cos ⎢⎜ s −1 ⎟ (4.5 cm 2⎦ 2 ⎦⎭ ⎣⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎩ ⎣⎝ 4 ⎠ 35 •• The period of a particle oscillating in simple harmonic motion is 8. At t = 0.7071 − 0} = 8.5 cm (d) Evaluate Δx for tf = 2.0 s: ⎧ ⎡⎛ π ⎡⎛ π π⎤ π ⎤⎫ ⎞ ⎞ Δx = (12 cm )⎨cos ⎢⎜ s −1 ⎟ (2.0 s ) + ⎥ − cos ⎢⎜ s −1 ⎟ (0) + ⎥ ⎬ = 12 cm 2⎦ 2 ⎦⎭ ⎣⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎩ ⎣⎝ 4 ⎠ (b) Evaluate Δx for tf = 4.0 s ) + ⎥ ⎬ = 3. ti = 0 s: ⎧ ⎡⎛ π ⎡⎛ π π⎤ π ⎤⎫ ⎞ ⎞ Δx = (12 cm )⎨cos ⎢⎜ s −1 ⎟ (2. ti = 0: ⎧ ⎡⎛ π ⎞ ⎡⎛ π ⎞ π⎤ π ⎤⎫ Δx = (12 cm )⎨cos ⎢⎜ s −1 ⎟ (1.0 s. ti = 2.

we can express the distance traveled Δx during any interval of time.1460 Chapter 14 period of the motion and the phase constant δ from the initial position and velocity.0 s 4 ⎛ 0 ⎞ v0 ⎞ ⎟ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎟=0 ⎜− x ω ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ 0 ⎠ ⎝ x0ω ⎠ ⎛ δ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎜− ⎡⎛ π ⎞ ⎤ x = (10 cm ) cos ⎢⎜ s −1 ⎟ t ⎥ ⎣⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎦ ⎡⎛ π ⎞ ⎤ (a) A graph of x = (10 cm ) cos ⎢⎜ s −1 ⎟ t ⎥ follows: ⎣⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎦ 10 8 6 4 2 x (cm) 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 t (s) (b) Express the distance the particle travels in terms of tf and ti: ⎡⎛ π ⎡⎛ π ⎞ ⎤ ⎞ ⎤ Δx = (10 cm ) cos ⎢⎜ s −1 ⎟ t f ⎥ − (10 cm ) cos ⎢⎜ s −1 ⎟ ti ⎥ ⎣⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎦ ⎣⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎦ ⎧ ⎡⎛ π ⎡⎛ π ⎞ ⎤ ⎞ ⎤⎫ = (10 cm )⎨cos ⎢⎜ s −1 ⎟ t f ⎥ − cos ⎢⎜ s −1 ⎟ ti ⎥ ⎬ ⎣⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎦ ⎭ ⎩ ⎣⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎦ (2) . Express the position of the particle as a function of t: Find the angular frequency of the particle’s motion: Find the phase constant of the motion: Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: x = (10 cm ) cos(ωt + δ ) (1) ω= 2π 2π π −1 = = s T 8. Once we’ve determined these quantities.

Express the maximum acceleration of an oscillator: Express the relationship between the angular frequency and the frequency of the vibrations: Substitute for ω to obtain: amax = Aω 2 ω = 2πf amax = 4π 2 Af 2 ⇒ f = 1 2π amax A Substitute numerical values and evaluate f: f = 1 98. To make sure that your company’s products meet this specification. The velocity is the time derivative of the position and the acceleration is the time derivative of the velocity.5 cm.1 m/s 2 = 13 Hz 2π 1. where A = 2. what should you adjust the frequency to in order to test for compliance with the 10g military specification? Picture the Problem We can use the expression for the maximum acceleration of an oscillator to relate the 10g military specification to the compliance frequency.5 × 10 −2 m 37 •• [SSM] The position of a particle is given by x = 2. where x is in meters and t is in seconds. Picture the Problem The position of the particle is given by x = A cos ω t .1 m/s2).″ which can vibrate a device at controlled and adjustable frequencies and amplitudes.5 cos πt. If a device is placed on the table and made to oscillate at an amplitude of 1.1 2.9 36 •• Military specifications often call for electronic devices to be able to withstand accelerations of up to 10g (10g = 98. (b) Find the speed and acceleration of the particle when x = 1.1 7. (a) Find the maximum speed and maximum acceleration of the particle. your manager has told you to use a ″shaking table.Oscillations 1461 Substitute numerical values in equation (2) and evaluate Δx in each of the given time intervals to obtain: tf ti (s) (s) 1 0 2 3 4 1 2 3 Δx (cm) 2.5 m and ω = π rad/s.9 7. .5 m.

5 m ) π s −1 = 7.5 m ) : x = A cos ω t ⇒ v = and a = dx = −ωA sin ω t dt dv = −ω 2 A cos ω t dt vmax = Aω = (2.5 m ) π s −1 = 25 m/s 2 ( ) 2 v2 x2 + = 1 ⇒ v = ω A2 − x 2 ω 2 A2 A2 v(1. (b) Relate Ac and As to the initial position and velocity of a particle undergoing simple harmonic motion. We can then evaluate x and dx/dt at t = 0 to relate Ac and As to the initial position and velocity of a particle undergoing simple harmonic motion.9 m/s ( ) amax = Aω 2 = (2. and determine As and Ac in terms of A0 and δ.3 m/s Substitute x for Acosωt in the equation for a to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate a: a = −ω 2 x a = −(π rad/s ) (1. Picture the Problem We can use the formula for the cosine of the sum of two angles to write x = A0 cos(ωt + δ) in the desired form.5 m ) 2 2 = 6.1462 Chapter 14 (a) The velocity is the time derivative of the position and the acceleration is the time derivative of the acceleration: The maximum value of sinωt is +1 and the minimum value of sinωt is −1.5 m ) = (π rad/s ) (2.5 m ) = − 15 m/s 2 2 38 ••• (a) Show that A0 cos(ωt + δ) can be written as As sin(ωt) + Ac cos(ωt).5 m ) − (1. A and ω are positive constants: The maximum value of cosωt is +1 and the minimum value of cosωt is −1: (b) Use the Pythagorean identity sin 2 ωt + cos 2 ωt = 1 to eliminate t from the equations for x and v: Substitute numerical values and evaluate v(1. (a) Apply the trigonometric identity cos(ωt + δ ) = cos ωt cos δ − sin ωt sin δ to obtain: x = A0 cos(ωt + δ ) = A0 [cos ωt cos δ − sin ωt sin δ ] = − A0 sin δ sin ωt + A0 cos δ cos ωt = As sin ωt + Ac cos ωt provided As = − A0 sin δ and Ac = A0 cos δ .

assuming that the particle is located on the +y-axis at time t = 0.32 Hz T 3. (a) Find the frequency and period of the x component of its position.1s 0. (a) Use the definition of speed to find the period of the motion: Because the frequency and the period are reciprocals of each other: (b) Express the x component of the position of the particle: The initial condition on the particle’s position is: Substitute in the expression for x to obtain: Substitute for A.0 s )t + ⎥ ⎣ 2⎦ .80 m/s v 1 1 = = 0. The frequency of the motion is the reciprocal of its period and the x-component of the particle’s position is given by x = A cos(ωt + δ ) .40 m ) = = 3. and δ in equation (1) to obtain: T= 2πr 2π (0. Picture the Problem We can find the period of the motion from the time required for the particle to travel completely around the circle.14 s f = x = A cos(ωt + δ ) = A cos(2πft + δ ) (1) x (0) = 0 0 = A cos δ ⇒ δ = cos −1 (0) = π 2 x= π⎤ −1 (40 cm )cos⎡ ⎢(2. (b) Write an expression for the x component of its position as a function of time t.14 = 3. ω. We can use the initial position of the particle to determine the phase constant δ.Oscillations 1463 (b) When t = 0: Evaluate dx/dt: x(0) = A0 cos δ = Ac v= dx d = [ As sin ωt + Ac cos ωt ] dt dt = Asω cos ωt − Acω sin ωt Evaluate v(0) to obtain: v(0) = ωAs = − ωA0 sin δ Simple Harmonic Motion as Related to Circular Motion 39 • [SSM] A particle moves at a constant speed of 80 cm/s in a circle of radius 40 cm centered at the origin.

0 s. assuming that the particle is on the −x axis at time t = 0. (a) Use the definition of speed to express and evaluate the speed of the particle: (b) The angular speed of the particle is: (c) Express the x component of the position of the particle: The initial condition on the particle’s position is: Substituting for x in equation (1) yields: Substitute for A. Find the system’s total mechanical energy. We can use the initial position of the particle to determine the phase constantδ.0 rev every 3.4-kg object on a frictionless horizontal surface is attached to one end of a horizontal spring of force constant k = 4.0 s T ω= 2π 2π 2π = = rad/s T 3 . .0 s 3 x = A cos(ωt + δ ) x(0 ) = − A (1) − A = A cos δ ⇒ δ = cos −1 (− 1) = π ⎛ ⎛ 2π −1 ⎞ ⎞ x = (15 cm )cos⎜ ⎜⎜ 3 s ⎟t + π ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎝⎝ ⎠ Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion 41 • A 2. The angular frequency of the motion is 2π times the reciprocal of its period and the x-component of the particle’s position is given by x = A cos(ωt + δ ) . (c) Write an equation for the x component of the position of the particle as a function of time t. Picture the Problem The total mechanical energy of the object is given by 2 Etot = 1 2 kA . (b) Find its angular speed ω. and δ in equation (1) to obtain: v= 2πr 2π (15 cm ) = = 31cm/s 3. Picture the Problem We can find the period of the motion from the time required for the particle to travel completely around the circle. where A is the amplitude of the object’s motion. The spring is stretched 10 cm from equilibrium and released.5 kN/m. The other end of the spring is held stationary.1464 Chapter 14 40 • A particle moves in a 15-cm-radius circle centered at the origin and completes 1. ω. (a) Find the speed of the particle.

Its total energy is also given by Etot = 1 position: Etot = 1 mvmax 2 kA . Express the total energy of the object in terms of its maximum kinetic energy: The maximum speed vmax of the oscillating object is given by: Substitute for vmax to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate E: 2 2 2 E=1 2 m(2πAf ) = 2mA π f 2 2 E=1 mvmax 2 vmax = Aω = 2πAf E = 2(3.4 s −1 2 ( ) 2 = 3 . We can 2 equate these expressions to obtain an expression for A.0 cm/s. (a) What is the system’s total mechanical energy? (b) What is the amplitude of the motion? Picture the Problem The total mechanical energy of the oscillating object can be expressed in terms of its kinetic energy as it passes through its equilibrium 2 2 .4 J 43 • [SSM] A 1.Oscillations 1465 The total mechanical energy of the system is given by: Substitute numerical values and evaluate Etot: 2 Etot = 1 2 kA E tot = 1 2 (4.50-kg object on a frictionless horizontal surface oscillates at the end of a spring of force constant k = 500 N/m. in turn. (a) Express the total mechanical energy of the object in terms of its maximum kinetic energy: 2 E=1 mvmax 2 .5 kN/m )(0. Picture the Problem The total energy of an oscillating object can be expressed in terms of its kinetic energy as it passes through its equilibrium position: 2 Etot = 1 2 mvmax .0-kg object on a frictionless horizontal surface oscillating with an amplitude of 10 cm and a frequency of 2. Its maximum speed.4 Hz at the end of a horizontal spring. can be expressed in terms of its angular frequency and the amplitude of its motion.10 m ) π 2 2. The object’s maximum speed is 70.10 m )2 = 23 J 42 • Find the total energy of a system consisting of a 3.0 kg )(0.

83 cm 500 N/m 44 • A 3. (a) Express the total mechanical energy of the object as a function of the amplitude of its motion: Substitute numerical values and evaluate A: (b) Express the total mechanical energy of the object in terms of its maximum speed: Substitute numerical values and evaluate vmax: Etot = 1 kA2 ⇒ A = 2 2 Etot k A= 2(0.368 J 2 Etot k (b) Express the total mechanical energy of the object in terms of the amplitude of its motion: Substitute numerical values and evaluate A: Etot = 1 kA2 ⇒ A = 2 A= 2(0.0-kg object on a frictionless horizontal surface is oscillating on the end of a spring that has a force constant equal to 2. (a) What is the amplitude of the motion? (b) What is the maximum speed? Picture the Problem The total mechanical energy of the oscillating object can be expressed in terms of its kinetic energy as it passes through its equilibrium 2 2 1 position: Etot = 1 2 mvmax .1466 Chapter 14 Substitute numerical values and evaluate E: E=1 1.0 kg 45 • An object on a frictionless horizontal surface oscillates at the end of a spring with an amplitude of 4.700 m/s ) = 0.90 J.3675 J ) = 3.0 cm 2000 N/m 2 Etot m 2 Etot = 1 mvmax ⇒ vmax = 2 v max = 2(0. Its total energy is also given by E tot = 2 kA .90 J ) = 77 cm/s 3.5 cm. What is the force constant of the spring? . We can solve the latter equation to find A and solve the former equation for vmax. Its total mechanical energy is 1.90 J ) = 3.3675 J 2( 2 = 0.0 kN/m and a total mechanical energy of 0.50 kg )(0.4 J.

ma mamax k = − max = −A A − kx = ma ⇒ k = − Substitute to obtain: E tot = E tot = E tot = 1 2 mamax 2 1 2 x + 2 mv A mamax 2 A +0= 1 2 ma max A A When x = A. − kx = ma.080 m ) = 0. E tot = 1 law 2 kx + 2 mv . Picture the Problem The total mechanical energy of the system is the sum of the nd 2 2 1 potential and kinetic energies. A and amax. Find the total mechanical energy. Substitute to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate Etot: 1 2 1 2 (3.0 kg )(3. That is.0 cm. We can solve this equation for the force constant k and substitute the numerical data to determine its value. Express the total mechanical energy of the oscillator as a function of the amplitude of its motion: Substitute numerical values and evaluate k: Etot = 1 kA2 ⇒ k = 2 2 Etot A2 k= 2(1. a = amax.045 m )2 A 3. Its maximum acceleration is 3. That is.5 m/s 2 )(0. The total mechanical energy is the sum of the potential and kinetic energies. Use these equations to solve Etot in terms of the given parameters m. Thus. v = 0. Newton’s 2 relates the acceleration to the displacement. In addition. when x = A.42 J .5 m/s2.0-kg object on a frictionless horizontal surface oscillates at the end 46 •• of a spring with an amplitude of 8. v = 0.4 J ) = 1. We don’t know k so we need an equation relating k to one or more of the given parameters: The force exerted by the spring equals the mass of the object multiplied by its acceleration: 2 2 1 E tot = 1 2 kx + 2 mv ma x When x = −A.Oscillations 1467 Picture the Problem The total mechanical energy of the object is given by 2 Etot = 1 2 kA .4 kN/m (0.

and (e) the maximum acceleration? (f) When does the object first reach its equilibrium position? What is its acceleration at this time? Picture the Problem The frequency of the object’s motion is given by 1 f = k m and its period is the reciprocal of f. (c) the amplitude.145 s = 0.4 kg = 6. (d) the maximum speed. What are (a) the frequency of the motion.10 m ) = 4.89 Hz 2. (b) the period.5 kN/m.89 s −1 A = 10 cm vmax = Aω = 2πfA vmax = 2π (6. respectively.4-kg object on a frictionless horizontal surface is attached to a 47 • horizontal spring that has a force constant 4.3 m/s amax = Aω 2 = ωvmax = 2πfvmax .9 Hz (b) The period of the motion to is the reciprocal of its frequency: (c) Because the object is released from rest after the spring to which it is attached is stretched 10 cm: (d) The object’s maximum speed is given by: Substitute numerical values and evaluate vmax: (e) The object’s maximum acceleration is given by: T= 1 1 = = 0. (a) The frequency of the motion is given by: Substitute numerical values and evaluate f: f = 1 2π k m f = 1 2π 4.33 m/s = 4.89 s −1 )(0. The spring is stretched 10 cm from equilibrium and released.5 kN/m = 6. The maximum velocity and 2π acceleration of an object executing simple harmonic motion are vmax = Aω and amax = Aω 2 .1468 Chapter 14 Simple Harmonic Motion and Springs A 2.15 s f 6.

What are (a) the frequency of the motion.00 cm from equilibrium and released.5310 s f 1.89 s −1 (4.00 cm . (d) the maximum speed. (a) The frequency of the motion is given by: Substitute numerical values and evaluate f: f = 1 2π 1 2π k m 700 N/m = 1.00-kg object on a frictionless horizontal surface is attached to one 48 • end of a horizontal spring that has a force constant k = 700 N/m.531s (c) Because the object is released from rest after the spring to which it is attached is stretched 8.145 s ) = 36 ms a= 0 A 5.00 cm: A = 8.883 Hz 5.33 m/s ) ( ) = 1. The spring is stretched 8.883 s −1 = 0.9 × 10 2 m/s 2 t=1 4T = 1 4 (0. the acceleration of the object is: a max = 2π 6. (c) the amplitude. The maximum speed and 2π acceleration of an object executing simple harmonic motion are vmax = Aω and amax = Aω 2 . (b) the period. and (e) the maximum acceleration? (f) When does the object first reach its equilibrium position? What is its acceleration at this time? Picture the Problem The frequency of the object’s motion is given by 1 f = k m and its period is the reciprocal of f. respectively.88 Hz (b) The period of the motion is the reciprocal of its frequency: T= 1 1 = = 0.00 kg f = = 1.Oscillations 1469 Substitute numerical values and evaluate amax: (f) The object first reaches its equilibrium when: Because the resultant force acting on the object as it passes through its equilibrium position is zero.

(a) Relate the angular frequency of the motion to the force constant of the spring: Substitute numerical values to obtain: ω2 = k ⇒ k = mω 2 = 4π 2 f 2 m m k = 4π 2 2.4 s −1 ( ) (3.9465 m/s = 0.0800 m ) = 0.1470 Chapter 14 (d) The object’s maximum speed is given by: Substitute numerical values and evaluate vmax: (e) The object’s maximum acceleration is given by: Substitute numerical values and evaluate amax: vmax = Aω = 2πfA vmax = 2π (1. oscillates with an amplitude of 10 cm and a frequency of 2.133 s Because the resultant force acting on the object as it passes through its equilibrium point is zero. (b) The period of the motion is the reciprocal of its frequency.4 Hz.947 m/s amax = Aω 2 = ω vmax = 2πfvmax a max = 2π (1. the acceleration of the object is a = 0.5310 s ) = 0.2 m/s 2 t=1 4T = 1 4 (f) The object first reaches its equilibrium when: (0. (c) and (d) The maximum speed and acceleration of an object executing simple harmonic motion are vmax = Aω and amax = Aω 2 . 49 • [SSM] A 3.883 s −1 )(0.883 s −1 )(0.0-kg object on a frictionless horizontal surface is attached to one end of a horizontal spring. (a) What is the force constant of the spring? (b) What is the period of the motion? (c) What is the maximum speed of the object? (d) What is the maximum acceleration of the object? Picture the Problem (a) The angular frequency of the motion is related to the force constant of the spring through ω 2 = k m .9465 m/s ) = 11.68 kN/m .0 kg ) = 682 N/m 2 = 0. respectively.

51m/s = 1.81m/s 2 ) (2485 kg )(2.4 s −1 ) (0.10 m ) = 23 m/s 2 2 An 85. k= f = 1 2π 1 2π mg MΔx Substitute for k in the expression for f to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate f: f = (85. causing it to sink 50 • 2.0 kg )(9. passenger system using f = 2π M The force constant of the spring can be determined from the compressing force and the amount of compression.4 s −1 vmax = Aω = 2πfA vmax = 2π (2.5 m/s amax = Aω 2 = 4π 2 f 2 A a max = 4π 2 (2. where M is the total mass of the system. If started into vertical oscillation.417 s = 0.601 Hz . Express the frequency of the carand-passenger system: The force constant is given by: f = 1 2π k M F mg = Δx Δx where m is the person’s mass. and assuming no damping.0-kg person steps into a car of mass 2400 kg.4 s −1 )(0.Oscillations 1471 (b) Relate the period of the motion to its frequency: (c) The maximum speed of the object is given by: Substitute numerical values and evaluate vmax: (d) The maximum acceleration of the object is given by: Substitute numerical values and evaluate amax: T= 1 1 = = 0.42 s f 2.35 cm on its springs.10 m ) = 1.35 ×10 −2 m ) = 0. at what frequency will the car and passenger vibrate on these springs? Picture the Problem We can find the frequency of vibration of the car-and1 k .

50-kg object with an amplitude of 3.80 ×10 −2 m = 4. (b) the frequency of the object.1472 Chapter 14 51 • A 4. When the object is pulled down 2.80 cm oscillates on a horizontal spring.80 ×10 −2 m amax A f = 1 2π 1 f = 2π 26. (a) Relate the angular frequency of the motion to the force constant and the mass of the oscillator: Relate the object’s maximum acceleration to its angular frequency and amplitude and solve for the square of the angular frequency: Substitute for ω 2 to obtain: ω2 = k ⇒ k = ω 2m m amax = Aω 2 ⇒ ω 2 = amax A (1) k= mamax A 3. (b) We can 1 k m.0 m/s 2 ) k= = 3.50 cm from equilibrium and released from rest.50 kg )(26. Picture the Problem (a) We can relate the force constant k to the maximum acceleration by eliminating ω2 between ω 2 = k m and amax = Aω 2 . Assume that friction is negligible. and (c) the period of the motion of the object. find the frequency f of the motion by substituting mamax/A for k in f = 2π (c) The period of the motion is the reciprocal of its frequency.50 Hz. the object oscillates at 5. (a) Find m. Find (a) the force constant of the spring.163 s −1 52 •• An object of mass m is suspended from a vertical spring of force constant 1800 N/m.08 kN/m Substitute numerical values and evaluate k: (b) Replace ω in equation (1) by 2πf and solve for f to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate f: ( 4. The object’s maximum acceleration is 26.0 m/s 2 = 4. (b) Find the amount the spring is stretched from its unstressed length when the object is in .163 Hz 3.16 Hz (c) The period of the motion is the reciprocal of its frequency: T= 1 1 = = 0.0 m/s2.240 s f 4.

81m/s 2 = 8. We can find the mass of the object using m = k ω 2 . We can apply a condition for translational equilibrium to the object when it is at its equilibrium position to determine the amount the spring has stretched from its natural length. and the acceleration ax as functions of time t. the velocity vx. (a) Express the angular frequency of the system in terms of the mass of the object fastened to the vertical spring and solve for the mass of the object: Express ω2 in terms of f: Substitute for ω 2 to obtain: ω2 = k k ⇒m= 2 m ω ω 2 = 4π 2 f 2 m= k 4π 2 f 2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate m: m= 4π 2 (5. we can use the initial conditions to determine A and δ and express x(t) and then differentiate this expression to obtain vx(t) and ax(t). Finally.50 s −1 ) 1800 N/m 2 = 1. apply ∑ Fy = 0 to the object when it is in equilibrium: Solve for m to obtain: kΔx − kg g = 0 ⇒ Δx = 2 2 4π 2 f 2 4π f 9. (c) Write expressions for the displacement x. Picture the Problem Choose a coordinate system in which upward is the +y direction.50 s −1 ) 2 x = A cos(ωt + δ ) .21mm kΔx − mg = 0 Substitute numerical values and evaluate Δx: (c) Express the position of the object as a function of time: Δx = 4π 2 (5.51kg (b) Letting Δx represent the amount the spring is stretched from its natural length when the object is in equilibrium.Oscillations 1473 equilibrium.507 kg = 1.

Express the period of the motion in terms of its angular frequency: Apply conservation of energy to the system: Substituting for Ug and Uspring yields: T= 2π ω (1) Ei = Ef ⇒ 0 = U g + U spring ( ) 0 = − mgΔx + 1 2 k Δx ⇒ ω = 2 k 2g = m Δx Substituting for ω in equation (1) yields: T= 2π Δx = 2π 2g 2g Δx Substitute numerical values and evaluate T: T = 2π 3.56 rad/s m 1.50 cm )cos[(34. the net external force acting on the system is zero.6 rad/s )t ] Differentiate v(t) to obtain ax: a x = 29.86 m/s 2 cos[(34.1474 Chapter 14 Use the initial conditions x0 = −2.56 rad/s )t ] = (86.50 cm )cos[(34. find the period of the resulting oscillatory motion.9 m/s 2 ( ( ) )cos[(34.42 cm before first coming to rest.6 rad/s)t ] 53 •• An object is hung on the end of a vertical spring and is released from rest with the spring unstressed.50 cm and v0 = 0 to find δ: Evaluate ω: δ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎜− v0 ⎞ −1 ⎟ ⎟ = tan (0 ) = π x ω 0 ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ ω= k 1800 N/m = = 34.4 cm/s)sin[(34.507 kg Substitute to obtain: x = (2.6 rad/s )t ] Differentiate x(t) to obtain vx: v x = (86.42 cm = 0.56 rad/s )t ] = 29. Then. Picture the Problem Let the system include the object and the spring.81 m/s 2 ( ) .262 s 2 9.56 rad/s )t + π ] = − (2.39 cm/s)sin[(34. If the object falls 3. Choose Ei = 0 and apply the conservation of mechanical energy to the system.

the spring oscillates with an amplitude of 12 cm.0 cm when the suitcase is in equilibrium. The force constant can be determined from the equilibrium of the system when . With the pebble on the block.0 cm. y kx k k kx x M Mg Express the frequency of the suitcase oscillator: Apply obtain: f = 1 2π k eff M (1) ∑F y = 0 to the suitcase to kx + kx − Mg = 0 or 2kx − Mg = 0 or k eff x − Mg = 0 ⇒ k eff = Mg x where keff = 2k Substitute for keff in equation (1) to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate f: f = 1 2π g x 1 f = 2π 9. If the suitcase is pulled down a little and released.050 m A 0. We can use 1 k eff to express the frequency f = 2π M of the suitcase in terms of the effective ″spring″ constant keff and apply the condition for translational equilibrium to the suitcase to find keff. When a small pebble of 55 •• mass 30 g is placed on the block. what will be its oscillation frequency? Picture the Problem The diagram shows the stretched bungee cords supporting the suitcase under equilibrium conditions.81 m/s 2 = 2.Oscillations 1475 54 •• A suitcase of mass 20 kg is hung from two bungee cords. Each cord is stretched 5. as shown in Figure 14-27. the spring stretches an additional 5. (a) What is the frequency of the motion? (b) How long does the block take to travel from its lowest point to its highest point? (c) What is the net force on the pebble when it is at the point of maximum upward displacement? Picture the Problem (a) The frequency of the motion of the stone and block depends on the force constant of the spring and the mass of the stone plus block.2 Hz 0.120-kg block is suspended from a spring.

If the stone is to remain in contact with the block. (c) When the block is at the point of maximum upward displacement.29 N 56 •• Referring to Problem 69.997 Hz = 1.1476 Chapter 14 the spring is stretched additionally by the addition of the stone to the mass. Apply ∑F y = 0 to the stone when it kΔy − mg = 0 ⇒ k = is at its equilibrium position: Substitute for k in equation (1) to obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate f: f = 1 2π 1 2π mg Δymtot mg Δy f = (0.81 m/s 2 ) (0. Picture the Problem We can use the maximum acceleration of the oscillator to express amax in terms of A.030 kg )(9.50 s 2 f 2 0. and m.030 kg ) 9. (a) Express the frequency of the motion in terms of k and mtot: f = 1 2π k mtot (1) where mtot is the total mass suspended from the spring. it is momentarily at rest and the net force acting on it is its weight. (b) The time required for the block to travel from its lowest point to its highest point is half its period.050 m )(0.81m/s 2 ( ) = 0.0 Hz (b) The time to travel from its lowest point to its highest point is one-half its period: (c) When the stone is at a point of maximum upward displacement: t=1 2T = 1 1 = = 0. . find the maximum amplitude of oscillation at which the pebble will remain in contact with the block. k can be determined from the equilibrium of the system when the spring is stretched additionally by the addition of the stone to the mass. k.997 s −1 ( ) Fnet = mg = (0.15 kg ) = 0. the block’s maximum downward acceleration must not exceed g.

it is given a sharp downward blow with a hammer so that its initial speed is 0.15 kg ⎞ Amax = ⎜ ⎜ 0. The unstressed length of the spring is 8.0 cm and the length of the spring when the object is in equilibrium is 5.050 m ) = 25 cm ⎝ ⎠ An object of mass 2. it will be three-fourths of the way through its cycle when it first reaches its maximum .Oscillations 1477 Express the maximum acceleration of the oscillator in terms of its angular frequency and amplitude of the motion: Relate ω2 to the force constant of the spring and the mass of the blockplus-stone: Substitute for ω2 to obtain: amax = Aω 2 ω2 = k mtot amax = A k mtot (1) Apply ∑F y = 0 to the stone when it is at its equilibrium position: mg Δy where Δy is the additional distance the spring stretched when the stone was placed on the block. When the object is resting at its equilibrium position. (a) To what maximum height above the floor does the object eventually rise? (b) How long does it take for the object to reach its maximum height for the first time? (c) Does the spring ever become unstressed? What minimum initial speed must be given to the object for the spring to be unstressed at some time? Picture the Problem (a) The maximum height above the floor to which the object rises is the sum of its initial distance from the floor and the amplitude of its motion. kΔy − mg = 0 ⇒ k = Substitute for k in equation (1) to obtain: Set amax = g and solve for Amax: ⎛ mg amax = A⎜ ⎜ Δym tot ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ Amax = m Δymtot g = tot Δy mg m Substitute numerical values and evaluate Amax: ⎛ 0.030 kg ⎟ ⎟(0. We can find the amplitude of its motion by relating it to the object’s maximum speed.0 cm. (b) Because the object initially travels downward.30 m/s.0 kg is attached to the top of a vertical spring that 57 •• is anchored to the floor.

030 m + 5.7 cm (b) The time required for the object to reach its maximum height the first time is three-fourths its period: Express the period of the motion of the oscillator: t=3 T 4 T = 2π m = 2π k m Δy = 2π mg g Δy Substitute for T in the expression for t to obtain: 3⎛ Δy ⎞ 3π ⎟= π t= ⎜ 2 4⎜ g ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 Δy g . (c) We can find the minimum initial speed the object would need to be given in order for the spring to become uncompressed by applying conservation of mechanical energy.30 m/s 2 = 6.0 cm g 0. because ω 2 = A = vmax m k k .0 cm (1) vmax = Aω or.81 m/s 2 h = 0. to the amplitude of its motion: Relate the maximum speed of the object to the angular frequency and amplitude of its motion and solve for the amplitude: h = A + 5.1478 Chapter 14 height.0 cm 9. the maximum height above the floor to which the object rises. m (2) mg Δy Apply ∑F y = 0 to the object when it kΔy − mg = 0 ⇒ k = is resting at its equilibrium position to obtain: Substitute for k in equation (2): A = vmax mΔy Δy = vmax mg g Substituting for A in equation (1) yields: Substitute numerical values and evaluate h: h = vmax Δy + 5. (a) Relate h.

0 mm . relate the elongation of the cable to the applied stress: Substitute numerical values and evaluate Δ : Y= F Mg stress F A = = ⇒Δ = strain Δ AY AY Δ = (950 kg )(9.0355 mm = 1.5 cm2 and a length of 2. because Kf = Ui = 0.81 m/s 2 (c) Because h < 8.81 m/s 2 (3. Young’s modulus for the cable is 150 GN/m2. (a) Using the definition of Young’s modulus.26 s 9. the minimum initial speed that must be given to the object for the spring to be uncompressed at some time is 77 cm/s ( ) 58 ••• A winch cable has a cross-sectional area of 1.5 m ) (1.Oscillations 1479 Substitute numerical values and evaluate t: t= 3π 2 0.5 m. (a) By what length does the cable stretch? (b) Treating the cable as a simple spring.030 m = 0. what is the oscillation frequency of the engine block at the end of the cable? Picture the Problem We can relate the elongation of the cable to the load on it using the definition of Young’s modulus and use the expression for the frequency of a spring-mass oscillator to find the oscillation frequency of the engine block at the end of the wire. 2 2 1 1 2 mvi − mgΔy + 2 k (Δy ) −1 2 k (L − y i ) = 0 2 2 2 1 2 mvi2 − mgΔy + 1 k (Δy ) − 1 k (Δy ) = 0 2 2 and 1 mvi2 − mgΔy = 0 ⇒ vi = 2 gΔy 2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate vi: vi = 2 9.0 cm. relate the height to which the object rises. Δy. A 950-kg engine block is hung from the end of the cable. Using conservation of energy and letting Ug be zero 5 cm above the floor.5 cm )(150 GN/m ) 2 2 = 1. to its initial kinetic energy: Because Δy = L − yi : ΔK + ΔU g + ΔU s = 0 or.81m/s 2 )(2.0 cm ) = 77 cm/s That is. the spring is never uncompressed.

f = 1 2π g g ⇒L = L 4π 2 f 2 L= 4π 2 (0. Picture the Problem The frequency of a simple pendulum depends on its length 1 g .1480 Chapter 14 (b) Express the oscillation frequency of the wire-engine block system: Express the effective ″spring″ constant of the cable: Substitute for keff to obtain: f = 1 2π k eff M k eff = F Mg = Δ Δ g Δ f = 1 2π Substitute numerical values and evaluate f: f = 1 9.0355 mm Simple Pendulum Systems 59 • [SSM] Find the length of a simple pendulum if its frequency for small amplitudes is 0. Express the period of a simple pendulum: Substitute numerical values and evaluate L: T = 2π L T 2g ⇒L = 4π 2 g L= (5.0 s )2 (9. and on the local gravitational field and is given by f = 2π L The frequency of a simple pendulum oscillating with small amplitude is given by: Substitute numerical values and evaluate L: 60 • is 5.75 Hz.81m/s 2 = 15 Hz 2π 1.0 s.2 m .75 s −1 ) 9.81m/s 2 ) = 4π 2 6.81 m/s 2 2 = 44 cm Find the length of a simple pendulum if its period for small amplitudes Picture the Problem We can determine the required length of the pendulum from the expression for the period of a simple pendulum.

81m/s 2 ) If the period of a 70. Express the period of a simple pendulum where the gravitational field is g: Substitute numerical values and evaluate g: T = 2π L 4π 2 L ⇒g = T2 g 4π 2 (0.Oscillations 1481 61 • What would be the period of the pendulum in Problem 60 if the pendulum were on the moon.68 s ) 63 • A simple pendulum set up in the stairwell of a 10-story building consists of a heavy weight suspended on a 34. Express the period of a simple pendulum: Substitute numerical values and evaluate T: T = 2π L g 3 4 . 6 Express the period of a simple pendulum on the moon: Substitute numerical values and evaluate T: T = 2π L g moon T = 2π 1 6 ( 6.0-m-long wire.21 m.68 s.0 m = 11.79 m/s 2 g= 2 (1.0-cm-long simple pendulum is 1.81m/s 2 T = 2π . where the acceleration due to gravity is one-sixth that on Earth? Picture the Problem We can find the period of the pendulum from T = 2π L g moon where g moon = 1 g and L = 6. What is the period of oscillation? Picture the Problem We can use T = 2π L g to find the period of this pendulum. what is the 62 • value of g at the location of the pendulum? Picture the Problem We can find the value of g at the location of the pendulum by solving the equation T = 2π L g for g and evaluating it for the given length and period.700 m ) = 9.7 s 9.21m = 12 s 9.

The path of the bob is quite complex in the reference frame of the ramp. Find the period of oscillation for small oscillations of this pendulum. for φ << 1: Substitute and simplify to obtain: E = U max displacement = mgh h = L − L cos φ0 = L(1 − cos φ0 ) E = mgL[1 − cos φ0 ] cos φ ≈ 1 − 1 φ2 2 2 E = mgL 1 − (1 − 1 2 φ0 ) = [ ] 1 2 mgLφ02 65 ••• [SSM] A simple pendulum of length L is attached to a massive cart that slides without friction down a plane inclined at angle θ with the horizontal. We can apply the definition of gravitational potential energy and use the small-angle approximation to show 2 that E ≈ 1 2 mgLφ0 .1482 Chapter 14 64 •• Show that the total energy of a simple pendulum undergoing 2 oscillations of small amplitude φ0 (in radians) is E ≈ 1 2 mgLφ 0 . as shown in Figure 14-28. so the motion of the cart is unaffected by the motion of the bob oscillating back and forth. This happens because the cart is much more massive than the bob. express h in terms of L and φ0: Substituting for h yields: From the power series expansion for cosφ. Then we transform to the reference frame . The total energy of the simple pendulum is equal to its initial gravitational potential energy. Hint: Use the 2 approximation cos φ ≈ 1 − 1 2 φ for small φ. θ0 L cos θ0 L m h 2 1 Ug = 0 Express the total energy of the simple pendulum at maximum displacement: Referring to the diagram. To solve this problem we first apply Newton’s second law (to the bob) in the inertial reference frame of the ramp. Picture the Problem The cart accelerates down the ramp with a constant acceleration of gsinθ. Picture the Problem The figure shows the simple pendulum at maximum angular displacement φ0. but in the reference frame moving with the cart the path of the bob is much simpler—in this frame the bob moves back and forth along a circular arc.

Draw the free-body diagram for the bob. relative to the cart. Let φ denote the angle that the string makes with the normal to the ramp. first draw the vector addition diagram representing the equation g eff = g − aCR . The forces on the bob are the tension force and the force of gravity: θ θ φ r T L m θ +φ r mg Apply Newton’s 2nd law to the bob. of an object in free fall. where geff is the acceleration. (If the tension force is set to zero the bob is in free fall.): To find the magnitude of geff . Recall that aCR = g sin θ: T + mg = ma BR a BR = a BC + a CR T + mg = m(a BC + a CR ) T + m( g − a CR ) = ma BC Label g − aCR as geff to obtain T + mg eff = ma BC (1) r g r geff geff g θ r − aCR β θ gsinθ .Oscillations 1483 moving with the cart in order to exploit the simplicity of the motion in that frame. labeling the acceleration of the bob relative to the ramp a BR : The acceleration of the bob relative to the ramp is equal to the acceleration of the bob relative to the cart plus the acceleration of the cart relative to the ramp: Substitute for a BR in T + mg = ma BR : Rearrange terms and label g − aCR as geff .

The positive tangential ″direction″ is counterclockwise. find the magnitude of geff . Use the law of cosines: 2 geff = g 2 + g 2 sin 2 θ − 2 g (g sin θ )cos β But cos β = sin θ . . first redraw the vector addition diagram as shown: ( ) δ gcosθ g β θ gsinθ From the diagram find the direction of geff . so 2 geff = g 2 + g 2 sin 2 θ − 2 g 2 sin 2 θ = g 2 1 − sin 2 θ = g 2 cos 2 θ Thus geff = g cos θ To find the direction of geff . Use the law of cosines again and solve for δ: To find an equation for the motion of the bob draw the ″free-body diagram″ for the ″forces″ that appear in equation (1). Draw the path of the bob in the reference frame moving with the cart: g 2 sin 2 θ = g 2 + g 2 cos 2 θ − 2 g 2 cos θ cos δ and so δ = θ θ θ φ r T L m θ φ r mgeff Take the tangential components of each vector in equation (1) in the frame of the cart yields.1484 Chapter 14 From the diagram. The tangential component of the acceleration is equal to the radius of the circle times the angular acceleration (at = rα ): d 2φ 0 − mg eff sin φ = mL 2 dt where L is the length of the string and d 2φ is the angular acceleration of the dt 2 bob.

0 m.20 rad and L = 1. (c) Show that your result from Part (b) agrees with the approximate answer in Part (a) when φ0 is small. T = 2π L g and T → 0. ω= The period of this motion is: T= 2π ω = 2π L geff (4) Substitute g cosθ for geff in equation (4) to obtain: T = 2π L = 2π geff L g cos θ Remarks: Note that. 66 ••• The bob at the end of a simple pendulum of length L is released from rest from an angle φ0. (d) Find the difference between the approximate and exact results for φ0 = 0. T → ∞.Oscillations 1485 Rearranging this equation yields: d 2φ mL 2 + mg eff sin φ = 0 dt (2) For small oscillations of the pendulum: Substituting for sin φ in equation (2) yields: φ << 1 and sin φ ≈ φ mL d 2φ + mg eff φ = 0 dt 2 or d 2φ g eff + φ =0 dt 2 L Equation (3) is the equation of motion for simple harmonic motion with angular frequency: (3) geff L where ω is the angular frequency of the oscillations (and not the angular speed of the bob). . find this speed exactly for any angle (not just small angles). (a) Model the pendulum’s motion as simple harmonic motion and find its speed as it passes through φ = 0 by using the small angle approximation. As θ → 90°. (b) Using the conservation of energy.0 m.20 rad and L = 1. in the limiting case θ = 0. (e) Find the difference between the approximate and exact results for φ0 = 1.

K 2 − U1 = 0 1 2 2 mv2 − mgh = 0 h = L(1 − cos φ0 ) 1 2 2 mv2 − mgL(1 − cos φ0 ) = 0 . (a) Relate the speed of the pendulum’s bob to its angular speed: The angular position of the pendulum as a function of time is given by: Differentiate this expression to express the angular speed of the pendulum: Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: Simplify vmax to obtain: v=L dφ dt Ug= 0 (1) φ = φ0 cos ωt dφ = −φ0ω sin ωt dt v = − Lφ0ω sin ωt = −vmax sin ωt vmax = Lφ0 g = φ0 gL L (b) Use conservation of energy to relate the potential energy of the pendulum at point 1 to its kinetic energy at point 2: Substitute for K2 and U1: Express h in terms of L and φ0: Substituting for h yields: ΔK + ΔU = 0 or. We can use conservation of energy to find an exact value for vmax and the approximation cos φ ≈ 1 − 1 φ 2 to show 2 φø0 Lcos φø0 L m h m 2 1 that this value reduces to the former value for small φ. We can express the angular position of the pendulum’s bob in terms of its initial angular position and time and differentiate this expression to find the maximum speed of the bob.1486 Chapter 14 Picture the Problem The figure shows the simple pendulum at maximum angular displacement φ0. because K1 = U2 = 0.

Oscillations 1487 Solve for v2 = vmax to obtain: (c) For φ0 << 1: Substitute in equation (2) to obtain: vmax = 2 gL(1 − cos φ0 ) (2) 1 − cos φ0 ≈ 1 φ2 2 0 2 vmax = 2 gL 1 2 φ 0 = φ 0 gL ( ) in agreement with our result in part (a). Find the period of the subsequent simple harmonic motion.0 m)(0.20 rad − 2(1 − cos(1. (d) Express the difference in the results from (a) and (b): Substitute for vmax. We can use the parallel-axis theorem to express I in terms of the moment of inertia of the disk about an axis through its center of mass and the distance from its center of mass to its pivot point. Picture the Problem The period of this physical pendulum is given by T = 2π I MgD where I is the moment of inertia of the thin disk about the fixed horizontal axis passing through its rim.2 m/s *Physical Pendulums 67 • [SSM] A thin 5.81 m/s )(1.b and simplify to obtain: Δv = vmax.0 m)(1. Express the period of a physical pendulum: T = 2π I MgD .20 rad ))) ≈ 2 1 mm/s (e) Evaluate equation (3) for φ0 = 1.a and vmax. The disk is displaced slightly from equilibrium and released.20 rad))) ≈ 2 0.a − vmax.20 rad − 2(1 − cos(0.20 rad and L = 1.b Δv = φ0 gL − 2 gL (1 − cos φ0 ) = gL φ0 − 2(1 − cos φ0 ) ( ) (3) Substitute numerical values and evaluate Δv: Δv = (9.0-kg disk with a 20-cm radius is free to rotate about a fixed horizontal axis perpendicular to the disk and passing through its rim.0 m: Δv = (9.81 m/s )(1.

What is the period of its oscillation. Find the moment of inertia I about an axis perpendicular to the plane of the figure through the pivot point. We can use the parallel-axis theorem to express I in terms of the moment of inertia of the hoop about an axis through its center of mass and the distance from its center of mass to its pivot point.81m/s 2 ( ) 68 • A circular hoop that has a 50-cm radius is hung on a narrow horizontal rod and allowed to swing in the plane of the hoop.0 s 9. When it is oscillating with small amplitude.20 m ) = 1.1s 2 9. Express the period of a physical pendulum: Using the parallel-axis theorem.50 m ) = 2 .0-kg plane figure is suspended at a point 10 cm from its center of 69 • mass.6 s. find the moment of inertia of the thin disk about an axis through the pivot point: Substituting for I and simplifying yields: Substitute numerical values and evaluate T: 2 2 I = I cm + MR 2 = 1 2 MR + MR 2 =3 2 MR T = 2π 3 2 MR 2 3R = 2π MgR 2g T = 2π 3(0.1488 Chapter 14 Using the parallel-axis theorem.81m/s 2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate T: T = 2π A 3. . assuming that the amplitude is small? Picture the Problem The period of this physical pendulum is given by T = 2π I MgD where I is the moment of inertia of the circular hoop about an axis through its pivot point. find the moment of inertia of the circular hoop about an axis through the pivot point: Substitute for I and simplify to obtain: T = 2π I MgD I = I cm + MR 2 = MR 2 + MR 2 = 2MR 2 T = 2π 2 MR 2 2R = 2π MgR g 2(0. the period of oscillation is 2.

T = 2π .Oscillations 1489 Picture the Problem The period of a physical pendulum is given by T = 2π I MgD where I is its moment of inertia about an axis through its pivot point. Will your design work? If not.81m/s 2 )(0. We can integrate the differential expression for the moment of inertia of this strip to determine the moment of inertia of the door. and is hinged at its top.0 s. of height h and width w. a a' h dm y dy w The period of the cat door is given by: I a − a' (1) mgD where D is the distance from the center of mass of the door to the axis of rotation.0 kg ) (9. The diagram also shows a differential strip of height dy and mass dm a distance y from the axis of rotation of the door.10 m )(2. To make sure the cat has enough time to get through it safely. Express the period of a physical pendulum: Substitute numerical values and evaluate I: T = 2π I MgDT 2 ⇒I = 4π 2 MgD 2 ( 3. explain qualitatively what you would do to make it meet your requirements. pivoted about an axis through a-a′. thick and 6. the door should have a natural period of at least 1. Picture the Problem The pictorial representation shows the cat door.0 in.0 in. We can use I a − a' T = 2π mgD to find the period of the door but first must find I a −a' .50 kg ⋅ m 2 70 •• You have designed a cat door that consists of a square piece of plywood that is 1.6 s ) I= 4π 2 = 0. on a side. We can solve this equation for I and evaluate it using the given numerical data.

dI a −a' = ρwt y 2 dy 3 I a − a' = ρwt ∫ y 2 dy = 1 3 ρwth 0 Integrating this expression between y = 0 and y = h yields: m m : = V wht h Because ρ = ⎛ m ⎞ 3 2 I a − a' = 1 ⎟ wth = 1 3⎜ 3 mh ⎝ wht ⎠ T = 2π mh 2 2h = 2π 1 mg ( 2 h ) 3g 1 3 Substituting for D and I a −a' in equation (1) yields: Substitute numerical values and evaluate T: 2.81 m/s ( ) Thus the door’s period is too short. and L its length. the period of the pendulum will be a minimum.0 in × ⎟ in ⎠ = 0. 71 •• You are given a meterstick and asked to drill a narrow hole through it so that. Where should you drill the hole? Picture the Problem Let x be the distance of the pivot from the center of the meter stick. about the axis a-a′. The only way to increase it is to increase the height of the door. because dm = ρdV = ρtdA = ρwtdy . Express the period of a physical pendulum: Express the moment of inertia of the meter stick about an axis through its center of mass: T = 2π I MgD (1) 1 I cm = 12 mL2 . m the mass of the meter stick.1490 Chapter 14 Express the moment of inertia. of the cat door: dI a −a' = y 2 dm or.540 cm ⎞ ⎛ 2⎜ 6.64 s ⎝ T = 2π 2 3 9. We’ll express the period of the meter stick as a function of the distance x and then differentiate this expression with respect to x to determine where the hole should be drilled to minimize the period. when the stick is pivoted about a horizontal axis through the hole.

(b) The period is a minimum when dT dx = 0 . To find I we use the parallel-axis theorem ( I = I cm + md 2 ). 72 •• Figure 14-29 shows a uniform disk of radius R = 0. we have substituted x for d. where.50 s? (b) What should be the distance d so that this physical pendulum will have the shortest possible period? What is this shortest possible period? Picture the Problem (a) Let m represent the mass and R the radius of the uniform disk.00 kg.9 cm = 21. express the moment of inertia of the meter stick about an axis through the pivot point: Substitute in equation (1) and simplify to obtain: I = I cm + mx 2 1 = 12 mL2 + mx 2 T = 2π = 2π g 1 12 mL2 + mx 2 mgx L2 + 12 x 2 12 x = 0 ⇒ 12 x 2 − L2 = 0 The condition for an extreme value 2 2 ⎞ d ⎛ ⎜ L + 12 x ⎟ = 0. The disk is a physical pendulum. and a small hole a distance d from the disk’s center that can serve as a pivot point. (a) Express the period of a physical pendulum: T = 2π I mgd .9 cm 12 12 d = 50.1cm from the center of the meter stick. a mass of 6.0 cm − 28. to avoid notational difficulties. solve for x: The hole should be drilled at a distance: 12 x 2 − L2 24 x 2 L + 12 x 12 x 2 2 x= 100 cm L = = 28. of T is that dx ⎜ 12 x ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ Evaluate this derivative to obtain: Noting that only the positive solution is physically meaningful.80 m. (a) What should be the distance d so that the period of this physical pendulum is 2.Oscillations 1491 Using the parallel-axis theorem. We’ll use the expression T = 2π I mgd for the period of a physical pendulum.

320 m 2 = 0 d = 0. Evaluating 2 2 ⎞ 1 d ⎛ ⎜ 2 R + x ⎟ = 0 yields: ⎟ dx ⎜ x ⎝ ⎠ 2d 2 − 2 2 2 1 =0 2 R +d d where we have changed x back to d. is greater than R. so it is too large to be physically meaningful. Obtain Icm from Table 9-1: Substituting for I yields: I = I cm + md 2 =1 mR 2 + md 2 2 T = 2π 1 2 mR 2 + md 2 mgd R2 + d 2 gd (1) = 2π 1 2 Square both sides of this equation. relate the moment of inertia about the axis through the hole to the moment of inertia Icm about the parallel axis through the center of mass. Set the derivative of this expression equal to 2 R +d ( ) zero to find relative maxima and minima. and substitute numerical values to obtain: d2 − gT 2 R2 + =0 d 4π 2 2 or d 2 − (1. (b) The period T is related to the distance d by equation (1). 2 ( 1 2 R2 + d 2 ) = 0 ⇒ 2d − ( d= ) Solving for d yields: R 2 .553 m )d + 0. d = 1. simplify.238 m = 24 cm Use the quadratic formula or your graphing calculator to obtain: The second root. We’ll replace d with x to avoid the notational challenge of differentiating with respect to d.1492 Chapter 14 Using the parallel-axis theorem ( I = I cm + md 2 ). T will be a minimum 2 2 when 1 d is a minimum.31 m.

Oscillations 1493 Evaluate equation (1) with d = R 2 to obtain an expression for the shortest possible period: Substitute numerical values and evaluate T: T = 2π 1 2 2 R2 + 1 2 R = 2π R g 2 2R g T = 2π 2 (0. 73 ••• [SSM] Points P1 and P2 on a plane object (Figure 14-30) are distances h1 and h2. To verify that this value of d corresponds to a minimum. where h1 ≠ h2. respectively. Express the period of the physical pendulum: Using the parallel-axis theorem. a minimum.81m/s 2 Remarks: We’ve shown that d = R 2 corresponds to an extreme value. we can either (1) show that d2T/dx2 evaluated at x = R 2 (where x = d) is positive. The object oscillates with the same period T when it is free to rotate about an axis through P1 and when it is free to rotate about an axis through P2. that is. Show that h1 + h2 = gT2/(4π)2. relate the moment of inertia about an axis through P1 to the moment of inertia about an axis through the plane’s center of mass: Substitute for I to obtain: T = 2π I mgd I = I cm + mh12 T = 2π I cm + mh12 mgh1 Square both sides of this equation and rearrange terms to obtain: Because the period of oscillation is the same for point P2: mgT 2 I cm = + mh1 h1 4π 2 I cm I + mh1 = cm + mh2 h1 h2 (1) .80 m ) = 2. or (2) graph T as a function of d and note that the graph is a minimum at d = R 2. or an inflection point. to a maximum. Both of these axes are perpendicular to the plane of the object. from the center of mass.1s 9. Picture the Problem We can use the equation for the period of a physical pendulum and the parallel-axis theorem to show that h1 + h2 = gT 2/4π 2.

When r is much less than L. (b) Show that when r is much smaller than L. (b) Performing a binomial expansion (with r << L) on the radicand of our expression for T will lead to T ≈ T0 (1 + r2/5L2). 2 2r (a) Show that the period for small oscillations is given by T = T0 1 + 2 where 5L T0 = 2π L / g is the period of a simple pendulum of length L.00 percent? Picture the Problem (a) We can find the period of the physical pendulum in terms of the period of a simple pendulum by starting with T = 2π I mgL and applying the parallel-axis theorem. the period can be approximated by T ≈ T0 (1 + r2/5L2).00 m and r = 2. (c) If L = 1. relate the moment of inertia of the pendulum about an axis through its center of mass to its moment of inertia about an axis through its point of support: Substitute for I and simplify to obtain: T = 2π 2 5 T = 2π I mgL I = I cm + mL2 2 =5 mr 2 + mL2 mr 2 + mL2 2r 2 2r 2 L 1 + 2 = T0 1 + 2 = 2π mgL g 5L 5L . (a) Express the period of the physical pendulum: Using the parallel-axis theorem.00 cm.1494 Chapter 14 Combining like terms yields: ⎛1 1⎞ ⎜ ⎜h −h ⎟ ⎟ I cm = m(h2 − h1 ) 2 ⎠ ⎝ 1 Provided h1 ≠ h2 : Substitute in equation (1) and simplify to obtain: I cm = mh1h2 mgT 2 mh1h2 gT 2 = + mh1 ⇒ h1 + h2 = 4π 2 h1 4π 2 74 ••• A physical pendulum consists of a spherical bob of radius r and mass m suspended from a rigid rod of negligible mass as in Figure 14-31. The distance from the center of the sphere to the point of support is L. find the error in the calculated value when the approximation T = T0 is used for the period. How large must be the radius of the bob for the error to be 1. such a pendulum is often treated as a simple pendulum of length L.

00%: ΔT (2.0100 ⇒ r = L 0.order terms ≈ 1+ r2 5L2 2 provided r << L Substitute in our result from Part (a) to obtain: (c) Express the fractional error when the approximation T = T0 is used for this pendulum: ⎛ r2 ⎞ T ≈ T0 ⎜ 1 + ⎟ ⎜ 5 L2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ΔT T − T0 T ≈ = −1 T T0 T0 = 1+ r2 r2 1 − = 5 L2 5 L2 2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate ΔT/T: For an error of 1. (a) What should the distance d be so that the period of this pendulum is 2.50 s? (b) Suppose that the pendulum clock loses 5. We can express its period as a function of the distance d by using the definition of the center of mass of the pendulum to find D in terms of d and the parallel-axis theorem to express I in terms of d.00 m has a mass m = 0. How far and in what direction should you move the disk to ensure that the clock will keep perfect time? Picture the Problem (a) The period of this physical pendulum is given by T = 2π I MgD .800 kg.00 min/d.50 s.150 m. Attached to the rod is a uniform disk of mass M = 1. The uniform rod of length L = 2.4 cm Substitute the numerical value of L and evaluate r to obtain: 75 ••• Figure 14-32 shows the pendulum of a clock in your grandmother’s house. The clock is constructed to keep perfect time if the period of the pendulum is exactly 3. To make sure that your grandmother won’t be late for her quilting parties. you decide to adjust the clock back to its proper period.20 kg and radius 0.0500 = 22. Solving the resulting .00 cm ) ≈ = 0.Oscillations 1495 ⎛ 2r 2 ⎞ (b) Expanding ⎜ ⎜1 + 5L2 ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ binomially yields: 12 ⎛ 2r 2 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜1 + 5L2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 12 1 ⎛ 2r 2 ⎞ 1 ⎛ 2r 2 ⎞ ⎟+ ⎜ = 1+ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ 2⎟ 2⎜ ⎝ 5L ⎠ 8 ⎝ 5L ⎠ + higher .00800% 2 T 5(100 cm ) r2 = 0.0500 5L2 r = (100 cm ) 0.

81 m/s 2 (2. 1440 Tperfect 1435 (b) There are 1440 minutes per day. about an axis through the pivot point. so the pendulum has a shorter period. as a function of d: Substitute numerical values and evaluate I: 2 2 2 1 I = I cm + Md 2 = 1 3 mL + 2 Mr + Md ( )( ) I=1 3 0.20 kg )d 2 +1 2 1.20 kg )d 2 Locate the center of mass of the physical pendulum relative to the pivot point: ( )( ) + (1.50 s.20 kg 0.400 m + 0.800 kg 2.0802 kg ⋅ m 2 + (1.00 kg xcm = and xcm = 0.20 kg ) d 2 T 2 9.400 m + 0.150 m (0.600d Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: 1. We can determine the appropriate correction to make in the position of the disk by relating the fractional time loss to the fractional change in its position. 1435 T = 1440 Tperfect ⇒ T = where Tperfect = 3. If the clock loses 5.00 m 2 2 = 1. (a) Express the period of a physical pendulum: I yields: xcm T = 2π I mtot gxcm Solving for I T 2 gmtot = 4π 2 xcm (1) Express the moment of inertia of the physical pendulum.800 kg )(1. (b) Because the clock is losing 5 minutes per day.00 kg ) = = 0. one would reposition the disk so that the clock runs faster.49698 kg ⋅ m/s 2 T 2 (2) 2 0.00 m ) + (1.00 min per day.50 s and solving for d yields: d = 1.0802 kg ⋅ m 2 + (1.20 kg )d 2. that is.600d 4π ( ) ( ) Setting T = 2.63574 m where we have kept more than three significant figures for use in Part (b).1496 Chapter 14 quadratic equation yields d. then the period of the clock is related to the perfect period of the clock by: .

31cm Damped Oscillations 76 • A 2. Picture the Problem (a) We can find the period of the oscillator from T = 2π m k . The force constant of the spring is 400 N/m.180 J (c) Relate the fractional rate at which the energy decreases to the Q value and evaluate Q: Q= 2π 2π = = 628 ( ΔE E )cycle 0.00 cm. (c) If the energy decreases by 1.00 kg = 0.444 s 400 N/m (a) The period of the oscillator is given by: Substitute numerical values and evaluate T: (b) Relate the initial energy of the oscillator to its amplitude: Substitute numerical values and evaluate E0: T = 2π 2 E0 = 1 2 kA E0 = 1 2 (400 N/m )(0.40140 m − 3.00 percent per period. find the linear damping constant b and the Q factor.37826 m = 2.51220 s 1435 d = 3.0300 m )2 = 0. (b) The total initial energy of the spring-object system is given kA2 .50 s in equation (2) and solve for d ′ to obtain: Express the distance the disk needs to be moved upward to correct the period: T= 1440 (3.00-kg object oscillates with an initial amplitude of 3. and (b) the total initial energy.Oscillations 1497 Substitute numerical values and evaluate T: Substitute T = 3.51220 s in equation (2) and solve for d to obtain: Substitute T = 3.0100 . T = 2π m k 2.37826 m Δd = d − d' = 3. (c) The Q factor can be found from its definition by E0 = 1 2 Q = 2π ( ΔE E )cycle and the damping constant from Q = ω0 m b .50 s ) = 3.40140 m d' = 3. Find (a) the period.

0450 kg/s 77 •• [SSM] Show that the ratio of the amplitudes for two successive oscillations is constant for a linearly damped oscillator. Picture the Problem The amplitude of the oscillation at time t is A(t ) = A0 e − t 2τ where τ = m/b is the decay constant. We can express the amplitudes one period apart and then show that their ratio is constant.00 percent during each cycle. (b) and (c) Both the Q value and the decay constant τ can be found from their definitions. (a) By how much does its mechanical energy decrease during each cycle? (b) What is the time constant τ? (c) What is the Q factor? Picture the Problem (a) We can relate the fractional change in the energy of the oscillator each cycle to the fractional change in its amplitude.1498 Chapter 14 Express the Q value in terms of b: Q= ω0 m b Solve for the damping constant b: b= ω0 m Q = 2πm = TQ 2πm mk = Q m 2π Q k Substitute numerical values and evaluate b: b= (2. Relate the amplitude of a given oscillation peak to the time at which the peak occurs: Express the amplitude of the oscillation peak at t′ = t + T: Express the ratio of these consecutive peaks: A(t ) = A0 e − t 2τ A(t + T ) = A0 e − (t +T ) 2τ A(t ) A0e − t 2τ = = e −T 2τ −(t +T ) 2τ A(t + T ) A0e = constant 78 •• An oscillator has a period of 3. Its amplitude decreases by 5. (a) Relate the energy of the oscillator to its amplitude: 2 E=1 2 kA .00 s.00 kg )(400 N/m ) 628 = 0.

314 = 0.0 s ) = 62.0% E ΔE = T E and τ τ= (c) The Q factor is given by: T 3. Picture the Problem We can use the physical interpretation of Q for small ⎛ ⎞ 2π ⎟ to find the fractional decrease in the energy of the damping ⎜ Q = ⎜ ( ΔE E )cycle ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ oscillator each cycle. (a) By what fraction does the energy decrease during each cycle? (b) Use Equation 14-40 to find the percentage difference between ω′ and ω0.0 s ΔE E 0. Hint: Use the approximation (1 + x )1 2 ≈ 1 + 1 2 x for small x.00 s 79 •• A linearly damped oscillator has a Q factor of 20.8 3.00%) = 10.31 Q 20 ω' − ω 0 ω ' = −1 ω0 ω0 . (a) Express the fractional decrease in energy each cycle as a function of the Q factor and evaluate ΔE E : (b) The percentage difference between ω′ and ω0 is given by: ΔE E = 2π 2π = = 0.0100 ⎛ 2π ⎞ Q = ω 0τ = ⎜ ⎟τ ⎝ T ⎠ Substitute numerical values and evaluate Q: Q= 2π (30.Oscillations 1499 Take the differential of this relationship to obtain: Divide the second of these equations by the first and simplify to obtain: Approximate dE and dA by ΔE and ΔA and evaluate ΔE/E: (b) For small damping: dE = kAdA dE kAdA dA = 1 2 =2 E A 2 kA ΔE = 2(5.00 s = = 30.

6 cm .0 cm )e −2.0 cm and the energy of the oscillating system is 60 J.0 s.1× 10 − 2 % 2 ω0 8(20) 80 •• A linearly damped mass–spring system oscillates at 200 Hz.0 s 4.0 s ) = (6. The time constant of the system is 2.0 s? (b) How much energy is dissipated in the first 2-s interval and in the second 2-s interval? Picture the Problem The energy of the spring-and-mass oscillator varies with time according to E = E0 e − t τ and its energy is proportional to the square of the amplitude. (a) Using E = E0 e − t τ and E ∝ A2 .1500 Chapter 14 Using the definition of the Q factor.0 s = 3.0 cm )e − t 4 s A(2. At t = 0 the amplitude of oscillation is 6.0 s and t = 4. use Equation 14-40 to express the ratio of ω′ to ω0 as a function of Q: Substituting for ω' ⎡ 1 ⎛ b 2 ⎞ ⎤ = ⎢1 − ⎜ 2 2 ⎟ ⎟⎥ ω0 ⎣ 4 ⎜ ⎝ m ω0 ⎠⎦ 12 ⎡ 1 ⎤ = ⎢1 − 2⎥ ⎣ 4Q ⎦ 12 ω' yields: ω0 ω' − ω 0 ⎡ 1 ⎤ = ⎢1 − 2⎥ ω0 ⎣ 4Q ⎦ ⎡ 1 ⎤ ⎢1 − 4Q 2 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ 12 12 −1 Use the approximation (1 + x )1 2 ≈ 1 + 1 2 x for x << 1 to obtain: ⎡ 1 ⎤ Substituting for ⎢1 − 2⎥ ⎣ 4Q ⎦ simplifying yields: 12 ≈ 1− 1 8Q 2 and ω' − ω 0 1 1 = 1− 2 −1 = − 2 ω0 8Q 8Q Substitute the numerical value of Q ω' − ω 0 and evaluate : ω0 ω' − ω 0 1 =− = − 3. (a) What are the amplitudes of oscillation at t = 2. solve for the amplitude A as a function of time: Express the amplitude of the oscillations as a function of time: Evaluate the amplitude when t = 2.0 s: E = E0 e − t τ and E ∝ A2 imply that A 2 = A02 e −t τ Hence A = A0 e − t 2τ A = (6.

0 s is equal to the negative of the change in mechanical energy: The energy dissipated in the second 2.0 cm )e −4. where E0 is the original energy. (a) Find the percentage of the energy of vibration lost to damping forces during each cycle.0 s 4.0 s→4.0 d? Picture the Problem (a) We can find the fractional loss of energy per cycle from the physical interpretation of Q for small damping.0 s = E0 E (2. what is the energy after 2.0 2.2 cm E (0) = E0 e −0 2.0 s = E0 e −2 The energy dissipated in the first 2.0 s ) = E0 e −4.0 s = − E0 e −4.0 s.0 s ) = E0 e −2. (c) If the original energy of vibration of an earthquake is E0. t = 2.0 s ) = (6. (b) We will also find a general expression for the earth’s vibrational energy as a function of the number of cycles it has completed.984) E0 .0 s = − E0 e −2.0-s interval is: − ΔE0→2.0 s = E0 e −1 E (4. After a large earthquake.0 s = 2.0 s = (60 J )e −1 1 − e −1 = 14 J ( ) ) ) ( ( ) 81 •• [SSM] Seismologists and geophysicists have determined that the vibrating Earth has a resonance period of 54 min and a Q factor of about 400.0 s − e −2.Oscillations 1501 Evaluate the amplitude when t = 4.0 s − e 0 ( = (60 J ) 1 − e −1 = 38 J − ΔE2.0 s 2.57% E Q 400 ⎛ ΔE ⎞ E1 = E0 ⎜1 − ⎟ E ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ ΔE ⎞ ⎛ ΔE ⎞ E2 = E1 ⎜1 − ⎟ ⎟ = E0 ⎜ 1 − E ⎠ E ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 2 .0 2.0 s: (b) Express the energy of the system at t = 0. Earth will ″ring″ (continue to vibrate) for up to 2 months. (c) We can then solve this equation for the earth’s vibrational energy after any number of days.0 s 2.0 s 2. and t = 4. (b) Show that after n periods the vibrational energy is n given by E n = (0. (a) Express the fractional change in energy as a function of Q: (b) Express the energy of the damped oscillator after one cycle: Express the energy after two cycles: ΔE 2π 2π = = = 1.0 s: A(4.

The speed of the air from the fan is 7.0 d in terms of the number of cycles.1502 Chapter 14 Generalizing to n cycles: ⎛ ΔE ⎞ n E n = E 0 ⎜1 − ⎟ = E0 (1 − 0.0º from the vertical. that is. (a) Apply to obtain: θ0 θ l r T r bv r T0 r Ffan r mg r mg ∑τ = Iα to the pendulum − mg sin θ + Fd = I d 2θ dt 2 .984 ) n n (c) Express 2. (b) How long will it take for the pendulum’s amplitude to reach 1. you place a fan next to it that blows a horizontal stream of air on the bob. predict the decay time constant τ for this pendulum. under the influence of gravity.9843) 53. and drag force.0º? Picture the Problem The diagram shows 1) the pendulum bob displaced through an angle θ0 and held in equilibrium by the force exerted on it by the air from the fan and 2) the bob accelerating. toward its equilibrium position. We can apply Newton’s 2nd law to the bob to obtain the equation of motion of the damped pendulum and then use its solution to find the decay time constant and the time required for the amplitude of oscillation to decay to 1°.3 = 0. and allow the pendulum to oscillate.3T Evaluate E(2 d): E (2 d ) = E0 (0.0157 ) E ⎠ ⎝ = E0 (0.0 d = 2. (a) Assuming that the drag force due to the air is of the form –bv. To start the bob oscillating.0 d × 24 h 60 m × d h 1T = 2880 min× 54 min = 53. You turn the fan off.0 m/s.43E0 82 ••• A pendulum that is used in your physics laboratory experiment has a length of 75 cm and a compact bob with a mass equal to 15 g. tension force. the number of vibrations the earth will have experienced: 2. the bob is in equilibrium when the pendulum is displaced by an angle of 5. With the fan on.

Oscillations 1503 Express the moment of inertia of the pendulum about an axis through its point of support: Substitute for I and Fd to obtain:

I =m

2

m

2

d 2θ + bv + mg sin θ = 0 dt 2 d 2θ + dt 2

2

Because θ << 1 and v = ω = dθ/dt:

m

or

2

b

dθ + mg θ ≈ 0 dt

m

The solution to this second-order homogeneous differential equation with constant coefficients is:

d 2θ dθ mg +b + θ ≈0 2 dt dt

**θ = θ 0 e −t 2τ cos(ω't + δ ) (1) where θ0 is the maximum amplitude, τ = m/b is the time constant, and the
**

frequency ω' = ω0 1 − (b 2mω0 ) .

2

Apply

∑ F = ma to the bob when it

∑F

x

= Ffan − T sin θ 0 = 0

is at its maximum angular displacement to obtain: Divide the x equation by the y equation to obtain:

and ∑ Fy = T cosθ 0 − mg = 0

Ffan T sin θ 0 = = tan θ 0 mg T cos θ 0 or Ffan = mg tan θ 0 bv = mg tan θ 0 ⇒ τ = m v = b g tan θ 0

When the bob is in equilibrium, the drag force on it equals Ffan: Substitute numerical values and evaluate τ : (b) From equation (1), the angular amplitude of the motion is given by: When the amplitude has decreased to 1.0°: Take the natural logarithm of both sides of the equation to obtain:

τ=

(

7.0 m/s = 8.16 s = 8.2 s 9.81 m/s 2 tan 5.0°

)

θ = θ 0e −t 2τ

1.0° = 5.0°e −t 2τ or e −t 2τ = 0.20

t = ln(0.20) ⇒ t = −2τ ln (0.20 ) 2τ

−

**1504 Chapter 14 Substitute the numerical value of τ and evaluate t:
**

t = −2(8.16 s )ln (0.20 ) = 26 s

83 ••• [SSM] You are in charge of monitoring the viscosity of oils at a manufacturing plant and you determine the viscosity of an oil by using the following method: The viscosity of a fluid can be measured by determining the decay time of oscillations for an oscillator that has known properties and operates while immersed in the fluid. As long as the speed of the oscillator through the fluid is relatively small, so that turbulence is not a factor, the drag force of the fluid on a sphere is proportional to the sphere’s speed relative to the fluid: Fd = 6πaηv , where η is the viscosity of the fluid and a is the sphere’s radius. Thus, the constant b is given by 6π aη . Suppose your apparatus consists of a stiff spring that has a force constant equal to 350 N/cm and a gold sphere (radius 6.00 cm) hanging on the spring. (a) What is the viscosity of an oil do you measure if the decay time for this system is 2.80 s? (b) What is the Q factor for your system? Picture the Problem (a) The decay time for a damped oscillator (with speeddependent damping) system is defined as the ratio of the mass of the oscillator to the coefficient of v in the damping force expression. (b) The Q factor is the product of the resonance frequency and the damping time.

(a) From Fd = 6πaηv and Fd = −bv , it follows that: Because τ = m b , we can substitute for b to obtain: Substituting m = ρV and simplifying yields: Substitute numerical values and evaluate η (see Table 13-1 for the density of gold):

b = 6πaη ⇒η = m 6πaτ

b 6πa

η= η= η=

4 πa 3 ρ 2a 2 ρ ρV =3 = 6πaτ 6πaτ 9τ

2(0.0600 m ) 19.3 × 10 3 kg/m 3 9(2.8 s )

2

(

)

= 5.51 Pa ⋅ s

Q = ω 0τ = k τ= m k τ= ρV k τ πa 3 ρ

(b) The Q factor is the product of the resonance frequency and the damping time:

4 3

Oscillations 1505 Substitute numerical values and evaluate Q:

N 100 cm ⎞ ⎛ 3⎜ 350 × ⎟ cm m ⎠ ⎝ (2.80 s ) ≈ 125 Q= 3 4π (0.0600 m ) 19.3 × 10 3 kg/m 3

(

)

**Driven Oscillations and Resonance
**

84 • A linearly damped oscillator loses 2.00 percent of its energy during each cycle. (a) What is its Q factor? (b) If its resonance frequency is 300 Hz, what is the width of the resonance curve Δω when the oscillator is driven? Picture the Problem (a) We can use the physical interpretation of Q for small damping to find the Q factor for this damped oscillator. (b) The width of the resonance curve depends on the Q factor according to Δω = ω0 Q .

(a) Using the physical interpretation of Q for small damping, relate Q to the fractional loss of energy of the damped oscillator per cycle: Evaluate this expression for ( ΔE E )cycle = 2.00% : (b) Relate the width of the resonance curve to the Q value of the oscillatory system: Substitute numerical values and evaluate Δω: Q= 2π ( ΔE E )cycle

Q=

2π = 314 0.0200

Δω =

ω0

Q

=

2πf 0 Q

Δω =

2π 300 s -1 = 6.00 rad/s 314

(

)

85 • Find the resonance frequency for each of the three systems shown in Figure 14-33. Picture the Problem The resonant frequency of a vibrating system depends on the mass m of the system and on its ″stiffness″ constant k according to 1 k f0 = or, in the case of a simple pendulum oscillating with small2π m

amplitude vibrations, f 0 =

1 2π g . L

(a) How many cycles elapse before half of its original energy is dissipated? (b) What is its Q factor? (c) If the natural frequency is 100 Hz.5 ln 0.50 = 19.81m/s 2 = 0.0 N/m = 1.0 N/m = 2 Hz 5 kg f0 = f0 = 1 2π 9.0 m 86 •• A damped oscillator loses 3.50 = (0. We can then solve this equation for the number of cycles corresponding to the loss of half the oscillator’s energy. (c) The width of the resonance curve is Δω = ω0 Q where ω0 is the oscillator’s natural angular frequency.965 ≈ 20 complete cycles.0 Hz 10 kg 800.50 E0 = E0 (1 − 0. (a) Express the energy of the damped oscillator after one cycle: Express the energy after two cycles: Generalizing to n cycles: ⎛ ΔE ⎞ E1 = E0 ⎜1 − ⎟ E ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ ΔE ⎞ ⎛ ΔE ⎞ E2 = E1 ⎜1 − ⎟ = E0 ⎜ 1 − ⎟ E ⎠ E ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ ⎛ ΔE ⎞ E n = E0 ⎜ 1 − ⎟ E ⎠ ⎝ n 2 Substituting numerical values yields: 0. what is the width of the resonance curve when the oscillator is driven by a sinusoidal force? Picture the Problem (a) We’ll find a general expression for the damped oscillator’s energy as a function of the number of cycles it has completed.1506 Chapter 14 (a) For this spring-and-mass oscillator we have: (b) For this spring-and-mass oscillator we have: (c) For this simple pendulum we have: f0 = 1 2π 1 2π 400.965) Solving for n yields: n= ln 0.50 percent of its energy during each cycle. (b) The Q factor is related to the fractional energy loss per cycle through ΔE E = 2π Q .35 Hz 2.035) n or n 0. .

Oscillations 1507 (b) Apply the physical interpretation of Q for small damping to obtain: (c) The width of the resonance curve is given by: Substitute numerical values and evaluate Δω : Q= 2π 2π = = 180 ΔE E 0.0350

Δω =

ω0

Q

=

2πf 0 (ΔE E ) = f 0 (ΔE E ) 2π

Δω = (100 Hz )(0.0350 ) = 3.50 rad/s

87 •• [SSM] A 2.00-kg object oscillates on a spring of force constant 400 N/m. The linear damping constant has a value of 2.00 kg/s. The system is driven by a sinusoidal force of maximum value 10.0 N and angular frequency 10.0 rad/s. (a) What is the amplitude of the oscillations? (b) If the driving frequency is varied, at what frequency will resonance occur? (c) What is the amplitude of oscillation at resonance? (d) What is the width of the resonance curve Δω? Picture the Problem (a) The amplitude of the damped oscillations is related to the damping constant, mass of the system, the amplitude of the driving force, and F0 . the natural and driving frequencies through A = 2 2 2 2 2 2 m ω0 − ω + b ω

(

)

(b) Resonance occurs when ω = ω0 . (c) At resonance, the amplitude of the oscillations is A = F0 b 2ω 2 . (d) The width of the resonance curve is related to the damping constant and the mass of the system according to Δω = b m . (a) Express the amplitude of the oscillations as a function of the driving frequency: Because ω0 =

k : m

A=

2 m 2 (ω 0 − ω 2 ) + b 2ω 2 2

F0

A=

F0 ⎛k ⎞ m 2 ⎜ − ω 2 ⎟ + b 2ω 2 ⎝m ⎠

2

Substitute numerical values and evaluate A:

A=

**10.0 N 400 N/m 2⎞ ⎜ (2.00 kg )2 ⎛ − (10.0 rad/s ) ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
**

2

= 4.98 cm + (2.00 kg/s ) (10.0 rad/s )

2 2

⎝ 2.00 kg

⎠

1508 Chapter 14 (b) Resonance occurs when:

ω = ω0 =

k m

Substitute numerical values and evaluate ω:

ω=

400 N/m = 14.14 rad/s 2.00 kg

= 14.1rad/s

(c) The amplitude of the motion at resonance is given by: Substitute numerical values and evaluate A:

A=

F0

2 b 2ω0

A=

10.0 N

(2.00 kg/s )2 (14.14 rad/s )2

= 35.4 cm

(d) The width of the resonance curve is:

Δω =

b 2.00 kg/s = = 1.00 rad/s m 2.00 kg

88 •• Suppose you have the same apparatus described in Problem 74 and the same gold sphere hanging from a weaker spring that has a force constant of only 35.0 N/cm. You have studied the viscosity of ethylene glycol with this device, and found that ethylene glycol has a viscosity value of 19.9 mPa⋅s. Now you decide to drive this system with an external oscillating force. (a) If the magnitude of the driving force for the device is 0.110 N and the device is driven at resonance, how large would be the amplitude of the resulting oscillation? (b) If the system were not driven, but were allowed to oscillate, what percentage of its energy would it lose per cycle? Picture the Problem (a) The amplitude of the steady-state oscillations when the system is in resonance is given by A = F0 bω . (b) We can relate the fractional energy loss to the Q value of the oscillator.

(a) The amplitude of the steady-state oscillations when the system is in resonance is given by: Because b = 6πaη , and ω = k m :

A=

F0 bω

A=

F0 F = 0 6πaηω 6πaη

m k

**Oscillations 1509 Substituting m = ρV and simplifying yields:
**

A= = F0 6πaη

ρV

k

=

F0 6πaη

4 3

πa 3 ρ

k

F0 πaρ 3πη 3k

**Substitute numerical values and evaluate A:
**

A=

0.110 N π (0.0600 m ) 19.3 × 10 3 kg/m 3 = 34.5 cm 3π (19.9 mPa ⋅ s ) 3(35.0 N/cm )

(

)

(b) This is a very weakly damped system and so we can relate the fractional energy loss per cycle to the system’s Q value: Because τ =

Q=

2π =ω τ (ΔE E )cycle 0

m m = : b 6πaη

mω 0 2π = (ΔE E )cycle 6πaη k 3 4 m 3 πa ρ = = 6πaη 6πaη

Substituting for m and ω0 and simplifying yields:

2π (ΔE E )cycle

ρV

k m

=

Solve for (ΔE E )cycle to obtain:

2a 2 ρ 9η

k m m k

(ΔE E )cycle = 9πη 2

a ρ

Substitute numerical values and evaluate (ΔE E )cycle :

(ΔE E )cycle =

9π (19.9 mPa ⋅ s ) (0.0600 m )2 19.3 × 10 3 kg/m 3

(

)

17.5 kg = 5.73 × 10 − 4 35.0 N/cm

General Problems

89 • A particle’s displacement from equilibrium is given by x(t) = 0.40 cos(3.0t + π/4), where x is in meters and t is in seconds. (a) Find the frequency and period of its motion. (b) Find an expression for the speed of the particle as a function of time. (c) What is its maximum speed?

We can use the period of the astronaut’s pendulum to obtain an expression for the acceleration of gravity ag at the surface of the new planet. Prior to his arrival. and δ yields: ω = 3. (b) The particle’s velocity is the time derivative of its displacement.0 rad/s )(0.09 s = 2. we have A = 0.1s f 0. Apply Newton’s 2nd law and the law of gravity to an object of mass m at the surface of the planet: GM planet m 2 Rplanet = mag ⇒ M planet = 2 ag Rplanet G .0 rad/s )t + ⎥ = − (1.0 s. ω = 3. and δ = π/4.2 m/s 90 • An astronaut arrives at a new planet.1510 Chapter 14 Picture the Problem (a) The particle’s displacement is of the form x = A cos(ωt + δ ) .2 m/s )sin ⎢(3. (c) The particle’s maximum speed occurs when sin (ωt + δ ) = −1 .477 Hz 2π 2π = 0. We can find the frequency of the motion from its angular frequency and the period from the frequency. (a) The particle’s displacement from equilibrium is of the form x = A cos(ωt + δ ) . and gets out his simple device to determine the gravitational acceleration there.500-m-long pendulum has a period of 1. Thus. If his 0.0 rad/s = = 0.48 Hz T= 1 1 = = 2.40 m )sin ⎢(3. he noted that the radius of the planet was 7550 km. what is the mass of the planet? Picture the Problem We can apply Newton’s 2nd law and the law of gravity to an object at the surface of the new planet to obtain an expression for the mass of the planet as a function of the acceleration due to gravity at its surface.477 s −1 vx = dx d = [A cos(ωt + δ )] dt dt = −ωA sin (ωt + δ ) π⎤ π⎤ ⎡ ⎡ v x = −(3.40 m.0 rad/s and so f = ω 3. ω. Comparing this to the given equation we see that: The period of the particle’s motion is the reciprocal of its frequency: (b) Differentiate x = A cos(ωt + δ ) with respect to time to obtain an expression for the particle’s velocity: Substituting for A.0 rad/s )t + ⎥ 4⎦ 4⎦ ⎣ ⎣ (c) The particle’s maximum speed occurs when sin (ωt + δ ) = −1 : v x max = −(1.2 m/s )(− 1) = 1.0 rad/s.

7 × 10 25 kg 2 −11 2 2 6. In which case will the error be greater: if the clock is placed in a mine of depth h or if the clock is elevated to a height h? Prove your answer and assume h << RE.0 s ) 2 ) 91 •• A pendulum clock keeps perfect time on Earth’s surface. mg' = mg = GM E m 2 RE Express the gravitational force acting on the clock at the surface of Earth: Divide the first of these equations by the second and simplify to obtain: GM' 2 2 g' (RE − h ) M' RE = = GM E g M E (RE − h )2 2 RE M' = ρV' = 4 3 πρ (RE − h ) 3 M E = ρV = 4 3 πρRE 3 Express M ′: Express ME: . Picture the Problem Assume that the density of Earth ρ is constant and let m represent the mass of the clock. We can decide the question of where the clock is more accurate by applying the law of gravitation to the clock at a depth h below/above the surface of Earth and at Earth’s surface and expressing the ratios of the acceleration due to gravity below/above the surface of Earth to its value at the surface of Earth. Express the gravitational force acting on the clock when it is at a depth h in a mine: GM'm (RE − h )2 where M′ is the mass between the location of the clock and the center of Earth.500 m ) = 1.Oscillations 1511 The period of the astronaut’s simple pendulum is related to the gravitational field ag at the surface of the new planet: Substituting for ag and simplifying yields: T = 2π L 4π 2 L ⇒ ag = ag T2 M planet = 2 L 4π 2 Rplanet GT 2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate M planet : M planet = ( 4π 2 (7550 km ) (0.67 × 10 N ⋅ m / kg (1.

the spring is unstressed.00 s. we see that g' is closer to g than is g'' .1512 Chapter 14 Substitute for M ′ and ME to obtain: 2 πρ (R − h ) g' 4 RE = 3 4 E 3 g (RE − h )2 3 πρRE 3 Simplifying and solving for g′ yields: ⎛ RE − h ⎞ g' = g ⎜ ⎜ R ⎟ ⎟= E ⎝ ⎠ or ⎛ h ⎞ − g' = g ⎜ 1 ⎜ R ⎟ ⎟ E ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ h ⎞ g⎜ ⎜1 − R ⎟ ⎟ E ⎠ ⎝ (1) Express the gravitational force acting on the clock when it is at an elevation h: Express the gravitational force acting on the clock at the surface of Earth: Divide the first of these equations by the second and simplify to obtain: mg'' = GM E m (RE + h )2 mg = GM E m 2 RE GM E 2 2 RE g'' (RE + h ) = = GM E g (RE − h )2 2 RE 2 from the denominator Factoring RE yields: 1 g'' = g ⎛ h ⎜ ⎜1 + R E ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 Solve for g′′ to obtain: ⎛ h ⎞ g'' = g ⎜ ⎜1 + R ⎟ ⎟ E ⎠ ⎝ −2 (2) Comparing equations (1) and (2). The 92 •• bob is attached to a spring that has a force constant k.00 s? . What is the force constant k if the period of the oscillating system is 1. (b) Suppose that M = 1.00 kg and L is such that in the absence of the spring the period is 2. Thus the error is greater if the clock is elevated. Figure 14-34 shows a pendulum of length L with a bob of mass M. When the bob is directly below the pendulum support. (a) Derive an expression for the period of this oscillating system for small-amplitude vibrations.

eliminate the dt variable x in favor of θ : For θ << 1. We can find the equation of motion of the system by applying Newton’s 2nd law. θ L r T y θ x ˆ − kxi r Mg θ (a) The period of the system in terms of its angular frequency is given by: Apply T= 2π ω x (1) ∑ F = ma to the bob: ∑F = −kx − T sin θ = Ma x and ∑ Fy = T cosθ − Mg = 0 Eliminate T between the two equations to obtain: Noting that x = Lθ and d 2θ ax = Lα = L 2 . tanθ ≈ θ : − kx − Mg tan θ = Ma x ML d 2θ = −kLθ − Mg tan θ dt 2 ML d 2θ = − kLθ − Mgθ dt 2 = −(kL + Mg )θ or d 2θ ⎛ k g⎞ = −⎜ + ⎟θ = −ω 2θ 2 dt ⎝M L⎠ k g + where ω = M L . By writing this equation in terms of θ and using a small-angle approximation. The period of the system is related to its angular frequency according to T = 2π/ω.Oscillations 1513 Picture the Problem The figure shows this system when it has an angular displacement θ. we’ll find an expression for ω that we can use to express T.

max = m2 amax object as it is about to slip: Apply object: Use f s.00 kg we have: 2. (a) What is the smallest value for the coefficient of static friction μs such that the second object does not slip on the first? (b) Explain how the total mechanical energy E.00 s = (3) Solving equations (2) and (3) simultaneously yields: k = 29. which is attached to the end of a horizontal spring with a force constant k. T = 2. max and Fn between the two equations and solve for μs: ∑F = 0 to the second Fn − m2 g = 0 μs m2 g = m2 amax ⇒ μs = amax g . oscillates with an amplitude A. The block. Picture the Problem Applying Newton’s 2nd law to the first object as it is about to slip will allow us to express μs in terms of the maximum acceleration of the system which.00 s we have: 1. (a) Apply ∑F y x = max to the second f s. the angular frequency ω. the amplitude A. assuming that the coefficient of friction is great enough to prevent slippage. and the period T of the system are affected by the placing of m2 on m1.1514 Chapter 14 Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: T= 2π k g + M L 2π g L 2π g k kg + L −1 (b) When k = 0 (no spring). in turn. and M = 1. a second block of mass m2 is placed on top of it.00 s.00 s = (2) With the spring present and T = 1.6 N/m 93 •• [SSM] A block that has a mass equal to m1 is supported from below by a frictionless horizontal surface. depends on the amplitude and angular frequency of the oscillatory motion. max = μs Fn to eliminate f s. When the spring is at its greatest extension and the block is instantaneously at rest.

The unstressed length of the spring is 0. (a) Find the equilibrium position of the box.Oscillations 1515 Relate the maximum acceleration of the oscillator to its amplitude and angular frequency and substitute for ω2: Finally. E is unchanged because E = 1 2 kA . substitute for amax to obtain: amax = Aω 2 = A k m1 + m2 μs = Ak (m1 + m2 )g 2 (b) A is unchanged. 94 •• A 100-kg box hangs from the ceiling of a room−suspended from a spring with a force constant of 500 N/m. Find the frequency of the oscillations when the box is released.81 m/s 2 ) + 0. In (b) and (c).500 m.500 m x= 500 N/m = 2. and frequency of oscillations when the box is released. (b) An identical spring is stretched and attached to the ceiling and box and is parallel with the first spring. we can proceed similarly to obtain expressions for the effective force constant. (c) What is the new equilibrium position of the box once it comes to rest? Picture the Problem The diagram shows the box hanging from the stretched spring and the free-body diagram when the box is in equilibrium. the new equilibrium position of the box.46 m . We can apply ∑ Fy = 0 to the box to derive an expression for x. ω is reduced and T is increased by increasing the total mass of the system. (a) Apply obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate x: 0 x0 – k y k(x – x0) x– m mg ∑F y = 0 to the box to k (x − x0 ) − mg = 0 ⇒ x = mg + x0 k ( 100 kg )(9.

This was first discovered in the seventeenth century. (a) Show by using the differential approximation that a small change in the acceleration of gravity Δg produces a small change in the period ΔT of a pendulum given by ΔT / T ≈ − 1 2 Δ g / g .81 m/s 2 ) + 0.1516 Chapter 14 (b) Draw the free-body diagram for the block with the two springs exerting equal upward forces on it: 0 y k(x – x0) k x0 x mg m k k(x – x0) Apply obtain: ∑F y = 0 to the box to k (x − x0 ) + k (x − x0 ) − mg = 0 or keff ( x − x0 ) − mg = 0 where keff = 2k (1) When the box is displaced from this equilibrium position and released. when it was noted that a pendulum clock carefully adjusted to keep correct time in Paris lost about 90 s/d near the equator. (b) How large a change in g is needed to account for a 90 s/d change in the period? .16 rad/s 100 kg x= mg + x0 2k Substitute numerical values and evaluate x: x= (100 kg ) (9. its motion is simple harmonic motion and its frequency is given by: Substitute numerical values and evaluate ω: (c) Solve equation (1) for x to obtain: ω= keff = m 2k m ω= 2(500 N/m ) = 3.500 m 2(500 N/m ) = 1.48 m 95 •• The acceleration due to gravity g varies with geographical location because of Earth’s rotation and because Earth is not exactly spherical.

separate the variables.Oscillations 1517 Picture the Problem We’ll differentiate the expression for the period of simple L with respect to g. (a) Show that the block will leave the piston if ω2A > g. ≈− differential approximation to establish that 2 g T (a) Express the period of a simple pendulum in terms of its length and the local value of the acceleration due to gravity: Differentiate this expression with respect to g to obtain: T = 2π L g dT d = 2π L g −1 2 = −π L g −3 2 dg dg T =− 2g [ ] Separate the variables to obtain: dT 1 dg =− T 2 g ΔT 1 Δg ≈ − T 2 g Δg = −2 g ΔT T For Δg << g we can approximate dT and dg by ΔT and Δg: (b) Solve the equation in Part (a) for Δg: Substitute numerical values and evaluate Δg for a 90 s/d change in the period: ⎛ s 1d 1h ⎞ 2 Δg = −2(9. if ω 2A > g. Therefore.81 m/s 2 )⎜ ⎜ − 90 d × 24 h × 3600 s ⎟ ⎟ = 2. the block will separate from the piston. . (b) If ω2A = 3g and A = 15 cm. the block is momentarily at rest. (a) At maximum upward extension. at what time will the block leave the piston? Picture the Problem If the displacement of the block is y = A sin ωt. The downward acceleration of the piston is ω 2A.0 cm/s ⎝ ⎠ 96 •• A small block that has a mass equal to m1 rests on a piston that is vibrating vertically with simple harmonic motion described by the formula y = A sin ωt. and use a pendulum T = 2π g 1 Δg ΔT . its acceleration is a = −ω2Asinωt. Its downward acceleration is g.

81 m/s ⎝3⎠ ( ) 97 •• [SSM] Show that for the situations in Figure 14-35a and Figure 1435b the object oscillates with a frequency f = ( 1/ 2π ) keff / m . (a) Express the net force acting on the object: (b) Express the force acting on each spring and solve for x2: Express the total extension of the springs: Solving for keff yields: Fnet = − k1 x − k 2 x = −(k1 + k 2 )x = −keff x where keff = k1 + k 2 F = − k1 x1 = −k 2 x2 ⇒ x2 = k1 x1 k2 x1 + x2 = − F keff keff = − = F − k1 x1 =− x1 + x2 x1 + x2 k1 x1 1 = k 1 1 + x1 + 1 x1 k2 k1 k 2 Take the reciprocal of both sides of the equation to obtain: 1 1 1 = + keff k1 k 2 . In case (a). and (b) 1/keff = 1/k1 + 1/k2. Picture the Problem Choose a coordinate system in which the +x direction is to the right and assume that the object is displaced to the right.15 m ⎛1⎞ sin −1 ⎜ ⎟ = 24 ms 2 3 9.1518 Chapter 14 (b) Express the acceleration of the small block: For ω 2 A = 3g and A = 15 cm: Solving for t yields: a = − Aω 2 sin ωt a = −3g sin ωt = − g t= A ⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞ sin −1 ⎜ ⎟ = sin −1 ⎜ ⎟ ω 3g ⎝3⎠ ⎝3⎠ 1 Substitute numerical values and evaluate t: t= 0. Hint: Find the magnitude of the net force F on the object for a small displacement x and write F = –keffx. Note that in Part (b) the springs stretch by different amounts. the sum of which is x. where keff is given by (a) keff = k1 + k2. note that the two springs undergo the same displacement whereas in (b) they experience the same force.

40)(9.63 μs = (0. max = μs Fn to eliminate f s.Oscillations 1519 98 •• During an earthquake. what would be the maximum amplitude of vibration before the box would slip? Picture the Problem Applying Newton’s 2nd law to the box as it is about to slip will allow us to express μs in terms of the maximum acceleration of the platform which. you are in charge of examining the video of the floor motion and discover that a box on the floor started to slip when the amplitude reached 10 cm. determine the coefficient of static friction between the box and the floor. depends on the amplitude and angular frequency of the oscillatory motion. a floor oscillates horizontally in approximately simple harmonic motion. From your data.max = mamax it is about to slip: Apply ∑F = 0 to the box: Fn − mg = 0 Use f s.81m/s2 ( ) Amax = μs g μs gT 2 = ω2 4π 2 Amax = (0.80 s.80 s )2 9.40. Assume it oscillates at a single frequency with a period of 0. max and Fn between the two equations: Relate the maximum acceleration of the oscillator to its amplitude and angular frequency: Substitute for amax in the expression for μs: Substitute numerical values and evaluate μs: (b) Solve the equation derived above for Amax: Substitute numerical values and evaluate Amax: μs mg = mamax and μs = amax = Aω 2 amax g μs = Aω 2 4π 2 A = 2 g T g 4π 2 (0.10 m ) = 0. (b) If the coefficient of friction between the box and floor were 0.81 m/s 2 )(0. (a) After the earthquake. (a) Apply ∑F y x = max to the box as f s.80 s )2 4π 2 = 6. in turn.4 cm .

Picture the Problem The pictorial representation shows the two blocks connected by the spring and displaced from their equilibrium positions. m2 x x2 1 m1 x1 Fm k (x1 – x2 ) m1g Fn 2 –k (x1 – x2 ) x m2 g Apply ∑ F = ma to the block whose mass is m1 and solve for its acceleration: k (x1 − x2 ) = m1a1 = m1 d 2 x1 dt 2 or d 2 x1 k (x1 − x2 ) a1 = 2 = dt m1 Apply ∑ F = ma to the block whose mass is m2 and solve for its acceleration: − k (x1 − x2 ) = m2 a2 = m1 d 2 x2 dt 2 or a2 = d 2 x2 k (x2 − x1 ) = 2 dt m2 Subtract the first equation from the second to obtain: ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ d 2 ( x2 − x1 ) d 2 x = 2 = −k ⎜ + 2 ⎜m m ⎟ ⎟x dt dt 1 2 ⎝ ⎠ where x = x2 − x1 The reduced mass of the system is: 1 μ = 1 1 mm + ⇒ μ= 1 2 m1 m2 m1 + m2 . show that the oscillation frequency is given by ω = (k/μ)1/2. where μ = m1m2/(m1 + m2) is the reduced mass of the system.1520 Chapter 14 99 •• If we attach two blocks of masses m1 and m2 to either end of a spring of force constant k and set them into oscillation by releasing them from rest with the spring stretched. We can then compare this equation and its solution to the equation of motion of the simple harmonic oscillator and its solution to show that the 12 oscillation frequency is ω = (k μ ) where μ = m1m2/(m1 + m2). We can apply Newton’s 2nd law to each of these coupled oscillators and solve the resulting equations simultaneously to obtain the equation of motion of the coupled oscillators.

67×10−27 kg and m2 = 35. Using the result of Problem 99.673 ×10 k= kg 5. the solution to equation (1) must be: k m x = x0 cos(ωt + δ ) where ω = k μ and μ = m1m2 m1 + m2 100 •• In one of your chemistry labs you determine that one of the vibrational modes of the HCl molecule has a frequency of 8.969 × 1013 Hz. find the effective ″spring constant″ between the H atom and the Cl atom in the HCl molecule.673 × 10 −27 kg + 5. 12 Use the result of Problem 99 to relate the oscillation frequency to the force constant and reduced mass of the HCl molecule: Express the reduced mass of the HCl molecule: Substitute for μ to obtain: ω= k μ ⇒ k = μω 2 μ= m1m2 m1 + m2 m1 m 2 ω 2 m1 + m 2 k= Express the masses of the hydrogen and Cl atoms: m1 = 1 amu = 1.92 × 10 −26 kg − 27 )( )( ) 2 = 13.92×10−26 kg Substitute numerical values and evaluate k: (1.1 N/m .92 × 10 −26 kg 8.Oscillations 1521 Substitute to obtain: d 2x k =− x 2 dt μ (1) Compare this equation to the equation of the simple harmonic oscillator: The solution to this equation is: d 2x k =− x 2 dt m x = x0 cos(ωt + δ ) where ω = Because of the similarity of the two differential equations. Picture the Problem We can use ω = (k μ ) and μ = m1m2/(m1 + m2) from Problem 99 to find the spring constant for the HCl molecule.969 × 1013 s -1 1.45 amu = 5.

34×10−27 kg and m2 = 35. Describe the motion. by using the result of Problem 101 and the reduced mass of a deuterium atom and a Cl atom in the equation for the oscillation frequency. Show that the resulting equation can be written as d 2 x' dt 2 = −ω 2 x' . during which the block is moving to the left. Use the result of Problem 100 to relate the oscillation frequency to the force constant and reduced mass of the DCl molecule: Express the reduced mass of the DCl molecule: The masses of the deuterium and Cl atoms are: ω= k μ μ= m1m2 m1 + m2 m1 = 2 amu = 3.34 × 10 − 27 kg + 5. (a) Apply Newton’s second law to the block to obtain an equation for its acceleration d2x/dt2 for the first half-cycle. after the fifth half-cycle. (b) Repeat Part (a) for the second half-cycle as the block moves to the right. if any.92 × 10 − 26 kg − 27 )( ) 102 ••• A block of mass m on a horizontal table is attached to a spring of force constant k. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the block and the table is μk. (c) Use a spreadsheet program to graph the first 5 half-cycles for A = 10x0. Picture the Problem The pictorial representation shows the block moving from right to left with an instantaneous displacement x from its equilibrium position. We can solve this problem.44 × 1013 rad/s 3. we derived an expression for the oscillation frequency of a spring-and-two-block system as a function of the force constant of the spring and the reduced mass of the two blocks. The spring is unstressed if the block is at the origin (x = 0).45 amu = 5.1522 Chapter 14 101 •• If a hydrogen atom in HCl were replaced by a deuterium atom (forming DCl) in Problem 100. where kA > μkmg. with x0 = μ k mg k = μ k g ω 2 . and the +x direction is to the right. The spring is stretched a distance A. .34 × 10 kg 5. what would be the new vibration frequency of the molecule? Deuterium consists of 1 proton and 1 neutron. assuming that the "spring constant" does not change. as shown in Figure 14-36. and show that d 2 x'' dt 2 = −ω 2 x'' .92×10−26 kg Substitute numerical values and evaluate ω: ω= ( 13.1 N/m = 6. where ω = k m and x ′ = x − x 0 . where x ′′ = x + x 0 and x0 has the same value.92 × 10 − 26 kg 3. and the block is released. Picture the Problem In Problem 100.

eliminate f k in the equation of motion: d 2x f k − kx = m 2 dt m d 2x = −kx + μ k mg dt 2 or m μ mg ⎞ d 2x ⎛ = −k ⎜ x − k ⎟ 2 k ⎠ dt ⎝ d 2x = − k ( x − x0 ) dt 2 Let x0 = μ k mg k to obtain: m or d 2 x' k = − x' = −ω 2 x' 2 dt m provided x′ = x − x0 and μ mg μ k g x0 = k = 2 k ω The solution to the equation of motion is: x' = x0' cos(ωt + δ ) and its derivative is v' = −ωx0' sin (ωt + δ ) .Oscillations 1523 The free-body diagram shows the forces acting on the block during the half-cycles that it moves from right to left. When the block is moving from left to right. the directions of the kinetic friction force and the restoring force exerted by the spring are reversed. We can apply Newton’s 2nd law to these motions to obtain the equations given in the problem statements and then use their solutions to plot the graph called for in (c). m 0 x y Fn kx fk mg x A (a) Apply ∑F x = max to the block while it is moving to the left to obtain: Using f k = μ k Fn = μ k mg .

k ω The solution to the equation of motion is: x" = x0" cos(ωt + δ ) and its derivative is v" = −ωx0" sin (ωt + δ ) x" (0) = x + x0 and v" (0 ) = 0 x" (0) = x0" cos δ = x + x0 and v" (0 ) = −ωx0" sin δ = 0 The initial conditions are: Apply these conditions to obtain: . eliminate f k in the equation of motion: m d 2x = − kx − μ k mg dt 2 d 2x μ mg ⎞ ⎛ = −k ⎜ x + k ⎟ 2 dt k ⎠ ⎝ or m Let x0 = μ k mg k to obtain: m d 2x = − k ( x + x0 ) dt 2 or d 2 x" k = − x" = −ω 2 x" 2 dt m provided x″ = x + x0 and μ mg μ k g x0 = k = 2 .1524 Chapter 14 The initial conditions are: Apply these conditions to obtain: x' (0) = x − x0 and v' (0 ) = 0 x' (0) = x0' cos δ = x − x0 and v' (0) = −ωx0' sin δ = 0 Solve these equations simultaneously to obtain: δ = 0 and x0' = x − x0 and x' = ( x − x0 ) cos ωt or x = (x − x0 )cos ωt + x0 d 2x − f k − kx = m 2 dt (1) (b) Apply ∑ F = ma to the block while it is moving to the right to obtain: Using f k = μ k Fn = μ k mg .

05 0.56 0.1 9. Note that the motion of the block ceases after five half .4 3.29 0. After each half-period.2 8.19 0. one must compute a new amplitude for the oscillation.0 0. The constants used in the position functions (x0 = 1 m and T = 2 s were used for simplicity) and the formulas used to calculate the positions are shown in the table.7 4.41 0.cycles.3 6. using the final value of the position from the last half-period.78 4.00 0.9 5.0 10.28 0.00 The following graph was plotted using the data from columns C (t) and D (x).Oscillations 1525 Solve these equations simultaneously to obtain: δ = 0 and x0" = x + x0 and x" = ( x + x0 ) cos ωt or x = (x + x0 )cos ω t − x0 (2) (c) A spreadsheet program to calculate the position of the oscillator as a function of time (equations (1) and (2)) is shown below. Cell B1 B2 C7 D7 D17 D27 D47 Content/Formula 1 10 C6 + 0.8 4. .1 ($B$2−$B$1)*COS(PI()*C7)+$B$1 (ABS($D$6+$B$1))*COS(PI()*C17)−$B$1 (ABS($D$6−$B$1))*COS(PI()*C27)+$B$1 ($D$46−$B$1)*COS(PI()*C47)+$B$1 A B C x0 = 1 m A= 10 D Algebraic Form x0 A t + Δt ( A − x0 ) cos πt + x0 x + x0 cos πt − x0 x − x0 cos πt + x0 x + x0 cos πt − x0 D37 (ABS($D$36+$B$1))*COS(PI()*C37)−$B$1 (x − x0 ) cos πt + x0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 53 54 55 56 t x (s) (m) 0.

the half-cylinder will oscillate about its equilibrium position. For small θ ⎛ dθ ⎞ we will obtain an equation of the form E = κθ + I ⎜ ⎟ . Because the situation of interest to us d 2θ requires that dθ/dt is not always equal to zero. If one side of this cylinder is pushed down slightly and then released.1526 Chapter 14 10 8 6 4 2 x (m) 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 0 1 2 t (s) 3 4 5 103 ••• Figure 14-37 shows a uniform solid half-cylinder of mass M and radius R resting on a horizontal surface. an sides of this equation with respect to time will lead to 0 = ⎜ κθ + I 2 ⎟ dt ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ dt equation that must be valid at all times. The frequency of its motion will be found by expressing the mechanical energy E in terms of θ and dθ/dt. Finally. 1 2 2 1 2 2 . Differentiating both ⎝ dt ⎠ ⎛ d 2θ ⎞ dθ ⎜ . We’ll dt 2 I 4R show that the distance from O to the center of mass D. Determine the period of this oscillation. the equation of simple harmonic motion with ω 2 = κ I . is given by D = . Picture the Problem The diagram shows the half-cylinder displaced from its equilibrium position through an angle θ. we have 0 = κθ + I 2 or dt 2 dθ κ + θ = 0 . and 3π let the distance from the contact point C to the center of mass be r. we’ll take the potential energy to be zero where θ is zero and assume that there is no slipping.

half cylinder = I 0 = I 0 = I cm + MD 2 1 1 MR 2 = MR 2 2 2 [ ] I cm = I 0 − D 2 M = 1 MR 2 − D 2 M 2 Apply the parallel-axis theorem a second time to obtain an expression for IC: IC = 1 MR 2 − D 2 M + Mr 2 2 ⎛1 ⎞ = M ⎜ R2 − D2 + r 2 ⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ (2) Apply the law of cosines to obtain: r 2 = R 2 + D 2 − 2 RD cosθ . I 0. the moment of inertia of a solid cylinder about an axis perpendicular to its face and through its center is given by: Express the moment of inertia of the half-cylinder about the same axis: Use the parallel-axis theorem to relate Icm to I0: Substitute for I0 and solve for Icm: 1 (2M )R 2 = MR 2 2 where M is the mass of the halfcylinder. solid cylinder = I 0.Oscillations 1527 O h R θ D r C Apply conservation of energy to obtain: E =U +K 1 ⎛ dθ ⎞ = Mg (h − D ) + I C ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ dt ⎠ 2 (1) From Table 9-1.

D⎞ 2⎛ 3 R ⎜ −2 ⎟ R⎠ ⎝2 the equation of simple harmonic motion with ω 2 = gD .1528 Chapter 14 Substitute for r2 in equation (2) to obtain: D ⎛1 ⎞ ⎛3 ⎞ I C = M ⎜ R 2 − D 2 + R 2 + D 2 − 2 RD cosθ ⎟ = MR 2 ⎜ − 2 cos θ ⎟ 2 2 R ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Substitute for h and IC in equation (1): 1 D ⎛3 ⎞⎛ dθ ⎞ E = MgD(1 − cosθ ) + MR 2 ⎜ − 2 cos θ ⎟⎜ ⎟ 2 R ⎝2 ⎠⎝ dt ⎠ 1 Use the small angle approximation cos θ ≈ 1 − θ 2 to obtain: 2 1 1 ⎛3 D ⎞⎛ dθ ⎞ E = MgDθ 2 + MR 2 ⎜ − 2 − θ 2 ⎟⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎝2 R ⎠⎝ dt ⎠ 2 [ ] 2 Because θ 2 << 2. D⎞ 2⎛ 3 R ⎜ −2 ⎟ R⎠ ⎝2 (3) . ⎠ or d 2θ + dt 2 gD θ = 0. we can neglect the θ 2 in the square brackets to obtain: 1 1 D ⎞⎛ dθ ⎞ ⎛3 E = MgDθ 2 + MR 2 ⎜ − 2 ⎟⎜ ⎟ 2 2 R ⎠⎝ dt ⎠ ⎝2 2 Differentiating both sides with respect to time and simplifying yields: D ⎞⎛ d 2θ ⎛3 R 2 ⎜ − 2 ⎟⎜ 2 R ⎠⎜ ⎝2 ⎝ dt ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ + gDθ = 0 .

we’ll use Mrcm = ∫ r dm to find ycm = D. Express the coordinates of the center of mass of the semicircular disk: Express y as a function of r and θ : Express dA in terms of r and θ : Substitute and evaluate D: D= = Express M as a function of r and θ : Substituting for M and simplifying yields: Substitute for D in equation (3) and simplify to obtain: xcm = 0 by symmetry.78 g ⎝ 8 ⎠g . Because the disk is a continuous object.Oscillations 1529 D is the y coordinate of the center of mass of the semicircular disk shown. ycm = D = ∫ yσ dA M y = r sin θ dA = r dθ dr σ ∫ ∫ r 2 sin θ dθ dr 0 0 Rπ M 2σ 3 R 3M 2σ 2 r dr = M ∫ 0 R 2 M = σAhalf disk = 1 2 σπR D= 3 σπR 1 2 ( 2σ 2 ) R3 = 4 R 3π ω2 = g ⎛ 8 ⎞g =⎜ ⎟ ⎛ 3 8 ⎞ R ⎝ 9π − 16 ⎠ R ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ 2 3π ⎠ 4 3π The period of the motion is given by: Substituting for ω and simplifying yields: T= 2π ω R ⎛ 9π − 16 ⎞ R T = 2π ⎜ ⎟ = 7. A surface element of area dA is shown in the diagram.

Picture the Problem The net force acting on the particle as it moves in the tunnel is the x-component of the gravitational force acting on it. Show that the net force on a particle of mass m at a distance x from the middle of the tunnel is given by Fx = −(GmM E / R 3 E )x . (b) Show that the period of the motion is independent of the length of the tunnel and is given by T = 2π RE g . and that the motion of the particle is therefore simple harmonic motion. (c) Find its numerical value in minutes. We can find the period of the particle from the angular frequency of its motion. (a) From the figure we see that: Fx = Fr sin θ = − = − GmM E x r 3 RE r GmM E x 3 RE Because this force is a linear restoring force. where ME is the mass of Earth and RE is its radius. the motion of the particle is simple harmonic motion.1530 Chapter 14 104 ••• A straight tunnel is dug through Earth as shown in Figure 14-38. (a) The gravitational force exerted by Earth on a particle of mass m at a distance r from the center of Earth when r < RE is Fr = −(GmM E / R 3 E )r . (b) Express the period of the particle as a function of its angular frequency: Apply T= 2π (1) ω ∑F x = max to the particle: − GmM E x = ma 3 RE GM E x = −ω 2 x 3 RE GM E 3 RE Solving for a yields: a=− where ω = 2 to simplify ω: Use GM E = gRE ω= 2 gRE = 3 RE g RE . We can apply Newton’s 2nd law to the particle in order to express ω in terms of the radius of Earth and the acceleration due to gravity at the surface of Earth. Assume that the walls of the tunnel are frictionless.

derive the expression for the average power delivered by a driving force to a driven oscillator (Figure 14-39). construct a right triangle in which the side 2 2 opposite the angle δ is bω and the side adjacent is m(ω0 − ω ). because θ is 0°. = sin δ = 2 F0 m2 ω 2 − ω 2 + b2ω 2 ( 0 ) (e) Use your result for Part (d) to eliminate ωA from your result for Part (c) so that the average power input can be written as ⎤ bω 2 F02 1 F02 1⎡ ⎥. and use this triangle to show that bω bωA .Oscillations 1531 Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: T= RE 2π = 2π g g RE 6.81 m/s (c) Substitute numerical values and evaluate T: T = 2π = 84. and that therefore Pav = 1 0 sin δ .06 × 103 s 2 9.37 × 10 6 m = 5. P = Fv F = F0 cos ωt x = A cos(ωt − δ ) . (a) Show that the instantaneous power input of the driving force is given by ωt − δ ). (a) Express the average power delivered by a driving force to a driven oscillator: Express F as a function of time: Express the position of the driven oscillator as a function of time: P = F ⋅ v = Fv cosθ or. 2 A ωF (d) From Equation 14-56 for tan δ. P = Fv = − A ωF0 cos ωt sin ( (b) Use the identity sin(θ1 – θ2) = sin θ1 cos θ2 – cos θ1 sin θ2 to show that the equation in (a) can be written as P = AωF0 sin δ cos 2 ωt − AωF0 cos δ cos ωt sin ωt (c) Show that the average value of the second term in your result for (b) over one or more periods is zero. Pav = sin 2 δ = ⎢ 2 2 2 2 2 2⎥ 2 b 2 ⎢m ( ⎣ ω0 − ω ) + b ω ⎦ Picture the Problem We can follow the step-by-step instructions provided in the problem statement to obtain the desired results.4 min 105 ••• [SSM] In this problem.

1532 Chapter 14 Differentiate this expression with respect to time to express the velocity of the oscillator as a function of time: Substitute to express the average power delivered to the driven oscillator: (b) Expand sin (ωt − δ ) to obtain: Substitute in your result from (a) and simplify to obtain: v = − Aω sin (ωt − δ ) P = (F0 cos ωt )[− Aω sin (ωt − δ )] = − AωF0 cos ωt sin (ωt − δ ) sin (ωt − δ ) = sin ωt cos δ − cos ωt sin δ P = − AωF0 cos ωt (sin ωt cos δ − cos ωt sin δ ) AωF0 sin δ cos 2 ωt − AωF0 cos δ cos ωt sin ωt 2π ⎤ 1 ⎡ ⎢ ∫ sin θ cosθdθ ⎥ 2π ⎣ 0 ⎦ 2π ⎤ 1 ⎡1 2 = ⎢ sin θ ⎥ = 0 2π ⎣ ⎢2 ⎥ 0 ⎦ 2π = (c) Integrate sin θ cos θ over one period to determine sin θ cosθ : sin θ cosθ = Integrate cos 2 θ over one period to determine cos 2 θ : cos 2 θ = = = = 1 2π 1 2π 1 2π 1 2π ∫ cos θdθ 2 0 ⎡ 1 2π ⎤ ⎢ ∫ (1 + cos 2θ )dθ ⎥ ⎣2 0 ⎦ 2π 2π ⎤ ⎡1 1 ⎢ 2 ∫ dθ + 2 ∫ cos 2θ dθ ⎥ 0 ⎦ ⎣ 0 (π + 0) = 1 2 Substitute and simplify to express Pav: Pav = AωF0 sin δ cos 2 ωt = AωF0 sin δ − AωF0 cos δ (0 ) 1 2 − AωF0 cos δ cos ωt sin ωt 1 2 = AωF0 sin δ .

(d) Combine the results of (b) and (c) to show that there are two values of ω for which the power input is half that at resonance and that they are given by 2 2 106 ••• In this problem. (c) Express b in terms of Q. ω1 = ω0 − ω0 and ω2 = ω0 − ω0 Picture the Problem We can follow the step-by-step instructions given in the problem statement to derive the given results. Then the power input will be half its maximum value at the values of ω. the variation in ω in the numerator in this equation can be neglected. ω2 − ω1 = Δ ω = ω 0 / Q . . At resonance.Oscillations 1533 (d) Construct a triangle that is consistent with tan δ = bω : 2 m ω0 − ω2 ( ) Using the triangle. express sinδ: sin δ = 2 m 2 ω0 − ω 2 + b 2ω 2 ( bω ) 2 Using Equation 14-56. reduce this expression to the simpler form: (e) Solve sin δ = bωA for ω: F0 sin δ = bω A F0 ω= F0 sin δ bA F02 sin 2 δ 2b Substitute in the expression for Pav to eliminate ω: Substitute for sin δ from (d) to obtain: Pav = ⎤ 1⎡ bω 2 F02 Pav = ⎢ 2 2 ⎥ 2 2 2 2 2⎣ ⎢ m ω0 − ω + b ω ⎦ ⎥ ( ) (a) Show that ω then satisfies m2 ( ω − ω0 ) (ω + ω0 ) ≈ b2ω02 . the denominator of the fraction in brackets in 2 Problem 105(e) is b2ω0 and Pav has its maximum value. which is equivalent to Equation 14-51. show that ω − ω0 ≈ ± b / 2 m . you are to use the result of Problem 105 to derive Equation 14-51. for which the denominator 2 is 2b2ω0 . For a sharp resonance. 2Q 2Q Therefore. (b) Using the approximation ω + ω2 ≈ 2ω0 .

for a sharp resonance.00 eV. make a graph of the Morse potential using D = 5. 2 m 2 ω0 − ω2 2 2 ≈ b 2ω0 2 m 2 [(ω0 − ω )(ω0 + ω )] ≈ b 2ω0 2 or 2 m 2 (ω0 − ω ) (ω0 + ω ) ≈ b 2ω0 2 2 2 m 2 (ω0 − ω ) (2ω0 ) ≈ b 2ω0 2 2 (b) Use the approximation ω + ω0 ≈ 2ω0 to obtain: Solving for ω0 − ω yields: ω0 − ω = ± b 2m (1) (c) Using its definition.750 nm. express Q: Q= ω0 m b ⇒b = ω0 m Q (d) Substitute for b in equation (1) to obtain: Express the two values of ω: ω0 − ω = ± ω + = ω0 + ω0 2Q ⇒ ω = ω0 ± ω0 2Q ω0 2Q and ω− = ω0 − ω0 2Q Remarks: Note that the width of the resonance at half-power is Δω = ω + − ω − = ω 0 Q . In (c). two of the same atoms). 2 107 ••• The Morse potential. The second derivative of U will give the "spring constant" for small displacements from equilibrium. (a) Using a spreadsheet program or graphing calculator.1534 Chapter 14 (a) Express the condition on the denominator of Equation 14-56 when the power input is half its maximum value: Factor the difference of two squares to obtain: 2 2 m 2 ω0 − ω 2 + b 2ω 2 = 2b 2ω0 ( ( ) ) 2 and. can be written in the form U(r)= D( 1 − e− β (r −r0 ) ) . and r0 = 0. (c) Determine an expression for the oscillation frequency for a homonuclear diatomic molecule (that is. where the atoms each have mass m. which is often used to model interatomic forces. Picture the Problem We can find the equilibrium separation for the Morse potential by setting dU/dr = 0 and solving for r.20 nm–1. (b) Determine the equilibrium separation and ″spring constant″ for small displacements from equilibrium for the Morse potential. we . β = 0. in agreement with Equation 14-51. where r is the distance between the two atomic nuclei.

4 22.9 23.8 22. where k is our result from (b) and μ is the reduced mass of a homonuclear diatomic molecule.87676 4.Oscillations 1535 can use ω = k μ .06760 0. (a) A spreadsheet program to calculate the Morse potential as a function of r is shown below.2 β C9 C8 + 0.1 r + Δr D8 $B$1*(1−EXP(−$B$2*(C8−$B$3)))^2 D 1 − e −β (r −r0 ) 2 [ ] 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 235 236 237 238 239 A B C D= 5 eV β= 0. Cell Content/Formula Algebraic Form B1 5 D B2 0.04434 0.88390 4.3 0.1 0.02629 4.87919 4.13095 0.2 nm−1 r0= 0.7 22. The constants and cell formulas used to calculate the potential are shown in the table.75 nm D r (nm) 0. to find the oscillation frequency of the molecule.2 0.1 U(r) (eV) 0.0 23.0 0.88156 4.09637 0.88618 .

1 0.0 0.5 1.0 0.5 U (eV) 0.0 2.4 0.5 r (nm) 2.0 (b) Differentiate the Morse potential with respect to r to obtain: dU d = D 1 − e −β (r −r0 ) dr dr = −2 β D 1 − e −β ( r −r0 ) {[ [ ]} ] 2 This derivative is equal to zero for extrema: Evaluate the second derivative of U(r) to obtain: − 2βD 1 − e − β ( r −r0 ) = 0 ⇒ r = r0 d 2U d = − 2βD 1 − e −β ( r −r0 ) 2 dr dr = 2β 2 De −β ( r −r0 ) d 2U dr 2 = 2β 2 D r =r0 [ ] { [ ]} Evaluate this derivative at r = r0: (1) Recall that the potential function for a simple harmonic oscillator is: Differentiate this expression twice to obtain: By comparison with equation (1) we have: 2 U=1 2 kx d 2U =k dx 2 k = 2β 2 D .5 3.7 0.1536 Chapter 14 The graph shown below was plotted using the data from columns C (r) and D (U(r)).2 0.3 0.0 1.6 0. 0.

k = 2 β 2 D . Comparing this expression to the energy of a spring-and-mass oscillator we see that. as was obtained above. .Oscillations 1537 (c) Express the oscillation frequency of the diatomic molecule: μ where μ is the reduced mass of the molecule. ω= k Express the reduced mass of the homonuclear diatomic molecule: Substitute for ω and simplify to obtain: m1m2 m2 m μ= = = m1 + m2 2m 2 ω= D 2β 2 D = 2β m m 2 Remarks: An alternative approach in (b) is to expand the Morse potential in a Taylor series 1 2 U (r ) = U (r0 ) + (r − r0 )U' (r0 ) + (r − r0 ) U' ' (r0 ) + higher order terms 2! 2 2 to obtain U(r) ≈ β D(r − r0 ) .

1538 Chapter 14 .

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