submitted to



WOlnen's Education Development, Productivity and Research Organization (WEDPItO), Inc.

January 1995 Alallila









4.1 Consultations

4.2 Research-Survey, FGD and In-depth Interviews



5.1 Consultations

5.2 Reseach-Survey

5.3 Focussed Group Discussion 5.4 In-Depth Interviews







Preventive AIDS education is a fairly new phenomenon in the Philippines. Despite the fact that the incidence of HIVI AIDS was discovered only a year or two in the Philippines after the identification of the virus in the United States, very little has really been done by way of educating the women, especially on the risks and measures that can be taken to prevent the onset of the deadly disease.

The pervading misconception that HIV/AIDS is a sectoral disease which can only afflict gays and prostituted women has been detrimental to the steps taken by NGOs and GOs by way of popularizing the issue ofRIVI AIDS. This has been further compounded by the fact that the first groups which actively pursued the AIDS cause were gay-oriented advocates. Furthermore, AIDSIHIV was also initially discovered in Angeles City, among the women bar workers.

Although AIDS advocates owe much of its popularity to these efforts, it has also in a way marginalized the women in general. This development is alarming considering that women, according to studies abroad, have been found to be 18 percent more susceptible to AIDS than men and 50 percent more likely to die faster than males who are similarly affiicted. Women of color, and those who belong in the lower economic stratum, were also found to be more susceptible to the virus.

Up to this time, very few studies have been done in the area of sexual attitudes and practices, Reproductive Tract Infections (RTIs), Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) and HIV/AIDS knowledge and prevention for and among women. The continued marginalization of women by rendering

them invisible in terms of strategic AIDS action is clearly manifested by the dearth of statistics and materials which address the specific needs of women.


In the context of religiosity, STDs and HIV/AIDS continue to be viewed as a result of immorality and promiscuity. There appears to be a refusal to recognize HIV/AIDS as a medical enigma reflective of our changing times. HIVI AIDS which is primarily contracted through high-risk sexual practices needs to be studied as a risk which women must contend with in order to protect their reproductive rights and promote reproductive health.

Currently there are very few materials which specifically address the AIDS issue from women's perspective. Most of the available materials that have been made for women were for prostituted women or women working in the bars and tended to ignore specific situations of women. However, even some of these materials had not been women-sensitive or reflective of their experiences and needs. In the process, women have even been objectified and seen as 'carriers' rather than infected people themselves.

The lack of understanding of the causes which contribute to the prevalence of RTls and STDs also aggravate the HIV/AIDS problem. RTls and STDs make women more susceptible to HIV infection. RTls which cause involuntary infertility, fatal tubal pregnancy, pelvic inflammatory disease,cervical cancer and HIVI AIDS, greatly impact on the economic conditions and emotional balance of women. For one, it lessens women's productivity which consequently affects their leverage in terms of bargaining for better services among other things. On a larger scale, it inevitably puts additional pressure on the family, community and the government which is already hard pressed to meet further demands.

Looking into government programs, it is very obvious that women's health is mainly addressed in terms of maternal health and even then, women's needs are often subsumed under their children's needs. Poor women who are not mothers, or who are not currently pregnant or nursing are unlikely to receive government health services, whether direct medical care or education.


Recognizing the interconnection of HIVI AIDS, STDs and other RTls, an integrated approach to these health concerns is urgently needed. Such an approach needs to address not just medical issues but as well, discern and respond to the cultural, economic and political factors that limit women's ability to protect themselves against ill health. The production of popular, women-sensitive materials that can be used by varied service sectors - government, non-government and people's organizations - would fill a large gap in existing services and promote prevention-oriented strategies.


3.1 To generate popular materials on HIV/AIDS that are sensitive to women's particular situation for the general population of women and their community.

3.2 To equip women to better educate and protect themselves and other women against RTls, STDs and especially HIV/AIDS and to develop new skills in this area that will raise women's consciousness in terms of their health/reproductive and human rights.

3.3 To deepen the understanding of the community, most particularly government agencies and women's organizations with a view to generating enhanced interest to address and respond with more sensitivity to Rrrls/STDs/AIDS.

3.4 To contribute to the ongoing advocacy and action programs of various NGOs, women's groups and the government in addressing women's reproductive health and sexuality concerns.



A series of consultations were held with women's groups and pertinent government agencies in six areas namely, Laoag and Baguio cities in Luzon, Kalibo and Tagbilaran City in the Visayas and Davao and Iligan cities in Mindanao. The consultations were intended to ascertain particular educational needs of the communities specifically on the issues of RTls, STDs and HIV/AIDS. During the consultations, one organization was identified and agreed to be WEDPRO's local partner in each area (See Annex A for MOA). This arrangement proved to be mutually productive and helpful to both WEDPRO and the local partner organizations. The latter greatly facilitated the smooth implementation of the data gathering phase of the project. They will likewise be involved in the translation of the materials into the local dialect, assist in peer educators training, launching and distribution of the materials in their particular area. All of the local partner-organizations recognize the urgent need for the materials WEDPRO will be developing and welcome the opportunity to be actively involved in the project. As well, WEDPRO is directly responding to the oft - repeated sentiment of provincial NGOs for being "used" by Manila-based NGOs and yet not given any credit and substantial involvement in project implementation. (See Annex B for profile of local partner-organizations)


For the primary data gathering, the methodology used is a combination of survey interviews, focused group discussions and case studies. A total of 300 respondents from the six research areas or 50 respondents per site were interviewed for the research-survey. (See Annex C for a copy of the questionnaire). For each site, purposive sampling was employed to select 7-8 respondents from the students, housewives, government employees, school teachers and/or other professionals, NGO workers and urban poor women sectors. The local interviewers were instructed to identify 12 women from those they interviewed to participate in the FGD and from

the FGD participants; 2 women were selected for the in-depth interviews to be written up as case studies. These activities were intended to elicit information on the socio-economic background, sexual attitudes and obtain insights into women's KAP on STDslHIV/AIDSIRTIs as well as on sexuality and related gender issues. The activities also surfaced specific information needs of women and generated women's suggestions on the educational materials particularly on its forms, contents, etc. thereby allowing women's participation in the materials development.



Based on the consultations, it became more apparent that there is indeed a dearth of materials on RTIs, STDs and HIV/AIDS. Whether GOs or NGOs, there is an almost complete dependence on Manila-based organizations for the materials which if available, are sorely lim-

ited. In Laoag, NGOs are non-existent while in Bohol and Aldan, there is one or at most three NGOs only. In these areas, the more active and visible private organizations are parish (religious) andlor civic organizations such as Rotary and Zonta Clubs with particular focus on small scale income generating projects.

Heeding the suggestion of the local partner-organizations, the data gathering schedule was fixed as follows:

Monday - Orientation and Training of Local Interviewers

Tuesday-Friday - Field Interviews and Manual Tabulation of

Saturday Sunday


- Focussed Group Discussion

- In-depth Interviews

In an interview with a doctor from DOH-Davao, she revealed that during the pre-marriage seminars, they encourage the grooms to have STD testing and that of those who had themselves tested, 30% were

found positive and sought medical attention. It is mind boggling just thinking of the thousands of women unknowingly exposing themselves to the risk of contracting STDs from their sex partners whether in or out of marnage.

During visits to the local Social Hygiene Clinics (SHCs), three things became obvious: One, almost always, only prostituted women avail of smear test to screen for STDs. SHCs have been so identified with prostituted women that other women who may likewise need the services of the SHC would not want to be seen much more so to be known as availing of such services. Two, the smear test procedure was dehumanizing and very insensitive to a person's need for privacy. Three, considering the great number of women (particularly in Davao) and the haste by which smear tests are undertaken as well as the mere ocular inspection through the use of ordinary microscope that the specimen are subjected to, the posssibility of human error is multiplied several times.


The Research Coordinator and the Research Assistant edited and manually tabulated the responses to the survey questionnaires as submitted to them by the interviewers. This close monitoring of the interview protocols ensured the integrity of all questionnaires as well as

the immediately identified the need for return call to respondents as in cases when there are no answers or contradictory information are given. Problems encountered by the interviewers are promptly responded to and the attendance of FGD participants confirmed.

Sexual conservatism both in attitude and practice is the norm in all sites. This conservatism in thoughts and deeds are most pronounced in the provincial cities of Laoag, Kalibo, Tagbilaran and Iligan, in this order and lesser in the more cosmopolitan cities of Baguio and Davao. Most likely this conservatism has religious underpinnings as coincidentally among the oldest Catholic churches in the Philippines are to be found in Vigan and Paoay near Laoag and in Tagbilaran. History records the earliest Filipino converts to Christianity to be Boholanons. In Tagbilaran, the Angelus is still seriously practiced every 6 p.m .. In addition, a prerequisite

to registration of a tricycle, the most common public mode of transporta- , tion, is a conspicuosly painted biblical quotation behind the passengers' seat.

Many women claim not to practice contraception since they think and believe that the so-called "natural" forms offamily planning such as rhythm, withdrawal or Billings method are not methods of contraception. On the other hand, there is a very clear preference for small family size of 2 to 4 which explains why whether natural or artificial, contraception is actually being practiced. There is also an alarmingly high pregnancy wastage averaging one for every three sexually active respondents. No attempt to differentiate between spontaneous and induced abortion was made as the more neutral term "nakunan" or miscarriage was used. This excessively high fetal wastage may indicate that in actuality abortion is being resorted to as a form of contraception.

Comparing attitudes on and knowledge ofSTDs as against HIV/AIDS, the respondents tended to be more aware of the latter considering the media mileage accorded HIV/ AIDS. A big majority believe that STDs and AIDS can only be contracted by loose and bad women, i.e., prostituted women and therefore most are blatantly unaware that they themselves although "good" women, may also be at risk if they have partners who are sexually irresponsible.



It was deemed crucial that for the FGDs to elicit the additionalJdeeper information needed, women participating in these discussions should be articulate, open and able to share actual experiences and views of the different issues at hand. The interviewers in the areas played the key role in the process of selection of the FGD participants given their direct encounter with the respondents from whom the FGD participants were chosen.

Highlights of survey findings were presented to the FGD participants, who were then asked for factors/reasons that explain the results. It was here where women from different sectors, educational and

employment backgrounds have come to freely speak about their life experiences within their homes and families and the community at large.

Indigenous women of Baguio who participated shared their culture on marriage. They informed the group that in some parts of Cordillera, "ulog" or trial marriage is still practiced and initially facilitated by the chief elders of the tribe. "Ulog" aims to test the ability of the woman to bear children. Forced marriage is still practiced in other areas particularly in Ti-tip-an , Sagada. This practice entails the woman to be tied up and the man brought in to rape the woman. After that, the woman is forced to marry the man. There are instances however, when the woman runs away from the man but rarely does this happen. Another practice of the Cordillerans before marriage is to subject the woman to a confession before the elders of the community if she is still a virgin or not. If the woman admits that she is not a virgin anymore, a higher dowry must be given to the groom's family as a form of compensation. As well, rituals must be performed and there should be more offerings during the cafiao, For the couple who are to be married; sex is not allowed for the whole duration of the festivity of cafiao even if it takes days for it to be over.

Going to the Southern part of the Philippines, the Maranao participants talked about fixed marriages particularly among close relatives where parents of both parties negotiate to ensure that the family's wealth will stay among themselves. 'Vuwaya"is very common wherein a Maranao man is allowed to have 2 or more wives at a time provided he could fi.nancially support them and the children. During "puasa" or ramadhan period, the men could not have sex with their wives.

The sharings in all the sites were very enriching. The FGDs, in addition to their substantive contribution to the research, were also designed to raise the participants consciousness on gender. In all the sessions, conscious integration of gender issues was made by the facilitators, thereby optimizing the gains from the FGDs of the project proponent and the participants as well.

It was also in the conduct of the FGD where women suggested to the project team the kind of popular educational materials to be developed that will suit and be effective for women and their community.

Very importantly too, the staff realized that educational materials can only go so far if no consciousness raising on gender relations will simultaneously be undertaken.


A total of 12 women, 2 from each site comprising of 2 each from among students, professionals, GO employees, NGO workers, urban poor women and housewives were interviewed .in-depth. The interviews lasted for an average of 3 hours per interview. Topics discussed included their life before marriage (for the married ones) focussing on their experiences in their family of orientation, gender relations between husband and wife, health needs and problems and how they see themselves 5 years from now. As the interviewee - interviewers' rapport has already been established during the FGD, a very frank and and lively interview albeit lengthy, always ensued. All of the women allowed the interviews to be recorded and their pictures taken.



The project formally got underway on May 1, 1994 and the project team discussed a more detailed plan for its implemen tation. It was also the start of networking to the different NGOs in the six areas included in the project. Schedule of trips was also set as follows:


BAGUIO: June 7 - 9


July 5 - 10

DAVAO: June 20 - 23


July 11 -15

ILIGAN : June 24 - 28


Sept. 13 - 17


The questionnaire was drafted, discussed and revised by the project team. The revised questionnaires were pretested to 30 respondents (10% of the total 300 respondents) here in Manila belonging to the six sectors identi fied in the project to ensure the clarity of the questions formulated. Reviewed and finalized, the questionnaires were then translated to the local dialects which were Ilokano for Baguio and Laoag and Cebuano for the Visayas and Mindanao area.


BAGUIO: Sept. 4 - 12


Oct. 22 - 30


Oct. 2 - 10

BOHOL Nov. 6 - 14

ILIGAN Oct. 11 - 18


Nov. 20 - 28

DECEMBER: The project team carried out an assessment of the activities already undertaken. A code book was prepared for the pre-coding of the 300 questionnaires.



Precoding and computerization of survey data.

FEBRUARY-APRIL: Data analysis and write-up of survey and FGD data and case histories



NOVEMBER 1995: to JANUARY 1996

Conceptualization and development of materials with survey and FGD findings providing major inputs

Writing/ArtworkslTranslations, printing, video pro duction and launching of materials in Quezon City

Peer Educators' Training, regional

launching and presentation of materials in 8 sites

Regional monitoring, evaluation and preparation of Final Report

Annex I

I, I I


1. Foundation for Huwomanity Centered Development

FReD (formerly Tahanang Walang Rehas Foundation) is a social development agency engaged mainly in providing support to marginalized groups and communities in their struggle from freedom, poverty and oppression. One of its programs is Women in Development (WID) which focuses on the wholistic development of FHCD's women partners vis-a-vis the overall struggle of women from oppression. FHCD's women partners represents the different sectors of the Philippine society which includes tribal women, fisherfolks, peasant women, urban poor and the prostituted women. This program aims to promote a gender sensitive development in the Philippines.

2. Women's Development Center Inc.

WDC was established in June of 1990 in Tagbilaran City, Bohol. It aims to respond to the specific need of women in coordination with other agencies, disseminate information, promote and conduct activities that will equip Boholano women with knowledge and skills and instill in them the consciousness and motivation to achieve socio-cultural transformation. At present, it has six programs and service components which includes education and organizing, program for children in situation of armed conflict, community nutrition, socioeconomic training, research and documentation and networking.

3. USWAG Inc.

USWAG is a social development foundation based in Kalibo, Aklan. It aims to help build, educate and support self-sufficient, empowered communities among subsistence farmers, marginal fishermen, urban poor and the disadvantaged women and youth in Aklan. Particular to disadvantaged women and youth, USWAG's program of actions are geared towards the transformation from their state of exploitation, dependence and functional illiteracy into an empowered, educated and skilled sector able to access productive resources and vital services. These programs include organizing, employment and income generation, provi-

sion of basic services and policy advocacy. '


lALIKALA is a Cebuano term for bonding. In August 1987, Talikala was formally established in Davao City. As an institution, it serves the needs of prostituted women in the area. It aims for the empowerment of these women to regain their dignity and find their place in the society. It has four programs namely education, organizing, research and publication and direct services. The direct service program provide the women with referrals, grants and assistance, counselling sessions and facilitation of alternative livelihood.

5. KALAYAAN - IJigan

KALAYAAN is a feminist collective founded in 1983. Through the years it has attracted women from various socio-economic background"! --- artists and writers, professionals, academics, prostituted women, students, women working at home, all of whom came into the group to share KALAYAAN's feminist vision for a long-term social, cultural, political and economic transformations in Philippine society. It conducts trainings, seminars and workshops on feminist education and consciousness raising, women's health and reproductive rights and sexuality. KALAYAAN -Iligan is their chapter in Mindanao.

6. Dr. Cecilia Pacis Aribuabo

She is the principal of Laboratory Elementary School and at the same time college secretary of Mariano Marcos State University College of Education. She is also the local coordinator of the Task Force on Social Sciences and Reproductive Health.






2nd Flr., PNA Bldg., Upper Session Rd., 2600 Baguio City Tel. no. 442-5029 EC P.No. 900461

Fax No. 442-3302


Resurrection Church Cmpd., 362 Magsaysay Avenue


P.O. Box 379

2600 Baguio city

3. Baguio Center for Young

Adu1 ts Inc.

Ground Floor, RMN Bldg., Assumption Rd.,

2600 Baguio City

4. PLAN Int'l. Baguio 14 Loakan Rd. cor Club John Hay


P.O. Box 140

2600 Baguio city Tel. no. 442-4784


Lopez Bldg.,

12 Chuntug st., 2600 Baguio City Tel no. 442-4128

6. IGOROTA Foundation 3 Pucay Rd., Marcos Highway 2600 Baguio City Tel. no. 442-3706


Regina Vizcaya

Abigail Tauli

Marilyn de Castro

Joan Marie Cortez

Mayette Molina

Elisa Benafin



Upper Gen. Luna Rd., 2600 Baguio city

Gaye Alangue


AIDS Watch Council Baguio Health Dept. T. Alonzo street, 2600 Baguio City Tel. no. 442-4542


Ora. F. Reyes

Baguio Chinese Hospital Trancoville, Baguio City Tel. no. 442-2972

Dr. C. Cheng


Engineers Hill, Baguio City Tel. no. 442-3842

Betty Fangasen

NGOs l. ZONTA CLUB Marilou Remegio
Ranada Building,
Rizal street,
Laoag City
Tel. no. 772-0724/772-0722
GOs 1- CSR BLOOD PROGRAM Elmer D. Marcos
Bonifacio street,
Laoag City
Tel. no. 772-0217
2. CITY HEALTH OFFICE Dra. Imelda A. Tamayo
Laoag City Eduardo Rapasma
Tel. no. 772-0209
3. MMSU College of Education Dr. Cecilia Aribuabo
Laoag city
Tel. no. 772-0510 3. DAVAO NGOs

1. Brokenshire Integrated

Health Ministries Brokenshire College Davao city

Tel.no. 221-4456

Emma Rose Galdones

2. Devt. of People's Foundation Km. 5, Bajada, Davao City Tel. no. 75036/77714

Lyda Canson



3. FPOP - Teen Center 35-F JP Laurel Avenue, Bajada, Davao city Tel. no. 64059/72567

4. Medicins Sans Frontiers R. Cabaguio St.,

Bo. Obrero, Davao City Tel. no. 75316

5. Women Studies and Resource Center (WSRC)

234 McArthur Highway Matina, Davao city Tel. no. 221-3723

6. KAABAY Inc.

211-A Carmel Apt.,

Dau street, Juna Subd., Matina, Davao city

7. TALlKALA Inc.

2 Sputnik st.,

Dona Vicenta Village, Davao City

Tel. no. 221-6728/62543

8. ALAGAD - Mindanao

Rm. 226 Dona Segunda Bldg., Claveria, Davao city

1. POPCOM Region XI Bajada, Davao city Tel no. 71025/71027

2. DOH Region XI AIDS unit

Bajada, Davao city Tel. no. 73976

1. Ranao Women and Children Resource Center Inc. (RWCRC) Nobleza's Apartment,

2nd East Rosario Heights, 9200 Iligan City

Virgilio Rosario

Dr. Jun Naraval

Luz Ilagan

Dra. Jean Lindo

Alma Lusanta

Beth 0' Brien

Auspecia Gepayo

Dra. Renee Faldas

Mary Ann Kadile





2. Community Health Based Program (CBHP)

Rm. 307 Diocesan Centrum Lluch street,

9200 Iligan, city

3. Lig-ong Hiniusang Kusog

sa Kabus Inc. (LIHUK-ILIGAN)

4. KALAYAAN - Iligan Iligan Museum Badelles st., 9200 Iligan City

1. DOH

Badelles St., 9200 Iligan City

2. Social Hygiene Clinic Badelles St.,

9200 Iligan city

1. Bohol In tegra ted Devel opmen t Education Foundation (BIDEF) 39 Hontanosas st., Tagbilaran City,

6300 Sohol

2. Women I s Development Center Rm.1, 3rd flr. Manigque Bldg., B. Inting st., Tagbilaran city 6300 Bohol

Tel. no. 411-3656

1. city Health Office Tagbilaran city 6300 Bohol

2. Provincial Heal th Offi ce Tagbilaran city

6300 Bohol

3. Office of the Provincial Agriculturist Tagbilaran City

6300 Bohol

Evangeline Jimenez

Eva Olaer

Anita Sescon

Dra. C. Canaveral

Salud Adeva

Naring Likong

Ira Pamat

Mimi Madanguit

Dr. Alberto Jones

Mrs. Virginia Espeleta

Myra A. Trinidad



1. USWAG Development Foundation L. Barrios st.,

Kalibo, Aklan

Didi R. Quimpo

2. Aklan Federation of Women's Club Manolita Acevedo Kalibor Aklan


Aklan College C. Laserna st., Kalibor Aklan

3. Move Aklan Forward Foundation Capitol Subdivision,

Kalibo, Aklan

1. Rural Improvement Club Office of the Provincial Agriculturist

Capitol Subdivisionr Kalibo, Aklan

2. Social Hygiene CLinic DRSTMH

Kalibo, Aklan

Dr. Ben Hur Mobo Jr.

Eleanor Masigon

Giselle del Rosario Reah Tresballes


May 23,1996

Dr. Nicola K.M. Jones Program Officer

The Ford Foundation

P.O Box 1936 Makati Central Post Office 1259 Makati, MM.

Dear Dr. Jones,

Greetings from WEDPROI

We would like to submit the interim report covering the period IanuaryDecember 1995 on the project "Materials Development Project on STDs, HIV I AIDS and other RTls for Women and their Community." We apologize for the delay as there was some confusion on our part, having prepared the Final Report before noting the oversight re the Interim Report.

Should there be questions or clarifications about this report, we would be gtad to respond to such at your convenience. Thank you very much for your continuing support.

Warm regards,


#14 Maalalahanin Street, Teacher's Village, Dillman, Quezon CUy 11( es

Te(ephone Nos: (632) 921-7053, 433-6018, 433-6045; Fax No. (632/ 53

E-Mail; WEDPRO@p/l11.gn.apc.org

Field Office: #912 Arayat st. Clarl<View, Angeles City, Philippines; Tel. No. (63"1 ,; .. ~5-602-3779 Mailing Address: Bo)( 44-43 UP. Shopping Center, Dl1iman, Quezon City, Philippines


Inttoduction .

n 1994, the Women's Education, Development,Productivity and Research Organization (\X1EDPRO) together with

The Ford Foundation undertook the 2-year project,

"Materials Development Project on HIV / AIDS, STDs and other RTIs For Women and their Community."

The project was developed to equip women to better educate and protect themselves against RTIs, especially HIV / AIDS through consciousness-raising and a deeper understanding of health/reproductive and human rights.

The major component of the program is the development and production of popular print materials such as posters, comics in 3 languages, a gender-sensitive trainer's training manual and a video that addresses gender relations, women's situation and provides a women's perspective in reproductive health. The content and form of the materials was based upon the research and interviews conducted by the project team with the intent to contribute and support the ongoing advocacy and action programs of various NGOs, women's groups and the government in addressing women's reproductive and sexuality concerns.

Consultations were conducted with different local organizations' to facilitate Focused Group Discussions with local NGOs, GOs and other health-focused organizations with the exception of Laoag which did not have any NGO. Instead, WEDPRO linked with Dr. Cecile Aribuabo of the Mariano Marcos State University. To date, they are in the process of establishing a women's NGO, as an offshoot of the training they undertook.

Six research sites were identified all over the country where representatives were also chosen to undertake a Trainer's Training Program namely: Laoag City and Baguio City in Luzon; Aldan

and Bohol in the Visayas; Davao City and Iligan in Mindanao in addition to Manila and Angeles. Cebu, upon the recommendation of Ms. Nicola Jones was also included in the Trainor's Training Program, and was represented by Ms. Babes Sanchez.

The materials developed were distributed through the local partners after the Trainer's Training Program. Using the Trainer's Training Manual as a guide, the training was then replicated in their respective areas as mutually agreed upon, and an assessment conducted after each pilot training.

The development of materials was based upon the data from research and the Focused Group Discussions (FGDs) in the regions.

In Iligan, [or example, there were no materials available except for one billboard on I-IIV / AIDS. In Ilocos, the participants in the rGO said that there were no materials at all on HIV/ AIDS and more so on RTls/STIs. Generally, the concept of ST'Is and HTIs was alien to the women. Initially they either perceived STls/RTIs as being "new" diseases totally unrelated to HIV / AIDS or as less life-threatening and selective i.e only women "entertainers" contracted them, than HIV / AIDS.

The choice of materials developed was based u pan the recommendations of the women and other factors such as replicability, popularity of form, and potential for reaching out to a broad audience. The materials chosen were "korniks", video and posters.

ford male rials development report page £

Komiks .

Kotniks have mass appeal and are usually passed on from one person to another. The stories were also the result of the women's recommendations.

There were three stories developed for the komiks. The first one is about a young woman who succumbed to peer pressure and in the course of circumstances was infected through a needle with Hlv.

The second story is about a poor couple. Unknown to the woman, her husband has been engaging in unsafe sexual practices with his drinking buddies and infected the wife subsequently. Gender relations were also explored in this story.

The third story is about a young man who contracted a Sexually Transmitted Disease during his "initiation rites into manhood". He continued to engage in unprotected sex while working as a seaman.

Video .

Videos were a popular choicebecause of the Filipinos' fondness for movies. Videos can be used by health workers, NGOs and community leaders as an intructional tool to complement HN I AIDS module trainings.

The stOIY developed for the video was based upon the recommendations of the women, as well as the survey results. The video team attempted to create a composite of all the inputs gathered so that it could appeal to as broad an audience as possible.

The story is about a young couple and how their gender relations made the woman vulnerable to an RTI, in this case, gonorrhea. At the end of the movie, the couple discussed their dynamics and posed some questions as well to the audience about gender roles and how it affects their health and relations.

A professional team was hired to do the video in collaboration with the training staff of WEDPRO which wrote the storyline and took oversight of the project.

ford materials development report pilge 3


The posters are popular among students, professionals and health workers. These could be posted in public buildings, community centers, schools and shops to contribute to the popularization of HN / AlDS and its links to women's rights.

The poster done in full color is an original work by Sandra Torrijos, a respected feminist visual artist and a recipient of the several awards given by both local and international art bodies. The poster shows women in motion, exulting. The slogan reads" Di Ligtas, Di Puwede." (superimposed over the word AIDS, to immediately establish the context of the slogan) "May Karapatan kang tumanggi bilang Babae." Translated it means, "If its unsafe, it is not permissible. As a woman you have the right to refuse." Tills slogan was chosen to connect the issue of HN transmission and women's rights over their bodies.

Many women were not familiar with the concept of RTI/STIs but considered these to be less dangerous.. HIV / AIDS knowledge was higher and perceived to be more dangerous but unlikely to affect them. Some health workers who took part in the training also found the module on reproductive rights and reproductive health especially helpful because they do not receive continuing education and this module served to be a refresher course for them. Some of them also articulated that this was the first time that they have actually seen the other forms of contraceptives or had an actual discussion and demonstration of some of these methods.

The materials were launched after each training per area. Invited to the launching of the materials were GOs, NGOs, partner organizations, and other prominent community entities. The only exception was in Angeles, where the materials were launched after a feedback consultation. This was decided upon so that there would be more people who may learn about the available materials and thus maximize the potential of the materials.

WED PRO distributed a copy of the module to each of the partner organizations and to each of the participants with an understanding that they will echo the training in their communities/beneficiaries. Assistance will also be extended to all those requiring/requesting it.

ford materials development report page 4

A total of 4670 komiks (2,000 in Filipino, 1,000 in Ilocano,1670 in Visayan); 700 posters, 10 videocassettes (both VHS and Beta formats; copies are made upon request with the proper acknowledgement) and 40 modules were distributed. This was divided between the nine areas (Baguio, Laoag, Angeles, Bohol, Aklan, Davao, Iligan, Quezon City", Cebu* and

Olongapo*). .

Approximately 500 komiks per partner organization in their local language"

. Approximately 75 posters per partner organization One (1) video cassette per partner organization

One set composed of the module, komiks and poster per participant to the training

A problem ensued after the launching of the komiks in the Visayas region to which Bohol and Aklan belonged to. The trainees wanted to take with them korniks written either in Filipino or English instead of the local dialect. This was contrary to the FGD results which recommended that all materials be written in their vernarcular, The reason given was that Visayan had so many variations that some locals may not even understand the Visayan used in the korniks. A compromise was made, wherein WEDPRO took half of the Visayan edition and replaced it with the available Filipino edition. The returned komiks were then added on to the copies given to the Cebubased organization. In the original proposal, a translation to Kapampangan was also proposed but due to financial constraints brought about by changes in printing costs this was not considered feasible anymore.

ford materials development report p8fle5

.............................. II

Tho Training


The third phase of the project involved training peer educators with participants coming from nine communities. The original plan in the project file says only eight communities but with the revised planning, WEDPRO was able to train participants from nine conununities, namely, Baguio, Laoag, Angeles, Oiongapo, Davao, Iligan, Bohol, Cebu and Aldan. Cebu was an addition, as recommended by Dr. Nicola Jones of The Ford Foundation. The rest of the communities were identified by the organizations within the regions with whom WEDPRO has existing contacts.

The Peer Educators Training was aimed mainly to build capability among the participants to replicate the training WEDPRO has conducted in the regions among community women with the overall goal of preventing RTIs, STIs, HIV/AIDS using women-friendly materials that could aid in the smooth and effective How of information.

Another basic aim of the training was to introduce the concepts of gender, patriarchy and violence against women and its relation to women's health.

Questionnaires were sent out to all the participants through our local partners to determine the level of awareness on the issues prior to the training. The participants' profile was sent back to WEDPRO to enable the organization to adapt the training to the participants and make it relevant to their level and needs.

On the technical side, in the sites where we have a local partner, necessary arrangements were undertaken by them upon our request to ensure the smooth How of training. This includes venue reservations, food preparations, invitations etc., which we arranged through telephone calls, letters and faxes. In places where we do not have a local partner, for instance in Cebu, one of the WEDPRO staff had to fly to Cebu a few days prior to the start of the training to make arrangements. The training team made it a point to arrive 1-2 days earlier than the participants in all sites to ensure the proper implementation of the training.

ford materials development report page 6

Some unforeseen circumstances required last minute arrangements to be made. For example in Cebu, the participants were informed before leaving their places that the training was going to take place in Mayflower Pension House, but due to prevailing brownouts in the area, we had to go look for another place since the conference hall in Mayflower was adjacent to their generator room which made communication difficult. So, when the participants arrived, we had to leave word on the change of venue. WEDPRO hired a vehicle to shuttle the women to the new site located a few kilometers away. Some of them however, almost got lost when they attempted to go on their own as they were told that the new venue was only a few meters away. Likewise, in Davao we had to change the venue from Menseng Hotel to DEMS (Development Education and Media Services) because the original site was not conducive for training. We left a message to proceed to Talikala, Inc. and from there, we all headed for the new site which was about ten kilometers from the city.

All the materials needed for the training were prepared in the Manila office beforehand to ensure minimal errands in the training site.

The Peer Educators Trainings were held in four sites, Baguio City, Davao City, Angeles City and Cebu City. Each site had two regions combined with four participants coming per region. Based on the criteria we have set, the participants were selected by WEDPRO's local partner from the region. The criteria are as follows: a) at least high school graduate; b) with capacity to do counselling; c) with good communication skills; and d)

pro-women. Our local partners for the project are as follow:




The Foundation for Huuomaniiy Centered Development formerly Tahanang Walang Rehas Foundation

Mariano Marcos State University c/o Dr. Cecil Aribuabo (we had to coordinate with an individual in Laoag because there were no NGOs in Laoag)


Naghakaisang Kababaiban ng Angeles City USWAG Development Foundation

Women's Development Center

ford materials development report page 7

010 .



SINAG Kababaihan Talikala, Inc. Kalayaan

The local partners extended their assistance in the form of participant selection, follow-up and some technical arrangements.

The Baguio training brought together the Baguio and Laoag participants and was held from October 2-6, 1995 at the training center of the Foundation for Huwornanity Centered Development. The IEC materials were launched on the last day and were well received by the invited local NGOs and GOs and schools.

The Davao training joined the Davao and Iligan participants last October 17-21,1995 in DEMS (Development Education and Media Services), Catalunan Pequeno, Davao City. Materials were launched on the last day at Terraza Milesa and were enthusiastically received by the invited guests.

The Angeles training combined the Angeles, Olongapo and Quezon City participants last October 28-31,1995 in the WEDPRO Field Office, Angeles City.

Aldan, Bohol and Cebu participants had their training last Nove 111- ber 11-14,1995 at the VICTO Seminar House in Cebu City. There was no launching of materials in this site since WEDPRO does not have a local partner organization in Cebu although a bulk was left under the care of Ms. Purita "Babes" Sanchez of Kauswagan Community Health and Womanhealth. The materials were flown to Aldan and Bohol and we had asked the participants to distribute the materials in strategic locations in their communities through our local partners, USWAG Development Foundation and Women's Development Center.

The topics, as discussed in the modules development portion of the report are as follow: Gender and Patriarchy, Violence Against Women, Reproductive Tract Infections, Sexually Transmitted Infections, HN / . AIDS, Safer Sex and Training of Trainers. The replication of training is to be adapted based on the needs and priorities of the communities where they are to conduct the training.

ford materials development report pi1JleB

The training manual was developed for a three to five-day training.

The number of days was based upon 2 factors. First, this was the maximum number of days the women could afford to go on a training; second, this was the maximum number of days that the project could fund adequately.

The manual proved useful in all the trainings we conducted, adapting itself well to changes in both level and content. The participants were also encouraged to contribute or suggest changes in the flow of the program. One of the training team members, was chosen for her facility in the language and did interpretations whenever necessary.

Time proved quite difficult to manage. The discussions were new to most participants and they requested for more time to process the new inputs. A lot of time was also spent checking and counterchecking the understanding of the participants at least on a conceptual level, realizing the difficulty of challenging preconceived ideas. This was deemed necessary at each point of the training, especially on gender-based issues because it would be difficult to present more "difficult" issues if these were not clearly understood.

The training program took an eclectic approach to make it more participatory, evocative and enjoyable. While the methods used leaned more towards the popular method, WED PRO also employed some traditional teaching methods which the women were familiar with given their academic background.

Videos also proved to be an effective teaching aid complementing the other teaching aids used such as the flip chart, pictures and actual safer sex materials.

The training team, recognizing the possibility that Sallie women may want to express their thoughts in different ways, devised methods to ensure open conununication between trainers and participants. A "talk" wall was put up where women can just write down their thoughts, the "magic box" where women can put in their comments and questions whether they are related or unrelated to the training at hand, and which were read on a regular basis. The team noticed that the women felt it important to ask personal questions about the trainors. A more personal relationship was necessary for them to establish trust to ask or share their thoughts.

ford materials development report page 9

• l1li III l1li l1li

Baguio Training Participants

Mary Anne B. Galee Josephine C. Cullan Mylene Ysabel Pascual

Rosalina P. Bayan Marietta P. Castillo Winnie B. Agustin Ovieta O. Castillo

Dr. Cecil P. Aribuabo

DSWD, Cordillera Autonomous Region FHCD, Baguio City

Philippine Association of Social Workers; Philippine Mental Health Assn.,· Laoag Anti-Drug Abuse Council FHCD, Baguio City

MMSU, Laoag City

MMSU, Laoag City

City Health Office, Laoag City; National League of Nurses; Philippine Nurses Assn.

MMSU, Laoag City

Davao Training Participants

Fely L. Prieto

Karina Siquijon Adenia Chiong Marilou O. Olaco Luzviminda Blasabas Amy L. Oniola Marybeth D. Sulog Norma T. Andayan

Talikala, Inc., Davao City Talikala, Inc., Davao City

Women's Welfare Federation, !ligan Women's Welfare Federation, !ligan REAL, Inc, Iligan

KAHA YAG Foundation, Davao City Health Office, Davao City DSWD, Davao City

Angeles Training Participants

Melani C. David

Purlflcacion P. Gilbore Noemi O. Ladia

Gloria G. Gutierrez Wilma B. Egana

Alma Bulawan

Malou Laulita

Glo dela Cruz

Nagkakaisang Kababaihan ng Angeles City (NKAC)








ford materials development report page 11

Cebu Training Participants

Dr. Eplfania N. Trabajo Fe Corazon C. Licong

Aida B. Montalvo

Ma. Ira D. Pamat

Claudette P. Dallda Sheila S. Mercurio Delia T. Isturis

Purita R. Sanchez

City Health Office, Tagbilaran City Women's Development Center, Inc., Bohol

City Social Welfare and Development Office; Tagbilaran City Federated Women's Organization

Women's Deoelopment Center Inc., Bohol

Department of Health, Aklan Provincial Hospital, Aklan

US WAG Development Foundation, A klan

Kausuiagan Community Health and Social Development Center,' Womanhealth

Launching.Guests (Baguio City)

Shirley P. Dino Amy Anievas Myke A. Sotero Marcos V. Diwas G.F. Canahun Lorna P. Moran Sharon V. Lagman Maria Balabag

Els peth Ananayo Emily G. Qulnes Nito Meneses Edna Ballnggan Lordgie Maruhas Irene G. Abella Martha B. Cayad Marilyn A. Pe Lynn B. Madalang Lorna Andaya

University of Baguio University of Baguio AMARANTH






Department of Health, CAR Department of Health, CAR ]yOFI




Department of Health, CAR FHCD

PLAN International

ford materials development report page III

Launching Guests (Davao City)

Josephine Imperial Perla Borja

Alma Lusanta

Marilou G. Suminguid Elma B. Manapsal

Ruby Rose L. Lora Marivic Desquitado Nella M. Silva

John L. Roxas

Norma T. Andayan Lourdesita S. Sobrevega Edith Casiple

Imelda Carreon

Marybeth D. Sulog Adenia Chiong Marilou A. Olaco FelyPrieto Luzvlminda Blasabas Amy L. Oniola

Development of Peoples Foundation POP COM XI

Talikala, Inc.

LINK, Davao

LINK, Davao


LINK, Davao

Development of Peoples Foundation ALAGAD- Mindanao, Inc.

DSWD, Davao City

Ateneo de Davao University Talikala, Inc.

Kaugrnaon Center for Children Concerns, Inc.

City Health Office, Davao City Women's Welfare Federation Women's Welfare Federation Talikala Drop-in Center

REAL, Inc.

Kahayag Foundation

... . .. " ... , . " " .. , . " .... "

ford materials development report page 13

• " " ... " " ...... " •• " " " •• 000 .....

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