Angiosperm is the most successful plant in the exploitation of many terrestrial habitats.

Based on the many adaptation strategies, discus how they adapt to various environments. Angiosperm abundant in various types of environments. The angiosperm can leaves in water, terrestrial, tundra and in most environment. These entire environments have their distinct features. For examples, mangrove area contains very salty water. In this condition, if the plant does not have any adaptation will died. This is because the salty water act as the hypertonic solution to the sap cell of the plant. Therefore, the plant must have special adaptation in order to survive in that habitat. The unique characteristic of angiosperms in reproduction way is one of its adaptation to various terrestrial habitat. The reproductive organ of angiosperms are flowers. Angiosperms reproduce by double fertilization. Double fertilization will lead to the formation of the endosperm that is the nutritive tissue within the seeds that feeds the developing embryo furthermore the angiosperms' ovary are protected by petal of the flower. This will give more advantage for embryo of angiosperms to survive. Besides, the flower consist of both female and male organ that located near to each other. Since angiosperms flower have characteristics such as attractive color of petal and odor it will lead to the pollination with the help of pollinators. This will result to more succeed survival of angiosperms any habitat. In terrestrial habitat, the adaptation strategies made by angiosperms are the stems of angiosperm consist of thick bark. The thick function to limit the evaporation from the tree’s trunk. So, this will reduce the rate of water loss or rate of transpiration. Since this is not a concern in the high humidity of tropical rainforests, most trees have a thin, smooth bark. The smooth characteristic resulting the other plant difficult to grow on their surface. Some plant for example, Lianas, the climbing woody veins that drape rainforest trees. Lianas adapted to life in rainforest by having their roots in the ground and climbing high into the tree canopy to reach available sunlight. Many lianas start life in the rainforest canopy and send roots down to the ground. Many tropical forest leaves have a drip trip. This kind of leaves have adapted to cope with exceptionally high rainforest. It is thought that these drip tips enable rain drops to run off quickly. This is because, plant need to shed water to avoid growth of fungus and bacteria in the

warm, wet tropical rainforest. Tropical forest have the greatest extends and diversity of any terrestrial biome because they have remained undisturbed far longer than forest at higher latitudes and have an almost continuous growing season. A critical limiting factor for growth in the tropical forest is light because for the age of tree crowns is so thick and growth of vines and other plants at many levels is so prolific, the light near to and on the forest floor is dim, with sunlight rarely shining through. Therefore many plant adaptation minimizing the effect of the lack of light. In the lower layers of a tropical forest, plants must be efficient for light trappers to undergo photosynthesis. Plants in the under stories have large thin leaves, which present the maximum surface for light reception and there is evidence that their photosynthetic pigments are particularly efficient in trapping light. Vines are another adaptation for living in the upper layers of the tropical forest. They climb trees by coiling around a trunk or sending tendrils that give support while the main branch grows upward. Some vines have thorn that dig into the bark of the host tree. Others like the strangler fig, deposit seeds that germinate high on the branches, their stem-like roots grow to the ground and eventually enclosed the supporting tree. Some plants have buttress roots. This buttress roots provide extra stability, especially since tropical rainforest trees are not typically as deed as those of trees in temperate zones. For epiphytes that live on the surface of plants, especially the trunk and branches have aerial roots that cling to the host plant, absorbed minerals and absorbed water from the atmosphere. On tropical deltas and along ocean edges and river estuaries, trees have adapted to living in wet, marshy conditions. These trees, called mangroves, have wide-spreading stilt roots that support the trees in the tidal mud and trap nutritious organic matter. Mangrove trees also have viviparity seed. This kind of seed germinate on the mother plant. Other characteristics of mangrove plants are they capable to reduce water loss because they have succulent leaves, a kind of leaves that covered by a waxy substance. The sap cell of mangrove plants root act as hypotonic solution for the surrounding. This important to reduce high concentration of water in plant out to the surrounding that have very low water concentration. Pitcher plant vines in the Nepenthaceae family have leaves that form a pitcher and the pitcher is complete with a lid. The pitcher contain nectar that produce or smell foul- smelling or

sweet to attract insects such as ants and flies that lose their grip on the slick sides and fall into liquid. Inside the pitcher, there are downward-pointing hairs that function to prevent the insect’s escape. The trapped insect will be digested by the plants they will provide nutrients. It is important to note that pitcher plants are not epiphytes but climbers rooted in the soil. At desert there are also succulent plants that store water in their leaves or stem to reduce the water loss. Some plants even have no leaves or small seasonal leaves that grow after it rains. The advantage of having less leaves helps reduce water loss during photosynthesis, while the leafless plants conduct photosynthesis in their green stem. This type of plant also have long root systems that spread out wide or go deep into the ground in order to absorb water. They are so reliable as indicators of subsurface water that people long ago learn to dig wells where they go. There also some plants that have a short life cycle that germinate in response to rain, growing, flowering and dying all within one year. These type of plants will evade drought. The desert is not completely without water, floods also may occur at desert when rain comes suddenly and abundantly. As the consequences of the rain fall there are seems to spring to life and turn into a flower garden. The moisture does not last and the plants do not long outlive but their adaptation to drought are fascinating where some of the desert’s flowering plants have seed containing chemicals that inhibit germination. These seed lie dormant in the desert soil for a long time, even through periods of transient rainfall. The amount of water require to wash out the inhibiting chemical seems nicely balance with the amount that will sustain the growth of the plant through its short life cycle. The germination inhibitors act like moisture matters and prevent the seed from germinating until the soil has enough water to ensure the plant’s survival. Other plants have developed different adaptations for conserving fluids. Hair growth is such an adaptation. The layer of hairs cools the plant, or at least prevents its temperature from raising. It also provides volume that insulates the plant body from its surrounding, so the plant is less influenced by the outside temperature. Usually, the hairs of dessert plants are light-colored, whitish-gray that brighten the plants. Light colors reflect most of sun’s radiation so the plant is heated less and losses less water. In addition to the morphological and physiological adaptations, an additional important adaptation of extreme desrt plants is full or partial dormancy during the dry seasons. Annual

plants are the plant that germinate with the rain’s arrival, bloom and the fruits ripen rapidly and remain as dry and dormant seeds during dry period, which may last a year or a few years. This phenomenon is notable along the Dead Sea shore; usually this region is dry in winter and spring also. Every few years an above-average quantity of rain falls and millions of seeds that were “waiting” for the rain germinate, creating beautiful carpets of flowers. There are also plants that have leaves with hair that help shade the plant then, reducing the water loss. Other kind of plants have leaves that turn throughout the day to expose a minimum surface area to the heat. Other adaptation, there are plants that have spines to discourage animals from eating plants not for food but for water. Other characteristic to reduce water loss are some plants have waxy coating on stems and leaves. Some plants have flower that open at light lure pollination that are more likely to be active during the cooler night. Other plant have unique physiology that is slower growing to make sure less energy is needed for matured. Furthermore, some prairie trees have thick bark to resist fire and prairie shrubs readily resprout after fire. Besides that, the root of prairie grasses extend deep into the ground that function to absorb as much moisture as they can. The extensive root systems also prevent grazing animals from pulling roots out of the ground. For the leaves, prairie grasses have narrow leaves which lose less water than broad leaves. To preventing permanently damaged from grazing animals or fire, the grasses will grow from near their base, not from tip. For the tropical rainforest plants, there are several adaptation of survival. They have drip tips and waxy surfaces which function to allow water to run off and also to discourage growth of bacteria and fungi. Besides that, there are buttresses, prop and stilt roots that help in holding up plants in the shallow soil. The plants also have shallow roots to help capture nutrients from the top level of water. The flowers on the forest floor are designed to lure animal pollinators since there is relatively no wind on the forest floor to aid in pollination. The smooth bark and smooth or waxy flowers helps in speed the run off water. Many trees are deciduous (they drop their leaves in the autumn and grow new ones in spring). Most deciduous trees have thin, broad, light-weight leaves that can capture a lot of sunlight to make a lot of food for the tree in warm weather; when the weather gets cooler, the

broad leaves cause too much snow, so the tree drops its leaves. New ones will grow in the spring. Furthermore, the trees have thick bark to protect against cold winters. Many trees are evergreen so that plants can photosynthesize right away when temperatures rise. They also have needle-like leaves that helps in reducing the loses water and sheds snow more easily than broad leaves. The waxing coating on needle-like leaves is to prevent evaporation. The needles are dark in color in allowing more solar heat to be absorbed. Besides, many trees have branches that droop downward to help shed excess snow which keep the branches from breaking. For aquatic plants, the underwater leaves and stem are flexible to move with water currents. Some plants have air spaces in their stems to helps hold the plant up in the water. Submerged plants lack strong water transport system (in stem) so water, nutrients and dissolved gases are absorbed through the leaves directly from the water. The plants have no roots and roots hairs or reduced it because roots only needed for anchorage but not for absorption of nutrients and water. Some plants have leaves that float on the water for exposing themselves to the sunlight. In floating plants, chlorophyll is restricted to upper surface of leaves (part that the sunlight will hit) and the upper surface is waxy to repel water. Besides, some plants produce seeds that can float. Some angiosperm reproduce asexually by mean apomixis especially the sterile hybrids. Apomixis is one form of asexual propagation includes the production of seeds without fertilization. For example, a cell may divide by mitosis forming an embryo. Asexual propagation also includes other forms of vegetative reproduction. When species reproduce mainly by apomixis but sometime also hybridize so that combinations of genes are occasionally produced, they can be highly successful in nature. Dandelions and wild blackberries, for example, are among the most successful plants known. They reproduce apomictically, as well as sexually through fertilization and also by vegetative propagation. New reproductive strategies helped angiosperms become a great success and diversify into the forms we know today. Male and female structures develop within flowers. Many organisms such as birds, bats and insects have coevolved to help disperse the seeds of angiosperms. For example, a variety of insects are attracted to the scent, color and shape of the

apple blossom. The honeybee Apis mellifera is the major pollinator of apple trees. Some solitary bees like the orchad mason bee Osmia lignaria are much more efficient at pollinating apple blossoms and are used by many orchads. However, it is the ability to produce honey (which humans desire) that has made Apis mellifera the primary pollinator. The honeybee eats the nectar and collects pollen (a good protein source) to geed their larvae. As the bee visits different flowers it becomes coated with pollen, which gets transferred to other flowers on other trees. Although the apple blossom has both male and female parts (the apple tree is a hermaphrodite), it is self-incompatible. Apple trees require cross-pollination. So, when the pollen of one apple cultivar or crab apple comes into contact with a flower on a different apple cultivar, specifically the stigma on that flower, the growth of a pollen tube is activated. A seed is formed when the endosperm and the embryo become enveloped in a part of the ovule that hardens into the seed coat. The ovary or other parts of the flower in angiosperms develop into a fleshy fruit surrounding the seeds. The apple is a type of fruit called a pome. The calyx forms a tube and the hypanthium becomes a fleshy pome surrounding the true fruit made of five carpels each encasing 2 to 3 seeds. The fleshy fruits of angiosperms are an adaptation for seed dispersal. Many animals use the fruit as a food source which results in the dispersal of seeds encapsulated within a natural fertilizer. Each seed in every apple represents a unique combination of genes brought together through sexual reproduction. The fact that each seed is unique helps to ensure that the apple tree can adapt to many different environments. Furthermore, orchids have minute seeds that are often produced in prodigious numbers (e.g., a single fruit of certain orchid species may contain up to 1 million seeds). Each seed consists of only a few cells, and in order for a seed to germinate, it must become associated with a specific mycorrhizal fungus that produces substances necessary for its development. Once a seed has germinated, it may take from 6 to 12 or more years before the first flower appears. Some orchids can be grown relatively easily on a windowsill that has bright light, but not direct sunlight. Because orchids are among the most beautiful and prized of flowers, a large industry has grown up around their culture and propagation. One species, the vanilla orchid is grown commercially in the tropics for its fruits which are the source of true vanilla flavorings.

Adaptation to habitat Not all adaptations are evident at the anatomical and morphological levels. Some are physiological, and physiological races of plants have evolved which fit them for growth in extreme conditions. For example, some races of Agrostis species can grow in areas of high concentration of heavy metals (e.g. copper) where other plants fail. These adapted grasses have been shown to accumulate and immobilize heavy metals in their roots, preventing these metals from entering and damaging cells and organelles in other organs. The duration of life of the plant might be a dominant feature, which helps a species to survive. Ephemeral species may grow in normally xeric condition if they can germinate their seeds, grow, flower and fruit when water is available. During this short period of activity, the plant may have adequate water and would not need any other xeromorphic adaptations. Some of the main habitats and commonly associated plant modifications where plants that grow under very dry conditions normally show a reduction in evaporating surface area. When leaves are developed they may be small, or have various features which would appear to assist them in regulating or reducing potential water loss. Leafless plant, for example many Cactaceae and most Restionaceae southern hemisphere, in low rainfall areas with mineral-poor soils, often have subspherical or more or less cylindrical stems modified to perform the photosynthetic and transpirational functions normally ascribed to leaves. A sphere has the smallest surface area possible for a given volume and cylinders also have a low ratio of surface area to volume.

Faculty of Science & Technology Universiti Pendidikan Sultan

TBB 2034 BIODIVERSITY AND EVOLUTION OF KINGDOM MONERA, FUNGI AND PLANTAE

Name Noor Azlina Bt Muhammad Ariffin Siti Aishah Bt Abdul Latiff Nur Amirah Bt Shamsudin Nur Dalilah Bt Bahrudin Nur Ain Bt Ahmad Fikri

Matric Number D20081032354 D20081032348 D20081032302 D20081032252 D20081032311

LECTURER : PN FATIMAH BT MOHAMED

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